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Sample records for pediatric heart transplantation

  1. Pediatric heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stiasny, Brian; Dave, Hitendu; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Balmer, Christian; Kretschmar, Oliver; Bürki, Christoph; Klauwer, Dietrich; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplantation (pHTx) represents a small (14%) but very important and particular part in the field of cardiac transplantation. This treatment has lifelong impact on children. To achieve the best short and especially long-term survival with adequate quality of life, which is of crucial importance for this young patient population, one has to realize and understand the differences with adult HTx. Indication for transplantation, waitlist management including ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplantation and immunosuppression differ. Although young transplant recipients are ultimately likely to be considered for re-transplantation. One has to distinguish between myopathy and complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The differences in anatomy and physiology make the surgical procedure much more complex and create unique challenges. These recipients need a well-organized and educated team with pediatric cardiologists and intensivists, including a high skilled surgeon, which is dedicated to pHTx. Therefore, these types of transplants are best concentrated in specialized centers to achieve promising outcome. PMID:25922739

  2. Pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martin; Stiasny, Brian; Dave, Hitendu; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Balmer, Christian; Kretschmar, Oliver; Bürki, Christoph; Klauwer, Dietrich; Hübler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric heart transplantation (pHTx) represents a small (14%) but very important and particular part in the field of cardiac transplantation. This treatment has lifelong impact on children. To achieve the best short and especially long-term survival with adequate quality of life, which is of crucial importance for this young patient population, one has to realize and understand the differences with adult HTx. Indication for transplantation, waitlist management including ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplantation and immunosuppression differ. Although young transplant recipients are ultimately likely to be considered for re-transplantation. One has to distinguish between myopathy and complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The differences in anatomy and physiology make the surgical procedure much more complex and create unique challenges. These recipients need a well-organized and educated team with pediatric cardiologists and intensivists, including a high skilled surgeon, which is dedicated to pHTx. Therefore, these types of transplants are best concentrated in specialized centers to achieve promising outcome.

  3. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (<12 months), 20% of all children aged 1-10 years, and 15% of all children aged 11-15 years died without having received a heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list.

  4. What Health Educators Should Know about Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duitsman, Dalen

    1996-01-01

    This article provides background information on heart transplantation in general, focusing on pediatric heart transplantation and offering suggestions for teachers regarding the unique concerns of students with heart transplants (exercise, physical appearance, immunosuppressive medications, transplant rejection, infection, and psychological…

  5. More lessons learned from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study.

    PubMed

    Law, Yuk M

    2015-08-01

    Paediatric heart transplantation has evolved over the last 3 decades. The research group, Pediatric Heart Transplant Study, has been in step with that evolution over the nearly 20 years of its existence by utilising its registry to contribute a wealth of clinical research to the field. The highlights of its studies will be presented in this review. PMID:26377720

  6. More lessons learned from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study.

    PubMed

    Law, Yuk M

    2015-08-01

    Paediatric heart transplantation has evolved over the last 3 decades. The research group, Pediatric Heart Transplant Study, has been in step with that evolution over the nearly 20 years of its existence by utilising its registry to contribute a wealth of clinical research to the field. The highlights of its studies will be presented in this review.

  7. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 28. Bernstein D. Pediatric heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  8. Renal Function and Genetic Polymorphisms in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Brian; Brooks, Maria M; Zeevi, Adriana; Ohmann, Erin L.; Burckart, Gilbert J.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Chinnock, Richard; Canter, Charles; Addonizio, Linda; Bernstein, Daniel; Kirklin, James K.; Naftel, David C.; Webber, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Common genetic variations influence rejection, infection, drug metabolism, and side effect profiles after pediatric heart transplantation. Reports in adults suggest that genetic background may influence post-transplant renal function. In this multicenter study we investigated the association of genetic polymorphisms (GP) in a panel of candidate genes on renal function in 453 pediatric heart transplant recipients. Methods We performed genotyping for functional GPs in 19 candidate genes. Renal function was determined annually after transplantation by calculation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Mixed effects and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess recipient characteristics and the effect of GPs on longitudinal eGFR and time to eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results Mean age at transplantation was 6.2 ± 6.1 years and mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 2.5 years. Older age at transplant and black race were independently associated with post-transplant renal dysfunction. In univariate analyses, FASL (C-843T) T allele (p=0.014) and HO-1 (A326G) G allele (p=0.0017) were associated with decreased renal function. After adjusting for age and race, these associations were attenuated [FASL (p=0.075), HO-1 (p=0.053)]. We found no associations of other GPs, including GPs in TGFβ1, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ACE, with post-transplant renal function. Conclusions In this multicenter, large sample of pediatric heart transplant recipients we found no strong associations between GPs in 19 candidate genes and post-transplant renal function. Our findings contradict reported associations of CYP3A5 and TGFβ1 with renal function and suggest that genotyping for these GPs will not facilitate individualized immunosuppression for the purpose of protecting renal function after pediatric heart transplantation. PMID:22789135

  9. Aortic complications following pediatric heart transplantation: A case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sean M; Frazier, Elizabeth A; Collins, R Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aortic complications occur rarely after pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation, but are typically accompanied by catastrophic events. We describe the three cases of major aortic complications in our experience of 329 pediatric heart transplants. This case series and review highlight the important risk factors for aortic complications after heart transplantation. PMID:27011691

  10. Pediatric Heart Transplantation: Report from a Single Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Cai, Jie; Sun, Yong-Feng; Liu, Jin-Ping; Dong, Nian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although heart transplantation (HTx) has become a standard therapy for end-stage heart diseases, experience with pediatric HTx is limited in China. In this article, we will try to provide the experience with indications, complications, perioperative management, immunosuppressive therapy, and survival for pediatric HTx based on our clinical work. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of the pediatric patients undergoing HTx at Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Union Hospital from September 2008 to December 2014. We summarized the indications, surgical variables, postoperative complications, and survival for these patients. Results: Nineteen pediatric patients presented for HTx at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, of whom 10 were male. The age at the time of transplantation ranged from 3 months to 18 years (median 15 years). Patient weight ranged from 5.2 kg to 57.0 kg (median 38.0 kg). Pretransplant diagnosis included cardiomyopathy (14 cases), complex congenital heart disease (3 cases), and tumor (2 cases). All recipients received ABO-compatible donor hearts. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 patients, including cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmia, pulmonary infection, renal dysfunction, and rejection. Two of them experienced cardiac failure and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The immunosuppression regimen was comprised of prednisone, a calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate. All patients recovered with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I–II cardiac function and were discharged. Only one patient suffered sudden death 19 months after transplantation. Conclusion: Orthotopic HTx is a promising therapeutic option with satisfying survival for the pediatric population in China with end-stage heart disease. PMID:26315074

  11. Immune cell function assay in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man-Shun; Boucek, Robert; Kemna, Mariska; Rutledge, Joe; Law, Yuk

    2014-08-01

    The ImmuKnow ICFA reports ex vivo CD4 lymphocyte activation to quantify immunosuppression. Limited organ and age-specific data exist for pediatric heart transplant recipients. We sought to examine their normative values and ICFA's association with rejection/infection. A total of 380 ICFAs from 58 heart transplant recipients (6.5/recipient) were studied retrospectively. The median age at the time of their first ICFA was 5.3 yr (IQR 2.4-12.1 yr). ICFA levels during immunologic stability (n = 311) were a median of 305 (IQR: 172-483) and mean of 353 (s.d. ± 224) ng ATP/mL. ICFA levels trended lower with advancing age. ICFA levels during immunologic stability increased over time from transplant after the first six months but were not correlated with calcineurin inhibitor levels or the type used. There is no association between ICFA values during stability and rejection (median 368 ATP ng/mL; IQR 153-527) or infection (median 293 ATP ng/mL; IQR 198-432). In contrast to the manufacturer's suggested ranges, the immunologic stable ranges in pediatric cardiac recipients were very different. ICFA values during immunologic stability are related to time from transplant in pediatric heart recipients. ICFA's ability to discriminate rejection or infection from immunologic stability was not demonstrated.

  12. Left ventricular noncompaction: A rare indication for pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Mariana; Costa, Patrícia; Vaz, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro Torres, José; Areias, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy, characterized morphologically by a dilated left ventricle, prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses in the ventricular myocardium, with no other structural heart disease. It is thought to be secondary to an arrest of normal myocardial compaction during fetal life. Clinically, the disease presents with heart failure, embolic events, arrhythmias or sudden death. Current diagnostic criteria are based on clinical and imaging data and two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography is the first-line exam. There is no specific therapy and treatment is aimed at associated comorbidities. Cases refractory to medical therapy may require heart transplantation. The authors describe a case of severe and refractory heart failure, which was the initial presentation of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in a previously healthy male child, who underwent successful heart transplantation.

  13. Plasmacytoma-like Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Proctor Short, Sara Rhodes; Cook, Steven L; Kim, Andrew S; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Lowe, Eric J; Petersen, William C

    2016-03-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a diversely manifesting group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations found in solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients. PTLD occurs as a result of immunosuppression and is often driven by the Epstein Barr virus. Although most commonly of B-cell origin, similar to B-cell lymphomas, PTLD can rarely present as a plasmacytic process, resembling multiple myeloma. Although more common in adults, 8 cases of plasmacytoma-like PTLD have been reported in pediatric renal and combined small bowel-liver transplant recipients. Here, we present a rare report of a plasmacytoma-like PTLD case in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.

  14. Tacrolimus-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Gray, James M; Ameduri, Rebecca K

    2016-09-01

    HUS is a well-known entity primarily associated with bacterial infection and is characterized by a classic triad of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and kidney injury. Its atypical form has been associated with calcineurin inhibitors and has been extensively discussed in renal transplantation. We present a case of tacrolimus-associated HUS in a pediatric heart transplant recipient, which we believe to be previously unreported in the literature.

  15. Tacrolimus-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Gray, James M; Ameduri, Rebecca K

    2016-09-01

    HUS is a well-known entity primarily associated with bacterial infection and is characterized by a classic triad of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and kidney injury. Its atypical form has been associated with calcineurin inhibitors and has been extensively discussed in renal transplantation. We present a case of tacrolimus-associated HUS in a pediatric heart transplant recipient, which we believe to be previously unreported in the literature. PMID:27371345

  16. Longitudinal renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients: 20-years experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Punkaj; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Gardner, Megan; Bryant, Janet C; Noel, Tommy R; Knecht, Kenneth R

    2015-03-01

    This study was initiated to assess the temporal trends of renal function, and define risk factors associated with worsening renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients in the immediate post-operative period. We performed a single-center retrospective study in children ≤18 yr receiving OHT (1993-2012). The AKIN's validated, three-tiered AKI staging system was used to categorize the degree of WRF. One hundred sixty-four patients qualified for inclusion. Forty-seven patients (28%) were classified as having WRF after OHT. Nineteen patients (11%) required dialysis after heart transplantation. There was a sustained and steady improvement in renal function in children following heart transplantation in all age groups, irrespective of underlying disease process. The significant factors associated with risk of WRF included body surface area (OR: 1.89 for 0.5 unit increase, 95% CI: 1.29-2.76, p = 0.001) and use of ECMO prior to and/or after heart transplantation (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.51-8.13, p = 0.004). Use of VAD prior to heart transplantation was not associated with WRF (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.17-1.51, p = 0.22). On the basis of these data, we demonstrate that worsening renal function improves early after orthotopic heart transplantation.

  17. Pediatric Cardiac Transplantation Using Hearts Previously Refused for Quality: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Easterwood, Rachel; Singh, Rakesh K.; McFeely, Eric D.; Zuckerman, Warren A.; Addonizio, Linda J.; Gilmore, Lisa; Beddows, Kimberly; Chen, Jonathan M.; Richmond, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric donor hearts are regularly refused for donor quality with limited evidence as to which donor parameters are predictive of poor outcomes. We compare outcomes of recipients receiving hearts previously refused by other institutions for quality with the outcomes of recipients of primarily-offered hearts. Data for recipients aged ≤ 18 and their donors were obtained. Specific UNOS refusal codes were used to place recipients into refusal and non-refusal groups; demographics, morbidity, and mortality were compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to determine differences in graft survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to determine independent risk factors for post-operative mortality. From 7/1/2000-4/30/2011, 182 recipients were transplanted and included for analysis. 130 received a primarily-offered heart; 52 received a refused heart. No difference in post-operative complications or graft survival between the two groups (p=0.355) was found. Prior refusal was not an independent risk factor for recipient mortality. Analysis of this large pediatric cohort examining outcomes with quality-refused hearts shows that in-hospital morbidity and long-term mortality for recipients of quality-refused hearts is no different than recipients of primarily-offered hearts, suggesting that donor hearts previously refused for quality are not necessarily unsuitable for transplant and often show excellent outcomes. PMID:23648205

  18. Basiliximab treatment for autoimmune bowel disease in a pediatric heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Puri, K; Kocoshis, S; Risma, K; Perez, L; Hart, C; Chin, C; Ryan, T D; Jefferies, J L; Schumacher, K R; Castleberry, C

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune-mediated bowel disease has been reported after pediatric heart transplantation. Recognition and treatment of these patients has been difficult. We describe a patient who responded to steroids and basiliximab therapy after an inflammatory process secondary to abnormal T-cell activation. Our patient is a 28-month-old female who received a heart transplant at five wk of age. At 24 months post-transplant, she developed fever and bloody stools. Initial investigations were significant for an elevated ESR (>120) and CRP (15.2). Symptoms persisted despite bowel rest and mycophenolate discontinuation. Endoscopic evaluation revealed discontinuous ulcerative disease involving esophagus, terminal ileum, right and left colon, necessitating extensive bowel resection. She had additional airway inflammation leading to a TEF at the site of esophageal ulceration, requiring tracheostomy. Immune evaluation revealed autoimmune dysregulation that responded to parenteral methylprednisolone. Chronic basiliximab therapy allowed for successful weaning of steroids with sustained remission. She has been transitioned to sirolimus and tacrolimus maintenance immunosuppression with plans to discontinue basiliximab once off steroids. In conclusion, bowel disease in the setting of pediatric heart transplantation can be severe and refractory to traditional treatment methods. Tailoring immune therapy to activated T cells can result in remission. Basiliximab therapy was used in our patient to maintain steroid-induced remission, but long-term complications of this disease process are unknown.

  19. A struggle to survive: the experience of awaiting pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Samantha J; Nicholas, David B; Regehr, Cheryl; West, Lori J

    2014-12-01

    Despite the establishment of heart transplantation as a life-saving therapy for children and adolescents, little research has focused on the biopsychosocial impact of the transplant process. Few studies have captured the subjective experiences of young heart transplant recipients. This study examined the experiences and perspectives of children and adolescents during the pretransplant phase of waiting for a donor organ. Grounded theory methods guided data collection and analysis. A total of 27 adolescents participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Findings illuminate the waiting period for pediatric heart transplantation to be a pervasive experience, with consequent impact on physical, psychological, and social well-being. Participants described various biopsychosocial processes and experiences that occurred during this time, with data analysis yielding themes reflecting notions of "struggling to survive," including physical limitations, lethargy, social isolation, discomfort with physical appearance, and academic issues. This research identifies the pretransplant experience as a period framed within a text of debilitation and negative self-perceptions related to health and well-being. Supporting children and their families as they navigate this complex and uncertain journey is merited, and results invite further interventional development and research.

