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Sample records for pediatric heart transplantation

  1. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (<12 months), 20% of all children aged 1-10 years, and 15% of all children aged 11-15 years died without having received a heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list.

  2. What Health Educators Should Know about Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duitsman, Dalen

    1996-01-01

    This article provides background information on heart transplantation in general, focusing on pediatric heart transplantation and offering suggestions for teachers regarding the unique concerns of students with heart transplants (exercise, physical appearance, immunosuppressive medications, transplant rejection, infection, and psychological…

  3. Pediatric Heart Transplantation: Report from a Single Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Cai, Jie; Sun, Yong-Feng; Liu, Jin-Ping; Dong, Nian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although heart transplantation (HTx) has become a standard therapy for end-stage heart diseases, experience with pediatric HTx is limited in China. In this article, we will try to provide the experience with indications, complications, perioperative management, immunosuppressive therapy, and survival for pediatric HTx based on our clinical work. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of the pediatric patients undergoing HTx at Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Union Hospital from September 2008 to December 2014. We summarized the indications, surgical variables, postoperative complications, and survival for these patients. Results: Nineteen pediatric patients presented for HTx at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, of whom 10 were male. The age at the time of transplantation ranged from 3 months to 18 years (median 15 years). Patient weight ranged from 5.2 kg to 57.0 kg (median 38.0 kg). Pretransplant diagnosis included cardiomyopathy (14 cases), complex congenital heart disease (3 cases), and tumor (2 cases). All recipients received ABO-compatible donor hearts. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 patients, including cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmia, pulmonary infection, renal dysfunction, and rejection. Two of them experienced cardiac failure and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The immunosuppression regimen was comprised of prednisone, a calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate. All patients recovered with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I–II cardiac function and were discharged. Only one patient suffered sudden death 19 months after transplantation. Conclusion: Orthotopic HTx is a promising therapeutic option with satisfying survival for the pediatric population in China with end-stage heart disease. PMID:26315074

  4. An unusual manifestation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the lip after pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Akanay-Diesel, S; Schuster, F R; Klee, D; Schmidt, K G; Donner, B C

    2012-11-01

    PTLD is a serious and frequently observed complication after solid organ transplantation. We present a six-yr-old girl with a rapidly growing, solid tumor of the lip four yr after orthotopic heart transplantation, which was classified as monomorphic PTLD with the characteristics of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with reduction in immunosuppression, ganciclovir, and anti B-cell monoclonal antibody (rituximab) resulted in full remission since 12 months. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first description of PTLD in the lip in a pediatric patient after heart transplantation in the English literature.

  5. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... get enough calories to heal and grow. After heart surgery, most babies and infants (younger than 12 to 15 months) can take ... valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... open heart surgery References Bernstein D. General principles ...

  6. Inferior outcomes on the waiting list in low volume pediatric heart transplant centers.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abbas; Fraser, Charles D; Scully, Brandi B; Heinle, Jeffrey S; Dean McKenzie, E; Dreyer, William J; Kueht, Michael; Liu, Hao; Brewer, Eileen D; Rosengart, Todd K; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A

    2017-03-01

    Low case volume has been associated with poor outcomes in a wide spectrum of procedures. Our objective is to study the association of low case volume and worse outcomes in pediatric heart transplant centers, taking the novel approach of including waitlist outcomes in the analysis. We studied a cohort of 6,482 candidates listed in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network for pediatric heart transplantation between 2002 and 2014; 4,665 of the candidates (72%) were transplanted. Candidates were divided into groups according to the average annual transplant volume performed in the listing center during the study period: > 10, 6-10, 3-5, and <3. We used multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify independent risk factors for waitlist and post-transplant mortality. 24% of the candidates were listed in low volume centers (< 3 annual transplants). Of these listed candidates, only 36% received a transplant versus 89% in high volume centers (>10 annual transplants) (p <0.001). Listing at a low volume center (< 3 annual transplants) was the most significant risk factor for waitlist death (HR 4.5, CI 3.5-5.7 in multivariate Cox regression and HR 5.6, CI 4.4-7.3 in multivariate competing risk regression) and also significant for post-transplant death (HR 1.27, CI 1.0-1.6 in multivariate Cox regression). During the study period, a quarter of pediatric transplant candidates were listed in low volume transplant centers. These children had a limited transplant rate and a much greater risk of dying on the waitlist. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients: 20-years experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Punkaj; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Gardner, Megan; Bryant, Janet C; Noel, Tommy R; Knecht, Kenneth R

    2015-03-01

    This study was initiated to assess the temporal trends of renal function, and define risk factors associated with worsening renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients in the immediate post-operative period. We performed a single-center retrospective study in children ≤18 yr receiving OHT (1993-2012). The AKIN's validated, three-tiered AKI staging system was used to categorize the degree of WRF. One hundred sixty-four patients qualified for inclusion. Forty-seven patients (28%) were classified as having WRF after OHT. Nineteen patients (11%) required dialysis after heart transplantation. There was a sustained and steady improvement in renal function in children following heart transplantation in all age groups, irrespective of underlying disease process. The significant factors associated with risk of WRF included body surface area (OR: 1.89 for 0.5 unit increase, 95% CI: 1.29-2.76, p = 0.001) and use of ECMO prior to and/or after heart transplantation (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.51-8.13, p = 0.004). Use of VAD prior to heart transplantation was not associated with WRF (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.17-1.51, p = 0.22). On the basis of these data, we demonstrate that worsening renal function improves early after orthotopic heart transplantation.

  8. Use of Short-term Circulatory Support as a Bridge in Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Canêo, Luiz Fernando; Miana, Leonardo Augusto; Tanamati, Carla; Penha, Juliano Gomes; Shimoda, Monica Satsuki; Azeka, Estela; Miura, Nana; Gomes Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa; Guimarães, Vanessa Alves; Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart transplantation is considered the gold standard therapy for the advanced heart failure, but donor shortage, especially in pediatric patients, is the main limitation for this procedure, so most sick patients die while waiting for the procedure. Objective To evaluate the use of short-term circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in end-stage cardiomyopathy. Methods Retrospective clinical study. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 40 patients with cardiomyopathy were admitted in our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, with a mean age of 4.5 years. Twenty patients evolved during hospitalization with clinical deterioration and were classified as Intermacs 1 and 2. One patient died within 24 hours and 19 could be stabilized and were listed. They were divided into 2 groups: A, clinical support alone and B, implantation of short-term circulatory support as bridge to transplantation additionally to clinical therapy. Results We used short-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in 9. In group A (n=10), eight died waiting and 2 patients (20%) were transplanted, but none was discharged. In group B (n=9), 6 patients (66.7%) were transplanted and three were discharged.The mean support time was 21,8 days (6 to 984h). The mean transplant waiting list time was 33,8 days. Renal failure and sepsis were the main complication and causeof death in group A while neurologic complications were more prevalent en group B. Conclusion Mechanical circulatory support increases survival on the pediatric heart transplantation waiting list in patients classified as Intermacs 1 and 2. PMID:25372474

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted pediatric heart as a potential predictor of rejection

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, Steven C; Dallaire, Frederic; Kantor, Paul F; Dipchand, Anne I; Chaturvedi, Rajiv R; Warade, Monali; Riesenkampff, Eugenie; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as a non-invasive tool to detect acute cellular rejection (ACR) in children after heart transplant (HT). METHODS Thirty pediatric HT recipients underwent CMR at the time of surveillance endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and results were compared to 14 non-transplant controls. Biventricular volumes, ejection fractions (EFs), T2-weighted signal intensities, native T1 times, extracellular volumes (ECVs) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were compared between patients and controls and between patients with International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade ≥ 2R rejection and those with grade 0/1R. Heart rate (HR) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were assessed as potential biomarkers. RESULTS Significant ACR (ISHLT grade ≥ 2R) was an infrequent event in our population (5/30, 17%). Ventricular volumes, EFs, LGE prevalence, ECVs, native T1 times, T2 signal intensity ratios, HR and BNP were not associated with the presence of ≥ 2R ACR. CONCLUSION In this pilot study CMR did not reliably identify ACR-related changes in pediatric HT patients. PMID:28058227

  10. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  11. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Miana, Leonardo Augusto; Azeka, Estela; Canêo, Luiz Fernando; Turquetto, Aída Luisa; Tanamati, Carla; Penha, Juliano Gomes; Cauduro, Alexandre; Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to 21 years with a mean of 8.8±5.7 years and a median of 5.2 years. The underlying diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 61.5%, congenital heart disease in 26.6% and restrictive cardiomyopathy in 11.9%. All patients above 17 years old had congenital heart disease. Results Survival rate at 30 days, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 90.4%, 81.3%, 70.9%, 60.5%, 44.4% and 26.7%, respectively. Mean cold ischemic time was 187.9 minutes and it did not correlate with mortality (P>0.05). Infectious complications and rejection episodes were the most common complications (P<0.0001), occurring, respectively, in 66% and 57.4% of the survivors after 10 years. There was no incidence of graft vascular disease and lymphoproliferative disease at year one, but they affected, respectively, 7.4% and 11% of patients within 10 years. Conclusion Twenty-year pediatric heart transplant results at our institution were quite satisfactory and complication rates were acceptable. PMID:25372904

  12. Impact of donor-recipient sex match on long-term survival after heart transplantation in children: An analysis of 5797 pediatric heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Kemna, Mariska; Albers, Erin; Bradford, Miranda C; Law, Sabrina; Permut, Lester; McMullan, D Mike; Law, Yuk

    2016-03-01

    The effect of donor-recipient sex matching on long-term survival in pediatric heart transplantation is not well known. Adult data have shown worse survival when male recipients receive a sex-mismatched heart, with conflicting results in female recipients. We analyzed 5795 heart transplant recipients ≤ 18 yr in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (1990-2012). Recipients were stratified based on donor and recipient sex, creating four groups: MM (N = 1888), FM (N = 1384), FF (N = 1082), and MF (N = 1441). Males receiving sex-matched donor hearts had increased unadjusted allograft survival at five yr (73.2 vs. 71%, p = 0.01). However, this survival advantage disappeared with longer follow-up and when adjusted for additional risk factors by multivariable Cox regression analysis. In contrast, for females, receiving a sex-mismatched heart was associated with an 18% higher risk of allograft loss over time compared to receiving a sex-matched heart (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38) and a 26% higher risk compared to sex-matched male recipients (HR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.45). Females who receive a heart from a male donor appear to have a distinct long-term survival disadvantage compared to all other groups.

  13. ENDOMYOCARDIAL BIOPSY AND SELECTIVE CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY ARE LOW RISK PROCEDURES IN PEDIATRIC HEART TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin P.; Marshall, Audrey C.; Vincent, Julie A.; Zuckerman, Warren A.; Hoffman, Timothy M.; Canter, Charles E.; Blume, Elizabeth D.; Bergersen, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Background No prior reports documenting the safety and diagnostic yield of cardiac catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in heart transplant recipients include multicenter data. Methods Data on the safety and diagnostic yield of EMB procedures performed in heart transplant recipients were recorded in the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Outcomes Project database at 8 pediatric centers over a 3 year period. Adverse events (AE) were classified according to a 5 level severity scale. Generalized estimating equation models identified risk factors for high severity adverse events (HSAE) (Levels 3-5) and non-diagnostic biopsy samples. Results A total of 2665 EMB cases were performed in 744 pediatric heart transplant recipients (median age 12 years [IQR: 4.8,16.7] and 54% male). AE occurred in 88 cases (3.3%), of which 28 (1.1%) were HSAE. AE attributable to EMB included tricuspid valve injury, transient complete heart block, and RBBB. Amongst 822 cases involving coronary angiography, 10 (1.2%) resulted in a coronary related AE. There were no myocardial perforations or deaths. Multivariable risk factors for HSAE included fewer prior catheterizations (p=0.006) and longer case length (p=<0.001). EMB yielded sufficient tissue for diagnosis in 99% of cases. Longer time since heart transplant was the most significant predictor of a non-diagnostic biopsy sample (p<0.001). Conclusions In the current era, cardiac catheterizations involving EMB can be performed in pediatric heart transplant recipients with a low AE rate and high diagnostic yield. Risk of HSAE is increased in early post-transplant biopsies and with longer case length. Longer time since heart transplant is associated with non-diagnostic EMB sample. PMID:22209354

  14. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center... pediatric heart transplants by meeting the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 criteria in section... by pediatric heart transplant patients. Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience,...

  15. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center... pediatric heart transplants by meeting the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 criteria in section... by pediatric heart transplant patients. Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience,...

  16. Serial measurements of exercise performance in pediatric heart transplant patients using stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Joanne P; Human, Derek G; Sandor, George G S; De Souza, Astrid M; Potts, James E

    2011-05-01

    Heart transplantation is an increasingly acceptable therapeutic option for children with end-stage and complex congenital heart disease. With advances in surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up care, functional outcomes need to be evaluated. We report the results of serial exercise testing performed using stress echocardiography in a cohort of pediatric HTP. HTP (n = 7) exercised on a semi-recumbent ergometer to volitional fatigue. Echocardiography-Doppler measurements, HR, and blood pressure were taken at rest and during staged exercise. Results were compared with healthy CON (n = 12). HTP did significantly less work during exercise (940 vs. 1218 J/kg, p < 0.03). Their SVI (33 vs. 49 mL/m(2), p < 0.003), CI (5.16 vs. 9.25 L/min/m(2), p < 0.0005), and HR (162 vs. 185 bpm, p < 0.02) were lower at peak exercise. HTP had a lower SF at peak exercise (48% vs. 52%, p < 0.03) and an abnormal relationship between the MVCFc and σPS. During follow-up, hemodynamics and left ventricular function remained relatively constant in HTP. HTP are able to exercise safely; however, their exercise tolerance is reduced, and hemodynamics and contractility are diminished. Over time, their hemodynamics and left ventricular function have remained relatively constant.

  17. Early primary graft failure after a pediatric heart transplant and successful rescue with plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and alemtuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Ruiz, Phillip; Rusconi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Early primary graft failure after pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) has a high mortality rate and can occur due to several causes including but not limited to prolonged graft ischemia time, suboptimal preimplant myocardial preservation, hyperacute rejection, and maladaptation of the graft to the host's hemodynamic status. Mechanical circulatory support with either extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or ventricular assist device has been used for the rescue of primary graft failure in pediatric patients after heart transplant. Cardiac arrest before ECMO initiation in these patients is associated with adverse neurologic outcome although those surviving to hospital discharge generally have excellent long-term outcome. We report a case of early primary graft failure after OHT who required ECMO support and successful rescue with plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and alemtuzumab. PMID:28163432

  18. Successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in two pediatric heart transplant patients with extreme donor/recipient size mismatch.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Dong, Nianguo; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Sihai

    2016-06-01

    Here we report two cases of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in pediatric patients following orthotopic heart transplantation due to low cardiac output and inability to separate from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Both patients had significant donor/recipient size mismatch: ratios were 0.71 and 1.73. Cannulation was via the right atrium to ascending aorta using Maquet ECMO kits to achieve veno-arterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) configuration. Activated clotting time (ACT) was maintained at 150-170 seconds. Systemic blood pressure goals were a mean arterial pressure of 60-80 mmHg. Both patients successfully recovered the cardiac function and were discharged home without severe complications. ECMO can effectively support pediatric patients after orthotopic heart transplantation to successful recovery despite the use of extreme donor/recipient size mismatch.

  19. Use of pediatric Berlin Heart EXCOR biventricular device as a bridge to retransplantation in a 10-month-old infant with acute graft failure after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Krokstrom, Ann-Katrin; Higgins, Thomas; Johansson, Sune; Jögi, Peeter

    2009-01-01

    We report the implantation of the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany) as a pediatric biventricular assist device in a 10-month-old boy with primary graft failure after cardiac transplantation. The EXCOR was successfully used as a bridge to cardiac retransplantation. The pneumatically driven paracorporeal device supported the patient for 165 days until another suitable heart was obtained.

  20. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center that wishes to provide transplantation services to pediatric heart patients may be approved to perform pediatric heart transplants by meeting the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 criteria in...

  1. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center that wishes to provide transplantation services to pediatric heart patients may be approved to perform pediatric heart transplants by meeting the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 criteria in...

  2. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  3. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... including how to maximize your recovery at home. Congenital Heart Defects • Home • About Congenital Heart Defects • The ... Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • Tools & Resources Congenital Heart Defect Publications If Your Child Has a ...

  4. Donor-recipient height ratio and outcomes in pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anjlee; Bock, Matthew J; Wollstein, Adi; Nguyen, Khanh; Malerba, Stefano; Lytrivi, Irene D

    2016-08-01

    Height matching in pediatric HTx has been proposed as a superior method of evaluating graft size, but no studies have examined survival advantage for height-matched donor-recipient pairs. We hypothesized that in pediatric patients with DCM, an oversized donor improves survival and aimed to define the optimal height ratio in this patient group. Pediatric primary HTx recipients with DCM between 10/89 and 09/12 were identified in the OPTN database. Patients were stratified into three donor-recipient height and weight ratio categories. One- and five-yr survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and HRs were computed. A total of 2133 children with DCM who underwent HTx during the study period were included. Unadjusted one-yr survival was worse for DRHR <0.87 (HR, 2.15 [95% CL, 1.30, 3.53]; p < 0.01). This difference was not present at five yr post-HTx or when stratified by weight. After adjustment for other risk factors affecting transplant survival, height matching was no longer significant. Although height matching appears to predict short-term survival better than weight in pediatric HTx recipients with DCM, other factors play a more important role as height matching loses significance in multivariate analysis.

  5. Pediatric orthotopic heart transplant requiring perioperative exchange transfusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Brian; Dickason, Brent; Niles, Scott; Ploessl, Jay

    2004-12-01

    An 11-month-old patient with idiopathic cardiomyopathy was scheduled for orthotopic heart transplantation. A perioperative exchange transfusion was performed because of elevated panel reactive antibody levels. This process was accomplished in the operating room prior to instituting cardiopulmonary bypass using a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. In preparation for the procedure, the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit was primed with washed leukocyte-filtered banked packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, albumin, and heparin. Pump prime laboratory values were normalized prior to beginning the exchange transfusion. The patient's blood was downloaded from the venous line just proximal to the venous reservoir while simultaneously transfusing the normalized prime at normothermia. Approximately 125% of the patients calculated blood volume was exchanged. This technique greatly reduces the likelihood of hyperacute rejection. The exchange transfusion process, in addition to the patient immature immune system, provides additional options in orthotopic heart transplantation for patients that may otherwise not be considered suitable candidates.

  6. The effect of MMF dose and trough levels on adverse effects in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Nida; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T

    2015-09-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic and safety data exist for MMF in pediatric HTR. Previously targeted MPA-TL are 1.5-3.0 μg/mL. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes targeting MPA-TL of 0.8-2.0 μg/mL in pediatric HTR. MPA-TL were retrospectively collected 2-12 months post-transplant. Acute rejection, infection, leukopenia, and GI complaints were then correlated with MPA-TL. A total of 355 MPA-TL from 22 HTR were included. Median age was 2.5 yr. Primary indication for transplant was dilated cardiomyopathy (64%). Mean MPA-TL was 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL. African American patients received significantly higher doses (702 ± 235 mg/m(2) ) compared with other races (p = 0.035). Leukopenia was less common in patients with SUB MPA vs. others (p = 0.01). MMF was discontinued for GI complaints in one patient and leukopenia in two patients. One SUB patient had acute rejection, and one SUP patient had infection. One-yr survival was 100%. Targeting a lower range for MPA-TL was not associated with significant rejection or infection. Despite lower MPA-TL, MMF was discontinued in 3/22 patients for adverse effects.

  7. Transition from brand to generic tacrolimus is associated with a decrease in trough blood concentration in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Duong, Son Q; Lal, Ashwin K; Joshi, Rujuta; Feingold, Brian; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2015-12-01

    There are limited data available on the bioequivalence of generic and brand-name tacrolimus in pediatric and heart transplant patients. We characterized changes in 12-hour trough concentrations and clinical outcomes after transition from brand to generic tacrolimus in pediatric thoracic organ transplant recipients. Patients with a pharmacy-confirmed date of switch between generic and brand tacrolimus were identified, as well as a matched control group that did not switch for comparison. We identified 18 patients with a confirmed date of switch, and in 12 patients that remained on the same dose, trough concentrations were 14% less than when they were on brand (p = 0.037). The average change was -1.15 ± 1.76 ng/mL (p = 0.045). The control group did not experience a change in trough concentration and was different than the switched group (p = 0.005). There were no differences in dosage changes or kidney or liver function. In the year after switch, 24% of patients who were switched to generic experienced a rejection event vs. 18% in the patients on brand. We suggest a strategy of monitoring around the time of transition, and education of the patient/family to notify the care team when changes from brand to generic or between generics occur.

  8. Beyond the first year after pediatric heart or heart-lung transplantation: Changes in cognitive function and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jo; Radley-Smith, Rosemary

    2005-04-01

    With the increasing use and improved survival rates of heart and lung transplantation as treatments for children with end-stage heart or lung disease, attention is focusing on the longer term psychological implications of these procedures. This paper focuses on the changes in cognitive development and behaviour in a group of 47 children who were seen 12 months and 2 yr after transplantation. There were 24 boys and 23 girls, mean age at transplantation was 8.3 yr (s.d. 5.3 yr), with a range of 0.3-15.1 yr. Assessments were made of developmental level, cognitive ability and problem behaviours, using previously validated measures, and comparisons were made with physically healthy children. For children under three and a half years of age there was a decrease over time in scores on all developmental parameters, with the change reaching significance on the scale assessing eye-hand coordination and on the overall IQ. Whilst all scores were within the normal range, they were at a significantly lower level than those of the healthy children. In contrast, there were no changes over time on any measures of cognitive or academic ability for older children, with correlations between 12 month and 2 yr scores being highly significant. The rate of behaviour problems at home at 12 months was 22%, compared with 34% at 2 yr post-transplant, which was higher than that found in the healthy children. Conversely, there was a drop in the prevalence of behaviour problems at school from 23% at 12 months to 9% at 2 yr. It is concluded that a significant minority of children and adolescents experience psychological difficulties 2 yr after transplant, with particular areas of concern focusing on development in the younger children and the occurrence of behaviour problems at home across the age-range.

  9. EBV-associated hepatic smooth muscle tumor of uncertain biologic behavior after heart transplantation in a pediatric patient: case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Chintalapati, Suneetha; Dietz, Robin; Raza, Adnan S.; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare neoplasm recognized in immunocompromised patients. There are less than 30 cases of EBV-SMT reported in pediatric population following solid organ transplantation. Herein, we report a case of an 8-year-old female who was incidentally noted to have multiple lesions in the liver 8 years after heart transplantation. The tumor was composed of a cellular proliferation of spindle-shaped cells with low mitotic activity. The diagnosis of EBV-SMT was confirmed by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) transcripts. Multiple additional lesions were detected by whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan 4 months after the initial finding of the hepatic lesions. Immunosuppression was switched to a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. We conclude that EBV-SMT should be included in the differential diagnoses in post-transplantation patients and further investigations should be performed to evaluate additional lesions. PMID:28280632

  10. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheterization Tests to look for cancer Tissue and blood typing , to help make sure your body will not reject the donated heart Ultrasound of your neck and legs You will ... heart pump enough blood to the body. Most often, this is a ...

  11. Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Talwalkar, Yeshawant B.; Harner, Marvin H.; Musgrave, James E.; Lawson, Russell K.; Campbell, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-one children received 38 kidney transplants from 22 live and 16 cadaver donors. Among the 31 patients, 25 received one transplant each, 5 received two transplants each and 1 received three transplants. Peritoneal or hemodialysis (or both) was carried out in 22 patients, with an average dialytic maintenance of 12 weeks before transplantation. Posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy included prednisone and azathioprine. Antilymphocyte globulin was administered to 33 recipients as adjunctive immunosuppressive therapy. At present, 23 patients have functioning allografts, 3 are on hemodialysis and 5 are dead. Of 22 live kidney transplants, 18 are presently functioning two months to 14 years after transplantation with an average of 36 months. Of 16 cadaver kidney transplants, 5 are presently functioning 9 to 57 months after transplantation with an average of 32 months. Actuarial live donor allograft survival for one year was 76 percent, for two years was 66 percent and for three years was 64 percent. Cadaver allograft survival was 50 percent, 40 percent and 40 percent, respectively. Complications were urologic and infection related. Of nine recipients with sustained hypertension, in six the condition was due to chronic rejection, while in one it was due to recurrence of the original disease in the allograft. Linear growth was measured in 15 children who were less than 14 years of age at the time of transplantation and in whom allografts survived more than one year. Maximum average linear growth velocity occurred during the first year after transplantation. Our experience indicates pediatric renal transplantation can be successfully used in the treatment of terminal renal failure. PMID:1098288

  12. Outcomes in pediatric solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, Christopher; Baluarte, H Jorge; Meyers, Kevin E C

    2011-03-01

    LaR Pediatric solid-organ transplantation is an increasingly successful treatment for organ failure. Five- and 10-yr patient survival rates have dramatically improved over the last couple of decades, and currently, over 80% of pediatric patients survive into adolescence and young adulthood. Waiting list mortality has been a concern for liver, heart, and intestinal transplantation, illustrating the importance of transplant as a life-saving therapy. Unfortunately, the success of pediatric transplantation comes at the cost of long-term or late complications that arise as a result of allograft rejection or injury, immunosuppression-related morbidity, or both. As transplant recipients enter adolescence treatment, non-adherence becomes a significant issue, and the medical and psychosocial impacts transition to adulthood not only with regard to healthcare but also in terms of functional outcomes, economic potential, and overall QoL. This review addresses the clinical and psychosocial challenges encountered by pediatric transplant recipients in the current era. A better understanding of pediatric transplant outcomes and adult morbidity and mortality requires further ongoing assessment.

  13. Pediatric Heart Failure in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The exact prevalence of heart failure among children of developing countries is not known, as the data is limited. The relative frequency of different causes of pediatric heart failure varies widely across different countries and even among different parts of large countries like India. Children of developing countries face a double burden of etiologies. Conditions such us congenital heart disease, myocarditis and cardiomyopathies are common causes of pediatric of heart failure. In addition, diseases like rheumatic heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, and other tropical diseases also result in heart failure among children of the developing countries. However, most of the developing countries have low resources and hence management of pediatric heart failure becomes challenging. Advanced therapies for heart failure are rarely used in children of developing countries and cardiac transplant remains a distant dream.

  14. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  15. Heart transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Alves, Bárbara Rubim; Silvestre, Odílson Marcos; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Pires, Lucas José Tachotti; Curiati, Milena Novaes Cardoso; Bacal, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart transplantation is currently the definitive gold standard surgical approach in the treatment of refractory heart failure. However, the shortage of donors limits the achievement of a greater number of heart transplants, in which the use of mechanical circulatory support devices is increasing. With well-established indications and contraindications, as well as diagnosis and treatment of rejection through defined protocols of immunosuppression, the outcomes of heart transplantation are very favorable. Among early complications that can impact survival are primary graft failure, right ventricular dysfunction, rejection, and infections, whereas late complications include cardiac allograft vasculopathy and neoplasms. Despite the difficulties for heart transplantation, in particular, the shortage of donors and high mortality while on the waiting list, in Brazil, there is a great potential for both increasing effective donors and using circulatory assist devices, which can positively impact the number and outcomes of heart transplants. PMID:26154552

  16. End-stage ischemic heart failure and Williams-Beuren syndrome: A unique scenario for pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    González-López, María-Teresa; Pérez-Caballero-Martínez, Ramón; Granados-Ruiz, Miguel-Ángel; García-Torres, Enrique; Álvarez-García-Rovés, Reyes; Gil-Villanueva, Nuria; Camino-López, Manuela; Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel

    2016-05-01

    WBS is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the chromosomal sub-band 7q11.23 involving the elastin gene. The clinical features (craniofacial, developmental, and cardiovascular abnormalities) are variable. The association with cardiac anomalies is a well-recognized feature, and SVAS is the most common cardiac defect found. End-stage ischemic heart disease is unusual in this setting but when it occurs, OHT remains the final therapeutic option. This decision can be difficult to determine, and it must be tailored to the individual patient based on the clinical status and concomitant cardiovascular and multisystem lesions. To date, no cases of OHT in patients with WBS have been described. We present a 14-month-old patient with WBS who developed severe LV dysfunction secondary to ischemia following a complex staged surgery for SVAS repair. He underwent successful OHT with no post-operative complications, and at three-month follow-up, he remains asymptomatic on standard immunosuppressive therapy. This case constitutes the first demonstration that OHT may be indicated for extended survival in selected children with WBS and we discuss the basic principles for extending the indication for OHT to this scenario as well as the particularities for post-transplant care.

  17. Extracorporeal Life Support for Pediatric Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher R.; McMullan, D. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents an essential component in the treatment of the pediatric patient with refractory heart failure. Defined as the use of an extracorporeal system to provide cardiopulmonary support, ECLS provides hemodynamic support to facilitate end-organ recovery and can be used as a salvage therapy during acute cardiorespiratory failure. Support strategies employed in pediatric cardiac patients include bridge to recovery, bridge to therapy, and bridge to transplant. Advances in extracorporeal technology and refinements in patient selection have allowed wider application of this therapy in pediatric heart failure patients. PMID:27812522

  18. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center that wishes to provide transplantation services to pediatric heart patients may be approved to...

  19. Heart transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100086.htm Heart transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  20. An apparent case of undiagnosed donor Kawasaki disease manifesting as coronary artery aneurysm in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Friedland-Little, Joshua; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Gajarski, Robert J; Schumacher, Kurt R

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of coronary ectasia and LAD coronary artery aneurysm with angiographic characteristics of Kawasaki disease in a three-yr-old girl two-yr status post-orthotopic heart transplant. Coronary anomalies were noted during initial screening coronary angiography two yr after transplant. Subsequent review of the donor echocardiogram revealed that the LMCA had been mildly dilated prior to transplant. In the absence of any symptoms consistent with Kawasaki disease in the transplant recipient, this appears to be a case of Kawasaki disease in the organ donor manifesting with coronary anomalies in the transplant recipient. The patient has done well clinically, and repeat coronary angiography has revealed partial regression of coronary anomalies. Given multiple reports in the literature of persistent abnormalities of coronary artery morphology and function after Kawasaki disease, close monitoring is warranted, with consideration of potential coronary protective medical therapies.

  1. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods: Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. Results: In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months–17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson’s disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature. PMID:28149148

  2. [Pediatric renal transplant in Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kazuharu

    2010-09-01

    Transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy for children with end-stage renal disease. Compared with dialysis, successful transplantation in children and adolescents not only ameliorates uremic symptoms but also allows for significant improvement of delayed growth, sexual maturation, and psychosocial functioning. The child with a well-functioning kidney can enjoy a quality of life that cannot be achieved with dialysis therapy. The 5- and 10-year patient/graft survival rate in transplant recipients are 97.9/88.8% and 96.2%/79.4% based on Japanese Renal Transplant Registry Society data. This article reviews recent reports of pediatric renal transplantation including ABO-incompatible and preemptive renal transplantation in Japan.

  3. Stem cells in pediatric heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pillekamp, F; Khalil, M; Emmel, M; Brockmeier, K; Hescheler, J

    2008-06-01

    Pediatric heart failure could be a target for regenerative therapy. Stem cell-based therapy has the potential to provide functional cardiomyocytes. Whereas adult stem cells have shown no or only minimal therapeutic benefit in adults with no evidence of transdifferentiation, embryonic stem cells can differentiate to any cell type, including cardiomyocytes. However, ethical concerns and immunological problems are associated with embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Recently, somatic cells could be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state (i.e. induced pluripotent stem cells) with the help of transcription factors. This technique removes ethical and probably also immunological concerns. Nevertheless extensive experimental research will be necessary before cell replacement strategies become clinically applicable. Because the underlying pathophysiology differs significantly with age, caution is warranted extrapolating data obtained in experimental models of cardiac ischemia and clinical studies in adults to the pediatric population. Pediatric heart failure has a good prognosis if causal therapy is possible. However, some forms of congenital heart disease and especially dilated cardiomyopathy still have limited therapeutic options. Almost half of children with symptomatic cardiomyopathy receive a transplant or die within two years. The authors will review the relevant stem cell sources for cell-based treatments. And, given the differences of the underlying diseases between adult and pediatric patients with heart failure, it is contemplated which condition of pediatric patients with heart failure is most likely to benefit and which cell type would be appropriate.

  4. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  5. Heart transplantation in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Luke J

    2016-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) is vastly different to that observed in acquired heart disease. Unlike acquired HF in which pharmacological strategies are the cornerstone for protecting and improving ventricular function, ACHD-related HF relies heavily upon structural and other interventions to achieve these aims. patients with ACHD constitute a small percentage of the total adult heart transplant population (∼3%), although the number of ACHD heart transplant recipients is growing rapidly with a 40% increase over the last two decades. The worldwide experience to date has confirmed heart transplantation as an effective life-extending treatment option in carefully selected patients with ACHD with end-stage cardiac disease. Opportunities for improving outcomes in patients with ACHD-related HF include (i) earlier recognition and referral to centres with combined expertise in ACHD and HF, (ii) increased awareness of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death risk in this population, (iii) greater collaboration between HF and ACHD specialists at the time of heart transplant assessment, (iv) expert surgical planning to reduce ischaemic time and bleeding risk at the time of transplant, (v) tailored immunosuppression in the post-transplant period and (vi) development and validation of ACHD-specific risk scores to predict mortality and guide patient selection. The purpose of this article is to review current approaches to diagnosing and treating advanced HF in patients with ACHD including indications, contraindications and clinical outcomes after heart transplantation.

  6. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation.

  7. [Heart transplant: when the candidate is a child].

    PubMed

    Favilli, Silvia; Spaziani, Gaia; Pollini, Iva; Chiappa, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    Heart transplant (HT) has been considered as a therapy for pediatric end-stage heart failure (HF) for more than four decades. Children with HF represent a very heterogeneous population, affected by different congenital or acquired heart diseases. Progresses in cardiac surgery and medical therapies, leading to improved prognosis, require periodic re-assessment of indications to HT. Systemic diseases, inherited inborn errors of metabolism, genetic syndromes or associated extra-cardiac malformations can contraindicate HT. In these conditions a tailored evaluation is needed. Pediatric heart disease, which more often may be an indication to HT, as well as prognostic parameters in pediatric HF are discussed.

  8. Pediatric liver transplantation for hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Rebecka L.; Tiao, Greg M.; Feusner, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common pediatric liver tumor and is usually diagnosed before five years of age. Treatment consists of a combination of chemotherapy and surgery, with the goal being attainment of complete local control by surgical resection and eradication of any extrahepatic disease. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is utilized and is often beneficial in rendering tumors resectable; however, prolonged chemotherapy administration attempting to render tumors resectable by conventional resection should be avoided. For patients whose tumors are too extensive to be conventionally resected, liver transplantation can be curative and remains the treatment of choice for eligible patients otherwise incurable by conventional resection. PMID:28138611

  9. Diaphragmatic Hernia After Pediatric Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Kirnap, Mahir; Akdur, Aydincan; Ozcay, Figen; Soy, Ebru; Coskun, Mehmet; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Diaphragmatic hernia is an unusual complication after pediatric liver transplant. Nearly half of bowel obstruction cases, which require surgical intervention in liver transplant patients, are caused by diaphragmatic hernia. The smaller patients are at risk for higher rates of diaphragmatic complication after pediatric liver transplant, but diaphragmatic hernia has not been reported as a unique occurrence. Here, we report 3 cases of diaphragmatic hernia after liver transplant and discuss the possible contributing factors. Diaphragmatic hernia should nevertheless be added to the list of potential complications after liver transplant in the pediatric population. Pediatric transplant physicians and surgeons should be aware of this complication so that it is recognized promptly in both acute and nonacute settings and appropriate action is taken.

  10. Socioeconomic aspects of heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W

    1995-03-01

    Heart transplantation is an established treatment modality for end-stage cardiac disease. Unfortunately, relative to other health care priorities, heart transplantation has fallen into disrepute. Efforts to reform the health care system have focused on three fundamental issues--cost, quality, and access. On each count, heart transplantation is vulnerable to criticism. Managed care is an incremental approach to health care reform that imposes fiscal constraint on providers. This constraint is expressed in the form of capitation which, in turn, requires providers to assume risk and accept economic responsibility for clinical decisions. While the need for transplantation is considerable, there are both clinical and economic factors limiting the overall level of activity. In 1993, over 2200 heart transplants were performed in the United States on people who were dying of end-stage cardiac disease. The total demand for heart transplantation was estimated to be about 5900 persons, which was not met due to an insufficient supply of donor hearts. Absent donors, the fiscal consequences of heart transplantation are minimized. In 1993, actuaries estimated that the total charge per heart transplant was $209,100. By designating centers based on price and quality considerations, managed care plans have reduced this per procedure expense to less than $100,000. While the benefits of transplantation are noteworthy, there are still concerns. Sixty percent of patients report that they are able to work, but only 30% do so. Employers hope to improve upon this record by expanding the designated center approach. In conclusion, the future of heart transplantation is unclear. Opportunities for innovation are limited, although the management of heart failure is an area of increased interest.

  11. Persistent Epstein-Barr viral load in Epstein-Barr viral naïve pediatric heart transplant recipients: Risk of late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bibhuti; Morrow, Robert; Huang, Rong; Fixler, David

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the risk of late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the presence of persisting high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in EBV naïve pediatric heart transplant (HT) recipients. METHODS A retrospective review of the medical records of the 145 pediatric HT recipients who had serial EBV viral load monitoring at our center was performed. We defined EBV naive patients whose EBV serology either IgM or IgG in the blood were negative at the time of HT and excluded passive transmission from mother to child in subjects less than 6 mo of age. RESULTS PTLD was diagnosed in 8 out of 145 patients (5.5%); 6/91 (6.5%) in those who were EBV seropositive and 2/54 (3.7%) in the EBV naïve group at the time of HT (P = 0.71). We found 32/145 (22%) patients with persistently high EBV load during continuing follow-up; 20/91 (22%) in EBV seropositive group vs 12/54 (22%) in EBV naïve group (P = 0.97). There was no significant association between pre-HT serostatus and EBV load after transplant (P > 0.05). In the EBV seropositive group, PTLD was diagnosed in 15% (3/20) of patients with high EBV vs 4.2% (3/71) of patients with low or undetectable EBV load (P = 0.14) whereas in EBV naïve patients 8.3% (1/12) of those with high EBV load and 2.3% (1/42) with low or undetectable EBV load (P = 0.41). There was a highly significant association between occurrence of PTLD in those with high EBV load and duration of follow up (4.3 ± 3.9 years) after HT by Cochran-Armitage test for the entire cohort (P = 0.005). At least one episode of acute rejection occurred in 72% (23/32) of patients with high EBV vs 36% (41/113) patients with low or undetectable EBV after HT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION There is an association between persistently high EBV load during post-HT follow up and the occurrence of late-onset PTLD in pediatric HT recipients irrespective of serostatus at the time of transplant. The occurrence of allograft rejection increased in patients with high EBV load

  12. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  13. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  14. Recommended Curriculum for Training in Pediatric Transplant Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Allen, Upton; Englund, Janet; Herold, Betsy; Hoffman, Jill; Green, Michael; Gantt, Soren; Kumar, Deepali; Michaels, Marian G

    2015-03-01

    A working group representing the American Society of Transplantation, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and International Pediatric Transplant Association has developed a collaborative effort to identify and develop core knowledge in pediatric transplant infectious diseases. Guidance for patient care environments for training and core competencies is included to help facilitate training directed at improving the experience for pediatric infectious diseases trainees and practitioners in the area of pediatric transplant infectious diseases.

  15. [Psychological aspects of heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gulla, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    The most important rules of heart transplantation qualification as well as the factors which burden patients who are treated with this method are discussed in the article. Particularly difficult moments for patients arethose of decision making regarding the transplantation, which is accompanied with fear, and sometimes associated with ethical or religious doubts, subsequently--the stress related to the time waiting for the operation, and thereafter, the rehabilitation demanding patient's co-operation. The difficulties associated with living with a transplanted heart refer to regular immunosuppressive treatment, follow-up visits, avoiding infections, withdrawal from drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes, living in a healthy life-style. The person with a transplanted heart has to acquire a series of skills and perform a lot of tasks associated with following doctor's appropriate advises.

  16. Neurocognitive functions in pediatric renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Gulleroglu, K; Baskin, E; Bayrakci, U S; Aydogan, M; Alehan, F; Kantar, A; Karakayali, F; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is one of the major complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). Uremic state during CRF encompasses a wide spectrum of neurobehavioral and neurological disturbances. Recent studies showed that the pathophysiology of neurocognitive dysfunction in CRF is related to plasma levels of uremic solutes. Successful renal transplantation improves renal, metabolic, and endocrine functions and the quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the state of neurocognitive function in pediatric renal transplant recipients. We prospectively performed a neurological examination and neuropsychological test battery (Bender-Gestalt Test, Cancellation Test, and Visual and Auditory Number Assay Test) in 20 pediatric renal transplant recipients between 6 and 16 years of age. Twenty healthy children and 20 children with CRF were included in the study as the control groups. Mean age of the renal transplant recipients was 13.50 ± 3.40 years old. Mean evaluation time after transplantation was 2.0 ± 0.5 years. Bender-Gestalt Test result was abnormal in 40% of patients. The results of the Cancellation Test and the Visual and Auditory Number Assay Test showed significant decline in pediatric renal transplant patients when compared with the control. We found that neurocognitive dysfunction was frequent in pediatric renal transplantation patients. Awareness of this potential problem may be helpful for early recognition and treatment. Our findings suggest that periodic neurocognitive assessments may be indicated in transplant recipients.

  17. Usefulness of Diastolic Strain Measurements in Predicting Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Risk of Rejection or Coronary Artery Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jimmy C; Magdo, H Sonali; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Zamberlan, Mary; Gajarski, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    In pediatric heart transplant recipients, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is associated with rejection and coronary artery vasculopathy. This study aimed to evaluate which echocardiographic parameters track changes in PCWP and predict adverse outcomes (rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy). This prospective single-center study enrolled 49 patients (median 11.4 years old, interquartile range 7.4 to 16.5) at time of cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Median follow-up was 2.4 years (range 1.2 to 3.1 years), with serial testing per clinical protocol. Ratio of early mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/E'), left atrial (LA) distensibility, peak LA systolic strain, E/left ventricular (LV) diastolic strain, and E/LV diastolic strain rate were measured from echocardiograms. Increase in PCWP ≥3 mm Hg was associated with changes in LA distensibility, E/E', and E/LV diastolic strain, with highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for E/LV diastolic strain (0.76). In 9 patients who subsequently developed rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy, E/LV diastolic strain rate at baseline differed from patients without events (median 57.0 vs 43.6, p = 0.02). On serial studies, only change in LV ejection fraction differed in patients with events (median -10% vs -1%, p = 0.01); decrease in LV ejection fraction of -19% had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 44%. In conclusion, LV diastolic strain and strain rate measurements can track changes in PCWP and identify patients at risk for subsequent rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data in a larger cohort.

  18. ABO-incompatible heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Hageman, M; Michaud, N; Chinnappan, I; Klein, T; Mettler, B

    2015-04-01

    A month-old baby girl with blood type O positive received a donor heart organ from a donor with blood type B. This was the first institutional ABO-incompatible heart transplant. Infants listed for transplantation may be considered for an ABO-incompatible heart transplant based on their antibody levels and age. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) protocol is infants under 24 months with titers less than or equal to 1:4.(1) This recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies were monitored with titer assays to determine their levels; antibody levels less than 1:4 are acceptable pre-transplant in order to proceed with donor and transplant arrangements.1 Immediately prior to initiating cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a complete whole body exchange transfusion of at least two-times the patient's circulating blood volume was performed with packed red blood cells (pRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 25% albumin. Titer assays were sent two minutes after initiation of full CPB and then hourly until the cross-clamp was removed. Institutionally, reperfusion of the donor heart is not restored until the antibody level from the titer assay is known and reported as less than 1:4; failing to achieve an immulogically tolerant recipient will provide conditions for hyperacute rejection. The blood collected during the transfusion exchange was immediately processed through a cell saver so the pRBC's could be re-infused to the patient during CPB, as necessary. The remainder of the transplant was performed in the same fashion as an ABO-compatible heart transplant. The patient has shown no signs of rejection following transplantation.

  19. Troubling dimensions of heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shildrick, M; McKeever, P; Abbey, S; Poole, J; Ross, H

    2009-06-01

    Heart transplantation is now the accepted therapy for end-stage heart failure that is resistant to medical treatment. Families of deceased donors routinely are urged to view the heart as a "gift of life" that will enable the donor to live on by extending and sustaining the life of a stranger. In contrast, heart recipients are encouraged to view the organ mechanistically-as a new pump that was rendered a spare, reusable part when a generous stranger died. Psychosocial and psychoanalytic research, anecdotal evidence and first-person accounts indicate that after transplant, many recipients experience unexpected changes or distress that cannot be understood adequately using biomedical explanatory models alone. In this paper it is argued that phenomenological philosophy offers a promising way to frame an ongoing empirical study that asks recipients to reflect on what it is like to incorporate the heart of another person. Merleau-Ponty and others have posited that any change to the body inevitably transforms the self. Hence, it is argued in this paper that replacing failing hearts with functioning hearts from deceased persons must be considered much more than a complex technical procedure. Acknowledging the disturbances to embodiment and personal identity associated with transplantation may explain adverse outcomes that heretofore have been inexplicable. Ultimately, a phenomenological understanding could lead to improvements in the consent process, preoperative teaching and follow-up care.

  20. Genomic biomarkers and heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Uber, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians have entered into a new paradigm for managing heart transplant patients with use of multimarker gene expression profiling. Early after transplantation, when corticosteroid modification is the main concern, gene expression testing might assist in optimizing the balance of immunosuppression, defraying the occurrence of rejection, and avoiding crisis intervention. Late after transplantation, the reliance on endomyocardial biopsy could be lessened. These advances, if continually validated in practice, could usher in an era of decreased immunosuppression complications, lesser need for invasive surveillance, and more clinical confidence in immunosuppressive strategies.

  1. New immunosuppressive agents in pediatric transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christina; Shapiro, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy in pediatrics continues to evolve. Over the past decade, newer immunosuppressive agents have been introduced into adult and pediatric transplant patients with the goal of improving patient and allograft survival. Unfortunately, large-scale randomized clinical trials are not commonly performed in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss the newer immunosuppressive agents available for induction therapy, maintenance immunosuppression, and the treatment of rejection.

  2. Impact of Pulmonary Vascular Resistances in Heart Transplantation for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gazit, Avihu Z; Canter, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is one of the major diagnoses in pediatric heart transplantation recipients of all age groups. Assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance in these patients prior to transplantation is crucial to determine their candidacy, however, it is frequently inaccurate because of their abnormal anatomy and physiology. This problem places them at significant risk for pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure post transplantation. The pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular disease in children with congenital heart disease depends on their pulmonary blood flow patterns, systemic ventricle function, as well as semilunar valves and atrioventricular valves structure and function. In our review we analyze the pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular disease in children with congenital heart disease and end-stage heart failure, and outline the state of the art pre-transplantation medical and surgical management to achieve reverse remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature by using pulmonary vasodilators and mechanical circulatory support. PMID:22548028

  3. Outcomes of Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in Recipients of a Previous Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplant.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, G; Zhang, B; Liu, C; Goebel, J; Zhang, Y; Nehus, E

    2017-03-07

    Children who receive a non-renal solid organ transplant may develop secondary renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. We investigated outcomes of 165 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who previously received a heart, lung, or liver transplant using data from 1988 to 2012 reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Patient and allograft survival were compared with 330 matched primary kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Kidney transplantation after solid organ transplant (KASOT) recipients experienced similar allograft survival: 5- and 10-year graft survival was 78% and 60% in KASOT recipients, compared to 80% and 61% in PKT recipients (p = 0.69). However, KASOT recipients demonstrated worse 10-year patient survival (75% KASOT vs. 97% PKT, p < 0.001). Competing risks analysis indicated that KASOT recipients more often experienced graft loss due to patient death (p < 0.001), whereas allograft failure per se was more common in PKT recipients (p = 0.01). To study more recent outcomes, kidney transplants performed from 2006 to 2012 were separately investigated. Since 2006, KASOT and PKT recipients had similar 5-year graft survival (82% KASOT vs. 83% PKT, p = 0.48), although 5-year patient survival of KASOT recipients remained inferior (90% KASOT vs. 98% PKT, p < 0.001). We conclude that despite decreased patient survival, kidney allograft outcomes in pediatric KASOT recipients are comparable to those of PKT recipients.

  4. Pacemaker Use Following Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mallidi, Hari R.; Bates, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation has been reported to be 2%-24%. Transplanted hearts usually exhibit sinus rhythm in the operating room following reperfusion, and most patients do not exhibit significant arrhythmias during the postoperative period. However, among the patients who do exhibit abnormalities, pacemakers may be implanted for early sinus node dysfunction but are rarely used after 6 months. Permanent pacing is often required for atrioventricular block. A different cohort of transplant patients presents later with bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation, reported to occur in approximately 1.5% of patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the indications for pacemaker implantation, compare the need for pacemakers following bicaval vs biatrial anastomosis, and examine the long-term outcomes of heart transplant patients who received pacemakers. Methods: For this retrospective, case-cohort, single-institution study, patients were identified from clinical research and administrative transplant databases. Information was supplemented with review of the medical records. Standard statistical techniques were used, with chi-square testing for categorical variables and the 2-tailed t test for continuous variables. Survival was compared with the use of log-rank methods. Results: Between January 1968 and February 2008, 1,450 heart transplants were performed at Stanford University. Eighty-four patients (5.8%) were identified as having had a pacemaker implanted. Of these patients, 65.5% (55) had the device implanted within 30 days of transplantation, and 34.5% (29) had late implantation. The mean survival of patients who had an early pacemaker implant was 6.4 years compared to 7.7 years for those with a late pacemaker implant (P<0.05). Sinus node dysfunction and heart block were the most common indications for pacemaker implantation. Starting in 1997, a bicaval technique was used

  5. VIRAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC SHIFT IN INFLAMMATORY HEART DISEASE: THE INCREASING INVOLVEMENT OF PARVOVIRUS B19 IN THE MYOCARDIUM OF PEDIATRIC CARDIAC TRANSPLANT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Breinholt, John P.; Moulik, Mousumi; Dreyer, William J.; Denfield, Susan W.; Kim, Jeffrey J.; Jefferies, John L.; Rossano, Joseph W.; Gates, Corey M.; Clunie, Sarah K.; Bowles, Karla R.; Kearney, Debra L.; Bowles, Neil E.; Towbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of viral genome in rejecting cardiac transplant patients has been reported, with coxsackievirus and adenovirus causing premature graft failure. Recently, parvovirus B19 (PVB19) genome in myocardial samples has been increasingly reported but its role in cardiac pathology and effect on transplant graft survival are unknown. The objectives were to determine if changes in the viruses identified in the myocardium represent an epidemiologic shift in viral myocardial disease and whether PVB19 adversely affects transplant graft survival. Methods From 9/2002 to 12/2005, 99 children (3 weeks-18 years) with heart transplants had endomyocardial biopsies evaluated for the presence of viral genome utilizing nested PCR. Cellular rejection was assessed by histology of biopsies, while transplant coronary artery disease (TCAD) was diagnosed by coronary angiography or histopathology. Results Seven hundred biopsies were evaluated from 99 patients; 121 biopsies had viral genome with 100 (82.6%) positive for PVB19, 24 for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; 7 positive for PVB19 and EBV), 3 for CMV and 1 for adenovirus. Presence of PVB19 genome did not correlate with rejection score, nor did higher viral copy number. Children with persistent PVB19 infection (>6 months; n=20), had early development of advanced TCAD (p<0.001). Conclusions PVB19 is currently the predominant virus detected in heart transplant surveillance biopsies, possibly representing an epidemiologic shift. While cellular rejection does not correlate with the presence or quantity of PVB19 genome in the myocardium, children with chronic PVB19 infection have increased risk for earlier TCAD, supporting the hypothesis that PVB19 negatively affects graft survival. PMID:20456978

  6. Capacity building in pediatric transplant infectious diseases: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Evans, Helen M; Green, Michael; McCulloch, Mignon; Michaels, Marian G; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M; Verma, Anita; Allen, Upton

    2014-12-01

    Transplant infectious diseases is a rapidly emerging subspecialty within pediatric infectious diseases reflecting the increasing volumes and complexity of this patient population. Incorporating transplant infectious diseases into the transplant process would provide an opportunity to improve clinical outcome and advocacy as well as expand research. The relationship between transplant physicians and infectious diseases (ID) specialists is one of partnership, collaboration, and mutual continuing professional education. The ID CARE Committee of the International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) views the development and integration of transplant infectious diseases into pediatric transplant care as an international priority.

  7. Current status of pediatric renal transplant pathology.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jan U

    2017-03-01

    Histopathology is still an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of kidney transplant dysfunction in adult and pediatric patients. This review presents consolidated knowledge, recent developments and future prospects on the biopsy procedure, the diagnostic work-up, classification schemes, the histopathology of rejection, including antibody-mediated forms, ABO-incompatible transplants, protocol biopsies, recurrent and de novo disease, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, infectious complications and drug-induced toxicity. It is acknowledged that frequently the correct diagnosis can only be reached in consensus with clinical, serological, immunogenetical, bacteriological and virological findings. This review shall enhance the understanding of the pediatric nephrologist for the thought processes of nephropathologists with the aim to facilitate teamwork between these specialist groups for the benefit of the patient.

  8. Non-Heart-Beating Donor Heart Transplantation: Breaking the Taboo

    PubMed Central

    Fatullayev, Javid; Samak, Mostafa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N.; García-Sáez, Diana; Patil, Nikhil P.; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R.; Zeriouh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 60% of hearts offered for transplantation are rejected because of organ dysfunction. Moreover, hearts from circulatory-dead patients have long been thought to be non-amenable for transplantation, unlike other organs. However, tentative surgical attempts inspired by the knowledge obtained from preclinical research to recover those hearts have been performed, finally culminating in clinically successful transplants. In this review we sought to address the major concerns in non-heart-beating donor heart transplantation and highlight recently introduced developments to overcome them. PMID:26174972

  9. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  10. Successful bridge to transplant using the Berlin Heart left ventricular assist device in a 3-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Gansevoort H; Sleasman, Justin; Alkhaldi, Abdulaziz; Pelletier, Marc P; Reitz, Bruce A; Robbins, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    The EXCOR Berlin Heart (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany) was successfully used as a pediatric left ventricular assist device as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. The pneumatically driven paracorporeal device successfully supported a 7 kg patient for 53 days until a suitable heart was obtained for transplantation.

  11. Orthotopic heart transplantation in patients with univentricular physiology.

    PubMed

    Michielon, Guido; Carotti, Adriano; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Cogo, Paola; Parisi, Francesco

    2011-05-01

    Parallel advancements in surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative care, as well as a better understanding of physiology in patients with duct-dependent pulmonary or systemic circulation and a functional single ventricle, have led to superb results in staged palliation of most complex congenital heart disease (CHD) [1]. The Fontan procedure and its technical modifications have resulted in markedly improved outcomes of patients with single ventricle anatomy [2,3,4]. The improved early survival has led to an exponential increase of the proportion of Fontan patients surviving long into adolescence and young adulthood [5]. Improved early and late survival has not yet abolished late mortality secondary to myocardial failure, therefore increasing the referrals for cardiac transplantation [6]. Interstage attrition [7] is moreover expected in staged palliation towards completion of a Fontan-type circulation, while Fontan failure represents a growing indication for heart transplantation [8]. Heart transplantation has therefore become the potential "fourth stage" [9] or a possible alternative to a high-risk Fontan operation [10] in a strategy of staged palliation for single ventricle physiology. Heart transplant barely accounts for 16% of pediatric solid organ transplants [11]. The thirteenth official pediatric heart transplantation report- 2010 [11] indicates that pediatric recipients received only 12.5% of the total reported heart transplants worldwide. Congenital heart disease is not only the most common recipient diagnosis, but also the most powerful predictor of 1-year mortality after OHT. Results of orthotopic heart transplantations (OHT) for failing single ventricle physiology are mixed. Some authors advocate excellent early and mid-term survival after OHT for failing Fontan [9], while others suggest that rescue-OHT after failing Fontan seems unwarranted [10]. Moreover, OHT outcome appears to be different according to the surgical staging towards the Fontan

  12. Life experiences in heart transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Monemian, Sharifeh; Abedi, Heidarali; Naji, Saied Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Heart transplantation is considered as a golden standard of treatment for advanced heart failure. After - transplantation health of patients is influenced by numerous issues which many of them are unknown to the treatment team including nurses. This research - with the aim of describing the life experiences of heart transplant patients - help us to get close to the patients private life and gain comprehensive and a general understanding of all aspects of their life. Methods: This study applied qualitative approach using phenomenology method. The purposive sampling was conducted and continued with 9 participants until information reached saturation point. The participants are the heart transplant recipients who had surgery in Esfahan's Heart Surgery Center of Shahid Chamran. Results: The extracted interviews were analyzed through Colaizzi method: The eleven extracted main concepts were included: Belief, tendencies of the recipient and family of donor, bewilderment, moment of facing with transplantation, satisfaction, vital organ, support, temperament, physical effects of transplantation, mental changes, paradox of life and death. Conclusion: In heart transplant patients, being in touch with peers and family support have an important role in putting up with the transplantation issue. Lack of social situation and social support were among the patients distresses. Lack of the necessary information about transplantation made patients dissatisfied with the heart transplantation. Regarding the research findings, training received by patients would not be suffice and lack of information has been made them face with problems; therefore, the nurse team of transplantation should play more an active role in training the patients. PMID:25861663

  13. Crisis Awaiting Heart Transplantation: Sinking the Lifeboat.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lynne Warner

    2015-08-01

    The number of heart transplants performed in the United States was 2177 in 1994 and 2166 in 2014. However, the number of transplant centers has increased, and the criteria for transplants have broadened to include patients 65 years or older, those with a body mass index greater than 30, and more comorbid conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and a history of smoking. As the transplant waiting list has become longer and waiting times have increased, the major route to heart transplants has become deterioration to the most urgent priority status, which accounts for 10% of patients on the waiting list but two-thirds of transplants. Many heart transplant candidates develop life-threatening complications of a ventricular assist device implanted to avert death while waiting. Some affluent patients, however, can afford to temporarily relocate and obtain a transplant in regions where the waiting times are shorter without prior surgery to implant a ventricular assist device. The ethics of allocating hearts for transplant have always recalled the classic lifeboat dilemma of how many people can be allowed to board an already overcrowded lifeboat without sinking the ship and everyone on board. As transplant physicians, we advocate with the best intentions on behalf of our own patients rather than denying transplants to those less likely to benefit. In recognizing our responsibilities as stewards of scarce donor hearts, we should reduce new listings for heart transplants, thus restoring balance to the waiting list and keeping the lifeboat afloat.

  14. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting.