  20. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  1. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Miana, Leonardo Augusto; Azeka, Estela; Canêo, Luiz Fernando; Turquetto, Aída Luisa; Tanamati, Carla; Penha, Juliano Gomes; Cauduro, Alexandre; Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to 21 years with a mean of 8.8±5.7 years and a median of 5.2 years. The underlying diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 61.5%, congenital heart disease in 26.6% and restrictive cardiomyopathy in 11.9%. All patients above 17 years old had congenital heart disease. Results Survival rate at 30 days, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 90.4%, 81.3%, 70.9%, 60.5%, 44.4% and 26.7%, respectively. Mean cold ischemic time was 187.9 minutes and it did not correlate with mortality (P>0.05). Infectious complications and rejection episodes were the most common complications (P<0.0001), occurring, respectively, in 66% and 57.4% of the survivors after 10 years. There was no incidence of graft vascular disease and lymphoproliferative disease at year one, but they affected, respectively, 7.4% and 11% of patients within 10 years. Conclusion Twenty-year pediatric heart transplant results at our institution were quite satisfactory and complication rates were acceptable. PMID:25372904

  2. Cost-effectiveness of pediatric heart transplantation across a positive crossmatch for high waitlist urgency candidates.

    PubMed

    Feingold, B; Webber, S A; Bryce, C L; Park, S Y; Tomko, H E; West, S C; Hart, S A; Mahle, W T; Smith, K J

    2015-11-01

    Allosensitized children listed with a requirement for a negative prospective crossmatch have high mortality. Previously, we found that listing with the intent to accept the first suitable organ offer, regardless of the possibility of a positive crossmatch (TAKE strategy), results in a survival advantage from the time of listing compared to awaiting transplantation across a negative crossmatch (WAIT). The cost-effectiveness of these strategies is unknown. We used Markov modeling to compare cost-effectiveness between these waitlist strategies for allosensitized children listed urgently for heart transplantation. We used registry data to estimate costs and waitlist/posttransplant outcomes. We assumed patients remained in hospital after listing, no positive crossmatches for WAIT, and a base-case probability of a positive crossmatch of 47% for TAKE. Accepting the first suitable organ offer cost less ($405 904 vs. $534 035) and gained more quality-adjusted life years (3.71 vs. 2.79). In sensitivity analyses, including substitution of waitlist data from children with unacceptable antigens specified during listing, TAKE remained cost-saving or cost-effective. Our findings suggest acceptance of the first suitable organ offer for urgently listed allosensitized pediatric heart transplant candidates is cost-effective and transplantation should not be denied because of allosensitization status alone.

  3. Impact of donor-recipient sex match on long-term survival after heart transplantation in children: An analysis of 5797 pediatric heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Kemna, Mariska; Albers, Erin; Bradford, Miranda C; Law, Sabrina; Permut, Lester; McMullan, D Mike; Law, Yuk

    2016-03-01

    The effect of donor-recipient sex matching on long-term survival in pediatric heart transplantation is not well known. Adult data have shown worse survival when male recipients receive a sex-mismatched heart, with conflicting results in female recipients. We analyzed 5795 heart transplant recipients ≤ 18 yr in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (1990-2012). Recipients were stratified based on donor and recipient sex, creating four groups: MM (N = 1888), FM (N = 1384), FF (N = 1082), and MF (N = 1441). Males receiving sex-matched donor hearts had increased unadjusted allograft survival at five yr (73.2 vs. 71%, p = 0.01). However, this survival advantage disappeared with longer follow-up and when adjusted for additional risk factors by multivariable Cox regression analysis. In contrast, for females, receiving a sex-mismatched heart was associated with an 18% higher risk of allograft loss over time compared to receiving a sex-matched heart (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38) and a 26% higher risk compared to sex-matched male recipients (HR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.45). Females who receive a heart from a male donor appear to have a distinct long-term survival disadvantage compared to all other groups.

  4. Donors' characteristics and impact on outcomes in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jennifer; Chin, Clifford; Kemna, Mariska; Burch, Michael; Barnes, Aliessa; Tresler, Margaret; Scheel, Janet N; Naftel, David C; Beddow, Kimberly; Allain-Rooney, Tina; Dipchand, Anne I

    2013-12-01

    Organ availability and acceptability limit pediatric HTx. What characteristics define an unacceptable or high-risk pediatric donor remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize a large cohort of pediatric donors and determine the donor risk factors, including cumulative risk, that affect recipient survival. Data from the PHTS, a prospective multicenter study, were used to examine the impact of donor factors on the outcomes of patients listed <18 yr of age who received a HTx between 1993 and 2009. Donor data were available for 3149 of 3156 HTx (99.8%). Donor cause of death, need for inotropes, or CPR did not affect survival outcomes (p = 0.05). Ischemic time also did not have an impact on overall recipient survival; however, longer ischemic times negatively impacted one-yr post-transplant survival (p < 0.0001). There was no impact of cumulative risk factors on survival (p = 0.8). Although used in a minority of cases, hormonal therapy in the donor positively impacted survival (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only donor factor associated with decreased survival was smaller donor BSA, the other factors being related to the recipient characteristics. When analyzed by recipient age, there were no donor-related factors that affected survival for those who received a transplant at <6 months of age. Longer ischemic time (p < 0.0001) and greater age difference between the recipient and donor (p = 0.0098) were donor-related factors impacting early-phase survival for recipients who received a graft at ≥10 yr of age. Factors perceived to define a marginal or high-risk pediatric heart donor including inotrope use, CPR and donor cause of death may have less impact on outcomes than previously thought. Longer ischemic times did impact one yr, but not overall survival, and this impact was much greater with older donors. Parameters for accepting a donor heart can potentially be expanded, especially in the infant age group, but strong

  5. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center that wishes to provide transplantation services to pediatric heart patients may be approved to perform pediatric heart transplants by meeting the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 criteria in...

  6. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center that wishes to provide transplantation services to pediatric heart patients may be approved to perform pediatric heart transplants by meeting the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 criteria in...

  7. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... after the baby is born. For others, your child may be able to safely wait for months ...

  8. Heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takeshi

    2009-06-01

    A total of 59 heart transplantations (HTx) have been performed in Japan as of September, 2008, since the Organ Transplantation Law was settled in October 1997. The majority of recipients were suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy and waiting condition of all recipients were status 1. The mean waiting time was 777 day; 50 patients (85%) were supported by several types of left ventricular assist systems (LVAS) and the mean duration of support was 780 days. The majority of patients underwent operation by modified bicaval method with Celsior solution for cardiac preservation, and 64% of recipients were administered triple therapy with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid as the initial immunosuppressive regimen. The 9-year survival rate was 94%, which was superior to that of the international registry. HTx in Japan has been very limited by a severe shortage of donors, but the results have been excellent even though the majority of recipients were waiting for long-term with a LVAS as a bridge to HTx.

  9. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  10. Dual-Axis Rotational Coronary Angiography: A New Technique for Detecting Graft Coronary Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gudausky, Todd M.; Pelech, Andrew N.; Stendahl, Gail; Tillman, Kathryn; Mattice, Judy; Berger, Stuart; Zangwill, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Annual surveillance coronary angiograpyhy to screen for graft coronary vasculopathy is routine practice after orthotopic heart transplantation. Traditionally, this is performed with direct coronary angiography using static single-plane or biplane angiography. Recently, technological advances have made it possible to perform dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (RA). This technique differs from standard static single-plane or biplane angiography in that a single detector is preprogrammed to swing through a complex 80° arc during a single injection. It has the advantage of providing a perspective of the vessels from a full arc of images rather than from one or two static images per contrast injection. The current study evaluated two coronary angiography techniques used consecutively at a single center to evaluate pediatric heart transplant recipients for graft coronary vasculopathy. A total of 23 patients underwent routine coronary angiography using both biplane static coronary angiography (BiP) and RA techniques at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from February 2009 to September 2010. Demographic and procedure data were collected from each procedure and analyzed for significance utilizing a Wilcoxon rank sum test. No significant demographic or procedural differences between the BiP and the RA procedures were noted. Specific measures of radiation dose including fluoroscopy time and dose area product were similar among the imaging techniques. The findings show that RA can be performed safely and reproducibly in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Compared with standard BiP, RA does not increase radiation exposure or contrast use and in our experience has provided superior angiographic imaging for the evaluation of graft coronary vasculopathy. PMID:22956061

  11. The effect of MMF dose and trough levels on adverse effects in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Nida; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T

    2015-09-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic and safety data exist for MMF in pediatric HTR. Previously targeted MPA-TL are 1.5-3.0 μg/mL. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes targeting MPA-TL of 0.8-2.0 μg/mL in pediatric HTR. MPA-TL were retrospectively collected 2-12 months post-transplant. Acute rejection, infection, leukopenia, and GI complaints were then correlated with MPA-TL. A total of 355 MPA-TL from 22 HTR were included. Median age was 2.5 yr. Primary indication for transplant was dilated cardiomyopathy (64%). Mean MPA-TL was 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL. African American patients received significantly higher doses (702 ± 235 mg/m(2) ) compared with other races (p = 0.035). Leukopenia was less common in patients with SUB MPA vs. others (p = 0.01). MMF was discontinued for GI complaints in one patient and leukopenia in two patients. One SUB patient had acute rejection, and one SUP patient had infection. One-yr survival was 100%. Targeting a lower range for MPA-TL was not associated with significant rejection or infection. Despite lower MPA-TL, MMF was discontinued in 3/22 patients for adverse effects.

  12. Transition from brand to generic tacrolimus is associated with a decrease in trough blood concentration in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Duong, Son Q; Lal, Ashwin K; Joshi, Rujuta; Feingold, Brian; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2015-12-01

    There are limited data available on the bioequivalence of generic and brand-name tacrolimus in pediatric and heart transplant patients. We characterized changes in 12-hour trough concentrations and clinical outcomes after transition from brand to generic tacrolimus in pediatric thoracic organ transplant recipients. Patients with a pharmacy-confirmed date of switch between generic and brand tacrolimus were identified, as well as a matched control group that did not switch for comparison. We identified 18 patients with a confirmed date of switch, and in 12 patients that remained on the same dose, trough concentrations were 14% less than when they were on brand (p = 0.037). The average change was -1.15 ± 1.76 ng/mL (p = 0.045). The control group did not experience a change in trough concentration and was different than the switched group (p = 0.005). There were no differences in dosage changes or kidney or liver function. In the year after switch, 24% of patients who were switched to generic experienced a rejection event vs. 18% in the patients on brand. We suggest a strategy of monitoring around the time of transition, and education of the patient/family to notify the care team when changes from brand to generic or between generics occur.

  13. Pediatric transplantation: preventing thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J D

    2015-06-01

    Due to progressive advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapies, and supportive care, outcomes from both solid organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation continue to improve. Thrombosis remains a challenging management issue in this context, with implications for both graft survival and long-term quality of life. Unfortunately, there remains a general paucity of pediatric-specific data regarding thrombosis incidence, risk stratification, and the safety or efficacy of preventative strategies with which to guide treatment algorithms. This review summarizes the available evidence and rationale underlying the spectrum of current practices aimed at preventing thrombosis in the transplant recipient, with a particular focus on risk factors, pathophysiology, and described antithrombotic regimens.

  14. Effects of an acute, outpatient physiotherapy exercise program following pediatric heart or lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deliva, R D; Hassall, A; Manlhiot, C; Solomon, M; McCrindle, B W; Dipchand, A I

    2012-12-01

    This prospective interventional study investigated the impact of a three-month, ambulatory HA or HB, semi-individualized, PT-prescribed exercise program following pediatric HTx or LTx. SMW distance, strength, and flexibility were assessed at start and completion of the program and one yr after enrollment. Subjects received either an HB or HA exercise program three times per week. The cohort demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvements in SMW distances at three months (425.7 ± 109.4-500.6 ± 93.6 m, p < 0.001) and at one yr (528.5 ± 66.6 m, p = 0.001), although there was no difference between the two groups at any time. Similar improvements were also observed in strength and flexibility measures. Correlates with higher SMW distance at three months and one yr included older age, male gender, and underlying diagnosis other than CHD. Male gender and diagnosis other than CHD were associated with a slower improvement in the SMW distance. This is the first report of institutionally based, outpatient exercise rehabilitation in the recovery following pediatric thoracic transplantation. We found similar improvements to HB interventions up to one yr after surgery. Further study of the role of exercise rehabilitation and long-term fitness outcomes is needed.

  15. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctors remove the patient's heart by transecting the aorta , the main pulmonary artery and the superior and ... sewing together the recipient and donor vena cavae, aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. In patients with ...

  16. Pediatric Heart Failure in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The exact prevalence of heart failure among children of developing countries is not known, as the data is limited. The relative frequency of different causes of pediatric heart failure varies widely across different countries and even among different parts of large countries like India. Children of developing countries face a double burden of etiologies. Conditions such us congenital heart disease, myocarditis and cardiomyopathies are common causes of pediatric of heart failure. In addition, diseases like rheumatic heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, and other tropical diseases also result in heart failure among children of the developing countries. However, most of the developing countries have low resources and hence management of pediatric heart failure becomes challenging. Advanced therapies for heart failure are rarely used in children of developing countries and cardiac transplant remains a distant dream.

  17. Heart transplantation: review

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Alves, Bárbara Rubim; Silvestre, Odílson Marcos; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Pires, Lucas José Tachotti; Curiati, Milena Novaes Cardoso; Bacal, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart transplantation is currently the definitive gold standard surgical approach in the treatment of refractory heart failure. However, the shortage of donors limits the achievement of a greater number of heart transplants, in which the use of mechanical circulatory support devices is increasing. With well-established indications and contraindications, as well as diagnosis and treatment of rejection through defined protocols of immunosuppression, the outcomes of heart transplantation are very favorable. Among early complications that can impact survival are primary graft failure, right ventricular dysfunction, rejection, and infections, whereas late complications include cardiac allograft vasculopathy and neoplasms. Despite the difficulties for heart transplantation, in particular, the shortage of donors and high mortality while on the waiting list, in Brazil, there is a great potential for both increasing effective donors and using circulatory assist devices, which can positively impact the number and outcomes of heart transplants. PMID:26154552

  18. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  19. Imaging in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Monti, L; Soglia, G; Tomà, P

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation has become an established curative treatment in adult patients with acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases. In pediatric cases the number of cadaveric donor livers is not sufficient and to overcome the shortage of appropriate-sized whole liver grafts, technical variants of liver transplantation have been practiced. Reduced-size cadaveric and split cadaveric allografts have become an important therapeutic option, expanding the availability of size-appropriate organs for pediatric recipients with terminal liver disease. The number of pediatric deaths awaiting liver transplantation has been reduced by the introduction of living-related liver transplantation, developed to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children. It is important for radiologists to know that children have distinct imaging of liver transplantation that distinguish them from adults. A multidisciplinary pediatric liver transplantation team should be skilled in pediatric conditions and in associated processes, risks and complications. Radiologists should know the common pediatric liver diseases that lead to liver transplantation, the anastomotic techniques and the expected postoperative imaging findings. The aim of this study is to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging such us ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric liver transplantation and in potential liver donors. PMID:26909515

  20. Extracorporeal Life Support for Pediatric Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher R.; McMullan, D. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents an essential component in the treatment of the pediatric patient with refractory heart failure. Defined as the use of an extracorporeal system to provide cardiopulmonary support, ECLS provides hemodynamic support to facilitate end-organ recovery and can be used as a salvage therapy during acute cardiorespiratory failure. Support strategies employed in pediatric cardiac patients include bridge to recovery, bridge to therapy, and bridge to transplant. Advances in extracorporeal technology and refinements in patient selection have allowed wider application of this therapy in pediatric heart failure patients. PMID:27812522

  1. An apparent case of undiagnosed donor Kawasaki disease manifesting as coronary artery aneurysm in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Friedland-Little, Joshua; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Gajarski, Robert J; Schumacher, Kurt R

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of coronary ectasia and LAD coronary artery aneurysm with angiographic characteristics of Kawasaki disease in a three-yr-old girl two-yr status post-orthotopic heart transplant. Coronary anomalies were noted during initial screening coronary angiography two yr after transplant. Subsequent review of the donor echocardiogram revealed that the LMCA had been mildly dilated prior to transplant. In the absence of any symptoms consistent with Kawasaki disease in the transplant recipient, this appears to be a case of Kawasaki disease in the organ donor manifesting with coronary anomalies in the transplant recipient. The patient has done well clinically, and repeat coronary angiography has revealed partial regression of coronary anomalies. Given multiple reports in the literature of persistent abnormalities of coronary artery morphology and function after Kawasaki disease, close monitoring is warranted, with consideration of potential coronary protective medical therapies.