  15. Heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Houyel, Lucile; To-Dumortier, Ngoc-Tram; Lepers, Yannick; Petit, Jérôme; Roussin, Régine; Ly, Mohamed; Lebret, Emmanuel; Fadel, Elie; Hörer, Jürgen; Hascoët, Sébastien

    2017-02-22

    With the advances in congenital cardiac surgery and postoperative care, an increasing number of children with complex congenital heart disease now reach adulthood. There are already more adults than children living with a congenital heart defect, including patients with complex congenital heart defects. Among these adults with congenital heart disease, a significant number will develop ventricular dysfunction over time. Heart failure accounts for 26-42% of deaths in adults with congenital heart defects. Heart transplantation, or heart-lung transplantation in Eisenmenger syndrome, then becomes the ultimate therapeutic possibility for these patients. This population is deemed to be at high risk of mortality after heart transplantation, although their long-term survival is similar to that of patients transplanted for other reasons. Indeed, heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease is often challenging, because of several potential problems: complex cardiac and vascular anatomy, multiple previous palliative and corrective surgeries, and effects on other organs (kidney, liver, lungs) of long-standing cardiac dysfunction or cyanosis, with frequent elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. In this review, we focus on the specific problems relating to heart and heart-lung transplantation in this population, revisit the indications/contraindications, and update the long-term outcomes.

  16. Cognitive Development and Learning in the Pediatric Organ Transplant Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Steven A.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews studies evaluating neurocognitive changes following organ transplantation in pediatric end-stage renal and liver disease. Findings suggest possible neurocognitive benefits associated with organ transplantation. Recommendations are made for methodological improvements in future research. (DB)

  17. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  18. Heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Garrick C; Mayer, John E

    2014-01-01

    Heart transplantation has become an increasingly common and effective therapy for adults with end-stage congenital heart disease (CHD) because of advances in patient selection and surgical technique. Indications for transplantation in CHD are similar to other forms of heart failure. Pretransplant assessment of CHD patients emphasizes evaluation of cardiac anatomy, pulmonary vascular disease, allosensitization, hepatic dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric status. CHD patients experience longer waitlist times and higher waitlist mortality than other transplant candidates. Adult CHD patients undergoing transplantation carry an early hazard for mortality compared with non-CHD recipients, but by 10 years posttransplant, CHD patients have a slight actuarial survival advantage.

  19. A history of orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meine, Trip J; Russell, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    Orthotopic human heart transplantation today is performed at more than 150 U.S. centers, and the average survival is more than 10 years. Its prevalence and success, however, belies the fact that just 40 years ago, no one had ever attempted the procedure in humans and that the procedure seemed destined for failure just a year after the first transplant. This article reviews the history of orthotopic heart transplantation, beginning with ancient Greek legends and culminating in modern successes.

  20. Chicken pox after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, Josh; Kalil, Andre C; Meza, Jane L; Hurst, Glenn E; Freifeld, Alison

    2005-12-01

    Previous case series have reported serious complications of chicken pox (CP) after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT), mainly due to visceral dissemination. The goal of our study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CP after PLT. A case-control study of all CP infections in pediatric transplant recipients followed at our center from September 1993 to April 2004 was performed. Data were collected before and after infection and at the same time points in age-, gender-, and transplant year-matched controls. Potential risk factors prior to CP and adverse outcomes after infection were compared between cases and controls. Twenty (6.2%) developed CP at a median of 1.8 yr (0.6-4.8) after PLT. All CP infections were cutaneous, with no evidence of organ involvement. Twelve were hospitalized: 9 only to receive intravenous acyclovir and 3 stayed > or =2 weeks for other complications. Risk factors were not statistically different among cases and controls. Of the outcomes analyzed, cases were significantly more likely to develop non-CP infections within one year of CP than controls (Hazard Ratio = 12.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.1-51.7; P < 0.001). These infections were often bacterial and occurred long after CP infection. In conclusion, CP is uncommon after PLT and has a low likelihood of organ dissemination. No risk factors were identified. Some cases required prolonged hospitalizations. Close monitoring for the development of late bacterial infections is warranted.

  1. The pediatric heart network: meeting the challenges to multicenter studies in pediatric heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Kristin M.; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Pearson, Gail D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Because of the relatively small numbers of pediatric patients with congenital heart disease cared for in any individual center, there is a significant need for multicenter clinical studies to validate new medical or surgical therapies. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), with 15 years of experience in multicenter clinical research, has tackled numerous challenges when conducting multicenter studies. Recent findings This review describes the challenges encountered and the strategies employed to conduct high-quality, collaborative research in pediatric cardiovascular disease. Summary Sharing lessons learned from the PHN can provide guidance to investigators interested in conducting pediatric multicenter studies. PMID:26196261

  2. Impaired Physical Function Following Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy G.; Neighbors, Katie; Mukherjee, Shubra; Rak, Melanie; Varni, James W.; Alonso, Estella M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigate the spectrum of physical function of pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients 12–24 months post-LT. Study design Review data collected through the Functional Outcomes Group, an ancillary study of Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Patients were eligible if they had survived LT by 12–24 months. Children ≥ 8 years and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, which includes 8 questions assessing physical function. Scores were compared to a matched healthy child population (n=1658), and between survivors with optimal versus non-optimal health. Results A total of 263 patients were included. Median age at transplant and survey was 4.8 years (IQR 1.3–11.4) and 5.9 years (IQR 2.6–13.1), respectively. The mean Physical Functioning Score on child and parent reports were 81.2± 17.3 and 77.1± 23.7, respectively. Compared to a matched healthy population, transplant survivors and their parents reported lower physical function scores (p<0.01). 32.9% of patients and 35.0% of parents reported a physical function score <75, which is >1 SD below the mean of a healthy population. Physical Function Scores were significantly higher in survivors with optimal health than those with non-optimal health (p<0.01). There was a significant relationship between Emotional Functioning and Physical Functioning Scores for LT recipients (r=0.69, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, primary disease, height Z score<−1.64 at long term follow-up (LTF) visit, ≥4 days of hospitalization since LTF visit, and not listed as Status 1 were predictors of poor physical function. Conclusions Pediatric LT recipients 1–2 years post-LT and their parents report lower physical function than a healthy population. Findings suggest practitioners need to routinely assess physical function, and development of rehabilitation programs may be important. PMID:26850789

  3. BK Virus Nephropathy in Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Alin; Pilichowska, Monika; Boucher, Helen; Kiernan, Michael; DeNofrio, David; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-06-01

    Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) has become an important cause of kidney failure in kidney transplant recipients. PVAN is reported to affect 1% to 7% of kidney transplant recipients, leading to premature transplant loss in approximately 30% to 50% of diagnosed cases. PVAN occurring in the native kidneys of solid-organ transplant recipients other than kidney only recently has been noted. We report 2 cases of PVAN in heart transplant recipients, which brings the total of reported cases to 7. We briefly review the literature on the hypothesized causes of PVAN in kidney transplant recipients and comment on whether these same mechanisms also may cause PVAN in other solid-organ transplant recipients. PVAN should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating worsening kidney function. BK viremia surveillance studies of nonkidney solid-organ recipients should be conducted to provide data to assist the transplantation community in deciding whether regular monitoring of nonkidney transplant recipients for BK viremia is indicated.

  4. Adult heart transplant: indications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alraies, M Chadi; Eckman, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac transplantation is the treatment of choice for many patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. For carefully selected patients, heart transplantation offers markedly improved survival and quality of life. Risk stratification of the large group of patients with end-stage HF is essential for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit, particularly as the number of suitable donors is insufficient to meet demand. The indications for heart transplant and review components of the pre-transplant evaluation, including the role for exercise testing and risk scores such as the Heart Failure Survival Score (HFSS) and Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) are summarized. Common contraindications are also discussed. Outcomes, including survival and common complications such as coronary allograft vasculopathy are reviewed.

  5. Adult heart transplant: indications and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alraies, M. Chadi

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is the treatment of choice for many patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. For carefully selected patients, heart transplantation offers markedly improved survival and quality of life. Risk stratification of the large group of patients with end-stage HF is essential for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit, particularly as the number of suitable donors is insufficient to meet demand. The indications for heart transplant and review components of the pre-transplant evaluation, including the role for exercise testing and risk scores such as the Heart Failure Survival Score (HFSS) and Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) are summarized. Common contraindications are also discussed. Outcomes, including survival and common complications such as coronary allograft vasculopathy are reviewed. PMID:25132979

  6. [Pediatric cardiology and congenital heart disease: from fetus to adult].

    PubMed

    Subirana, M Teresa; Oliver, José M; Sáez, José M; Zunzunegui, José L

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of some of the most important publications on congenital heart disease and pediatric cardiology that appeared in 2010 and up until September 2011. Of particular interest were studies on demographic changes reported in this patient population and on the need to manage the patients' transition from the pediatric to the adult cardiology department. This transition has given rise to the appearance of new areas of interest: for example, pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease, and the effect of genetic factors on the etiology and transmission of particular anomalies. In addition, this review considers some publications on fetal cardiology from the perspective of early diagnosis and, if possible, treatment. There follows a discussion on new contributions to Eisenmenger's syndrome and arrhythmias, as well as on imaging techniques, interventional catheterization and heart transplantation. Finally, there is an overview of the new version of clinical practice guidelines on the management of adult patients with congenital heart disease and of recently published guidelines on pregnancy in women with heart disease, both produced by the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. [Complications of pediatric renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Sandes, Ana Rita; Azevedo, Sara; Stone, Rosário; Almeida, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A transplantação renal é a terapêutica de eleição na criança com doença renal crónica terminal, evidenciando impacto positivo na sobrevida e qualidade de vida dos doentes. Não é, no entanto, isenta de complicações, algumas com importante morbilidade. Os autores pretendem caracterizar o perfil de complicações pós transplantação renal em doentes pediátricos (até 18 anos).Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos doentes submetidos a transplantação renal e seguidos na Unidade de Nefrologia Pediátrica entre Setembro de 1995 e Agosto de 2010. Dados obtidos dos processos clínicos: características demográficas, etiologia da doença renal crónica terminal, terapêutica de substituição renal, mortalidade e perda de enxertos, complicações cirúrgicas, infecciosas e não infecciosas (rejeição aguda e crónica, recidiva da doença de base, alterações metabólicas e factores de risco cardiovascular). Análise estatística descritiva simples.Resultados: Foram incluídas 78 crianças transplantadas (48,7% sexo masculino), com idade mediana à data da transplantaçãorenal de 12 anos (2 - 18). A maioria fez previamente diálise peritoneal: 49 (62,6%). Cinco doentes (6,4%) foram transplantados sem diálise prévia. A mediana do tempo de seguimento após transplante foi 37,5 meses (1 - 169). As principais etiologias de doença renal crónica terminal foram: uronefropatias (41%) e glomerulopatias (28,2%). As complicações infecciosas ocorreram em 74,4%; infecçõesvirais em 56,4%, sendo a mais prevalente a infecção citomegalovírus (39,7%); infecções bacterianas em 53,8% (na maioria infecções urinárias em doentes urológicos). Outras complicações: 1) factores de risco para doença cardiovascular: hipertensão arterial em 85,9%; dislipidémia em 16,7% e diabetes de novo em 7,7%; 2) episódios de rejeição aguda em 32,1% e nefropatia crónica do enxerto em 17,9%; 3) complicações relacionáveis com a cirurgia em 16

  8. Selection of Patients for Heart Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Bruce E.

    1987-01-01

    In the four and one-half years since the revival of its cardiac transplant program in 1982, the Texas Heart Institute has performed 163 transplants. * Here the author reviews medical criteria for recipients and donors during that period and discusses actual and possible changes in those criteria. Relaxation of certain rigorous criteria for recipients has increased the number of medically-qualified recipients, but to date there has been no corresponding increase in the donor pool. Criteria for heart recipients at the Texas Heart Institute are discussed within the broader context of an overview of the entire evaluation-and-acceptance procedure. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 14:238-242) PMID:15227304

  9. Anemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kausman, Joshua Yehuda; Powell, Harley Robert; Jones, Colin Lindsay

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of anemia in stable pediatric renal transplant recipients and to examine the association of anemia with renal function, immunosuppressants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and growth, as well as iron, vitamin B(12), and folate stores. This is a cross-sectional study of the 50 renal transplant recipients currently followed at our center. Patient data were collected regarding hematological parameters, growth, medications, renal function, underlying renal disease, delayed graft function, episodes of rejection, and iron or erythropoietin therapy post transplantation. The mean hemoglobin level (Hb) was 110 g/l and the overall prevalence of anemia was 60%, including 30% who were severely anemic (Hb<100 g/l). There was a high rate of iron deficiency (34%) and serum iron was the parameter of iron metabolism most closely associated with anemia. Hb in patients with low serum iron was 90.7 g/l versus 114.4 g/l in those with normal serum iron ( P<0.01). Both univariate and multiple linear regression determined tacrolimus dose and creatinine clearance to be significant factors associated with anemia. Tacrolimus dose correlated with a 10 g/l reduction in Hb for every increase of tacrolimus dose of 0.054 mg/kg per day ( P=0.001). The dose of mycophenolate was positively correlated with Hb, but this was likely to be confounded by our practice of dose reduction in the setting of anemia. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor use was not associated with anemia. Severely anemic patients tended to be shorter, with a mean Z-score for height of -1.8 compared with -0.9 for those with normal Hb ( P=0.02). Anemia is a significant and common problem in pediatric renal transplant patients. Deteriorating renal function is an important cause, but other factors like iron deficiency and immunosuppression are involved. Definition of iron deficiency is difficult and serum iron may be a valuable indicator. Medication doses

  10. [The Registry of Spanish Heart Transplantation. Eleventh official report].

    PubMed

    Almenar Bonet, L

    2000-12-01

    As carried out since 1991, the Section of Heart Transplantation of the Spanish Cardiology Society presents an analysis of the characteristics and results of all transplants performed in Spain since the beginning of this activity (1984) up to December 31 of the year before its publication. The 336 transplants performed in 1999 in addition to all those performed since 1984 represent a total of 3,092 transplants. The number of procedures undertaken in 1998 was of 349, indicating slight decrease in transplantation activity in the last year. Nevertheless, the figures are similar and the analysis of the last years shows that the mean annual figure is close to 250 transplants/year. In our country, the mean clinical profile of the patient undergoing transplantation corresponds to a male (82%), aged 48 years (48 +/- 15), blood type A (54%) or 0 (32%), with severe heart disease due to ischemic heart disease (39%) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (35%). The recorded results have been analyzed globally, thus including all the transplants performed; high risk transplants (urgent, elderly or pediatric receptors, retransplantation, multiple heterotopic transplantation with lung, kidney and liver...) in this analysis. This should be taken into account when comparing the results with other registries. The mean early mortality (first 30 days after transplantation) corresponding to the last 10 years is of 14%. In this period, acute graft failure (35%), multi-organic failure (15%) and infections (10%) constitute the most frequent cause of death. The sum of the results obtained in 1999 and those obtained in former years show survival in the 1st, 5th and 10th year to be of 74, 62 and 47%, respectively. Global mortality is mainly due to infection (18%), acute graft failure (17%) and rejection (11%). We can conclude that, although the number of transplants performed yearly appears to have reached a plateau, the results obtained cannot be considered stable since year after year, thanks

  11. The Berlin Heart EXCOR Pediatric ventricular assist device: history, North American experience, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Charles D; Jaquiss, Robert D B

    2013-07-01

    Options for long-term mechanical circulatory support to sustain pediatric heart failure patients requiring cardiac transplantation while they wait for donor hearts have been unsatisfactory. The conventional approach has been to use extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), but its lack of feasibility for long-term use and the major complications associated with the technology have limited its use, especially in light of lengthy waiting lists for donor hearts. With the advent of the Berlin Heart EXCOR® Pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD), pediatric heart failure specialists have gained an important tool for helping this patient population survive until a donor heart can be identified. The EXCOR Pediatric VAD is designed to support pediatric patients of all age groups, from newborns to teenagers, and can be used successfully for many months. This paper describes the early experience with the EXCOR Pediatric VAD and the challenging journey undertaken to gain U.S. FDA approval, including successful completion of the first worldwide prospective clinical study of VADs in a pediatric population.

  12. Who gets a heart? Rationing and rationalizing in heart transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, M D; Fishbein, D P; McBride, M; Ellison, M; Daily, O P

    1997-01-01

    National policy on organ transplantation is made by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), a representative body composed of health care professionals and patients. Standardized criteria for determining when a patient should be placed on the waiting list for heart transplantation are now in effect nationwide. Current and future directions to maximize the utilization of available donated organs are explored. PMID:9217435

  13. [Heart Transplantation;Allograft and Xenograft].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Norihide

    2017-01-01

    Prior to starting clinical cardiac allotransplantation, cardiac xenotransplantation was performed in human in 1960s. In 1964, Hardy performed cardiac transplantation using a chimpanzee heart and Bailey performed cardiac transplantation using a baboon heart to an infant with hypoplastic left heart. The use of cyclosporine has greatly improved the outcome of clinical cardiac transplantation and cardiac allotransplantation became an established treatment strategy for the patients with end-stage heart failure. Although concordant cardiac xenotransplantation from a primate to a human may be successfully performed using current immunosuppressive regimen, a primate heart is not a good candidate for cardiac xenograft due to animal light issues and its size. Therefore, many investigators have tried to extend the survival period in discordant xenograft from pig to primate, but no prolonged surviving orthotropic cardiac xenograft has been established yet. In this review, experiments of concordant and discordant cardiac xenografts which were performed by the authors were introduced.

  14. Psychosocial Implications During Adolescence for Infant Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Vidhya; Freier Randall, Catherin; Chinnock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: As more heart transplant recipients survive into late adolescence, research addressing long-term psychosocial and neurodevelopmental outcomes is imperative. The limited literature available suggests risk for psychosocial difficulties and lower cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological functioning. This paper reviews topic-related literature and provides preliminary data examining psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning of adolescents who received their heart transplant during infancy. Method: This paper offers a literature review AND presents preliminary data from studies conducted through Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital (LLUCH). Study one examined psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescent infant heart transplant recipients. In study two, cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological data were analyzed. Results: Study 1: Overall psychosocial functioning fell in the Average range, however, a significant percentage of participants presented with difficulties on one or more of the psychosocial domains. Quality of life was also within normal limits, though concerns with general health and bodily discomfort were noted. Study 2: Cognitive functioning was assessed to be Below Average, with 43-62% of the participants demonstrating significant impairments. Neuropsychological functioning yielded significant weakness on language functioning, and mild weakness on visual-motor integration and executive functioning. Conclusion: While the majority of the participants demonstrate psychosocial resiliency, a subgroup present with difficulties suggesting the need for intervention. Cognitive/neuropsychological functioning suggests poorer functioning with patterns similar to other high-risk pediatric populations. These results are preliminary and further research on long-term psychosocial and neuropsychological development of pediatric heart transplant recipients is needed to better understand and ameliorate developmental

  15. The start of the transplant journey: Referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shellmer, Diana; Brosig, Cheryl; Wray, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the majority of the psychosocial transplant literature is on post-transplant outcomes but the transplant journey starts much earlier than this, at the point when transplantation is first considered and a referral for transplant evaluation is made. In this review we cover information regarding the meaning of the referral process for solid organ transplantation. We discuss various factors of the referral for transplantation including the impact of referral on the pediatric patient and the family, potential expectations and misconceptions held by pediatric patients and parents, the role of health literacy, decision making factors, and the informational needs of pediatric patients and parents. We elucidate steps that providers can take to enhance transplant referral and provide suggestions for much needed research within this area. PMID:24438194

  16. The start of the transplant journey: referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shellmer, Diana; Brosig, Cheryl; Wray, Jo

    2014-03-01

    The focus of the majority of the psychosocial transplant literature is on post-transplant outcomes, but the transplant journey starts much earlier than this, at the point when transplantation is first considered and a referral for transplant evaluation is made. In this review, we cover information regarding the meaning of the referral process for solid organ transplantation. We discuss various factors of the referral for transplantation including the impact of referral on the pediatric patient and the family, potential expectations and misconceptions held by pediatric patients and parents, the role of health literacy, decision-making factors, and the informational needs of pediatric patients and parents. We elucidate steps that providers can take to enhance transplant referral and provide suggestions for much needed research within this area.

  17. Emergent Complications in the Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Munchel, Ashley; Chen, Allen; Symons, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is the only potentially curative option for a variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Despite advances in transplantation biology and immunology as well as in posttransplant management that have contributed to improved survival and decreased transplant-related mortality, hematopoietic cell transplantation does not come without significant risk of complications. When patients who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation present to the emergency department, it is important to consider a variety of therapy-related complications to optimize management and outcome. In this article, we use clinical cases to highlight some of the more common emergent complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:25411564

  18. An Assessment of Publication Status of Pediatric Liver Transplantation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Breil, Thomas; Wenning, Daniel; Teufel, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric liver transplantation is a highly specialized, challenging field. Selective reporting may introduce bias into evidence based clinical decision making, but the precise extent of unpublished data in pediatric liver transplantation is unknown today. We therefore assessed the public availability of completed clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation. Methods We determined the proportion of published and unpublished pre-registered, completed pediatric liver transplantation studies on ClinicalTrials.gov. The major trial and literature databases, i.e., clinicaltrials.gov, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched for publications. In addition, principal investigators or sponsors were contacted directly. STROBE criteria were applied for the descriptive analysis. Results Out of N = 33 studies focusing on pediatric liver transplantation registered as completed until March 2014 on clinicaltrials.gov, N = 19 (58%) studies were published until February 2015, whereas N = 14 (42%) studies remained unpublished. The unpublished trials contain data from N = 2105 (35%) patients out of a total population of N = 6044 study participants. Median time-to-publication, i.e., the period from completion of the trial until public availability of the data was 23 IQR 10 to 28 months. Most pertinent key questions in pediatric liver transplantation, i.e., surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection were addressed in 48% of studies (N = 16/33), half of which were published. Conclusion Half of the clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation focused on key questions such as surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection. There is still a considerable amount of unpublished studies results in pediatric liver transplantation. Time from study completion to publication was almost twice as long as the 12 months mandatory FDAAA-timeline with a trend towards acceleration over time. The data

  19. Prevalence and outcomes of heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Aaron; Bartlett, Heather L; Zhao, Qianqian; Smith, Jodi M

    2017-03-01

    Heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability is a controversial issue. We sought to describe the prevalence and outcomes of heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability and hypothesized that recipients with intellectual disability have comparable short-term outcomes compared to recipients without intellectual disability. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of children receiving a first heart-alone transplant in the UNOS STAR database from 2008 to 2013. Recipients with intellectual disability were compared to those without using chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for patient and graft survival. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between intellectual disability and graft failure and patient survival. Over the study period, 107 children with intellectual disability underwent initial heart transplantation, accounting for 8.9% of first pediatric heart transplants (total=1204). There was no difference in the incidence of acute rejection between groups in the first year after transplant. Mean functional status scores at follow-up improved in both groups after transplantation, but tended to be lower among children with intellectual disability than children without. Log-rank tests did not suggest significant differences in graft survival between those with and without intellectual disability during the first 4 years following transplantation. Children with intellectual disability constitute a significant portion of total heart transplants with short-term outcomes comparable to children without intellectual disability.

  20. [Predictive and rehabilitative perspectives in heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Meyendorf, R; Dassing, M; Scherer, J; Klinner, W; Kemkes, B; Reichart, B

    1989-10-01

    27 patients who underwent heart transplantation one to five years ago, were evaluated concerning psychological and social adjustment after heart transplantation. Prior to cardiac transplantation, predictors for good rehabilitation status were absence of psychopathology, clear motivation, good social background, advanced physical debility (being bedridden as opposed to ambulatory), absence of a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Age was not found to be a predictor of outcome. Criteria for good rehabilitation status after cardiac transplantation were absence of psychopathology, good compliance, social reintegration, return to work, psychological well-being, satisfaction with the quality of life and good exercise capacity. The criteria for good rehabilitation correlate positively with the predictors specified and with each other. Psychopathology after cardiac transplantation was related to psychopathology prior to the intervention, motivation, social background, postoperative compliance, social reintegration, return to work, psychological well-being and satisfaction with the quality of life. Compliance was related with the predictors motivation, social background, history of excessive alcohol consumption, psychopathology after transplantation and return to work. Social reintegration was correlated with social background and post-transplantation psychopathology. Return to work was related to motivation, post-transplantation psychopathology and compliance. While physical well-being was not associated with the predictors except motivation, it was related to the rehabilitation factors of post-transplantation psychopathology, social reintegration, and return to work. Satisfaction with the quality of life correlated with only the rehabilitation factors of post-transplantation psychopathology and psychological well-being. Physical exercise capacity was related to psychological well-being after transplantation.

  1. Cell sheet transplantation for heart tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2013-08-10

    Cell transplantation is attracting considerable attention as the next-generation therapy for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We have developed cell sheet engineering as a type of scaffold-less tissue engineering for application in myocardial tissue engineering and the repair of injured heart tissue by cell transplantation. Various types of cell sheet transplantation have improved cardiac function in animal models and clinical settings. Furthermore, cell-based tissue engineering with human induced pluripotent stem cell technology is about to create thick vascularized cardiac tissue for cardiac grafts and heart tissue models. In this review, we summarize the current cardiac cell therapies for treating heart failure with cell sheet technology and cell sheet-based tissue engineering.

  2. Heart transplantation for corrected transposition of the great vessels.

    PubMed

    Jebara, V A; Dreyfus, G; Acar, C; Deloche, A; Couetil, J P; Fabiani, J N; Carpentier, A

    1990-06-01

    Orthotopic heart transplantation was performed in a patient with corrected transposition of the great vessels. Technical modifications were necessary to be able to transplant a normal heart in this patient. The surgical technique is illustrated.

  3. Pediatric health-related quality of life: Feasibility, reliability and validity of the PedsQL transplant module.

    PubMed

    Weissberg-Benchell, J; Zielinski, T E; Rodgers, S; Greenley, R N; Askenazi, D; Goldstein, S L; Fredericks, E M; McDiarmid, S; Williams, L; Limbers, C A; Tuzinkiewicz, K; Lerret, S; Alonso, E M; Varni, J W

    2010-07-01

    The measurement properties of the newly developed Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Transplant Module in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients were evaluated. Participants included pediatric recipients of liver, kidney, heart and small bowel transplantation who were cared for at seven medical centers across the United States and their parents. Three hundred and thirty-eight parents of children ages 2-18 and 274 children ages 5-18 completed both the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the Transplant Module. Findings suggest that child self-report and parent proxy-report scales on the Transplant Module demonstrated excellent reliability (total scale score for child self-report alpha= 0.93; total scale score for parent proxy-report alpha= 0.94). Transplant-specific symptoms or problems were significantly correlated with lower generic HRQOL, supporting construct validity. Children with solid organ transplants and their parents reported statistically significant lower generic HRQOL than healthy children. Parent and child reports showed moderate to good agreement across the scales. In conclusion, the PedsQL Transplant Module demonstrated excellent initial feasibility, reliability and construct validity in pediatric patients with solid organ transplants.

  4. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (<180 days), medium (181–270 days), or long (>270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan–Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; P<0.001) and more diversions to adults (31% versus 27%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a lower kidney to candidate ratio remained associated with longer waiting time (hazard ratio, 0.56 for areas with <2:1 versus reference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; P<0.01). Large geographic variation in waiting time for pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity. PMID:24436470

  5. Aortic mismatch in heart transplantation: readaptation.

    PubMed

    Miralles, A

    1997-10-01

    Great vessel mismatch between donor and recipient is very usual in heart transplantation. Different procedures have been used to manage this situation. A tailoring aortoplasty is described, as a technical alternative, in cases of considerable size incongruence between donor and recipient aortic diameters.

  6. [LAPAROSCOPIC "SLEEVE" GASTRECTOMY POST HEART TRANSPLANTION].

    PubMed

    Mahler, Ilanit; Ben Gal, Tuvia; Kashtan, Hanoch; Keidar, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Morbid obesity affects the function of the transplanted heart either directly, by damaging many elements that affect cardiac function or indirectly, by the initial appearance or worsening of co-morbidities that affect the heart. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for a significant and sustained decrease in weight and it leads to the disappearance of co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in high rates. These diseases can damage the blood vessels of the graft and impair its function. We report a case study of a 47-year-old morbidly obese male (BMI 36 kg/m2] who underwent heart transplantation three years previously, developed gradual weight gain and symptoms of aggravating heart failure. Coronary artery disease in the implanted heart was diagnosed. Clinically, he started suffering from shortness of breath and chest pain during minimal effort. In addition, he also suffered from high blood pressure and kidney failure. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was successfully performed and he was discharged four days later. On follow-up the patient has lost 35 kg. His present weight is 74 kg (BMI 25.7). All symptoms of heart failure improved and oral medications for hypertension and heart failure were withdrawn. Our conclusion is that it is justified to consider bariatric surgery in heart transplant recipients suffering from morbid obesity, as long as the long-term benefit outweighs the surgical risk. The decision to perform bariatric surgery should be made by a multidisciplinary team and the operation should take place at a center with extensive experience in bariatric surgery.

  7. Pediatric liver transplantation in Latin America: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Feier, Flavia; Antunes, Eduardo; D'Agostino, Daniel; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Jarufe, Nicolas; Patillo, Juan C; Vera, Alonso; Carrasco, Felix; Kondo, Mario; Porta, Gilda; Chapchap, Paulo; Seda-Neto, Joao

    2016-05-01

    LT started in LA in 1968, and pediatric LT records are available starting in the 1990s. Currently, eight countries perform pediatric LT in LA. Registries by national organizations fail to report robust data on pediatric LT. The aim of this paper was to report on the pediatric LT activity in LA. Data were gathered retrospectively through information available in the national registries websites and from local centers. Of the eight countries that report pediatric LT activity, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia have adequate registries of the numbers of LT performed. These countries concentrate most of the activity for pediatric LT. A total of 4593 pediatric LT were reported in LA. Websites for national organizations do not provide open data on post-transplant survival rates or waiting list mortality. The information herein is based on reports by local centers. Overall, survival from select centers is similar to that reported on North American and European registries, between 80 and 90% in the first year post-transplant. In conclusion, pediatric LT activity is growing in LA, especially in Brazil and Argentina. However, the lack of an appropriate LA registry restricts the assessment of quality and therefore restricts interventions aimed at quality improvements in different regions.

  8. Bone Density and Cortical Structure after Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, Anniek M.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Foster, Bethany J.; Strife, C. Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of renal transplantation on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure is unknown. We obtained quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia in pediatric renal transplant recipients at transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months; 58 recipients completed at least two visits. We used more than 700 reference participants to generate Z-scores for trabecular BMD, cortical BMD, section modulus (a summary measure of cortical dimensions and strength), and muscle and fat area. At baseline, compared with reference participants, renal transplant recipients had significantly lower mean section modulus and muscle area; trabecular BMD was significantly greater than reference participants only in transplant recipients younger than 13 years. After transplantation, trabecular BMD decreased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure. Cortical BMD increased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure and greater decreases in parathyroid hormone levels. Muscle and fat area both increased significantly, but section modulus did not improve. At 12 months, transplantation associated with significantly lower section modulus and greater fat area compared with reference participants. Muscle area and cortical BMD did not differ significantly between transplant recipients and reference participants. Trabecular BMD was no longer significantly elevated in younger recipients and was low in older recipients. Pediatric renal transplant associated with persistent deficits in section modulus, despite recovery of muscle, and low trabecular BMD in older recipients. Future studies should determine the implications of these data on fracture risk and identify strategies to improve bone density and structure. PMID:22282589

  9. [Therapy of terminal heart failure using heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Hummel, M; Warnecke, H; Schüler, S; Hempel, B; Spiegelsberger, S; Hetzer, R

    1991-08-16

    Heart transplantation (HTx) has now become an accepted treatment modality for end-stage heart disease. The limited supply of suitable donor organs imposes constraints upon the decision of who should be selected for transplantation. Usually patients are candidates for HTx, who remain NYHA functional class III or IV despite maximal medical therapy. Further criteria are low left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 20%) with heart rhythm disturbances class IIIA-V (LOWN), which are associated with poor prognosis. Additionally, the suffering of the patient and also the course of heart failure are essential for judging the urgency of HTx. Contraindications are absolute in patients with untreated infections, fixed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) above 8 WOOD-degrees, severe irreversible kidney and liver disease, active ventricular or duodenal ulcers and acute, psychiatric illness. HTx is relatively contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus, age over 60 years, PVR above 6 WOOD-degrees and an unstable psychosocial situation. To prevent rejection of the transplant heart, live-long immunosuppressive therapy is needed. Most immunosuppressive regimes consist of Cyclosporine A and Azathioprine (double drug therapy) or in combination (tripple drug therapy) with Prednisolone. For monitoring of this therapy, control of hole blood cyclosporine A level and white blood count is needed. Rejection episodes can be suspected if there is a greater than 20 mmHg decrease of systolic blood pressure, elevated body temperature, malaise, tachycardia or heart rhythm disturbance. The diagnosis of cardiac rejection can be established by endomyocardial biopsy. Measurement of the voltage of either the surface or intramyocardial ECG, echocardiography with special consideration to early left ventricular filling time as well as immunological methods are additionally used tools. Graft sclerosis as the main risk factor of the late transplant period remains an unsolved problem.

  10. Immunosuppression in pediatric liver transplant recipients: Unique aspects.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir; Barton, Andrea; Wheeler, Justin; Pham, Yen; Hewitt, Winston; Keegan, Tara; Sanchez, Christine; Bulut, Pinar; Goss, John

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation has experienced improved outcomes over the last 50 years. This can be attributed in part to establishing optimal use of immunosuppressive agents to achieve a balance between minimizing the risks of allograft rejection and infection. The management of immunosuppression in children is generally more complex and can be challenging when compared with the use of these agents in adult liver transplant patients. Physiologic differences in children alter the pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressive agents, which affects absorption, distribution, metabolism, and drug excretion. Children also have a longer expected period of exposure to immunosuppression, which can impact growth, risk of infection (bacterial, viral, and fungal), carcinogenesis, and likelihood of nonadherence. This review discusses immunosuppressive options for pediatric liver transplant recipients and the unique issues that must be addressed when managing this population. Further advances in the field of tolerance and accommodation are needed to relieve the acute and cumulative burden of chronic immunosuppression in children. Liver Transplantation 23 244-256 2017 AASLD.

  11. End-Stage Kidney Disease After Pediatric Nonrenal Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Peter P.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Abt, Peter L.; Furth, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients commonly develop advanced kidney disease; however, the burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in children after SOT is not well-described. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of ESKD after pediatric SOT and the relative risk by SOT type. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter cohort study of children, ages ≤18 years, who received SOTs from 1990 through 2010 using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data linked to the US Renal Data System. We performed a competing risks analysis to determine cumulative incidence of ESKD (chronic dialysis or kidney transplant), treating death as a competing risk, and fit a multivariable Cox regression model to assess hazard of ESKD by organ type. RESULTS: The cohort included 16 604 pediatric SOT recipients (54% liver, 34% heart, 6% lung, 6% intestine, and 1% heart–lung). During a median follow-up of 6.2 years (interquartile range 2.2–12.1), 426 (3%) children developed ESKD. Compared with liver transplant recipients, in whom the incidence of ESKD was 2.1 cases per 1000 person-years, in adjusted analyses the highest risk of ESKD was among intestinal (hazard ratio [HR] 7.37, P < .001), followed by lung (HR 5.79, P < .001) and heart transplant recipients (HR 1.79, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a 20-year national cohort of pediatric SOT recipients, the risk of ESKD was highest among intestinal and lung transplant recipients. The burden of earlier stages of chronic kidney disease is probably much higher; modifiable risk factors should be targeted to prevent progressive kidney damage in this high-risk population. PMID:24127468

  12. Arrhythmias in the Heart Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hamon, David; Taleski, Jane; Vaseghi, Marmar; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2014-01-01

    Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is currently the most effective long-term therapy for patients with end-stage cardiac disease, even as left ventricular devices show markedly improved outcomes. As surgical techniques and immunosuppressive regimens have been refined, short-term mortality caused by sepsis has decreased, while morbidity caused by repeated rejection episodes and vasculopathy has increased, and is often manifested by arrhythmias. These chronic transplant complications require early and aggressive multidisciplinary treatment. Understanding the relationship between arrhythmias and these complications in the acute and chronic stages following OHT is critical in improving patient prognosis, as arrhythmias may be the earliest or sole presentation. Finally, decentralised/ denervated hearts represent a unique opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias. PMID:26835083

  13. Genomic Contraindications for Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Char, Danton S; Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel; Barnes, Aliessa; Magnus, David; Deem, Michael J; Lantos, John D

    2017-03-02

    Genome sequencing raises new ethical challenges. Decoding the genome produces new forms of diagnostic and prognostic information; however, the information is often difficult to interpret. The connection between most genetic variants and their phenotypic manifestations is not understood. This scenario is particularly true for disorders that are not associated with an autosomal genetic variant. The analytic uncertainty is compounded by moral uncertainty about how, exactly, the results of genomic testing should influence clinical decisions. In this Ethics Rounds, we present a case in which genomic findings seemed to play a role in deciding whether a patient was to be listed as a transplant candidate. We then asked experts in bioethics and cardiology to discuss the implications of such decisions.

  14. [Pulmonary hypertension in pediatric heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Falcone, N

    2001-12-01

    Congenital heart disease can increase or decrease pulmonary blood flow, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) or pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). PAP is the product of PVR and pulmonary minute volume (Qp), such that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) may develop as a result of an increase in either PVR or Qp or both. Given that the pulmonary vascular bed is a low pressure system with high flow, any increase in resistance would generate PHT. The normal value of PVR is 2 Woods units (mm Hg/l/min). Increased PAP is due to hypoxic lesions of the endothelium, which release proteolytic enzymes that alter the balance of metabolites of arachidonic acid, regulators of pulmonary vasomotor tone. Hypoxia and acidosis cause intense pulmonary vasoconstriction (hypoxic vasoconstrictor reflex). An increase of PVR is due to a combination of vasoconstrictive processes and remodeling, with hypertrophy of the pulmonary artery. Structural lesions are related to hypertrophy of the endothelium, the transformation of fibroblasts to myocytes and the decrease of the alveolar/arteriolar ratio with the formation of new vessels.PHT may be primary or secondary to another disease. Primary PHT is a rare genetic disease. The most common secondary forms of PHT in pediatrics are due to persistence of neonatal anatomy (neonatal PHT), to heart diseases with left-right shunt (CIV, DAP, etc.), to diseases of the pulmonary parenchyma (interstitial viral infection, mucoviscidosis), and complications of heart surgery. All congenital heart diseases can lead to PHT if not treated promptly. Clinical signs of PHT are highly non-specific: dyspnea, fatigue, syncopes, exercise intolerance, precordialgia, cyanosis and edema. The best approaches to diagnosis and prognosis are echocardiography and cardiac catheterization with vasodilators. Anesthetics that do not alter PVR should be used in such patients, who are sensitive to changes in pulmonary ventilation, to changes in cardiac output and to anesthetics. The treatment of

  15. Cystatin C and renal function in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Franco, M C P; Nagasako, S S; Machado, P G; Nogueira, P C K; Pestana, J O M; Sesso, R

    2009-12-01

    In clinical practice, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often determined with serum creatinine. However, studies have shown cystatin C to be a better parameter for the diagnosis of impaired renal function. We compared GFR estimated by plasma cystatin C with GFR estimated by serum creatinine in a sample of 50 pediatric renal transplant recipients and 24 healthy children. The correlation between GFR estimated by serum creatinine and by cystatin C was significant (r = 0.75; P < 0.001, Person's correlation); however, in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, the GFR was 6.7 mL/min lower when determined using cystatin C rather than serum creatinine. Moreover, using GFR estimated by cystatin C we found that 42% of the pediatric kidney transplant recipients had an estimated GFR <60 mL.min-1.1.73 (m(2))-1, whereas when GFR was estimated by the serum creatinine formula only 16% of the children had values below this cutoff point indicative of chronic kidney disease (P < 0.001). We conclude that, in pediatric kidney transplant recipients, estimation of GFR yields lower values when cystatin C is used rather than serum creatinine.

  16. miRNA Expression in Pediatric Failing Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Brian L.; Russell, Gloria; Nunley, Karin; Miyamoto, Shelley D.; Sucharov, Carmen C.

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that can regulate gene expression through interacting with the 3'UTR of target mRNAs. Although the role of miRNAs has been extensively studied in adult human and animal models of heart disease, nothing is known about their expression in pediatric heart failure patients. Different than adults with heart failure, pediatric patients respond well to phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEi) treatment, which is safe in the outpatient setting, results in fewer heart failure emergency department visits, fewer cardiac hospital admissions and improved NYHA classification. We have recently shown that the pediatric heart failure patients display a unique molecular profile that is different from adults with heart failure. In this study we show for the first time that pediatric heart failure patients display a unique miRNA profile, and that expression of some miRNAs correlate with response to PDEi treatment. Moreover, we show that expression of Smad4, a potential target for PDEi-regulated miRNAs, is normalized in PDEi-treated patients. Since miRNAs may be used as therapy for human heart failure, our results underscore the importance of defining the molecular characteristics of pediatric heart failure patients, so age-appropriate therapy can be designed for this population. PMID:23333438

  17. Drug Treatment of Heart Failure in Children: Focus on Recent Recommendations from the ISHLT Guidelines for the Management of Pediatric Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Alexander D; Weintraub, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    The International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recently updated consensus pediatric heart failure guidelines from those published in 2004 with an aim to provide a practical evidence-based resource whilst recognizing the influence of adult heart failure practice. The new guidelines were formed from published evidence for heart failure management and used parallels with adult literature where pediatric evidence was lacking. This is a summary of the pharmacological therapies discussed in the new 2014 guidelines, emphasizing changes from the previous recommendations with regards to treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and acute decompensated heart failure. Each recommendation is classified according to strength and level of evidence. We also discuss future perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of heart failure. The 2014 ISHLT guidelines have evolved considerably from those published in 2004 with extensive information surrounding the underlying pathophysiology, investigations and recommended treatment. The new guidelines contain a modest amount of new pediatric data on pharmacological therapies and extrapolate adult data when appropriate. It is likely that most new recommendations for pediatric heart failure will continue to be based on therapies of proven benefit in adult heart failure studies.

  18. [History of organ transplantation in the field of pediatric surgery in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    In Japan, liver transplantation was first attempted 50 years ago, around the same time as the development of pediatric surgery. In 1989, clinical liver transplantation in Japan started with a living related-donor transplantation in a boy with biliary atresia. In the early years, the majority of recipients were children worldwide, which is why pediatric surgeons played a major role in the establishment of liver transplantation in Japan. From 1998, most of the indications for pediatric patients needing liver transplantation have been covered by governmental health insurance. Since that year, the annual number of pediatric liver transplantations, mainly living-donor transplantations, has remained stable at around 130. Biliary atresia is still the most common indication, but others like metabolic disease and hepatoblastoma have been increasing. Deceased-donor liver transplantation started in 1999 in Japan, but pediatric donors are very rare. Intestinal transplantation in Japan also started in a pediatric patient with short bowel syndrome in 1996. Deceased-donor intestinal transplantation is also performed, but the number of those on the waiting list for bowel transplantations in Japan has been very limited, probably due to financial constraints and relatively poor long-term results. With the change in the Organ Transplant Law in 2010, organ donations in Japan have increased slightly. Cadaveric split-liver transplantation has the potential to expand the benefit to pediatric recipients. A universal system for the long-term follow-up of pediatric recipients should be established to manage their transition to adulthood.

  19. NHETS − Necropsy Heart Transplantation Study

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Thiago Ninck; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bacal, Fernando; Chizzola, Paulo Roberto; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; dos Santos, Ronaldo Honorato Barros; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. Objective To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. Methods Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. Results 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). Conclusion Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation. PMID:24759949

  20. Long-term outcome following heart transplantation: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Markus J

    2015-03-01

    Heart transplantation keeps its leading position in the treatment of end-stage heart failure (HF). Survival rates and functional status following heart transplantation are excellent, particularly if compared to medical therapy. The process of acute and chronic transplant rejection, however, and the sequelae of immunosuppression, such as infection, malignancy and renal insufficiency, prevents even better results. Therapy with current mechanical circulatory support devices is associated with improving outcome and may become competitive to heart transplantation, at least in selected patients. But long-term results are not yet available.

  1. Natural history and etiology of hyperuricemia following pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, V O; Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Palmer, J A; Quien, R; Baluarte, H J

    1995-02-01

    A retrospective review was conducted to determine the incidence, etiology, natural history and complications of hyperuricemia after pediatric renal transplantation. Of 81 active transplant recipients aged 10.1 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SD) years being followed by St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, 57 (70%) were males and 59 (73%) Caucasian. Their immunosuppression consisted of azathioprine, cyclosporine A and prednisone. Mean serum uric acid concentrations peaked at 6 months post transplantation (6.2 +/- 2.6 mg/dl), when 39% of the patients had hyperuricemia and 60% were receiving diuretics, and decreased thereafter. At 30 months, 23% of the patients had hyperuricemia and 17% required diuretics. When we compared 42 normouricemic (group A) with 24 hyperuricemic (group B) patients at 18 months post transplantation, we found that patients in group B were older (11.6 +/- 4.2 vs. 8.6 +/- 5.2 years, P = 0.01), had worse renal function (77 +/- 25 vs. 96 +/- 36 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P = 0.03) and required diuretics more frequently (63% vs. 21%, P = 0.001), but had identical blood levels of cyclosporine A (82 +/- 28 vs. 84 +/- 35 ng/ml, P = 0.78). A family history of gout did not affect the prevalence of hyperuricemia after transplantation. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is common following pediatric renal transplantation and is more likely attributable to reduced renal function and diuretic therapy than to the known hyperuricemic effect of cyclosporine A. Of these variables, only diuretic therapy is readily controllable and should be closely regulated following pediatric renal transplantation.

  2. Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation. PMID:23295591

  3. A second delivery after heart transplantation – a case study

    PubMed Central

    Kalinka, Jarosław; Szubert, Maria; Zdziennicki, Andrzej; Chojnowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Marek; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Drożdż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy after organ transplantation is becoming relatively common. We present the case of a heart transplant recipient who gave birth to a second child. Despite the fact that the transplanted heart seems to adapt well to the changes caused by pregnancy, gestation in patients after heart transplantation may be complicated by hypertension, pre-eclampsia, or preterm labor. In this article, we consider the issues of preterm uterine contractions, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and several other complications in pregnant patients with transplanted hearts. We also present current opinions regarding the use of glucocorticoids as a form of preventing breathing disorders in neonates as well as breast-feeding by mothers receiving immunosuppressive agents. Pregnancies in heart transplant recipients should be considered high-risk. A second successful delivery of a healthy child remains a challenge for such patients and their doctors. PMID:26336446

  4. Coagulopathy and transfusion therapy in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nacoti, Mirco; Corbella, Davide; Fazzi, Francesco; Rapido, Francesca; Bonanomi, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding and coagulopathy are critical issues complicating pediatric liver transplantation and contributing to morbidity and mortality in the cirrhotic child. The complexity of coagulopathy in the pediatric patient is illustrated by the interaction between three basic models. The first model, “developmental hemostasis”, demonstrates how a different balance between pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal hemostatic capacity in the pediatric patient at various ages. The second, the “cell based model of coagulation”, takes into account the interaction between plasma proteins and cells. In the last, the concept of “rebalanced coagulation” highlights how the reduction of both pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal, although unstable, coagulation profile. This new concept has led to the development of novel techniques used to analyze the coagulation capacity of whole blood for all patients. For example, viscoelastic methodologies are increasingly used on adult patients to test hemostatic capacity and to guide transfusion protocols. However, results are often confounding or have limited impact on morbidity and mortality. Moreover, data from pediatric patients remain inadequate. In addition, several interventions have been proposed to limit blood loss during transplantation, including the use of antifibrinolytic drugs and surgical techniques, such as the piggyback and lowering the central venous pressure during the hepatic dissection phase. The rationale for the use of these interventions is quite solid and has led to their incorporation into clinical practice; yet few of them have been rigorously tested in adults, let alone in children. Finally, the postoperative period in pediatric cohorts of patients has been characterized by an enhanced risk of hepatic vessel thrombosis. Thrombosis in fact remains the primary cause of early graft failure and re-transplantation within the first 30 d following surgery, and it occurs despite prolongation

  5. The clinical impact of humoral immunity in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-03-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study.

  6. The Clinical Impact of Humoral Immunity in Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study. PMID:23449533

  7. Growth rates in pediatric dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J

    1997-08-01

    We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.

  8. Corrective surgery for idiopathic scoliosis after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ceroni, D; Beghetti, M; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Faundez, A A; Kaelin, A

    2001-10-01

    Cardiac transplant surgery is being performed with increasing frequency as a treatment for end-stage heart disease. In addition to the well-known post-surgical problems of rejection and infection, these patients may present at a future date with other medical problems which require surgical treatment, including orthopaedic pathology. Severe idiopathic scoliosis has been described in association with congenital heart disease, and its surgical treatment poses considerable risks because of heart disease. Spinal fusion in heart transplant recipients involves similar risks due to the particular physiology and pharmacological reactions of the denervated heart. Several cases of cholecystectomy performed in heart transplant recipients have been described, but to our knowledge no orthopaedic procedures have been reported in such patients. We report on a 15-year-old patient who underwent successful corrective surgery for idiopathic scoliosis 14 months after heart transplant.

  9. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a 5-month heart transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Pedemonte-Sarrias, Gabriel; Gras-Cabrerizo, Juan Ramon; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Fernando; Montserrat-Gili, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an opportunistic acute fungal infection with a high mortality rate seen in immunocompromised patients. It is extremely rare in heart transplant recipients. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RM) is the most frequently observed presentation. We report a case of RM in a heart transplant recipient 5-month after the procedure, with a fatal outcome. PMID:26980968

  10. Women and heart transplantation: an issue of gender equity?

    PubMed

    Young, Lynne; Little, Maureen

    2004-05-01

    Heart transplantation (HT) is increasingly commonplace in countries with advanced health care systems. A review of the family and HT literature points to a gender inequity in the field: Men are more likely to be heart transplant recipients; women are more likely to contribute as their caregivers. In this critique, we argue that there are not only physiological but also social and economic issues that contribute to inequitable access to HT for women. Further, we point out that another invisible inequity in the heart transplant field is the lack of acknowledgment of, and support for, women whose contributions as family caregivers to the heart transplant process often ensure the success of heart transplant procedures. The authors call for recognition of these inequities and the development of policies that have the potential to ensure that women have equitable access to cardiovascular care in general and HT in particular, and that woman are recognized for, and supported in, their role as caregivers.

  11. Simultaneous mold infections in an orthotopic heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Clauss, H; Samuel, R

    2008-10-01

    Simultaneous mold infections in heart transplant recipients have not been previously reported. Here we describe early onset post-transplant pulmonary aspergillosis and cutaneous zygomycosis in a 46-year-old heart transplant recipient who was also treated with basiliximab. Along with surgical debridement, medical treatment of his cutaneous abdominal wall zygomycosis at the former left ventricular assist device driveline site with liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole also led to cure of his pulmonary aspergillosis.

  12. Pediatric heart failure therapy with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Susan R; Canter, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Management of chronic heart failure in pediatrics has been altered by the adult literature showing improvements in mortality and hospitalization rates with the use of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) for routine therapy of all classes of ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure. Many pediatric heart failure specialists have incorporated these agents into their routine management of pediatric heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy or ventricular dysfunction in association with congenital heart disease. Retrospective and small prospective case series have shown encouraging improvements in cardiac function and symptoms, but interpretation has been complicated by the high rate of spontaneous recovery in pediatric patients. A recently completed pediatric double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial showed no difference between placebo and two doses of carvedilol over a 6-month period of follow-up, with significant improvement of all three groups over the course of evaluation. Experience with adults has suggested that only certain beta-blockers, including carvedilol, bisoprolol, nebivolol, and metoprolol succinate, should be used in the treatment of heart failure and that patients with high-grade heart failure may derive the most benefit. Other studies surmise that early or prophylactic use of these medications may alter the risk of disease progression in some high-risk subsets, such as patients receiving anthracyclines or those with muscular dystrophy. This article reviews these topics using experience as well as data from all the recent pediatric studies on the use of beta-blockers to treat congestive heart failure, especially when related to systolic ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Impact of Obesity on Heart and Lung Transplantation: Does Pre-Transplant Obesity Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bozso, S J; Nagendran, Je; Gill, R S; Freed, D H; Nagendran, Ja

    2017-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity has led to a rise in the number of prospective obese heart and lung transplant recipients. The optimal management strategy of obese patients with end-stage heart and lung failure remains controversial. This review article discusses and provides a summary of the literature surrounding the impact of obesity on outcomes in heart and lung transplantation. Studies on transplant obesity demonstrate controversy in terms of morbidity and mortality outcomes and obesity pre-transplantation. However, the impact of obesity on outcomes seems to be more consistently demonstrated in lung rather than heart transplantation. The ultimate goal in heart and lung transplantation in the obese patient is to identify those at highest risk of complication that may warrant therapies to mitigate risk by addressing comorbid conditions.

  14. Psychological functioning of pediatric lung transplant candidates/recipients: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl L

    2003-10-01

    Although lung transplants are performed in children, experience with the pediatric population remains limited. There is growing interest in studying the psychological functioning and quality of life in these patients following transplant. There is a body of literature about quality of life in adult lung transplant recipients, but little is known about how pediatric patients and their families function psychologically after transplant. The current article summarizes the pediatric literature with respect to psychological outcomes for transplant recipients and their parents and points to areas where additional research is needed.

  15. [Alternative surgical options to heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, G

    1998-11-01

    Cardiac transplantation is the treatment of reference for refractory cardiac failure but the limited number of donors, the complications inherent to transplantation and the relative and absolute contra-indications has made it necessary to find alternative surgical solutions. The detection of myocardial viability by Thallium scintigraphy, Dobutamine echocardiography and/or position emission tomography in coronary disease, allows identification of zones which are capable of recovering contractile function after revascularisation. The authors report the results of a series of 91 operated patients with a 10 year follow-up having a 72% 5 year actuarial survival and improved ejection fraction. The other alternative which may improve symptoms and prognosis in patients with severe ischaemic heart disease with left ventricular dysfunction is apical remodelling or Dor's procedure. The results of a haemodynamic study at 1 year of 171 patients clearly show a functional improvement and an increase of the ejection fraction. The advantage of this method is that it can be used in patients with dyskinetic and akinetic plaques resulting from antero-septo-apical infarction. Finally, even if mitral regurgitation is relatively uncommon in chronic ischaemic heart disease, a simple procedure (annuloplasty) is often sufficient to correct the mitral regurgitation and reduce the afterload of a failing ventricle. On the other hand, in dilated cardiomyopathy, two new options have been developed; one, suggested by Steven Bolling, proposes simple mitral annuloplasty whatever the underlying cause (primary or ischaemic cardiomyopathy) with symptomatic improvement and better haemodynamics in terms of increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption on exercise and an actuarial survival much higher than that of cardiac transplantation at one and at two years. The most recent innovation is the Batista procedure which is a method of ventricular reduction associated with correction of mitral

  16. Influence of Transplant Center Procedural Volume on Survival Outcomes of Heart Transplantation for Children Bridged with Mechanical Circulatory Support.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Alex; Tumin, Dmitry; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don

    2017-02-01

    Transplant center expertise improves survival after heart transplant (HTx) but it is unknown whether center expertise ameliorates risk associated with mechanical circulatory support (MCS) bridge to transplantation. This study investigated whether center HTx volume reduced survival disparities among pediatric HTx patients bridged with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or no MCS. Patients ≤18 years of age receiving first-time HTx between 2005 and 2015 were identified in the United Network of Organ Sharing registry. Center volume was the total number of HTx during the study period, classified into tertiles. The primary outcome was 1 year post-transplant survival, and MCS type was interacted with center volume in Cox proportional hazards regression. The study cohort included 4131 patients, of whom 719 were supported with LVAD and 230 with ECMO. In small centers (≤133 HTx over study period), patients bridged with ECMO had increased post-transplant mortality hazard compared to patients bridged with LVAD (HR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12, 0.71; p = 0.006) and patients with no MCS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19, 0.57; p < 0.001). Interactions of MCS type with medium or large center volume were not statistically significant, and the same differences in survival by MCS type were observed in medium- or large-volume centers (136-208 or ≥214 HTx over the study period). Post-HTx survival disadvantage of pediatric patients bridged with ECMO persisted regardless of transplant program volume. The role of institutional ECMO expertise outside the transplant setting for improving outcomes of ECMO bridge to HTx should be explored.

  17. [Pediatric pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Olguntürk, Rana

    2010-08-01

    Causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are similar in adults and children. The main difference is that PAH secondary to congenital heart diseases, is the predominant cause in pediatric patients. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn shows completely different clinical course and pathophysiological mechanisms. It is usually seen in full term babies with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Improved prognosis has been reported with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy in babies hospitalized in well equipped and experienced newborn centers. Primary pulmonary hypertension and familial pulmonary hypertension are rare in pediatric age group because the diagnosis is initially made in adolescence. The incidence of PAH secondary to congenital heart disease is estimated as 1.6 - 12.5 case/million/year. Eisenmenger syndrome is diagnosed in 1% of patients with PAH. Patients with left to right shunts are the main group who develop pulmonary vascular disease if not treated in the early infancy. Some cyanotic congenital heart diseases are also the causes of PAH. The best treatment of patients at risk for the development of pulmonary vascular disease is prevention by early surgical elimination of defects or repairing the anatomy. Treatment options with vasodilating agents like NO, prostaglandin analogs, phosphodiesterase -5 inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists are used to improve survival and quality of life. Heart lung or bilateral lung transplantation is the only surgical option for many of these patients. Results of national and international registries will bring valuable epidemiological and prognostic perspectives to pediatric PAH.

  18. Exploring parenthood in the New Zealand Heart Transplant Program.

    PubMed

    Wasywich, C A; Ruygrok, A M; Gibbs, H; Painter, L; Coverdale, H A; Ruygrok, P N

    2013-01-01

    Heart transplantation is an established treatment for end-stage cardiac disease. This study describes parenthood after heart transplantation in the New Zealand population. An analysis was performed of all heart recipients from the New Zealand program. Exclusion criteria were death within 3 months of transplantation or age <18 years at the time of the survey. Recipients (or next of kin if recipients deceased) were surveyed regarding family status at the time of transplantation and new parenthood after transplantation. A total of 145 of 199 eligible recipients completed the survey ∼12.2 years after transplant (119 male, 26 female). Before transplantation, 81% were in a permanent relationship; 72% had children. After transplantation, 19/45 recipients had 27 children (2 female recipients had 3 children), of whom 15 were planned. Complications occurred in 7/27 pregnancies (including one atrial septal defect requiring surgery). Two recipients died after the birth of their children (children aged 2.6 and 14.1 years). This study provides unique data relevant to both female and male recipients regarding new parenthood after heart transplantation and will promote more informed discussion with transplant recipients.