  2. Cardiac transplants. Heart and heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, T; Gamberg, P L

    1992-02-01

    OR nurses play an important role in organ procurement. They are responsible for gathering the necessary equipment, which includes cardioplegia supplies, normal saline, a sterile container for transplantation of the heart, a sterile retractor, vascular clamps, and dissection instruments. Orthotopic heart transplantation involves excision of the recipient heart with placement of the donor heart in a normal anatomic position. Heterotopic transplant, which consists of placing the donor heart in the right side of the chest parallel to the native heart, is rarely used. In heart-lung transplantation procedures, attention is given to the removal of the heart and each lung separately to prevent injury to the vagus, phrenic, and laryngeal nerves.

  3. Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Riley, Alyssa; Gebhard, Daniel J; Akcan-Arikan, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common in pediatric medical and surgical cardiac patients. Not only is it an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the short run, but repeated episodes of AKI lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) especially in the most vulnerable hosts with multiple risk factors, such as heart transplant recipients. The cardiorenal syndrome, a term coined to emphasize the bidirectional nature of simultaneous or sequential cardiac-renal dysfunction both in acute and chronic settings, has been recently described in adults but scarcely reported in children. Despite the common occurrence and clinical and financial impact, AKI in pediatric heart failure outside of cardiac surgery populations remains poorly studied and there are no large-scale pediatric specific preventive or therapeutic studies to date. This article will review pediatric aspects of the cardiorenal syndrome in terms of pathophysiology, clinical impact and treatment options.

  4. Changing Role of Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kittleson, Michelle M

    2016-07-01

    Heart transplantation has become standard of care for end-stage heart failure. Challenges include the limited supply of donor organs and the increased complexity of heart transplant candidates who are at higher risk for poor outcomes. Recent advances may address these challenges, including proposed changes in heart transplant allocation policy, a better understanding of the definition and management of primary graft dysfunction, and advances in the management of sensitized heart transplant candidates. Developments in these areas may result in more equitable distribution and expansion of the donor pool and improved quality of life and survival for heart transplant recipients. PMID:27371517

  5. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  6. [INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION IN PEDIATRICS

    PubMed

    Alarcón M, Pedro; Alarcón M, Jorge

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal Transplantation used to be an utopia in Medicine, and this was mainly due to the factor that the surgical technique was not the best at the beginning. When this was perfectioned, the next obstacle for the adequate progress of this surgery was the limited availability of anti-rejection drugs due to the fact that Ciclosporine has been and still is a drug of relative effectiveness. With the discovery of new anti-rejection drugs and with a best knowledge of the concomitant liver transplantation roll on the prognosis of these patients, it was possible to get in this decade, specifically in the last 2 years, extraordinary results; for example, from 170 pacients who underwent intestinal transplantation around the world, more than half were done by the University of Pittsburg. This university reported a survival of 62%. But, this percentage has been improved even more, the University of Miami reported a survival of 70% through the use of corticoides and two powerful anti-rejection drugs: FK-506 and Mycophelate.

  7. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation.

  8. [Heart transplant: when the candidate is a child].

    PubMed

    Favilli, Silvia; Spaziani, Gaia; Pollini, Iva; Chiappa, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    Heart transplant (HT) has been considered as a therapy for pediatric end-stage heart failure (HF) for more than four decades. Children with HF represent a very heterogeneous population, affected by different congenital or acquired heart diseases. Progresses in cardiac surgery and medical therapies, leading to improved prognosis, require periodic re-assessment of indications to HT. Systemic diseases, inherited inborn errors of metabolism, genetic syndromes or associated extra-cardiac malformations can contraindicate HT. In these conditions a tailored evaluation is needed. Pediatric heart disease, which more often may be an indication to HT, as well as prognostic parameters in pediatric HF are discussed.

  9. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  10. Diaphragmatic Hernia After Pediatric Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Kirnap, Mahir; Akdur, Aydincan; Ozcay, Figen; Soy, Ebru; Coskun, Mehmet; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Diaphragmatic hernia is an unusual complication after pediatric liver transplant. Nearly half of bowel obstruction cases, which require surgical intervention in liver transplant patients, are caused by diaphragmatic hernia. The smaller patients are at risk for higher rates of diaphragmatic complication after pediatric liver transplant, but diaphragmatic hernia has not been reported as a unique occurrence. Here, we report 3 cases of diaphragmatic hernia after liver transplant and discuss the possible contributing factors. Diaphragmatic hernia should nevertheless be added to the list of potential complications after liver transplant in the pediatric population. Pediatric transplant physicians and surgeons should be aware of this complication so that it is recognized promptly in both acute and nonacute settings and appropriate action is taken.

  11. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  12. Ventricular assist device use in congenital heart disease with a comparison to heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacob R; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances in medical and surgical therapies, some children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are not able to be adequately treated or palliated, leading them to develop progressive heart failure. As these patients progress to end-stage heart failure they pose a unique set of challenges. Heart transplant remains the standard of care; the donor pool, however, remains limited. Following the experience from the adult realm, the pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has emerged as a valid treatment option as a bridge to transplant. Due to the infrequent necessity and the uniqueness of each case, the pediatric VAD in the CHD population remains a topic with limited information. Given the experience in the adult realm, we were tasked with reviewing pediatric VADs and their use in patients with CHD and comparing this therapy to heart transplantation when possible.

  13. Psychiatric issues in pediatric organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Margaret L

    2011-08-01

    Solid organ transplantation has become the first line of treatment for a growing number of life-threatening pediatric illnesses. With improved survival, research into the long-term outcome of transplant recipients has become important to clinicians. Adherence to medical instructions remains a challenge, particularly in the adolescent population. New immunosuppressant approaches promise to expand organ transplantation in additional directions. Extension of transplantation into replacement of organs such as faces and hands raises complex ethical issues. PMID:21855712

  14. Psychiatric issues in pediatric organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Margaret L

    2010-04-01

    Solid organ transplantation has become the first line of treatment for a growing number of life-threatening pediatric illnesses. With improved survival, research into the long-term outcome of transplant recipients has become important to clinicians. Adherence to medical instructions remains a challenge, particularly in the adolescent population. New immunosuppressant approaches promise to expand organ transplantation in additional directions. Extension of transplantation into replacement of organs such as faces and hands raises complex ethical issues. PMID:20478500

  15. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  16. Neurocognitive functions in pediatric renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Gulleroglu, K; Baskin, E; Bayrakci, U S; Aydogan, M; Alehan, F; Kantar, A; Karakayali, F; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is one of the major complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). Uremic state during CRF encompasses a wide spectrum of neurobehavioral and neurological disturbances. Recent studies showed that the pathophysiology of neurocognitive dysfunction in CRF is related to plasma levels of uremic solutes. Successful renal transplantation improves renal, metabolic, and endocrine functions and the quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the state of neurocognitive function in pediatric renal transplant recipients. We prospectively performed a neurological examination and neuropsychological test battery (Bender-Gestalt Test, Cancellation Test, and Visual and Auditory Number Assay Test) in 20 pediatric renal transplant recipients between 6 and 16 years of age. Twenty healthy children and 20 children with CRF were included in the study as the control groups. Mean age of the renal transplant recipients was 13.50 ± 3.40 years old. Mean evaluation time after transplantation was 2.0 ± 0.5 years. Bender-Gestalt Test result was abnormal in 40% of patients. The results of the Cancellation Test and the Visual and Auditory Number Assay Test showed significant decline in pediatric renal transplant patients when compared with the control. We found that neurocognitive dysfunction was frequent in pediatric renal transplantation patients. Awareness of this potential problem may be helpful for early recognition and treatment. Our findings suggest that periodic neurocognitive assessments may be indicated in transplant recipients. PMID:24314945

  17. Usefulness of Diastolic Strain Measurements in Predicting Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Risk of Rejection or Coronary Artery Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jimmy C; Magdo, H Sonali; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Zamberlan, Mary; Gajarski, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    In pediatric heart transplant recipients, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is associated with rejection and coronary artery vasculopathy. This study aimed to evaluate which echocardiographic parameters track changes in PCWP and predict adverse outcomes (rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy). This prospective single-center study enrolled 49 patients (median 11.4 years old, interquartile range 7.4 to 16.5) at time of cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Median follow-up was 2.4 years (range 1.2 to 3.1 years), with serial testing per clinical protocol. Ratio of early mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/E'), left atrial (LA) distensibility, peak LA systolic strain, E/left ventricular (LV) diastolic strain, and E/LV diastolic strain rate were measured from echocardiograms. Increase in PCWP ≥3 mm Hg was associated with changes in LA distensibility, E/E', and E/LV diastolic strain, with highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for E/LV diastolic strain (0.76). In 9 patients who subsequently developed rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy, E/LV diastolic strain rate at baseline differed from patients without events (median 57.0 vs 43.6, p = 0.02). On serial studies, only change in LV ejection fraction differed in patients with events (median -10% vs -1%, p = 0.01); decrease in LV ejection fraction of -19% had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 44%. In conclusion, LV diastolic strain and strain rate measurements can track changes in PCWP and identify patients at risk for subsequent rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data in a larger cohort.

  18. Heart transplants: need versus availability.

    PubMed

    Jahania, M Salik; Mentzer, Robert M

    2002-03-01

    Every year in the US heart failure accounts for roughly 60,000 deaths and is the contributing cause in another 300,000 deaths. The two-year survival rate for patients with advanced heart failure is less than 50%, with the incidence of death at 106 in 100,000, more than that for AIDS and breast cancer combined. As these figures attest, the economic burden is quite extensive. The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare estimate a cost of $10 billion a year for this diagnosis alone. Both the human and financial cost have impelled doctors and researchers to improve their capacity to treat heart failure both through conventional methods and, in the most serious cases, through transplantation. Many pioneers have either directly or indirectly contributed to our ability to treat heart failure. Among these early researchers were: Dr Alexis Carrel, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his pioneering work in vascular anastomosis; Dr John Gibbon, who did important work in the development of the cardiopulmonary bypass machine; Drs Normal Shumway, Richard Lower, and Demikhov, who developed heart transplant procedures in the canine model; Dr Christian Barnaard, who performed the first technically successful human-to-human heart transplant (1967); and Dr Thomas Hardy, who attempted the first xenotransplant (1963). While these achievements were phenomenal advances, long-term survival for transplant recipients was minimal until progress was made in immunosuppressive techniques. PMID:11911012

  19. The department of psychology within a pediatric cardiac transplant unit.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; De Ranieri, C; Tabarini, P; Di Ciommo, V; Di Donato, R; Biondi, G; Parisi, F

    2011-05-01

    In 1979, the department of Psychology started its activity to provide psychological support to patients and their families during the course of treatment and during the follow-up period. Since 1986, a transplantation program was initiated in the cardiology and pediatric cardiac surgery departments, performing 179 cardiac, 3 heart-kidney, 18 heart-lung 14 both lung, 1 heart-lung-liver, and 1 single lung transplantation. From 1993, to September 2010 the kidney transplant program has performed. 218 cases. Since 2008, we performed (32 liver and 1 intestinal transplantations). We examined the quality of life and coping with transplantation attitudes because there is recent evidence of high levels of family anxiety and depression related to a child's poor response to the disease and compliance. Our work associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with anxiety and with these clinical variables: gender pathology, rejection, number of drugs frequency of hospital visits, number of hospitalizations, as well as age at and time from transplantation. We examined 56 parents (25 fathers and 31 mothers) of cardiac transplant recipients. Our most relevant data demonstrated the presence of PTSD among 52% of mothers and 40% of fathers. Significant correlations were observed within the trait of anxiety. No correlations were noted between PTSD and other variables. Testing anxiety levels of parents is considered to be basic to provide psychological support to parents, encourage personal skills, and avoid PTSD symptoms.

  20. Post-heart transplant complications.

    PubMed

    Birati, Edo Y; Rame, J Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Managing patients after heart transplantation is challenging, since these patients have unique clinical complications (associated with the immunosuppressive therapy and cardiac allograft rejection) together with atypical clinical presentations for infection and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Survival rates have improved substantially with the use of new immunosuppressive drugs. High vigilance, early diagnosis, and appropriate intervention for allograft-related and non-allograft-related syndromes with significant morbidity and mortality are the keys to long-term survival of patients after transplantation. PMID:24996612

  1. Genomic biomarkers and heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Uber, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians have entered into a new paradigm for managing heart transplant patients with use of multimarker gene expression profiling. Early after transplantation, when corticosteroid modification is the main concern, gene expression testing might assist in optimizing the balance of immunosuppression, defraying the occurrence of rejection, and avoiding crisis intervention. Late after transplantation, the reliance on endomyocardial biopsy could be lessened. These advances, if continually validated in practice, could usher in an era of decreased immunosuppression complications, lesser need for invasive surveillance, and more clinical confidence in immunosuppressive strategies.

  2. Postoperative management of heart failure in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yuerek, Mahsun; Rossano, Joseph W; Mascio, Christopher E; Shaddy, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a well-described entity occurring in 25-65% of pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery. With judicious intensive care management of LCOS, most patients have an uncomplicated postoperative course, and within 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass, the cardiac function returns back to baseline. Some patients have severe forms of LCOS not responsive to medical management alone, requiring temporary mechanical circulatory support to prevent end-organ injury and to decrease myocardial stress and oxygen demand. Occasionally, cardiac function does not recover and heart transplantation is necessary. Long-term mechanical circulatory support devices are used as a bridge to transplantation because of limited availability of donor hearts. Experience in usage of continuous flow ventricular assist devices in the pediatric population is increasing. PMID:26560361

  3. Postoperative management of heart failure in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yuerek, Mahsun; Rossano, Joseph W; Mascio, Christopher E; Shaddy, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a well-described entity occurring in 25-65% of pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery. With judicious intensive care management of LCOS, most patients have an uncomplicated postoperative course, and within 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass, the cardiac function returns back to baseline. Some patients have severe forms of LCOS not responsive to medical management alone, requiring temporary mechanical circulatory support to prevent end-organ injury and to decrease myocardial stress and oxygen demand. Occasionally, cardiac function does not recover and heart transplantation is necessary. Long-term mechanical circulatory support devices are used as a bridge to transplantation because of limited availability of donor hearts. Experience in usage of continuous flow ventricular assist devices in the pediatric population is increasing.