  19. Significance of Anti-HLA Antibodies on Adult and Pediatric Heart Allograft Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mangiola, Massimo; Marrari, Marilyn; Feingold, Brian; Zeevi, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    As methods for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antibody detection have evolved and newer solid phase assays are much more sensitive, the last 15 years has seen a renewed focus on the importance of HLA antibodies in solid organ transplant rejection. However, there is still much controversy regarding the clinical significance of antibody level as depicted by the mean fluorescence intensity of a patient’s neat serum. Emerging techniques, including those that identify antibody level and function, show promise for the detection of individuals at risk of allograft rejection, determination of the effectiveness of desensitization prior to transplant, and for monitoring treatment of rejection. Here, we review current publications regarding the relevance of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in adult and pediatric heart transplantation (HT) with graft survival, development of antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). The negative impact of DSA on patient and allograft survival is evident in adult and pediatric HT recipients. Many questions remain regarding the most appropriate frequency of assessment of pre- and posttransplant DSA as well as the phenotype of DSA memory vs. true de novo antibody using large multicenter adult and pediatric cohorts and state-of-the-art methodologies for DSA detection and characterization. PMID:28191005

  20. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Family Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  1. Initial Experience with Heart and Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reichenspurner, Hermann; Odell, John A.; Cooper, David K.C.; Novitzky, Dimitri; Rose, Alan G.; Klinner, Werner; Reichart, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1983 and July 1987, twelve patients underwent heart-lung transplantation at the University of Cape Town and the University of Munich. The patients included eight men and four women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 49 years (mean, 27 years). The underlying pathologic condition was idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension in five cases, Eisenmenger's syndrome in four cases, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in one case, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis in one case, and chronic emphysema in one case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) during the first 2 postoperative weeks; RATG was subsequently replaced by methylprednisolone. Pulmonary rejection frequently occurred in the absence of cardiac rejection; in one case, however, this situation was reversed. Two patients required retransplantation, which was undertaken for caseating pulmonary tuberculosis with obliterative bronchiolitis after 1 year in one case and for early pulmonary insufficiency after 2 days in the other case. There were no operative deaths, but three early deaths occurred, owing to respiratory insufficiency of unknown origin (10 days postoperatively), multiorgan failure (10 days postoperatively), and acute liver dystrophy (11 days postoperatively). Five weeks after operation, a fourth patient died of multi-organ failure. There were five late deaths, all of which resulted from infectious complications. Three patients, including one who underwent retransplantation, remain alive and well, 10 to 36 months postoperatively. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988; 15:3-6) Images PMID:15227270

  2. Heart transplants: Identity disruption, bodily integrity and interconnectedness.

    PubMed

    Mauthner, Oliver E; De Luca, Enza; Poole, Jennifer M; Abbey, Susan E; Shildrick, Margrit; Gewarges, Mena; Ross, Heather J

    2015-11-01

    Of heart transplant recipients, 30 per cent report ongoing or episodic emotional issues post-transplant, which are not attributable to medications or pathophysiological changes. To this end, our team theorized that cardiac transplantation introduces pressing new questions about how patients incorporate a transplanted heart into their sense of self and how this impacts their identity. The work of Merleau-Ponty provided the theoretical underpinning for this project as it rationalizes how corporeal changes affect one's self and offer an innovative framework to access these complex aspects of living with a transplanted heart. We used visual methodology and recorded 25 semi-structured interviews videographically. Both visual and verbal data were analyzed at the same time in an iterative process. The most common theme was that participants expressed a disruption to their own identity and bodily integrity. Additionally, participants reported interconnectedness with the donor, even when the transplanted heart was perceived as an intruder or stranger. Finally, transplant recipients were very vivid in their descriptions and speculation of how they imagined the donor. Receiving an anonymous donor organ from a stranger often leaves the recipient with questions about who they themselves are now. Our study provides a nuanced understanding of heart transplant recipients' embodied experiences of self and identity. Insights gained are valuable to educate transplant professionals to develop new supportive interventions both pre- and post-transplant, and to improve the process of informed consent. Ultimately, such insights could be used to enable heart transplant recipients to incorporate the graft optimally over time, easing distress and improving recovery.

  3. Comparison of Listing Strategies for Allosensitized Heart Transplant Candidates Requiring Transplant at High Urgency: A Decision Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Brian; Webber, Steven A.; Bryce, Cindy L.; Park, Seo Young; Tomko, Heather E.; Comer, Diane M.; Mahle, William T.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Allosensitized children who require a negative prospective crossmatch have a high risk of death awaiting heart transplantation. Accepting the first suitable organ offer, regardless of the possibility of a positive crossmatch, would improve waitlist outcomes but it is unclear whether it would result in improved survival at all times after listing, including post-transplant. We created a Markov decision model to compare survival after listing with a requirement for a negative prospective donor cell crossmatch (WAIT) versus acceptance of the first suitable offer (TAKE). Model parameters were derived from registry data on status 1A (highest urgency) pediatric heart transplant listings. We assumed no possibility of a positive crossmatch in the WAIT strategy and a base-case probability of a positive crossmatch in the TAKE strategy of 47%, as estimated from cohort data. Under base-case assumptions TAKE showed an incremental survival benefit of 1.4 years over WAIT. In multiple sensitivity analyses, including variation of the probability of a positive crossmatch from 10-100%, TAKE was consistently favored. While model input data were less well suited to comparing survival when awaiting transplantation across a negative virtual crossmatch, our analysis suggest that taking the first suitable organ offer under these circumstances may also be favored. PMID:25612495

  4. Does Lung Donation by Heart Donors Have an Impact on Survival in Heart Transplant Recipients?

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Friedmann, P; Bello, R; Goldstein, D; D'Alessandro, D

    2017-02-01

    Lung procurement is increasing during multiorgan recovery and substantially alters the explant process. This study evaluated whether lung donation by a heart donor affects survival in heart transplant recipients. Retrospective analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) adult heart transplantation data from 1998 to 2012 was performed. Lung donors (LDs) were defined as those having at least one lung procured and transplanted. Non-LDs had neither lung transplanted. Heart transplant recipients who had previous transplants, who had heterotopic transplants, who were waitlisted for other organs or who were temporarily delisted were excluded from the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Of 23 590 heart transplant recipients meeting criteria during the study period, 8638 (36.6%) transplants were from LDs. Donors in the LD group had less history of cigarette use (15.5% vs. 29.5%, p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, LDs were associated with improved patient survival (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, LDs were not significantly associated with patient survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94-1.03). Analysis of the UNOS registry suggested that donor pulmonary status and lung procurement had no detrimental effect on survival in heart transplant recipients, supporting the present practice of using donor lungs whenever possible.

  5. [Anesthesia for a pediatric multivisceral transplant].

    PubMed

    Sanabria Carretero, P; Herranz Ortega, M A; Rodríguez Pérez, E; Goldman Tarlousky, L; Martín Barrera, G; López Santamaría, M

    2004-02-01

    A 15-year-old female with short intestine syndrome due to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with kidney failure underwent a multivisceral (stomach-duodenum-jejunum-ileum-pancreas-liver) and kidney transplant. She had required parenteral nutrition for the last 5 years, with numerous complications such as sepsis from the central catheter, deep venous thrombosis, severe liver dysfunction, pancytopenia due to bone marrow failure, and severe malnutrition. Surgery lasted 15 hours and was free of complications other than hypothermia, which worsened after revascularization of the grafts. Replacement of 6 units of blood products and crystalloids was required. Biochemical and hemodynamic variables were stable, apart from the development of hypernatremia, hyperglycemia, and lactic acidosis. The anesthetic approach included preoperative assessment of problems related to chronic parenteral nutrition (liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and restricted venous access), the prevention of hypothermia, correction of electrolyte imbalance and the acid-base status, treatment of reperfusion syndrome, and the replacement of fluids and blood products to maintain circulatory homeostasis and assure sufficient splanchnic perfusion.

  6. Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices for Pediatric Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Chopski, Steven G; Moskowitz, William B; Stevens, Randy M; Throckmorton, Amy L

    2017-01-01

    The use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices is a viable therapeutic treatment option for patients with congestive heart failure. Ventricular assist devices, cavopulmonary assist devices, and total artificial heart pumps continue to gain acceptance as viable treatment strategies for both adults and pediatric patients as bridge-to-transplant, bridge-to-recovery, and longer-term circulatory support alternatives. We present a review of the current and future MCS devices for patients having congenital heart disease (CHD) with biventricular or univentricular circulations. Several devices that are specifically designed for patients with complex CHD are in the development pipeline undergoing rigorous animal testing as readiness experiments in preparation for future clinical trials. These advances in the development of new blood pumps for patients with CHD will address a significant unmet clinical need, as well as generally improve innovation of the current state of the art in MCS technology.

  7. Management of the sensitized adult heart transplant candidate.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Peter M; Hanna, Mazen; Taylor, David O; Starling, Randall C; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V

    2010-01-01

    Heart transplant recipients sensitized to human leukocyte antigens comprise a challenging subgroup of patients. Sensitization has been associated with a variety of effects that determine short-term and long-term outcomes. These include a higher rate of acute rejection and graft loss, and a heightened risk for developing cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Because of improvements in both tissue typing and immunomodulatory therapies coupled with the growing population receiving mechanical circulatory support/LVAD, the percent of sensitized patients listed for heart transplantation has increased, inflicting a greater burden to the already scarce donor pool. Despite these potentially adverse developments, pre-transplant immunologic management has resulted in decreased waiting times and outcomes that were not possible over 10 yr ago. The following review will focus on the contemporary management of the sensitized heart transplant candidate and highlight therapies that have allowed the successful transplantation of this growing and challenging patient population, including several approaches in development.

  8. Heart Transplantation in Children after a Fontan Procedure: Better than People Think.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that children with a prior Fontan procedure have decreased survival after heart transplantation. We examined 273 primary pediatric heart transplants. Since 1988, 33 (12.1%) of 273 children <18 years old undergoing primary heart transplantation had a Fontan procedure 3.7 ± 4.3 years before transplantation. Compared with 240 (87.9%) non-Fontan primary transplants, the Fontan patients were older (8.8 ± 5.2 vs 6.6 ± 5.9 years; P = .023), but were similar in presensitization and pre-transplant clinical status. More Fontan patients had prior operations (100% vs 51.7%; P < .0001) and needed pulmonary artery reconstruction (100% vs 21.7%; P < .0001). Thirteen (39%) had protein-losing enteropathy. Donor ischemic times (213 ± 73 vs 177 ± 57 minutes; P = .0013) and cardiopulmonary bypass times (199 ± 86 vs 125 ± 53 minutes; P < .0001) were greater in the Fontan group, as were durations of ventilator support (4.4 ± 6.0 vs 2.5 ± 4.3 days; P = .035) and hospital stay (18.6 ± 16.1 vs 14.7 ± 13.1 days; P = NS). The Fontan group had one 30-day mortality. One-year actuarial survival (84.8% vs 86.9%, Fontan vs non-Fontan) and 5-year actuarial survival (70.8% vs 70.3%, Fontan vs non-Fontan) were similar, as was rejection incidence at 1 year (2.0 ± 2.0 vs 1.7 ± 1.9 episodes/patient; P = .3972). Five Fontan patients (18.5%) required retransplantation 4.9 ± 3.6 years post-transplant, compared with 22 non-Fontan patients (9.2%) retransplanted 5.2 ± 3.4 years post-transplant. Contrary to prior reports, we did not identify any early or mid-term disadvantage for children undergoing heart transplantation after a previous Fontan procedure, despite more complex transplant operations. We contend that carefully selected children with a failing Fontan circulation can do as well as other children with heart transplantation.

  9. Vascular complications after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lallier, M; St-Vil, D; Dubois, J; Paradis, K; Laberge, J M; Bensoussan, A L; Guttman, F M; Blanchard, H

    1995-08-01

    From February 1986 to July 1994, 81 hepatic transplantations were performed in 73 children, with an overall patient survival rate of 83%. Forty-two patients received whole-liver grafts (WLG) and 39 had reduced-size grafts (RSG). The mean patient weight was 19.7 kg, with 29 patients weighing less than 10 kg. Seventeen vascular complications (21%) occurred in 13 children: 8 (10%) had hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), 5 (6%) had portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 1 had both HAT and PVT (1%), and 3 (4%) had aortic conduit perforation (ACP). There was no significant difference in the incidence of HAT between RSG (5%) and WLG (14%) or between children weighing less than 10 kg (10%) and those weighing more than 10 kg (10%). The site of arterial reconstruction, end-to-end to the recipient common hepatic artery or end-to-side to the infrarenal aorta, had no significant effect on the occurrence of HAT (7% v 8%), but HAT occurred in 2 of 6 cases (33%) in which an aortic conduit was used. PVT documented in 5 cases (6%) was associated with technical complications (2), preduodenal portal vein (2), and a circulating cardiolipid antibody (1), and required thrombectomy, with no graft loss. Combined HAT and PVT was found in one patient 2 years postretransplantation for HAT. Although graft function is normal, portal hypertension persists. The aortic conduit, used in six patients, led to arterial perforation (3), HAT (2), and death (2). Of the 8 cases of HAT, 1 was diagnosed during autopsy and 7 occurred within 30 days and required retransplantation (6) or thrombectomy with rearterialization (1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. 2013 update on congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, heart failure, and heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices.

  11. Update on heart failure, heart transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Almenar, Luis; Zunzunegui, José Luis; Barón, Gonzalo; Carrasco, José Ignacio; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Comín, Josep; Barrios, Vivencio; Subirana, M Teresa; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012, 3 scientific sections-heart failure and transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology-are presented together in the same article. The most relevant development in the area of heart failure and transplantation is the 2012 publication of the European guidelines for heart failure. These describe new possibilities for some drugs (eplerenone and ivabradine); expand the criteria for resynchronization, ventricular assist, and peritoneal dialysis; and cover possibilities of percutaneous repair of the mitral valve (MitraClip(®)). The survival of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in congenital heart diseases has improved significantly. Instructions for percutaneous techniques and devices have been revised and modified for the treatment of atrial septal defects, ostium secundum, and ventricular septal defects. Hybrid procedures for addressing structural congenital heart defects have become more widespread. In the area of clinical cardiology studies have demonstrated that percutaneous prosthesis implantation has lower mortality than surgical implantation. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc criteria and of new anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) is also recommended. In addition, the development of new sequencing techniques has enabled the analysis of multiple genes.

  12. Effective immunization against influenza in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, V O; Flynn, J T; Deforest, A; Kaiser, B A; Schulman, S L; Bradley, A; Palmer, J; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1996-12-01

    Viral infections such as influenza are an important cause of morbidity following organ transplantation. We evaluated the immunogenicity of a commercially available influenza vaccine in pediatric renal transplant recipients in a two-phase, prospective study. In phase one, 47 transplant patients and seven control subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia received influenza vaccine. Sera were collected at the time of vaccination and 6 wk later. In phase two, sera from 18 transplant recipients and 47 healthy adults who had received the same vaccine were collected 6-12 months after vaccination. Antibody titers to the A/Taiwan/1/86 antigen were measured with hemagglutination inhibition assay in both phases of the study. Vaccine was well tolerated in all subjects. No vaccinated patient required hospitalization for complications of influenza infection. Vaccination did not increase the frequency of acute allograft rejection. In phase one, 43 patients (91%) and 5 controls (71%) either seroconverted (developed a fourfold or greater rise in titer), or developed post-vaccination titers > or = 1:160 (p = NS). Among the transplant recipients, non-seroconverters had a higher pre-vaccination geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) than those who seroconverted. Seroconversion developed independently of whether patients received double or triple immunosuppression. In phase two, post-vaccination GMT were similar for patients and control subjects at 11.5 and 8 months post-vaccination, respectively. In our study, influenza vaccination produced equivalent humoral immunity in transplant recipients and normal subjects. Routine influenza vaccination should be performed annually in this high-risk population.

  13. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Lisinopril in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Trachtman, Howard; Frymoyer, Adam; Lewandowski, Andrew; Greenbaum, Larry A.; Feig, Daniel I.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Warady, Bradley A.; Goebel, Jens W.; Schwartz, George J.; Lewis, Kenneth; Anand, Ravinder; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension in pediatric kidney transplant recipients contributes to long-term graft loss, yet treatment options—including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors—are poorly characterized in this vulnerable population. We conducted a multicenter, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study of daily oral lisinopril in 22 children (ages 7–17 years) with stable kidney transplant function. Standard non-compartmental PK analyses were performed at steady state. Effects on blood pressure were examined in lisinopril-naïve patients (n=13). Oral clearance declined in proportion to underlying kidney function; however, in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (30–59 ml/min per 1.73m2), exposure (standardized to 0.1 mg/kg/day dose) was within the range reported previously in children without a kidney transplant. In lisinopril-naïve patients, 85% and 77% had a ≥6 mmHg reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Lisinopril was well tolerated. Our study provides initial insight on lisinopril use in children with a kidney transplant, including starting dose considerations. PMID:25807932

  14. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone.

  15. Pseudoaneurysm after heart transplantation with history of LVAD driveline infection.

    PubMed

    Omoto, T; Minami, K; Muramatsu, T; Kyo, S; Körfer, R

    2001-07-01

    An infective complication of the aorta is a potential cause of early and late mortality after heart transplantation. We report the case of a 21-year-old male cardiac transplant patient in whom a pseudoaneurysm of the recipient site of ascending aorta coincided with the site of the outflow prosthesis of a preexisting left ventricular assist device; this condition developed 9 months after transplantation.

  16. Disseminated Ochroconis gallopava infection in a heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Cardeau-Desangles, I; Fabre, A; Cointault, O; Guitard, J; Esposito, L; Iriart, X; Berry, A; Valentin, A; Cassaing, S; Kamar, N

    2013-06-01

    Ochroconis gallopava is an emerging cause of mycosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Herein, we report a rare case of disseminated O. gallopava infection that involved lung, subcutaneous area, brain and peritoneum in a heart transplant recipient. Despite voriconazole therapy, the patient died 2 months after diagnosis.

  17. Fecal microbial transplant for the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Alice Yuxin; Popov, Jelena; Pai, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in the treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal disease has become increasingly popular among pediatric practitioners, patients, and parents. The success of FMT for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) has bolstered interest in its potential application to other disease states, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FMT has particular interest in pediatrics, given the concerns of patients and parents about rates of adverse events with existing therapeutic options, and the greater cumulative medication burden associated with childhood-onset disease. Published literature on the use of FMT in pediatrics is sparse. Only 45 pediatric patients treated for RCDI have been reported, and only 27 pediatric patients with pediatric IBD. The pediatric microbiome may uniquely respond to microbial-based therapies. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of fecal microbial transplant and its potential role in the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. We will discuss the microbiome in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, existing adult and pediatric literature on the use of FMT in IBD treatment, and pediatric FMT trials that are currently recruiting patients. This review will also discuss features of the microbiome that may be associated with host response in fecal transplant, and potential challenges and opportunities for the future of FMT in pediatric IBD treatment. PMID:28058011

  18. Reduced size liver transplantation from a donor supported by a Berlin Heart.

    PubMed

    Misra, M V; Smithers, C J; Krawczuk, L E; Jenkins, R L; Linden, B C; Weldon, C B; Kim, H B

    2009-11-01

    Patients on cardiac assist devices are often considered to be high-risk solid organ donors. We report the first case of a reduced size liver transplant performed using the left lateral segment of a pediatric donor whose cardiac function was supported by a Berlin Heart. The recipient was a 22-day-old boy with neonatal hemochromatosis who developed fulminant liver failure shortly after birth. The transplant was complicated by mild delayed graft function, which required delayed biliary reconstruction and abdominal wall closure, as well as a bile leak. However, the graft function improved quickly over the first week and the patient was discharged home with normal liver function 8 weeks after transplant. The presence of a cardiac assist device should not be considered an absolute contraindication for abdominal organ donation. Normal organ procurement procedures may require alteration due to the unusual technical obstacles that are encountered when the donor has a cardiac assist device.

  19. Increased production of beta2-microglobulin after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Erez, E; Aravot, D; Erman, A; Sharoni, E; van Oyk, D J; Raanani, E; Abramov, D; Sulkes, J; Vidne, B A

    1998-05-01

    Serum beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) levels were measured to evaluate the state of immunoactivation in stable heart transplant recipients. Serum beta2m and renal function of 29 heart transplant recipients were compared with 16 control subjects, who were age and sex matched, and 11 patients with chronic kidney failure. Serum creatinine and 24-hour urine collection for albuminuria were used as markers of renal impairment. Heart transplant recipients with normal renal function (n = 7) had significantly elevated beta2m levels compared with control subjects: 2.6 +/- 0.9 vs 1.66 +/- 0.32 microg/ml, p < or = 0.05. Heart transplant recipients with impaired renal function (n = 22) had significantly elevated beta2m compared with the chronic kidney failure group: 4.42 +/- 1.3 vs 3.49 +/- 0.66 microg/ml (p < or = 0.05); although there was no significant difference in serum creatinine levels. Albuminuria excretion was significantly elevated in the chronic kidney failure group compared with the heart transplant recipients with impaired renal function (p < or = 0.05). Elevated serum beta2m in heart transplant recipients suggests increased beta2m production, reflecting increased immunoactivation. This observation could be useful in monitoring long-term immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Prevalence of substance-related disorders in heart transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Sirri, L; Potena, L; Masetti, M; Tossani, E; Grigioni, F; Magelli, C; Branzi, A; Grandi, S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse cessation is one of the leading factors in determining the eligibility for the heart transplantation waiting list, as noncompliance with this issue may seriously endanger posttransplantation outcomes. Yet, the prevalence of substance-related disorders among candidates for heart transplantation has not been evaluated enough. Eighty three heart transplantation candidates were assessed for prior or current substance-related disorders through the Structured Clinical Interview for mental disorders according to DSM-IV. A prior history of at least one substance-related disorder was found in 64% of patients, with nicotine dependence as the most prevalent diagnosis (61.4% of the sample). Ten subjects were currently smokers, despite heart failure. A prior history of alcohol abuse and caffeine intoxication was found in 9.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. Substance abuse or dependence behaviors should be monitored during all the phases of heart transplantation program. Early identification of current substance-related disorders may allow better allocation of organ resources and proper lifestyle modification programs provision. A prior history of substance-related disorders should alert physicians to assess patients for possible relapse, especially after transplantation. The inclusion of a specialist in the assessment and treatment of substance-related disorders in the heart transplantation unit may reduce the risk of unsuccessful outcomes due to noncompliance with an adequate lifestyle.

  1. Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Riva, Silvia; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2008-09-15

    We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

  2. Role of β-blocker therapy in pediatric heart failure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akash R; Shaddy, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure is becoming an increasingly common and significant problem in the field of pediatric cardiology. The numerous types of cardiomyopathies, and more recently, long-term survival of patients with congenital heart disease, have added to a growing patient population. Over the last several decades, our knowledge base regarding mechanisms of disease and therapeutic intervention in adult patients with heart failure has drastically changed. The most recent and important breakthrough in the pharmacologic treatment of heart failure has been the particular role of β-blocker therapy. This medication has led to significant improvements in survival and symptoms in adults, with less convincing findings in limited studies in pediatrics. The ability to study the benefits of this therapy in patients has been challenging owing to the heterogeneity of the patient population and lack of large sample sizes. However, as we investigate the mechanisms behind the disease process, the differences that exist between disease conditions and ages, and the significant alterations that may exist at the molecular and genetic level, our understanding of β-blocker therapy in pediatric heart failure will improve, and ultimately may lead to patient-specific therapy.

  3. Initial experience with heart and lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reichenspurner, H; Odell, J A; Cooper, D K; Novitzky, D; Rose, A G; Klinner, W; Reichart, B

    1988-01-01

    Between February 1983 and July 1987, twelve patients underwent heart-lung transplantation at the University of Cape Town and the University of Munich. The patients included eight men and four women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 49 years (mean, 27 years). The underlying pathologic condition was idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension in five cases, Eisenmenger's syndrome in four cases, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in one case, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis in one case, and chronic emphysema in one case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) during the first 2 postoperative weeks; RATG was subsequently replaced by methylprednisolone. Pulmonary rejection frequently occurred in the absence of cardiac rejection; in one case, however, this situation was reversed. Two patients required retransplantation, which was undertaken for caseating pulmonary tuberculosis with obliterative bronchiolitis after 1 year in one case and for early pulmonary insufficiency after 2 days in the other case. There were no operative deaths, but three early deaths occurred, owing to respiratory insufficiency of unknown origin (10 days postoperatively), multiorgan failure (10 days postoperatively), and acute liver dystrophy (11 days postoperatively). Five weeks after operation, a fourth patient died of multi-organ failure. There were five late deaths, all of which resulted from infectious complications. Three patients, including one who underwent retransplantation, remain alive and well, 10 to 36 months postoperatively.

  4. Lymphocyte Activation Markers in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Fatina I.; Elghoroury, Eman A.; Elshamaa, Manal F.; Bazaraa, Hafez M.; Salah, Doaa M.; Kassem, Neemat M. A.; Ibrahim, Mona H.; El-Saaid, Gamila S.; Nasr, Soha A.; Koura, Hala M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The role of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in immune tolerance in experimental transplantation is very important but the clinical significance of circulating Tregs in the peripheral blood is undetermined. We evaluated the association between the frequency of T cell activation markers CD25 and CD71 and clinical parameters that may affect the level of these T cell markers. Methods: In 47peditric kidney transplant (KT) recipients and 20 healthy controls, the frequency of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD71 was measured with flow cytometry after transplantation. Two clinical protocols of induction immunosuppression were used: (1) anti-thymocyte globulin (THYMO) group (n =29) and Basiliximab (BSX) group (n=10). Results: The percentage of circulating CD25 after KT was significantly lower than that in the controls. There is no significant difference between KT and the controls s regard to circulating CD71. The percentage of CD25 was significantly increased in children with acute rejection compared with those without acute rejection. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) decreased the frequency of CD25 but mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor did not. The proportion of CD25 significantly decreased in THYMO group during the first year after transplantation. Conclusion: The frequency of circulating T cell activation marker CD25 in pediatric KT recipients is strongly affected by CNIs, and a high frequency of CD25 is associated with acute rejection during the early posttransplant period. The measurement of T cell activation markers, may become a useful immune monitoring tool after kidney transplantation. PMID:26508906

  5. Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Transition to Home and Chronic Illness Care

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M; Weiss, Marianne; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Menendez, Jerome; Williams, Laurel; Nadler, Michelle; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Cao, Yumei; Nugent, Melodee; Alonso, Estella; Simpson, Pippa

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients are medically fragile and present with complex care issues requiring high-level management at home. Parents of hospitalized children have reported inadequate preparation for discharge, resulting in problems transitioning from hospital to home and independently self-managing their child’s complex care needs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the transition from hospital to home and chronic illness care for parents of heart, kidney, liver, lung, or multivisceral recipients. Fifty-one parents from five pediatric transplant centers completed questionnaires on the day of hospital discharge and telephone interviews at 3-week, 3-month, and 6-months following discharge from the hospital. Care coordination (p = .02) and quality of discharge teaching (p < .01) was significantly associated with parent readiness for discharge. Readiness for hospital discharge was subsequently significantly associated with post-discharge coping difficulty (p = .02) at 3-weeks, adherence with medication administration (p = .03) at 3-months, and post-discharge coping difficulty (p = .04) and family management (p = .02) at 6-months post-discharge. The results underscore the important aspect of education and care coordination in preparing patients and families to successfully self-manage after hospital discharge. Assessing parental readiness for hospital discharge is another critical component for identifying risk of difficulties in managing post-discharge care. PMID:25425201

  6. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

  7. [General recommendations for medical treatment after heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Guidon, A; Reverdin, S; Yarol, N; Yerly, P; Tozzi, P; Meyer, P; Hullin, R

    2014-05-28

    Heart transplantation remains the treatment of choice in selected patients with severe heart failure (HF) despite optimal medical therapy. Since long-term survival after HTX is improving, there is a growing need for evidence-based strategies that reduce long-term mortality resulting from both immunological and non-immunological risk. This manuscript summarizes recommendations for treatment of transplant vasculopathy, malignancy after transplantation, and prevention of corticosteroid induced bone disease. Based on actual understanding of cardiovascular risk factors in the population, preservation of renal function, prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and diabetes, as well as blood pressure control play an important role in the long-term follow-up after heart transplantation.

  8. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... to produce an image of the heart an electrocardiogram (also known as an ECG or EKG), a ... Support for Caregivers Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Anesthesia Basics Congenital Heart Defects Cardiac Catheterization I ...

  9. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care of You: Support for Caregivers Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Anesthesia Basics Congenital Heart Defects Cardiac ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Heart & Circulatory System Atrial Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta Arrhythmias ...

  10. Evolution of the Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery Service at Texas Children's Hospital: 1954-2015.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Heart surgery at Texas Children's Hospital can trace its origins to the beginning of pediatric and congenital heart surgery. Pioneers in the field--Dr. Denton Cooley and Dr. Dan McNamara--started the program in 1954 at a new pediatric hospital in Houston. Over the past 60 years, what is now Texas Children's Heart Center has grown become one of the leading pediatric heart institutions.

  11. The changes of vaccinia related kinase 1 in grafted heart after rat heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Shiguo; Yang, Xuechao; Wu, Kunpeng; Lv, Qiangsheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Jiahong; Chen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the expression and significance of vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) after rat heart transplantation. Materials and methods Lewis and Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were used as donors and recipients. Allografts were from Wistar transplanted into Lewis, and isografts were transplanted from Lewis into Lewis. Grafts were harvested at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after transplantation. We performed Western Blot of heart tissues after cardiac transplantation. To analyze VRK1 express between the isografts and allografts for immunohistochemical staining. At 5th day after heart transplantation use related cytokines VRK1 for immunohistochemical. We used double immunofluorescent staining on transverse cryosections of graft tissues by co-labeling with different markers, including those for VRK1, activate caspase-3, α-actinin, VCAM-1, CD4. Results Compared with rare expression in syngeneic Lewis rat hearts, VRK1 protein level in allogeneic hearts were detected at various survival times after heterotopic heart transplantation, which observably expressed on day 5 postoperative. In addition, we examined the expression of activate caspase-3 in allogeneic hearts, which has a similar expression with VRK1. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent method displayed that VRK1 was widely expressed in cytoplasm of cardiac tissue and activate caspase-3 was also expressed in cardiomyocytes. However, the VRK1 wasn’t express in inflammation. Conclusions The VRK1 expression has increased after heart transplantation in allograft and isograft, and VRK1 may play a significant role in myocardial apoptosis after heterotopic heart transplantation in rats. PMID:25589968

  12. Transplantation of Pulmonary Valve Using a Mouse Model of Heterotopic Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Ung; Yi, Tai; James, Iyore; Tara, Shuhei; Stuber, Alexander J.; Shah, Kejal V.; Lee, Avione Y.; Sugiura, Tadahisa; Hibino, Narutoshi; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineered heart valves, especially decellularized valves, are starting to gain momentum in clinical use of reconstructive surgery with mixed results. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the neotissue development, valve thickening, and stenosis development are not researched extensively. To answer the above questions, we developed a murine heterotopic heart valve transplantation model. A heart valve was harvested from a valve donor mouse and transplanted to a heart donor mouse. The heart with a new valve was transplanted heterotopically to a recipient mouse. The transplanted heart showed its own heartbeat, independent of the recipient’s heartbeat. The blood flow was quantified using a high frequency ultrasound system with a pulsed wave Doppler. The flow through the implanted pulmonary valve showed forward flow with minimal regurgitation and the peak flow was close to 100 mm/sec. This murine model of heart valve transplantation is highly versatile, so it can be modified and adapted to provide different hemodynamic environments and/or can be used with various transgenic mice to study neotissue development in a tissue engineered heart valve. PMID:25079013

  13. Addition of long-distance heart procurement promotes changes in heart transplant waiting list status

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Fernando Antibas; Couto, Carolina Fatima; Tirado, Freddy Ponce; Moraes, Camila Scatolin; Chaves, Renato Bueno; Vieira, Nubia W.; Reis, João Gabbardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the addition of long-distance heart procurement on a heart transplant program and the status of heart transplant recipients waiting list. Methods Between September 2006 and October 2012, 72 patients were listed as heart transplant recipients. Heart transplant was performed in 41 (57%), death on the waiting list occurred in 26 (36%) and heart recovery occurred in 5 (7%). Initially, all transplants were performed with local donors. Long-distance, interstate heart procurement initiated in February 2011. Thirty (73%) transplants were performed with local donors and 11 (27%) with long-distance donors (mean distance=792 km±397). Results Patients submitted to interstate heart procurement had greater ischemic times (212 min ± 32 versus 90 min±18; P<0.0001). Primary graft dysfunction (distance 9.1% versus local 26.7%; P=0.23) and 1 month and 12 months actuarial survival (distance 90.1% and 90.1% versus local 90% and 86.2%; P=0.65 log rank) were similar among groups. There were marked incremental transplant center volume (64.4% versus 40.7%, P=0.05) with a tendency on less waiting list times (median 1.5 month versus 2.4 months, P=0.18). There was a tendency on reduced waiting list mortality (28.9% versus 48.2%, P=0.09). Conclusion Incorporation of long-distance heart procurement, despite being associated with longer ischemic times, does not increase morbidity and mortality rates after heart transplant. It enhances viable donor pool, and it may reduce waiting list recipient mortality as well as waiting time. PMID:25372907

  14. Brucella infection with pancytopenia after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Polat, K Y; Tosun, M S; Ertekin, V; Aydinli, B; Emre, S

    2012-06-01

    Brucellosis is considered the most widespread zoonosis in the world. It has been reported that the prevalence of seropositivity among the Turkish population varies from 3% to 14%. We present a case of brucellosis after pediatric liver transplantation. A 15-year-old boy with the diagnosis of neuro Wilson's disease underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation. The postoperative immunosuppressive protocol consisted of steroids and tacrolimus. Two months after the operation the patient experienced fever to 40°C. The patient complained of poor appetite, headache, and diarrhea. He had had pancytopenia. Despite administration of appropriate antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents, fever persisted for > 1 month. Multiple blood, urine, stool, and sputum cultures were negative. Bone marrow aspirate revealed hypocellularity. Liver biopsy was performed, but rejection was not observed on biopsy specimen. Brucella serology was positive and Brucella agglutination titer was 1:320. Bone marrow culture was positive for Brucella but blood culture was negative. The patient was then treated with oral doxycycline and rifampin for 8 weeks. No previous case report about Brucella infection after liver transplantation has appeared in the literature, to our knowledge; our case is presented as the first. Bone marrow hypoplasia is a rare feature of Brucella infection. Our patient with brucellosis and pancytopenia had had hypocellular bone marrow. The clinical and hematologic findings resolved with treatment of the infection. Brucella infection should be suspected in liver transplanted recipients with fever of unknown origin, especially in a recipient who has lived in an endemic area. Brucella also should be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with pancytopenia.

  15. Late-presenting complete heart block after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Bana Agha; Mesned, Abdu Rahman; Mohamad, Tagelden; Kabbani, Mohamad S.

    2015-01-01

    Late presenting complete heart block after pediatric cardiac surgery is a rare complication and its management is well defined once the initial diagnosis in made timely and appropriately. In this report we described a child who underwent atrioventricular septal defect repair with a normal sinus rhythm during the postoperative period, as well as during the first 2 years of follow up. She subsequently developed complete heart block with bradycardia that required insertion of a pacemaker. Here we discuss this unusual late-presenting complication, possible risk factors, and management. PMID:26778907

  16. Unmet Needs of Siblings of Pediatric Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Pelletier, Wendy; Stegenga, Kristin; Haight, Ann E.; Hendershot, Kristopher A.; Dixon, Margie; Fairclough, Diane; Hinds, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, the Bioethics Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics issued recommendations that pediatric hematopoietic stem cell donors should have an independent advocate. Formulating appropriate guidelines is hindered by the lack of prospective empirical evidence from families about the experience of siblings during typing and donation. Our aim was to provide these data. METHODS: Families with a child scheduled to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant were recruited. All family members, including children aged 9 to 22 years, were eligible. Qualitative interviews were conducted within 3 time periods: pretransplant, 6 to 8, and 9 to 11 months posttransplant. Quantitative scales assessing decision satisfaction and regret were administered at time 2. RESULTS: Thirty-three families were interviewed. Of the 119 family members, 76% perceived there was no choice in the decision to HLA-type siblings; 77% perceived no choice in sibling donation; 86% had no concerns about typing other than needle sticks; and 64% had no concerns about donation. Common concerns raised were dislike of needle sticks (19%), stress before typing results (14%), and fear of donation (15%). Posttransplantation, 33% of donors wished they had been given more information; 56% of donors stated they benefited from donation. Only 1 donor expressed regret posttransplant. CONCLUSIONS: Most family members did not view sibling typing and donation as a choice, were positive about the experience, and did not express regrets. We recommend education for all siblings before typing, comprehensive education for the donor by a health care provider pretransplant, and systematic donor follow-up after transplantation. PMID:24777206

  17. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hori, T; Ogura, Y; Okamoto, S; Nakajima, A; Kami, K; Iwasaki, J; Yonekawa, Y; Ogawa, K; Oike, F; Takada, Y; Egawa, H; Nguyen, J H; Uemoto, S

    2010-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis has a fatal impact on the outcome of organ transplanted recipients. Here, we present a thought-provoking case of HSV hepatitis in a high-risk recipient after living-related liver transplantation (LRLT). A 1-month-old female newborn infant was affected by HSV encephalitis. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) of unknown etiology occurred suddenly at 4.4 years of age. Viral infections were ruled out as the cause of FHF. Intensive care including plasma exchange (PE) was started, and the preoperative treatments for ABO incompatibility were performed. Thereafter, LRLT was performed emergently. Although strong immunosuppression for ABO incompatibility was continued after LRLT, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred on postoperative day (POD) 4. PE was repeated and improvements were obtained. However, liver dysfunction appeared on POD 8. Histopathological findings of liver needle biopsy clearly revealed HSV hepatitis, although the results of HSV DNA and antibody titer in blood sample did not clearly indicate HSV infection. On POD 21, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) occurred and the plasma and immunoglobulin were replenished. Our pediatric recipient recovered successfully from AMR, HSV hepatitis, TMA, and repeated sepsis. We conclude that well considered therapy based on the real-time detection of HSV hepatitis is indispensable for the further improvements of outcome in HSV hepatitis after LRLT.

  18. Parents' quality of life and family functioning in pediatric organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ryota; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is an important treatment option for pediatric patients in end-stage organ failure. The impact of pediatric organ transplantation on parents' quality of life and family functioning has been found to be substantial, but findings on this topic have not previously been consolidated. Thirty-one studies were selected for analysis after a database search on this topic. We present future research questions and suggestions to improve clinical practice based on the integration of this knowledge.

  19. Child and family adjustment following pediatric solid organ transplantation: factors to consider during the early years post-transplant.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl; Pai, Ahna; Fairey, Elise; Krempien, Jennifer; McBride, Michael; Lefkowitz, Debra S

    2014-09-01

    Adjusting to life after transplant can be challenging to pediatric solid organ transplant recipients and their families. In this review, we discuss a number of important factors to consider during the first 2-3 yr after transplant (defined as the "early years"), including transitioning from hospital to home, returning to physical activity, feeding and nutrition, school reentry, potential cognitive effects of transplant, family functioning, and QOL. We highlight steps that providers can take to optimize child and family adjustment during this period.

  20. Acute Kidney Disease After Liver and Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ana P; Vella, John P

    2016-03-01

    After transplantation of nonrenal solid organs, an acute decline in kidney function develops in the majority of patients. In addition, a significant number of nonrenal solid organ transplant recipients develop chronic kidney disease, and some develop end-stage renal disease, requiring renal replacement therapy. The incidence varies depending on the transplanted organ. Acute kidney injury after nonrenal solid organ transplantation is associated with prolonged length of stay, cost, increased risk of death, de novo chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. This overview focuses on the risk factors for posttransplant acute kidney injury after liver and heart transplantation, integrating discussion of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease with emphasis on pathogenesis, histopathology, and management including the use of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition and costimulatory blockade.

  1. Bone mineral disorders in pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Ali; Behbahan, Afshin G; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Omrani, Gholam-Hossein; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Basiratnia, Mitra; Al-Hashemi, Ghamar H

    2011-06-01

    Incomplete resolution of abnormalities of mineral metabolism associated with CRF results in the relatively high prevalence of ROD in pediatric kidney recipients. This non-randomized, cross-sectional, and analytic-descriptive study on bone density, vitamin D, and mineral metabolism was performed in 57 children and adolescents who had received a total of 60 renal allografts in Shiraz, Iran. The height and weight of the patients were measured; their serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), Alk-P, PTH, 25(OH)-vitamin D(3), BUN, creatinine, and electrolyte levels were analyzed, and a complete blood count was performed. In addition, standard radiologic bone assessments, which included conventional left hand-wrist radiography and bone mineral densitometry by the DXA technique, were carried out. Special pediatric software was used for age-related interpretation of the Z-scores of BMD. SPSS(®) software (version 15) was used for statistical analyses. We studied 57 patients (27 males [47.4%]) with a mean age of 18.7 ± 4.25 (9-27) yr and a mean age at transplantation of 13.1 ± 3.46 (4.5-20) yr. They had a post-transplantation follow-up of 67.1 ± 33.8 (6-132) months, and all had well-functioning allografts at enrollment. The mean height age of the patients was 11.9 ± 1.8 (6-15.5), and the mean bone age was 15.6 ± 3.3 (7-19) yr, which corresponded to mean height-age and bone-age retardations of 5.7 ± 2.3 (0.5-10.5) and 1.22 ± 1.47 (0-7) yr, respectively. Hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia were each found in nine patients (15.8%), hypophosphatemia in five (8.8%), and hypocalcemia in none of the patients. Seven out of 57 patients (12.3%) had a (Ca×P) product of more than 55 mg(2)/dL(2). Hyperparathyroidism was found in 27 (47.3%) and vitamin D(3) deficiency in four (7%) of the cases. The serum level of Alk-P was higher than the age-related normal range in 20 patients (35%). Left hand-wrist radiography showed no radiologic sign of ROD in any patient. The mean BMD Z-score was

  2. Adenovirus disease in six small bowel, kidney and heart transplant recipients; pathology and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vikas; Chou, Pauline C; Picken, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are emerging as important viral pathogens in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, impacting morbidity, graft survival, and even mortality. The risk seems to be highest in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as well as heart, lung, and small bowel transplant recipients. Most of the adenovirus diseases develop in the first 6 months after transplantation, particularly in pediatric patients. Among abdominal organ recipients, small bowel grafts are most frequently affected, presumably due to the presence of a virus reservoir in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Management of these infections may be difficult and includes the reduction of immunosuppression, whenever possible, combined with antiviral therapy, if necessary. Therefore, an awareness of the pathology associated with such infections is important in order to allow early detection and specific treatment. We reviewed six transplant recipients (small bowel, kidney, and heart) with adenovirus graft involvement from two institutions. We sought to compare the diagnostic morphology and the clinical and laboratory findings. The histopathologic features of an adenovirus infection of the renal graft and one native kidney in a heart transplant recipient included a vaguely granulomatous mixed inflammatory infiltrate associated with rare cells showing a cytopathic effect (smudgy nuclei). A lymphocytic infiltrate, simulating T cell rejection, with admixture of eosinophils was also seen. In the small bowel grafts, there was a focal mixed inflammatory infiltrate with associated necrosis in addition to cytopathic effects. In the heart, allograft adenovirus infection was silent with no evidence of inflammatory changes. Immunohistochemical stain for adenovirus was positive in all grafts and in one native kidney. All patients were subsequently cleared of adenovirus infection, as evidenced by follow-up biopsies, with no loss of the grafts. Adenovirus infection can

  3. Computational modeling and engineering in pediatric and congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Alison L.; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent methodological advances in computational simulations are enabling increasingly realistic simulations of hemodynamics and physiology, driving increased clinical utility. We review recent developments in the use of computational simulations in pediatric and congenital heart disease, describe the clinical impact in modeling in single ventricle patients, and provide an overview of emerging areas. Recent Findings Multiscale modeling combining patient specific hemodynamics with reduced order (i.e. mathematically and computationally simplified) circulatory models has become the defacto standard for modeling local hemodynamics and “global” circulatory physiology. We review recent advances that have enabled faster solutions, discuss new methods, (e.g. fluid structure interaction and uncertainty quantification), which lend realism both computationally and clinically to results, highlight novel computationally-derived surgical methods for single ventricle patients, and discuss areas in which modeling has begun to exert its influence including Kawasaki disease, fetal circulation, tetralogy of Fallot, (and pulmonary tree), and circulatory support. Summary Computational modeling is emerging as a crucial tool for clinical decision-making and evaluation of novel surgical methods and interventions in pediatric cardiology and beyond. Continued development of modeling methods, with an eye towards clinical needs, will enable clinical adoption in a wide range of pediatric and congenital heart diseases. PMID:26262579

  4. Heart Transplant and Mechanical Circulatory Support in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Enrique, Cristina; Jorde, Ulrich P; González-Costello, José

    2017-02-07

    Patients with advanced heart failure have a poor prognosis and heart transplant is still the best treatment option. However, the scarcity of donors, long waiting times, and an increasing number of unstable patients have favored the development of mechanical circulatory support. This review summarizes the indications for heart transplant, candidate evaluation, current immunosuppression strategies, the evaluation and treatment of rejection, infectious prophylaxis, and short and long-term outcomes. Regarding mechanical circulatory support, we distinguish between short- and long-term support and the distinct strategies that can be used: bridge to decision, recovery, candidacy, transplant, and destination therapy. We then discuss indications, risk assessment, management of complications, especially with long-term support, and outcomes. Finally, we discuss future challenges and how the widespread use of long-term support for patients with advanced heart failure will only be viable if their complications and costs are reduced.

  5. Longitudinal relations between obesity and hypertension following pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Michelle R; Pradhan, Madhura; Shults, Justine; Jones, Abigail; Palmer, Jo Ann; Baluarte, H Jorge; Leonard, Mary B

    2010-10-01

    Obesity and hypertension frequently complicate renal transplantation (RTxp). The objective was to assess relations among obesity, hypertension, and glucocorticoids in pediatric RTxp recipients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 141 RTxp recipients, 2-21 years of age, with >or=12 months of follow-up. Body mass index Z-score (BMI-Z), systolic and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (SBP-Z and DBP-Z), and medications at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and annually thereafter were recorded. Quasi-least squares regression analysis was used. The prevalence of obesity (BMI>or=95th percentile) increased from 13% at baseline to >30% from 3 months onward. Greater glucocorticoid exposure (mg/kg/day) was associated with greater increases in BMI-Z (p<0.001). This association was greater in males, younger recipients, and those with lower baseline BMI-Z (all interactions p<0.02). The prevalence of systolic hypertension (SBP>or=95th percentile) was 73% at 1 month and >or=40% at all follow-up visits. Greater glucocorticoid exposure (p<0.001) and increases in BMI-Z (p=0.005) were independent determinants of SBP-Z over time. Cyclosporine (versus tacrolimus) was independently associated with greater SBP-Z and DBP-Z (p=0.001). Sustained obesity and hypertension frequently complicated pediatric RTxp. Obesity was an independent determinant of systolic hypertension. Strategies are needed to prevent obesity and its impact on hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and allograft survival.

  6. Successful bridge through transplantation with berlin heart ventricular assist device in a child with failing fontan.

    PubMed

    Hoganson, David M; Boston, Umar S; Gazit, Avihu Z; Canter, Charles E; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2015-02-01

    In patients with failed Fontan circulation, end-stage heart failure can develop or Fontan physiology failure requiring transplantation. Experience with ventricular assist device support for these patients as a bridge to heart transplantation has been limited and often not resulted in successful hospital discharge. We report the successful use of the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart, The Woodlands, TX) ventricular assist device in bridging a child with Fontan circulation and systolic dysfunction to heart transplantation and discharge home.

  7. A rare cause of heart failure treated by heart transplantation: noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Julien; Jop, Bertrand; Imbert, Sandrine; Hraiech, Sami; Collard, Frédéric; Kerbaul, François

    2009-01-01

    Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare cardiomyopathy due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis. The characteristic echocardiographic findings are prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces communicating with the left ventricular cavity. The clinical manifestations include heart failure (HF) signs, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardioembolic events. We describe an illustrative case of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium associated with bicuspid aortic valve, a 42-year-old male presenting a refractory acute heart failure successfully treated by emergency heart transplantation.

  8. Disseminated adenovirus disease in heart transplant recipient presenting with conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Bruminhent, J; Athas, D M; Hess, B D; Flomenberg, P

    2015-02-01

    We report a 65-year-old heart transplant recipient who presented with conjunctivitis, likely acquired from a family member who worked at a daycare center during an outbreak of conjunctivitis. He developed a severe adenoviral pneumonitis, which was successfully treated with intravenous cidofovir combined with a reduction of immunosuppression.

  9. Current status and actual need for pediatric liver transplantation in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Cam; Robert, Annie; Nguyen, Phuong Van Ngoc; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Truong, Dinh Quang; Goyens, Philippe; Reding, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has considerably improved the outcome of patients with end-stage liver disease, especially in children. The first pediatric LT in Vietnam was performed in 2004. To assess the current need for pediatric LT in Southern Vietnam, a total of 280 patients with chronic liver disease followed at Children's Hospital 2 (Ho Chi Minh City), the only pediatric LT center in this region, were evaluated from January 2009 to June 2014. Sixty-seven patients satisfied criteria for LT but only one transplant surgery occurred since 2009. Parental consent for LT was obtained only in 28.4% of patients. The main reasons for the small number of LTs were financial costs, far distance from home, lifelong follow-up and treatment, and shortage of organ donors. We conclude that the current need for pediatric LT in Southern Vietnam is high. Efforts should be made to develop the liver transplant program in this developing country.

  10. Grover's Disease after Heart Transplantation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ippoliti, Giovanbattista; Paulli, Marco; Lucioni, Marco; D'Armini, Andrea Maria; Lauriola, Marinella; Mahrous Haleem Saaleb, Rany

    2012-01-01

    Grover's disease is a transient acantholytic dermatosis of unknown cause, manifesting clinically as a papular skin eruption that is usually located on the anterior chest and abdomen. Histologically characterized by an acantholytic pattern, it has been associated with numerous disorders, including hematologic malignancies, chronic renal failure, and HIV infection, as well as with chemotherapy and bone marrow and/or kidney transplant. Evaluation of followup and treatment is often complicated by spontaneous remission and the occasionally fluctuant course of the disease. Here we report the case of a patient with sudden onset of Grover's disease after heart transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of Grover's disease as diagnosed after heart transplantation. PMID:23320241

  11. Hypertension and arterial stiffness in heart transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Neto, João David; de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Lima-Rocha, Hermano Alexandre; Oliveira-Lima, José Wellington; Bacal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-transplantation hypertension is prevalent and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and subsequent graft dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with arterial stiffness as measured by the ambulatory arterial stiffness index. METHODS: The current study used a prospective, observational, analytical design to evaluate a group of adult heart transplantation patients. Arterial stiffness was obtained by monitoring ambulatory blood pressure and using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index as the surrogate outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to control confounding. RESULTS: In a group of 85 adult heart transplantation patients, hypertension was independently associated with arterial stiffness (OR 4.98, CI 95% 1.06-23.4) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure averages and nighttime descent. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of ambulatory arterial stiffness index is a new, non-invasive method that is easy to perform, may contribute to better defining arterial stiffness prognosis and is associated with hypertension. PMID:27652829

  12. Age-Dependent Effect of Pediatric Cardiac Progenitor Cells After Juvenile Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Udit; Smith, Amanda W.; French, Kristin M.; Boopathy, Archana V.; George, Alex; Trac, David; Brown, Milton E.; Shen, Ming; Jiang, Rong; Fernandez, Janet D.; Kogon, Brian E.; Kanter, Kirk R.; Alsoufi, Baahaldin; Wagner, Mary B.; Platt, Manu O.

    2016-01-01

    Children with congenital heart diseases have increased morbidity and mortality, despite various surgical treatments, therefore warranting better treatment strategies. Here we investigate the role of age of human pediatric cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) on ventricular remodeling in a model of juvenile heart failure. hCPCs isolated from children undergoing reconstructive surgeries were divided into 3 groups based on age: neonate (1 day to 1 month), infant (1 month to 1 year), and child (1 to 5 years). Adolescent athymic rats were subjected to sham or pulmonary artery banding surgery to generate a model of right ventricular (RV) heart failure. Two weeks after surgery, hCPCs were injected in RV musculature noninvasively. Analysis of cardiac function 4 weeks post-transplantation demonstrated significantly increased tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV ejection fraction and significantly decreased wall thickness and fibrosis in rats transplanted with neonatal hCPCs compared with saline-injected rats. Computational modeling and systems biology analysis were performed on arrays and gave insights into potential mechanisms at the microRNA and gene level. Mechanisms including migration and proliferation assays, as suggested by computational modeling, showed improved chemotactic and proliferative capacity of neonatal hCPCs compared with infant/child hCPCs. In vivo immunostaining further suggested increased recruitment of stem cell antigen 1-positive cells in the right ventricle. This is the first study to assess the role of hCPC age in juvenile RV heart failure. Interestingly, the reparative potential of hCPCs is age-dependent, with neonatal hCPCs exerting the maximum beneficial effect compared with infant and child hCPCs. Significance Stem cell therapy for children with congenital heart defects is moving forward, with several completed and ongoing clinical trials. Although there are studies showing how children differ from adults, few focus on the differences

  13. [Treatment of advanced heart failure in women: heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices].

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Manlio; Macera, Francesca; Verde, Alessandro; Bruschi, Giuseppe; del Medico, Marta; Oliva, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Luigi; Frigerio, Maria

    2012-05-01

    Women candidates for heart transplantation are definitely less than men, just 20% of all patients transplanted; even in the INTERMACS registry they represent only 21% of all ventricular assist devices (VAD) implanted. The reasons for this big difference are discussed in this article. Why women are less frequently assessed for unconventional therapies? Are they sicker or just less regarded? Our experience and the literature show us clear epidemiological, clinical and treatment differences that could lead to a lower prevalence of end-stage disease in women of an age suitable for unconventional therapies. Once on the transplant list, women wait less than men for a heart transplant, because they present with more severe disease, have a lower body mass index and undergo less VAD implants. After transplantation women's survival is comparable to men's, although they usually complain of a lower quality of life. Females receive less often a VAD than men. The main reasons for this include presentation with advanced heart failure at an older age than men, worse outcomes related to small body surface area, and lower survival rates on VAD when implanted as bridge to heart transplantation.

  14. 'A post-transplant person': Narratives of heart or lung transplantation and intensive care unit delirium.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Katy; Daiches, Anna; Malpus, Zoey; Yonan, Nizar; Sanchez, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Exploring patients' narratives can lead to new understandings about perceived illness states. Intensive Care Unit delirium is when people experience transitory hallucinations, delusions or paranoia in the Intensive Care Unit and little is known about how this experience affects individuals who have had a heart or lung transplant. A total of 11 participants were recruited from two heart and lung transplant services and were invited to tell their story of transplant and Intensive Care Unit delirium. A narrative analysis was conducted and the findings were presented as a shared story. This shared story begins with death becoming prominent before the transplant: 'you live all the time with Mr Death on your shoulder'. Following the operation, death permeates all aspects of dream worlds, as dreams in intensive care 'tunes into the subconscious of your fears'. The next part of the shared story offers hope of restitution; however, this does not last as reality creeps in: 'I thought it was going to be like a miracle cure'. Finally, the restitution narrative is found to be insufficient and individuals differ in the extent to which they can achieve resolution. The societal discourse of a transplant being a 'gift', which gives life, leads to internalised responsibility for the 'success' or 'failure' of the transplant. Participants describe how their experiences impact their sense of self: 'a post-transplant person'. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Subclinical cardiovascular changes in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Nasser, Yasser; Moura, Marta C; Mertens, Luc; McCrindle, Brian W; Parekh, Rulan S; Ng, Vicky L; Church, Peter C; Mouzaki, Marialena

    2016-06-01

    CV disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following solid organ transplantation in adults. While the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors is increased in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients, it is not clear whether they have subclinical CV changes. cIMT, central pWV, and CAC are indicative of subclinical CV disease, and, in adults, predict future CV events. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the prevalence of subclinical CV changes, as measured by cIMT, pWV, and CAC among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. We searched MEDLINE(®) and EMBASE and conducted meta-analysis for studies that evaluated cIMT, central pWV, and CAC among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients (kidney, lung, intestine and liver). The search identified nine eligible studies that included a total of 259 patients and 685 healthy controls. Eight studies reported on kidney transplant recipients and one study on a combined cohort of kidney and liver transplant recipients. The mean cIMT of transplant recipients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (mean difference = 0.05 mm, 95% CI 0.02-0.07; p < 0.0001) with an estimated pooled prevalence of elevated cIMT of 56.0% (95% CI 17.0-95.0). The one study that assessed pWV showed increased vascular stiffness in transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. No studies assessing for CAC were found. There were limited data regarding subclinical CV disease following pediatric solid organ transplantation. In conclusion, kidney transplantation in childhood is associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical CV changes compared to healthy children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether children have increased CV morbidity and mortality after transplantation.

  16. Sirolimus Pharmacokinetics in Early Postmyeloablative Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Rakesh K.; Han, Kelong; Wall, Donna A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Bunin, Nancy; Grupp, Stephan A.; Mada, Sripal R.; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in pediatric allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients in the presence and absence of concomitant fluconazole. Forty pediatric BMT recipients received a daily oral dose of sirolimus and a continuous i.v. infusion of tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Fluconazole was administered i.v. to 19 patients and orally to 6 patients. Full pharmacokinetic profiles of sirolimus within a single dosing interval were collected. Whole-blood sirolimus concentrations were measured by HPLC/mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin. Nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic models were developed using NONMEM following standard procedures. The mean ± SD sirolimus trough level before the dose (C0) was 8.0 ± 4.6 ng/mL (range, 1.8–21.6 ng/mL). The peak concentration was 19.9 ± 11.8 ng/mL (range, 3.9–46.1 ng/mL), and the trough level 24 hours later (C24) was 9.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL (range, 1.0–19.1 ng/mL). The terminal disposition half-life (T1/2) was 24.5 ± 11.2 hours (range, 5.8–53.2 hours), and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0–24) was 401.1 ± 316.3 ng·h/mL (range, 20.7–1332.3 ng·h/mL). In patients at steady state, C0 and C24 were closely correlated (R2 = 0.77) with a slope of 0.99, indicating the achievement of steady state. C24 was 1.7-fold greater (P = .036) and AUC0–24 was 2-fold greater (P = .012) in Caucasian patients (n = 22) compared with Hispanic patients (n = 9). The average apparent oral clearance was 3-fold greater (P = .001) and the apparent oral volume of distribution was 2-fold greater (P = .018) in patients age ≤12 years compared with those age >12 years. C24 was significantly lower in patients (n = 10) who developed grade III–IV aGVHD (n = 10) than in those with grade 0-II aGVHD (n = 22) (6.1 ± 2.9 ng/mL versus 9.4 ± 5.5 ng/mL; P = .044). Dose-normalized sirolimus trough concentrations were significantly

  17. Orthotropic heart transplantation for adult congenital heart disease: a case with heterotaxy and dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hikaru; Fukushima, Norihide; Ichikawa, Hajime; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    A 41-year-old male with heterotaxy (left isomerism) and dextrocardia composed by single ventricle, absent inferior vena cava, bilateral superior vena cava (SVC), common atrioventricular valve has received orthotopic heart transplantation (HTx) after long waiting period as Status-1. Reconstructions of bilateral SVC and hepatic vein route were successful without use of prosthetic material, and the donor heart was placed in the left mediastinum. In spite of satisfactory early recovery, the patient expired 4 months after transplantation mainly from fungal infection which developed following humoral rejection. HTx for adult patients with complex congenital heart disease is demanding in technical as well as pre- and post-transplant management, and indication should be critically determined.