  4. Pediatric en bloc kidney transplantation into pediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Lau, Keith K; Berg, Gerre M; Schjoneman, Yolanda G; Perez, Richard V; Butani, Lavjay

    2010-02-01

    As a result of the ongoing shortage in organ supply, en bloc renal transplantation from small donors has become more common for adult recipients with ESRD. However, because of concern for higher complication rates and sub-optimal outcomes, it is not being performed in every center, and data describing its use in pediatric recipients are even more limited. We retrospectively studied three patients who have undergone en bloc renal transplantation at our center. Median age at transplantation was 16.7 yr with a median follow-up of 1.2 yr. Donor age ranged from nine to 49 months with weight ranging from 10 to 22 kg. There were no post-operative thrombotic complications. All grafts showed increased renal size at follow-up by ultrasound. There was no clinical or histological rejection at last follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the outcomes of en bloc kidney transplantation from pediatric donors into pediatric recipients. Based on our experience, albeit very limited, we feel that en bloc renal transplantation from young donors is an acceptable and safe procedure with low complication rates in pediatric recipients and should be given consideration to minimize wait times on the wait list and to improve quality of life.

  5. Management of biliary tract stones in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Milas, M; Ricketts, R R; Amerson, J R; Kanter, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report their experience with biliary tract stones in adult and pediatric heart transplant patients, and review the current literature relative to this problem. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Prior studies in adults have noted that heart transplant patients frequently have cholelithiasis, but offer no consensus about treatment strategy. Few studies exist for pediatric heart transplant patients. A higher rate of hemolysis and cyclosporine-induced changes in bile metabolism may contribute to lithogenesis in this population. METHODS: A chart review was conducted for 211 patients who had heart transplants between January 1988 and September 1994 to determine prevalence of biliary tract stones, management strategies used, and outcome. RESULTS: Of 175 long-term heart transplant survivors, 52 (29.7%) had stones detected: 32.8% of adults (47/143) and 15.6% of children (5/32). The majority of patients (31) were diagnosed 4 months (mean) after transplantation; cholelithiasis developed in 10 of these patients (32%) within 11 months (median) after a negative ultrasound. Symptoms developed in 45% of patients. All patients underwent either elective (36) or urgent (6) cholecystectomy via an open (32) or laparoscopic (10) approach, or endoscopy for common bile duct stones (2). There were no deaths or complications during a follow-up period of up to 7 years. CONCLUSION: Heart transplant patients have a high prevalence of symptomatic biliary tract stone disease. They can be treated safely via an open or laparoscopic approach after transplantation. The authors recommend routine gallbladder ultrasound screening and elective cholecystectomy in the post-transplant period if stones are detected. Images Figure 4. PMID:8645048

  6. New immunosuppressive agents in pediatric transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Christina; Shapiro, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy in pediatrics continues to evolve. Over the past decade, newer immunosuppressive agents have been introduced into adult and pediatric transplant patients with the goal of improving patient and allograft survival. Unfortunately, large-scale randomized clinical trials are not commonly performed in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss the newer immunosuppressive agents available for induction therapy, maintenance immunosuppression, and the treatment of rejection. PMID:24860853

  7. New immunosuppressive agents in pediatric transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christina; Shapiro, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy in pediatrics continues to evolve. Over the past decade, newer immunosuppressive agents have been introduced into adult and pediatric transplant patients with the goal of improving patient and allograft survival. Unfortunately, large-scale randomized clinical trials are not commonly performed in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss the newer immunosuppressive agents available for induction therapy, maintenance immunosuppression, and the treatment of rejection.

  8. What Are the Risks of Heart Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a leading cause of donor heart failure and death in the years following transplant surgery. CAV can cause heart attack , heart failure , dangerous arrhythmias , and sudden cardiac arrest . To detect CAV, your doctor may ...

  9. Impact of Heart Transplantation on Cheyne-Stokes Respiration in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleh, Suhail; Kantor, Paul F.; Narang, Indra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing is well described in adults with heart failure but not in pediatric population. We describe a 13-year-old Caucasian male with severe heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy who demonstrated polysomnographic features of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which completely resolved following cardiac transplantation. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in children with advanced heart failure and its resolution after heart transplant can be observed similar to adults. PMID:27127671

  10. [Pediatric renal transplantation in Toulouse (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Juskiewenski, S; Barthe, P; Vaysse, P; Bouissou, F; Guitard, J; Bacque, P; Moscovivi, J; Cao-Van, C

    1980-01-01

    The regional group of renal transplantation in Toulouse includes a medico-surgical team which participates to all the activities of this group. Dialysis and transplantation are covered in a center organized for the care of children. This branch is part of the Regional Hospital. From 15 years old on patients are moved from the pediatric branch to the medico-surgical center taking care of adults. Both teams within the regional hospital share the responsability of taking off kidneys from cadaveric donors and collaborate to France-Transplant and Euro-Transplant. Since the pediatric center in charge of renal failure has opened, 32 children underwent chronic hemodialysis. Some of these patients are presently treated in the center for adults. Fourteen children were grafted and seven are at this moment waiting to receive transplantation. The average number of transplantations per year is from 1 to 4. These fourteen children underwent renal transplantation with kidneys from cadaveric donors. Only one has been provided by Toulouse. Diuresis resumed immediately in 8 cases, later in 5. An extremely acute reject was observed in one case and transplantectomy had to be performed 10 days after transplantation. Eight children presented acute reversible reject which, for 4 of them, evoluated towards chronicle reject. Eight children presented a chronicle reject: 4 of them are again in dialysis. Altogether 8 kidneys are functioning (seven years in the longest case). Five children resumed chronic dialysis. One patient died of acute pancreatitis. He underwent a portocaval shunt for type I glycogenosis which ended in a hyperuricemic nephropathy evoluating towards renal failure forcing a transplantation. The rehabilitation of transplanted children was always satisfactory. PMID:7006837

  11. Heart transplantation: approaching a new century.

    PubMed Central

    Radovancević, B; Frazier, O H

    1999-01-01

    Although cardiac surgeons have gained considerable experience with heart transplantation during the past 30 years, this operation still presents many challenges. The number of transplant candidates continues to exceed the number of available donor hearts, and the shortage is not expected to improve. For patients fortunate enough to receive a donor heart, perioperative mortality is a serious concern. After the 1st postoperative year, the most frequent cause of death is transplant vasculopathy. Other potential complications include renal dysfunction, bleeding, infection, and allograft rejection. Despite these problems, heart transplantation remains the best hope for patients with end-stage heart failure that is unresponsive to conventional therapy. In the future, mechanical cardiac assistance and new medical treatments for end-stage heart disease may offer alternatives to heart transplantation, reducing the competition for scarce donor hearts. PMID:10217471

  12. Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516

  13. Orthotopic Heart Transplantation in Patients with Univentricular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Michielon, Guido; Carotti, Adriano; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Cogo, Paola; Parisi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Parallel advancements in surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative care, as well as a better understanding of physiology in patients with duct-dependent pulmonary or systemic circulation and a functional single ventricle, have led to superb results in staged palliation of most complex congenital heart disease (CHD) [1]. The Fontan procedure and its technical modifications have resulted in markedly improved outcomes of patients with single ventricle anatomy [2,3,4]. The improved early survival has led to an exponential increase of the proportion of Fontan patients surviving long into adolescence and young adulthood [5]. Improved early and late survival has not yet abolished late mortality secondary to myocardial failure, therefore increasing the referrals for cardiac transplantation [6]. Interstage attrition [7] is moreover expected in staged palliation towards completion of a Fontan-type circulation, while Fontan failure represents a growing indication for heart transplantation [8]. Heart transplantation has therefore become the potential “fourth stage” [9] or a possible alternative to a high-risk Fontan operation [10] in a strategy of staged palliation for single ventricle physiology. Heart transplant barely accounts for 16% of pediatric solid organ transplants [11]. The thirteenth official pediatric heart transplantation report- 2010 [11] indicates that pediatric recipients received only 12.5% of the total reported heart transplants worldwide. Congenital heart disease is not only the most common recipient diagnosis, but also the most powerful predictor of 1-year mortality after OHT. Results of orthotopic heart transplantations (OHT) for failing single ventricle physiology are mixed. Some authors advocate excellent early and mid-term survival after OHT for failing Fontan [9], while others suggest that rescue-OHT after failing Fontan seems unwarranted [10]. Moreover, OHT outcome appears to be different according to the surgical staging towards the

  14. Orthotopic heart transplantation in two infants with histiocytoid cardiomyopathy and left ventricular non-compaction.

    PubMed

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Bernstein, Daniel; Yeh, Justin; Berry, Gerald J; Rosenthal, David N; Hollander, Seth A

    2013-11-01

    HC is a rare cause of congestive heart failure that typically presents with malignant ventricular arrhythmias in infants, often requiring urgent intervention. Successful heart transplantation in a patient with HC has only been reported once (J Heart Lung Transplant 2004: 23: 902). The combination of HC with concurrent LVNC has only been described three times (Int J Legal Med 2009: 123: 47; Hum Pathol 2005: 36: 403; Pediatr Dev Pathol 2012: 15: 397). We report two rare cases of HC with LVNC in two infants presenting with cardiogenic shock, one requiring ECMO support who was successfully bridged to orthotopic heart transplantation with a Berlin Heart LVAD.

  15. Bronchoscopic procedures and lung biopsies in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jackson Y; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoscopy remains a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in pediatric patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). Whether performed as part of a surveillance protocol or if clinically indicated, fibre-optic bronchoscopy allows direct visualization of the transplanted allograft, and in particular, an assessment of the patency of the bronchial anastomosis (or tracheal anastomosis following heart-lung transplantation). Additionally, bronchoscopy facilitates differentiation of infective processes from rejection episodes through collection and subsequent assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) samples. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for the grading of acute cellular rejection is dependent upon the histopathological assessment of biopsy samples collected at the time of bronchoscopy. Typically, performed in an out-patient setting, bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, although complications related to hemorrhage and pneumothorax are occasionally seen. Airway complications, including stenosis, malacia, and dehiscence are diagnosed at bronchoscopy, and subsequent management including balloon dilatation, laser therapy and stent insertion can also be performed bronchoscopically. Finally, bronchoscopy has been and continues to be an important research tool allowing a better understanding of the immuno-biology of the lung allograft through the collection and analysis of collected BAL and TBBx samples. Whilst new investigational tools continue to evolve, the simple visualization and collection of samples within the lung allograft by bronchoscopy remains the gold standard in the evaluation of the lung allograft. This review describes the use and experience of bronchoscopy following lung transplantation in the pediatric setting.

  16. What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiac Rehabilitation Heart Failure Heart Surgery Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Ventricular Assist Device Send a link to NHLBI ... at the transplant centers may place implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients before surgery. ICDs are small ...

  17. Cognitive Development and Learning in the Pediatric Organ Transplant Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Steven A.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews studies evaluating neurocognitive changes following organ transplantation in pediatric end-stage renal and liver disease. Findings suggest possible neurocognitive benefits associated with organ transplantation. Recommendations are made for methodological improvements in future research. (DB)

  18. Challenges in pediatric renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Licia; Amore, Alessandro; Coppo, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation in children is the best option to treat renal failure. Over the last 25 years the improvements in therapy have dramatically reduced the risk of early acute rejection and graft loss, however the long term results in terms of graft survival and morbidity still require search for new immunosuppressive regimens. Tolerance of the graft and minimization of side effects are the challenges for improving the outcome of children with a grafted kidney. Notwithstanding the difficulties in settling in children large multicenter trials to derive statistically useful data, many important contributions in the last years brought important modifications in the immunosuppressive therapy, including minimization protocols of steroids and calcineurin inhibitors and new induction drugs. New methods for diagnosis of anti HLA antibodies and some new protocols to improve both chance and outcome of transplantation in immunized subjects represent area of ongoing research of extreme interest for children. PMID:25540732

  19. Matching the Market for Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hsich, Eileen M

    2016-04-01

    Heart transplantation is the most effective therapy for patients with Stage D heart failure with a median life expectancy of ≈10 to 15 years. Unfortunately, many patients die on the waiting list hoping for a chance of survival. The life boat cannot rescue everyone. Over a decade, the donor pool has remained relatively stable, whereas the number of heart transplant candidates has risen. Potential recipients often have many comorbidities and are older because the criteria for heart transplantation has few absolute contraindications. Women, Hispanics, and patients with restrictive heart disease and congenital heart disease are more likely to die while awaiting heart transplantation than men, white patients, and those with either ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy. To better match the market, we need to (1) increase the donor pool, (2) reduce the waitlist, and (3) improve the allocation system. This review article addresses all 3 options and compares strategies in the United States to those in other countries.

  20. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  1. Transition from hospital to home following pediatric solid organ transplant: qualitative findings of parent experience.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Stacee M; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-08-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child's solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three wk following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge, and adherence. The parents' responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  2. Ischemic Stroke after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Acampa, Maurizio; Lazzerini, Pietro Enea; Guideri, Francesca; Tassi, Rossana; Martini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) are more common in comparison with neurological sequelae subsequent to routine cardiac surgery. Ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are more common (with an incidence of up to 13%) than intracranial hemorrhage (2.5%). Clinically, ischemic stroke is manifested by the appearance of focal neurologic deficits, although sometimes a stroke may be silent or manifests itself by the appearance of encephalopathy, reflecting a diffuse brain disorder. Ischemic stroke subtypes distribution in perioperative and postoperative period after OHT is very different from classical distribution, with different pathogenic mechanisms. Infact, ischemic stroke may be caused by less common and unusual mechanisms, linked to surgical procedures and to postoperative inflammation, peculiar to this group of patients. However, many strokes (40%) occur without a well-defined etiology (cryptogenic strokes). A silent atrial fibrillation (AF) may play a role in pathogenesis of these strokes and P wave dispersion may represent a predictor of AF. In OHT patients, P wave dispersion correlates with homocysteine plasma levels and hyperhomocysteinemia could play a role in the pathogenesis of these strokes with multiple mechanisms increasing the risk of AF. In conclusion, stroke after heart transplantation represents a complication with considerable impact not only on mortality but also on subsequent poor functional outcome. PMID:26915504

  3. A history of orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meine, Trip J; Russell, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    Orthotopic human heart transplantation today is performed at more than 150 U.S. centers, and the average survival is more than 10 years. Its prevalence and success, however, belies the fact that just 40 years ago, no one had ever attempted the procedure in humans and that the procedure seemed destined for failure just a year after the first transplant. This article reviews the history of orthotopic heart transplantation, beginning with ancient Greek legends and culminating in modern successes.

  4. [Blood stem cell transplantation in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Mentkevich, G L; Dolgopolov, I S; Popa, A V; Boiarshinov, V K; Ravshanova, R S

    2001-01-01

    Large-dose chemotherapy (LDCT) with auto- and allogenic transplantation of blood stem cells (BSC) in pediatric oncology remains so far the last hope for many patients. The number of such procedures made in Europe increases by 10% every year. At the same time many issues of the place and role of transplantation in pediatric oncology remains unclear. Based on 240 sessions of cytopheresis, the author show that BSC can be sampled from severe pretreated patients despite the drug therapy regimen. The efficacy of G-KSF and GM-KSF used to stimulate BSC secretion is similar. After LDCT with BSC autotransplantation, the relapse-free survival rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma and acute myeloblast-cell leukemia were 55.4 and 44.4%, respectively (in the first and second remissions). Consolidation as LDCT with BSC autotransplantation without cleansing the material from malignant cells is not a sufficient therapeutical measurement in disseminated neuroblastoma. Whether partial compatible related BSC transplantation can be possible made after non-myeloablative preparation regimens is shown.