  18. Clinical classification in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Willemijn M H; Douwes, Johannes M; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Krishnan, Usha; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Hillege, Hans L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Berger, Rolf M F

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a frequent cause of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with diverse etiology and outcome. We aimed to describe phenotypic heterogeneity in pediatric PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD), assess the applicability of the Nice CHD classification, and explore whether this classification accurately reflects patient/disease characteristics and survival. All children with CHD from a contemporary cohort of consecutive pediatric PAH patients followed in three major referral centers (Denver, New York, the Netherlands) were characterized and classified on the basis of the latest proposed clinical classification for PAH-CHD (World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension, Nice, 2013). According to this classification, 24% of 134 children were classified into group 1, 14% into group 2, 19% into group 3, and 30% into group 4; 11% could not be classified. Types of CHD and hemodynamic profile differed between groups, with the highest right atrial pressure in group 4 (P < 0.040). Group 3 children had Down syndrome less frequently (P = 0.011) but other (un)defined syndromes most frequently (P = 0.063) and received most intense PAH-targeted therapy (P = 0.003). With 15 deaths and one lung transplant (12%; median follow-up: 4.3 years), survival differences could not be demonstrated between the groups in the Nice CHD classification. Pediatric PAH-CHD is a heterogeneous condition frequently associated with extracardiac, developmental factors that are believed to affect disease development. The Nice CHD classification identifies groups with specific patient/disease characteristics. However, a substantial proportion of children could not be classified. Group 3 forms a distinct disease entity. Its prognostic value could not be determined because of the low number of events. The Nice CHD classification supports clinical characterization of PAH-CHD; however, further refinement is needed to classify all children with PAH-CHD.

  19. Clinical classification in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Krishnan, Usha; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Hillege, Hans L.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a frequent cause of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with diverse etiology and outcome. We aimed to describe phenotypic heterogeneity in pediatric PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD), assess the applicability of the Nice CHD classification, and explore whether this classification accurately reflects patient/disease characteristics and survival. All children with CHD from a contemporary cohort of consecutive pediatric PAH patients followed in three major referral centers (Denver, New York, the Netherlands) were characterized and classified on the basis of the latest proposed clinical classification for PAH-CHD (World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension, Nice, 2013). According to this classification, 24% of 134 children were classified into group 1, 14% into group 2, 19% into group 3, and 30% into group 4; 11% could not be classified. Types of CHD and hemodynamic profile differed between groups, with the highest right atrial pressure in group 4 (P < 0.040). Group 3 children had Down syndrome less frequently (P = 0.011) but other (un)defined syndromes most frequently (P = 0.063) and received most intense PAH-targeted therapy (P = 0.003). With 15 deaths and one lung transplant (12%; median follow-up: 4.3 years), survival differences could not be demonstrated between the groups in the Nice CHD classification. Pediatric PAH-CHD is a heterogeneous condition frequently associated with extracardiac, developmental factors that are believed to affect disease development. The Nice CHD classification identifies groups with specific patient/disease characteristics. However, a substantial proportion of children could not be classified. Group 3 forms a distinct disease entity. Its prognostic value could not be determined because of the low number of events. The Nice CHD classification supports clinical characterization of PAH-CHD; however, further refinement is needed to classify all children with PAH-CHD. PMID:27683607

  20. Organ allocation in pediatric renal transplants: is there an optimal donor?

    PubMed

    Pitt, Susan C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Doyle, Maria B; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Chapman, William C; Anderson, Christopher D; Shenoy, Surendra; Wellen, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 revised allocation scheme for pediatric renal transplantation made the decision of whether to transplant an available living-donor (LD) kidney or use a deceased-donor (DD) kidney controversial. The aim of this study was to examine kidney allograft utilization, sensitization, and outcomes of pediatric transplant recipients. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 91 consecutive pediatric kidney recipients (<20 yr) were transplanted. The LD (n = 38) and DD (n = 53) groups were similar in age, gender, dialysis status at transplant, warm ischemia time, and overall patient survival. LD recipients were more likely to be Caucasian (92 vs. 69%), receive older allografts (39 ± 10 vs. 23 ± 9 yr), and have fewer human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.01 for all). Graft survival at one, three, and five yr post-transplant was longer for LD recipients (97%, 91%, 87% vs. DD 89%, 79%, 58%, respectively, p < 0.05). At the time of transplant, 17 (33%) DD recipients had an available LD (mean age 40 yr). A greater proportion of all patients were moderately (PRA 21-79%) sensitized post-transplant (p < 0.05). A multivariable analysis of graft survival indicated that the advantage in LD organs was likely due to fewer HLA mismatched in this group. Nonetheless, LD organs appear to provide optimal outcomes in pediatric renal transplants when considering the risk of becoming sensitized post-transplant complicating later use of the LD kidney.

  1. Intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii/jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis in pediatric transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Abigail; Hemmelgarn, Trina; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Teusink, Ashley

    2015-05-01

    SMX/TMP is the current gold standard for prophylaxis against PCP in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Currently, there are several second-line options for prophylaxis but many, including intravenous (IV) pentamidine, have not been reported to be as effective or as safe as SMX/TMP in the pediatric transplant population. This study is to determine the efficacy and safety of IV pentamidine in preventing PCP in pediatric transplant patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate all transplant patients that received at least one dose of IV pentamidine from January 2010 to July 2013. The primary outcome, IV pentamidine efficacy, was evaluated by the incidence of PCP diagnosis for 28 days after the last dose of IV pentamidine if patient was transitioned to another agent for PCP prophylaxis. Patients on IV pentamidine for entire course of PCP prophylaxis were followed at least six months after discontinuation of IV pentamidine. The safety of IV pentamidine was assessed by the incidence of adverse events leading to pentamidine discontinuation. All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. All transplant patients at CCHMC who had received IV pentamidine were reviewed, and 333 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall incidence of PCP was found to be 0.3% for pediatric transplant patients on pentamidine. Pentamidine was found to be safe, and the incidence of adverse events leading to discontinuation was 6% with the most common reason being tachycardia 2.1%. IV pentamidine is safe and effective as PCP prophylaxis in pediatric transplant patients with a PCP breakthrough rate of 0.3% (1 of 333 patients), and only 20 adverse events led to discontinuation. We recommend that IV pentamidine be considered as a second-line option in pediatric transplant patients who cannot tolerate SMX/TMP.

  2. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stuber, M L; Nader, K; Yasuda, P; Pynoos, R S; Cohen, S

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of a longitudinal prospective study of young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress were seen in these children up to 12 months after transplant. The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack. These data suggest the use of post-traumatic stress as a model in understanding some of the symptoms of pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and may be applicable to other children exposed to the double life threat of serious illness and intensive medical intervention.

  3. Impact of the donor body mass index on the survival of pediatric liver transplant recipients and post-transplant obesity.

    PubMed

    Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Rhee, Sue; Glidden, Dave; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip

    2012-08-01

    In adult liver transplant recipients, the donor body mass index (dBMI) is associated with posttransplant obesity but not with graft or patient survival. Because of the obesity epidemic in the United States and the already limited supply of liver donors, clarifying whether the dBMI affects pediatric outcomes is important. United Network for Organ Sharing data for pediatric liver transplants in the United States (1990-2010) were evaluated. Data on transplants performed between 2004 and 2010 (n = 3788) were used for survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models and for posttransplant obesity analyses with generalized estimating equations. For children receiving adult donor livers, a dBMI of 25 to <35 kg/m(2) was not associated with graft or patient survival in univariate or multivariate analyses. A dBMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) increased the risk of graft loss [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-5.01, P = 0.007] and death (HR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.64-7.72, P = 0.001). For pediatric donors, the dBMI was not associated with graft loss or mortality in a univariate or multivariate analysis. An overweight or obese donor was not a risk factor for posttransplant obesity. Overweight and obesity are common among liver transplant donors. This analysis suggests that for adult donors, a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to <35 kg/m(2) should not by itself be a contraindication to liver donation. Severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) in adult donors increased the risk of graft loss and mortality, even after adjustments for recipient, donor, and transplant risk factors. Posttransplant obesity was not associated with the dBMI in this analysis. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of donor obesity on pediatric liver transplant recipients.

  4. Basiliximab induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema in two pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Niamh; Waldron, Mary; O'Connell, Marie; Eustace, Nick; Carson, Kevin; Awan, Atif

    2009-11-01

    We report two cases of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema as a complication of basiliximab induction therapy in young pediatric renal transplant patients identified following a retrospective review of all pediatric renal transplant cases performed in the National Paediatric Transplant Centre, Childrens University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland. Twenty-eight renal transplantations, of which five were living-related (LRD) and 23 were from deceased donors (DD), were performed in 28 children between 2003 and 2006. In six cases, transplantations were pre-emptive. Immunosuppression was induced pre-operatively using a combination of basiliximab, tacrolimus and methylprednisolone in all patients. Basiliximab induction was initiated 2 h prior to surgery in all cases and, in 26 patients, basiliximab was re-administered on post-operative day 4. Two patients, one LRD and one DD, aged 6 and 11 years, respectively, developed acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema within 36 h of surgery. Renal dysplasia was identified as the primary etiological factor for renal failure in both cases. Both children required assisted ventilation for between 4 and 6 days. While both grafts had primary function, the DD transplant patient subsequently developed acute tubular necrosis and was eventually lost within 3 weeks due to thrombotic microangiopathy and severe acute antibody-mediated rejection despite adequate immunosuppression. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a potentially devastating post-operative complication of basiliximab induction therapy in young pediatric patients following renal transplantation. Early recognition and appropriate supportive therapy is vital for patient and, where possible, graft survival.

  5. Antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric kidney transplantation: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yolanda W; Singh, Manpreet; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2015-04-01

    Kidney transplant is the preferred treatment of pediatric end-stage renal disease. One of the most challenging aspects of pediatric kidney transplant is the prevention and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), which is one of the main causes of graft dysfunction and early graft loss. Most challenges are similar to those faced in adult kidney transplants; however, factors unique to the pediatric realm include naivety of the immune system and the small number of studies and randomized controlled trials available when considering pharmacological treatment options. Here, we present a case of ABMR in a pediatric patient and a review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of ABMR. ABMR in pediatric kidney transplant continues to be a frustrating condition to treat because (1) there still remain many unidentified potential antigens leading to ABMR, (2) children and adults are at different stages of their immune system development, and, thus, (3) the full pathophysiology of alloimmunity is still not completely understood, and (4) the efficacy and safety of treatment in adults may not be directly translated to children. As we continue to gain a better understanding towards the precise alloimmune mechanism that drives a particular ABMR, we can also improve pharmacotherapeutic choices. With continued research, they will become more precise in treating a particular mechanism versus using a broad scope of immunosuppression such as steroids. However, there is much more to be uncovered, such as identifying more non-human leukocyte antigens and their role in alloimmunity, determining the exact mechanism of adults achieving complete operational tolerance, and understanding the difference between pediatric and adult transplant recipients. Making strides towards a better understanding of these mechanisms will lead to continued efficacy and safety in treatment of pediatric ABMR.

  6. Concomitant Kaposi sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami; Bishburg, Eliahu; Zucker, Mark; Tsang, Patricia; Nagarakanti, Sandhya; Sabnani, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Post-transplant human herpes virus -8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) infection is associated with neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Kaposi sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are the most common HHV-8-associated neoplastic complications described in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. Concurrent KS and MCD have been previously described after transplantation only twice - once after liver transplantation and once after renal transplantation. We describe a unique heart transplant patient who also developed concurrent KS and MCD. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of a heart transplant recipient presenting with these two HHV-8-mediated complications at the same time.

  7. Cardiac biomarkers in pediatric heart disease: A state of art review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Benedict A; Maher, Kevin O; Deshpande, Shriprasad R

    2016-01-01

    Every year there are more than 11000 hospitalizations related to heart failure in children resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Over the last two decades, our understanding, diagnosis and management of pediatric heart failure is evolving but our ability to prognosticate outcomes in pediatric heart acute heart failure is extremely limited due to lack of data. In adult heart failure patients, the role of cardiac biomarkers has exponentially increased over the last two decades. Current guidelines for management of heart failure emphasize the role of cardiac biomarkers in diagnosis, management and prognostication of heart failure. It is also noteworthy that these biomarkers reflect important biological processes that also open up the possibility of therapeutic targets. There is however, a significant gap present in the pediatric population with regards to biomarkers in pediatric heart failure. Here, we seek to review available data regarding cardiac biomarkers in the pediatric population and also explore some of the emerging biomarkers from adult literature that may be pertinent to pediatric heart failure. PMID:28070239

  8. Murine Cervical Heart Transplantation Model Using a Modified Cuff Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Markus; Ritschl, Paul; Oellinger, Robert; Aigner, Felix; Sucher, Robert; Schneeberger, Stefan; Pratschke, Johann; Brandacher, Gerald; Maglione, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models are of special interest in research since a wide variety of monoclonal antibodies and commercially defined inbred and knockout strains are available to perform mechanistic in vivo studies. While heart transplantation models using a suture technique were first successfully developed in rats, the translation into an equally widespread used murine equivalent was never achieved due the technical complexity of the microsurgical procedure. In contrast, non-suture cuff techniques, also developed initially in rats, were successfully adapted for use in mice1-3. This technique for revascularization involves two major steps I) everting the recipient vessel over a polyethylene cuff; II) pulling the donor vessel over the formerly everted recipient vessel and holding it in place with a circumferential tie. This ensures a continuity of the endothelial layer, short operating time and very high patency rates4. Using this technique for vascular anastomosis we performed more than 1,000 cervical heart transplants with an overall success rate of 95%. For arterial inflow the common carotid artery and the proximal aortic arch were anastomosed resulting in a retrograde perfusion of the transplanted heart. For venous drainage the pulmonary artery of the graft was anastomosed with the external jugular vein of the recipient5. Herein, we provide additional details of this technique to supplement the video. PMID:25350682

  9. Challenges in pediatric transplantation: the impact of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk factors on long-term outcomes and recommended management strategies.

    PubMed

    Filler, Guido

    2011-02-01

    Barriers to successful outcomes following pediatric transplantation have shifted from ischemic reperfusion injury and rejection to more long-term complications. Of particular concern is the high prevalence of CKD owing to preexisting damage and nephrotoxicity, as well as other CV complications such as hypertension and cardiomyopathy. All of these contribute to graft loss and shortened life expectancy, thereby limiting the success story of solid-organ transplantation. Managing CKD and related CV morbidity should be integral to the care of pediatric transplant patients, and timely detection of any irregularities would increase the chances of restoring lost kidney function. GFR is still the widely accepted indicator of renal function, and nuclear medicine techniques are the gold standard measurement methods. These methods are limited by costs, radiation exposure and substrate injection, and current practice still uses the Schwartz estimate, despite its well-documented limitations. Newer endogenous markers of GFR, such as cystatin C clearance, give a more accurate measure of true GFR but have not been embraced in the management of pediatric transplant recipients. Furthermore, indirect markers (e.g., microalbuminuria and hypertension) could also aid early detection of renal damage. The effects of mainstay immunosuppressants on kidney and heart function are varied, with available data indicating favorable outcomes with tacrolimus compared with ciclosporin. There is a need for appropriately designed and powered randomized controlled trials to validate innovative concepts for tailored immunosuppression in the pediatric population. To date, very few studies have generated long-term data in pediatric renal transplant patients - results of 1-4-yr study favored tacrolimus over ciclosporin, but other immunosuppressive agents also need to be evaluated.

  10. Prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Lima, Fabiana; de Mello, Evandro Sobroza; Tanigawa, Ryan Yukimatsu; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation. METHODS: Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups. RESULTS: Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection. PMID:27166772

  11. Prednisone withdrawal in pediatric kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression: four-year data.

    PubMed

    Hamiwka, Lorraine A; Burns, Angela; Bell, Lorraine

    2006-05-01

    Corticosteroids have been used in renal transplant immunosuppression for over 40 yr. Despite their adverse effects, steroid therapy continues to be part of early as well as maintenance immunosuppression in most pediatric renal transplant centers. The association of steroids with growth retardation, weight gain, and acne may be particularly distressing during the critical years of adolescence and young adulthood, increasing the risk of medication non-adherence. This study reviews the outcomes of pediatric renal transplant patients treated with low-dose tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine, and planned prednisone withdrawal. Thirty-seven pediatric renal transplant recipients were withdrawn from steroids. The mean follow-up after steroid withdrawal was 42+/-19 months. Graft and patient survival were 100%. The mean serum creatinine levels and calculated creatinine clearances remained stable throughout the period of observation. The mean creatinine clearance was 96+/-24 mL/min/1.73 m2 at steroid withdrawal and 93+/-20 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the latest follow-up. Five patients restarted prednisone; in four (11%) it was for suspected or confirmed acute rejection. Improvements were observed in serum lipid profiles, blood pressure, and body mass index. Most patients experienced catchup or stable growth after prednisone withdrawal. Four patients developed viral infections; all were successfully treated. The potential benefits of steroid withdrawal in pediatric renal transplantation are supported by our results.

  12. Influence of Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder on Survival in Children After Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Breuer, Christopher K; Horwitz, Edwin M; Yates, Andrew R; Tobias, Joseph D; Shinoka, Toshiharu

    2015-12-01

    The influence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) on long-term survival in children after heart transplantation (HTx) is not well studied. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried from 1987 to 2013 for data on PTLD in relation to induction immunosuppression and recipient Epstein-Barr virus status in children (<18 years of age) who underwent HTx. Of 6818 first-time pediatric heart transplants, 5169 had follow-up data on posttransplant malignancy, with 360 being diagnosed with PTLD. Univariate Cox analysis identified diminished survival after PTLD onset using a time-varying measure of PTLD (HR 2.208; 95 % CI 1.812, 2.689; p < 0.001), although Kaplan-Meier survival functions found no difference in survival between the group ever diagnosed with PTLD and the non-PTLD reference group (log-rank test: χ 1 (2)  = 0.02; p = 0.928). A multivariate Cox model found a greater mortality hazard associated with the development of PTLD after adjusting for recipient EBV seronegativity and other covariates (HR 3.024; 95 % CI 1.902, 4.808; p < 0.001). Induction immunosuppression at time of HTx did not significantly influence posttransplant mortality. The development of PTLD adversely influenced long-term survival in children after HTx after adjusting for confounding variables.

  13. An uncommon presentation of an uncommon disease: leprosy in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Gasink, Leanne B; Seymour, Christopher; Blumberg, Emily A; Goldberg, Lee R; Fishman, Neil O

    2006-07-01

    The effect of solid-organ transplantation on the acquisition, presentation and course of leprosy is unknown. We present a case of leprosy in a heart transplant recipient with multiple unique features possibly attributed to altered immune function.

  14. Perfusion Techniques Toward Bloodless Pediatric Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olshove, Vincent F.; Preston, Thomas; Gomez, Daniel; Phillips, Alistair; Galantowicz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: There continues to be evidence regarding the negative impact of blood transfusion on morbidity and mortality in the adult literature, including infection risk, increased hospital and intensive care length of stay, and costs. More effort has been put into reducing the use of blood components in adult surgical centers but blood transfusions continue to be used frequently in pediatric centers. From 2002 through 2005, we embarked on a mission of reduced prime volume in an effort toward bloodless cardiac surgery to meet the needs of the Jehovah’s Witness patient. The same bloodless surgical and perfusion techniques were applied to all patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass beginning in 2006. Circuit size was minimized and acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) was considered and attempted more often, especially if a re-operation. Retrograde arterial prime (RAP) and venous antegrade prime (VAP), dilutional or balanced ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass, modified arteriovenous ultrafiltration post bypass, and cell salvage of remaining circuit contents after flushing with crystalloid were recorded. ANH, RAP, and VAP, separately or in combination, were used less than 1% of the time prior to 2006. From 2006–2008 ANH was performed on 42% of the patients and RAP/VAP was performed on 70% of the patients. From 2006–2008, 43% (287 of 662) of the open heart surgeries were performed bloodless in the operating room versus 30% (193 of 633) from 2003–2005. Bloodless surgery more than doubled for the 0–6, 6–15, and 15–20 kg groups from 3.5%, 23%, and 23% respectively in 2003–2005 to 9%, 44%, and 58%, respectively in 2006–2008. With the cooperation of the entire cardiac surgical team, bloodless open heart surgery is achievable in a pediatric cardiac surgical center, including neonates. PMID:20648896

  15. Outcomes of pediatric living donor kidney transplantation: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bertólez, Sonia; Barrero, Rafael; Fijo, Julia; Alonso, Verónica; Ojha, Devicka; Fernández-Hurtado, Miguel Ángel; Martínez, Jerónimo; León, Eduardo; García-Merino, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for children with ESRD offering advantages of improved survival, growth potential, cognitive development, and quality of life. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of LDKT vs DDKT performed in children at a single center. Retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who underwent kidney transplantation from 2005 to 2014 was performed. Ninety-one renal transplants were accomplished, and 31 cases (38.27%) were LDKT, and in 96.7% of the cases, the graft was obtained through laparoscopy. Thirty-four receptors weighted <25 kg. LDKT group had statistically significant lower cold ischemia times than DDKT one. Complication rate was 9.67% for LDKT and 18.33% for DDKT. eGFR was better in LDKT. Patient survival rate was 100% for LDKT and 98.3% for DDKT, and graft survival rate was 96.7% for LDKT and 88.33%-80% for DDKT at a year and 5 years. Our program of pediatric kidney transplantation has achieved optimal patient and graft survival rates with low rate of complications. Living donor pediatric kidney transplants have higher patient and better graft survival rates than deceased donor kidney transplants.

  16. Donor hypernatremia before procurement and early outcomes following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaseje, Neema; McLin, Valerie; Toso, Christian; Poncet, Antoine; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2015-08-01

    The demand for transplantable organs far outweighs the supply. Recently, efforts have been made to increase the donor pool by adopting extended criteria for livers, including those from hypernatremic donors. Currently, there is no clear evidence that the use of organs from hypernatremic donors has detrimental effects on pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Our aim was to use the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database to evaluate the effects of donor hypernatremia on 30-day outcomes in pediatric LT recipients. We performed an analysis of 2325 children who underwent whole or partial LT between 2005 and 2010. First, we sought to determine a donor sodium threshold for increased mortality following pediatric LT. Second, we examined rates of mortality and graft failure at 30 days after LT in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors. Hypernatremia was defined as a donor sodium level of ≥160 µmol/L. The primary outcome measure was mortality at 30 days after transplant. The secondary outcome measure was graft failure at 30 days after transplant. There was no threshold sodium level for increased 30-day mortality following pediatric LT. Mean recipient ages/weights, Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease/Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and mean cold and warm ischemia times were similar between the 2 study groups. There were no significant differences in mortality rates (3.9% versus 4.5%; P = 0.87) and graft failure rates (2.2% versus 1.9%; P = 1.00) in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors at 30 days after LT. In conclusion, donor hypernatremia just before procurement does not appear to have negative effects on mortality and graft failure rates at 30 days following pediatric LT.

  17. Resting hemodynamics after total versus standard orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, I; Czer, L S; Freimark, D; Takkenberg, J J; Dalichau, H; Valenza, M; Blanche, C; Queral, C A; Nessim, S; Trento, A

    1996-08-01

    Total orthotopic heart transplantation (TOHT) requires longer surgery than standard orthotopic heart transplantation (SOHT), but offers normal anatomy and synchronous atrial contraction. We endeavored to test whether TOHT improves resting hemodynamics. We analyzed 60 patients with SOHT and 66 with TOHT transplanted between 12/89 and 7/94. Age, preoperative NYHA class, ejection fraction, and donor characteristics were similar. After applying exclusion criteria at 2 weeks postoperatively, 53 SOHT and 58 TOHT patients were accepted for further study. Right-heart hemodynamics were examined at 2 weeks and 6 months posttransplant. Despite a longer ischemic time (161 +/- 36 vs. 142 +/- 37 min, p = 0.004), cardiac output and index were higher in the TOHT group at 2 weeks (6.1 +/- 1.4 vs. 5.4 +/- 1.0 L/min, TOHT vs. SOHT, p = 0.01; and 3.3 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 L/min/m2, p = 0.005) but similar at 6 months (5.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.4 L/min; and 3.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.7 L/min/m2). Right-atrial pressure was lower with TOHT at both time points (7 +/- 4 vs. 9 +/- 4 mmHg, p = 0.02: and 5 +/- 2 vs. 7 +/- 3, p = 0.0006). Wedge pressure was similar at 2 weeks (12 +/- 5 vs. 13 +/- 5, p = 0.045). Heart rate (bpm) was higher at both time points with TOHT (84 +/- 10 vs. 75 +/- 12, p = 0.0003: and 90 +/- 12 vs. 82 +/- 9, p = 0.0006). Pulmonary vascular resistance was similar at both time points. Despite a longer ischemic time, total orthotopic heart transplantation does not impair postoperative cardiac function. There is an early improvement in cardiac output, a sustained higher heart rate reflecting preservation of donor sinus node function, and a lower right-atrial pressure.

  18. Surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. Method: retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Results: the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. Conclusion: there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. PMID:27579924

  19. An Innovative Educational Program for International Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    MacWilliams, MariaEugenia Álvarez; Lunar, Estela Cabrera; Denzen, Ellen M

    2016-02-03

    Pediatric patients and their families confront a difficult journey with hematopoietic cell transplantation. Understanding complex information, navigation, and coping with emotional, physical, and social changes in the patient, parents and family nucleus life could be quite challenging for all. In Spanish-speaking countries where transplant is emerging as an available treatment option, healthcare professionals encounter the lack or limited quality resources to educate pediatric patients and their families on a complex treatment process. Also, the level of literacy of each family varies widely, making transplant education very difficult to address in a simple and engaging way that could benefit all levels of literacy and foster well-being in the family as a whole, so they are prepared to make better informed decisions and decrease stress in all members. Super Sam versus the Marrow Monsters is a DVD resource made by the National Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP)/Be The Match® intended as an educational tool, to be shared with our U.S. network transplant centers to use when educating their pediatric patients. Hospital Angeles Lomas in the State of Mexico-member of the NMDP international network-has adopted the DVD with their pediatric audience, with very successful results, and demonstrates the benefits of expanding the initial intended use.

  20. Recommendations for use of marginal donors in heart transplantation: Brazilian Association of Organs Transplantation guideline.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, A I; Stolf, N A G; Pego-Fernandes, P M; Oliveira Junior, J L; Santos, R H B; Contreras, C A M; Filho, D D L; Dinkhuysen, J J; Moreira, M C V; Mejia, J A C; Castro, M C R

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of heart failure has increased the candidate list for heart transplantation; however, there is a shortage of viable donated organs, which is responsible for the high mortality of patients awaiting a transplantation. Because the marginal donor presents additional risk factors, it is not considered to be an ideal donor. The use of a marginal donor is only justified in situations when the risk of patient death due to heart disease is greater than that offered by the donor. These recommendations sought to expand the supply of donors, consequently increasing the transplant rate. We selected articles based on robust evidence to provide a substratum to develop recommendations for donors who exceed the traditional acceptance criteria. Recipient survival in the immediate postoperative period is intimately linked to allograft quality. Primary allograft failure is responsible for 38% to 40% of immediate deaths after heart transplantation: therefore; marginal donor selection must be more rigorous to not increase the surgical risk. The main donor risk factors with the respective evidence levels are: cancer in the donor (B), female donor (B), donor death due to hemorrhagic stroke (B), donor age above 50 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.5) (B), weight mismatch between donor and recipient < 0.8 (RR = 1.3) (B), ischemia > 240 minutes (RR = 1.2) (B), left ventricular dysfunction with ejection fraction below 45% (B), and use of high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine > 15 mg/kg·min) (B). Factors that impact recipient mortality are: age over 50 years (RR = 1.5); allograft harvest at a distance; adult recipient weighing more than 20% of the donor; high doses of vasoactive drugs (dopamine greater than 15 mg/kg·min) and ischemic time >4 hours. The use of a marginal donor is only justified when it is able to increase life expectancy compared with clinical treatment, albeit the outcomes are interior to those using an ideal donor.

  1. Barriers to live donor kidney transplants in the pediatric population: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Shibany P; Galloway, Matthew P; Jain, Amrish

    2017-03-01

    A decrease in live donor pediatric kidney transplants has occurred in the United States. This study investigates barriers that may influence access to live donor kidney transplants in children. Retrospective chart review was conducted for 91 children (69% male, mean age 11.9 years) who underwent pretransplant workup from 2005 to 2015 at an urban pediatric hospital. Fifty-four percent were African American, 32% Caucasian, 8% Arabic, 3% Hispanic, and 3% Others. Government-sponsored insurance (Medicaid/Medicare) was utilized by 73%, and 54% had dual caregivers. Only nine of 68 kidney transplants were live donor transplants. Live donor transplants (11%) were significantly (P=.008) lower than deceased donor transplants (59%) in African Americans. Private insurance was reported by 56% of live donor recipients and 25% of deceased donor recipients. Among live donor recipients, 78% were from dual caregiver families. Caregiver, health-related, financial, and religious/cultural barriers to live donor transplants were reported, several of which may be amenable to positive intervention.

  2. Pregnancy after heart transplant: update and case report.

    PubMed

    Morini, A; Spina, V; Aleandri, V; Cantonetti, G; Lambiasi, A; Papalia, U

    1998-03-01

    A literature review of 22 cases of pregnancy following cardiac transplantation up to 1995 and a case report are presented here. A 30 year old woman, gravida 3, para 1, contacted us for obstetric care at 8 weeks gestation, about 55 months after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The transplant had been performed for a familial dilative cardiomyopathy, which had become manifest during her previous pregnancy. The course of the current gestation was uneventful. The patient's cardiovascular function was good throughout the pregnancy. Immunosuppressive therapy, the dose of which was increased during pregnancy, included cyclosporine and azathioprine. Because of an increase in the patient's plasma uric acid concentration and an initial rise in her blood pressure, despite therapy, a repeat Caesarean section was performed at 37 weeks gestation. A female baby weighing 2330 g, Apgar scores 7/9, was delivered. Mother and infant were discharged on postoperative day 15 and are doing well 14 months postpartum. Through a review of literature and our case, the issues and problems related to pregnancy after a heart transplant are discussed, in particular the maternal-fetal risks, management, therapy, delivery, neonatal problems and follow-up postpartum of mother and baby.

  3. [IV Consensus meeting of the Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation (SETH) 2012. Liver transplant with non-conventional grafts: Split liver transplantation and non-heart beating donors].

    PubMed

    Abradelo, Manuel; Fondevila, Constantino

    2014-03-01

    The disbalance between the number of candidates to liver transplant and the number of liver grafts leads to waiting list mortality. Two potential ways of increasing the number of liver grafts are split liver transplantation and the transplantation of grafts from non-heart beating donors. Both of them were discussed in a consensus meeting of the Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation in October 2012. This paper outlines the conclusions of that meeting.

  4. Levosimendan reverses right-heart failure in a 51-year-old patient after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barisin, Stjepan; Djuzel, Viktor; Barisin, Ana; Rudez, Igor

    2014-08-01

    Primary graft failure in the early postoperative period after heart transplantation, remains a main cause of a poor outcome. Current treatment options include pharmacological (catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and mechanical assist device support. Pharmacological support with catecholamines is related to elevated myocardial oxygen consumption and regional hypoperfusion leading to organ damage. On the other hand, levosimendan, as a calcium-sensitizing agent increases cardiac contractility without altering intracellular Ca(2+) levels and increase in oxygen demand. We present a case of a 51-year-old man, who was suffering from acute right-heart failure in the early postoperative period after heart transplantation. As a rescue therapy at the late stage of a low cardiac output state, levosimendan was started as continuous infusion at 0.1 μg/kg/min for 12 h and thereafter, at 0.2 μg/kg/min for the following 36 h. Levosimendan demonstrated an advanced pharmacological option as was portrayed in this case, where the right ventricle was under a prolonged severe depression and acutely overloaded after heart transplantation.

  5. Toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Baliu, C; Sanclemente, G; Cardona, M; Castel, M A; Perez-Villa, F; Moreno, A; Cervera, C

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations in immunosuppressed patients. Encephalitis and intracranial mass lesions are easily recognized as typical manifestations of toxoplasmosis. However, meningitis caused by T. gondii is a rare condition with very few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a heart transplant recipient who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis. After an extensive review of the medical literature, we found only 1 case of meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients and <25 cases in immunosuppressed patients, such as patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus or those with Hodgkin's disease. In this report, we consider toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of meningitis in immunocompromised individuals.

  6. The long-term outcome of treated sensitized patients who undergo heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Patel, Jignesh K.; Kittleson, Michelle M.; Kawano, Matt A.; Kiyosaki, Krista K.; Davis, Stephanie N.; Moriguchi, Jaime D.; Reed, Elaine F.; Ardehali, Abbas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitized patients prior to heart transplantation are reportedly at risk for hyperacute rejection and for poor outcome after heart transplantation. It is not known whether the reduction of circulating antibodies pre-transplant alters post-transplant outcome. Methods and Results Between July 1993 and July 2003, we reviewed 523 heart transplant patients of which 95 had pre-transplant panel reactive antibody (PRAs) >10%; 21/95 were treated pre-transplant for circulating antibodies. These 21 patients had PRAs > 10% (majority 50–100%) and were treated with combination therapy including plasmapheresis, intravenous gamma globulin and rituximab to reduce antibody counts. The 74 untreated patients with PRAs > 10% (untreated sensitized group) and those patients with PRAs < 10% (control group) were used for comparison. Routine post-transplant immunosuppression included triple-drug therapy. After desensitization therapy, circulating antibody levels pre-transplant decreased from a mean of 70.5 to 30.2%, which resulted in a negative prospective donor-specific crossmatch and successful heart transplantation. Compared to the untreated sensitized group and the control group, the treated sensitized group had similar five-yr survival (81.1% and 75.7% vs. 71.4%, respectively, p = 0.523) and freedom from cardiac allograft vasculopathy (74.3% and 72.7% vs. 76.2%, respectively, p = 0.850). Conclusion Treatment of sensitized patients pre-transplant appears to result in acceptable long-term outcome after heart transplantation. PMID:20973825

  7. Testing the Efficacy of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Detecting Transplant Rejection Using a Murine Model of Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ohori, S; Meral, F C; Uehara, M; Giannini, S; Ichimura, T; Smith, R N; Jolesz, F A; Guleria, I; Zhang, Y; White, P J; McDannold, N J; Hoffmeister, K; Givertz, M M; Abdi, R

    2016-12-23

    One of the key unmet needs to improve long-term outcomes of heart transplantation is to develop accurate, noninvasive, and practical diagnostic tools to detect transplant rejection. Early intragraft inflammation and endothelial cell injuries occur prior to advanced transplant rejection. We developed a novel diagnostic imaging platform to detect early declines in microvascular perfusion (MP) of cardiac transplants using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). The efficacy of CEUS in detecting transplant rejection was tested in a murine model of heart transplants, a standard preclinical model of solid organ transplant. As compared to the syngeneic groups, a progressive decline in MP was demonstrated in the allografts undergoing acute transplant rejection (40%, 64%, and 92% on days 4, 6, and 8 posttransplantation, respectively) and chronic rejection (33%, 33%, and 92% on days 5, 14, and 30 posttransplantation, respectively). Our perfusion studies showed restoration of MP following antirejection therapy, highlighting its potential to help monitor efficacy of antirejection therapy. Our data suggest that early endothelial cell injury and platelet aggregation contributed to the early MP decline observed in the allografts. High-resolution MP mapping may allow for noninvasive detection of heart transplant rejection. The data presented have the potential to help in the development of next-generation imaging approaches to diagnose transplant rejection.

  8. Pediatric Hematology Providers on Referral for Transplant Evaluation for Sickle Cell Disease: A Regional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mikles, Bethany; Bhatia, Monica; Oyeku, Suzette O.; Jin, Zhezhen; Green, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hematology referral for evaluation is a key step for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease (SCD). Pediatric SCD providers in the US Northeast (New York-Mid-Atlantic and New England regions) were surveyed anony-mously for perspectives and practices regarding transplant referral and compared by whether they practiced at SCD transplant centers. Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, χ2 test, and logistic regression. Half of the respondents practiced primarily at transplant sites. Most (79%) were enthusiastic about transplant for SCD and 78% had recently referred ≥1 child for evaluation. Overall, 77% limited referral to certain sickle hemoglobinopathies and 44% preferred referral for β-thalassemia to SCD. Indications selected for referral resembled current transplant criteria, plus family request or poor response to therapy. Referral for children on chronic transfusions predicted enthusiasm and prior referral. Many (66%) referred children with multiple SCD complications, even without matched sibling donors, 37% with sibling donors despite limited disease. Practitioners at transplant centers more commonly accepted event-free survival rates of ≤90% (P = 0.002). North-eastern providers expressed varying enthusiasm for referral for evaluation based on eligibility, donor availability, and acceptable risk, with modestly more interest from practitioners at transplant centers. Differing provider perspectives may affect patient referral for transplant consideration. PMID:24633300

  9. [Massive haemorrhage after bivalirudin anticoagulation in two heart transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Tauron, M; Paniagua, P; Muñoz-Guijosa, C; Mirabet, S; Padró, J M

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombopenia is a common autoimmune complication. It is a prothrombotic state due to the formation of antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes. In this situation drugs other than heparin must be used for anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation (bypass) surgery. Two cases of heart transplantation are presented in whom bivalirudin was used as an anticoagulant during the cardiopulmonary bypass. Severe bleeding complications were observed in both patients. The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombopenia needs to be improved, as well as the development of protocols for using new drugs other than heparin. For this reason, we have reviewed current protocols and alternative therapies to heparin.

  10. Bovine pericardial reconstruction of the diaphragm after a heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Kevin B; Higgins, Robert; Daniels, Vincent C; Kilic, Ahmet

    2014-06-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias are a known complication of explanting a left ventricular assist device. The increasing use of left ventricular assist devices has resulted in an increased risk of this complication. We present the case of a patient who presented with diaphragmatic hernias on routine follow-up after a heart transplant. A left thoracotomy was performed to expose and reduce the hernia using a bovine pericardial patch to repair the defect. This biomaterial represents a viable alternative to traditional GORE-TEX patches with the probability of decreased infectious complications.

  11. Registry of the Japanese society of lung and heart-lung transplantation: the official Japanese lung transplantation report 2012.

    PubMed

    Oto, Takahiro; Okada, Yoshinori; Bando, Toru; Minami, Masato; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki; Okumura, Meinoshin; Date, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Japanese Organ Transplant Law was amended, and the revised law took effect in July 2010 to overcome extreme donor shortage and to increase the availability of donor organs from brain-dead donors. It is now possible to procure organs from children. The year 2011 was the first year that it was possible to examine the results of this first extensive revision of the Japanese Organ Transplant Law, which took effect in 1997. Currently, seven transplant centers, including Tohoku, Dokkyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Okayama, Fukuoka and Nagasaki Universities, are authorized to perform lung transplantation in Japan, and by the end of 2011, a total of 239 lung transplants had been performed. The number of transplants per year and the ratio of brain-dead donor transplants increased dramatically after the revision of the Japanese Organ Transplant Law. The survival rates for lung transplant recipients registered with the Japanese Society for Lung and Heart-lung Transplantation were 93.3 % at 1 month, 91.5 % at 3 months, 86.3 % at 1 year, 79.0 % at 3 years, and 73.1 % at 5 years. The survival curves for brain-dead donor and living-donor lung transplantation were similar. The survival outcomes for both brain-dead and living-donor lung transplants were better than those reported by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. However, donor shortage remains a limitation of lung transplantation in Japan. The lung transplant centers in Japan should continue to make a special effort to save critically ill patients waiting for lung transplantation.

  12. Pediatric Deceased Donation-A Report of the Transplantation Society Meeting in Geneva.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dominique E; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Siebelink, Marion J; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Brierley, Joe; Dobbels, Fabienne; Rodrigue, James R; Sarwal, Minnie; Shapiro, Ron; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Sweet, Stuart C; Trompeter, Richard S; Moazam, Farhat; Bos, Michael A; Delmonico, Francis L

    2015-07-01

    The Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society convened a meeting on pediatric deceased donation of organs in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 21 to 22, 2014. Thirty-four participants from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, Europe, and North and South America explored the practical and ethical issues pertaining to pediatric deceased donation and developed recommendations for policy and practice. Their expertise was inclusive of pediatric intensive care, internal medicine, and surgery, nursing, ethics, organ donation and procurement, psychology, law, and sociology. The report of the meeting advocates the routine provision of opportunities for deceased donation by pediatric patients and conveys an international call for the development of evidence-based resources needed to inform provision of best practice care in deceased donation for neonates and children.

  13. Repeated CMV Infection in a Heart Transplantation Patient

    PubMed Central

    Melero-Ferrer, Josep; Sanchez-Lazaro, Ignacio J.; Navea-Tejerina, Amparo; Almenar-Bonet, Luis; Blanes-Julia, Marino; Martinez-Dolz, Luis; Salvador-Sanz, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in heart transplantation (HTx). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection during the first year after HTx, but it is more unusual after this time. We present the case of a patient who underwent an HTx due to a severe ischemic heart disease. Although the patient did not have a high risk for CMV, infection, he suffered a reactivation during the first year and then up to six more episodes, especially in his eyes. The patient received different treatments against CMV and the immunosuppression was changed several times. Finally, everolimus was introduced instead of cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil was withdrawn. The presented case provides an example of how the immunosupresion plays a key role in some infections in spite of being a suitable antiviral treatment. PMID:23213610

  14. Epstein-Barr virus DNA load and seroconversion in pediatric renal transplantation with tacrolimus immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Ikezumi, Yohei; Okubo, Soichiro; Uchiyama, Makoto; Takahashi, Kota; Shiraga, Hiroshi; Hattori, Motoshi

    2007-11-01

    EBV infection is one of major complications arising in pediatric patients who have undergone renal transplantation. A strong correlation between the grade of immunosuppression and the development of PTLD, one of the most severe EBV-associated diseases, has been recognized. In this study, we monitored the serologic profile in conjunction with peripheral blood EBV-DNA load of 32 children who underwent renal transplantation with tacrolimus as an immunosuppressant. Six patients were EBV-seronegative (EBV-) before the transplantation, and the mean DNA load in the EBV- group was significantly higher than that in the EBV-seropositive (EBV+) group. Seroconversion occurred in five of these patients in a mean period of 22 weeks after the transplantation. The EBV-DNA load in the EBV+ group was maintained at a low level for a year, whereas it increased rapidly to over 1 x 10(5) copies/mL in two patients in the EBV- group three to seven months after the transplantation, which corresponds to the timing of seroconversion, and one of them developed PTLD. These observations suggest that the close monitoring of the EBV-DNA load, along with longitudinal observation of seroconversion, is essential in pediatric renal transplantation, particularly for younger children who are more likely to be EVB-.

  15. Immunogenicity of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in adult and pediatric liver transplant recipients over two seasons.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Michio; Torii, Yuka; Kawada, Jun-ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kamei, Hideya; Onishi, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Kenitiro; Ando, Hisami; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Ito, Yoshinori

    2013-10-01

    Immunological responses to influenza vaccination administered to liver transplantation recipients are not fully elucidated. To compare inactivated influenza vaccine's immunogenicity between adult and pediatric recipients, 16 adult and 15 pediatric living donor liver transplantation recipients in the 2010-11 influenza season, and 53 adult and 21 pediatric recipients in the 2011-12 season, were investigated. Seroprotection rates (hemagglutinin-inhibition [HI] antibody titer 1:40) were 50-94% to all three antigens among adults and 27-80% among children in both seasons. Seroconversion rates (fourfold or more HI antibody rise) were 32-56% among adults and 13-67% among children in both seasons. No significant differences were observed between the two groups. In addition, 20/53 adult and 13/21 pediatric recipients received a vaccine containing identical antigens in both of these seasons. Geometric mean titer fold increases of all three antigens in adult recipients were significantly lower than those in recipients who had not received a preceding vaccination. In contrast, in pediatric recipients, there were no significant differences between the groups who had and had not received preceding vaccinations. The number of patients with rejection did not differ significantly between the two groups (0/53 vs. 1/21) in the 2011-12 season. The incidence of influenza after vaccination was significantly different between adult and pediatric recipients (0/16 vs. 5/15 in 2010-11 and 0/53 vs. 3/21 in 2011-12, respectively). Overall, there were no significant differences in antibody responses between adult and pediatric groups. Influenza infection was more frequent in pediatric recipients. Long-term response to preceding vaccinations appeared to be insufficient in both groups.

  16. Reversible encephalopathy associated with tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Parvex, P; Pinsk, M; Bell, L E; O'Gorman, A M; Patenaude, Y G; Gupta, I R

    2001-07-01

    Neurological complications post transplant have been described with the use of calcineurin inhibitors. Although tacrolimus may be a better immunosuppressant than cyclosporine, its neurological side effects may be worse. Two children, living-related kidney transplant recipients, were treated with antibody induction, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone, and tacrolimus. Soon after transplant, they each developed an encephalopathy, which when visualized by magnetic resonance imaging showed that it affected both white and grey matter of the brain. Although the encephalopathy was associated with the use of tacrolimus, there was a complete neurological recovery without cessation of the drug.

  17. Interventional Radiological Treatment of Perihepatic Vascular Stenosis or Occlusion in Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uller, Wibke; Knoppke, Birgit; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Heiss, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.; Melter, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of percutaneous treatment of vascular stenoses and occlusions in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods: Fifteen children (mean age 8.3 years) underwent interventional procedures for 18 vascular complications after liver transplantation. Patients had stenoses or occlusions of portal veins (n = 8), hepatic veins (n = 3), inferior vena cava (IVC; n = 2) or hepatic arteries (n = 5). Technical and clinical success rates were evaluated. Results: Stent angioplasty was performed in seven cases (portal vein, hepatic artery and IVC), and sole balloon angioplasty was performed in eight cases. One child underwent thrombolysis (hepatic artery). Clinical and technical success was achieved in 14 of 18 cases of vascular stenoses or occlusions (mean follow-up 710 days). Conclusion: Pediatric interventional radiology allows effective and safe treatment of vascular stenoses after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT). Individualized treatment with special concepts for each pediatric patient is necessary. The variety, the characteristics, and the individuality of interventional management of all kinds of possible vascular stenoses or occlusions after PLT are shown.

  18. My Heart Made Me Do It: Children's Essentialist Beliefs About Heart Transplants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Meredith; Gelman, Susan A; Roberts, Steven O; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-11-17

    Psychological essentialism is a folk theory characterized by the belief that a causal internal essence or force gives rise to the common outward behaviors or attributes of a category's members. In two studies, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-old children evidenced essentialist reasoning about heart transplants by asking them to predict whether trading hearts with an individual would cause them to take on the donor's attributes. Control conditions asked children to consider the effects of trading money with an individual. Results indicated that children reasoned according to essentialism, predicting more transfer of attributes in the transplant condition versus the non-bodily money control. Children also endorsed essentialist transfer of attributes even when they did not believe that a transplant would change the recipient's category membership (e.g., endorsing the idea that a recipient of a pig's heart would act pig-like, but denying that the recipient would become a pig). This finding runs counter to predictions from a strong interpretation of the "minimalist" position, an alternative to essentialism.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation in heart transplantation: Adjunctive treatment for recurrent rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Frist, W.H.; Winterland, A.W.; Gerhardt, E.B.; Merrill, W.H.; Atkinson, J.B.; Eastburn, T.E.; Stewart, J.R.; Eisert, D.R. )

    1989-12-01

    In the face of recurrent heart transplant graft rejection refractory to all conventional immunotherapy, retransplantation is customary treatment. The case of a heart transplant recipient unsuitable for retransplantation whose recurrent rejection was successfully treated with postoperative total lymphoid irradiation is described.

  20. Orthotopic heart transplant: a therapeutic option for unresectable cardiac fibroma in infants.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; L'Ecuyer, Thomas J; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare lesions in childhood, with the two most common being rhabdomyoma and fibroma. We report two infants who successfully underwent orthotopic heart transplant for massive interventricular septal cardiac fibromas. For unresectable infantile cardiac fibroma, orthotopic heart transplant may be considered a therapeutic option.

  1. Pediatric liver transplantation - ethical dilemmas in a disabled patient.

    PubMed

    Toker, A; Salzer, L

    2012-09-01

    Allocation of medical resources, especially resources with absolute scarcity such as organs for transplant, is a difficult task. Medical, surgical, and ethical considerations should be evaluated. In solid organ transplantation, ethics committees are the gate keepers that deal with moral philosophy when moral values are in conflict. Often, no good solution to a dilemma in these medical ethics exists. Our case presents split living liver donation for retransplantation in a mentally disabled girl, with few medical ethics principles at stake.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in pediatric renal transplant recipients: comparing early discontinuation of steroids vs. steroid group.

    PubMed

    Maduram, Amy; John, Eunice; Hidalgo, Guillermo; Bottke, Ramona; Fornell, Linda; Oberholzer, Jose; Benedetti, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    Steroids have played a valuable role in transplantation as a treatment option. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of MS in pediatric RT patients receiving SG or early SWG; SG discontinued five days after transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed 58 pediatric RT patients between 2000 and 2007. MS criterion was defined as the presence of any three of five criteria: (i) BMI >97th percentile, (ii) hypertension (SBP/DBP > 95th percentile or on medications); (iii) triglycerides > 95thpercentile, (iv) HDL cholesterol < 5th percentile, (v) fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL. Twenty-five patients (43%) received SG and 33 patients (57%) received SWG. The prevalence of MS in SG was 68% compared to 15% in SWG. At six months and one yr after transplantation, mean serum glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly lower in the SWG. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in the SWG, and patients in the SWG received significantly less lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive medications than SG. Mean BMI percentile was significantly higher in SG one yr after transplantation but not after six months, although always significantly higher in patients with MS (p < 0.05). From this study, we conclude that for pediatric RT patients, cardiovascular risk factors are significantly lower in SG withdrawal groups.

  3. Increasing Complexity of Heart Transplantation in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, William Y; Saxena, Pankaj; Yong, Matthew S; Marasco, Silvana F; McGiffin, David C; Shipp, Anne; Weintraub, Robert G; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2016-01-01

    Owing to improved surgical results, there is a growing population of patients with repaired congenital heart disease (CHD) requiring heart transplantation. The objective of the study was to review our experience in these patients. A retrospective review of the outcomes of heart transplantation in patients with CHD (n = 77) between 1988 and 2014 was performed. Outcomes of early (1988-1999) and late (2000-2014) eras were compared. In results, the mean age was 18 ± 14 years (range: 16 days-58 years). Seventy (91%) patients underwent a mean of 2.6 ± 1.3 (range: 1-6) cardiac operations before transplantation, whereas 7 were primary transplants. Univentricular palliation had been performed in 44 (57%) patients. Patients with CHD in the later era had longer mean cardiopulmonary bypass time (early: 190 ± 70 minute vs late: 271 ± 115 minute; P < 0.001), ischemic times (early: 222 ± 98 minute vs late: 275 ± 102 minute; P = 0.039), and more often required reconstruction of the great arteries at the time of transplantation (8% vs 28%; P = 0.036). In those with prior univentricular palliations, the ratio of ischemic to cardiopulmonary bypass time decreased in the later era (early: 1.41 ± 0.60 vs late: 0.99 ± 0.37; P = 0.016), reflecting increased intraoperative complexity. Following transplantation, hospital mortality was 13% (10/77; 7 due to primary graft failure). There was no difference in inhospital mortality between the 2 eras (P = 0.52); however, patients in the later era more often required postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (early: 8%, 3/38 vs late: 28%, 11/39; P = 0.036). In patients with prior univentricular palliations, those in the late era were more likely to experience postoperative renal impairment (early: 1/21, 5% vs late: 9/23, 39%; P = 0.01). Patients with CHD had higher 30-day mortality (CHD: n = 8, 10% vs non-CHD: n = 17, 3.8%; P = 0.021), but similar survival at 10 years (67% ± 12% vs 70% ± 4.7%; P = 0.87) compared to those without

  4. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STRESS AND COPING AT 5 AND 10 YEARS AFTER HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Kathleen L.; Wang, Edward; White-Williams, Connie; Naftel, David C.; Myers, Susan; Kirklin, James K.; Rybarczyk, Bruce; Young, James B.; Pelegrin, Dave; Kobashigawa, Jon; Higgins, Robert; Heroux, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart transplant-related stressors and coping are related to poor outcomes early after transplant. The purposes of our study were to (1) identify the most frequent and bothersome stressors and most used and effective coping strategies, and (2) compare the most frequent and bothersome stresses and most used and effective coping styles between patients at 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. We also examined differences in coping styles by patient characteristics, and factors associated with frequency and intensity of stress at both 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. Methods This report is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multi-site study of quality of life outcomes. Data are from 199 and 98 patients at 5 and 10 years after transplant, respectively. Patients completed the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale and Jalowiec Coping Scale. Statistical analyses included frequencies, measures of central tendency, t-tests, Chi-square and generalized linear models. Results At 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation, the most bothersome stressors were regarding work, school, and financial issues. Patients who were 10 years post transplant reported less stress, similar stress intensity, and less use and perceived effectiveness of negative coping than patients who were 5 years post transplant. Long-term after transplant, demographic characteristics, psychological problems, negative coping, and clinical factors were related to stress frequency and/or intensity. Conclusions Heart transplant-related stress occurs long-term after surgery. Types of transplant-related stress and factors related to stress confirm the importance of ongoing psychological and clinical support after heart transplantation. PMID:23498164

  5. Waiting for transplant: physical, psychosocial, and nutritional status considerations for pediatric candidates and implications for care.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Samantha J; Annunziato, Rachel A; Fairey, Elise; Kelly, Vicky L; So, Stephanie; Wray, Jo

    2014-08-01

    The waiting period for an organ transplant has been described as a time of tremendous uncertainty and vulnerability, posing unique challenges and stressors for pediatric transplant candidates and their families. It has been identified as the most stressful stage of the transplant journey, yet little attention has been given to the physical, psychological, or social impact of the waiting period in the literature. In this review, we discuss the physical, nutritional, and psychosocial implications of the waiting period for child and adolescent transplant candidates and the impact on their parents and siblings. We identify areas for future research and provide recommendations for clinical practice to support children, adolescents, and families during the waiting period.

  6. β-Adrenergic receptor antagonism in mice: a model for pediatric heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sucharov, Carmen C; Hijmans, Jamie G; Sobus, Rebecca D; Melhado, William F A; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Stauffer, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    Children with heart failure are treated with similar medical therapy as adults with heart failure. In contrast to adults with heart failure, these treatment regiments are not associated with improved outcomes in children. Recent studies have demonstrated age-related pathophysiological differences in the molecular mechanisms of heart failure between children and adults. There are no animal models of pediatric cardiomyopathy to allow mechanistic studies. The purpose of the current experiments was to develop a mouse model of pediatric heart disease and test whether the influence of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonism could be modeled in this system. We hypothesized that isoproterenol treatment of young mice would provide a model system of cardiac pathology, and that nonselective β-AR blockade would provide benefit in adult, but not young, mice, similar to clinical trial data. We found that isoproterenol treatment (through osmotic minipump implantation) of young and adult mice produced similar degrees of cardiac hypertrophy and recapitulated several age-related molecular abnormalities in human heart failure, including phospholamban phosphorylation and β-AR expression. We also found that nonselective β-AR blockade effectively prevented pathological cardiac growth and collagen expression in the adult but not young mice, and that selective β1-AR blockade was effective in both young and adult isoproterenol-treated mice. In conclusion, we have developed the first model system for β-AR-mediated pediatric heart disease. Furthermore, we have generated novel data suggesting beneficial effects of selective β1-AR blockade in the pediatric heart.

  7. Factors affecting graft survival within 1-year post-transplantation in heart and lung transplant: an analysis of the OPTN/UNOS registry.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Today, a main focus of the transplant community is the long-term outcomes of lung and heart allograft recipients. However, even early post-transplant survival (within the first post-transplant year) needs improvement, as early graft failure still accounts for many allograft losses. In this chapter, we review the experience of heart and lung transplantation as reported to the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing registry and investigate the factors responsible for causing failure in the first post-transplant year. Trends indicate that sicker patients are increasingly being transplanted, thereby limiting improvements in early post-transplant survival. More lung and heart transplant patients are coming to transplant on dialysis. In heart transplant, there is an increase in the number of heart retransplant patients and an increase in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. For lung transplant, more patients are on a ventilator prior to transplant than in the past 25 years. Given that sicker/riskier patients are now receiving more heart and lung transplants, future studies need to take place to better understand these patients so that they can have the same survival as patients entering transplant with less severe illnesses.

  8. Risk factors for intraoperative massive transfusion in pediatric liver transplantation: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Sun-Key; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kang, Keum Nae; Rhyu, Chang Joon; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Kim, Young-Kug

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is strongly associated with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirement and postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we aimed to assess the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT, and examined the effect of massive transfusion on the postoperative outcomes. Methods: We enrolled pediatric patients who underwent LT between December 1994 and June 2015. Massive transfusion was defined as the administration of red blood cells ≥100% of the total blood volume during LT. The cases of pediatric LT were assigned to the massive transfusion or no-massive transfusion (administration of red blood cells <100% of the total blood volume during LT) group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with massive transfusion in pediatric LT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, with the log rank test, was used to compare graft and patient survival within 6 months after pediatric LT between the 2 groups. Results: The total number of LT was 112 (45.0%) and 137 (55.0%) in the no-massive transfusion and massive transfusion groups, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that high white blood cell (WBC) count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donors were significant predictive factors of massive transfusion during pediatric LT. The graft failure rate within 6 months in the massive transfusion group tended to be higher than that in the no-massive transfusion group (6.6% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.068). However, the patient mortality rate within 6 months did not differ significantly between the massive transfusion and no-massive transfusion groups (7.3% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.964). Conclusion: Massive transfusion during pediatric LT is significantly associated with a high WBC count, low platelet count, and cadaveric donor. This finding can provide a better understanding of perioperative blood transfusion management

  9. Normothermia for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery: An Expanded Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Ahmad Mahir; Nikman, Ahmad Mohd; Ali, Saedah; Zain, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Wong, Abdul Rahim; Corno, Antonio Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pediatric cardiac surgery is generally performed with hypothermia, flow reduction and hemodilution. From October 2013 to December 2014, 55 patients, median age 6 years (range 2 months to 52 years), median weight 18.5 kg (range 3.2–57 kg), underwent surgery with normothermic high flow CPB in a new unit. There were no early or late deaths. Fifty patients (90.9%) were extubated within 3 h, 3 (5.5%) within 24 h, and 2 (3.6%) within 48 h. Twenty-four patients (43.6%) did not require inotropic support, 31 (56.4%) received dopamine or dobutamine: 21 ≤5 mcg/kg/min, 8 5–10 mcg/kg/min, and 2 >10 mcg/kg/min. Two patients (6.5%) required noradrenaline 0.05–0.1 mcg/kg/min. On arrival to ICU and after 3 and 6 h and 8:00 a.m. the next morning, mean lactate levels were 1.9 ± 09, 2.0 ± 1.2, 1.6 ± 0.8, and 1.4 ± 0.7 mmol/L (0.6–5.2 mmol/L), respectively. From arrival to ICU to 8:00 a.m. the next morning mean urine output was 3.8 ± 1.5 mL/kg/h (0.7–7.6 mL/kg/h), and mean chest drainage was 0.6 ± 0.5 mL/kg/h (0.1–2.3 mL/kg/h). Mean ICU and hospital stay were 2.7 ± 1.4 days (2–8 days) and 7.2 ± 2.2 days (4–15 days), respectively. In conclusion, normothermic high flow CPB allows pediatric and congenital heart surgery with favorable outcomes even in a new unit. The immediate post-operative period is characterized by low requirement for inotropic and respiratory support, low lactate production, adequate urine output, minimal drainage from the chest drains, short ICU, and hospital stay. PMID:25973411

  10. Pediatric live-donor kidney transplantation in Mansoura Urology & Nephrology Center: a 28-year perspective.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Bakr, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate our overall experience in pediatric renal transplantation. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1,600 live-donor kidney transplantations were carried out in our center; 216 of the patients were 18 years old or younger (mean age 12.9 years). There were 136 male patients and 80 female patients. The commonest causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were renal dysplasia (22%), nephrotic syndrome (20%), hereditary nephritis (16%), and obstructive uropathy (16%). Of the donors, 94% were one-haplotype matched and the rest were identical. Pre-emptive transplantation was performed in 51 (23%) patients. Triple-therapy immunosuppression (prednisone + cyclosporine + azathioprine) was used in 78.2% of transplants. Rejection-free recipients constituted 47.7%. Hypertension (62%) was the commonest complication. A substantial proportion of patients (48%) were short, with height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88. The overall infection rate was high, and the majority (53%) of infections were bacterial. The graft survival at 1 year, 5 years and 10 years were 93.4%, 73.3% and 48.2%, respectively, while the patients' survival at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.6%, 87.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Despite long-term success results of pediatric renal transplantation in a developing country, there is a risk of significant morbidity.

  11. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex. PMID:27196400

  12. Bortezomib in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: A multicenter Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium study.

    PubMed

    Kizilbash, Sarah; Claes, Donna; Ashoor, Isa; Chen, Ashton; Jandeska, Sara; Matar, Raed Bou; Misurac, Jason; Sherbotie, Joseph; Twombley, Katherine; Verghese, Priya

    2017-05-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection leads to allograft loss after kidney transplantation. Bortezomib has been used in adults for the reversal of antibody-mediated rejection; however, pediatric data are limited. This retrospective study was conducted in collaboration with the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium. Pediatric kidney transplant recipients who received bortezomib for biopsy-proven antibody-mediated rejection between 2008 and 2015 were included. The objective was to characterize the use of bortezomib in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Thirty-three patients received bortezomib for antibody-mediated rejection at nine pediatric kidney transplant centers. Ninety percent of patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, 78% received plasmapheresis, and 78% received rituximab. After a median follow-up of 15 months, 65% of patients had a functioning graft. The estimated glomerular filtration rate improved or stabilized in 61% and 36% of patients at 3 and 12 months post-bortezomib, respectively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis significantly predicted estimated glomerular filtration rate at 12 months after adjusting for chronic histologic changes (P .001). Fifty-six percent of patients showed an at least 25% reduction in the mean fluorescence intensity of the immune-dominant donor-specific antibody, 1-3 months after the first dose of bortezomib. Non-life-threatening side effects were documented in 21 of 33 patients. Pediatric kidney transplant recipients tolerated bortezomib without life-threatening side effects. Bortezomib may stabilize estimated glomerular filtration rate for 3-6 months in pediatric kidney transplant recipients with antibody-mediated rejection.

  13. Development of a new interfacility extracorporeal membrane oxygenation transport program for pediatric lung transplantation evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Edward G.; Gee, Samantha W.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric lung transplantation is a life-saving intervention for children with irreversible end-stage lung disease. Access to transplant can be limited by geographic isolation from a center or the presence of comorbidities affecting transplant eligibility. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-supported patients are an uncommon but historically high-risk cohort of patients considered for lung transplant. We report the development of a service at our center to provide transport services to our hospital for patients unable to wean from ECMO support at their local institution for the purpose of evaluation for lung transplantation by our program. We developed a process for pre-transport consultation by the lung transplant physician team, standardized hand-off tools and equipment lists, and procedures for transitioning patients to transport ECMO machinery. Four patients have been transported to date including fixed wing (FW) and helicopter transports. All patients were successfully transported with either none or minor complications. Transport of ECMO-supported patients is a feasible method to increase access of patients with irreversible lung injured patients to evaluation for lung transplant. PMID:28275613

  14. Development of a new interfacility extracorporeal membrane oxygenation transport program for pediatric lung transplantation evaluation.

    PubMed

    Frazier, W Joshua; Shepherd, Edward G; Gee, Samantha W

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric lung transplantation is a life-saving intervention for children with irreversible end-stage lung disease. Access to transplant can be limited by geographic isolation from a center or the presence of comorbidities affecting transplant eligibility. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-supported patients are an uncommon but historically high-risk cohort of patients considered for lung transplant. We report the development of a service at our center to provide transport services to our hospital for patients unable to wean from ECMO support at their local institution for the purpose of evaluation for lung transplantation by our program. We developed a process for pre-transport consultation by the lung transplant physician team, standardized hand-off tools and equipment lists, and procedures for transitioning patients to transport ECMO machinery. Four patients have been transported to date including fixed wing (FW) and helicopter transports. All patients were successfully transported with either none or minor complications. Transport of ECMO-supported patients is a feasible method to increase access of patients with irreversible lung injured patients to evaluation for lung transplant.

  15. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus oral suspension in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Reding, Raymond; Sokal, Etienne; Paul, Killick; Janssen, Magda; Evrard, Veerle; Wilmotte, Léon; Chardot, Christophe; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2002-04-01

    The use of tacrolimus in small pediatric graft recipients may require the availability of a suspension formulation for appropriate dose titration and easier administration. The pharmacokinetics (Pk) of an extemporaneously prepared oral suspension of tacrolimus (OST) was investigated in 15 pediatric liver transplant recipients, and was compared with the corresponding data with tacrolimus capsules (TC). Graft and patient survival rates were 100%. Acute rejection and steroid-resistant rejection were encountered in 9/15 and 3/15 patients, respectively. Comparison of Pk data showed a lower oral absorption of OST when compared with TC. No significant correlation could be made between the Pk parameters and rejection. Despite the lower bioavailability of OST when compared with TC, the rejection incidence was similar with both formulations (60% vs. 55%, respectively). Accordingly, the use of OST may constitute an alternative option for tacrolimus administration in low body weight organ recipients, to allow dosage titration in the early post-transplant weeks.

  16. Development of pulmonary hypertension in 5 patients after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: de novo or secondary?

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Kasahara, Mureo; Takada, Yasutsugu; Taira, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Uryuhara, Kenji; Ogawa, Kohei; Doi, Hiraku; Egawa, Hiroto; Tanaka, Koichi

    2006-05-01

    The development of portopulmonary hypertension (PH) in a patient with end-stage liver disease is related to high cardiac output and hyperdynamic circulation. However, PH following liver transplantation is not fully understood. Of 617 pediatric patients receiving transplants between June 1990 and March 2004, 5 (median age 12 yr, median weight 24.5 kg) were revealed to have portopulmonary hypertension (PH) after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), as confirmed by echocardiography and/or right heart catheterization. All children underwent LDLT for post-Kasai biliary atresia. In 2 patients with refractory biliary complications, PH developed following portal thrombosis; 2 with stable graft function, who had had intrapulmonary shunting (IPS) before LDLT, were found to have PH in spite of overcoming liver dysfunction due to hepatitis. PH developed shortly after distal splenorenal shunting in 1 patient, who suffered liver cirrhosis due to an intractable outflow blockage. The onset of PH ranged from 2.8 to 11 yr after LDLT, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) estimated by echocardiography at the time of presentation ranged from 43 to 120 mmHg. Three of the 5 patients are alive under prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) treatment. Of these, 1 is prepared for retransplantation for an intractable complications of liver allograft, while the other 2 with satisfactory grafts are being considered for lung transplantation. Even after LDLT, PH can develop with portal hypertension. Periodic echocardiography is essential for early detection and treatment of PH especially in the recipients with portal hypertension not only preoperatively but also postoperatively.

  17. Mycophenolate mofetil suspension in pediatric renal transplantation: three-year data from the tricontinental trial.

    PubMed

    Höcker, Britta; Weber, Lutz T; Bunchman, Timothy; Rashford, Michelle; Tönshoff, Burkhard

    2005-08-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is widely used to prevent acute rejection in adult solid organ transplant recipients, but data in children and adolescents are scarce. This prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, single-arm study investigated the efficacy and safety of an MMF-based immunosuppressive regimen in 100 pediatric renal transplant recipients over a 3-yr period of time. Three age groups were formed (<6 yr, n = 33; 6 to <12 yr, n = 34; 12-18 yr, n = 33). Basic immunosuppression consisted of MMF (600 mg/m(2) b.i.d), cyclosporin A microemulsion and corticosteroids. Seventy-three percent of patients were given anti-lymphocyte antibody induction therapy, of whom 74% received anti-thymocyte globulin. Patient and graft survival 3 yr after transplantation amounted to 98 and 95%, respectively. Twenty-five percent of all patients suffered a biopsy-proven acute rejection episode in the first 6 month post-transplant. Children undergoing induction therapy exhibited a numerically lower rejection rate (21 vs. 37%, p = 0.11). Three years after transplantation, the acute rejection rate added up to 30% (26% with induction therapy vs. 41% without induction therapy, p = 0.21). The number of patients with acute rejection was lowest in the youngest age group (18%), in comparison with 39% in the 6 to <12 yr and 33% in the 12-18 yr age group, respectively. For the entire patient population, the rate of patients who withdrew prematurely because of adverse events was low (12%). The present study shows that MMF therapy in pediatric renal transplant recipients leads to an excellent patient and graft survival 3 yr post-transplant with an acceptable safety profile.

  18. Effectiveness and safety of inactivated influenza vaccination in pediatric liver transplant recipients over three influenza seasons.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Kensei; Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Eitaro; Kaneko, Kenitiro; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Ando, Hisami; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for pediatric liver transplant recipients, who are at high risk of influenza-related complications. However, effectiveness and safety of vaccination may differ among influenza seasons in this population and have not been fully evaluated. Subjects comprised 38 pediatric liver transplant recipients with or without influenza vaccination through the 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Recipients received inactivated trivalent (AH1/AH3/B) influenza vaccine, and comparisons were made to non-vaccinated recipients with regard to effectiveness and safety. No significant differences were seen between recipient groups for acute allograft rejection, acute febrile illness, or influenza virus infection. No serious systemic adverse events were observed in vaccinated recipients. Seroprotection rate (defined as the proportion of recipients with HI antibody titer ≥ 1:40), seroconversion rate (proportion of recipients with a ≥ 4-fold increase in HI titers), and geometric mean titers were mostly elevated after vaccination for the three influenza antigens in each season. These three indicators of immunogenicity showed similar results in both vaccinated recipients and vaccinated healthy children in the 2007-2008 season. These findings suggest that pediatric liver transplant patients may respond safely to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines in a similar manner to healthy children, and effectiveness varies among influenza seasons.

  19. Update for 2014 on clinical cardiology, geriatric cardiology, and heart failure and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; López Díaz, Javier; Martín Santana, Antonio; García Pinilla, José Manuel; Gómez Doblas, Juan José; Gómez Bueno, Manuel; Barrios Alonso, Vivencio; Lambert, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    In the present article, we review publications from the previous year in the following 3 areas: clinical cardiology, geriatric cardiology, and heart failure and transplantation. Among the new developments in clinical cardiology are several contributions from Spanish groups on tricuspid and aortic regurgitation, developments in atrial fibrillation, syncope, and the clinical characteristics of heart disease, as well as various studies on familial heart disease and chronic ischemic heart disease. In geriatric cardiology, the most relevant studies published in 2014 involve heart failure, degenerative aortic stenosis, and data on atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population. In heart failure and transplantation, the most noteworthy developments concern the importance of multidisciplinary units and patients with preserved systolic function. Other notable publications were those related to iron deficiency, new drugs, and new devices and biomarkers. Finally, we review studies on acute heart failure and transplantation, such as inotropic drugs and ventricular assist devices.

  20. Regional pulmonary perfusion following human heart-lung transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Hakim, T.S.; Dean, G.W.; Langleben, D.; Guerraty, A.; Levy, R.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Ventilation and perfusion scans were obtained in six subjects who had undergone heart-lung transplantation with consequent denervation of the cardiopulmonary axis. Two of the subjects had developed obliterative bronchiolitis, which is believed to be a form of chronic rejection. Their pulmonary function tests demonstrated airflow obstruction and their scintigraphic studies were abnormal. In the remaining four subjects without obstructive airways disease, ventilation and planar perfusion scans were normal. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging of pulmonary perfusion in these patients revealed a layered distribution of blood flow indistinguishable from that of normal individuals. It is concluded that neurogenic mechanisms have little influence on the pattern of local pulmonary blood flow at rest.

  1. Versatile one-piece total artificial heart for bridge to transplantation or permanent heart replacement.

    PubMed

    Orime, Y; Takatani, S; Shiono, M; Sasaki, T; Minato, N; Ohara, Y; Swenson, C A; Noon, G P; Nosé, Y; DeBakey, M E

    1992-12-01

    A versatile, one-piece total artificial heart (TAH) system that can be driven by either an electromechanical acutator (EM-TAH) or a pneumatic source (P-TAH) has been developed. The common units for both TAHs are the conically shaped left and right pusher-plate-type pumps (63 ml SV) that sandwich a thin centerpiece (18 mm) having a respective actuator. The EM actuator, mounted in the middle of the centerpiece, consists of a direct-current brushless motor and a roller screw while the pneumatic actuator consists of a low-pressure air source. The outer diameter of the pumping unit is 97 mm with its central thickness being 82 mm; overall volume is 510 cc. The TAH is operated in the left master alternative ejection mode with the left pump fill signal. High-flex-life Hexsyn rubber is used as the diaphragm, and the blood-contacting surface is coated with dry gelatin. The TAH can provide 3-8 L/min flow with a preload of 1-10 mm Hg against 100 mm Hg afterload. Anatomical fit of the pumping unit has been demonstrated in the pericardial space of 26 heart transplant recipients with average body weight of 78 kg. To date, 2 P-TAH and 4 EM-TAH (1 week) implantations were performed in 80-100 kg calves demonstrating excellent anatomical fit, controllability, and biocompatibility. This versatile TAH is suitable for a bridge to transplantation or permanent heart replacement.

  2. Mortality Risk Stratification in Fontan Patients Who Underwent Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christopher J; Bauer, Brenton S; Hageman, Abbie; Aboulhosn, Jamil A; Reardon, Leigh C

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients who require orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for failing Fontan physiology continues to grow; however, the methods and tools to evaluate risk of OHT are limited. This study aimed to identify a set of preoperative variables and characteristics that were associated with a greater risk of postoperative mortality in patients who received OHT for failing Fontan physiology. Thirty-six Fontan patients were identified as having undergone OHT at University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center from 1991 to 2014. Data were collected retrospectively and analyzed. The primary end point was designated as postoperative mortality. After an average follow-up time of 3.5 years, 17 (44%) patients suffered postoperative mortality. Patient characteristics including (1) age <18 years at the time of OHT, (2) Fontan-OHT interval of <10 years, (3) systemic ventricular ejection fraction <20%, (4) moderate-to-severe atrioventricular valve insufficiency, (5) an elevated Model of End-stage Liver Disease, eXcluding INR score, or (6) need for advanced mechanical support before surgery were associated with an increased incidence of postoperative mortality. Using these risk factors, we present a theoretical framework to stratify risk of postoperative death in failing Fontan patients after OHT. In conclusion, a method such as this may aid in the transplantation evaluation and listing process of patients with failing Fontan physiology.

  3. NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC First International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The Need for Pediatric Specific Long Term Follow-up Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pulsipher, Michael A.; Skinner, Roderick; McDonald, George B.; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Armenian, Saro H.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Gracia, Clarisa; Petryk, Anna; Bhatia, Smita; Bunin, Nancy; Nieder, Michael L.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Sung, Lillian; Sanders, Jean E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Baker, K. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Existing standards for screening and management of late effects occurring in children who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include recommendations from pediatric cancer networks and consensus guidelines from adult-oriented transplantation societies applicable to all recipients of HCT. While these approaches have significant merit, they are not pediatric-HCT focused and they do not address post-HCT challenges faced by children with complex non-malignant disorders. In this article we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of current published recommendations and conclude that pediatric-specific guidelines for post-HCT screening and management would be beneficial to the long-term health of these patients and would promote late-effects research in this field. Our panel of late effects experts also provides recommendations for follow up and therapy of selected post-HCT organ and endocrine complications in pediatric patients. PMID:22248713

  4. [Heart transplantation and long-term lvad support cost-effectiveness model].

    PubMed

    Szentmihályi, Ilona; Barabás, János Imre; Bali, Ágnes; Kapus, Gábor; Tamás, Csilla; Sax, Balázs; Németh, Endre; Pólos, Miklós; Daróczi, László; Kőszegi, Andrea; Cao, Chun; Benke, Kálmán; Kovács, Péter Barnabás; Fazekas, Levente; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Merkely, Béla; Hartyánszky, István

    2016-12-01

    Heart transplantation is a high priority project at Semmelweis University. In accordance with this, the funding of heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support also constitutes an important issue. In this report, the authors discuss the creation of a framework with the purpose of comparing the cost-effectiveness of heart transplantation and artificial heart implantation. Our created framework includes the calculation of cost, using the direct allocation method, calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and creating a cost-effectiveness plane. Using our model, it is possible to compare the initial, perioperative and postoperative expenses of both the transplanted and the artificial heart groups. Our framework can possibly be used for the purposes of long term follow-up and with the inclusion of a sufficient number of patients, the creation of cost-effectiveness analyses and supporting strategic decision-making.

  5. Transplanting hearts after death measured by cardiac criteria: the challenge to the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Robert M

    2010-06-01

    The current definition of death used for donation after cardiac death relies on a determination of the irreversible cessation of the cardiac function. Although this criterion can be compatible with transplantation of most organs, it is not compatible with heart transplantation since heart transplants by definition involve the resuscitation of the supposedly "irreversibly" stopped heart. Subsequently, the definition of "irreversible" has been altered so as to permit heart transplantation in some circumstances, but this is unsatisfactory. There are three available strategies for solving this "irreversibility problem": altering the definition of death so as to rely on circulatory irreversibility, rather than cardiac; defining death strictly on the basis of brain death (either whole-brain or more pragmatically some higher brain criteria); or redefining death in traditional terms and simultaneously legalizing some limited instances of medical killing to procure viable hearts. The first two strategies are the most ethically justifiable and practical.

  6. Right diaphragmatic hernia after liver transplant in pediatrics: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hwai-Ding; Mejia, Juan; Soltys, Kyle A; Sindhi, Rakesh; Mazariegos, George; Bond, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias (DH) are an unusual complication after pediatric liver transplantation; however, they have been reported with increased frequency in the past few years. DHs are responsible for nearly half of the small bowel obstructions requiring surgical intervention in this patient population. It has been suggested that the use of a left lobe liver graft, surgical trauma, malnourishment, elevated intra-abdominal pressures, and mTor inhibitors may predispose to development of DH. The use of a segmental graft may increase the recognition of diaphragmatic hernia because the surgically damaged right hemi-diaphragm often remains exposed to underlying viscera, instead of being covered by the right hepatic lobe. Treatment is surgical reduction, with up to 20% of the patients requiring resection of the herniated intestine. Herein we describe a case of DH after left segmental liver transplant in a two- yr-old boy that presented one month post left lobe split liver transplant with abdominal pain, anorexia, and respiratory distress. Just like in the majority of the reported cases, an urgent laparotomy with primary repair was performed. No resection of the herniated segment of intestine was required. For pediatric patients with otherwise unexplained respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms after a left lateral segment liver transplant, right-sided diaphragmatic hernias should always be high in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and target attainment of mycophenolate in pediatric renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Jacobs, Bart A W; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; de Haan, Anton F J; Koch, Birgit C P; Burger, David M; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Schreuder, Michiel F; Brüggemann, Roger J M

    2016-06-01

    MPA is an immunosuppressive agent used to prevent graft rejection after renal transplantation. MPA shows considerable inter- and intraindividual variability in exposure in children and has a defined therapeutic window, and TDM is applied to individualize therapy. We aimed to study the exposure to MPA measured as the AUC in pediatric renal transplant patients, to identify factors influencing exposure and to assess target attainment. Children transplanted between 1998 and 2014 in a single center were included. Two groups were identified: Group 1 (AUC <3 wk post-transplantation) and Group 2 (AUC >18 months post-transplantation). Therapeutic targets were set at: AUC0-12h of 30-60 mg h/L. A total of 39 children were included in Group 1 (median age 13.3 yr) vs. 14 in Group 2 (median age 13.4 yr). AUC0-12h was 29.7 mg h/L in Group 1 and 56.6 mg h/L in Group 2, despite a lower dosage in Group 2 (584 and 426 mg/m(2) , respectively). About 46% of patients reached the target AUC0-12h in Group 1. Time since transplantation and serum creatinine were significantly associated with MPA exposure (p < 0.001), explaining 36% of the variability. Individualization of the mycophenolate dose by more intense and more early TDM could improve target attainment.

  8. Successful deceased donor renal transplant in a sensitized pediatric recipient with the use of plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Madhura; Raffaelli, Ryan M; Lind, Curt; Meyers, Kevin E C; Kaplan, Bernard S; Baluarte, Hobart J; Monos, Dimitri

    2008-09-01

    Sensitization following renal transplant is a significant barrier to repeat transplantation in children. We report a successful DD renal transplant, with the use of PP, in an 11-yr-old girl who became highly sensitized following a prior failed transplant. She received PP treatments after failure of high-dose IVIg (Gamimune). We established the effectiveness of PP by attaining a 0% PRA and negative cross-matches after five PP treatments. Subsequently, our patient underwent a second round of scheduled PP. When the PRA was 0%, unacceptable antigens were removed from the UNOS wait list, PP was continued, and a kidney became available within 10 days. The final flow cytometry cross-match with the eventual donor was negative. This success demonstrates that coordination of desensitization by PP and advanced laboratory monitoring techniques with recent policies regarding allocation of organs to pediatric patients provides new opportunities for children awaiting transplantation. Since the transplant, our patient sustained a low-titer increase of anti-HLA antibodies. However, she has had no episodes of acute rejection and has maintained excellent graft function more than 17 months later.

  9. The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has expanded its role in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease (CHD) and acquired heart disease in pediatric patients. Ongoing technological advancements in both data acquisition and data presentation have enabled CMR to be integrated into clinical practice with increasing understanding of the advantages and limitations of the technique by pediatric cardiologists and congenital heart surgeons. Importantly, the combination of exquisite 3D anatomy with physiological data enables CMR to provide a unique perspective for the management of many patients with CHD. Imaging small children with CHD is challenging, and in this article we will review the technical adjustments, imaging protocols and application of CMR in the pediatric population. PMID:21936913

  10. Cardiac amyloidosis in a heart transplant patient - A case report and retrospective analysis of amyloidosis evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kintsler, Svetlana; Jäkel, Jörg; Brandenburg, Vincent; Kersten, Katrin; Knuechel, Ruth; Röcken, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cardiac amyloidosis is a very rare cause of heart failure in heart transplant recipients but an important differential diagnosis in cases of progressive cardiac failure. We report a 72-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in a transplanted heart 15 years after transplantation by the initial diagnosis of the dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally performed immunohistochemical analysis with anti-transthyretin antibody of the cardiac biopsies of the last 15 years enabled the possibility to show the evolution of this disease with characteristic biphasic pattern. PMID:25674390

  11. Omeprazole pharmacodynamics and gastric acid suppression in critically ill pediatric transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K M; Bergman, K L; Kaufman, S S; Rebuck, J A; Collier, D S

    2001-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of omeprazole suspension in critically ill pediatric liver/intestinal transplant patients. DESIGN: Open-label pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit of an academic medical center. PATIENTS: Eleven pediatric liver and/or intestinal transplant patients. INTERVENTIONS: Extemporaneously prepared 0.5 mg/kg omeprazole suspension every 12 hrs via nasogastric tube before sequential measurements of omeprazole serum concentration and gastric pH monitoring. Gastric pH was monitored continuously for 48 hrs and plasma omeprazole concentrations were determined upon first and multiple dosing. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean onset of action of omeprazole in a sodium bicarbonate vehicle was 62 +/- 82 mins (range, 2-226 mins). Subjects <4 yrs of age exhibited a more variable onset of omeprazole action (range, 3-226 mins) when compared with older subjects (onset of action, 2-40 min). Omeprazole maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve for the dosage interval were significantly greater upon multiple dosing when compared with the first dose. Mean baseline gastric pH in this study population was 1.0 +/- 0.8. Gastric pH remained >4.0 for 78.8% +/- 18.9% of the first dosage interval and 97.8% +/- 5.4% of multiple dosage intervals regardless of age when administered twice daily as a suspension. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of omeprazole administered twice daily as a suspension to maintain gastric pH of >4.0 and to achieve maximal pharmacodynamic effect in pediatric liver and/or intestinal transplant patients.

  12. Frequency of urinary tract infection in pediatric liver transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Baskin, E; Ozçay, F; Sakalli, H; Agras, P I; Karakayali, H; Canan, O; Haberal, M

    2007-06-01

    An increased frequency of infections has been reported in patients with chronic liver disease. The tendency of patients in this population to acquire UTI is not completely understood. We aimed at investigating the incidence of UTI in children with cirrhosis, before liver transplantation. Twenty-six children (9 girls, 17 boys; mean age, 7.66 +/- 5.73 yr) with chronic liver disease who had undergone liver transplantation between 2002 and 2004 were included. On admission for liver transplantation, patients were examined for presence of UTI. Serum biochemistry, complete blood cell count, urinalysis and culture, glomerular filtration rate, and abdominal ultrasonography were performed prior to liver transplantation. Ten of 26 patients (38.5%) were found to have symptomatic UTI. Urine cultures revealed E. coli in five (50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae in three (30%), Enterococcus faecalis in one (10%), and Enterobacter aeruginosa in one (10%) patient(s), respectively, as etiologic factors. The etiologies of chronic liver disease in our patients with UTI were BA in five, PFIC in three, Wilson's disease in one, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in one patient. We found a significantly greater number of UTIs in patients with biliary atresia than in those without biliary atresia (p < 0.05). The mean age of the patients with UTI was 2.75 +/- 3.49 yr, which was significantly lower than in those without UTI (9.75 +/- 4.86 yr, p < 0.05). Levels for white blood cells, thrombocytes, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in patients with UTI than in those without UTI. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to serum albumin, bilirubin, AST, GGT, BUN, or creatinine levels, glomerular filtration rate, duration of disease, and PELD scores. In patients with bacteriuria, renal USG revealed normal findings in all, but except one patient who had pelvicalyceal dilatation. Scintigraphic findings demonstrated acute pyelonephritis in six (60

  13. Tuberculosis in pediatric oncology and bone marrow transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea T; Airewele, Gladstone; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    Five children with malignancies (3 hematologic, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 hepatoblastoma) and one bone marrow transplant patient were treated for tuberculosis over a 30-year period. Three had pulmonary disease, 3 disseminated tuberculosis, and 1 had scrofula. Four of five had positive tuberculin skin tests, cultures were positive in 5/6 children. One child died of disseminated TB after engraftment, and one child had hepatotoxicity likely related to tuberculosis therapy. All cases were potentially preventable had they been screened due to established risk factors of foreign birth (4/6) or parental foreign birth (2/6). All children should be screened for latent tuberculosis before chemotherapy.

  14. The pathological implications of heart transplantation: experience with 50 cases in a single center.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Matsuyama, Taka-Aki; Ohta-Ogo, Keiko; Sato, Takuma; Seguchi, Osamu; Yanase, Masanobu; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    Heart transplantation started in Japan in 1999. Since then, 50 transplants have been performed at our center. We performed histopathological analyses of the 50 explanted hearts and the post-transplant biopsy specimens. The median age of recipients was 39 years. The primary diseases before transplant were idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in 33 patients (66%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in seven (14%), restrictive cardiomyopathy in one, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in one, and secondary cardiomyopathy in eight (16%). Before transplantation, 47 patients (94%) had left ventricular assist devices. No severe cardiovascular failure due to allograft rejection occurred. The post-transplant survival rate was 97.6% at 1 year and 93.1% at 10 years. One recipient was lost to sepsis from myelodysplastic syndrome in the fourth year, one died of multiple organ failure and peritonitis 8 months after transplant. Another patient died of recurrent post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). Mild cardiac dysfunction occurred in seven recipients in the early postoperative period. Moderate acute cellular rejection occurred in six patients (12%), and antibody-mediated rejection occurred in three (6%). The number of heart transplants performed in Japan is very small. However, the outstanding 10-year survival rate is due to donor evaluation and post-transplant care resulting in low grade rejection. Pathological evaluation has also greatly contributed to the results.

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for International Cooperative Studies in Pediatric Hematopoeitic Cell Transplantation: Priorities of the Westhafen Intercontinental Group

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Rudolph Kirk R.; Baker, Kevin Scott; Boelens, Jaap J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Cowan, Mort; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lankester, Arjan; Locatelli, Franco; Lawitschka, Anita; Levine, John E.; Loh, Mignon; Nemecek, Eneida; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Prasad, Vinod K.; Rocha, Vanderson; Shenoy, Shalini; Strahm, Brigitte; Veys, Paul; Wall, Donna; Bader, Peter; Grupp, Stephan A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Peters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation’s Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Children’s Oncology Group’s Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group. PMID:23883618

  16. Introduction to the 2015 Supplement to Cardiology in the Young: Proceedings of the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    In the United States of America alone, ~14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was held on 4 and 5 February, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children's Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children's Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary "think-tank". Information about George R. Daicoff, MD, and Ed and Sarainne Andrews is provided in this introductory manuscript to the 2015 Supplement to Cardiology in the Young entitled: "Proceedings of the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute". Dr Daicoff founded the All Children's Hospital Pediatric Heart Surgery programme and directed this programme for over two decades. Sarainne Andrews made her generous bequest to All Children's Hospital in honour of her husband Ed and his friendship with Dr Daicoff in order to support cardiovascular surgery research efforts.

  17. Section 8. Management of portal venous complications in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Concejero, Allan; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yang, Chin-Hsiang; Yong, Chee-Chien; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-04-27

    Portal vein (PV) complications after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) have been a major concern in pediatric liver transplantation. The incidence of PV complications is more in pediatric (0%-33%) than in adult recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment of PV complications may ensure optimal graft function and good recipient survival. Small preoperation PV size (<4 mm) and slow portal flow (<10 cm/s) combined with lower hepatic artery resistance index (<0.65) are strong warning signs that may predict the development of post LDLT PV complications. Portal vein angioplasty/stenting is conventionally performed through the percutaneous transhepatic approach; however, this can also be performed through transjugular, trans-splenic, and intraoperative approaches. Depending on the situation, using optimal method is the key point to minimize complication (5%) and gain high success rate (80%). PV occlusion of greater than 1 year with cavernous transformation seems to be a factor causing technical failure. Good patency rate (100%) with self-expandable metallic stents was noted in long-term follow-up. In conclusion, PV stent placement is an effective, long-term treatment modality to manage PV complications after pediatric LDLT. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to maximize the use of stent placement and achieve good success rates.

  18. Limited sampling strategy for cyclosporine (Neoral) area under the curve monitoring in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Strong, Dawn K; Lai, Amanda; Primmett, Dennis; White, Colin T; Lirenman, David S; Carter, James E; Hurley, R Morrison; Virji, Mumtaz; Ensom, Mary H H

    2005-10-01

    Cyclosporine (CSA; Neoral) is one of the most common immunosuppressants used in pediatric renal transplantation. Research in adult renal transplant recipients has shown that 2-h post-dose concentration (C2) monitoring and limited sampling strategies (LSSs) are better at predicting drug exposure and outcome than trough concentrations (C0). While C0 monitoring is the usual practice in pediatric renal transplant patients, area under the curve (AUC) monitoring has been shown to be superior in terms of predictive ability and outcomes. However, AUC monitoring is impractical and inconvenient in a clinic setting because it involves many blood samples. An LSS provides a reliable alternative. The purpose of this study was to prospectively define an LSS (AUC(0-12)) for CSA monitoring and to test its predictive performance. As well, an LSS (AUC(0-4)) for CSA was developed and its predictive performance tested. Blood samples for CSA concentrations were collected in 29 stable pediatric renal transplant patients prior to (t = 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h following a steady-state morning CSA dose. AUC was calculated by the trapezoidal method; LSSs for AUC(0-12) and AUC(0-4) were determined using multiple regression analysis in 14 patients; and the LSSs' predictive performance was tested in 15 additional patients. Both LSSs require two blood samples. For the LSS (AUC(0-12)), blood samples are required immediately before the dose and 2 h post-dose: AUC(0-12) = 12.45 C0 + 2.17 C2 + 723.16 (r2 = 0.909). For the LSS (AUC(0-4)), blood samples are required at one and 2 h post-dose, AUC(0-4) = 1.17 C1 + 1.85 C2 - 41.00 (r2 = 0.971). The LSSs demonstrated low bias and high precision for both AUC(0-12) and AUC(0-4). Our two-concentration LSSs are accurate and precise predictors that are more clinically useful for our patient population than other LSSs that have been developed for pediatric renal transplant patients. Our study template provides a guide for other centers to develop

  19. Analysis of hypertension in children post renal transplantation--a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS).

    PubMed

    Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B; Ingelfinger, J R; Stablein, D; Tejani, A

    1994-10-01

    Hypertension is common in children after renal transplantation and is associated with multiple factors. Data regarding the prevalence of post-transplant hypertension and the relationship between immunosuppressive drugs and the persistence of hypertension in a large population of North American children have not been available. This study was designed by the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study to evaluate in a large diverse multicenter population of children the prevalence of hypertension post transplantation, the type of antihypertensive medications used to treat this hypertension and to determine the relationship between the blood pressure control and the immunosuppressive therapy. Analysis of 277 patients showed the following: (1) 70% of recipients required antihypertensive medications 1 month post transplant compared with 48% pre transplant; the incidence decreased to 59% at 24 months; (2) the majority of children received multiple drug therapy to control blood pressure; (3) hypertension can be controlled effectively despite inherent etiological factors, such as allograft source, prior hypertension and immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Review of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Practice guidelines for management of heart failure in children.

    PubMed

    Colan, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004, practice guidelines for the management of heart failure in children by Rosenthal and colleagues were published in conjunction with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. These guidelines have not been updated or reviewed since that time. In general, there has been considerable controversy as to the utility and purpose of clinical practice guidelines, but there is general recognition that the relentless progress of medicine leads to the progressive irrelevance of clinical practice guidelines that do not undergo periodic review and updating. Paediatrics and paediatric cardiology, in particular, have had comparatively minimal participation in the clinical practice guidelines realm. As a result, most clinical practice guidelines either specifically exclude paediatrics from consideration, as has been the case for the guidelines related to cardiac failure in adults, or else involve clinical practice guidelines committees that include one or two paediatric cardiologists and produce guidelines that cannot reasonably be considered a consensus paediatric opinion. These circumstances raise a legitimate question as to whether the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation paediatric heart failure guidelines should be re-reviewed. The time, effort, and expense involved in producing clinical practice guidelines should be considered before recommending an update to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Paediatric Heart Failure guidelines. There are specific areas of rapid change in the evaluation and management of heart failure in children that are undoubtedly worthy of updating. These domains include areas such as use of serum and imaging biomarkers, wearable and implantable monitoring devices, and acute heart failure management and mechanical circulatory support. At the time the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines were published, echocardiographic tissue Doppler, 3 dimensional

  1. Identification and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome immediately post-heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vardas, Panos N; Hashmi, Zubair A; Hadi, M Azam

    2015-04-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a serious hematologic disorder with high mortality if left untreated. A comprehensive literature review revealed only two cases of aHUS post-heart transplantation. In both cases the disease developed after induction of calcineurin inhibitor therapy. We report a case of immediate post-heart transplantation aHUS, manifested before the induction of, and therefore not associated with, calcineurin inhibitors.

  2. Contributions of the Transplant Registry: The 2006 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS).

    PubMed

    Smith, Jodi M; Stablein, Donald M; Munoz, Ricardo; Hebert, Diane; McDonald, Ruth A

    2007-06-01

    This summary of the NAPRTCS 2006 Annual Report of the Transplant Registry highlights the significant impact the registry has had in advancing knowledge in pediatric renal transplantation worldwide. This cooperative group has collected clinical information on children undergoing a renal transplantation since 1987 and now includes over 150 participating medical centers in the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Costa Rica. Currently, the NAPRTCS transplant registry includes information on 9837 renal transplants in 8990 patients (NAPRTCS 2006 Annual Report). Since the first data analysis in 1989, NAPRTCS reports have documented marked improvements in outcome after renal transplantation in addition to identifying factors associated with both favorable and poor outcomes. The registry has served to document and influence practice patterns, clinical outcomes, and changing trends in renal transplantation.

  3. The clinical course and outcomes of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Soo; Choi, Hyo-In; Kim, In-Ok; Jung, Sung-Ho; Yun, Tae-Jin; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Jae-Joong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe in more detail the predisposition, natural course, and clinical impact of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) after heart transplantation (HT). The characteristics and clinical outcomes of 54 patients with PTDM were compared with those of 140 patients without PTDM. The mean age of PTDM patients was significantly higher than controls (48.9 ± 9.3 vs 38.6 ± 13.3 yr, respectively, P = 0.001), and ischemic heart disease was a more common indication of HT (20.4% [11/54] vs 7.1% [10/140], respectively, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, only recipient age (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.40; P = 0.001) was associated with PTDM development. In 18 patients (33%), PTDM was reversed during the follow-up period, and the reversal of PTDM was critically dependent on the time taken to develop PTDM (1.9 ± 1.0 months in the reversed group vs 14.5 ± 25.3 months in the maintained group, P = 0.005). The 5-yr incidence of late infection (after 6 months) was higher in the PTDM group than in the control group (30.4% ± 7.1% vs 15.4% ± 3.3%, respectively, P = 0.031). However, the 5-yr overall survival rate was not different (92.9% ± 4.1% vs 85.8% ± 3.2%, respectively, P = 0.220). In conclusion, PTDM after HT is reversible in one-third of patients and is not a critical factor in patient survival after HT.

  4. Heart lung transplantation in a patient with end stage lung disease due to common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A; Thompson, R; Wallwork, J; Stableforth, D

    1998-01-01

    The case history is presented of a patient with common variable immunodeficiency in whom heart lung transplantation has been carried out with success. Transplantation was the only long term therapeutic option in this patient due to the progressive respiratory failure resulting from bronchiectasis, emphysema, and granulomatous lung disease.

 PMID:9797766

  5. Interaction Between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate in Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Pawłowski, Mariusz; Werner, Bożena; Dąbrowski, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is primarily heart rate (HR) dependent, and therefore, different HR may exert different impact on HRV. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of HR on HRV in children and to determine whether HRV indices normalized to HR are sex- and age-related. Methods: Short-term ECG recordings were performed in 346 healthy children. Standard time and frequency domain HRV parameters and HR were analyzed in four age subgroups (6–7, 8–9, 10–11, and 12–13 years old). To investigate the HR impact on HRV, standard HRV parameters were normalized to prevailing HR. Results: Standard HRV measures did not differ between age subgroups, however, HR significantly decreased with subjects age and turned out to be the strongest determinant of HRV. The normalization of HRV to prevailing HR allowed to show that sex-related differences in standard HRV resulted from differences in HR between boys and girls. The normalized HRV significantly decreased with age—before the normalization this effect was masked by age-related HR alterations. Conclusions: HR significantly impacts HRV in pediatric population and turns out to be the strongest determinant of all standard HRV indices. The differences in standard HRV between boys and girls result from differences in their HR. The normalized HRV is decreasing with age in healthy children and it is accompanied by the reduction of HR—as a net result, the standard HRV is constant in children at different ages. This may reflect the maturation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:26733878

  6. Gender Differences in Appraisal of Stress and Coping 5 Years after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Kathleen L; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Li, Zhi; Rybarczyk, Bruce; White-Williams, Connie; Gordon, Robert; McGee, Edwin C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined whether gender differences exist regarding stress, symptom distress, coping, adherence, and social support 5 years after heart transplantation. BACKGROUND Differences exist in health-related quality of life outcomes by gender after heart transplantation; women report poorer outcomes. METHODS Patients (n=210, female=42), were from a prospective, multi-site, study of health-related quality of life long-term after heart transplantation. Patients completed self-report instruments 5 years after heart transplantation (mean=4.98±0.17 years after transplant). Statistical analyses included two-sample t-tests, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multivariable modeling. RESULTS Women did not report more overall stress or symptom distress, but reported more difficulty adhering to the transplant regimen, yet more actual adherence than men. Women reported using more negative coping styles, but reported more satisfaction with social support. CONCLUSIONS Gender differences exist regarding appraisal of stress, coping styles, and coping resources long-term after heart transplantation. These differences may guide tailoring therapy regarding stress, poor coping, and lack of resources. PMID:26514074

  7. A single center experience of donation after cardiac death liver transplantation in pediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Adam; Vara, Roshni; Muiesan, Paolo; Mariott, Paul; Dhawan, Anil; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    Many centers are now performing DCD adult LT. There has been a reluctance to transplant pediatric recipients with DCD livers due to concern over the medium to long-term outcome. We describe the outcome of 14 children (median age seven yr, 8 months-16 yr) that underwent LT with DCD grafts from July 2001 to December 2007. Donors had a median age of 23 yr (10-64), intensive care stay of five d (2-14) and bilirubin of 9 mmol/L (6-60). Median warm and cold ischemic time was 16 min (11-29) and seven h (5.5-8.4). Livers were transplanted as a whole organ (4), reduced graft (8), formal split (1) or auxiliary transplant (1). Compared to DBD recipients AST was significantly higher on the first three post-operative days and there was no difference in the INR, bilirubin or GGT out to 12 months. There were no biliary or vascular complications and patient and graft survival is 100% at a median follow-up of 41.8 months (1.7-74 months). LT with DCD grafts in pediatric recipients can be performed with low morbidity and excellent short-to-medium term patient and graft outcome.

  8. Association between thymic function and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome: results of a pediatric study.

    PubMed

    Saglio, Francesco; Cena, Silvia; Berger, Massimo; Quarello, Paola; Boccasavia, Viola; Ferrando, Federica; Pittana, Laura; Bruno, Benedetto; Fagioli, Franca

    2015-06-01

    Robust T cell function recovery has been shown to be crucial in determining allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome, and there is growing evidence that the thymus plays a central role in regulating this process. We performed a long-term analysis of the role of thymic activity recovery in a population of pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT by signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) quantification. In this study, characterized by a long-term follow-up (median, 72 months), we found patients with higher levels of sjTRECs before transplantation had a statistically significant reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower values (relative risk, .31; 95% confidence interval, .30 to .32; P = .02), showing this different outcome was mainly related to a reduction of relapse incidence (14% versus 43%, P = .02). Unlike previous reports, we observed no correlation between sjTREC levels and lymphocyte recovery. Moreover, we confirmed that only graft-versus-host disease influenced thymic activity after transplantation. In conclusion, our results suggest an association between pretransplantation thymic activity and the long-term outcome of pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, mainly through a reduction of relapse opportunities.

  9. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis.

  10. NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC First International Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Persistent Immune Deficiency in Pediatric Transplant Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Nancy; Small, Trudy; Szabolcs, Paul; Baker, K. Scott; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Torgerson, Troy

    2011-01-01

    Defective immune reconstitution is a major barrier to successful hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and has important implications in the pediatric population. There are many factors which affect immune recovery, including stem cell source and GVHD. Complete assessment of immune recovery, including T and B lymphocyte evaluation, innate immunity and response to neoantigens, may provide insight as to infection risk and optimal time for immunizations. The increasing use of cord blood grafts requires additional study regarding early reconstitution and impact upon survival. Immunization schedules may require modification based upon stem cell source and immune reconstitution, and this is of particular importance as many children have been incompletely immunized, or not at all, prior to school entry. Additional studies are needed in children post HCT to evaluate the impact of differing stem cell sources upon immune reconstitution, infectious risks and immunization responses. PMID:22100979

  11. Is severe pulmonary hypertension a contraindication for orthotopic heart transplantation? Not any more.

    PubMed

    Kettner, J; Dorazilová, Z; Netuka, I; Malý, J; Al-Hiti, H; Melenovský, V; Skalský, I; Říha, H; Málek, I; Kautzner, J; Pirk, J

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) unresponsive to pharmacological intervention is considered a contraindication for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTX) due to risk of postoperative right-heart failure. In this prospective study, we describe our experience with a treatment strategy of improving severe PH in heart transplant candidates by means of ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation and subsequent OHTX. In 11 heart transplantation candidates with severe PH unresponsive to pharmacological intervention we implanted VAD with the aim of achieving PH to values acceptable for OHTX. In all patients we observed significant drop in pulmonary pressures, PVR and TPG (p < 0.001 for all) 3 months after VAD implantation to values sufficient to allow OHTX. Seven patients underwent transplantation (mean duration of support 216 days) while none of patients suffered right-side heart failure in postoperative period. Two patients died after transplantation and five patients are living in very good condition with a mean duration of 286 days after OHTX. In our opinion, severe PH is not a contraindication for orthotopic heart transplantation any more.

  12. Mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Sivathasan, Cumaraswamy; Lim, Choon Pin; Kerk, Ka Lee; Sim, David K L; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in epidemiologic transition in developing countries from infectious disease and nutritional deficiencies to non-communicable diseases. Epidemiologic data on heart failure (HF), particularly advanced HF therapy, in Asia are increasingly becoming available, although they remain sparse. Heart transplantation for advanced stage HF remains very low in Asia-approximately 0.075 heart transplants per 1 million population. North America, which comprises 7.5% of the world population, accounted for 55.8% of transplants recorded in the 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) Registry, whereas Asia, with 62.5% of the world population, accounted for 5.7% of transplants. There is also lack of reporting from heart transplant centers in Asia to the ISHLT Registry. Most transplant programs in Asia are in economically stable South East Asian countries, whereas in other parts of developing countries, the cost and health care infrastructures remain prohibitive for the development of these programs. Multi-cultural and racial factors, religious beliefs, and diverse traditions of many centuries have resulted in reluctance to organ donation. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is emerging as a viable alternative to transplantation, but despite technical capabilities, limitations in embracing MCS in Asia exist. Discrepant practices in the reimbursement of costly MCS therapy have led to differences in the availability of these devices to patients in the region. The HeartMate II (St. Jude Medical, Inc, St. Paul, MN) left ventricular assist device is currently the most widely used durable device in Asia, whereas the HeartWare HVAD (HeartWare, Inc, Framingham, MA) is used most often in Australia. By September 9, 2015, 341 HeartMate implants (293 as bridge to transplant and 48 as destination therapy) had been performed, of which 180 implants were in Japan. The overall 4-year survival is 88%. The longest duration of support is 6.5 years

  13. Hematopoietic SCT in Europe: data and trends in 2012 with special consideration of pediatric transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Passweg, J R; Baldomero, H; Peters, C; Gaspar, H B; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Halter, J; Kröger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J; Mohty, M; Sureda, A; Velardi, A; Madrigal, A

    2014-01-01

    In all, 661 of 680 centers in 48 countries reported 37 818 hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in 33 678 patients (14 165 allogeneic (42%), 19 513 autologous (58%)) in the 2012 survey. Main indications were leukemias, 10 641 (32% 95% allogeneic); lymphoid neoplasias, 19 336 (57% 11% allogeneic); solid tumors, 1630 (5% 3% allogeneic); and nonmalignant disorders, 1953 (6% 90% allogeneic). There were more unrelated donors than HLA-identical sibling donors (54% versus 38% (8% being mismatched related donor HSCT)). Cord blood was almost exclusive in allogeneic transplants (5% of total). Since 2011, the highest increases in allogeneic HSCT were for AML in CR1 (12%) and for myeloproliferative neoplasm (15%). For autologous HSCT the main increases were for plasma cell disorders (7%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4%) and autoimmune disease (50%). There were 4097 pediatric patients <18 years of age receiving HSCT, 2902 received an allogeneic and 1195 an autologous HSCT. Overall, 69% of allogeneic and 64% of autologous HSCT were performed in dedicated pediatric centers and the remainder in combined adult and pediatric centers. Distributions of diseases, donor types and stem cell source for all patients and pediatric patients in particular are shown. A percentage of centers fulfilling the annual required criteria for patient numbers for JACIE accreditation are provided. PMID:24637898

  14. Hematopoietic SCT in Europe: data and trends in 2012 with special consideration of pediatric transplantation.

    PubMed

    Passweg, J R; Baldomero, H; Peters, C; Gaspar, H B; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Halter, J; Kröger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J; Mohty, M; Sureda, A; Velardi, A; Madrigal, A

    2014-06-01

    In all, 661 of 680 centers in 48 countries reported 37 818 hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in 33 678 patients (14 165 allogeneic (42%), 19 513 autologous (58%)) in the 2012 survey. Main indications were leukemias, 10 641 (32%; 95% allogeneic); lymphoid neoplasias, 19 336 (57%; 11% allogeneic); solid tumors, 1630 (5%; 3% allogeneic); and nonmalignant disorders, 1953 (6%; 90% allogeneic). There were more unrelated donors than HLA-identical sibling donors (54% versus 38% (8% being mismatched related donor HSCT)). Cord blood was almost exclusive in allogeneic transplants (5% of total). Since 2011, the highest increases in allogeneic HSCT were for AML in CR1 (12%) and for myeloproliferative neoplasm (15%). For autologous HSCT the main increases were for plasma cell disorders (7%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4%) and autoimmune disease (50%). There were 4097 pediatric patients <18 years of age receiving HSCT, 2902 received an allogeneic and 1195 an autologous HSCT. Overall, 69% of allogeneic and 64% of autologous HSCT were performed in dedicated pediatric centers and the remainder in combined adult and pediatric centers. Distributions of diseases, donor types and stem cell source for all patients and pediatric patients in particular are shown. A percentage of centers fulfilling the annual required criteria for patient numbers for JACIE accreditation are provided.

  15. Health Care Providers' Perceptions of Nutrition Support in Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Belongia, Meghan; Schulta, Christina; Mulberry, Mollie Haddigan; Nugent, Melodee L; Simpson, Pippa M

    2016-07-01

    One of the most common side effects of medical treatment for patients with an oncologic diagnosis is malnutrition. There is limited research that broadly assesses the perceptions of health care providers (HCPs) regarding nutrition support in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of nutrition support among pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant HCPs. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design using a 31-item survey. Results of the survey indicated that nurses were more likely to initiate conversations about nutrition support during the first month of diagnosis, while midlevel providers and physicians initiated discussions in response to a change in nutritional status evidenced by decreased oral intake or weight loss. Participants reported resistance by patients and families more often for enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition. Findings suggest a need to develop a more unified service line-based approach for initiating discussions related to nutrition support that incorporate patient and family perceptions.

  16. Psychosocial adjustment of pediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Felder-Puig, R; Peters, C; Matthes-Martin, S; Lamche, M; Felsberger, C; Gadner, H; Topf, R

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychosocial adjustment of patients who had been treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in our clinic. Selection criteria for patients were to be aged 14-30 years at the time of the follow-up, to be at least 2 years post-SCT and to have a very good knowledge of German. Among 31 eligible patients, 26 participated (84% response rate). The patients were between 15 and 27 years old and were on average 7 years (range 2-13) post-SCT. Research instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire and various subscales of established psychological measures for which data from a sample of bone cancer survivors and population norms were available. About 35% of patients showed high levels of anxiety, 62% appeared to be extremely sensitive and vulnerable, and 35% showed strong, unfulfilled needs in their love lives. In the other domains tested (self-esteem, family and peer relationships, school/vocational performance, etc), no noticeable differences were found between the subjects and comparable populations. There was no significant association between psychosocial outcome and demographic features or clinical data. Our results suggest that patients who underwent SCT in their childhood or adolescence are at risk of developing long-term emotional or social problems. Due to the retrospective design of our study and the small sample size, no predictive factors for psychosocial distress could be identified.

  17. Risk Factors for End-Stage Kidney Disease after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ruebner, RL; Reese, PP; Denburg, MR; Rand, EB; Abt, PL; Furth, SL

    2015-01-01

    Adult liver transplant (LT) recipients commonly develop advanced kidney disease. However, burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) after pediatric LT has not been well-described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric LTs in the US from 1990–2010. Multivariable Cox regression models were fit to determine risk factors for ESKD and death. 8976 children received LTs. During median follow-up of 7.8 years, 2005 (22%) subjects died (mortality rate 26.1 cases/1000 person-years); 167 (2%) developed ESKD (incidence rate 2.2 cases/1000 person-years). Risk factors for ESKD included older age at LT (highest risk age>15 vs <5 years, HR=4.94, p<0.001), hepatitis C (HR 2.79, p=0.004), liver re-transplant (HR 2.67, p<0.001), eGFR pre-LT <60 vs ≥60 (HR 2.37, p<0.001), hepatitis B (HR 2.25, p=0.027), black race (HR 1.46, p=0.046), and male sex (HR 1.44, p=0.022). LT recipients with ESKD had increased risk of mortality (HR 2.37, p<0.001). Among pediatric LT recipients, rate of ESKD was lower than among adults and far exceeded by rate of death, however follow-up time in this study may underestimate lifetime burden of ESKD. Although uncommon, ESKD was highly associated with mortality. Pediatric LT recipients should be routinely monitored for kidney disease, particularly those at highest risk of ESKD. PMID:22994862

  18. Thoracic aorta aneurysm open repair in heart transplant recipient; the anesthesiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Fabrizio; Oriani, Alessandro; De Luca, Monica; Bignami, Elena; Sala, Alessandra; Chiesa, Roberto; Melissano, Germano; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Many years following transplantation, heart transplant recipients may require noncardiac major surgeries. Anesthesia in such patients may be challenging due to physiological and pharmacological problems regarding allograft denervation and difficult immunosuppressive management. Massive hemorrhage, hypoperfusion, renal, respiratory failure, and infections are some of the most frequent complications related to thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. Understanding how to optimize hemodynamic and infectious risks may have a substantial impact on the outcome. This case report aims at discussing risk stratification and anesthetic management of a 54-year-old heart transplant female recipient, affected by Marfan syndrome, undergoing thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. PMID:26750703

  19. Fecal microbiota transplantation via nasogastric tube for recurrent clostridium difficile infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kronman, Matthew P; Nielson, Heather J; Adler, Amanda L; Giefer, Matthew J; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Singh, Namita; Zerr, Danielle M; Suskind, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a safe and effective therapy for adults with recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis, but data regarding FMT in children are limited and focus on colonoscopic administration of FMT. We present 10 consecutive children who received FMT via nasogastric tube for treatment of recurrent C difficile infection. Median age was 5.4 years, and 30% were receiving simultaneous immunosuppression. Median follow-up was 44 days, and 90% of patients resolved their C difficile infection; one patient relapsed 2 months later after receiving antibiotics. FMT via nasogastric tube appears safe, well tolerated, and effective in treating pediatric recurrent C difficile colitis.

  20. Accuracy of Different Equations in Estimating GFR in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Vandréa; Cochat, Pierre; Rabilloud, Muriel; Selistre, Luciano; Wagner, Mario; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Dolomanova, Olga; Ranchin, Bruno; Iwaz, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective The knowledge of renal function is crucial for the management of pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In this population, the most commonly used plasma creatinine (PCr)–based or cystatin C (CystC)–based GFR-predicting formulas may underperform (e.g., corticosteroids and trimethoprim may affect PCr concentration, whereas prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors may affect CystC concentration). This study evaluated the performance of six formulas in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The study used PCr-based formulas (bedside Schwartz, Schwartz-Lyon), CystC-based formulas (Hoek, Filler), and combined PCr-CystC–based formulas (CKD in Children [CKiD] 2012 and Zappitelli). The performance of these formulas was compared using inulin clearance as reference and assessed according to CKD stages in a historical cohort that included 73 pediatric kidney transplant recipients (199 measurements). The ability of the formulas to identify GFRs<60, <75, and <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was assessed. Results At measured GFR (mGFR) ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (nine patients; 23 measurements), the Zappitelli formula had the highest 30% accuracy (P30) (95% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 87% to 100%]) and the bedside Schwartz had the highest 10% accuracy (P10) (56% [95% CI, 32% to 72%]). At mGFR≥60 and <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (22 patients; 91 measurements), all formulas had P30 values >80%. However, only the CKiD 2012 formula had a P10 value >50%. At mGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (42 patients; 85 measurements), the CKiD 2012 and Schwartz–Lyon formulas had the highest P10 (45% [95% CI, 34% to 55%] and 43% [95% CI, 33% to 54%]) and P30 (90% [95% CI, 84% to 97%] and 91% [95% CI, 86% to 98%]). All studied equations except Hoek and Filler had areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves significantly >90% in discriminating patients with renal dysfunction at various CKD stages (GFR<60, <75, and <90 ml

  1. Globalization of pediatric transplantation: The risk of tuberculosis or not tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Mignon; Lin, Philana Ling

    2017-02-03

    The risk of TB among pediatric SOT recipients increases as the globalization of medical care continues to broaden. Unlike adults, children and especially infants are more susceptible to TB as a complication after transplantation. Little data exist regarding the true incidence of TB and the optimal risk-based management of this very vulnerable population. Here, we highlight the theoretical and practical issues that complicate the management of these patients and pose some questions that should be addressed when managing these patients. More data are needed to provide optimal guidance of the best diagnostic and management practices to this unique population.

  2. Rehabilitative intervention during and after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: An analysis of the existing literature.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Coppo, Monica; Zucchetti, Giulia; Bazzano, Daniela; Ricci, Federica; Vassallo, Elena; Nesi, Francesca; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic strategy for several oncohematological diseases. It increases survival rates but leads to a high incidence of related effects. The objective of this paper was to examine the existing literature on physical exercise interventions among pediatric HSCT recipients to explore the most often utilized rehabilitative assessment and treatment tools. Studies published from 2002 to April 1, 2015 were selected: 10 studies were included. A previous literary review has shown that rehabilitation programs have a positive impact on quality of life. Our analysis identified some significant outcome variables and shared intervention areas.