  5. Current developments in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Melter, Michael; Knoppke, Birgit; Loss, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 1953, the pioneer of human orthotopic liver transplantation (LT), Thomas E Starzl, was the first to attempt an orthotopic liver transplant into a 3 years old patient suffering from biliary atresia. Thus, the first LT in humans was attempted in a disease, which, up until today, remains the main indication for pediatric LT (pLT). During the last sixty years, refinements in diagnostics and surgical technique, the introduction of new immunosuppressive medications and improvements in perioperative pediatric care have established LT as routine procedure for childhood acute and chronic liver failure as well as inherited liver diseases. In contrast to adult recipients, pLT differs greatly in indications for LT, allocation practice, surgical technique, immunosuppression and post-operative life-long aftercare. Many aspects are focus of ongoing preclinical and clinical research. The present review gives an overview of current developments and the clinical outcome of pLT, with a focus on alternatives to full-size deceased-donor organ transplantation. PMID:26085910

  6. Current developments in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Melter, Michael; Knoppke, Birgit; Loss, Martin

    2015-06-18

    In 1953, the pioneer of human orthotopic liver transplantation (LT), Thomas E Starzl, was the first to attempt an orthotopic liver transplant into a 3 years old patient suffering from biliary atresia. Thus, the first LT in humans was attempted in a disease, which, up until today, remains the main indication for pediatric LT (pLT). During the last sixty years, refinements in diagnostics and surgical technique, the introduction of new immunosuppressive medications and improvements in perioperative pediatric care have established LT as routine procedure for childhood acute and chronic liver failure as well as inherited liver diseases. In contrast to adult recipients, pLT differs greatly in indications for LT, allocation practice, surgical technique, immunosuppression and post-operative life-long aftercare. Many aspects are focus of ongoing preclinical and clinical research. The present review gives an overview of current developments and the clinical outcome of pLT, with a focus on alternatives to full-size deceased-donor organ transplantation. PMID:26085910

  7. BK Virus Nephropathy in Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Alin; Pilichowska, Monika; Boucher, Helen; Kiernan, Michael; DeNofrio, David; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-06-01

    Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) has become an important cause of kidney failure in kidney transplant recipients. PVAN is reported to affect 1% to 7% of kidney transplant recipients, leading to premature transplant loss in approximately 30% to 50% of diagnosed cases. PVAN occurring in the native kidneys of solid-organ transplant recipients other than kidney only recently has been noted. We report 2 cases of PVAN in heart transplant recipients, which brings the total of reported cases to 7. We briefly review the literature on the hypothesized causes of PVAN in kidney transplant recipients and comment on whether these same mechanisms also may cause PVAN in other solid-organ transplant recipients. PVAN should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating worsening kidney function. BK viremia surveillance studies of nonkidney solid-organ recipients should be conducted to provide data to assist the transplantation community in deciding whether regular monitoring of nonkidney transplant recipients for BK viremia is indicated.

  8. Clinical research in pediatric organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Azeka, Estela; Saavedra, Laura Castillo; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has greatly improved survival in children with end-stage disease, becoming one of the main treatment options in this population. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges associated with validating and optimizing the effects of these interventions in clinical trials. Therefore, we reviewed the main issues related to conducting clinical transplantation research in children. We divided these challenges into three different categories: (i) challenges related to surgical techniques and anesthetic procedures, (ii) challenges related to post-transplant care and (iii) challenges specific to a particular population group and disease type. Some of the observed burdens for clinical research in this field are related to the limitations of conducting studies with a placebo or sham procedure, determining the standard of care for a control group, low prevalence of cases, ethical concerns related to use of a placebo control group and lack of generalizability from animal studies and clinical trials conducted in adult populations. To overcome some of these barriers, it is necessary to utilize alternative clinical trial designs, such as observational studies or non-inferiority trials, and to develop multicenter collaborations to increase the recruitment rate. In conclusion, the lack of robust data related to pediatric transplantation remains problematic, and further clinical trials are needed to develop more efficacious and safer treatments. PMID:24860862

  9. [Pediatric cardiology and congenital heart disease: from fetus to adult].

    PubMed

    Subirana, M Teresa; Oliver, José M; Sáez, José M; Zunzunegui, José L

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of some of the most important publications on congenital heart disease and pediatric cardiology that appeared in 2010 and up until September 2011. Of particular interest were studies on demographic changes reported in this patient population and on the need to manage the patients' transition from the pediatric to the adult cardiology department. This transition has given rise to the appearance of new areas of interest: for example, pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease, and the effect of genetic factors on the etiology and transmission of particular anomalies. In addition, this review considers some publications on fetal cardiology from the perspective of early diagnosis and, if possible, treatment. There follows a discussion on new contributions to Eisenmenger's syndrome and arrhythmias, as well as on imaging techniques, interventional catheterization and heart transplantation. Finally, there is an overview of the new version of clinical practice guidelines on the management of adult patients with congenital heart disease and of recently published guidelines on pregnancy in women with heart disease, both produced by the European Society of Cardiology.

  10. Renal function in pediatric liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, S V

    1996-01-01

    Actuarial five-year patient survivals after pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) of 75 to 80% are now commonplace. However, renal dysfunction after pediatric OLT remains a serious complication and maybe broadly divided into four categories. The first is pre-existing renal disease in association with liver disease. This includes tyrosinemia with Fanconi syndrome, congenital cystic disease of the liver with associated polycystic disease of the kidney, Alagille's syndrome and primary hyperoxaluria. Second is hepatorenal syndrome. Resolution is dependent on successful OLT, although short-term dialysis may be required. Children with renal failure prior to transplantation have a significantly increased mortality. Third is peri- and early post-transplant renal impairment. The four major influences on early renal function after OLT are: (i) pretransplant renal function; (ii) early liver graft function; (iii) induction therapy with cyclosporine and tacrolimus; (iv) use of other nephrotoxic drugs. Fourth is long-term nephrotoxicity of cyclosporine and tacrolimus (FK-506). Both of these essential immunosuppressives carry the risk of long-term irreversible toxicity. In one study children, treated with cyclosporine, surviving > one year after OLT, 73% had a true GFR < 77 ml/min/1.73 m2. Children treated for > or = 24 months had a significantly lower GFR than those treated from 12 to 24 months. Half the children with a GFR < or = 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. Another study showed that 46% of pediatric OLT patients had a > or = 20% decrease in GFR over two to four years. FK-506 nephrotoxicity is comparable to that of cyclosporine. In a randomized control trial comparing FK-506 and cyclosporine, there was a 52% decrease in GFR over the first year in the FK-506 group, which was not significantly different to that of the cyclosporine group. In 60% of patients converted from cyclosporine to FK-506 one study showed a 50% or more drop in GFR. Both FK-506 and

  11. [Complications of pediatric renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Sandes, Ana Rita; Azevedo, Sara; Stone, Rosário; Almeida, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A transplantação renal é a terapêutica de eleição na criança com doença renal crónica terminal, evidenciando impacto positivo na sobrevida e qualidade de vida dos doentes. Não é, no entanto, isenta de complicações, algumas com importante morbilidade. Os autores pretendem caracterizar o perfil de complicações pós transplantação renal em doentes pediátricos (até 18 anos).Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos doentes submetidos a transplantação renal e seguidos na Unidade de Nefrologia Pediátrica entre Setembro de 1995 e Agosto de 2010. Dados obtidos dos processos clínicos: características demográficas, etiologia da doença renal crónica terminal, terapêutica de substituição renal, mortalidade e perda de enxertos, complicações cirúrgicas, infecciosas e não infecciosas (rejeição aguda e crónica, recidiva da doença de base, alterações metabólicas e factores de risco cardiovascular). Análise estatística descritiva simples.Resultados: Foram incluídas 78 crianças transplantadas (48,7% sexo masculino), com idade mediana à data da transplantaçãorenal de 12 anos (2 - 18). A maioria fez previamente diálise peritoneal: 49 (62,6%). Cinco doentes (6,4%) foram transplantados sem diálise prévia. A mediana do tempo de seguimento após transplante foi 37,5 meses (1 - 169). As principais etiologias de doença renal crónica terminal foram: uronefropatias (41%) e glomerulopatias (28,2%). As complicações infecciosas ocorreram em 74,4%; infecçõesvirais em 56,4%, sendo a mais prevalente a infecção citomegalovírus (39,7%); infecções bacterianas em 53,8% (na maioria infecções urinárias em doentes urológicos). Outras complicações: 1) factores de risco para doença cardiovascular: hipertensão arterial em 85,9%; dislipidémia em 16,7% e diabetes de novo em 7,7%; 2) episódios de rejeição aguda em 32,1% e nefropatia crónica do enxerto em 17,9%; 3) complicações relacionáveis com a cirurgia em 16

  12. [Current Status and Future Aspects of Heart Transplantation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    By renewal of Japanese Organ Transplantation Act on 17th July in 2010, organs can be donated after brain death with consent from their family, if he or she did not deny organ donation and brain dead organ donation increased from 10 to 50 cases in a year. Despite of an increase of heart transplantation (HTx), a waiting period for HTx has become longer because more candidates for HTx have been registered to Japan Organ Transplant Network. By renewal of the act, organ donation from brain dead children can be performed since then and pediatric left ventricular assist device, EXCOR was finally accepted to use in August 1st, 2015. However, only 3 children under 6 years of age have donated since then and oversea HTx increased again.

  13. Psychosocial Implications During Adolescence for Infant Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Vidhya; Freier Randall, Catherin; Chinnock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: As more heart transplant recipients survive into late adolescence, research addressing long-term psychosocial and neurodevelopmental outcomes is imperative. The limited literature available suggests risk for psychosocial difficulties and lower cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological functioning. This paper reviews topic-related literature and provides preliminary data examining psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning of adolescents who received their heart transplant during infancy. Method: This paper offers a literature review AND presents preliminary data from studies conducted through Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital (LLUCH). Study one examined psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescent infant heart transplant recipients. In study two, cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological data were analyzed. Results: Study 1: Overall psychosocial functioning fell in the Average range, however, a significant percentage of participants presented with difficulties on one or more of the psychosocial domains. Quality of life was also within normal limits, though concerns with general health and bodily discomfort were noted. Study 2: Cognitive functioning was assessed to be Below Average, with 43-62% of the participants demonstrating significant impairments. Neuropsychological functioning yielded significant weakness on language functioning, and mild weakness on visual-motor integration and executive functioning. Conclusion: While the majority of the participants demonstrate psychosocial resiliency, a subgroup present with difficulties suggesting the need for intervention. Cognitive/neuropsychological functioning suggests poorer functioning with patterns similar to other high-risk pediatric populations. These results are preliminary and further research on long-term psychosocial and neuropsychological development of pediatric heart transplant recipients is needed to better understand and ameliorate developmental

  14. Most commonly asked questions from parents of pediatric transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Maria; Martin, Kathy; Williams, Angela; Kosmach-Park, Beverly

    2010-04-01

    Pediatric solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients and their parents are often challenged to cope with new transplant regimens as well as common situations in the context of organ transplantation. Health care professionals will receive questions from parents and children regarding clinical transplant care as well as general pediatric concerns that seem unfamiliar to families now that their child has a transplant. The literature is limited in some areas of pediatric care after SOT, and there is little guidance for the health care practitioner. To help address gaps in the literature and provide guidance for health care professionals, this article reviews some of the most commonly asked questions regarding general care after SOT, parenting the child with a chronic illness, and growth and development. The answers provided stem from the literature in part but also the combined clinical experiences of transplant centers that over time have moved toward decreased limitations and full social integration.

  15. The start of the transplant journey: referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shellmer, Diana; Brosig, Cheryl; Wray, Jo

    2014-03-01

    The focus of the majority of the psychosocial transplant literature is on post-transplant outcomes, but the transplant journey starts much earlier than this, at the point when transplantation is first considered and a referral for transplant evaluation is made. In this review, we cover information regarding the meaning of the referral process for solid organ transplantation. We discuss various factors of the referral for transplantation including the impact of referral on the pediatric patient and the family, potential expectations and misconceptions held by pediatric patients and parents, the role of health literacy, decision-making factors, and the informational needs of pediatric patients and parents. We elucidate steps that providers can take to enhance transplant referral and provide suggestions for much needed research within this area. PMID:24438194

  16. Indications for heart transplantation in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Siân Pincott, E; Burch, M

    2011-05-01

    In this review we have looked at indications for cardiac transplantation in congenital heart disease. An outline of the general principles of the use of transplant as a management strategy both as a first line treatment and following other surgical interventions is discussed. We explore the importance of the timing of patient referral and the evaluations undertaken, and how the results of these may vary between patients with congenital heart disease and patients with other causes of end-stage heart failure. The potential complications associated with patients with congenital heart disease need to be both anticipated and managed appropriately by an experienced team. Timing of transplantation in congenital heart disease is difficult to standardize as the group of patients is heterogeneous. We discuss the role and limitations of investigations such as BNP, 6 minute walk, metabolic exercise testing and self estimated physical functioning. We also discuss the suitability for listing. It is clear that congenital heart patients should not be considered to be at uniform high risk of death at transplant. Morbidity varies greatly in the congenital patient population with the failing Fontan circulation having a far higher risk than a failing Mustard circulation. However the underlying issue of imbalance between donor organ supply and demand needs to be addressed as transplant teams are finding themselves in the increasingly difficult situation of supporting growing numbers of patients with a diverse range of pathologies with declining numbers of donor organs.

  17. Endocrine complications following pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Josephine; Lewis, Victor; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Stephure, David K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for various diseases can lead to endocrine system dysfunction owing to preparative regimens involving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We assessed the prevalence of post-BMT endocrine complications in children treated at the Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH) from 1991 to 2001. Time of onset of endocrine dysfunction, underlying disease processes, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and age at BMT were characterized. Subjects of <18 years of age at the time of allogeneic or autologous BMT for whom 1-year follow-up through the ACH and a chart were available for review were included in the study. Subjects with a pre-existing endocrine condition were excluded. Of the 194 pediatric BMT procedures performed at the ACH between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2001, 150 complete charts were available for review. Sixty five subjects received follow-up care at other centers and were excluded. Therefore, a total of 85 subjects were included in the review. The prevalence of endocrine complications identified was: primary hypothyroidism 1.2%, compensated hypothyroidism 7.0%, hyperthyroidism 2.4%, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism 22.4%, abnormal bone density 2.4%, and secondary diabetes mellitus 1.2%. These findings emphasize the need to screen for endocrine system dysfunction, particularly hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, in children who have undergone BMT. Children need long-term follow-up so that endocrine complications can be diagnosed and treated promptly. PMID:21823531

  18. Online Focus Groups with Parents And Adolescents with Heart Transplants: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Beatrice; Nelson, Mary Kathryn; Huett, Amy; Meaux, Julie B; Pye, Sherry; Schmid, Barbara; Berg, Alex; LaPorte, Kelci; Riley, Linda; Green, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplant recipients are scarce and widely dispersed. Previous studies of adolescents in this population were limited to small homogenous samples. Although online focus groups are an emerging data collection method, its use in pediatric populations has not been fully realized. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using online focus groups with pediatric populations. Adolescents (aged 13 to 21 years) at least 6 months post-heart transplant and their parents were recruited from two children's hospitals. An online discussion forum (iTracks) was used to conduct asynchronous focus groups with separate parent and adolescent groups. Six parents and four adolescents participated in the discussions. iTracks provided a framework for conducting focus groups in dispersed populations. Access to the discussion transcripts enhanced data analysis and eliminated transcription costs. Overall, online discussion forums were a feasible and cost-effective option to conduct online focus groups in this pediatric population.