  3. Diagnostic Clues to Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis and Wernicke Encephalopathy After Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sadighi, Zsila; Sabin, Noah D; Hayden, Randall; Stewart, Elizabeth; Pillai, Asha

    2015-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) encephalitis and Wernicke encephalopathy are treatable yet frequently undiagnosed causes of encephalopathy in pediatric recipients of allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review representative cases of both conditions to highlight specific and relevant neurologic features that prompted effective diagnosis and treatment. Two patients with confusion accompanied by seizures, memory changes, or specific visual hallucinations and HHV6 detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid had improvement in viral load with ganciclovir or foscarnet treatment. Two patients had confusion, ataxia, or ocular changes and low serum thiamine levels, which resolved with parenteral thiamine. In all cases, definitive diagnosis and treatment were facilitated by a high index of suspicion and search for specific pathognomonic neurologic deficits accompanying the confusional state. It is critical to clinically differentiate these 2 conditions from other common neurologic syndromes occurring after transplant, allowing potentially improved patient outcomes by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment.

  4. Progressive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy after Heart Transplantation: Insights and Mechanisms Suggested by Multimodal Images

    PubMed Central

    Garikapati, Kiran; Williams, Celeste T.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is the typical measure to prevent rejection after heart transplantation. Although rejection is the usual cause of cardiac hypertrophy, numerous other factors warrant consideration. Calcineurin inhibitors rarely cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the few relevant reports have described children after orthotopic kidney or liver transplantation. We present the case of a 73-year-old woman, an asymptomatic orthotopic heart transplantation patient, in whom chronic immunosuppression with prednisone and cyclosporine apparently caused a phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The natural course of her midapical hypertrophy was revealed by single-photon-emission computed tomography, positron-emission tomography, and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Clinicians and radiographers should be alert to progressive left ventricular hypertrophy and various perfusion patterns in heart transplantation patients even in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease. Toward this end, we recommend that advanced imaging methods be used to their fullest extent. PMID:27047289

  5. Radiation Exposure from Diagnostic Imaging in a Cohort of Pediatric Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Alexandra; Hawkes, Michael; Bhargava, Ravi; Noga, Michelle; Preiksaitis, Jutta; Mabilangan, Curtis

    2017-01-01

    Recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) have extensive diagnostic imaging (DI). The purpose of this study was to quantify this exposure. Children from northern Alberta with SOTs at Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta January 1, 2006, to July 31, 2012, were included. Effective doses of radiation were estimated using published norms for DI performed post-transplant up to October 16, 2014. The 54 eligible children had 6215 DI studies (5628 plain films, 293 computerized tomography (CT) scans, 149 positron emission topography (PET) -CT scans, 47 nuclear medicine scans and 98 cardiac catheterizations). Children less than 5 years of age underwent more DI studies than did older children (median (IQR) 140 (66–210) vs 49 (19–105), p = 0.010). Children with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (N = 8) had more CT scans (median (IQR) 13 (5.5–36) vs 1 (0–5), p<0.001) and PET-CT scans (median (IQR) 3.5 (1.5–8) vs 0 (0–0), p<0.001) than did other children. The estimated cumulative effective dose attributed to DI studies post-transplant was median (range) 78 (4.1–400) millisievert (mSv), and 19 of 54 children (35%; 95% confidence interval 24–49%) had a dose >100 mSv. In conclusion, a significant proportion of pediatric transplant recipients have sufficient radiation exposure post-transplant for DI to be at potential risk for radiation-induced malignancies. PMID:28081128

  6. Failure of isolated kidney transplantation in a pediatric patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 2.

    PubMed

    Naderi, GholamHossein; Latif, AmirHossein; Tabassomi, Firouzeh; Esfahani, Seyed Taher

    2014-05-01

    PH type 2 is caused by decreased activity of GRHPR enzyme that eventually leads to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. Here, we describe an Iranian pediatric patient with PH2 and early ESRD development who received recommended treatment by undergoing isolated kidney transplantation. Diagnosis criteria included a history of reoccurring calcium oxalate renal stones and elevated oxalate levels combined with liver biopsy and decreased enzymatic activity at age five. ESRD prompted transplantation and was performed at age nine. On Day 12 post-op, his serum creatinine level increased. A graft biopsy showed calcium oxalate crystal deposits in renal tubes with no evidence of acute rejection, which resolved with intensive hydration and administration of a potassium citrate solution. Subsequent biopsies confirmed results found in first biopsy. Despite the immunosuppressive therapy, his serum creatinine level increased again after 11 months. Renal tubular obstruction then led to graft nephrectomy. Pathological analysis of tissue confirmed findings of past biopsies. This was a very rare case of early ESRD in PH2 resulting in a failed isolated kidney transplant. As the GRHPR enzyme is predominantly expressed in liver, we suggest a combined liver-kidney transplant may be beneficial in patients with PH2.

  7. Liver transplantation for urea cycle disorders in pediatric patients: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene K; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Krueger, Casey; Bonham, Clark A; Concepcion, Waldo; Cowan, Tina M; Enns, Gregory M; Esquivel, Carlos O

    2013-03-01

    LT has emerged as a surgical treatment for UCDs. We hypothesize that LT can be safely and broadly utilized in the pediatric population to effectively prevent hyperammonemic crises and potentially improve neurocognitive outcomes. To determine the long-term outcomes of LT for UCDs, charts of children with UCD who underwent LT were retrospectively reviewed at an academic institution between July 2001 and May 2012. A total of 23 patients with UCD underwent LT at a mean age of 3.4 yr. Fifteen (65%) patients received a whole-liver graft, seven patients (30%) received a reduced-size graft, and one patient received a living donor graft. Mean five-yr patient survival was 100%, and allograft survival was 96%. Mean peak blood ammonia (NH(3) ) at presentation was 772 μmol/L (median 500, range 178-2969, normal <30-50). After transplantation, there were no episodes of hyperammonemia. Eleven patients were diagnosed with some degree of developmental delay before transplantation, which remained stable or improved after transplantation. Patients without developmental delay before transplantation maintained their cognitive abilities at long-term follow-up. LT was associated with the eradication of hyperammonemia, removal of dietary restrictions, and potentially improved neurocognitive development. Long-term follow-up is underway to evaluate whether LT at an early age (<1 yr) will attain improved neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  8. Intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J T; Kaiser, B A; Long, S S; Schulman, S L; Deforest, A; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV), the most significant infectious cause of morbidity following renal transplantation, may be a greater problem for children than for adults due to their relative lack of experience with this virus. Therefore, we prospectively gave Gammagard as prophylaxis to CMV-negative children who received CMV-positive allografts and compared the results to our experience with similar high-risk recipients transplanted prior to our use of intravenous immunoglobulin G (IvIgG). Symptomatic CMV disease developed in 17% of the IvIgG recipients as compared with 71% of the untreated patients (p = 0.01). The CMV infections that did occur in IvIgG recipients developed significantly later than in untreated children (median time of onset after transplantation 2.60 vs. 1.35 months; p < 0.05) and generally were less severe, although 1 IvIgG recipient died despite prophylaxis. IvIgG administration did not affect the frequency of rejection or graft or patient survival. We conclude that IvIgG administration to high-risk pediatric renal transplant recipients may protect against posttransplantation CMV disease and may lessen the severity of infections that do develop in patients who receive it.

  9. Relationship between lactate and ammonia thresholds in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Vaquero, A F; Tello, R; Pérez, M; Lucía, A

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between both blood ammonia thresholds (AmT) and lactate thresholds (LT) during dynamic exercise in cardiac transplant patients (CTPs). Eleven male patients who had undergone orthotopic cardiac transplantation (age: 54 +/- 11 years, mean +/- SD; height: 165.1 +/- 6.6 cm; body mass: 78.3 +/- 16.1 kg) participated in this study. Each of them performed a bicycle ergometer test (ramp protocol) until volitional fatigue. During each test, gas exchange parameters and ECG responses were determined continuously. In addition, blood lactate and ammonia concentrations were measured every 2 min for determination of both LT and AmT, respectively. Peak values of oxygen uptake (Vo2), respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation, and heart rate averaged 15.9 +/- 3.03 mL.Kg-1.min-1, 1.02 +/- 0.06, 46.69 +/- 5.69 L.min-1, and 124 +/- 16 beats per minute, respectively. However, blood concentrations of lactate and ammonia at peak exercise were 3.7 +/- 0.4 mmol.L-1 and 85.6 +/- 31.7 micrograms.dL-1, respectively. LT and AmT were detected in 8 (72.7% of total) and 9 (81.8% of total) of 11 subjects, respectively. No significant differences were found between mean values of LT and AmT, when both were expressed either as Vo2 (10.01 +/- 1.19 vs 10.5 +/- 2.38 mL.kg-1.min-1, respectively) or as percent Vo2 peak (64.62 +/- 11.362 vs 66.48 +/- 9.19%, respectively). In addition, LT and AmT were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) when both were expressed either as Vo2 (mL.kg-1.min-1) or as percent Vo2 peak (r = 0.70 and r = 0.68, respectively). Our findings suggest that in CTPs, both LT and AmT occur at similar workloads, probably as a result of skeletal muscle alterations associated with chronic deconditioning and immunosuppressive therapy.

  10. Exercise Limitations in a Competitive Cyclist Twelve Months Post Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jeremy A.; Walton, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient) post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT) for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT) four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg-1·min-1 and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT. Key points Physical work capacity following heart transplantation is not limited by cardiac denervation. Heart transplant rehabilitation should focus efforts on endothelial and muscular limitations. PMID:24149613

  11. Thoracoscopic Approach for Repair of Diaphragmatic Hernia Occurring After Pediatric Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Younes, Alaa Essam; Oh, Chae-Youn; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2015-08-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias (DH) occurring after pediatric liver transplantation (LT) are rare. However, such complications have been previously reported in the literature and treatment has always been surgical repair via laparotomy. We report our experience of minimally invasive thoracoscopic approach for repair of DH occurring after LT in pediatric recipients.From April 2010 to December 2014, 7 cases of DH were identified in pediatric LT recipient in Samsung Medical Center. Thoracoscopic repair was attempted in 3 patients. Patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed.Case 1 was a 12-month-old boy, having received deceased donor LT for biliary atresia (BA) 5 months ago. He presented with dyspnea and left-sided DH was detected. Thoracoscopic repair was successfully done and the boy was discharged at postoperative day 7. Case 2 was a 13-month-old boy, having received deceased donor LT for BA 2 months ago. He presented with vomiting and right-sided DH was detected. Thoracoscopic repair was done along with primary repair of herniated small bowel that was perforated while attempting reduction into the peritoneal cavity. The boy recovered from the surgery without complications and was discharged on the 10th postoperative day. Case 3 was a 43-month-old girl, having received deceased donor LT for Alagille syndrome 28 months ago. She was diagnosed with right-sided DH during steroid pulse therapy for acute rejection. Thoracoscopic repair was attempted but a segment of necrotic bowel was noticed along with bile colored pleural effusion and severe adhesion in the thoracic cavity. She received DH repair with small bowel resection and anastomosis via laparotomy.Thoracoscopic repair was attempted in 3 cases of DH occurring after LT in pediatric recipients. With experience and expertise in pediatric minimally invasive surgery, thoracoscopic approach is feasible in this rare population of patients.

  12. Thoracoscopic Approach for Repair of Diaphragmatic Hernia Occurring After Pediatric Liver Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghoon; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Younes, Alaa Essam; Oh, Chae-Youn; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diaphragmatic hernias (DH) occurring after pediatric liver transplantation (LT) are rare. However, such complications have been previously reported in the literature and treatment has always been surgical repair via laparotomy. We report our experience of minimally invasive thoracoscopic approach for repair of DH occurring after LT in pediatric recipients. From April 2010 to December 2014, 7 cases of DH were identified in pediatric LT recipient in Samsung Medical Center. Thoracoscopic repair was attempted in 3 patients. Patients’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Case 1 was a 12-month-old boy, having received deceased donor LT for biliary atresia (BA) 5 months ago. He presented with dyspnea and left-sided DH was detected. Thoracoscopic repair was successfully done and the boy was discharged at postoperative day 7. Case 2 was a 13-month-old boy, having received deceased donor LT for BA 2 months ago. He presented with vomiting and right-sided DH was detected. Thoracoscopic repair was done along with primary repair of herniated small bowel that was perforated while attempting reduction into the peritoneal cavity. The boy recovered from the surgery without complications and was discharged on the 10th postoperative day. Case 3 was a 43-month-old girl, having received deceased donor LT for Alagille syndrome 28 months ago. She was diagnosed with right-sided DH during steroid pulse therapy for acute rejection. Thoracoscopic repair was attempted but a segment of necrotic bowel was noticed along with bile colored pleural effusion and severe adhesion in the thoracic cavity. She received DH repair with small bowel resection and anastomosis via laparotomy. Thoracoscopic repair was attempted in 3 cases of DH occurring after LT in pediatric recipients. With experience and expertise in pediatric minimally invasive surgery, thoracoscopic approach is feasible in this rare population of patients. PMID:26287426

  13. Doppler tissue imaging for assessing left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, S; Allemann, Y; Zimmerli, M; Lipp, E; Kucher, N; Mohacsi, P; Seiler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that diastolic mitral annular motion velocity, as determined by Doppler tissue imaging and left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity, is related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).
METHODS—In 41 heart transplant recipients undergoing 151 myocardial biopsies, the following Doppler echocardiographic measurements were performed within one hour of biopsy: transmitral and pulmonary vein flow indices; mitral annular motion velocity indices; left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity.
RESULTS—Late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (ADTI) and mitral annular systolic contraction velocity (SCDTI) were higher in patients with ISHLT < IIIA than in those with ISHLT ⩾ IIIA (ADTI, 8.8 cm/s v 7.7 cm/s (p = 0.03); SCDTI, 19.3 cm/s v 9.3 cm/s (p < 0.05)). Sensitivity and specificity of ADTI < 8.7 cm/s (the best cut off value) in predicting significant heart transplant rejection were 82% and 53%, respectively. Early diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (EDTI) and flow propagation velocity were not related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection.
CONCLUSIONS—Doppler tissue imaging of the mitral annulus is useful in diagnosing heart transplant rejection because a high late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity can reliably exclude severe rejection. However, a reduced late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity cannot predict severe rejection reliably because it is not specific enough.


Keywords: heart transplant rejection; diastolic function; Doppler tissue imaging; echocardiography PMID:11559685

  14. Electronic Tool for Distribution and Allocation of Heart on Donation and Transplantation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Maqueda Tenorio, S E; Meixueiro Daza, L A; Maqueda Estrada, S

    2016-03-01

    In Mexico and globally, organs and/or tissues donated from deceased people are insufficient to cover the demand for transplants. In 2014, a rate of 3.6 organ donors per million in habitants was recorded; this is reflected in the transplants performed, including heart transplantation, with a rate of 0.4 per million population. According to the legal framework of Mexico, the National Transplant Center is responsible for coordinating National Subsystem of donation and transplantation, and one of its functions is to integrate and backup information regarding donation and transplantation through the National Transplant Registry System. In July 2015, 45 people were registered in the database of patients waiting for a heart transplant, of which 34.61% were female recipients and 65.39% male. Distribution and allocation processes are a key element to provide a fair distribution for those patients waiting for that organ; thus the creation of an electronic tool is proposed, one that aims to support the decision of the donation and/or transplants coordination committee by providing the necessary elements to make this process more efficient.

  15. Elevated pretransplant pulmonary vascular resistance index does not predict mortality after isolated orthotopic heart transplantation in children: A retrospective analysis of the UNOS database.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Peter; Schaffer, Justin M; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Ha, Richard; Reinhartz, Olaf; Mainwaring, Richard; Reitz, Bruce A

    2015-09-01

    OHT is the definitive therapy in end-stage heart failure. Elevated PVRI is considered a relative contraindication to isolated OHT; this assumption is re-evaluated using data from the UNOS database. A retrospective review of de-identified data from the UNOS dataset was performed. There were 1943 pediatric OHT recipients between 10/87 and 12/11 with sufficient data for analysis. Cox regression was performed to examine the effect of baseline characteristics on post-transplant survival. Patients were propensity matched, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed comparing cohorts of patients using thresholds of 6 and 9 WU × m(2) . PVRI was not a significant predictor of post-transplant outcomes in either univariate or multivariate Cox regression. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in survival between both unmatched and propensity-matched OHT recipients. In conclusion, elevated PVRI was not associated with post-transplant mortality in pediatric OHT recipients. A prospective study assessing the current use of PVRI ≥6 as a threshold to contraindicate isolated OHT should be undertaken. Removing this potentially unnecessary restriction on transplant candidacy may make this life-saving therapy available to a greater number of patients.

  16. Determinants of graft survival in pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2005-12-01

    To study the independent determinants of graft survival among pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1600 live donor kidney transplants were carried out in our center. Of them 284 were 20 yr old or younger (mean age 13.1 yr, ranging from 5 to 20 yr). Evaluation of the possible variables that may affect graft survival were carried out using univariate and multivariate analyses. Studied factors included age, gender, relation between donor and recipient, original kidney disease, ABO blood group, pretransplant blood transfusion, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, pretransplant dialysis, height standard deviation score (SDS), pretransplant hypertension, cold ischemia time, number of renal arteries, ureteral anastomosis, time to diuresis, time of transplantation, occurrence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), primary and secondary immunosuppression, total dose of steroids in the first 3 months, development of acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Using univariate analysis, the significant predictors for graft survival were HLA matching, type of primary urinary recontinuity, time to diuresis, ATN, acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The multivariate analysis restricted the significance to acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The independent determinants of graft survival in live-donor pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.

  17. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. . E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao; Chan, Ka Wah; Antolak, John; Ha, Chul S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  18. En bloc kidney transplantation from infant donors younger than 10 months into pediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yang; Li, Jun; Liu, Long-Shan; Deng, Rong-Hai; Fu, Qian; Ko, Dicken Shiu-Chung; Zhang, Huan-Xi; Deng, Su-Xiong; Wang, Chang-Xi

    2017-03-01

    Early graft loss and poor graft function limit the use of kidneys from infant donors. Six en bloc kidney transplantations were performed from infant donors younger than 10 months into pediatric recipients between November 2012 and September 2015 at our center. We retrospectively analyzed recipient and donor demographics, surgery procedures, complications, graft function and size, and patient and graft survival with a follow-up of 6-39 months (median 15.5 months). Donor age ranged from 1 to 10 months with weight ranging from 3.5 to 10 kg. Recipient age ranged from 10 to 16 years with weight ranging from 30 to 39 kg. One kidney was removed due to arterial thrombosis during surgery, while the other kidney of this en bloc graft remained viable. Urine leak followed by bilateral ureteral obstruction occurred in one recipient. All of the recipients showed immediate graft function. The size of the en bloc kidney increased from 4.2±0.6 cm to 7.6±0.6 cm 6 months after surgery. Patient and graft survival were both 100% at the last follow-up. Our results show that en bloc kidney transplantation from infant donors younger than 10 months into pediatric recipients is effective under the condition of experienced surgical techniques and perioperative management.

  19. Orthotopic heart transplant versus left ventricular assist device: A national comparison of cost and survival

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Stone, Matthew L.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Kern, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Orthotopic heart transplantation is the standard of care for end-stage heart disease. Left ventricular assist device implantation offers an alternative treatment approach. Left ventricular assist device practice has changed dramatically since the 2008 Food and Drug Administration approval of the HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, Calif), but at what societal cost? The present study examined the cost and efficacy of both treatments over time. Methods All patients who underwent either orthotopic heart transplantation (n = 9369) or placement of an implantable left ventricular assist device (n = 6414) from 2005 to 2009 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were selected. The trends in treatment use, mortality, and cost were analyzed. Results The incidence of orthotopic heart transplantation increased marginally within a 5-year period. In contrast, the annual left ventricular assist device implantation rates nearly tripled. In-hospital mortality from left ventricular assist device implantation decreased precipitously, from 42% to 17%. In-hospital mortality for orthotopic heart transplantation remained relatively stable (range, 3.8%–6.5%). The mean cost per patient increased for both orthotopic heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device placement (40% and 17%, respectively). With the observed increase in both device usage and cost per patient, the cumulative Left ventricular assist device cost increased 232% within 5 years (from $143 million to $479 million). By 2009, Medicare and Medicaid were the primary payers for nearly one half of all patients (orthotopic heart transplantation, 45%; left ventricular assist device, 51%). Conclusions Since Food and Drug Administration approval of the HeartMate II, mortality after left ventricular assist device implantation has decreased rapidly, yet has remained greater than that after orthotopic heart transplantation. The left ventricular assist device costs have continued to increase and have been

  20. Extravesical ureteroneocystostomy with and without internalized ureteric stents in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    French, C G; Acott, P D; Crocker, J F; Bitter-Suermann, H; Lawen, J G

    2001-02-01

    The use of ureteric double-J stents and the Lich-Gregoir (extravesical) technique of ureteroneocystotomy have both been shown to decrease the rate of urologic complications in adult kidney transplantation (Tx). There are, however, few studies of the systematic use of stents in pediatric renal Tx. Between 1991 and 1997, 32 consecutive pediatric renal transplant recipients routinely received a 6F-12 cm indwelling double-J stent and were studied prospectively. These patients were compared with 32 consecutive pediatric recipients in whom a stent was not used. The latter were transplanted between 1987 and 1991 and formed the control group. All patients had a Lich-Gregoir ureteroneocystotomy. Stents were removed under general-anesthetic cystoscopy 2 3 weeks after Tx. Immunosuppression for stented patients was polyclonal antibody induction, delayed (7-10 days) cyclosporin A, azathioprine, and prednisone. The control group received the same triple drug regimen but with no induction in 29 of the 32 patients. All patients were followed-up with at least one ultrasound evaluation in the first month, and a renal scan and repeat ultrasound were performed if there was any rise in serum creatinine. In the stented group there were two patients with urinary leak and no obstructions. In the non-stented group there were no leaks and one obstruction. There was no graft loss owing to urologic complications in either group. There were three cases of stent expulsion (all in girls) and one case of stent migration in the posterior urethra (a boy). The 1-yr graft survival rate was 90.6% in the stented group and 65.6% in the non-stented group. The prophylactic use of an indwelling ureteral stent in pediatric renal Tx did not reduce the risk of urinary leakage or obstruction. Stent migration is a common phenomenon and, while not a serious complication, is traumatic to children. Furthermore, removal of an internalized double-J stent requires a general anesthetic. We recommend using a stent for

  1. Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2011-11-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation.

  2. Multicenter Analysis of Immune Biomarkers and Heart Transplant Outcomes: Results of the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-05 Study.

    PubMed

    Starling, R C; Stehlik, J; Baran, D A; Armstrong, B; Stone, J R; Ikle, D; Morrison, Y; Bridges, N D; Putheti, P; Strom, T B; Bhasin, M; Guleria, I; Chandraker, A; Sayegh, M; Daly, K P; Briscoe, D M; Heeger, P S

    2016-01-01

    Identification of biomarkers that assess posttransplant risk is needed to improve long-term outcomes following heart transplantation. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT)-05 protocol was an observational, multicenter, cohort study of 200 heart transplant recipients followed for the first posttransplant year. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, graft loss/retransplantation, biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) as defined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We serially measured anti-HLA- and auto-antibodies, angiogenic proteins, peripheral blood allo-reactivity, and peripheral blood gene expression patterns. We correlated assay results and clinical characteristics with the composite endpoint and its components. The composite endpoint was associated with older donor allografts (p < 0.03) and with recipient anti-HLA antibody (p < 0.04). Recipient CMV-negativity (regardless of donor status) was associated with BPAR (p < 0.001), and increases in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-C (OR 20; 95%CI:1.9-218) combined with decreases in endothelin-1 (OR 0.14; 95%CI:0.02-0.97) associated with CAV. The remaining biomarkers showed no relationships with the study endpoints. While suboptimal endpoint definitions and lower than anticipated event rates were identified as potential study limitations, the results of this multicenter study do not yet support routine use of the selected assays as noninvasive approaches to detect BPAR and/or CAV following heart transplantation.

  3. Desensitization strategies in adult heart transplantation-Will persistence pay off?

    PubMed

    Chih, Sharon; Patel, Jignesh

    2016-08-01

    Strategies are needed to enable successful heart transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Immunologic challenges from sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) reduce access to compatible donors, extend waiting times to transplant, and increase the risks of antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy after transplant. The prime goal of desensitization is to increase access to transplantation through expansion of the donor organ pool. Existing therapies are directed at key components of the humoral immune response with newer biologically based regimens able to target plasma cells as the source of antibody production, as well as complement activation that has a central role in antibody-mediated injury. Despite the emergence of early promising results for these agents, a significant knowledge gap remains with the current data for desensitization, extrapolated mostly from non-heart solid-organ transplants and small observational studies. Notably, no approach has demonstrated significant and sustainable reductions in HLA antibody pre-transplant, and the ideal desensitization strategy remains elusive. In addition, clinical tools to evaluate the humoral response and efficacy of therapy are limited, focusing almost exclusively on HLA antibody detection. Importantly, desensitization is associated with significant costs and potential risks, and overall long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness have not been sufficiently evaluated. Investigation is ongoing into the development of a clinically effective desensitization strategy in heart transplantation.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Myocarditis after Adult Heart Transplantation: Successful Prophylaxis with Pyrimethamine

    PubMed Central

    Strabelli, Tania Mara V.; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Vidal Campos, Silvia; Bianchi Castelli, Jussara; Bacal, Fernando; Bocchi, Edimar A.; Uip, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii primary infection/reactivation after solid organ transplantation is a serious complication, due to the high mortality rate following disseminated disease. We performed a retrospective study of all cases of T. gondii infections in 436 adult patients who had received an orthotopic cardiac transplant at our Institution from May 1968 to January 2011. Six patients (1.3%) developed T. gondii infection/reactivation in the post-operative period. All infections/reactivations occurred before 1996, when no standardized toxoplasmosis prophylactic regimen or co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was used. Starting with the 112th heart transplant, oral pyrimethamine 75 mg/day was used for seronegative transplant recipients whose donors were seropositive or unknown. Two patients (33.3%) presented with disseminated toxoplasmosis infection, and all patients (100%) had myocarditis. Five patients (83.3%) were seronegative before transplant and one patient did not have pre-transplant serology available. Median time for infection onset was 131 days following transplantation. Three patients (50%) died due to toxoplasmosis infection. After 1996, we did not observe any additional cases of T. gondii infection/reactivation. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis in heart allographs was more frequent among seronegative heart recipients, and oral pyrimethamine was highly effective for the prevention of T. gondii infection in this population. PMID:23209479

  5. [Spanish heart transplant registry. 12th official report (1984-2000)].

    PubMed

    Almenar Bonet, L

    2001-11-01

    This paper outlines the general characteristics and results obtained with heart transplantation in Spain after including the data for the year 2000. In the course of last year 353 transplants were performed; along with the operations performed since 1984, this represents an overall total of 3445 transplants. The year 2000 was the first year in which the limit of 350 yearly operations was exceeded. The average clinical profile of the Spanish heart transplant patient corresponds to a male of about 50 years of age, with an A blood group, coronary disease that is not amenable to revascularization, and NYHA functional status IV/IV. In order to evaluate and compare this data register with others, it is important to take into account that on one hand it includes absolutely all the transplants performed in this country -thereby reliably reflecting the true situation of the technique in Spain- while on the other the analyses made are global and include high-risk transplants (urgent, recipients of advanced or paediatric age, retransplanted patients, heterotopic transplants, combined with lung, kidney and liver, etc.). The percentage of urgent heart transplants was 16%, a figure considerably lower than in previous years (20-25%). The mean early mortality in the past 10 years was 15%.Long-term survival has increased with respect to the records for last year, with a mean patient survival of 10.6 years. The probability of survival after 1, 5 and 10 years is 75, 63 and 51%, respectively. The most frequent causes of early death are infection and graft failure, while long-term survival is limited by tumors and vascular graft disease. In conclusion, we can say that our overall survival rate is slightly superior to that reported from other data records in the world literature. Nevertheless, a persisting challenge is to improve our results in the early phases of heart transplantation.

  6. Reframing the impact of combined heart-liver allocation on liver transplant waitlist candidates

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Reese, Peter P.; Amaral, Sandra; Abt, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous heart-liver transplantation, although rare, has become more common in the U.S. When the primary organ is a heart or liver, patients receiving an offer for the primary organ automatically receive the second, non-primary organ from that donor. This policy raises issues of equity—i.e. whether liver transplant-alone candidates bypassed by heart-liver recipients are disadvantaged. No prior published analyses have addressed this issue, and few methods have been developed as a means to measure the impact of such allocation policies. We analyzed OPTN match run data from 2007-2013 to determine whether this combined organ allocation policy disadvantages bypassed liver transplant waitlist candidates in a clinically meaningful way. Among 65 heart-liver recipients since May 2007, 42 had substantially higher priority for the heart relative to the liver, and bypassed 268 liver-alone candidates ranked 1-10 on these match runs. Bypassed patients had lower risk of waitlist removal for death or clinical deterioration compared to controls selected by match MELD score (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.79), and similar risk as controls selected by laboratory MELD score (HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.63-1.33) or on match runs of similar graft quality (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.73-1.37). The waiting time from bypass to subsequent transplantation was significantly longer among bypassed candidates versus controls on match runs of similar graft quality (median: 87 (IQR: 27-192) days versus 24 (5-79) days; p<0.001). Although transplant is delayed, liver transplant waitlist candidates bypassed by heart-liver recipients do not have excess mortality compared to three sets of matched controls. These analytic methods serve as a starting point to consider other potential approaches to evaluate the impact of multi-organ transplant allocation policies PMID:25044621

  7. Factors associated with improved outcomes after second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsed pediatric leukemia.

    PubMed

    Menon, Neethu N; Jenkins, Lydia M; Cui, Haiyan; Jenkins, Craig; Anwer, Faiz; Yeager, Andrew M; Katsanis, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    A second allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is an important therapeutic consideration for patients relapsing after their first. We conducted a retrospective review of 41 pediatric patients with leukemia that underwent a second allo-HCT at our institution. Overall, 53.7 and 43.9 % of patients were alive and disease-free at 1 and 5 years, respectively, after the second allo-HCT. The factors affecting outcome by both univariate and multivariate analysis were interval between transplants and the use of a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen prior to second transplant. Outcomes were inferior in patients who received their second transplant <6 months from their first HCT when compared to patients in whom the interval between HCTs was 6-12 or more than 12 months. Interval between HCTs was also significant when each type of leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) n = 21, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) n = 11, and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) n = 7) was analyzed separately. In univariate analysis, use of the same donor and use of a matched sibling donor resulted in significant improved outcome. There was not a significant association between disease-free survival (DFS) and age, remission status, use of total body irradiation (TBI) before second HCT, or type of leukemia. Second allogeneic HCT can be a curative therapeutic option for leukemia patients relapsing after their first transplant. As more targeted therapies have become available, patients that relapse after first HCT are more likely to achieve remission. Therefore, it is anticipated that there will be more candidates for second HCT with improved performance and remission status, ultimately leading to a better outcome with the second HCT.

  8. Transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The cornerstone events of transplantation history in Turkey are summarized herein. In 1975, we performed the first living-related renal transplant in Turkey. We followed this in 1978 with the first deceased donor kidney transplantation, using an organ supplied by Eurotransplant. In 1979, the law on harvesting, storage, grafting, and transplantation of organs and tissues was enacted; later that year, the first local deceased donor kidney transplantation was performed by our team. In 1988, another groundbreaking event in Turkey was successfully achieved: the first cadaveric liver transplantation. In 1990, the first pediatric living-related segmental liver transplantation in Turkey, the region, and Europe was performed by our team. One month later, an adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation was successfully performed. In May 1992, we performed the first combined liver-kidney transplantation from a living-related donor, which was the first operation of its kind. To date, we have performed 2,084 kidney and, since 1988, 439 liver transplantations. During 29 years of solid organ transplantation history in Turkey, 20,794 kidney transplants have been performed nationwide in 62 different centers, as well as 6,565 liver, 621 heart, and 168 pancreas transplants. In 2001, the Ministry of Health established the National Coordination Center as an umbrella organization to promote transplantation activities, especially for deceased donor organ procurement. Transplantation activities are accelerating daily throughout the country, but deceased donors are still far below the desired rates.

  9. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Michaels, M

    1991-01-01

    Between November 1988 and October 1989, 49 first-time pediatric liver transplant recipients at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh were prospectively monitored for the presence of stool colonization and the development of disease caused by vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (VRGPC). Quantitative stool culturing was done on a weekly basis, and cultures were planted onto a selective medium for VRGPC. Isolates for which the MIC was greater than or equal to 8 were considered resistant to vancomycin. Patients were monitored clinically for the development of infection, and their charts were systematically reviewed for the use of antibiotics. Eighty-six isolates were recovered from 36 of the 49 patients. Enterococcal species were isolated from 31 patients and included Enterococcus gallinarum (n = 28), E. casseliflavus (n = 14), E. faecium (n = 9), E. faecalis (n = 2), E. mundtii (n = 2), and E. durans (n = 1). Stool colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci was noted to increase steadily during the first month after transplantation. Only 9 of 31 patients demonstrated clearance of these organisms in serial repeat cultures. Additional isolates of VRGPC included Lactobacillus confusus (n = 13), Lactobacillus spp. (n = 12), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (n = 4). Infection due to VRGPC developed in three patients: a urinary tract infection in two and peritonitis in one. E. faecium was the pathogen in each of these cases. The ranges of MICs of vancomycin were 8 to 32 micrograms/ml for all enterococcal isolates and greater than 128 micrograms/ml for Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates. All Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin, although they were susceptible to daptomycin. All other isolates were susceptible to both teicoplanin and daptomycin. This study demonstrates that stool colonization with VRGPC may be a common and early finding among pediatric liver transplant recipients. However, infection appears to be uncommon. PMID

  10. Pediatric liver transplantation for urea cycle disorders and organic acidemias: United Network for Organ Sharing data for 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Perito, Emily R; Rhee, Sue; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Decision making concerning liver transplantation is unique for children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) and organic acidemias (OAs) because of their immediate high priority on the waiting list, which is not related to the severity of their disease. There are limited national outcome data on which recommendations about liver transplantation for UCDs or OAs can be based. This study was a retrospective analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing data for liver recipients who underwent transplantation at an age < 18 years in 2002-2012. Repeat transplants were excluded. Among the pediatric liver transplants, 5.4% were liver-only for UCDs/OAs. The proportion of transplants for UCDs/OAs increased from 4.3% in 2002-2005 to 7.4% in 2010-2012 (P < 0.001). Ninety-six percent were deceased donor transplants, and 59% of these patients underwent transplantation at <2 years of age. Graft survival improved as the age at transplant increased (P = 0.04). Within 5 years after transplantation, the graft survival rate was 78% for children < 2 years old at transplant and 88% for children ≥ 2 years old at transplant (P = 0.06). Vascular thrombosis caused 44% of the graft losses, and 65% of these losses occurred in children < 2 years old. Patient survival also improved as the age at transplant increased: the 5-year patient survival rate was 88% for children with UCDs/OAs who were <2 years old at transplant and 99% for children who were ≥2 years old at transplant (P = 0.006). At the last-follow-up (54 ± 34.4 months), children who underwent transplantation for UCDs/OAs were more likely to have cognitive and motor delays than children who underwent transplantation for other indications. Cognitive and motor delays for children with UCDs/OAs were associated with metabolic disorders, but they were not predicted by age or weight at transplant, sex, ethnicity, liver graft type (split versus whole), or hospitalization at transplant in univariate and

  11. Successful replacement of malfunctioning TCI HeartMate LVAD with DeBakey LVAD as a bridge to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Claudio F; Fratto, Pasquale A; Milazzo, Filippo; Vitali, Ettore

    2004-12-01

    Congestive heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in the developed world and affects about 0.4-2% of the adult population [Ann Thorac Surg 1999;68:637-40]. Heart transplantation remains the most effective therapy for end-stage heart disease, but the shortage of donors has led to increasing interest in other surgical options, especially ventricular assist devices (VAD). Several VADs are available to bridge patients to transplantation [N Engl J Med 2001;345:1435-43], including pulsatile devices like the HeartMate (HeartMate, Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) and Novacor (World Heart, Netherlands), and the DeBakey VAD (MicroMed Technology, Inc., Houston, TX), which is an electromagnetically driven implantable titanium axial flow blood pump designed for left ventricular support. Despite technical improvements, VADs still are associated with serious complications. We reporte a successfull case where we replaced a TCI HeartMate with a DeBakey VAD because of a serious pocket infection, deterioration and failure of the inflow valve.

  12. Treatment of rotavirus-associated diarrhea using enteral immunoglobulins for pediatric stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Devona

    2015-06-01

    Diarrhea is a common complication associated with allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplant patients. One potential cause of viral diarrhea is rotavirus gastroenteritis. This study represents a single-center experience of using multiple daily doses of enteral immunoglobulins in four pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with confirmed rotavirus infections. Four courses of enteral immunoglobulin administration were included for analysis. Clinical characteristics recorded included duration of diarrhea symptoms, frequency of bowel movements, and consistency of stool. Four single courses of enteral immunoglobulins in four patients were included for analysis. Patient age range was from 10 months to 14 years. Three out of four courses observed displayed an improvement in diarrhea frequency and/or stool consistency. Median time from therapy initiation to symptom improvement was three days. At a median 22-month follow-up, one patient was diagnosed with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease. The time to rotavirus symptom resolution was decreased, compared to historical controls, and improvement in stool frequency and consistency was observed in three of four courses. One case of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease was observed after nearly two years of follow-up. Enteral administration of immunoglobulins may represent a valid clinical option for hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with rotavirus diarrhea.

  13. Technical aspects and outcomes of living donor liver transplantation for pediatric patients with situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Rodrigo; Seda-Neto, Joao; Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes da; Ketzer, Bernardo Mazzini; Benavides, Marcel; Cândido, Helry Lopes; Porta, Gilda; Miura, Irene Kazue; Pugliese, Renata; Danesi, Vera Baggio; Guimaraes, Teresa Cristina; Porta, Adriana; Borges, Cristian Barbieri; Kondo, Mario; Chapchap, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The vascular anomalies encountered in patients with biliary atresia associated with polysplenia syndrome and situs inversus (SI) demand technical refinements when liver transplantation is being performed. The available data describing the technique used in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in this population are limited; the short vascular stumps of the donor's liver can impart additional technical difficulties during vascular reconstruction. Here we describe our experience with 9 children with biliary atresia and SI who underwent LDLT. In our series, the retrohepatic vena cava was absent for 7 patients, 7 had a preduodenal portal vein (PV), and 4 had a variant arterial anatomy. The donor's left hepatic vein was anastomosed to the confluence of the recipient's 3 hepatic veins in 7 patients. Vascular grafts were used for PV reconstruction in 3 cases. A left lateral segment graft was used in all but 1 patient who needed a graft reduction. All grafts were placed in the upper left abdomen. There were no vascular complications after transplantation. All patients were alive and well at a median follow-up of 55 months. In conclusion, LDLT can be successfully performed in pediatric patients with SI. Complex vascular anomalies associated with the use of partial liver grafts obtained from living donors are not associated with an increased occurrence of vascular complications.

  14. Biliary complications after pediatric liver transplantation: Risk factors, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Feier, Flavia H; da Fonseca, Eduardo A; Seda-Neto, Joao; Chapchap, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The expanded indications of partial grafts in pediatric liver transplantation have reduced waiting list mortality. However, a higher morbidity is observed, including an increased rate of biliary complications (BCs). Factors such as the type of graft, the preservation methods applied, the donor characteristics, the type of biliary reconstruction, and the number of bile ducts in the liver graft influences the occurrence of these complications. Bile leaks and strictures comprise the majority of post-transplant BCs. Biliary strictures require a high grade of suspicion, and because most children have a bileo-enteric anastomosis, its diagnosis and management rely on percutaneous hepatic cholangiography and percutaneous biliary interventions (PBI). The success rates with PBI range from 70% to 90%. Surgery is reserved for patients who have failed PBI. BCs in children after liver transplantation have a prolonged treatment and are associated with a longer length of stay and higher hospital costs. However, with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, patient and graft survival are not significantly compromised. PMID:26328028

  15. Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M S; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Bogers, A J J C; Hoerstrup, S P; Baaijens, F P T

    2013-08-09

    Transcatheter heart valve replacement is an attractive and promising technique for congenital as well as acquired heart valve disease. In this procedure, the replacement valve is mounted in a stent that is expanded at the aimed valve position and fixated by clamping. However, for this technique to be appropriate for pediatric patients, the material properties of the host tissue need to be determined to design stents that can be optimized for this particular application. In this study we performed equibiaxial tensile tests on four adult ovine pulmonary artery walls and compared the outcomes with one pediatric pulmonary artery. Results show that the pediatric pulmonary artery was significantly thinner (1.06 ± 0.36 mm (mean ± SD)) than ovine tissue (2.85 ± 0.40 mm), considerably stiffer for strain values that exceed the physiological conditions (beyond 50% strain in the circumferential and 60% in the longitudinal direction), more anisotropic (with a significant difference in stiffness between the longitudinal and circumferential directions beyond 60% strain) and presented stronger non-linear stress-strain behavior at equivalent strains (beyond 26% strain) compared to ovine tissue. These discrepancies suggest that stents validated and optimized using the ovine pre-clinical model might not perform satisfactorily in pediatric patients. The material parameters derived from this study may be used to develop stent designs for both applications using computational models.

  16. Anesthesia management of surgery for sigmoid perforation and acute peritonitis patient following heart transplantation: case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu-Li; Dai, Shu-Hong; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Yan; Sun, Yu-E; Ma, Zheng-Liang; Gu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Here we described a case in which a patient underwent emergency laparotomy for acute peritonitis and sigmoid perforation under general anesthesia with a history of heart transplantation. A good knowledge in the physiology of the transplanted heart is critical for effective and safe general anesthesia. We chose etomidate that have a weaker impact on cardiovascular function plus propofol for induction, and propofol plus cisatracurium for maintenance with intermittently analgesics and vasoactive drugs to facilitate the anesthesia. In addition, fluid input, electrolyte and acid-base balance were well adjusted during the whole procedure. The patient was in good condition after the surgery. In this case report we are aiming to provide some guidance for those scheduled for non-cardiac surgery after heart transplant.

  17. Three-dimensional replica of corrected transposition of the great arteries for successful heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Fukushima, Satsuki; Fukushima, Norihide; Shiraishi, Isao; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-03-30

    A 59-year-old man who had been previously diagnosed with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries at the age of 35 years became a candidate for heart transplantation. At the age of 57 years, he was referred to our hospital and underwent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (EVAHEART; Sun Medical Technology Research Corp., Suwa City, Japan) because of worsening ventricular function and was listed as a heart transplant candidate. A donor appeared when the patient was 59 years. A three-dimensional replica was made using data from computed tomography angiography. The three-dimensional replica was made of soft rubber (crossMedical, Inc., Kyoto, Japan), which enabled the surgeons to understand the relationship between the great arteries and chambers. After repeated dry laboratories using this replica, the patient underwent successful heart transplantation.

  18. Anesthesia management of surgery for sigmoid perforation and acute peritonitis patient following heart transplantation: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu-Li; Dai, Shu-Hong; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Yan; Sun, Yu-E; Ma, Zheng-Liang; Gu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Here we described a case in which a patient underwent emergency laparotomy for acute peritonitis and sigmoid perforation under general anesthesia with a history of heart transplantation. A good knowledge in the physiology of the transplanted heart is critical for effective and safe general anesthesia. We chose etomidate that have a weaker impact on cardiovascular function plus propofol for induction, and propofol plus cisatracurium for maintenance with intermittently analgesics and vasoactive drugs to facilitate the anesthesia. In addition, fluid input, electrolyte and acid-base balance were well adjusted during the whole procedure. The patient was in good condition after the surgery. In this case report we are aiming to provide some guidance for those scheduled for non-cardiac surgery after heart transplant. PMID:26379997

  19. Immunological monitoring of extracorporeal photopheresis after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dieterlen, M-T; Bittner, H B; Pierzchalski, A; Dhein, S; Mohr, F W; Barten, M J

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has been used as a prophylactic and therapeutic option to avoid and treat rejection after heart transplantation (HTx). Tolerance-inducing effects of ECP such as up-regulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known, but specific effects of ECP on regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets and dendritic cells (DCs) are lacking. We analysed different subsets of Tregs and DCs as well as the immune balance status during ECP treatment after HTx. Blood samples were collected from HTx patients treated with ECP for prophylaxis (n = 9) or from patients with histologically proven acute cellular rejection (ACR) of grade ≥ 1B (n = 9), as well as from control HTx patients without ECP (HTxC; n = 7). Subsets of Tregs and DCs as well as different cytokine levels were analysed. Almost 80% of the HTx patients showed an effect to ECP treatment with an increase of Tregs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). The percentage of pDCs before ECP treatment was significantly higher in patients with no ECP effect (26·3% ± 5·6%) compared to patients who showed an effect to ECP (9·8% ± 10·2%; P = 0·011). Analysis of functional subsets of CD4+CD25highCD127low Tregs showed that CD62L-, CD120b-and CD147-positive Tregs did not differ between the groups. CD39-positive Tregs increased during ECP treatment compared to HTxC. ECP-treated patients showed higher levels for T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 cytokines. Cytokine levels were higher in HTx patients with rejection before ECP treatment compared to patients with prophylactic ECP treatment. We recommend a monitoring strategy that includes the quantification and analysis of Tregs, pDCs and the immune balance status before and up to 12 months after starting ECP. PMID:24329680

  20. Novel application of a percutaneous left ventricular assist device as a bridge to transplant in a paediatric patient with severe heart failure due to viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Paul; David, Elizabeth; Atkins, Broadus; Raff, Gary

    2017-03-01

    A 13-year obese female with suspected viral myocarditis presented with acute decompensated heart failure. Due to her body habitus, she was a poor candidate for immediate heart transplantation. A peripherally inserted left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted via the right axillary artery. Following device insertion the patient experienced rapid improvement in symptoms. The LVAD provided effective left ventricular unloading for 50 days, promoting myocardial recovery and maintaining excellent patient performance status. The device placement strategy allowed for a high level of activity including completion of school-work and participation in a weight loss program. The patient achieved a 28-pound weight loss, thus improving candidacy for transplantation. Removal of the device was well tolerated and post-removal echocardiography revealed an improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from 21% at baseline to 38% after device removal. This case represents a successful application of a peripherally inserted LVAD as a bridge to transplant in a pediatric patient with severe heart failure due to suspected viral myocarditis. For select patients with this condition, a transaxillary LVAD should be considered as a therapeutic option as it is well tolerated and provides effective left ventricle unloading to promote myocardial recovery and maintain performance status.

  1. Pediatric ventricular assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Burki, Sarah; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David Luis Simon

    2015-01-01

    The domain of pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has recently gained considerable attention. Despite the fact that, historically, the practice of pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has lagged behind that of adult patients, this gap between the two groups is narrowing. Currently, the Berlin EXCOR VAD is the only pediatric-specific durable VAD approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The prospective Berlin Heart trial demonstrated a successful outcome, either bridge to transplantation (BTT), or in rare instances, bridge to recovery, in approximately 90% of children. Also noted during the trial was, however, a high incidence of adverse events such as embolic stroke, bleeding and infection. This has incentivized some pediatric centers to utilize adult implantable continuous-flow devices, for instance the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD, in children. As a result of this paradigm shift, the outlook of pediatric VAD support has dramatically changed: Treatment options previously unavailable to children, including outpatient management and even destination therapy, have now been becoming a reality. The sustained demand for continued device miniaturization and technological refinements is anticipated to extend the range of options available to children—HeartMate 3 and HeartWare MVAD are two examples of next generation VADs with potential pediatric application, both of which are presently undergoing clinical trials. A pediatric-specific continuous-flow device is also on the horizon: the redesigned Infant Jarvik VAD (Jarvik 2015) is undergoing pre-clinical testing, with a randomized clinical trial anticipated to follow thereafter. The era of pediatric VADs has begun. In this article, we discuss several important aspects of contemporary VAD therapy, with a particular focus on challenges unique to the pediatric population. PMID:26793341

  2. Clinical Outcomes of Heart-Lung Transplantation: Review of 10 Single-Center Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae Kwang; Choi, Se Hoon; Park, Seung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart-lung transplantation (HLT) has provided hope to patients with end-stage lung disease and irreversible heart dysfunction. We reviewed the clinical outcomes of 10 patients who underwent heart-lung transplantation at Asan Medical Center. Methods Between July 2010 and August 2014, a total of 11 patients underwent HLT at Asan Medical Center. After excluding one patient who underwent concomitant liver transplantation, 10 patients were enrolled in our study. We reviewed the demographics of the donors and the recipients’ baseline information, survival rate, cause of death, and postoperative complications. All patients underwent follow-up, with a mean duration of 26.1±16.7 months. Results Early death occurred in two patients (20%) due to septic shock. Late death occurred in three patients (38%) due to bronchiolitis obliterans (n=2) and septic shock (n=1), although these patients survived for 22, 28, and 42 months, respectively. The actuarial survival rates at one year, two years, and three years after HLT were 80%, 67%, and 53%, respectively. Conclusion HLT is a procedure that is rarely performed in Korea, even in medical centers with large heart and lung transplant programs. In order to achieve acceptable clinical outcomes, it is critical to carefully choose the donor and the recipient and to be certain that all aspects of the transplant procedure are planned in advance with the greatest care. PMID:27298792

  3. In vitro evaluation of the TandemHeart pediatric centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Svitek, Robert G; Smith, Douglas E; Magovern, James A

    2007-01-01

    The pediatric TandemHeart pump is being developed for short-term circulatory support of patients varying in size from 2 to 40 kg. The pump withdraws blood from the left atrium via cannula inserted percutaneously, either through the right internal jugular vein or transhepatically, and pumps the blood back into the arterial system via the carotid or femoral artery. High resolution stereolithography (SLA) was used to create an upper housing and impeller design, which were assembled into a functional pump prototype. Pressure-flow characteristics of the pump were determined in a blood analogue solution and compared with the pressure-flow requirements of the intended cannulation. At 5,500 rpm, the pump was able to generate 0.4 L/min of flow with a pressure rise of 325 mm Hg and 2.0 L/min with a pressure rise of 250 mm Hg. The hydraulic performance of the pump will enable at least 50% of cardiac output when the arterial cannula is placed in the carotid artery. The hemolysis of the TandemHeart pediatric pump at 5,500 rpm was compared with the BP-50 pediatric centrifugal pump in vitro using bovine blood flowing at 0.4 L/min against 250 mm Hg. The TandemHeart pump produced a similar increase in plasma free hemoglobin levels during the duration of the 6 hour test.

  4. How to Improve the Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Ischemic Heart?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangpeng; Chen, Xiongwen; Wang, Wei Eric; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is an intensely studied stem cell type applied for cardiac repair. For decades, the preclinical researches on animal model and clinical trials have suggested that MSC transplantation exerts therapeutic effect on ischemic heart disease. However, there remain major limitations to be overcome, one of which is the very low survival rate after transplantation in heart tissue. Various strategies have been tried to improve the MSC survival, and many of them showed promising results. In this review, we analyzed the studies in recent years to summarize the methods, effects, and mechanisms of the new strategies to address this question. PMID:26681958

  5. Bayesian analysis of recurrent event with dependent termination: an application to a heart transplant study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Bichun; Sinha, Debajyoti; Slate, Elizabeth H; Van Bakel, Adrian B

    2013-07-10

    For a heart transplant patient, the risk of graft rejection and risk of death are likely to be associated. Two fully specified Bayesian models for recurrent events with dependent termination are applied to investigate the potential relationships between these two types of risk as well as association with risk factors. We particularly focus on the choice of priors, selection of the appropriate prediction model, and prediction methods for these two types of risk for an individual patient. Our prediction tools can be easily implemented and helpful to physicians for setting heart transplant patients' biopsy schedule.

  6. Guide to Your Health Care: After Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your temperature: • How often should I take my temperature? _____________________________ • I should call my transplant coordinator or physician if my temperature is ______° F or _____ ° C or higher. • If I ...

  7. Hypercholesterolemia increases coronary endothelial dysfunction, lipid content, and accelerated atherosclerosis after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perrault, L P; Mahlberg, F; Breugnot, C; Bidouard, J P; Villeneuve, N; Vilaine, J P; Vanhoutte, P M

    2000-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia may increase endothelial damage and promote accelerated atherogenesis in graft coronary vasculopathy. To study the effects of hypercholesterolemia on coronary endothelial dysfunction, intimal hyperplasia, and lipid content, a porcine model of heterotopic heart transplantation, allowing nonacute rejection without immunosuppressive drugs, was used. A high cholesterol diet was fed to donor and recipient swine 1 month before and after transplantation. The endothelial function of coronary arteries of native and transplanted hearts from cholesterol-fed animals was studied in organ chambers 30 days after implantation and compared with endothelial function in arteries from animals fed a normal diet. The total serum cholesterol increased 3-fold in donors and recipients. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to serotonin, to the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK14,304, and to the direct G-protein activator sodium fluoride were decreased significantly in allografted hearts compared with native hearts from both groups. Relaxations to the calcium ionophore A23187 and bradykinin were decreased significantly in allografts from animals fed the high cholesterol diet. The prevalence of intimal hyperplasia was significantly increased in coronary arteries from hypercholesterolemic swine. There was a significant increase in the lipid content of allograft arteries of hypercholesterolemic recipients. Hypercholesterolemia causes a general coronary endothelial dysfunction, increases the prevalence of intimal hyperplasia, and augments the incorporation of lipids in the vascular wall after heart transplantation. Hyperlipidemia accelerates graft coronary atherosclerosis through its effects on the endothelium.

  8. Combined heart and kidney transplantation: an effective therapeutic option--report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Colucci, V; Quaini, E; Magnani, P; Colombo, T; De Carlis, L; Grassi, M; Merli, M; Pellegrini, A

    1997-10-01

    Six cases of combined heart and kidney transplantation with organs from the same donor are reported. All six patients suffered from primary end-stage kidney disease, two chronic glomerulonephritis, two glomerulosclerosis, one chronic pyelonephritis and one with unknown etiology. Four patients were undergoing hemodialysis. Three patients had the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, one dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to congenital heart disease, two idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Five were males and one female. Ages ranged from 38 to 54 years. On-site or short-distance young donors with normal renal function and good cardiac function necessitating low inotropic support were selected. ABO compatibility was used exclusively. Orthotopic heart transplantation was performed first. During cardiopulmonary bypass, hemofiltration was used in four cases. Kidney transplantation was performed immediately after the closure of the chest. Diuresis was immediate in all cases. No cardiac rejection was documented at EMB. Renal function normalized within few days with no signs of kidney rejection. All six patients are alive and well with normal cardiac and renal function at a mean follow-up of 43 months. Patients and donors selection associated with a proper surgical strategy and prompt immunosuppressive therapy administration make the combined heart and kidney transplantation an effective therapeutic option.

  9. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  10. First report of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activities in the eastern mediterranean region from 1984 to 2011: on behalf of the pediatric cancer working committee of the eastern mediterranean blood and marrow transplantation group.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A A; Hamidieh, A A; Elhaddad, A; Ramzi, M; Othman, T B; Hussain, F; Dennison, D; Ahmed, P; Abboud, M; Al-Ahmari, A; Wahadneh, A; Fathy, J; Bekadja, M-A; Al-Kindi, S; Benchekroun, S; Ibrahim, A; Behfar, M; Samra, M; Ladeb, S; Adil, S; El-Solh, H; Ayas, M; Aljurf, M; Ghavamzadeh, A; Al-Seraihy, A

    2017-01-01

    To describe the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activities for children in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region, data on transplants performed for children less than 18 years of age between 1984 and 2011 in eight EM countries (Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) were collected. A total of 5187 transplants were performed, of which 4513 (87%) were allogeneic and 674 (13%) were autologous. Overall, the indications for transplantation were malignant diseases in 1736 (38.5%) and non-malignant in 2777 (61.5%) patients. A myeloablative conditioning regimen was used in 88% of the allografts. Bone marrow (BM) was the most frequent source of stem cells (56.2%), although an increasing use of PBSC was observed in the last decade. The stem cell source of autologous HSCT has shifted over time from BM to PBSC, and 80.9% of autologous HSCTs were from PBSCs. The donors for allogeneic transplants were matched-related in 94.5% of the cases, and unrelated transplants, mainly cord blood (99%) in 239 (5.5%) cases. This is the first report to describe the pediatric HSCT activities in EM countries. Non-malignant disorders are the main indication for allogeneic transplantation. Frequency of alternate donor transplantation is low.

  11. A consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2014--an update from the Pulmonary Transplantation Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weill, David; Benden, Christian; Corris, Paul A; Dark, John H; Davis, R Duane; Keshavjee, Shaf; Lederer, David J; Mulligan, Michael J; Patterson, G Alexander; Singer, Lianne G; Snell, Greg I; Verleden, Geert M; Zamora, Martin R; Glanville, Allan R

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate selection of lung transplant recipients is an important determinant of outcomes. This consensus document is an update of the recipient selection guidelines published in 2006. The Pulmonary Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) organized a Writing Committee of international experts to provide consensus opinion regarding the appropriate timing of referral and listing of candidates for lung transplantation. A comprehensive search of the medical literature was conducted with the assistance of a medical librarian. Writing Committee members were assigned specific topics to research and discuss. The Chairs of the Writing Committee were responsible for evaluating the completeness of the literature search, providing editorial support for the manuscript, and organizing group discussions regarding its content. The consensus document makes specific recommendations regarding the timing of referral and of listing for lung transplantation. These recommendations include discussions not present in previous ISHLT guidelines, including lung allocation scores, bridging to transplant with mechanical circulatory and ventilator support, and expanded indications for lung transplantation. In the absence of high-grade evidence to support decision making, these consensus guidelines remain part of a continuum of expert opinion based on available studies and personal experience. Some positions are immutable. Although transplant is rightly a treatment of last resort for end-stage lung disease, early referral allows proper evaluation and thorough patient education. Subsequent waiting list activation implies a tacit agreement that transplant offers a significant individual survival advantage. It is both the challenge and the responsibility of the transplant community globally to ensure organ allocation maximizes the potential benefits of a scarce resource, thereby achieving that advantage.

  12. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a pediatric living-related kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Greco, Andres J; Baluarte, Jorge H; Meyers, Kevin E C; Sellers, Marty T; Suchi, Mariko; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Kaplan, Bernard S

    2005-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma can occur in children who have received renal allografts from adults. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare variant of renal carcinoma with distinct histochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic characteristics. We describe the incidental finding of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a 13 1/2-year-old boy 5 years after receiving a living-related renal transplant. This tumor was found by serendipity during the evaluation of fever and inguinal lymphadenopathy, with the presumptive diagnosis of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. The patient was found to have cat-scratch disease. A renal cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pediatric recipient of an adult kidney with an incidental finding of a tumor in the graft.