  19. Broader Geographic Sharing of Pediatric Donor Lungs Improves Pediatric Access to Transplant.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, W M; Chan, K M; Skeans, M A; Pyke, J; Hertz, M I; Israni, A J; Robbins-Callahan, L; Visner, G; Wang, X; Wozniak, T C; Valapour, M

    2016-03-01

    US pediatric transplant candidates have limited access to lung transplant due to the small number of donors within current geographic boundaries, leading to assertions that the current lung allocation system does not adequately serve pediatric patients. We hypothesized that broader geographic sharing of pediatric (adolescent, 12-17 years; child, <12 years) donor lungs would increase pediatric candidate access to transplant. We used the thoracic simulated allocation model to simulate broader geographic sharing. Simulation 1 used current allocation rules. Simulation 2 offered adolescent donor lungs across a wider geographic area to adolescents. Simulation 3 offered child donor lungs across a wider geographic area to adolescents. Simulation 4 combined simulations 2 and 3. Simulation 5 prioritized adolescent donor lungs to children across a wider geographic area. Simulation 4 resulted in 461 adolescent transplants per 100 patient-years on the waiting list (range 417-542), compared with 206 (range 180-228) under current rules. Simulation 5 resulted in 388 adolescent transplants per 100 patient-years on the waiting list (range 348-418) and likely increased transplant rates for children. Adult transplant rates, waitlist mortality, and 1-year posttransplant mortality were not adversely affected. Broader geographic sharing of pediatric donor lungs may increase pediatric candidate access to lung transplant. PMID:26523747

  20. About the Operation: Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Short gut syndrome Living with Devices Artificial hearts LVADS ICDs Pacemakers Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis About Organ Allocation ... because the new heart can act as an assist device if complications occur. Your physician can explain ...

  1. The changing face of heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sharon A; Haddad, François

    2008-08-19

    It has been 40 years since the first human-to-human heart transplant performed in South Africa by Christiaan Barnard in December 1967. This achievement did not come as a surprise to the medical community but was the result of many years of early pioneering experimental work by Alexis Carrel, Frank Mann, Norman Shumway, and Richard Lower. Since then, refinement of donor and recipient selection methods, better donor heart management, and advances in immunosuppression have significantly improved survival. In this article, we hope to give a perspective on the changing face of heart transplantation. Topics that will be covered in this review include the changing patient population as well as recent advances in transplantation immunology, organ preservation, allograft vasculopathy, and immune tolerance. PMID:18702960

  2. Orthotopic heart transplantation in patients with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Guijosa, Christian; Ginel, Antonino; Montiel, José; Brosa, Vicens; Mirabet, Sonia; Bayés-Genis, Antonio; Padró, José M

    2009-02-01

    Thanks to progress in cardiac surgery and cardiology, pediatric patients with complex congenital heart conditions who would previously have died are now reaching adulthood. Patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone atrial repair can present during follow-up with progression towards heart failure as a result of progressive systemic right ventricular failure. In this situation, heart transplantation is a possible therapeutic option. Anatomic abnormalities and the presence of intraatrial conduits ensure that transplantation must involve a number of technical modifications. Here, we present our experience during 1992-2004 with heart transplantations in four patients with transposition of the great arteries and atrial repair. There was no operative mortality. During follow-up (mean period, 75 months), there was one death due to chronic rejection. The other patients remain in New York Heart Association class I, with normally functioning grafts.

  3. Fatal outcome after renal transplant in a pediatric patient with Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araz, Coskun; Kaval, Ebru; Torgay, Adnan; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome is a congenital, common, hereditary disorder. Facial dysmorphism, growth retardation, and various heart defects are typical clinical features. In patients with minor cardiac pathology, life expectancy is normal. We report a case of renal transplant in a pediatric patient with Noonan syndrome that ended with death of the patient. Our patient presented with unexpected and refractory postoperative neurological complications that were unresponsive to intensive therapy, and the patient died because of secondary complications.

  4. New frontiers in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Talano, Julie-An M.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Symons, Heather J.; Militano, Olga; Shereck, Evan B.; Giller, Roger H.; Hancock, Laura; Morris, Erin; Cairo, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The inaugural meeting of “New Frontiers in Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation” organized by the Pediatric Blood and Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) was held at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Annual Meeting. This meeting provided an international platform for physicians and investigators active in the research and utilization of pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloSCT) in children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant disease, to share information and develop future collaborative strategies. The primary objectives of the conference included: 1) to present advances in AlloSCT in pediatric ALL and novel pre- and post-immunotherapy; 2) to highlight new strategies in alternative allogeneic stem cell donor sources for children and adolescents with non-malignant hematological disorders; 3) to discuss timing of immune reconstitution after AlloSCT and methods of facilitating more rapid recovery of immunity; 4) to identify strategies of utilizing AlloSCT in pediatric myeloproliferative disorders (MPD); 5) to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hematological complications post pediatric AlloSCT; 6) to enhance the understanding of new novel cellular therapeutic approaches to pediatric malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders; and 7) to discuss optimizing drug therapy in pediatric recipients of AlloSCT. This paper will provide a brief overview of the conference. PMID:24820213

  5. Cardiac Arrest in a Heart Transplant Patient Receiving Dexmedetomidine During Cardiac Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lawrence Israel; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Stenquist, Scott; Twite, Mark David

    2016-06-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α-2 agonist with a sedative and cardiopulmonary profile that makes it an attractive anesthetic in pediatric cardiac patients. Cardiac transplant patients may suffer from acute cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system and, therefore, are at an increased risk of the electrophysiological effect of dexmedetomidine. We present such a patient who had a cardiac arrest while receiving dexmedetomidine during cardiac catheterization. Because acute cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system is difficult to diagnose, dexmedetomidine should be used with caution in pediatric heart transplant patients. PMID:26721807

  6. RR-SAP causality in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Porta, Alberto; Magagnin, Valentina; Bassani, Tito; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Montano, Nicola; van de Borne, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    An information domain approach to the assessment of causality was applied to the beat-to-beat variability of heart period and systolic arterial pressure to test the open loop condition along baroreflex in heart transplant recipients. The closed loop between heart period and systolic arterial pressure was detected as open at the level of the baroreflex if systolic arterial pressure is more easily predictable from heart period than vice versa according to a conditional entropy approach. We found that in short-term heart transplant (STHT) recipients (less than 2 years after transplantation) the closed loop between heart period and systolic arterial pressure was open at the level of baroreflex. Baroreflex appeared to be involved in the heart period regulation in long-term heart transplant (LTHT) recipients (more than 2 years after transplantation). The significant linear correlation of causality index on the number of months after transplantation suggests that baroreflex control recovers after transplantation.

  7. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (<180 days), medium (181–270 days), or long (>270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan–Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; P<0.001) and more diversions to adults (31% versus 27%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a lower kidney to candidate ratio remained associated with longer waiting time (hazard ratio, 0.56 for areas with <2:1 versus reference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; P<0.01). Large geographic variation in waiting time for pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity. PMID:24436470

  8. [LAPAROSCOPIC "SLEEVE" GASTRECTOMY POST HEART TRANSPLANTION].

    PubMed

    Mahler, Ilanit; Ben Gal, Tuvia; Kashtan, Hanoch; Keidar, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Morbid obesity affects the function of the transplanted heart either directly, by damaging many elements that affect cardiac function or indirectly, by the initial appearance or worsening of co-morbidities that affect the heart. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for a significant and sustained decrease in weight and it leads to the disappearance of co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in high rates. These diseases can damage the blood vessels of the graft and impair its function. We report a case study of a 47-year-old morbidly obese male (BMI 36 kg/m2] who underwent heart transplantation three years previously, developed gradual weight gain and symptoms of aggravating heart failure. Coronary artery disease in the implanted heart was diagnosed. Clinically, he started suffering from shortness of breath and chest pain during minimal effort. In addition, he also suffered from high blood pressure and kidney failure. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was successfully performed and he was discharged four days later. On follow-up the patient has lost 35 kg. His present weight is 74 kg (BMI 25.7). All symptoms of heart failure improved and oral medications for hypertension and heart failure were withdrawn. Our conclusion is that it is justified to consider bariatric surgery in heart transplant recipients suffering from morbid obesity, as long as the long-term benefit outweighs the surgical risk. The decision to perform bariatric surgery should be made by a multidisciplinary team and the operation should take place at a center with extensive experience in bariatric surgery. PMID:27305748

  9. Pediatric liver transplantation in metabolic disease: clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Shneider, Benjamin L

    2002-02-01

    Proper utilization of liver transplantation in the management of pediatric metabolic diseases requires a comprehensive understanding of both metabolic disease and the risk and benefits of transplantation. This brief review focuses on issues that pertain to the treatment of tyrosinemia type I, bile acid biosynthesis disorders, primary hyperoxaluria, Crigler-Najjar Type I, and mitochondrial diseases. These entities are used as prototypes to illustrate many of the principles that are applied in a more general sense to the management of metabolic diseases. The natural history of these disorders are considered in the context of the risks of liver transplantation. Indications, contraindications, and both current and future alternatives to transplantation, are considered.

  10. Fontan-associated liver disease: Implications for heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Steven C; Crossland, David S; Hudson, Mark; Martin, Steven R; Myers, Robert P; Prieur, Tim; Hasan, Asif; Kirk, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are associated with multiple complications, including cirrhosis, portal hypertension, ascites, synthetic dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma, and these processes are increasingly recognized in post-Fontan patients. Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) can be defined as abnormalities in liver structure and function that result from the Fontan circulation and are not related to another disease process. FALD arises due to chronic congestion of the liver created by the elevated venous pressure and low cardiac output of the Fontan circulation, which may be superimposed on previous liver injury. Pathology studies have generally shown that FALD worsens as time post-Fontan increases, but the prevalence of FALD is not well defined because the majority of Fontan patients, even those with significant hepatic fibrosis, appear to be asymptomatic and biochemical or functional hepatic abnormalities are usually subtle or absent. Alternate non-invasive investigations, derived from the study of other chronic liver diseases, have been tested in small series of pediatric and adult Fontan patients, but they have been confounded by congestion and do not correlate well with liver biopsy findings. Liver disease can complicate Fontan circulatory failure and may even be significant enough to be considered a contraindication to heart transplantation or require combined heart-liver transplantation. The search for the optimal management strategy continues in the setting of increasing numbers of Fontan patients surviving to adulthood and being referred for heart transplantation. Thus, in this review we attempt to define the scope and significance of FALD and address transplant-related assessment and management of this challenging disorder. PMID:26586487

  11. [Hypertension in patients after heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Matysek, J; Piwowarska, W

    1995-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a serious and common complication of cyclosporine administration in humans. The prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients following orthotopic heart transplantation ranges from 38% to 92%. There are several characteristic features of this form of hypertension, including very early onset--usually within 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation and persistence with little alteration overtime. Diurnal profile shows the lack of normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure (BP) and appearance of the highest values of BP early in the morning. This phenomenon is caused by altered regulation of BP due to cardiac denervation. There was shown no correlation between the dose of cyclosporine and development of posttransplant arterial hypertension. It develops also independently of many investigated pretransplant and posttransplant cardiovascular risk factors. A great deal of attention has been focused on explantation of cyclosporine influence leading to hypertension occurrence. suggested mechanisms of this action are: elevation of systemic vascular resistance, prostaglandines and tromboxance production imbalance, hypomagnesemia, increased intravascular volume, modulation of sympathetic activity, nephrotoxicity. Reninangiotensin system seems to be not significantly associated with posttransplant hypertension, whereas the role of corticosteroides is still controversal. Hypertension remains the most common complication associated with cyclosporine administration in heart transplant recipients. Mechanisms of cyclosporine action leading to development of hypertension are still unknown. Further investigation is also needed into clinical significance of posttransplant hypertension and its influence on long-term survival after heart transplantation as they remain undefined.

  12. [Heart transplantation--status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Borst, H G

    1987-01-01

    Transplantation of the heart (HTx) has become a realistic procedure in the treatment of terminal cardiac failure. However, several problems remain and are to be discussed on the basis of our experience in 160 cases of HTx. A dramatic widening of indications for HTx presently is not to be expected while the lack of donor organs is magnified by the growing transplantation frequency. This bottle neck only can be lessened by mobilization of all organ sources. Longterm survival rate in HTx patients seems to stabilize at well over 70%. Persisting mortality and morbidity of HTx are the result of imperfect recognition and treatment of rejection as well as infection. The use of circulatory aids in patients expecting HTx and in those with a failing transplant is of growing importance at the same time posing the problem of high urgency in patients thus instrumented. It is likely that the intermediate-term use of the totally implantable artificial heart will lessen this dilemma. Costs and efforts of cardiac transplantation are considerable. A plea therefore is made for concentration of organ transplantations of all types in special centers.

  13. Bone density and cortical structure after pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, Anniek M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S; Wetzsteon, Rachel J; Foster, Bethany J; Strife, C Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L; Leonard, Mary B

    2012-04-01

    The impact of renal transplantation on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure is unknown. We obtained quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia in pediatric renal transplant recipients at transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months; 58 recipients completed at least two visits. We used more than 700 reference participants to generate Z-scores for trabecular BMD, cortical BMD, section modulus (a summary measure of cortical dimensions and strength), and muscle and fat area. At baseline, compared with reference participants, renal transplant recipients had significantly lower mean section modulus and muscle area; trabecular BMD was significantly greater than reference participants only in transplant recipients younger than 13 years. After transplantation, trabecular BMD decreased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure. Cortical BMD increased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure and greater decreases in parathyroid hormone levels. Muscle and fat area both increased significantly, but section modulus did not improve. At 12 months, transplantation associated with significantly lower section modulus and greater fat area compared with reference participants. Muscle area and cortical BMD did not differ significantly between transplant recipients and reference participants. Trabecular BMD was no longer significantly elevated in younger recipients and was low in older recipients. Pediatric renal transplant associated with persistent deficits in section modulus, despite recovery of muscle, and low trabecular BMD in older recipients. Future studies should determine the implications of these data on fracture risk and identify strategies to improve bone density and structure.

  14. Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Abnormalities Precede Invasive Diagnosis of Transplant Coronary Artery Vasculopathy in Pediatric Cardiac Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, Bridget B; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Younoszai, Adel K; Landeck, Bruce F

    2016-04-01

    Transplant coronary artery vasculopathy (TCAV) is the primary cause of late graft loss in pediatric heart transplant recipients. TCAV is diagnosed using angiography or intravascular ultrasound; however, noninvasive methods remain elusive. We sought to define patterns of myocardial mechanics in patients with TCAV and to determine whether this can detect TCAV before invasive methods. In this retrospective study, we queried our heart transplant database to identify all recipients with TCAV since 2006 (n = 41). Echoes were reviewed from the last normal catheterization and at TCAV diagnosis, and from time-matched transplant controls (n = 33) without TCAV. Peak global circumferential and longitudinal strain and systolic and diastolic strain rate (SSR and DSR) of the left ventricle were derived using velocity vector imaging. T tests were used to compare both groups longitudinally and between groups at both time points. Longitudinal strain, SSR, and DSR were diminished in the TCAV group compared to the transplant control group at both time points. No differences were found across time points in either group. Retrospective modeling using a longitudinal strain cutoff of 15 % on echoes 2 years prior to TCAV diagnosis predicted development or exclusion of TCAV with sensitivity of 53 %, specificity of 89 % with an area under the curve of 0.8. Decreases in longitudinal strain measurements demonstrate that alterations in myocardial mechanics occur in patients with TCAV at least 2 years prior to invasive diagnosis. These early changes may be due to microvascular disease. This modality could aid in earlier treatment and intervention for this challenging problem .