  13. Transplantation of autologously derived mitochondria protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Masuzawa, Akihiro; Black, Kendra M.; Pacak, Christina A.; Ericsson, Maria; Barnett, Reanne J.; Drumm, Ciara; Seth, Pankaj; Bloch, Donald B.; Levitsky, Sidney; Cowan, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction occur during ischemia and modulate cardiac function and cell survival significantly during reperfusion. We hypothesized that transplantation of autologously derived mitochondria immediately prior to reperfusion would ameliorate these effects. New Zealand White rabbits were used for regional ischemia (RI), which was achieved by temporarily snaring the left anterior descending artery for 30 min. Following 29 min of RI, autologously derived mitochondria (RI-mitochondria; 9.7 ± 1.7 × 106/ml) or vehicle alone (RI-vehicle) were injected directly into the RI zone, and the hearts were allowed to recover for 4 wk. Mitochondrial transplantation decreased (P < 0.05) creatine kinase MB, cardiac troponin-I, and apoptosis significantly in the RI zone. Infarct size following 4 wk of recovery was decreased significantly in RI-mitochondria (7.9 ± 2.9%) compared with RI-vehicle (34.2 ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). Serial echocardiograms showed that RI-mitochondria hearts returned to normal contraction within 10 min after reperfusion was started; however, RI-vehicle hearts showed persistent hypokinesia in the RI zone at 4 wk of recovery. Electrocardiogram and optical mapping studies showed that no arrhythmia was associated with autologously derived mitochondrial transplantation. In vivo and in vitro studies show that the transplanted mitochondria are evident in the interstitial spaces and are internalized by cardiomyocytes 2–8 h after transplantation. The transplanted mitochondria enhanced oxygen consumption, high-energy phosphate synthesis, and the induction of cytokine mediators and proteomic pathways that are important in preserving myocardial energetics, cell viability, and enhanced post-infarct cardiac function. Transplantation of autologously derived mitochondria provides a novel technique to protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:23355340

  14. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after pediatric solid organ transplantation: experiences of 20 years in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyung Joo; Ahn, Yo Han; Park, Eujin; Choi, Youngrok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Ko, Jae Sung; Min, Sang Il; Ha, Jong Won; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical spectrum of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) in children. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 18 patients with PTLD who underwent liver (LT) or kidney transplantation (KT) between January 1995 and December 2014 in Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Results Eighteen patients (3.9% of pediatric SOTs; LT:KT, 11:7; male to female, 9:9) were diagnosed as having PTLD over the last 2 decades (4.8% for LT and 2.9% for KT). PTLD usually presented with fever or gastrointestinal symptoms in a median period of 7 months after SOT. Eight cases had malignant lesions, and all the patients except one had evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) involvement, assessed by using in situ hybridization of tumor tissue or EBV viral load quantitation of blood. Remission was achieved in all patients with reduction of immunosuppression and/or rituximab therapy or chemotherapy, although 1 patient had allograft kidney loss and another died from complications of chemotherapy. The first case of PTLD was encountered after the introduction of tacrolimus for pediatric SOT in 2003. The recent increase in PTLD incidence in KT coincided with modification of clinical practice since 2012 to increase the tacrolimus trough level. Conclusion While the outcome was favorable in that all patients achieved complete remission, some patients still had allograft loss or mortality. To prevent PTLD and improve its outcome, monitoring for EBV infection is essential, which would lead to appropriate modification of immunosuppression and enhanced surveillance for PTLD. PMID:28392824

  15. Success rates of long-term circulatory assist devices used currently for bridge to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arabia, F A; Smith, R G; Rose, D S; Arzouman, D A; Sethi, G K; Copeland, J G

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory assist devices as bridge to heart transplantation have become more important as the number of possible recipients has increased and the number of donors remains stable. The number of patients successfully bridged and discharged home after transplantation was determined for the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Oakland, CA) (LVAS), console and wearable; the TCI Left Ventricular Assist Device (Thermo Cardio Systems Inc., Woburn, MA) (LVAD), pneumatic and electric; the Thoratec LVAD and Biventricular Assist Device (Thoratec Lab Co., Berkeley, CA) (BIVAD); and the CardioWest total artificial heart (CardioWest Tech. Inc., Tuscon, AZ) (TAH). A total of 1,286 devices (14% Novacor console, 14% Novacor wearable, 35% TCI pneumatic, 4% TCI electric, 10% thoratec LVAD, 19% Thoratec BIVAD, and 4% CardioWest TAH) were implanted worldwide since 1984. A total of 776 (60%) patients reached heart transplantation and 687 patients (88.5% of those transplanted) were discharged home. The individual success rate for each device to bridge a patient to heart transplantation and be discharged home is as follows: Novacor LVAS console, 90%; Novacor LVAS wearable, 92%; TCI LVAD pneumatic, 89%; TCI LVAD electric, 89%; Thoratec LVAD, 93%; Thoratec BIVAD, 81%; and CardioWest TAH, 92%. The success rate with all the available systems to bridge a patient to heart transplantation and be discharged home is similar for all devices. The criteria used to determine which system to be used should be individualized for each patient. Some of the factors that should be considered in making a decision on which device to use should include anticoagulation, univentricular vs biventricular failure, mobility, protocol to discharge home, and size of the patient.

  16. Clinical Research Careers: Reports from a NHLBI Pediatric Heart Network Clinical Research Skills Development Conference

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wyman W.; Richmond, Marc; Li, Jennifer S.; Saul, J. Philip; Mital, Seema; Colan, Steven D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; McCrindle, Brain W.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Marino, Bradley S.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Evans, Frank; Scott, Jane D.; Cohen, Meryl S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Wyman W. Lai, MD, MPH, and Victoria L. Vetter, MD, MPH. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded under the U.S. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH–NHLBI), includes two Clinical Research Skills Development (CRSD) Cores, which were awarded to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and to the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York–Presbyterian. To provide information on how to develop a clinical research career to a larger number of potential young investigators in pediatric cardiology, the directors of these two CRSD Cores jointly organized a one-day seminar for fellows and junior faculty from all of the PHN Core sites. The participants included faculty members from the PHN and the NHLBI. The day-long seminar was held on April 29, 2009, at the NHLBI site, immediately preceding the PHN Steering Committee meeting in Bethesda, MD. Methods The goals of the seminar were 1) to provide fellows and early investigators with basic skills in clinical research 2) to provide a forum for discussion of important research career choices 3) to introduce attendees to each other and to established clinical researchers in pediatric cardiology, and 4) to publish a commentary on the future of clinical research in pediatric cardiology. Results The following chapters are compilations of the talks given at the 2009 PHN Clinical Research Skills Development Seminar, published to share the information provided with a broader audience of those interested in learning how to develop a clinical research career in pediatric cardiology. The discussions of types of clinical research, research skills, career development strategies, funding, and career management are applicable to research careers in other areas of clinical medicine as well. Conclusions The aim of this compilation is to stimulate those who might be interested in the research career options available to investigators. PMID:21167335

  17. Factors Associated With Parental Activation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Davies, Stella M.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Patel, Sunita; Bingen, Kristin; Kupst, Mary Jo; Schwartz, Lisa; Guinan, Eva C.; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation, the extension of self-efficacy into self-management, is an essential component of effective chronic care. In pediatric populations, caregiver activation is also needed for proper disease management. This study investigates the relationships between parental activation and other characteristics of parent–child dyads (N = 198) presenting for pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Parental activation concerning their child’s health was assessed using the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), a modified version of the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Using hierarchical linear regression and following the Belsky process model for determining parenting behaviors, a multivariate model was created for parental activation on behalf of their child that showed that the parent’s age, rating of their own general health, self-activation, and duration of the child’s illness were significantly related to Parent-PAM score. Our findings characterize a potentially distinct form of activation in a parent–child cohort preparing for a demanding clinical course. PMID:22203645

  18. Gene expression profiling for monitoring graft rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Leiro, M G; Paniagua-Martín, M J; Hermida-Prieto, M; Castro-Beiras, A

    2009-01-01

    Heart transplantation is a life-prolonging therapy for many patients with stage D heart failure and other forms of advanced heart disease. However, graft rejection and/or immunosuppression-related side effects are major causes of morbidity and death among heart transplant patients. Graft rejection monitoring remains a challenge. It would be desirable to be able to detect rejection early enough and specifically enough to prevent allograft dysfunction without unnecessary overimmunosuppression. Hitherto, the main technique employed in monitoring the rejection status of a transplanted heart has been endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), which allows rejection to be screened for and monitored on the basis of the extent and distribution of lymphocytic infiltrates and associated myocardial damage. However, EMB has significant limitations: it is invasive, its sensitivity is limited by sampling efficacy, and it suffers from considerable between-observer variability. Although many noninvasive techniques have been investigated, none so far has proved able to match the performance of EMB. Currently, a multiparametric approach is employed that comprises clinical examination for signs or symptoms of heart failure, EMBs, drug level monitoring, allograft function tests (mainly echocardiographic studies), and screening for allograft vasculopathy. Gene expression profiling may be a promising tool for this purpose.

  19. Changing Factors associated with Parent Activation after Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Bingen, Kristin; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Patel, Sunita K.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Guinan, Eva C.; Kupst, Mary Jo; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors associated with parent activation in parents of children undergoing pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the 6 months following HSCT, and to address if their association with parent activation changes over time. Methods Measures for this analysis, including the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), were completed by parents (N=198) prior to their child’s HSCT preparative regimen and again at 6 months post-HSCT. Clinical data were also collected. A repeated measures model was built to estimate the association between clinical and demographic factors and parent well-being on Parent-PAM scores. Interactions with time were considered to test for changing effects over time. Results Throughout the HSCT course, older parent age was associated with lower Parent-PAM scores (β=−0.29, p=0.02) and never being married was associated with higher scores (versus married, β=12.27, p=0.03). While higher parent emotional functioning scores were not associated with activation at baseline, they were important at 6 months (baseline: β=−0.002, p=0.96; interaction: β=0.14, p=0.03). At baseline longer duration of illness was associated with increased activation, but this effect diminished with time (baseline: β=3.29, p=0.0002; interaction: β=−2.40, p=0.02). Activation levels dropped for parents of children who went from private to public insurance (baseline: β=2.95, p=0.53; interaction: β=−13.82, p=0.004). Clinical events did not affect Parent-PAM scores. Conclusions Our findings reveal important changes in the factors associated with parent activation in the first 6 months after pediatric HSCT. These findings may reflect the emotional and financial toll of pediatric HSCT on parent activation. PMID:25519755

  20. Fetal and neonatal imaging and strategy of primary neonatal heart transplantation in hypoplastic left heart with Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Hammel, James M; Danford, David A; Spicer, Robert L; Kutty, Shelby

    2015-03-01

    We present the anatomic constellation of mitral stenosis/aortic atresia variant of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Ebstein's anomaly, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, an exceeding rare congenital heart defect. Prenatal echocardiography led to concern about the capacity of the right ventricle to increase cardiac output with lung expansion and pulmonary arterial runoff at birth, prompting the precaution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenator standby at delivery. Stage I palliation was not attempted, and control of pulmonary arterial blood flow was achieved with pulmonary artery banding, allowing sufficient ongoing hemodynamic stability. Orthotopic cardiac transplantation, repair of hypoplastic aortic arch, and primary sutureless repair of left pulmonary veins was performed, using dual-site arterial cannulation and continuous mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. We discuss how this unique echocardiographic anatomy influenced the surgical decision and point out how it guided therapy toward a strategy of primary transplantation rather than standard staged surgical palliation.

  1. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonio Hernandez; Kittleson, Michelle M; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W David; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-02-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus-accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation.

  2. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Seropositive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kittleson, Michelle M.; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W. David; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus—accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation. PMID:27047290

  3. Etiology and management of alimentary tract ulcers in pediatric intestinal transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, G; Sarkar, S; Mittal, N; Acar, B C; Weppler, D; Kato, T; Tryphonopoulos, P; Tzakis, A; Ruiz, P

    2006-01-01

    Patients who undergo intestinal transplantation encounter several complications in the posttransplant period, one of them being ulcer formation in the alimentary tract. During postoperative endoscopic monitoring of 112 pediatric intestinal transplantation patients at our institution, we identified chronic ulcer formation in 11 patients. There were no common or defining demographic or clinical variables that were found in the patients with ulcers. The ulcers could be located within the allograft or in native tissue. Biopsies were obtained from the ulcer edge and the intervening mucosa as well as an evaluation of possible infectious agents. The most common changes in the ulcers were compatible with Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD; seven cases), acute rejection (six cases), and less commonly, infectious causes (one case). These changes could occur concomitantly and retrospective analysis after therapy showed that the ulcers could have multiple etiologies. Directed biopsies of ulcer edges often displayed morphological changes compatible with acute rejection of the graft, although some biopsies of the intervening mucosa did not show similar changes. Some patients treated based on the changes within the intervening mucosa responded well and led to resolution of the ulcers. Our findings demonstrate that PTLD and acute rejection are the most common causes of chronic ulcer formation and that biopsy samples should be collected simultaneously from both the ulcer edge and intervening mucosa since pathological changes can vary depending on the underlying cause(s). Infectious agents were rarely present but could be seen superimposed with the underlying cause.

  4. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  5. Is ABO mismatch another risk factor for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric thalassemic patients?

    PubMed

    Atay, Didem; Erbey, Fatih; Akcay, Arzu; Ozturk, Gulyuz

    2015-09-01

    The ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient is not considered a barrier to successful allogeneic HSCT. Nevertheless, conflicting data still exist about the influence of ABO incompatibility on transplant outcome in pediatric patients with thalassemia. Fifty-one children with beta-thalassemia major who underwent allogeneic HSCT were enrolled this study. Twenty-three of them (45%) received an ABO-incompatible transplant [minor ABO mismatch: six (26%), major ABO mismatch: fourteen (61%), and bidirectional mismatch: three (13%)]. In this study, ABO incompatibility did not significantly impair GVHD, VOD, neutrophil and platelet engraftment, TRM, OS and TFS. Particularly in major and bidirectional ABO-mismatched patients, a delayed erythroid recovery was recorded as compared to the group receiving an ABO-compatible graft (median time, 31 and 38 days vs. 19.5 days; p: 0.02 and p: 0.03). Median time to red cell transfusion independence was significantly longer in major ABO-incompatible patients (median time, 87 days vs. 32 days; p: 0.001). Therefore, whenever feasible, major ABO-mismatched donors should be avoided in HSCT recipients, to prevent delayed erythroid recovery with prolonged RBC transfusion needs and impaired quality of life.

  6. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  7. Recurrence of gingival overgrowth in CO2 laser-treated heart-transplant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rysky, Carlo; Forni, Franco

    1993-07-01

    In this work we update our report about CO2 laser surgery used to remove hypertrophic gingiva in patients under cyclosporine treatment after heart-transplant. The indications and basic results were confirmed, but we present two cases where a second surgery was needed to remove recurrent overgrowing gingival tissue.

  8. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement for bicuspid aortic stenosis 13years post heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maureen B; Desai, Nimesh; Brozena, Susan; Herrmann, Howard C

    2016-12-16

    Despite the widespread use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for moderate and high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, it is utilized less frequently in patients with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV). Orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) donors tend to be younger and may have undiagnosed BAV. We present a case of successful TAVR in a patient with BAV thirteen years after OHT.

  9. Left ventricular assist device and heart transplantation in hemophilia a patient.

    PubMed

    Quader, Mohammed; Rusina, Zane; Lewis, Neil P; Martin, Lisa; Katlaps, Gundars

    2013-12-01

    We report here a hemophilia patient who was bridged with a left ventricle assist device and later received heart transplantation. Preparation for surgery with factor VIII supplementation, intraoperative conduct of surgery, and challenges of postoperative course are described with a brief literature review.

  10. Isoflurane compared with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia in patients undergoing heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Che-Hao; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Huang, Go-Shine; Lu, Chih-Cherng; Ho, Shung-Tai; Liaw, Wen-Jinn; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Tso-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inhalation anesthetics provide myocardial protection for cardiac surgery. This study was undertaken to compare the perioperative effects between isoflurane and fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia for heart transplantation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of heart transplantation in a single medical center from 1990 to 2013. Patients receiving isoflurane or fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia were included. Those with preoperative severe pulmonary, hepatic, or renal comorbidities were excluded. The perioperative variables and postoperative short-term outcomes were analyzed, including blood glucose levels, urine output, inotropic use, time to extubation, and length of stay in the intensive care units. After reviewing 112 heart transplantations, 18 recipients with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia, and 29 receiving isoflurane anesthesia with minimal low-flow technique were analyzed. After cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass, recipients with isoflurane anesthesia had a significantly lower mean level and a less increase of blood glucose, as compared with those receiving fentanyl-based anesthesia. In addition, there was less use of dobutamine upon arriving the intensive care unit and a shorter time to extubation after isoflurane anesthesia. Compared with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia, isoflurane minimal low-flow anesthesia maintained better perioperative homeostasis of blood glucose levels, less postoperative use of inotropics, and early extubation time among heart-transplant recipients without severe comorbidities. PMID:27583900

  11. First case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by heart transplantation from donor to recipient.

    PubMed

    Weile, Jan; Eickmeyer, Holm; Dreier, Jens; Liebke, Michael; Fuchs, Uwe; Wittke, Johann-Wolfgang; Richter, Elvira; Gummert, Jan; Knabbe, Cornelius; Schulz, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    We report the first documented case of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by an orthotopic heart transplantation from the donor to the recipient. Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive blood culture showed systemic prevalence of the Mycobacteria, however, prophylactic therapy was able to prevent a clinical manifestation of tuberculosis in the recipient.

  12. [Predictors of survival after heart transplantation: role of pretransplantation and posttransplantation factors].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskiĭ, Iu P; Kurlianskaia, E K; Rachok, L V; Sidorenko, G I; Valentiukovich, A V; Koliadko, M G; Ostrovskiĭ, A Iu; Shumovets, V V; Denisevich, T L; Trofimova, T A

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the impact of pre- and posttransplantation factors on 12-month survival after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Annual survival after OHT was 79.2%. The following factors were significantly negatively associated with annual survival: recipient's serum C-reactive protein (CRP) > or = 11.5 mg/ml prior to donor heart transplant (odds ratio [OR] 5.74, p = 0.011) and infectious complications after OHT (OR = 4.80, p = 0.009). Recipient's high CRP level was associated with mortality due to infectious complications (r(pb) = 0.47, p = 0.006), elevated troponin I concentrations (r(s) = 0.44, p = 0.012), and impaired hemodynamics of both recipient's heart and graft: right ventricular (RV) end diastolic area (EDA) prior to OHT (r(s) = 0.41, p = 0.015), elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (r(s) = 0.36, p < 0.001), and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r(s) = -0.45, p < 0.001) of the transplanted heart. Hearts of those who died after OHT irrespective of cause of death were characterized by more severe right heart dilation as evidenced by statistically significant increase of median RV EDA prior to OHT. After heart transplantation in those who later died decreased RV contractility was accompanied with elevation of PAP and decrease of LVEF. Acute graft rejection events 71.4% of which occurred in patients younger than 30 years had no influence on survival during 12 months after OHT. Other factors not associated with 12 months survival were donor and recipient age, pretransplant pathology, patient's UNOS status, graft ischemia duration, artificial circulatory support and preexistent surgical interventions. Development of diabetes mellitus in posttransplantation period, arterial hypertension and sinus node dysfunction requiring permanent pacing also were not identified as factors affecting 1 year survival after OTH.

  13. Parental Emotional Functioning Declines with Occurrence of Clinical Complications in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Terrin, Norma; Rodday, Angie Mae; Tighiouart, Hocine; Chang, Grace; Parsons, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Parents’ stress levels are high prior to their child's hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and during transplant hospitalization, usually abating after discharge. Nevertheless, a subgroup of parents continues to experience frequent anxiety and mood disruption, the causes of which are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical complications of HSCT could explain variation in parents’ recovery of emotional functioning. Methods Pediatric HSCT recipients (n=165) aged 5 to 18 and their parents were followed over the first year post-transplant. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessments and medical chart reviews were performed at each time period (baseline, 45 days, 3, 6, and 12 months). We tested the association between clinical complications (acute and chronic graft versus host disease - aGVHD and cGVHD, organ toxicity, and infection) and longitudinally measured parental emotional functioning, as assessed by the Child Health-Ratings Inventories (CHRIs). The models used maximum likelihood estimation with repeated measures. Results In adjusted analyses covering the early time period (45 days and 3 months), aGVHD grade ≥ 2, intermediate or poor organ toxicity, and systemic infection were associated with decreases in mean parental emotional functioning of 5.2 (p=0.086), 5.8 (p=0.052), and 5.1 (p=0.023) points, respectively. In the later time period (6 and 12 months) systemic infection was associated with a decrease of 20 points (p<0.0001). cGVHD was not significantly associated. Conclusions When children experience clinical complications after HSCT, parental emotional functioning can be impacted. Intervening at critical junctures could mitigate potential negative consequences for parents and their children. PMID:22936494

  14. Transdiaphragmatic hernia 1 year after heart transplantation following implantable LVAD.

    PubMed

    Mouly-Bandini, Annick; Chalvignac, Virginie; Collart, Frederic; Caus, Thierry; Guidon, Catherine; Giudicelli, Roger; Mesana, Thierry

    2002-10-01

    Complications after ventricular assist devices placement most frequently consist of bleeding, infection, and thromboembolic events. We describe a late complication after transplantation caused by transdiaphragmatic connection of the device placed in the abdominal position that presented as an acute pulmonary syndrome, misleading initial diagnosis.

  15. [Logistic, technic and postoperative complications of lung and heart-lung transplantations].

    PubMed

    Bonnette, P

    2010-02-01

    In France, the "Agence de la biomédecine" distributes lung grafts. "Ideal" criteria for lung donor selection are not always respected, driven by the scarcity of suitable donor lungs (10% deaths while waiting). In single lung transplantation, three anastomoses are performed (bronchus near the lobar carina, pulmonary artery, left atrium). For double lung transplantation (twice as frequent around the world), two single lung transplantations are successively performed through two separate anterolateral thoracotomies, often without cardiopulmonary bypass. Heart lung transplantations are now rare (2% around the world). Postoperative mortality has improved (between 10 and 15%): less severe primary graft dysfunctions, treatable with ECMO, fewer bronchial complications, improvement in the diagnosis of hyperacute humoral rejection, improvement in antiviral prophylaxis.

  16. Heart transplantation and cardiac amyloidosis: approach to screening and novel management strategies.

    PubMed

    Varr, Brandon C; Liedtke, Michaela; Arai, Sally; Lafayette, Richard A; Schrier, Stanley L; Witteles, Ronald M

    2012-03-01

    Limited data exist regarding screening methods and outcomes for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) in cardiac amyloidosis. As a result, uncertainty exists over the best approach to OHT for cardiac amyloidosis and for the timing of critical post-transplant therapies. This article reviews 6 patients who underwent OHT for cardiac amyloidosis at the Stanford University Amyloid Center from 2008 to present. All patients with light-chain amyloidosis received chemotherapy in the interval between OHT and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Five patients remain alive up to 25 months after OHT, without evidence of recurrent cardiac amyloid deposition. A novel strategy of OHT, followed by light-chain suppressive chemotherapy before autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant, is feasible for patients with light-chain amyloidosis.

  17. Surgical Management of Perforated Gastrointestinal Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder After Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hideki; Uemura, Mamoru; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a relatively rare and life-threatening complication after organ transplantation. From 1999 to 2012, 45 adult patients underwent heart transplantation at our hospital. Two of the patients developed PTLD after transplantation and required emergency surgery due to intestinal perforation. These cases were informative regarding the adequate surgical management of such cases. Both cases revealed Epstein-Barr virus-related PTLD. The optimal treatment of PTLD remains controversial, and PTLD with gastrointestinal perforation could be critical because the patients are already debilitated and immunocompromised after transplantation. Therefore, the nonspecific abdominal symptoms can be diagnostic for PTLD, and proper surgical intervention should be performed immediately. We present these two suggestive and rare cases in regard to the management of perforation with PTLD and a review of literature. PMID:25692442

  18. Hypogammaglobulinemia after heart transplantation: use of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in relapsing CMV disease.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, E; Fernàndez-Yáñez, J; Muñoz, P; Palomo, J; Rodríguez-Molina, J J; Bermejo, J; Catalan, P; Bouza, E; Fernández-Cruz, E; Carbone, J

    2005-01-01

    Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia after heart transplantation may follow immunosuppressive therapy with the resultant increased risk of infections, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. There is limited information on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IVIG) in heart-transplanted patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and CMV disease. We present data on five consecutive heart-transplanted patients with relapsing CMV disease, four of whom developed gastrointestinal disease. The immunosuppressive regimen included prednisone, cyclosporine A, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Evaluation revealed CMV antigenemia. All the patients had been treated with intravenous ganciclovir. In addition, hyperimmune CMV immunoglobulin was administered in three patients. Significantly reduced levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) were observed in the patients as compared with 15 heart-transplanted individuals without CMV disease [mean IgG levels: 323+/-18 and 639+/-63 mg/dl, respectively (p=0.003)]. IVIG [FLEBOGAMMA], 200-400 mg/kg every 21 days with the goal of maintaining normal serum IgG levels, was added for the treatment of CMV disease. Selected batches with the highest anti-CMV titers were set apart for the treatment of the patients. IVIG treatment, in combination with antiviral therapy, proved able to control CMV disease. There was a favorable clinical response and the patients became free of gastrointestinal symptoms. Detection of CMV antigens was negative after treatment. During IVIG therapy no immediate or delayed adverse effects were observed. Even if our survey was limited to five cases, the results suggest that addition of IVIG to antiviral chemotherapy might improve outcome in heart-transplanted patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and CMV disease.

  19. The American Heart Association's recent scientific statement on cardiac critical care: implications for pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Penny, Daniel J; Shekerdemian, Lara S

    2013-01-01

    A writing group sponsored by the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation, the Council on Clinical Cardiology, the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research of The American Heart Association has recently formulated a roadmap to meet the changing needs of the patient with cardiovascular disease requiring critical care. Although this roadmap has been formulated primarily to address the care needs of the adult with critical cardiovascular disease, it contains useful lessons pertinent to the care of the patient with pediatric and congenital cardiovascular disease. In this document, we have examined The Statement and applied its framework to the evolving field of pediatric cardiac critical care.

  20. Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension: Guidelines From the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Abman, Steven H; Hansmann, Georg; Archer, Stephen L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Adatia, Ian; Chung, Wendy K; Hanna, Brian D; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Raj, J Usha; Cornfield, David; Stenmark, Kurt R; Steinhorn, Robin; Thébaud, Bernard; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Kuehne, Titus; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Friedberg, Mark K; Earing, Michael; Barst, Robyn J; Keller, Roberta L; Kinsella, John P; Mullen, Mary; Deterding, Robin; Kulik, Thomas; Mallory, George; Humpl, Tilman; Wessel, David L

    2015-11-24

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with diverse cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases in neonates, infants, and older children and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. However, current approaches to caring for pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension have been limited by the lack of consensus guidelines from experts in the field. In a joint effort from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society, a panel of experienced clinicians and clinician-scientists was assembled to review the current literature and to make recommendations on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. This publication presents the results of extensive literature reviews, discussions, and formal scoring of recommendations for the care of children with pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Heart transplant for anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Kiron K S; Zisman, Lawrence S; Lader, Ellis; Dimova, Aneta; Canver, Charles C

    2003-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a congenital coronary artery malformation most commonly present in infancy. A variety of surgical procedures have been described to achieve physiological correction of the coronary flow abnormalities. These techniques are effective as long as there is potential for myocardial recovery. However the sequelae of chronic myocardial ischemia that characterize this entity often irreversibly damage the heart and preclude correction and palliation of the native anomaly. In this type of setting, heart transplantation is a realistic option. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) occasionally presents in adulthood. Anatomic repair with a two coronary artery system may not be optimal in patients presenting with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We report an adult patient with platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for ALCAPA.

  2. Improvement of Heart Failure by Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Razavi Tousi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Molazem, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham; Darbandi Azar, Amir; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, stem cells have been considered for the treatment of heart diseases, but no marked improvement has been recorded. This is the first study to examine the functional and histological effects of the transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) in rats with heart failure (HF). Methods: This study was conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. 35 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 equal experimental groups (7 rats each) as 1- Control 2- Heart Failure (HF) 3- Sham 4- Culture media 5- Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT). Heart failure was induced using 170 mg/kg/d of isoproterenol subcutaneously injection in 4 consecutive days. The failure confirmed by the rat cardiac echocardiography on day 28. In SCT group, 3×106 cells in 150 µl of culture media were transplanted to the myocardium. At the end, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters together with histological evaluation were done. Results: Echocardiography results showed that cardiac ejection fraction in HF group increased from 58/73 ± 9% to 81/25 ± 6/05% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Fraction shortening in HF group was increased from 27/53 ± 8/58% into 45/55 ± 6/91% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Furthermore, hAMSCs therapy significantly improved mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate pressure product, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared to those in the HF group, with the values reaching the normal levels in the control group. A marked reduction in fibrosis tissue was also found in the SCT group (p value < 0.001) compared with the animals in the HF group. Conclusion: The transplantation of hAMSCs in rats with heart failure not only decreased the level of fibrosis but also conferred significant improvement in heart performance in terms of echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters. PMID:27956912

  3. Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device: Multilayer Membrane Rupture in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Filippelli, Sergio; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Secinaro, Aurelio; Zielinski, Krystzof; Amodeo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    A 2-year-old child was implanted with an Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany) as a bridge to heart transplantation for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. At postoperative day 296, a significant reduction of membrane movement was observed. The device was explanted and tested on a hydronumerical circulation simulator. Findings suggested that the integrity of the multilayered membrane had been compromised. This was confirmed by a computed tomography scan of the device. The computed tomography evidenced a detachment of the 3-layered membrane, with a thinner, convex layer on the side of the air chamber and an opposite convexity of the remaining membranes. These showed an additional air space within the layers.

  4. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  5. Religion and the Catholic church's view on (heart) transplantation: a recent statement of Pope Benedict XVI and its practical impact.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ernst R; Rosanio, Salvatore

    2011-09-01

    Heart transplantation is performed on approximately 4,000 patients per year worldwide and is considered the last resort for treatment of end-stage heart diseases. Due to persistent organ shortage, resources are limited, waiting periods are extensive, and patients still die while being on a waiting list for transplantation. The role of all churches and the support of the representatives of the churches are critical for the spiritual wellbeing of patients awaiting heart transplantation as well as for prospective individual organ donors and their families. The supportive role of the Roman Catholic Church and the recent statement of Pope Benedict XVI on organ donation are discussed.

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with SonoVue in the evaluation of postoperative complications in pediatric liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, G.; Pezzotta, G.; Morzenti, C.; Agazzi, R.; Nani, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced sonography in the study of pediatric liver transplant recipients and its potential impact in reducing the need for invasive diagnostic procedures. Materials and methods From October 2002 to December 2003 we performed routine color Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound studies on 30 pediatric patients who had undergone liver transplantation. Findings indicative of complications were confirmed with invasive studies (angiography, computed tomography, and PTC). Results Contrast-enhanced sonography correctly identified four of the five cases of hepatic artery thrombosis and all those involving the portal (n = 6) and hepatic vein (n = 3) thrombosis. It failed to identify one case of hepatic artery thrombosis characterized by collateral circulation arising from the phrenic artery and the single case of hepatic artery stenosis. The latter was more evident on color Doppler, which revealed a typical tardus parvus waveform. The use of contrast offered no significant advantages in the study of biliary complications although it did provide better visualization of bile leaks. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced sonography improves diagnostic confidence and reduces the need for more invasive imaging studies in the postoperative follow-up of pediatric liver transplant recipients. PMID:23396596

  7. Gallium-67 imaging in human heart transplantation: correlation with endomyocardial biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Meneguetti, J.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Soares, J. Jr.; Bellotti, G.; Bocchi, E.; Higuchi, M.L.; Stolff, N.; Hironaka, F.H.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Pileggi, F.

    1987-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy seems to be the most accurate method to use for diagnosis and follow-up of acute rejection of the transplanted heart. This investigation compared a noninvasive procedure, gallium-67 imaging, with endomyocardial biopsy in the detection of acute rejection in heart transplantation. Seven male patients (aged 41 to 54 years) sequentially had 46 gallium-67 scintigrams and 46 endomyocardial biopsies between 1 week and 8 months after transplantation. Both studies were obtained in the same day, 48 hours after the administration of an intravenous injection of gallium-67 citrate. Cardiac uptake was graded as negative, mild, moderate, and marked according to an increasing count ratio with rib and sternal uptakes. Histologic findings were graded as negative, mild acute rejection, moderate acute rejection, severe acute rejection, resolving rejection, and nonspecific reaction. Negative biopsies were not found with moderate uptake, and neither moderate nor severe acute rejection were found with negative scintigrams. Imaging sensitivity was 83% with 17% false negatives and 9% false positives. Of seven studies with moderate uptake, five showed moderate acute rejection, and the patients had specific therapy with a decline in uptake, which correlated with resolving rejection. It is conceivable that in the future this technique may be used as a screening procedure for sequential endomyocardial biopsies in the follow-up of heart transplant patients.

  8. Heart transplantation in patients with chronic hepatitis B: clinical evolution, molecular analysis, and effect of treatment.

    PubMed

    Zampino, Rosa; Marrone, Aldo; Ragone, Enrico; Costagliola, Loredana; Cirillo, Grazia; Karayiannis, Peter; Ruggiero, Giuseppe; Utili, Riccardo

    2005-11-15

    We evaluated clinical evolution and hepatitis B virus (HBV) molecular changes in heart recipients with chronic HBV infection before transplantation, and studied the effects of lamivudine treatment in patients who experienced HBV reactivation. Nine patients with chronic HBV infection who underwent heart transplantation were investigated. HBV surface/core-promoter/precore/core regions were sequenced. Prior to transplantation, all nine patients had consistently normal ALT and low HBV-DNA levels. Seven experienced HBV reactivation after transplantation (ALT elevated, HBV-DNA>200.000 cps/ml). Lamivudine treatment was initially effective in all patients; three patients during the second year of treatment developed lamivudine resistance-associated mutations (rt-L180M, rt-M204V) with severe disease reactivation, remitted after switch to adefovir treatment. No other significant HBV mutations were identified in the genomic regions studied. Immune suppression is crucial in the reactivation of previous inactive HBV infection and in the liver disease progression in heart recipients. Preemptive lamivudine treatment could be useful in the early management of these patients.

  9. Serum Endocan Levels Associated with Hypertension and Loss of Renal Function in Pediatric Patients after Two Years from Renal Transplant

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Livia Victorino; Oliveira, Vanessa; Laurindo, Aline Oliveira; Huarachı, DelmaRegına Gomes; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar Koch; Feltran, Luciana de Santis; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an important biomarker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that increases in association with several chronic diseases. Few published data have described the role of endocan in pediatric renal transplant (RT) patients. We evaluated the endocan concentrations in 62 children who underwent renal transplantation and assessed their relationships with the patients' blood pressure and loss of renal function. The endocan levels were significantly elevated in the pediatric RT patients who had hypertension and a loss of renal function. We determined positive correlations between the endocan concentrations and the hemodynamic variables (systolic blood pressure: r = 0.416; P = 0.001; pulse pressure: r = 0.412; P = 0.003). The endocan levels were inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = −0.388; P = 0.003). An endocan cutoff concentration of 7.0 ng/mL identified pediatric RT patients who had hypertension and a loss of renal function with 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. In conclusion, the endocan concentrations were significantly elevated in pediatric RT patients who had both hypertension and a loss of renal function. The correlations between the endocan levels and the hemodynamic variables and the markers of renal function strengthen the hypothesis that it is an important marker of cardiorenal risk. PMID:28083150

  10. A high-volume heart transplantation center in an Islamic country.

    PubMed

    Canver, Charles C; Al Buraiki, Jehad A; Saad, Elias; Yousafzai, Sajjad M; Al Ahmadi, Mamdouh D; Al Sanei, Aly M

    2011-06-01

    Cardiac transplants are performed sporadically or not at all in the majority of predominantly Muslim countries in the Middle East. We examined our experience in 76 patients who underwent heart transplantation between January 2005 and May 2010 in our center in Saudi Arabia. Excluded were 50 transplants performed between 1989 and 2004, due to incomplete data. Primary outcomes were complications, 30-day and late mortality rates, and 1-year survival. The heart transplant activity between 2005 and 2010 (15.0 per year) was 4.5-fold higher than that between 1989 and 2004 (3.3 per year). There were 61 (80%) men and 15 (20%) women, with a mean age of 35 years (range, 13-57 years). The mean waiting list time was 64 days (range, 1-262 days), and hospital stay was 30 days (range, 12-166 days). Major complications were infection (10), low-grade rejection (9), reoperation for hemorrhage (8), and sternal dehiscence (2). The 30-day mortality was 7.8% (6/76). Actuarial survival was 87.4% at 1 year and 81.5% at 3 years. A hospital in a Muslim country can increase cardiac transplant activity with excellent 30-day mortality and early survival comparable to that in worldwide counterparts.

  11. Short sirolimus half-life in pediatric renal transplant recipients on a calcineurin inhibitor-free protocol

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, A. D.; Meyers, K. E.; Spaneas, L. D.; Palmer, J. A.; Salmanullah, M.; Baluarte, J.; Brayman, K. L.; Harmon, W. E.

    2005-01-01

    Immunosuppression with SRL may provide an opportunity to avoid long-term exposure to the nephrotoxicity of CNI. Thus, we have initiated an experimental protocol of IL-2r antibody induction , prednisone, MMF and SRL in pediatric renal transplant recipients (median age 15.5 yr, IQR 8.5, range 1.3–21.7). The recipients were treated with daclizumab every2 wk for the first 2 months, prednisone on a tapering schedule, MMF at 1200 mg/m2/dayand SRL given b.i.d. The SRL was dosed to achieve defined target whole blood 12-h trough levels. We performed 24 SRL PK profiles in 13 stable pediatric renal transplant recipients at 1 and 3 months post-transplant. Half-life (T1/2) and terminal T1/2 were 9.7 (7.1–24.6) and 10.8 (4.4–95.2) hours (median, range) respectively at month 1, and were 9.6 (5–17.8) and 12.1 (4.7–71.0) hours respectively at month 3. SRL trough levels correlated with AUC (r2 = 0.84, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between SRL and 2 mycophenolic acid (MPA) AUC values (r2 = 0.04). During the first 3 months post-transplant only one patient experienced severe neutropenia and another patient had subclinical (histologic) evidence of a mild acute rejection episode with no change in renal function. We conclude that the T1/2 of SRL in pediatric renal transplant recipients not treated with CNI is much shorter than what has been reported for adults, due to rapid metabolism. We conclude that children require SRL dosing every12 h, higher doses and frequent drug monitoring to achieve target SRL concentrations. PMID:15049798

  12. Short sirolimus half-life in pediatric renal transplant recipients on a calcineurin inhibitor-free protocol.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Asher D; Meyers, K E; Spaneas, L D; Palmer, J A; Salmanullah, M; Baluarte, J; Brayman, K L; Harmon, W E

    2004-04-01

    Immunosuppression with SRL may provide an opportunity to avoid long-term exposure to the nephrotoxicity of CNI. Thus, we have initiated an experimental protocol of IL-2r antibody induction, prednisone, MMF and SRL in pediatric renal transplant recipients (median age 15.5 yr, IQR 8.5, range 1.3-21.7). The recipients were treated with daclizumab every 2 wk for the first 2 months, prednisone on a tapering schedule, MMF at 1200 mg/m(2)/day and SRL given b.i.d. The SRL was dosed to achieve defined target whole blood 12-h trough levels. We performed 24 SRL PK profiles in 13 stable pediatric renal transplant recipients at 1 and 3 months post-transplant. Half-life (T(1/2)) and terminal T(1/2) were 9.7 (7.1-24.6) and 10.8 (4.4-95.2) hours (median, range) respectively at month 1, and were 9.6 (5-17.8) and 12.1 (4.7-71.0) hours respectively at month 3. SRL trough levels correlated with AUC (r(2) = 0.84, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between SRL and mycophenolic acid (MPA) AUC values (r(2) = 0.04). During the first 3 months post-transplant only one patient experienced severe neutropenia and another patient had subclinical (histologic) evidence of a mild acute rejection episode with no change in renal function. We conclude that the T(1/2) of SRL in pediatric renal transplant recipients not treated with CNI is much shorter than what has been reported for adults, due to rapid metabolism. We conclude that children require SRL dosing every 12 h, higher doses and frequent drug monitoring to achieve target SRL concentrations.

  13. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. 3d.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-04-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous /sup 111/In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures.

  14. Analysis of deaths in patients awaiting heart transplantation: impact on patient selection criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, G. A.; Rickenbacher, P. R.; Trindade, P. T.; Gullestad, L.; Jiang, J. P.; Schroeder, J. S.; Vagelos, R.; Oyer, P.; Fowler, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical characteristics of patients who died on the Stanford heart transplant waiting list and to develop a method for risk stratifying status 2 patients (outpatients). METHODS: Data were reviewed from all patients over 18 years, excluding retransplants, who were accepted for heart transplantation over an eight year period from 1986 to 1994. RESULTS: 548 patients were accepted for heart transplantation; 53 died on the waiting list, and 52 survived on the waiting list for over one year. On multivariate analysis only peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2: 11.7 (SD 2.7) v 15.1 (5.2) ml/kg/min, P = 0.02) and cardiac output (3.97 (1.03) v 4.79 (1.06) litres/min, P = 0.04) were found to be independent prognostic risk factors. Peak VO2 and cardiac index (CI) were then analysed in the last 141 consecutive patients accepted for cardiac transplantation. All deaths and 88% of the deteriorations to status 1 on the waiting list occurred in patients with either a CI < 2.0 or a VO2 < 12. In those with a CI < 2.0 and a VO2 < 12, 38% died or deteriorated to status 1 in the first year on the waiting list. Patients with CI > or = 2.0 and a VO2 > or = 12 all survived throughout follow up. Using a Cox's proportional hazards model with CI and peak VO2 as covariates, tables were constructed predicting the chance of surviving for (a) 60 days and (b) 1 year on the waiting list. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a basis for risk stratification of status 2 patients on the heart transplant waiting list. PMID:8665337

  15. Impact on postoperative bleeding and cost of recombinant activated factor VII in patients undergoing heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Allison L.; Lowery, Ashleigh V.; Pajoumand, Mehrnaz; Pham, Si M.; Slejko, Julia F.; Tanaka, Kenichi A.; Mazzeffi, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac transplantation can be complicated by refractory hemorrhage particularly in cases where explantation of a ventricular assist device is necessary. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been used to treat refractory bleeding in cardiac surgery patients, but little information is available on its efficacy or cost in heart transplant patients. Methods: Patients who had orthotopic heart transplantation between January 2009 and December 2014 at a single center were reviewed. Postoperative bleeding and the total costs of hemostatic therapies were compared between patients who received rFVIIa and those who did not. Propensity scores were created and used to control for the likelihood of receiving rFVIIa in order to reduce bias in our risk estimates. Results: Seventy-six patients underwent heart transplantation during the study period. Twenty-one patients (27.6%) received rFVIIa for refractory intraoperative bleeding. There was no difference in postoperative red blood cell transfusion, chest tube output, or surgical re-exploration between patients who received rFVIIa and those who did not, even after adjusting with the propensity score (P = 0.94, P = 0.60, and P = 0.10, respectively). The total cost for hemostatic therapies was significantly higher in the rFVIIa group (median $10,819 vs. $1,985; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis of patients who underwent redo-sternotomy with left ventricular assist device explantation did not show any benefit for rFVIIa either. Conclusions: In this relatively small cohort, rFVIIa use was not associated with decreased postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing heart transplantation; however, it led to significantly higher cost. PMID:27397445

  16. Postoperative complications necessitating right lower lobectomy in a heart-lung transplant recipient with previous sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, E B; Bahadir, I; Gordon, M; Maki, P; Warner, M G; Clark, R; Siever, J; Silverthorn, A

    1987-09-01

    Heart-lung transplantation for treatment of end-stage cardiopulmonary disease continues to be plagued by many problems. Three primary ones are the technical difficulties that can be encountered, particularly in those patients who have undergone previous cardiac operations, the additional restriction on donor availability imposed by the lack of satisfactory preservation techniques, and the need for lung size compatibility. Two of these difficulties and others surfaced postoperatively in a heart-lung transplant recipient who presented a series of unique operative and therapeutic challenges. A 42-year-old woman with chronic pulmonary hypertension and previous atrial septal defect repair underwent a heart-lung transplantation in August 1985. The operative procedure was expectedly complicated by bleeding from extensive mediastinal adhesions from the previous sternotomy and bronchial collateralization. Excessive chest tube drainage postoperatively necessitated reoperation to control bleeding from a right bronchial artery tributary. Phrenic nerve paresis, hepatomegaly, and marked abdominal distention caused persistent atelectasis and eventual right lower lobe collapse. Arteriovenous shunting and low oxygen saturation necessitated right lower lobectomy 15 days after transplantation, believed to be the first use of this procedure in a heart-lung graft recipient. Although oxygenation improved dramatically, continued ventilatory support led to tracheostomy. An intensive, psychologically oriented physical therapy program was initiated to access and retrain intercostal and accessory muscles. The tracheostomy cannula was removed after 43 days and gradual weaning from supplemental oxygen was accomplished. During this protracted recovery period, an episode of rejection was also encountered and successfully managed with steroid therapy. The patient continued to progress satisfactorily and was discharged 83 days after transplantation. She is well and active 20 months after discharge.

  17. Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Hepatic Artery Stenosis in Adult and Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Maruzzelli, Luigi; Miraglia, Roberto Caruso, Settimo; Milazzo, Mariapina; Mamone, Giuseppe; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous endovascular techniques for the treatment of hepatic artery stenosis (HAS) occurring after liver transplantation (LT) in adult and pediatrics patients. From February 2003 to March 2009, 25 patients (15 adults and 10 children) whose developed HAS after LT were referred to our interventional radiology unit. Technical success was achieved in 96% (24 of 25) of patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in 13 patients (7 children), and stenting was performed in 11 patients (2 children). After the procedure, all patients were followed-up with liver function tests, Doppler ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. Mean follow-up was 15.8 months (range 5 days to 58 months). Acute hepatic artery thrombosis occurred immediately after stent deployment in 2 patients and was successfully treated with local thrombolysis. One patient developed severe HA spasm, which reverted after 24 h. After the procedure, mean trans-stenotic pressure gradient decreased from 30.5 to 6.2 mmHg. Kaplan-Meyer curve of HA primary patency was 77% at 1 and 2 years. During the follow-up period, 5 patients (20%) had recurrent stenosis, and 2 patients (8.3%) had late thrombosis. Two of 7 patients with stenosis/thrombosis underwent surgical revascularization (n = 1) and liver retransplantation (n = 1). Six (25%) patients died during follow-up, but overall mortality was not significantly different when comparing patients having patent hepatic arteries with those having recurrent stenosis/thrombosis. There were no significant differences in recurrent stenosis/thrombosis and mortality comparing patients treated by PTA versus stenting and comparing adult versus pediatric status. Percutaneous interventional treatment of HAS in LT recipients is safe and effective and decreases the need for surgical revascularization and liver retransplantation. However, the beneficial effects for survival are not clear, probably because

  18. Posaconazole plasma concentration in pediatric patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Werner J; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin M; Klinker, Hartwig; Blume, Olivia; Feucht, Judith; Hartmann, Ulrike; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Lang, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert; Döring, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Posaconazole has been proven to be effective for antifungal prophylaxis in adults after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to low gastrointestinal resorption of posaconazole suspension, bioavailability is impaired. Fatty food improves the uptake of posaconazole, but insufficient data on the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in pediatric patients are available so far. The single-center analysis investigated 161 posaconazole serum concentrations in 27 pediatric patients after HSCT receiving 12 mg·kg BW(-1)·d(-1) posaconazole suspension depending on age, gender, and intestinal graft-versus-host (iGvHD) disease, and the influence of posaconazole on cyclosporine A plasma concentrations. To improve the uptake of posaconazole, one patient cohort received higher fat nutrition with the drug administration. A comparison of the regular nutrition and higher-fat nutrition groups revealed the following values: 31 (27.4%) versus 8 (16.7%) < 500 ng/ml; 12 (10.6%) versus 7 (14.6%) 500-700 ng/ml; 8 (7.1%) versus 6 (12.5%) 700-1000 ng/ml; 51 (45.1%) versus 21 (43.8%) 1000-2000 ng/ml; and 11 (9.7%) versus 6 (12.5%) > 2000 ng/ml. The mean posaconazole concentrations in patients with regular nutrition was 1123 ± 811 ng/ml and with higher-fat nutrition was 1191 ± 673 ng/ml. Posaconazole levels in patients with iGvHD were significantly lower (P = 0.0003) than in patients without GvHD. The majority of samples showed a sufficient posaconazole concentration above 700 ng/ml. Posaconazole levels were slightly higher in patients with higher-fat nutrition and significantly lower in patients with iGvHD. Cyclosporine A levels were not significantly higher during posaconazole administration.

  19. Making strides and meeting challenges in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation clinical trials in the United States: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Satwani, Prakash; Kahn, Justine; Jin, Zhezhen

    2015-11-01

    Over the past 20years, the field of pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has made ground-breaking strides in the successful treatment of patients with both malignant and non-malignant diseases. As the field advances, so does the need for high-quality studies including randomized controlled trials, aimed at answering clinically important questions about optimizing care and outcomes of children undergoing alloHCT. In an effort to actively address emerging clinical questions, three main cooperative groups in the U.S. have joined forces to develop and implement multiple clinical trials for pediatric alloHCT patients. These groups include the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, the Children's Oncology Group and the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium. Though the field of stem cell transplantation continues to advance, conducting clinical trials in the pediatric population is a unique challenge and as a result, optimal outcomes have yet to be reached in this population. Because of the limited number of pediatric transplant patients at each institution in the U.S., trials aimed at answering important clinical questions still struggle to accrue acceptable numbers of patients in an appropriate amount of time and thus gathering statistically useful data has posed a challenge for the field. In an effort to mitigate some of the challenges associated with obtaining statistically and clinically meaningful information about pediatric alloHCT, the implementation of new cooperative group trials is active and ongoing.

  20. Building A New Treatment For Heart Failure-Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cells into the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Imanishi, Yukiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Masuda, Shigeo; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Advanced cardiac failure is a progressive intractable disease and is the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Since this pathology is represented by a definite decrease in cardiomyocyte number, supplementation of functional cardiomyocytes into the heart would hypothetically be an ideal therapeutic option. Recently, unlimited in vitro production of human functional cardiomyocytes was established by using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which avoids the use of human embryos. A number of basic studies including ours have shown that transplantation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) into the damaged heart leads to recovery of cardiac function, thereby establishing “proof-of-concept” of this iPSC-transplantation therapy. However, considering clinical application of this therapy, its feasibility, safety, and therapeutic efficacy need to be further investigated in the pre-clinical stage. This review summarizes up-to-date important topics related to safety and efficacy of iPSC-CMs transplantation therapy for cardiac disease and discusses the prospects for this treatment in clinical studies.

  1. The effects of interferon-alpha/beta in a model of rat heart transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, A. D.; Klein, J. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Ogden, L. L. 2nd; Gray, L. A. Jr

    1992-01-01

    Interferons have multiple immunologic effects. One such effect is the activation of expression of cell surface antigens. Interferon alpha/beta enhance expression of class I but not class II histocompatibility antigens. Contradictory information has been published regarding the effect of interferon-alpha/beta administration in patients with kidney transplantation. In a model of rat heart transplantation we demonstrated that administration of interferon-alpha/beta accelerated rejection in a dose-dependent fashion in the absence of maintenance cyclosporine. Animals treated with maintenance cyclosporine had evidence of increased rejection at 20 days that was resolved completely at 45 days with cyclosporine alone.

  2. Outcome of the first successful heart-lung transplantation in the Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Raimondas; Malakauskas, Kęstutis; Jankauskienė, Loreta; Jakuška, Povilas; Bolys, Ramūnas; Pociūtė, Evelina; Boguševičius, Vaidotas; Benetis, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Successful heart-lung complex transplantation was performed in a 48-year-old man. During the postoperative period, M. tuberculosis infection was diagnosed, and the treatment subsequently started. One year after, the patient was urgently hospitalized due to myocardial infarction. However, despite the best efforts, the patient died. Antituberculosis treatment is recommended to all the patients with confirmed active tuberculosis. Treatment of tuberculosis in transplant recipients is similar to that of the general population, with the exclusion of rifamycins in the regimen and longer duration of treatment.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance and proton relaxation times in experimental heterotopic heart transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene, M.; Lechat, P.; Hadjiisky, P.; Teillac, A.; Grosgogeat, Y.; Cabrol, C.

    1986-01-01

    It should be possible to detect heart transplant rejection by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging if it induces myocardial T1 and T2 proton relaxation time alterations or both. We studied 20 Lewis rats after a heterotopic heart transplantation. In vitro measurement of T1 and T2 was performed on a Minispec PC20 (Bruker) 3 to 9 days after transplantation. Histologic analysis allowed the quantification of rejection process based on cellular infiltration and myocardiolysis. Water content, a major determinant of relaxation time, was also studied. T1 and T2 were significantly prolonged in heterotopic vs orthotopic hearts (638 +/- 41 msec vs 606 +/- 22 msec for T1, p less than 0.01 and 58.2 +/- 8.4 msec vs 47.4 +/- 1.9 msec for T2, p less than 0.001). Water content was also increased in heterotopic hearts (76.4 +/- 2.3 vs 73.8 +/- 1.0, p less than 0.01). Most importantly, we found close correlations between T1 and especially T2 vs water content, cellular infiltration, and myocardiolysis. We conclude that rejection reaction should be noninvasively detected by NMR imaging, particularly with pulse sequences emphasizing T2.

  4. Successful transplantation of rat hearts subjected to extended cold preservation with a novel preservation solution.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Hirokata, Gentaro; Shibasaki, Susumu; Fukumori, Daisuke; Haga, Sanae; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Michitaka; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Since prolonged cold preservation of the heart deteriorates the outcome of heart transplantation, a more protective preservation solution is required. We therefore developed a new solution, named Dsol, and examined whether Dsol, in comparison to UW, could better inhibit myocardial injury resulting from prolonged cold preservation. Syngeneic heterotopic heart transplantation in Lewis rats was performed after cold preservation with UW or Dsol for 24 or 36 h. In addition to graft survival, myocardial injury, ATP content, and Ca(2+) -dependent proteases activity were assessed in the 24-h preservation group. The cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after 24-h cold preservation was assessed. Dsol significantly improved 7-day graft survival after 36-h preservation. After 24-h preservation, Dsol was associated with significantly faster recovery of ATP content and less activation of calpain and caspase-3 after reperfusion. Dsol diminished graft injury significantly, as revealed by the lower levels of infarction, apoptosis, serum LDH and AST release, and graft fibrosis at 7-day. Dsol significantly inhibited Ca(2+) overload during cold preservation. Dsol inhibited myocardial injury and improved graft survival by suppressing Ca(2+) overload during the preservation and the activation of Ca(2+) -dependent proteases. Dsol is therefore considered a better alternative to UW to ameliorate the outcome of heart transplantation.

  5. Detection of mediastinitis after heart transplantation by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Quirce, R.; Serano, J.; Arnal, C.; Banzo, I.; Carril, J.M. )

    1991-05-01

    We report the findings of a patient with post-cardiac transplant mediastinitis detected by {sup 67}Ga-citrate imaging. Fever and leukocytosis were the first clinical signs suggesting infection. The usual diagnostic modalities, including CT and ultrasound, failed to identify the site of infection. A {sup 67}Ga scan showed intense abnormal uptake behind the sternum. The site of uptake was shown by necropsy to be necrotic tissue involving cardiac sutures, pulmonary arteries, and the aorta due to infection with Haemophilus aphrophilus.

  6. Pilot study describing the use of pravastatin in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Butani, Lavjay; Pai, Monica V; Makker, Sudesh P

    2003-06-01

    Renal transplant (Tx) recipients frequently develop hypercholesterolemia. Pravastatin (P) has been shown to be effective in adult renal Tx recipients, not only in reducing serum cholesterol, but possibly also in decreasing graft rejection. However, there are no data on the use of P in children following renal transplantation. We conducted a retrospective case-control study evaluating the safety and efficacy of P (10-20 mg/day) in reducing hypercholesterolemia, when used pre-emptively in the post-Tx period in seven children, compared with an historical control (C) group of nine children who had not received P. The two groups were comparable with respect to their demographics and in their pretransplant serum cholesterol. Compared with the C group, the mean serum cholesterol in the P group was lower at 3 months (159 mg/dL vs. 225 mg/dL), 6 months (134 mg/dL vs. 200 mg/dL), 9 months (134 mg/dL vs. 209 mg/dL), and 12 months (125 mg/dL vs. 195 mg/dL) (p < 0.005 for all, Student's two-tailed t-test). At 1 month only 43% of the P group had hypercholesterolemia compared with 67% of the controls; by 12 months this difference was even more significant (0% in the P group vs. 45% in the C group). None of the treated patients developed any adverse reactions. This study demonstrates that the pre-emptive use of P in pediatric renal Tx recipients appears to be effective in significantly reducing serum cholesterol. Whether this effect will translate into improved allograft and patient survival in the long term cannot be predicted at present and will require additional studies to evaluate.

  7. Value of therapeutic drug monitoring of MMF therapy in pediatric transplantation.

    PubMed

    Filler, G

    2006-09-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is desirable whenever the desired drug effect cannot be predicted from a given dose, or when it is necessary to find a balance between the efficacy and toxicity of the drug. Children and adolescents particularly benefit from TDM, because dosing requirements are often not studied in the same detail as in adults. Also, drug-drug interactions are frequent. The gold standard for assessment of drug exposure is the area-under-the-curve (AUC) for a full pharmacokinetic profile. TDM for mycophenolic acid (MPA) is less well established. Monitoring of trough levels does not suffice because of enterohepatic recirculation of MPA after formation of its main metabolite, a glucoronide termed MPA-G. However, abbreviated sampling schemes specific to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) correlate well with the AUC for MPA. Cyclosporine interacts with MPA by inhibiting the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Higher MPA concentrations result in a decreased two h concentration of cyclosporine, while higher cyclosporine exposure results in a lower MPA exposure. There are no drug interactions between tacrolimus and MPA, and lower doses of MMF are required in combination with tacrolimus. Steroids may induce the clearance of MPA, which could account in part for the increasing MPA exposure following transplantation. TDM has allowed for dosing recommendations of MMF in children, which could lead to improved efficacy and minimization of toxicities. It is important that these provisional target levels are validated in prospective studies. The above points clearly indicate that there is a role for TDM of MPA in pediatric transplant recipients.