  15. Pulmonary "cyclosporinoma" mimicking infection after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gould, K; Freeman, R; Odom, N J; Locke, T J; McGregor, C G

    1987-01-01

    Tissue from a transthoracic needle biopsy, which was performed as part of the investigation of an undiagnosed left upper lobe opacity in a patient after orthotopic heart transplantation, revealed numerous macrophages loaded with oil globules. No causative organisms were present. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed a similar profile to the oil in which cyclosporine is suspended. The lesion appears to have been caused by aspiration of cyclosporine.

  16. Chronic hepatitis e in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pischke, S; Stiefel, P; Franz, B; Bremer, B; Suneetha, P V; Heim, A; Ganzenmueller, T; Schlue, J; Horn-Wichmann, R; Raupach, R; Darnedde, M; Scheibner, Y; Taubert, R; Haverich, A; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Bara, C L

    2012-11-01

    Chronic courses of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been described in immunosuppressed patients. We aimed to study the role of HEV infections in heart transplant recipients (HTR). 274 HTR were prospectively screened for HEV infection using an anti-HEV-IgG ELISA and HEV-PCR. In addition, 137 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (non-HTR) and 537 healthy subjects were studied cross-sectionally. The anti-HEV-IgG seroprevalence was 11% in HTR, 7% in non-HTR and 2% in healthy controls (HTR vs. healthy controls p<0.0001; non-HTR vs. healthy controls p<0.01). Anti-HEV tested positive in 4.0% in control cohorts of other immunocompromised patients (n = 474). Four HTR (1.5%) were chronically infected with HEV as shown by HEV-PCR and all four patients had liver transaminases of >200 IU/L and histological or clinical evidence of advanced liver disease. In three patients ribavirin treatment was successful with a sustained biochemical and virological response while treatment failed in one cirrhotic patient after ribavirin dose reduction. Heart transplant recipients and patients undergoing cardiac surgery have an increased risk for HEV infections. Chronic hepatitis E may explain elevated liver enzymes in heart transplant recipients. Treatment of HEV infection with ribavirin is effective but the optimal dose and duration of ribavirin therapy remains to be determined. PMID:22823202

  17. Mechanical Circulatory Support of the Critically Ill Child Awaiting Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gazit, Avihu Z; Gandhi, Sanjiv K; C Canter, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The majority of children awaiting heart transplantation require inotropic support, mechanical ventilation, and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Unfortunately, due to the limited pool of organs, many of these children do not survive to transplant. Mechanical circulatory support of the failing heart in pediatrics is a new and rapidly developing field world-wide. It is utilized in children with acute congestive heart failure associated with congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, both as a bridge to transplantation and as a bridge to myocardial recovery. The current arsenal of mechanical assist devices available for children is limited to ECMO, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, centrifugal pump ventricular assist devices, the DeBakey ventricular assist device Child; the Thoratec ventricular assist device; and the Berlin Heart. In the spring of 2004, five contracts were awarded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute to support preclinical development for a range of pediatric ventricular assist devices and similar circulatory support systems. The support of early development efforts provided by this program is expected to yield several devices that will be ready for clinical trials within the next few years. Our work reviews the current international experience with mechanical circulatory support in children and summarizes our own experience since 2005 with the Berlin Heart, comparing the indications for use, length of support, and outcome between these modalities. PMID:21286278

  18. Drug Treatment of Heart Failure in Children: Focus on Recent Recommendations from the ISHLT Guidelines for the Management of Pediatric Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Alexander D; Weintraub, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    The International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recently updated consensus pediatric heart failure guidelines from those published in 2004 with an aim to provide a practical evidence-based resource whilst recognizing the influence of adult heart failure practice. The new guidelines were formed from published evidence for heart failure management and used parallels with adult literature where pediatric evidence was lacking. This is a summary of the pharmacological therapies discussed in the new 2014 guidelines, emphasizing changes from the previous recommendations with regards to treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and acute decompensated heart failure. Each recommendation is classified according to strength and level of evidence. We also discuss future perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of heart failure. The 2014 ISHLT guidelines have evolved considerably from those published in 2004 with extensive information surrounding the underlying pathophysiology, investigations and recommended treatment. The new guidelines contain a modest amount of new pediatric data on pharmacological therapies and extrapolate adult data when appropriate. It is likely that most new recommendations for pediatric heart failure will continue to be based on therapies of proven benefit in adult heart failure studies. PMID:26939781

  19. [History of organ transplantation in the field of pediatric surgery in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    In Japan, liver transplantation was first attempted 50 years ago, around the same time as the development of pediatric surgery. In 1989, clinical liver transplantation in Japan started with a living related-donor transplantation in a boy with biliary atresia. In the early years, the majority of recipients were children worldwide, which is why pediatric surgeons played a major role in the establishment of liver transplantation in Japan. From 1998, most of the indications for pediatric patients needing liver transplantation have been covered by governmental health insurance. Since that year, the annual number of pediatric liver transplantations, mainly living-donor transplantations, has remained stable at around 130. Biliary atresia is still the most common indication, but others like metabolic disease and hepatoblastoma have been increasing. Deceased-donor liver transplantation started in 1999 in Japan, but pediatric donors are very rare. Intestinal transplantation in Japan also started in a pediatric patient with short bowel syndrome in 1996. Deceased-donor intestinal transplantation is also performed, but the number of those on the waiting list for bowel transplantations in Japan has been very limited, probably due to financial constraints and relatively poor long-term results. With the change in the Organ Transplant Law in 2010, organ donations in Japan have increased slightly. Cadaveric split-liver transplantation has the potential to expand the benefit to pediatric recipients. A universal system for the long-term follow-up of pediatric recipients should be established to manage their transition to adulthood.

  20. [History of organ transplantation in the field of pediatric surgery in Japan].

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    In Japan, liver transplantation was first attempted 50 years ago, around the same time as the development of pediatric surgery. In 1989, clinical liver transplantation in Japan started with a living related-donor transplantation in a boy with biliary atresia. In the early years, the majority of recipients were children worldwide, which is why pediatric surgeons played a major role in the establishment of liver transplantation in Japan. From 1998, most of the indications for pediatric patients needing liver transplantation have been covered by governmental health insurance. Since that year, the annual number of pediatric liver transplantations, mainly living-donor transplantations, has remained stable at around 130. Biliary atresia is still the most common indication, but others like metabolic disease and hepatoblastoma have been increasing. Deceased-donor liver transplantation started in 1999 in Japan, but pediatric donors are very rare. Intestinal transplantation in Japan also started in a pediatric patient with short bowel syndrome in 1996. Deceased-donor intestinal transplantation is also performed, but the number of those on the waiting list for bowel transplantations in Japan has been very limited, probably due to financial constraints and relatively poor long-term results. With the change in the Organ Transplant Law in 2010, organ donations in Japan have increased slightly. Cadaveric split-liver transplantation has the potential to expand the benefit to pediatric recipients. A universal system for the long-term follow-up of pediatric recipients should be established to manage their transition to adulthood. PMID:25702514

  1. Rehabilitation after heart transplantation: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Harvison, A; Jones, B M; McBride, M; Taylor, F; Wright, O; Chang, V P

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to assess aspects of the quality of life and rehabilitation of heart transplant recipients who had transplantations at St. Vincent's Hospital, New South Wales, Australia, between February 1984 and March 1987. Factors determining return to full-time employment were delineated. A questionnaire was sent to 51 recipients. The response rate was 92%. The questionnaire measured employment status and satisfaction with family, social, marital, and sexual life. Financial status, exercise ability, and participation in daily activities were also assessed. Analysis showed that 53% of recipients had returned to either full-time or part-time employment, home duties, or full-time study. A further 28% were receiving a pension, 9% had chosen voluntary retirement, 6% were receiving unemployment benefits, and 4% were getting paid leave. Ability to exercise was improved for 77% of recipients and remained the same for another 14%. Financial status was unchanged for 45% and improved for 17%. Thirty-eight percent believed that they were worse off financially. Ratings of social, family, and marital life showed nearly complete or complete satisfaction in most cases. Satisfaction with sex life was less favorable. Comparison of the group who had returned to full-time employment with the group receiving a pension identified two variables of work status--length of time since transplantation and employment status before transplantation. There were also some differences between the two groups on quality of life ratings. PMID:3058902

  2. Deservingness and gratitude in the context of heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Geraldine M; Donaghue, Ngaire; Walker, Iain; Wood, Clare A

    2014-12-01

    Heart transplantation is now routinely offered as a treatment for end-stage heart failure, and the "gift-of-life" metaphor has become pervasive in this context, forming the foundation on which transplantation discourses rest. In this article, we question organ-as-gift understandings of transplantation. One can also legitimately think of the transplanted organ as a donation, with distinct implications in terms of the transplantation experience for the recipient. We explored the transplantation experience of 13 heart recipients in Australia. We conducted semistructured interviews, and our interpretative phenomenological analysis of the data resulted in three themes: deservingness, nuances of gratitude, and giving forward. Our results indicate that differences between organ-as-gift and organ-as-donation understandings of transplantation are more than merely semantic. Organ-as-donation understandings raise the issue of deservingness, with recipients' assessments of their worthiness influencing their posttransplant experience of gratitude and, ultimately, the meaning(s) gleaned from their transplant experiences.

  3. A rare but important adverse effect of tacrolimus in a heart transplant recipient: diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zeynelabidin; Gönç, E Nazlı; Akcan, Leman; Kesici, Selman; Ertuğrul, İlker; Bayrakçı, Benan

    2015-01-01

    Heart transplantation indications in pediatric population include congenital heart diseases, cardiomyopathies and retransplants. Cardiomyopathy is the primary indication for 11 to 17 years of age. The surveillance after transplantation is a very important issue because of both the rejection risk and the adverse effects due to medications after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents that are commonly used after heart transplantations have several toxicities. Here we present an adolescent patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy, performed heart transplantation, treated with tacrolimus and suffered from diabetic ketoacidosis due to tacrolimus. After the diagnosis was made the appropriate fluid and insulin therapy was started immediately and ketoacidosis resolved in the first 24 hours of the therapy. The diagnosis revised as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation and the tacrolimus dosage titrated to therapeutic level. After glycemic control the patient discharged with rapid acting insulin, three times daily, before meals; and long acting insulin once daily at night. In ten month follow up time the insulin dosages were progressively reduced. PMID:27411426

  4. The Path From Heart Failure to Cardiac Transplant.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Regi; Koerner, Erika; Clark, Courtney; Halabicky, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a progressive and fatal disease impacting millions of American each year. Divided into stages, heart failure presents with progressive symptoms requiring a wide range of medical treatments. Treatments include diet and lifestyle changes, medications, electrical therapies (defibrillator and/or cardiac resynchronization therapy), as well as mechanical circulatory support. Cardiac transplant is the gold standard treatment of heart failure, although the availability of donors limits the utility of a cardiac transplant. This article outlines heart failure treatments and the indications, contraindications, and pretransplant evaluation for a cardiac transplant. Information on the allocation of donor hearts and donor characteristics is also included for the reader. PMID:27254637

  5. Rhodococcus empyema in a heart transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Richard; Nord, John; Lanspa, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a rare cause of pneumonia and empyema almost exclusively occurring in immunocompromised patients. Most people who become infected have direct exposure to livestock. We present a case where the exposure was presumed to be through a family member in close contact with horses. Our case describes an infection in a heart transplant patient that was initially identified as a probable intra-abdominal infection and later reidentified as Rhodococcus equi empyema, and was treated with surgery and prolonged antibiotics. PMID:25473561

  6. Successful renal transplantation following prior bone marrow transplantation in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan E; Hutchinson, Raymond J; DebRoy, Meelie; Magee, John C

    2004-10-01

    Improving survival rates following pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) will likely result in greater numbers of children progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) because of prior chemotherapy, irradiation, sepsis, and exposure to nephrotoxic agents. Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice for ESRD; however, the safety of renal transplantation in this unique population is not well established. We report our experience with living related renal transplantation in three pediatric patients with ESRD following prior BMT. Two patients with neuroblastoma and ESRD because of BMT nephropathy, and one patient with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia and ESRD because of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Age at time of BMT ranged from 2 to 7 yr. All patients had stable bone marrow function prior to renal transplantation. Age at renal transplant ranged from 8 to 14 yr. All three patients have been managed with conventional immunosuppression, as no patient received a kidney and BMT from the same donor source. These patients are currently 7 months to 6 yr status post-living related transplant. All have functioning bone marrow and kidney transplants, with serum creatinine levels ranging 0.6-1.2 mg/dL. There have been no episodes of rejection. One patient with a history of grade III skin and grade IV gastrointestinal-graft-vs.-host disease (GI-GVHD) prior to transplantation, had a mild flare of GI-GVHD (grade I) post-renal transplant and is currently asymptomatic. The incidence of opportunistic infection has been comparable with our pediatric renal transplant population without prior BMT. One patient was treated for basal cell carcinoma via wide local excision. Renal transplantation is an excellent option for the treatment of pediatric patients with ESRD following BMT. Short-term results in this small population show promising patient and graft survival, however long-term follow-up is needed. Pre-existing immune system

  7. Transplant-related toxicity and mortality: an AIEOP prospective study in 636 pediatric patients transplanted for acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, A; Valsecchi, M G; Silvestri, D; Locatelli, F; Manfredini, L; Busca, A; Iori, A P; Messina, C; Prete, A; Andolina, M; Porta, F; Favre, C; Ceppi, S; Giorgiani, G; Lanino, E; Rovelli, A; Fagioli, F; De Fusco, C; Rondelli, R; Uderzo, C

    2002-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can cure high-risk acute leukemia (AL), but the occurrence of non-leukemic death is still high. The AIEOP conducted a prospective study in order to assess incidence and relationships of early toxicity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) in a pediatric population. Between 1990 and 1997 toxicities reported in eight organs (central nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gut, kidneys, bladder, mucosa) were classified into three grades (mild, moderate, severe) and prospectively registered for 636 consecutive children who underwent autologous (216) or allogeneic (420) transplantation, either from an HLA compatible related (294), or alternative (126) donor in 13 AIEOP transplant centers. Overall, 47% of the patients are alive in CR (3-year EFS: 45.2%, s.e.: 2.1), 19% died in CR at a median of 60 days (90-day TRM: 14.3%, s.e.: 1.4), 34% relapsed. Toxicity of any organ, but mucosa and gut, was positively correlated with early death; moderate and severe toxicity to heart, lungs, liver and kidneys significantly increased early TRM, with estimated relative risks of 9.1, 5.5, 2.7 and 2.8, respectively, as compared to absent or mild toxicity. Patients with grade III-IV aGVHD experienced more than double (56% vs. 19%) TRM than patients with grade 0-II aGVHD. A higher cumulative toxicity score, estimating the impact of toxicity on TRM, was significantly associated with transplantation from an alternative donor. Quantitative assessment allowed us to describe the extent to which 'grade' of toxicity and 'type' of involved organs were related to mortality and pre-transplant characteristics and yielded a prognostic score potentially useful to compare different conditioning regimens and predict probability of early death.