  8. Use of calcium-channel blockers in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, D M; Palmer, J; Baluarte, H J; Brass, C; Conley, S B; Polinsky, M S

    1999-11-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a significant problem in pediatric renal transplant (TP) recipients, predisposing the individuals to the development of cardiovascular disease and graft dysfunction. Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are considered excellent agents to treat post-TP HTN. We compared the efficacy and adverse effects of the two most commonly prescribed CCBs in our pediatric renal TP population: nifedipine (Procardia, or P) and amlodipine (Norvasc, or N). All patients (n = 24) had been started on a CCB for systolic (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP) > 95%. There were no other changes in adjunctive antihypertensive medications or doses during the cross-over period. Post-TP, pretreatment (pretx) SBP was 137.6 +/- 10.9 mmHg. The post-treatment SBP were (in mmHg): 128.5 +/- 11.9 (all patients, n = 24) (p = 0.009 vs. pretx); 126.4 +/- 10.0 (P alone, n = 15) (p = 0.007 vs. pretx); 132.8 +/- 14.4 (P + other antihypertensive(s), n = 9) (p = 0.331, NS vs. pretx). The post-TP, pretreatment DBP was 88.2 +/- 11.1 mmHg. The post-treatment DBP were (in mmHg): 78.5 +/- 6.9 (all patients, n = 24) (p = 0.03 vs. pretx); 77.2 +/- 7.4 (P alone, n = 15) (p = 0.008 vs. pretx); 80.7 +/- 6.1 (P + other antihypertensive(s), n = 9) (p = 0.063, NS vs. pretx). P and N were equally effective in reducing SBP (p = 0.843, NS) and DBP (p = 0.612, NS). Cyclosporin A (CyA) dose (p = 0.81) and trough levels (p = 0.19) were similar in P- and N-treated patients. Calculated GFR was virtually identical in P- and N-treated patients (p = 0.89). Patients (or parents of) reported a higher incidence of various side-effects while receiving P, including headache, flushing, dizziness and leg cramps. Furthermore, 22/24 (91.7%) reported some degree of gingival hyperplasia during treatment with P, and all these patients reported a stabilization or reduction of hypertrophy after the switch from P to N. We conclude that CCBs (N) are efficacious drugs for the purpose of BP control and renal protection in pediatric renal TP

  9. Heart-lung vs. double-lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Charles; Maxwell, Bryan; Boulate, David; Haddad, Francois; Ha, Richard; Afshar, Kamyar; Weill, David; Dhillon, Gundeep S

    2015-12-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) have improved survival after heart-lung transplantation (HLT) and double-lung transplantation (DLT). However, the optimal procedure for patients with IPAH undergoing transplantation remains unclear. We hypothesized that critically ill IPAH patients, defined by admission to the intensive care units (ICU), would demonstrate improved survival with HLT vs. DLT. All adult IPAH patients (>18 yr) in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) database, who underwent either HLT or DLT between 1987 and 2012, were included. Baseline characteristics, survival, and adjusted survival were compared between the HLT and DLT groups. Similar analyses were performed for the subgroups as defined by the recipients' hospitalization status. A total of 928 IPAH patients (667 DLT, 261 HLT) were included in this analysis. The HLT recipients were younger, more likely to be admitted to the ICU, and have had their transplant in previous eras. Overall, the adjusted survivals after HLT or DLT were similar. For recipients who were hospitalized in the ICU, DLT was associated with worse outcomes (HR 1.827; 95% CI 1.018-3.279). In IPAH patients, the overall survival after HLT or DLT is comparable. HLT may provide improved outcomes in critically ill IPAH patients admitted to the ICU at time of transplantation.

  10. MRI tracking stem cells transplantation for coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Xia, Rui; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Fabao

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Stem cell transplantation has become a new treatment option for cardiovascular disease because the stem cells are able to migrate to damaged cardiac tissue, repair the myocardial infarction area and ultimately reduce the role of the infarct-related mortality. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new robust non-invasive imaging technique that can detect anatomical information and myocardial dysfunction, study the mechanism of stem cells therapy with superb spatial/temporal resolution, relatively safe contrast material and lack of radiation. This review describes the advantages and disadvantages of cardiac MRI applied in stem cells transplantation and discusses how to translate this technique into clinical therapy. Sources of Data/Study Selection: Data from cross-sectional and prospective studies published between the years 2001-2013 on the topic were included. Data searches included both human and animal studies. Data Extraction: The data was extracted from online resources of statistic reports, Pub med, THE MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Medical and Radiological journals. Conclusion: MRI is an appealing technique for cell trafficking depicting engraftment, differentiation and survival. PMID:25097541

  11. Functional evaluation of rat hearts transplanted after preservation in a high-pressure gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Hatayama, Naoyuki; Inubushi, Masayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Hirai, Shuichi; Jin, Yong-Nan; Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Seki, Kunihiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We recently succeeded in resuscitating an extracted rat heart following 24–48 hours of preservation in a high-pressure gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2). This study aimed to examine the function of rat hearts transplanted after being preserved in the high-pressure CO and O2 gas mixture. The hearts of donor rats were preserved in a chamber filled with CO and O2 under high pressure for 24 h (CO24h) or 48 h at 4 °C. For the positive control (PC) group, hearts immediately extracted from donor rats were used for transplantation. The preserved hearts were transplanted into recipient rats by heterotopic cervical heart transplantation. CO toxicity does not affect the grafts or the recipients. Light microscopy and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed that there were no significant differences in the size of the myocardial infarction or apoptosis of myocardial cells in post-transplant hearts between the PC and CO24h groups. Furthermore, at 100 days after the transplantation, the heart rate, weight and histological staining of the post-transplanted hearts did not differ significantly between the PC and CO24h groups. These results indicate that the function of rat hearts is well preserved after 24 hours of high-pressure preservation in a CO and O2 gas mixture. Therefore, high-pressure preservation in a gas mixture can be a useful method for organ preservation. PMID:27562456

  12. Beyond heart transplantation: potentials and problems of the shape memory alloy fibers in the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kalogerakos, Paris D; Hassoulas, Jannie; Ladopoulos, Vlassis S

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure can be treated with devices that mechanically support the circulation. The improvement of these devices would benefit many patients, especially those refractory to maximal pharmacological treatment and ineligible for heart transplantation. This study examined whether the shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers, which are fibers that contract when electric current flows through them and relax passively when that flow is interrupted, can be wrapped around the failing heart and assist in its pumping action. A band of SMA fibers was wrapped around a silicon cylindrical chamber which simulated a dilated heart and its pumping action was tested in a circulatory mockup. This rudimentary device was innovatively controlled by pulse width modulation. The band was made of only six fibers but yet produced the considerable pressure of 20 mm Hg and a stroke volume of 11.8 ml with modest energy demands. A SMA device could assist a severely failing heart, but there are limiting factors to overcome before designing highly effective devices.

  13. Repeated daclizumab administration to delay the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors in heart transplant patients with postoperative renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lázaro, Ignacio J; Almenar Bonet, Luis; Martínez Dolz, Luis; Buendía Fuentes, Francisco; Navarro Manchón, Josep; Agüero Ramón-Llin, Jaime; Vicente Sánchez, José Luis; Salvador Sanz, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Daclizumab is an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist which is used for induction therapy in heart transplant patients. It has few side effects and is associated with a low infection rate. Postoperative renal failure after heart transplantation is common and potentially fatal. The administration of calcineurin inhibitors in the postoperative period can aggravate the situation. We report the cases of six patients who underwent heart transplantation and developed acute renal failure in the immediate postoperative period. All were administered daclizumab weekly to avoid the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors and to facilitate recovery of renal function. Calcineurin inhibitors were introduced only once renal function had improved. Renal function recovered in all cases and there was a low complication rate. The administration of repeated doses of daclizumab to patients who experience acute postoperative renal failure after heart transplantation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach that enables calcineurin inhibitors to be avoided and, consequently, renal function to recover.

  14. Living donor liver transplantation in a pediatric patient with preexisting yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Wakiya, Taiichi; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Ishido, Keinosuke; Kudo, Daisuke; Kimura, Norihisa; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Odagiri, Tadashi; Suto, Akiko; Uchida, Chiaki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    There is ongoing discussion regarding the indications and timing of LT for patients with a preexisting extrahepatic malignancy. We herein report a pediatric case that underwent LDLT after therapy for YST. The patient, a 13-year-old female with biliary atresia, had undergone portoenterostomy at 2 months of age. She developed a left ovarian tumor with a high serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration at 10 years of age. She underwent left oophorectomy and was diagnosed with ovarian YST (Stage I). After surgery, hepatopulmonary syndrome progressed gradually. She was examined carefully and exhibited no findings to suggest the recurrence of YST. We decided to perform LDLT at 3 years and 6 months of age after the surgery for YST. The patient is currently alive and doing well without recurrence of YST at approximately 2 years after transplantation. There is no significant difference between the recurrence rate of preexisting extrahepatic malignancy and the incidence of de novo malignancy if specific cases are selected. The indications and period from surgery for preexisting extrahepatic malignancy to LT should thus be determined according to the type and stage of cancer.

  15. Defining "poor mobilizer" in pediatric patients who need an autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Julián; Guillén, María; Castillo, Ana; Prudencio, Marta; González-Vicent, Marta; Lassaletta, Álvaro; Cormenzana, María; Ramírez, Manuel; Pérez-Martínez, Antonio; Madero, Luis; Díaz-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The definition of poor mobilizers is not clear in pediatric patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization. Most studies conducted in children define those variables related to the collection of HPC after leukapheresis, but the information regarding exclusively the mobilization process is scarce. In our experience, most children (92.2%) reach the target CD34(+) cell dose for autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation if CD34(+) cell count was higher than 10/μL. No differences were observed between those with >20 CD34(+) cells/μL and 11-20 CD34(+) cells/μL. In this study, we analyzed the variables that influence CD34(+) cell count; we found that prior use of radiotherapy was the main variable related to poor mobilization. Patients diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma, treated with radiotherapy and mobilized with standard doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were also at a high risk of mobilization failure. In these patients, we should consider mobilization with high dose G-CSF and be prepared with new mobilization agents to avoid delay on their course of chemotherapy.

  16. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Retards the Natural Senescence of Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingyu; Liu, Di; Li, Shuang; Chang, Lingling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ruixue; Sun, Fei; Duan, Wenqi; Du, Weijie; Wu, Yanping; Zhao, Tianyang; Xu, Chaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to offer a wide variety of cellular functions including the protective effects on damaged hearts. Here we investigated the antiaging properties of BMSCs and the underlying mechanism in a cellular model of cardiomyocyte senescence and a rat model of aging hearts. Neonatal rat ventricular cells (NRVCs) and BMSCs were cocultured in the same dish with a semipermeable membrane to separate the two populations. Monocultured NRVCs displayed the senescence-associated phenotypes, characterized by an increase in the number of β-galactosidase-positive cells and decreases in the degradation and disappearance of cellular organelles in a time-dependent manner. The levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde were elevated, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased, along with upregulation of p53, p21Cip1/Waf1, and p16INK4a in the aging cardiomyocytes. These deleterious alterations were abrogated in aging NRVCs cocultured with BMSCs. Qualitatively, the same senescent phenotypes were consistently observed in aging rat hearts. Notably, BMSC transplantation significantly prevented these detrimental alterations and improved the impaired cardiac function in the aging rats. In summary, BMSCs possess strong antisenescence action on the aging NRVCs and hearts and can improve cardiac function after transplantation in aging rats. The present study, therefore, provides an alternative approach for the treatment of heart failure in the elderly population. PMID:25855590

  17. Hospital Charges for Pediatric Heart Failure Related Hospitalizations from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Deipanjan; Lin, Kimberly Y; O’Connor, Matthew J; Elci, Okan U; Kim, Jeffrey J; Decker, Jamie A; Price, Jack F; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David LS; Denfield, Susan W; Dreyer, William J; Jefferies, John L; Rossano, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarce data exists regarding costs of pediatric heart failure related hospitalizations (HFRH) or how costs have changed over time. Hypothesis Pediatric HFRH costs, due to advances in management, will have increased significantly over time. Methods & Results A retrospective analysis of Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database was performed on all pediatric HFRH. Inflation-adjusted charges are used as a proxy for cost. There were a total of 33,189 HFRH captured from 2000 to 2009. Median charges per HFRH rose from $35,079 in 2000 to $72,087 in 2009 (p<0.0001). The greatest median charges were incurred in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ($442,134 vs $53,998) or ventricular assist devices ($462,647 vs $55,151). Comorbidities, including sepsis ($207,511 vs $48,995), renal failure ($180,624 vs $52,812), stroke ($198,260 vs $54,974) and respiratory failure ($146,200 vs $48,797), were associated with greater charges (p<0.0001). Comorbidities and use of mechanical support increased over time. After adjusting for these factors, later year remained associated with greater median charges per HFRH (p<0.0001). Conclusions From 2000 to 2009 there has been an almost two-fold increase in pediatric HFRH charges, after adjustment for inflation. Although comorbidities and use of mechanical support account for some of this increase, later year remained independently associated with greater charges. Further study is needed to understand potential factors driving these higher costs over time and to identify more cost-effective therapies in this population. PMID:26645995

  18. Bridge to transplant with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by HeartWare ventricular assist device in a child.

    PubMed

    Crews, Kelly A; Kaiser, Samantha L; Walczak, Richard J; Jaquiss, Robert D B; Lodge, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    A 10-year-old boy was admitted with dilated cardiomyopathy. Before scheduled implantation of a HeartWare ventricular assist device, he experienced a cardiac arrest and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for both cardiac and pulmonary support. After 4 days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and 126 days of support on the HeartWare ventricular assist device, he underwent successful cardiac transplantation. He is doing well 6 months after transplantation.

  19. Materializing Heart Regeneration: Biomimicry of Key Observations in Cell Transplantation Therapies and Natural Cardiac Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yen P.; Jongpaiboonkit, Leena

    2016-07-01

    New regenerative paradigms are needed to address the growing global problem of heart failure as existing interventions are unsatisfactory. Outcomes from the current paradigm of cell transplantation have not been stellar but the mechanistic knowledge learned from them is instructive in the development of future paradigms. An emerging biomaterial-based approach incorporating key mechanisms and additional ones scrutinized from the process of natural heart regeneration in zebrafish may become the next evolution in cardiac repair. We highlight, with examples, tested key concepts and pivotal ones that may be integrated into a successful therapy.

  20. Predicting glomerular filtration rate in heart transplant recipients using serum creatinine-based equations with cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Tangri, Navdeep; Alam, Ahsan; Giannetti, Nadia; Deedwardes, Michael B; Cantarovich, Marcelo

    2008-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the use of cimetidine on the performance of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations and 24-hour creatinine clearance (24-hour CrCl) against radionuclide GFR in 43 heart transplant recipients with stable renal function. Pearson correlation coefficients for the 24-hour CrCl, Cockcroft-Gault, Nankivell and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (MDRD) equations without cimetidine were 0.76, 0.70, 0.81 and 0.76, and cimetidine-aided coefficients were 0.82, 0.80, 0.80 and 0.72, respectively. All the tested equations without cimetidine use predicted GFR with moderate accuracy in this population. The addition of cimetidine improved the predictive ability of the 24-hour CrCl and Cockcroft-Gault formulas, but not the Nankivell and MDRD GFR estimating equations, in heart transplant recipients.

  1. The Impact of a Defensive Response Set on the Relationship between MMPI and Cognitive Tests among Heart Transplant Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzke, John D.; Williams, Mark A.; Millsaps, Cheryl L.; McCarty, Harry J.; Azrin, Richard L.; LaMarche, Judith A.; Boll, Thomas J.; Bourge, Robert C.; Kirklin, James K.; McGiffin, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The emotional cognitive relationship was examined in 136 heart transplant candidates undergoing psychosocial and cognitive assessment as part of evaluation for transplantation. Results show increased emotional distress was reliably associated with decreased cognitive functioning in patients who scored as nondefensive on the Minnesota Multiphasic…

  2. Improved pain management in pediatric postoperative liver transplant patients using parental education and non-pharmacologic interventions.

    PubMed

    Sharek, Paul J; Wayman, Karen; Lin, Eugenia; Strichartz, Debra; Sentivany-Collins, Sandy; Good, Julie; Esquivel, Carlos; Brown, Michelle; Cox, Kenneth

    2006-03-01

    A pain management intervention, consisting of pretransplant parental education and support, pre- and postoperative behavioral pediatrics consultation, postoperative physical and occupational therapy consultation, and implementation of non-pharmacologic pain management strategies, was introduced to all pediatrics patients receiving liver transplants at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital beginning August 2001. Children receiving transplants pre-intervention (May, 2000 to February, 2001) and post-intervention (August, 2001 to March, 2002) were compared using pain scores, parent perception of pain ratings, length of stay, ventilator days, total cost, and opioid use. A total of 27 children were evaluated (13 historical control, 14 intervention). The two populations did not differ on age at transplant (mean age 53.8 vs. 63.6 months), sex (46.1% vs. 50% male), ethnicity (53.8% vs. 57.1% white, non-Hispanic) weight at transplant (17.5 vs. 24.7 kg), percent with biliary atresia as the primary reason for transplant (42.9% vs. 69.2%), percent with status 1 transplant listing score (38.5% vs. 50.0%), or public insurance status (30.8 vs. 57.2% with Medicaid). No differences were found in mean pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) postoperative length of stay (6.7 vs. 5.3 days), total postoperative length of stay (17.5 vs. 17.5 days), total inpatient length of stay (27.0 vs. 24.4 days), time to extubation (30 vs. 24.3 h), total cost (dollar 147,983 vs. dollar 157,882) or opioid use through postoperative day (POD) 6 (0.24 vs. 0.25 mg/kg/day morphine equivalent). A decrease in mean pain score between POD 0 and 6 (2.82 vs. 2.12; p = 0.047), a decrease in mean parental pain perception score (3.1 vs. 2.1; p = 0.001), and an increase in number of pain assessments per 12 h shift (3.43 vs. 6.79; p < 0.005) were seen. A comprehensive non-pharmacologic postoperative pain management program in children receiving a liver transplant was associated with decreased pain scores, improved parent

  3. Use of CO2 laser gingivoplasty in heart-transplant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rysky, Carlo; Forni, Franco

    1992-08-01

    In this work we observed the result of CO2 laser surgery used to remove hyperplastic gingiva in patients who were under cyclosporine maintenance treatment after they underwent heart transplant. The objectives were to reduce, as much as possible, bleeding, to avoid any subsequent intervention to remove stitches, and to minimize the operatory and postoperatory discomfort for the patient. Our data confirm the advantages of CO2 laser surgery when used to remove overgrowing tissue in accessible areas.

  4. Asymptomatic Antibody-mediated Rejection After Heart Transplantation Predicts Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Grace W.; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Patel, Jignesh K.; Kittleson, Michelle M.; Reed, Elaine F.; Kiyosaki, Krista K.; Ardehali, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with poor outcome after heart transplantation. The diagnosis of AMR usually includes endomyocardial biopsy findings of endothelial cell swelling, intravascular macrophages, C4d+ staining, and associated left ventricular dysfunction. The significance of AMR findings in biopsy specimens of asymptomatic heart transplant patients (normal cardiac function and no symptoms of heart failure) is unclear. Methods Between July 1997 and September 2001, AMR was found in the biopsy specimens of 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: asymptomatic AMR (AsAMR, n = 21) and treated AMR (TxAMR with associated left ventricular dysfunction, n = 22). For comparison, a control group of 86 contemporaneous patients, without AMR, was matched for age, gender, and time from transplant. Outcomes included 5-year actuarial survival and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Patients were considered to have AMR if they had ≥ 1 endomyocardial biopsy specimen positive for AMR. Results The 5-year actuarial survival for the AsAMR (86%), TxAMR (68%), and control groups (79%) was not significantly different (p = 0.41). Five-year freedom from CAV (≥ 30% stenosis in any vessel) was AsAMR, 52%; TxAMR, 68%; and control, 79%. Individually, freedom from CAV was significantly lower in the AsAMR group compared with the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between AsAMR vs TxAMR and TxAMR vs control for CAV. Conclusions Despite comparable 5-year survival with controls after heart transplantation, AsAMR rejection is associated with a greater risk of CAV. Trials to treat AsAMR to alter outcome are warranted. PMID:19416767

  5. Donor pretreatment with carbon monoxide prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury following heart transplantation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fujisaki, Noritomo; Kohama, Keisuke; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yamashita, Hayato; Ishikawa, Michiko; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Yamada, Taihei; Lee, Sungsoo; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Tsukahara, Kohei; Kotani, Joji; Nakao, Atsunori

    2016-01-01

    Because inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) provides potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that treatment of organ donors with inhaled CO would decrease graft injury after heart transplantation. Hearts were heterotopically transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats after 8 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Donor rats were exposed to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million for 24 hours via a gas-exposure chamber. Severity of myocardial injury was determined by total serum creatine phosphokinase and troponin I levels at three hours after reperfusion. In addition, Affymetrix gene array analysis of mRNA transcripts was performed on the heart graft tissue prior to implantation. Recipients of grafts from CO-exposed donors had lower levels of serum troponin I and creatine phosphokinase; less upregulation of mRNA for interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α; and fewer infiltrating cells. Although donor pretreatment with CO altered the expression of 49 genes expressly represented on the array, we could not obtain meaningful data to explain the mechanisms by which CO potentiated the protective effects. Pretreatment with CO gas before organ procurement effectively protected cardiac grafts from ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. A clinical report review indicated that CO-poisoned organ donors may be comparable to non-poisoned donors. PMID:27867479

  6. Soluble CD8 and CD25 in serum of patients after heart transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Wijngaard, P L; Van der Meulen, A; Gmelig Meyling, F H; De Jonge, N; Schuurman, H J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum cytokine levels and cytokine receptor levels in the diagnosis of acute rejection after heart transplantation, we measured soluble CD8 and soluble CD25 in the serum of heart transplant recipients. The results were compared with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) histopathology, lymphocyte activation by morphologic inspection of peripheral blood cells (cytoimmunologic monitoring), clinically manifested infections, and the maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Significantly increased levels were observed in cases of lymphocyte activation in cytoimmunologic monitoring indicative of either rejection or infection. In clinically documented cytomegalovirus (CMV), bacterial, and Pneumocystis carinii infections, increased levels of soluble CD25 were observed. Soluble CD8 was only increased in a single case of P. carinii infection. A statistically significant correlation was calculated between the levels of soluble CD8 and whole blood cyclosporin A level. Considering chemotherapy, the levels of soluble CD8 showed an inverse correlation with the daily dosage of azathioprine. In conclusion, the levels of soluble CD8 and CD25 are associated with lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood, but do not differentiate between lymphocyte activation indicative of rejection or infection. No relationship was observed between levels of soluble CD8 and CD25, and EMB histopathology. Therefore, the assessment of these two cell products has no diagnostic potential for monitoring acute rejection after heart transplantation. PMID:8082307

  7. Long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) as bridge to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Giraud, Raphaël; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Bendjelid, Karim; Robin, Jacques; Meyer, Philippe; Obadia, Jean François; Banfi, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the treatment of choice for end-stage heart failure but the limited availability of heart's donors still represents a major issue. So long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has been proposed as an alternative treatment option to assist patients scheduled on HTx waiting list bridging them for a variable time period to cardiac transplantation-the so-called bridge-to-transplantation (BTT) strategy. Nowadays approximately 90% of patients being considered for MCS receive a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). In fact, LVAD experienced several improvements in the last decade and the predominance of continuous-flow over pulsatile-flow technology has been evident since 2008. The aim of the present report is to give an overview of continuous-flow LVAD utilization in the specific setting of the BTT strategy taking into consideration the most representative articles of the scientific literature and focusing the attention on the evolution, clinical outcomes, relevant implications on the HTx strategy and future perspectives of the continuous-flow LVAD technology.

  8. [Heart and heart-lung transplants thorax complications: major radiologic forms].

    PubMed

    Isnard, J; Trogrlic, S; Haloun, A; Sagan, C; Germaud, P; Bommart, S; Dupas, B

    2007-03-01

    Bipulmonary and cardiopulmonary transplantations are among the most difficult to perform, with a 10-year survival rate estimated at 33%. This low rate can be attributed to thoracic complications that can be classified into three distinct groups: 1) early complications, occurring in the first 30 days after transplantation (hemothorax, diaphragmatic paralysis, reperfusion edema, hydric overloading, acute rejection); 2) late complications that occur beyond the first month (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, bronchic stenosis, sirolimus-induced lung disorders, initial disease recurrence); and 3) infections classed separately because of their high morbidity and mortality (thoracic wall abscess, bacterial and viral pneumonia, CMV, pneumocystosis, Aspergillus necrotizing bronchitis). Imaging is essential in screening and diagnosing these complications as part of the clinician's monitoring throughout the rest of the transplant recipient's life. In diagnosis, combined with clinical and biological data, imaging has its place in delaying the onset of these diseases.

  9. Cardiosphere-derived cells from pediatric end-stage heart failure patients have enhanced functional activity due to the heat shock response regulating the secretome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudhish; Mishra, Rachana; Simpson, David; Wehman, Brody; Colletti, Evan J; Deshmukh, Savitha; Datla, Srinivasa Raju; Balachandran, Keerti; Guo, Yin; Chen, Ling; Siddiqui, Osama T; Kaushal, Shalesh; Kaushal, Sunjay

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated that human neonatal cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) derived from the young are more regenerative due to their robust secretome. However, it is unclear how the decompensated pediatric heart impacts the functional activity of their CDCs. Our aim was to characterize the potency of pediatric CDCs derived from normal functioning myocardium of control heart disease (CHD) patients to those generated from age-matched end stage heart failure (ESHF) patients and to determine the mechanisms involved. ESHF-derived CDCs contained a higher number of c-kit(+) , Islet-1(+) , and Sca-1(+) cells. When transplanted into an infarcted rodent model, ESHF-derived CDCs significantly demonstrated higher restoration of ventricular function, prevented adverse remodeling, and enhanced angiogenesis when compared with CHD patients. The superior functional recovery of the ESHF-derived CDCs was mediated in part by increased SDF-1α and VEGF-A secretion resulting in augmented recruitment of endogenous stem cells and proliferation of cardiomyocytes. We determined the mechanism is due to the secretome directed by the heat shock response (HSR), which is supported by three lines of evidence. First, gain of function studies demonstrated that increased HSR induced the lower functioning CHD-derived CDCs to significantly restore myocardial function. Second, loss-of function studies targeting the HSR impaired the ability of the ESHF-derived CDCs to functionally recover the injured myocardium. Finally, the native ESHF myocardium had an increased number of c-kit(+) cardiac stem cells. These findings suggest that the HSR enhances the functional activity of ESHF-derived CDCs by increasing their secretome activity, notably SDF-1α and VEGF-A.

  10. Rat Heterotopic Heart Transplantation Model to Investigate Unloading-Induced Myocardial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuebin; Segiser, Adrian; Carrel, Thierry P.; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik T.; Most, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Unloading of the failing left ventricle in order to achieve myocardial reverse remodeling and improvement of contractile function has been developed as a strategy with the increasing frequency of implantation of left ventricular assist devices in clinical practice. But, reverse remodeling remains an elusive target, with high variability and exact mechanisms still largely unclear. The small animal model of heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTX) in rodents has been widely implemented to study the effects of complete and partial unloading on cardiac failing and non-failing tissue to better understand the structural and molecular changes that underlie myocardial recovery. We herein review the current knowledge on the effects of volume unloading the left ventricle via different methods of hHTX in rats, differentiating between changes that contribute to functional recovery and adverse effects observed in unloaded myocardium. We focus on methodological aspects of heterotopic transplantation, which increase the correlation between the animal model and the setting of the failing unloaded human heart. Last, but not least, we describe the late use of sophisticated techniques to acquire data, such as small animal MRI and catheterization, as well as ways to assess unloaded hearts under “reloaded” conditions. While giving regard to certain limitations, heterotopic rat heart transplantation certainly represents the crucial model to mimic unloading-induced changes in the heart and as such the intricacies and challenges deserve highest consideration. Careful translational research will further improve our knowledge of the reverse remodeling process and how to potentiate its effect in order to achieve recovery of contractile function in more patients. PMID:27807535

  11. Bridging to Heart Transplantation from the Biventricular Pulsatile Berlin Heart EXCOR Assist Device Support in a Patient with Advanced End-Organ Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tuba Demirozu, Zumrut; Suha Kucukaksu, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term mechanical circulatory support is a life-saving technology while briding to heart transplantation. It increases the quality of life and preserves end-organ function for patients with advanced heart failure. The number of patients with advanced heart failure scheduled for heart transplantation before comorbidities escalate is on the rise. However, the device function is complicated by the bleeding-thrombosis and infection paradigm, hence the interest in understanding device thrombosis and infection. We describe a 27-year-old man with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, advanced end-organ failure, and severe infection, who was bridged to heart transplantation after 8 months on the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany) biventricular support. The patient was discharged from the hospital in the third postoperative week after the recovery of his end-organ functions. At 29 months’ post-transplantation follow-up, his last cardiac biopsy was grade 0, his ejection fraction was 60%, and he was enjoying a good quality of life. PMID:26985209

  12. The use of non-heart-beating donors for isolated pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Markmann, James F; Deng, Shaoping; Desai, Niraj M; Huang, Xiaolun; Velidedeoglu, Ergun; Frank, Adam; Liu, Chengyang; Brayman, Kenneth L; Lian, Moh Moh; Wolf, Bryan; Bell, Ewan; Vitamaniuk, Marko; Doliba, Nicolai; Matschinsky, Franz; Markmann, Eileen; Barker, Clyde F; Naji, Ali

    2003-05-15

    Recent improvements in isolated islet transplantation indicate that this therapy may ultimately prove applicable to patients with type I diabetes. An obstacle preventing widespread application of islet transplantation is an insufficient supply of cadaveric pancreata. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) are generally not deemed suitable for whole-organ pancreas donation and could provide a significant source of pancreata for islet transplantation. Isolated pancreatic islets prepared from 10 NHBDs were compared with those procured from 10 brain-dead donors (BDDs). The success of the isolation for the two groups was analyzed for preparation purity, quality, and recovered islet mass. The function of NHBD and BDD islets was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. On the basis of the results of this analysis, an NHBD isolated islet allograft was performed in a type I diabetic. The recovery of islets from NHBDs was comparable to that of control BDDs. In vitro assessment of NHBD islet function revealed function-equivalent BDD islets, and NHBD islets transplanted to non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice efficiently reversed diabetes. Transplantation of 446,320 islet equivalents (IEq) (8,500 IEq/kg of recipient body weight) from a single NHBD successfully reversed the diabetes of a type I diabetic recipient. Normally functioning pancreatic islets can be isolated successfully from NHBDs. A single donor transplant from an NHBD resulted in a state of stable insulin independence in a type I diabetic recipient. These results indicate that NHBDs may provide an as yet untapped source of pancreatic tissue for preparation of isolated islets for clinical transplantation.

  13. Optimal timing of same-admission orthotopic heart transplantation after left ventricular assist device implantation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Gunsagar; Ouyang, David; Ha, Richard; Banerjee, Dipanjan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of timing of same-admission orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation on in-hospital mortality and post-transplant length of stay. METHODS Using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011, we identified patients 18 years of age or older who underwent implantation of a LVAD and for whom the procedure date was available. We calculated in-hospital mortality for those patients who underwent OHT during the same admission as a function of time from LVAD to OHT, adjusting for age, sex, race, household income, and number of comorbid diagnoses. Finally, we analyzed the effect of time to OHT after LVAD implantation on the length of hospital stay post-transplant. RESULTS Two thousand and two hundred patients underwent implantation of a LVAD in this cohort. One hundred and sixty-four (7.5%) patients also underwent OHT during the same admission, which occurred on average 32 d (IQR 7.75-66 d) after LVAD implantation. Of patients who underwent OHT, patients who underwent transplantation within 7 d of LVAD implantation (“early”) experienced increased in-hospital mortality (26.8% vs 12.2%, P = 0.0483) compared to patients who underwent transplant after 8 d (“late”). There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, race, household income, or number of comorbid diagnoses between the early and late groups. Post-transplant length of stay after LVAD implantation was also not significantly different between patients who underwent early vs late OHT. CONCLUSION In this cohort of patients who received LVADs, the rate of in-hospital mortality after OHT was lower for patients who underwent late OHT (at least 8 d after LVAD implantation) compared to patients who underwent early OHT. Delayed timing of OHT after LVAD implantation did not correlate with longer hospital stays post-transplant. PMID:28289529

  14. Atypical Marginal Zone Hyperplasia Is a Mimic for Lymphoma in Pediatric Transplant Recipients: Report of Two Patients.

    PubMed

    Caltharp, Shelley A; Qayed, Muna; Park, Sunita I

    2015-01-01

    Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia (AMZH) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) closely resembles lymphoma in that it shows expansion of the marginal zones with prominent intraepithelial B lymphocytes, is immunoglobulin light-chain restricted, and may show aberrant CD43 expression. However, unlike lymphoma, it does not show rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (immunoglobulin H [IgH]) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and it behaves in a benign fashion. We identified AMZH in 2 pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who presented with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. To date, the patients have experienced a self-limited course in the absence of treatment or reduction of immunosuppression. Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia is a pitfall for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and MALT lymphoma in the pediatric solid organ transplant population. In transplant patients with a lambda-restricted B-cell clone and marginal zone hyperplasia in native MALT sites, PCR for IgH and IgK gene rearrangement is essential to prevent misdiagnosis.

  15. Risk factors for hyperlipidemia in long-term pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, D M; Palmer, J; Polinsky, M S; Braas, C; Conley, S B; Baluarte, H J

    2000-02-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a common problem in adult renal transplant (TP) recipients, contributing to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic TP nephropathy. There are multiple causes of HL post renal TP in adult patients, including pre TP HL, immunosuppressive agents, renal dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia secondary to nephrotic syndrome, obesity, and conditions that lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of HL in 62 pediatric renal TP recipients (15.4+/-4.2 years, range-3.0-22.3 years) with long-term (6.7+/-3.1 years) functioning [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 66.7+/-23.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)] allografts. The mean serum cholesterol (C) level was 205. 5+/-43.6 mg/dl. Thirty-two patients (51.6%) exhibited elevated serum C levels. The mean serum triglyceride (TG) level was 157.3+/-88.4 mg/dl. Serum TG levels were elevated in 32 patients (51.6%). In patients with elevated serum levels of either C or TG, the mean low-density lipoprotein level (LDL) was 138.6+/-44.1 mg/dl (normal <130 mg/dl) and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level 54.6+/-15.9 mg/dl (normal>34 mg/dl). Of those patients studied, 45.5% had high LDL levels, whereas 9.1% exhibited low HDL levels. The two risk factors for elevated serum C levels in our patient population were pre-TP HL and increased years since TP. The only risk factor for elevated serum TG levels was reduced GFR. A family history of HL had a significant deleterious impact upon serum levels of C (P=0.01), but did not affect serum TG levels (P=0.7). Years on dialysis prior to TP, history of prior TP, gender, body mass index, and disease leading to ESRD had no influence upon the development of post-TP HL. We conclude that post-renal TP HL is a significant problem in pediatric renal TP recipients.

  16. Heart cells with regenerative potential from pediatric patients with end stage heart failure: a translatable method to enrich and propagate.

    PubMed

    Steele, Ann; Boucek, Robert J; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Steele, Peter; Asante-Korang, Alfred; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Steele, Jasmine; Chai, Paul J; Quintessenza, James A

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human cardiac-derived progenitor cells (hCPCs) have shown promise in treating heart failure (HF) in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe derivation of hCPCs from pediatric patients with end-stage HF. Methods. At surgery, discarded right atrial tissues (hAA) were obtained from HF patients (n = 25; hAA-CHF). Minced tissues were suspended in complete (serum-containing) DMEM. Cells were selected for their tissue migration and expression of stem cell factor receptor (hc-kit). Characterization of hc-kit(positive) cells included immunohistochemical screening with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results. Cells, including phase-bright cells identified as hc-kit(positive), spontaneously emigrated from hAA-CHF in suspended explant cultures (SEC) after Day 7. When cocultured with tissue, emigrated hc-kit(positive) cells proliferated, first as loosely attached clones and later as multicellular clusters. At Day 21~5% of cells were hc-kit(positive). Between Days 14 and 28 hc-kit(positive) cells exhibited mesodermal commitment (GATA-4(positive) and NKX2.5(positive)); then after Day 28 cardiac lineages (flk-1(positive), smooth muscle actin(positive), troponin-I(positive), and myosin light chain(positive)). Conclusions. C-kit(positive) hCPCs can be derived from atrial tissue of pediatric patients with end-stage HF. SEC is a novel culture method for derivation of migratory hc-kit(positive) cells that favors clinical translation by reducing the need for exogenously added factors to expand hCPCs in vitro.

  17. Heart Cells with Regenerative Potential from Pediatric Patients with End Stage Heart Failure: A Translatable Method to Enrich and Propagate

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ann; Boucek, Robert J.; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Steele, Peter; Asante-Korang, Alfred; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Steele, Jasmine; Chai, Paul J.; Quintessenza, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human cardiac-derived progenitor cells (hCPCs) have shown promise in treating heart failure (HF) in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe derivation of hCPCs from pediatric patients with end-stage HF. Methods. At surgery, discarded right atrial tissues (hAA) were obtained from HF patients (n = 25; hAA-CHF). Minced tissues were suspended in complete (serum-containing) DMEM. Cells were selected for their tissue migration and expression of stem cell factor receptor (hc-kit). Characterization of hc-kitpositive cells included immunohistochemical screening with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results. Cells, including phase-bright cells identified as hc-kitpositive, spontaneously emigrated from hAA-CHF in suspended explant cultures (SEC) after Day 7. When cocultured with tissue, emigrated hc-kitpositive cells proliferated, first as loosely attached clones and later as multicellular clusters. At Day 21~5% of cells were hc-kitpositive. Between Days 14 and 28 hc-kitpositive cells exhibited mesodermal commitment (GATA-4positive and NKX2.5positive); then after Day 28 cardiac lineages (flk-1positive, smooth muscle actinpositive, troponin-Ipositive, and myosin light chainpositive). Conclusions. C-kitpositive hCPCs can be derived from atrial tissue of pediatric patients with end-stage HF. SEC is a novel culture method for derivation of migratory hc-kitpositive cells that favors clinical translation by reducing the need for exogenously added factors to expand hCPCs in vitro. PMID:22936950

  18. Hearts beating through decellularized scaffolds: whole-organ engineering for cardiac regeneration and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Sonia; Mozafari, Masoud; Natasha, G; Tan, Aaron; Cui, Zhanfeng; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-08-01

    Whole-organ decellularization and tissue engineering approaches have made significant inroads during recent years. If proven to be successful and clinically viable, it is highly likely that this field would be poised to revolutionize organ transplantation surgery. In particular, whole-heart decellularization has captured the attention and imagination of the scientific community. This technique allows for the generation of a complex three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix scaffold, with the preservation of the intrinsic 3D basket-weave macroarchitecture of the heart itself. The decellularized scaffold can then be recellularized by seeding it with cells and incubating it in perfusion bioreactors in order to create functional organ constructs for transplantation. Indeed, research into this strategy of whole-heart tissue engineering has consequently emerged from the pages of science fiction into a proof-of-concept laboratory undertaking. This review presents current trends and advances, and critically appraises the concepts involved in various approaches to whole-heart decellularization and tissue engineering.

  19. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging of the heart in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Glowniak, J.V.; Turner, F.E.; Gray, L.L.; Palac, R.T.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Woodward, W.R.

    1989-07-01

    Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((/sup 123/I)MIBG) is a norepinephrine analog which can be used to image the sympathetic innervation of the heart. In this study, cardiac imaging with (/sup 123/I)MIBG was performed in patients with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and compared to normal controls. Initial uptake, half-time of tracer within the heart, and heart to lung ratios were all significantly reduced in patients compared to normals. Uptake in lungs, liver, salivary glands, and spleen was similar in controls and patients with cardiomyopathy indicating that decreased MIBG uptake was not a generalized abnormality in these patients. Iodine-123 MIBG imaging was also performed in cardiac transplant patients to determine cardiac nonneuronal uptake. Uptake in transplants was less than 10% of normals in the first 2 hr and nearly undetectable after 16 hr. The decreased uptake of MIBG suggests cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction while the rapid washout of MIBG from the heart suggests increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy.

  20. Transplantation of multipotent Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells preserves infarcted heart function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunpeng; Tian, Shuo; Lei, Ienglam; Liu, Liu; Ma, Peter; Wang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based cardiac therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy to restore heart function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the cell type selection and ensuing effects remain controversial. Here, we intramyocardially injected Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from EGFP/luciferase double-tagged mouse embryonic stem (dt-mES) cells with vehicle (fibrin gel) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the infarcted area in nude mice to assess the contribution of CPCs to the recovery of cardiac function post-MI. Our results showed that Isl1+ CPCs differentiated normally into three cardiac lineages (cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) both on cell culture plates and in fibrin gel. Cell retention was significantly increased when the transplanted cells were injected with vehicle. Importantly, 28 days after injection, CPCs were observed to differentiate into CMs within the infarcted area. Moreover, numerous CD31+ endothelial cells derived from endogenous revascularization and differentiation of the injected CPCs were detected. SMMHC-, Ki67- and CX-43-positive cells were identified in the injected CPC population, further demonstrating the proliferation, differentiation and integration of the transplanted CPCs in host cells. Furthermore, animal hearts injected with CPCs showed increased angiogenesis, decreased infarct size, and improved heart function. In conclusion, our studies showed that Isl1+ CPCs, when combined with a suitable vehicle, can produce notable therapeutic effects in the infarcted heart, suggesting that CPCs might be an ideal cell source for cardiac therapy. PMID:28386378

  1. Transplantation of multipotent Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells preserves infarcted heart function in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunpeng; Tian, Shuo; Lei, Ienglam; Liu, Liu; Ma, Peter; Wang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based cardiac therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy to restore heart function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the cell type selection and ensuing effects remain controversial. Here, we intramyocardially injected Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from EGFP/luciferase double-tagged mouse embryonic stem (dt-mES) cells with vehicle (fibrin gel) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the infarcted area in nude mice to assess the contribution of CPCs to the recovery of cardiac function post-MI. Our results showed that Isl1+ CPCs differentiated normally into three cardiac lineages (cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) both on cell culture plates and in fibrin gel. Cell retention was significantly increased when the transplanted cells were injected with vehicle. Importantly, 28 days after injection, CPCs were observed to differentiate into CMs within the infarcted area. Moreover, numerous CD31+ endothelial cells derived from endogenous revascularization and differentiation of the injected CPCs were detected. SMMHC-, Ki67- and CX-43-positive cells were identified in the injected CPC population, further demonstrating the proliferation, differentiation and integration of the transplanted CPCs in host cells. Furthermore, animal hearts injected with CPCs showed increased angiogenesis, decreased infarct size, and improved heart function. In conclusion, our studies showed that Isl1+ CPCs, when combined with a suitable vehicle, can produce notable therapeutic effects in the infarcted heart, suggesting that CPCs might be an ideal cell source for cardiac therapy.

  2. Spectrum of heart diseases in children: an echocardiographic study of 1,666 subjects in a pediatric hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Menanga, Alain P.; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Gody, Jean C.; Tatah, Sandra A.; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children’s health programs in Sub-Saharan Africa have always been oriented primarily to infectious diseases and malnutrition. We are witnessing in the early 21st century an epidemiological transition marked by the decline of old diseases and the identification of new diseases including heart disease. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the spectrum of these diseases in order to better prepare health workers to these new challenges. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study focused on heart disease diagnosed by echocardiography in children seen from January 2006 to December 2014 in a pediatric hospital of Yaounde. We collected socio-demographic data and the types of heart disease from registers, patients files as well as the electronic database of echocardiographic records. Results A total of 2,235 patients underwent echocardiographic examination during the study period including 1,666 subjects with heart disease. Congenital cardiopathies were found in 1,230 (73.8%) patients and acquired abnormalities in 429 (25.8%). Seven children (0.4%) had a combination of both types. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were dominated by ventricular septal defect (VSD). Acquired heart disease was mostly rheumatic valvulopathies. Dyspnea on exertion was the most frequent presenting complaint (87.6%). Discovery of a heart murmur was the principal clinical finding on physical examination (81.4%). The median age was 9 months for congenital heart disease and 132 months for acquired heart disease. Conclusions As infectious diseases recede and the diagnostic facilities are improving, pediatric heart diseases occupy a more important position in the spectrum of pediatric diseases in our context. However, the ability to evoke the diagnosis remains unsatisfactory by the majority of health personnel and therefore needs to be improved. Apart from congenital heart diseases, the impact of acquired heart diseases, rheumatic valvulopathy being the highest ranking, is remarkable in

  3. Combining Theoretical and Experimental Techniques to Study Murine Heart Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia C.; Maturo, Andrew; Arun, Anirudh; Oh, Byoung Chol; Brandacher, Gerald; Raimondi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The quality of life of organ transplant recipients is compromised by complications associated with life-long immunosuppression, such as hypertension, diabetes, opportunistic infections, and cancer. Moreover, the absence of established tolerance to the transplanted tissues causes limited long-term graft survival rates. Thus, there is a great medical need to understand the complex immune system interactions that lead to transplant rejection so that novel and effective strategies of intervention that redirect the system toward transplant acceptance (while preserving overall immune competence) can be identified. This study implements a systems biology approach in which an experimentally based mathematical model is used to predict how alterations in the immune response influence the rejection of mouse heart transplants. Five stages of conventional mouse heart transplantation are modeled using a system of 13 ordinary differential equations that tracks populations of both innate and adaptive immunity as well as proxies for pro- and anti-inflammatory factors within the graft and a representative draining lymph node. The model correctly reproduces known experimental outcomes, such as indefinite survival of the graft in the absence of CD4+ T cells and quick rejection in the absence of CD8+ T cells. The model predicts that decreasing the translocation rate of effector cells from the lymph node to the graft delays transplant rejection. Increasing the starting number of quiescent regulatory T cells in the model yields a significant but somewhat limited protective effect on graft survival. Surprisingly, the model shows that a delayed appearance of alloreactive T cells has an impact on graft survival that does not correlate linearly with the time delay. This computational model represents one of the first comprehensive approaches toward simulating the many interacting components of the immune system. Despite some limitations, the model provides important suggestions of

  4. [Practice guidelines of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Cardiac and heart-lung transplants].

    PubMed

    Alonso-Pulpón, L; Almenar, L; Crespo, M G; Silva, L; Segovia, J; Manito, N; Cuenca, J J; Juffé, A; Vallés, F

    1999-10-01

    Cardiac transplantation is the only therapy that is able to substantially modify the natural evolution of patients with severe heart failure, along with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Nevertheless, because of the limited number of donors, its impact is scarce compared to the magnitude of the problem. Up to the end of 1998, 48,541 orthotopic cardiac transplantations and about 2,510 heart and both lung transplantations have been registered throughout the world. In Spain 2,780 procedures have been performed in the last 15 years. The survival expectations for a transplanted patient is 75% after the first year and 60% the following 5 years. The average duration of the graft is 8 years and 6 months. Cardiac transplantation is indicated for young and middle-age patients with irreversible cardiac process in bad clinical condition, with no other possibility of medical or surgical management and with a limited life expectancy. The major debate when choosing this therapy appears with the critical patients, patients older than 65 years, and some patients with systemic diseases. The great demand of transplantation obliges the teams to enlarge the criteria for donors' acceptance. At the same time, the increase of the knowledge about the transmission of some infections, mainly viral, forces to review those criteria day-to-day. The use of different immunosuppressive strategies pursues the control of rejection. The most commonly used is the so-called triple therapy (cyclosporine-azathioprine and steroids). The use of antilymphocytic antibodies such as cytolytic induction treatment is not unanimously accepted. Some of the new immunosuppressive agents such as myphenolate-mofetil and tacrolimus seem to offer advantages mainly due to their greater potency. Since transplantation is a limited procedure, of which its practise has an effect on the whole health system of a country, a perfect planning and adequacy of the Centers is compulsory, as well as the setting-up of clear

  5. Pediatrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spackman, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The utilization of the Lixiscope in pediatrics was investigated. The types of images that can presently be obtained are discussed along with the problems encountered. Speculative applications for the Lixiscope are also presented.

  6. Inhibition of Autoimmune Chagas-Like Heart Disease by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Guimaro, Maria C.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Rose, Ester; Sousa, Alessandro O.; de Cássia Rosa, Ana; Hecht, Mariana M.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Andrade, Rafael R.; Vital, Tamires; Plachy, Jiří; Nitz, Nadjar; Hejnar, Jiří; Gomes, Clever C.; L. Teixeira, Antonio R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi manifests in mammals as Chagas heart disease. The treatment available for chagasic cardiomyopathy is unsatisfactory. Methods/Principal Findings To study the disease pathology and its inhibition, we employed a syngeneic chicken model refractory to T. cruzi in which chickens hatched from T. cruzi inoculated eggs retained parasite kDNA (1.4 kb) minicircles. Southern blotting with EcoRI genomic DNA digests revealed main 18 and 20 kb bands by hybridization with a radiolabeled minicircle sequence. Breeding these chickens generated kDNA-mutated F1, F2, and F3 progeny. A targeted-primer TAIL-PCR (tpTAIL-PCR) technique was employed to detect the kDNA integrations. Histocompatible reporter heart grafts were used to detect ongoing inflammatory cardiomyopathy in kDNA-mutated chickens. Fluorochromes were used to label bone marrow CD3+, CD28+, and CD45+ precursors of the thymus-dependent CD8α+ and CD8β+ effector cells that expressed TCRγδ, vβ1 and vβ2 receptors, which infiltrated the adult hearts and the reporter heart grafts. Conclusions/Significance Genome modifications in kDNA-mutated chickens can be associated with disruption of immune tolerance to compatible heart grafts and with rejection of the adult host's heart and reporter graft, as well as tissue destruction by effector lymphocytes. Autoimmune heart rejection was largely observed in chickens with kDNA mutations in retrotransposons and in coding genes with roles in cell structure, metabolism, growth, and differentiation. Moreover, killing the sick kDNA-mutated bone marrow cells with cytostatic and anti-folate drugs and transplanting healthy marrow cells inhibited heart rejection. We report here for the first time that healthy bone marrow cells inhibited heart pathology in kDNA+ chickens and thus prevented the genetically driven clinical manifestations of the disease. PMID:25521296

  7. Evidence for differential sympathetic and parasympathetic reinnervation after heart transplantation in humans.

    PubMed

    Tio, R A; Reyners, A K; van Veldhuisen, D J; van den Berg, M P; Brouwer, R M; Haaksma, J; Smit, A J; Crijns, H J

    1997-12-11

    During heart transplantation (HTX) all neural connections are severed. In humans, signs of autonomic reinnervation have been found. In this study non-invasive tests were used to compare signs of sympathetic and parasympathetic reinnervation. Non-invasive autonomic function tests and heart rate variability parameters (HRV; 24 h electrocardiographic registration) were used to investigate signs of reinnervation. 16 HTX patients (14 males) were compared with age-and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic heart rate changes in HTX compared to controls were attenuated during the diving test, deep breathing, the Valsalva maneuver and standing up but not during carotid sinus massage. Sympathetic heart rate increases were lower during the cold pressor test and mental stress. The blood pressure responses were comparable to the control group, but not during active standing and tilting. This finding suggests an obligatory 'blood pressure' role for the innervated heart in these two tests. All HRV parameters were lower in HTX. One or more normal parasympathetic responses were found in 13 out of 16 patients versus 4 out of 16 with normal sympathetic responses (p < 0.05). Heart rate variations were less in case of a higher donor age, and higher in case of a longer time after HTX. Parasympathetic signs of reinnervation are more common than sympathetic signs of reinnervation. A higher donor age reduces signs of reinnervation. If the sympatho-vagal balance is a prognostic factor in HTX patients as it is in other cardiac diseases these findings are clinically relevant.

  8. Transparency and Public Reporting of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery Outcomes in North America.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-01-01

    Health care is embarking on a new era of increased transparency. In January 2015, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) began to publicly report outcomes of pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery using the 2014 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS CHSD) Mortality Risk Model. Because the 2014 STS CHSD Mortality Risk Model adjusts for procedural factors and patient-level factors, it is critical that centers are aware of the important impact of incomplete entry of data in the fields for patient-level factors. These factors are used to estimate expected mortality, and incomplete coding of these factors can lead to inaccurate assessment of case mix and estimation of expected mortality. In order to assure an accurate assessment of case mix and estimate of expected mortality, it is critical to assure accurate completion of the fields for patient factors, including preoperative factors. It is crucial to document variables such as whether the patient was preoperatively ventilated or had an important noncardiac congenital anatomic abnormality. The lack of entry of these variables will lead to an underestimation of expected mortality. The art and science of assessing outcomes of pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery continues to evolve. In the future, when models have been developed that encompass other outcomes in addition to mortality, pediatric and congenital cardiac surgical performance may be able to be assessed using a multidomain composite metric that incorporates both mortality and morbidity, adjusting for the operation performed and for patient-specific factors. It is our expectation that in the future, this information will also be publicly reported. In this era of increased transparency, the complete and accurate coding of both patient-level factors and procedure-level factors is critical.

  9. Management of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropic support.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, Maeve; Mott, Sandra; Tong, Elizabeth; Handa, Sonia; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean Anne

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate present practice of maintaining PICC line patency in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropes by comparing one cohort receiving low dose continuous heparin with one receiving no heparin. A case control retrospective chart review compared the two cohorts on duration of patency (measured in days) and need for thrombolytic agents. Median duration of patency for the heparin group was 24 days versus 16 days for the no heparin group (p=0.07). Use of thrombolytic agents was 28% in the heparin group compared to 50% in the no heparin group (p=0.08). Although not statistically significant, findings were clinically significant and supportive of current practice.

  10. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole.

  11. The impact of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease on pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1980s prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) has progressively impacted on the practice of pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery. Fetal cardiology today raises special needs in screening programs, training of the involved staff, and allocations of services. Due to the increased detection rate and to the substantial number of terminations, the reduced incidence of CHD at birth can affect the workload of centers of pediatric cardiology and surgery. In utero transportation and competition among centers may change the area of referral in favor of the best centers. Echocardiography is a powerful means to diagnose and to guide lifesaving medical treatment of sustained tachyarrhythmias in the fetus. Prenatal diagnosis not only improves the preoperative conditions in most cases but also postoperative morbidity and mortality in selected types of CHD. Intrauterine transcatheter valvuloplasty in severe outflow obstructive lesions has been disappointing so far and this technique remains investigational, until its benefits are determined by controlled trials. Prenatal diagnosis allows counselling of families which are better prepared for the foreseeable management and outcome of the fetus. These benefits can reduce the risks of litigation for missed ultrasound diagnosis. As increased costs can be expected in institutions dealing with a large number of fetal CHD, the administrators of these institutions should receive protected funds, proportional to their needs.

  12. Diagnostic Clues to Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis and Wernicke’s Encephalopathy after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sadighi, Zsila; Sabin, Noah D.; Hayden, Randall; Stewart, Elizabeth; Pillai, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) encephalitis and Wernicke’s encephalopathy are treatable yet frequently undiagnosed causes of encephalopathy in pediatric recipients of allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review representative cases of both conditions to highlight specific and relevant neurologic features which prompted effective diagnosis and treatment. Two patients with confusion accompanied by seizures, memory changes, or specific visual hallucinations and HHV6 detectable by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid had improvement in viral load with ganciclovir or foscarnet treatment. Two patients had confusion, ataxia, or ocular changes and low serum thiamine levels, which resolved with parenteral thiamine. In all cases, definitive diagnosis and treatment were facilitated by a high index of suspicion and search for specific pathognomonic neurologic deficits accompanying the confusional state. It is critical to clinically differentiate these two conditions from other common neurologic syndromes occurring after transplant, allowing potentially improved patient outcomes by prompt diagnosis, and effective treatment. PMID:25564483

  13. Impact of Vice President Cheney on public interest in left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambarish; Abdullah, Kazeen; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    Although celebrity illnesses attract a significant amount of media attention in the United States, there are few studies that have looked at how celebrity health conditions impact the awareness of the illness in the general population. Recently, Vice President Cheney underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and subsequently a cardiac transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of increased interest in these 2 procedures as assessed by social media. We determined the relative frequency of Google searches for LVAD and heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 using Google trends. We also counted the number of YouTube videos and Twitter messages posted monthly concerning LVADs over a 7-year time frame. There was a significant spike in the Google search interest for LVAD and heart transplantation in the month when Vice President Cheney underwent the respective procedure. Similarly, there was a large increase in YouTube videos and Twitter messages concerning LVADs shortly after he was implanted. In total, these data support the concept that a public figure's illness can significantly influence the public's interest in that condition and its associated therapies.

  14. Growth following solid organ transplantation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Laster, M L; Fine, R N

    2014-03-01

    One of the ultimate goals of successful transplantation in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients is the attainment of optimal final adult height. This manuscript will discuss the attainment of height following solid organ transplantation in pediatric recipients of kidney, liver, heart, lung, and small bowel transplantation. Age is a primary factor with younger recipients exhibiting the greatest immediate catch up growth. Graft function is a significant contributory factor with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate correlating with poor growth in kidney recipients and the need for re-transplantation with impaired growth in liver recipients. The known adverse impact of steroids on growth has led to modification of steroid dosage and even to steroid withdrawal and steroid avoidance. In kidney and liver recipients, this has been associated with the development on occasion of acute rejection episodes. In infant heart transplantation, avoidance of maintenance corticosteroid immunosuppression is associated with normal growth velocity in the majority of patients. With marked improvement in patient and graft survival rates in pediatric organ graft recipients, it is timely that the quality of life issues, such as normal adult height, receive paramount attention. In general, normal growth post-transplantation should be an achievable goal that results in normal adult height for many solid organ transplantation recipients.

  15. Pediatric Heart Failure, Lagging, and Sagging of Care in Low Income Settings: A Hospital Based Review of Cases in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Solmon; Moges, Tamirat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Causes of acute heart failure in children range from simple myocarditis complicating chest infection to complex structural heart diseases. Objective. To describe patterns, predictors of mortality, and management outcomes of acute heart failure in children. Methods. In retrospective review, between February 2012 and October 2015 at a tertiary center, 106 admitted cases were selected consecutively from discharge records. Data were extracted from patients chart and analyzed using SPSS software package. t-test and statistical significance at P value < 0.05 with 95% CI were used. Result. Acute heart failure accounted for 2.9% of the total pediatric admissions. The age ranged from 2 months up to 14 years with mean age of 8 years. Male to female ratio is 1 : 2.1. Rheumatic heart disease accounted for 53.7%; pneumonia, anemia, infective endocarditis, and recurrence of acute rheumatic fever were the main precipitating causes. Death occurred in 19% of cases. Younger age at presentation, low hemoglobin concentration, and undernutrition were associated with death with P value of 0.00, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions and Recommendation. Pediatric heart failure in our settings is diagnosed mainly in older age groups and mostly precipitated due to preventable causes. Significant mortality is observed in relation to factors that can be preventable in children with underlying structural heart disease. Early suspicion and diagnosis of cases may reduce the observed high mortality.

  16. Pediatric Heart Failure, Lagging, and Sagging of Care in Low Income Settings: A Hospital Based Review of Cases in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Solmon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Causes of acute heart failure in children range from simple myocarditis complicating chest infection to complex structural heart diseases. Objective. To describe patterns, predictors of mortality, and management outcomes of acute heart failure in children. Methods. In retrospective review, between February 2012 and October 2015 at a tertiary center, 106 admitted cases were selected consecutively from discharge records. Data were extracted from patients chart and analyzed using SPSS software package. t-test and statistical significance at P value < 0.05 with 95% CI were used. Result. Acute heart failure accounted for 2.9% of the total pediatric admissions. The age ranged from 2 months up to 14 years with mean age of 8 years. Male to female ratio is 1 : 2.1. Rheumatic heart disease accounted for 53.7%; pneumonia, anemia, infective endocarditis, and recurre