  8. Desensitization protocols for prospective pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mamode, Nizam; Marks, Stephen D

    2016-10-01

    Desensitization protocols should be considered for children with positive crossmatches awaiting renal transplantation. Children are sensitized usually due to previous renal (and/or other solid-organ) transplants but can be from administration of blood and/or platelet transfusions, infections, and immunizations (as sensitization from pregnancy is a rare occurrence in pediatric patients). However, the definition of HLA-incompatible (HLAi) renal transplantation in the literature varies and is best considered only when there is a positive cross-match (positive baseline flow cytometric cross-match or positive complement-dependent cytotoxic cross-match). Renal transplantation where the recipient has donor-specific antibodies (DSA) but a negative cross-match should not fall into this category, although they are higher risk. PMID:27270722

  9. Desensitization protocols for prospective pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mamode, Nizam; Marks, Stephen D

    2016-10-01

    Desensitization protocols should be considered for children with positive crossmatches awaiting renal transplantation. Children are sensitized usually due to previous renal (and/or other solid-organ) transplants but can be from administration of blood and/or platelet transfusions, infections, and immunizations (as sensitization from pregnancy is a rare occurrence in pediatric patients). However, the definition of HLA-incompatible (HLAi) renal transplantation in the literature varies and is best considered only when there is a positive cross-match (positive baseline flow cytometric cross-match or positive complement-dependent cytotoxic cross-match). Renal transplantation where the recipient has donor-specific antibodies (DSA) but a negative cross-match should not fall into this category, although they are higher risk.

  10. Coagulopathy and transfusion therapy in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nacoti, Mirco; Corbella, Davide; Fazzi, Francesco; Rapido, Francesca; Bonanomi, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding and coagulopathy are critical issues complicating pediatric liver transplantation and contributing to morbidity and mortality in the cirrhotic child. The complexity of coagulopathy in the pediatric patient is illustrated by the interaction between three basic models. The first model, “developmental hemostasis”, demonstrates how a different balance between pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal hemostatic capacity in the pediatric patient at various ages. The second, the “cell based model of coagulation”, takes into account the interaction between plasma proteins and cells. In the last, the concept of “rebalanced coagulation” highlights how the reduction of both pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal, although unstable, coagulation profile. This new concept has led to the development of novel techniques used to analyze the coagulation capacity of whole blood for all patients. For example, viscoelastic methodologies are increasingly used on adult patients to test hemostatic capacity and to guide transfusion protocols. However, results are often confounding or have limited impact on morbidity and mortality. Moreover, data from pediatric patients remain inadequate. In addition, several interventions have been proposed to limit blood loss during transplantation, including the use of antifibrinolytic drugs and surgical techniques, such as the piggyback and lowering the central venous pressure during the hepatic dissection phase. The rationale for the use of these interventions is quite solid and has led to their incorporation into clinical practice; yet few of them have been rigorously tested in adults, let alone in children. Finally, the postoperative period in pediatric cohorts of patients has been characterized by an enhanced risk of hepatic vessel thrombosis. Thrombosis in fact remains the primary cause of early graft failure and re-transplantation within the first 30 d following surgery, and it occurs despite prolongation

  11. The Clinical Impact of Humoral Immunity in Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study. PMID:23449533

  12. The clinical impact of humoral immunity in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-03-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study.

  13. Kidney transplant in pediatric patients with severe bladder pathology.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, María Consuelo; González, Gloria; Nome, Claudio; Pinilla, Cesar; Correa, Ramón; Mansilla, Juan; Rodríguez, Jorge; Delucchi, Angela; Ossandón, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare results in pediatric renal transplantation of patients with and without SBP. Between 2001 and 2013, a total of 168 kidney transplants were performed at our center. A retrospective analysis was performed and recipients were divided into two groups: NB and SBP. Incidence of surgical complications after procedure, and graft and patient survival were evaluated. A total of 155 recipients (92%) with complete data were analyzed, and 13 recipients that had had previous bladder surgeries were excluded (11 with VUR surgery and two with previous kidney transplants), of the 155 recipients: 123 (79%) patients had NB, and 32 (21%) patients had SBP, with a median follow-up of 60 (1-137) and 52 (1-144) months, respectively. Among post-transplant complications, UTI (68.8% vs. 23%, p < 0.0001) and symptomatic VUR to the graft (40.6% vs. 7.3%, p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in the SBP group. There was no significant difference in overall graft and patient survival between groups. Renal transplantation is safe in pediatric recipients with SBP; however, urologic complications such as UTI and VUR were significantly higher in this group. Graft and patient survival was similar in SBP and NB groups. PMID:26256468

  14. [Pediatric corneal surgery and corneal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, B; Avgitidou, G; Siebelmann, S; Cursiefen, C

    2015-02-01

    The surgical treatment of congenital corneal diseases or corneal diseases occurring during infancy is demanding even for experienced corneal surgeons. Besides the need for frequent examinations under anesthesia during the postoperative follow-up in young children and infants (e.g. after corneal transplantation), the surgeon frequently encounters intraoperative and postoperative problems, such as low scleral rigidity, positive vitreous pressure and a narrow anterior chamber. Other problems include increased fibrin reaction, an increased risk of rejection in cases of allogenic corneal transplantation and frequent loosening of sutures necessitating replacement or early removal. Lamellar corneal transplantation reduces the risk of graft rejection and the risk of wound leakage. Moreover, posterior lamellar keratoplasty in children offers a faster visual recovery compared to penetrating keratoplasty and thus reduces the risk of amblyopia.

  15. New-onset diabetes mellitus after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Regelmann, Molly O; Goldis, Marina; Arnon, Ronen

    2015-08-01

    In the first five yr after liver transplant, approximately one in 10 pediatric recipients will develop NODAT. Factors associated with higher risk for NODAT have been difficult to identify due to lack of uniformity in reporting and data collection. Limited studies have reported higher risk in those who are at an older age at transplant, those with high-risk ethnic backgrounds, and in those with particular underlying conditions, such as CF and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Immunosuppressive medications, including tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, GC, and sirolimus, have been implicated as contributing to NODAT, to varying degrees. Identifying those at highest risk, appropriately screening, and diagnosing NODAT is critical to initiating timely treatment and avoiding potential complications. In the pediatric population, treatment is limited primarily to insulin, with some consideration for metformin. Children with NODAT should be monitored carefully for complications of DM, including microalbuminuria, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and retinopathy.

  16. Paediatric heart transplants--should we do them?

    PubMed

    Hugo-Hamman, C T; Vosloo, S M; De Moor, M M; Odell, J A

    1991-11-01

    Heart transplantation continues to evoke considerable controversy. While they are performed in adults, in South Africa children are at present denied this therapeutic option despite a very encouraging global/average 5-year survival rate of 62%. Objections to transplantation are usually based on moral and economic imperatives. These arguments will be analysed and we will present the case for the introduction of a transplant programme designed to benefit children with incurable heart disease.

  17. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Hale, Gregory A

    2005-10-01

    While advances in the treatment of pediatric cancers have increased cure rates, children with metastatic or recurrent solid tumors have a dismal prognosis despite initial transient responses to therapy. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation takes advantage of the steep dose-response relationship observed with many chemotherapeutic agents. While clearly demonstrated to improve outcomes in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also frequently used to treat patients with other high-risk diseases such as Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, retinoblastoma, germ cell tumors, lymphomas and brain tumors. Most published experience consists of retrospective, single-arm studies; randomized clinical trials are lacking, due in part to the rarity of pediatric cancers treatable by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These published literature demonstrate that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results in most cases in equivalent or superior outcomes when compared with conventional therapies. However, patient heterogeneity, patient selection, graft characteristics and processing and the varied conditioning regimens are additional factors to consider. Since the inception of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, regimen-related toxicity has markedly decreased and the vast majority of treatment failures are now due to disease recurrence. Prospective clinical trials are needed to identify specific high-risk patient populations, with randomization (when possible) to compare outcomes of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with those receiving standard therapy. In addition, investigators need to better define the role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in these solid tumors, particularly in combination with other therapeutic modalities such as immunotherapy and novel cell processing methodologies.

  18. Pediatric heart failure: current state and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Joseph W; Jang, Gi Young

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a complex pathophysiological syndrome that can occur in children from a variety of diseases, including cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and congenital heart disease. The condition is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality and places a significant burden on families of affected children and to society as a whole. Current medical therapy is taken largely from the management of heart failure in adults, though clear survival benefit of these medications are lacking. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have taken an increasingly important role in the management of advanced heart failure in children. The predominant role of these devices has been as a bridge to heart transplantation, and excellent results are currently achieved for most children with cardiomyopathies. There is an ongoing investigation to improve outcomes in high-risk populations, such as small infants and those with complex congenital heart disease, including patients with functionally univentricular hearts. Additionally, there is an active investigation and interest in expansion of VADs beyond the predominant utilization as a bridge to a heart transplant into ventricular recovery, device explant without a heart transplantation (bridge to recovery), and placement of devices without the expectation of recovery or transplantation (destination therapy).

  19. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Lones, M A; Kirov, I; Said, J W; Shintaku, I P; Neudorf, S

    2000-11-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Rare cases of PTLD after autologous BMT have been reported only in adults. This case report is the first to describe PTLD in a pediatric patient after autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). This 2-year-old male with stage IV neuroblastoma underwent autologous PSCT. The post-PSCT course was complicated by fever with hematochezia and a lung mass. On day 94 post PSCT, colonoscopy revealed an ulcer due to a PTLD, monomorphic type, B cell phenotype, associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Fine needle aspiration identified the lung mass as neuroblastoma. PTLD can occur in pediatric autologous PSCT recipients, and may occur more frequently in autologous grafts manipulated by T cell depletion or CD34+ cell selection.

  20. Immune Profile of Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipients following Alemtuzumab Induction

    PubMed Central

    De Serres, Sacha A.; Mfarrej, Bechara G.; Magee, Ciara N.; Benitez, Fanny; Ashoor, Isa; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Harmon, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of developing circulating anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies and the kinetics of T cell depletion and recovery among pediatric renal transplant recipients who receive alemtuzumab induction therapy are unknown. In a collaborative endeavor to minimize maintenance immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, we enrolled 35 participants from four centers and treated them with alemtuzumab induction therapy and a steroid-free, calcineurin-inhibitor–withdrawal maintenance regimen. At 3 months after transplant, there was greater depletion of CD4+ than CD8+ T cells within the total, naive, memory, and effector memory subsets, although depletion of the central memory subset was similar for CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Although CD8+ T cells recovered faster than CD4+ subsets overall, they failed to return to pretransplant levels by 24 months after transplant. There was no evidence for greater recovery of either CD4+ or CD8+ memory cells than naïve cells. Alemtuzumab relatively spared CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, resulting in a rise in their numbers relative to total CD4+ cells and a ratio that remained at least at pretransplant levels throughout the study period. Seven participants (20%) developed anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies without adversely affecting allograft function or histology on 2-year biopsies. Long-term follow-up is underway to assess the potential benefits of this regimen in children. PMID:22052056

  1. ANTILYMPHOID ANTIBODY PRECONDITIONING AND TACROLIMUS MONOTHERAPY FOR PEDIATRIC KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Ron; Ellis, Demetrius; Tan, Henkie P.; Moritz, Michael L.; Basu, Amit; Vats, Abhay N.; Khan, Akhtar S.; Gray, Edward A.; Zeevi, Adrianna; McFeaters, Corde; James, Gerri; Grosso, Mary Jo; Marcos, Amadeo; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Heavy post-transplant immunosuppression may contribute to long-term immunosuppression dependence by subverting tolerogenic mechanisms; thus, we sought to determine if this undesirable consequence could be mitigated by pretransplant lymphoid depletion and minimalistic post-transplant monotherapy. Study design Lymphoid depletion in 17 unselected pediatric recipients of live (n = 14) or deceased donor kidneys (n = 3) was accomplished with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (n = 8) or alemtuzumab (n = 9). Tacrolimus was begun post-transplantation with subsequent lengthening of intervals between doses (spaced weaning). Maintenance immunosuppression, morbidity, graft function, and patient/graft survival were collated. Results Steroids were added temporarily to treat rejection in two patients (both ATG subgroup) or to treat hemolytic anemia in two others. After 16 to 31 months (mean 22), patient and graft survival was 100% and 94%, respectively. The only graft loss was in a nonweaned noncompliant recipient. In the other 16, serum creatinine was 0.85 ± 0.35 mg/dL and creatinine clearance was 90.8 ± 22.1 mL/1.73 m2. All 16 patients are on monotherapy (15 tacrolimus, one sirolimus), and 14 receive every other day or 3 times per week doses. There were no wound or other infections. Two patients developed insulin-dependent diabetes. Conclusion The strategy of lymphoid depletion and minimum post-transplant immunosuppression appears safe and effective for pediatric kidney recipients. PMID:16769394

  2. Heart transplantation in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Stephanie M; Lima, Brian; Khalid, Adnan; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V; Stoler, Robert C; Hall, Shelley A; Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles

    2015-10-01

    We describe a woman with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and aortic aneurysm who experienced a myocardial infarction due to spontaneous left circumflex coronary artery dissection 3 weeks postpartum. She developed end-stage heart failure and subsequently underwent a successful orthotopic heart transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a heart transplant performed in an individual with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. PMID:26424951

  3. Use of pharmacogenomics in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Mara; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Ross, Colin J. D.; Carleton, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Transplant recipients receive potent immunosuppressive drugs in order to prevent graft rejection. Therapeutic drug monitoring is the current approach to guide the dosing of calcineurin inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) and mofetil mycophenolate. Target concentrations used in pediatric patients are extrapolated from adult studies. Gene polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters such as cytochromes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, and P-glycoprotein are known to influence the pharmacokinetics and dose requirements of immunosuppressants. The implications of pharmacogenomics in this patient population is discussed. Genetic information can help with achieving target concentrations in the early post-transplant period, avoiding adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions. Evidence about genetic studies and transplant outcomes is revised. PMID:25741362

  4. IMPROVING RESULTS OF PEDIATRIC RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Ron; Tzakis, Andreas; Scantlebury, Velma; Jordan, Mark; Vivas, Carlos; Ellis, Demtrius; Gilboa, Nisan; Irish, William; Hopp, Laszlo; Reyes, Jorge; Hakala, Thomas R.; Simmons, Richard L.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Outcome after renal transplantation in children has been variable. We undertook a retrospective study of our experience over the past five years. STUDY DESIGN From January 1, 1988, to October 15, 1992, 60 renal transplantations were performed upon 59 children at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh. Twenty-eight (47 percent) of the kidneys were from cadaveric donors, and 32 (53 percent) were from living donors. The recipients ranged in age from 0.8 to 17.4 years, with a mean of 9.8 ± 4.8 years. Forty-six (77 percent) recipients were undergoing a first transplant, while 14 (23 percent) received a second or third transplant. Eight (13 percent) of the patients were sensitized, with a panel reactive antibody of more than 40 percent. Eleven of the 14 patients undergoing retransplantation and seven of the eight patients who were sensitized received kidneys from cadaveric donors. Thirty-three (55 percent) patients received cyclosporine-based immunosuppression, and 27 (45 percent) received FK506 as the primary immunosuppressive agent. RESULTS The median follow-up period was 36 months, with a range of six to 63 months. The one- and four-year actuarial patient survival rate was 100 and 98 percent. The one- and four-year actuarial graft survival rate was 98 and 83 percent. For living donor recipients, the one- and four-year actuarial patient survival rate was 100 and 100 percent; for cadaveric recipients, it was 100 and 96 percent. Corresponding one- and four-year actuarial graft survival rates were 100 and 95 percent for the living donor recipients and 96 and 69 percent for the cadaveric recipients. Patients on cyclosporine had a one- and four-year patient survival rate of 100 and 97 percent, and patients on FK506 had a one- and three-year patient survival rate of 100 and 100 percent. Corresponding one- and four-year actuarial graft survival rates were 100 and 85 percent in the cyclosporine group, while one- and three-year actuarial graft survival rates were

  5. Exploring parenthood in the New Zealand Heart Transplant Program.

    PubMed

    Wasywich, C A; Ruygrok, A M; Gibbs, H; Painter, L; Coverdale, H A; Ruygrok, P N

    2013-01-01

    Heart transplantation is an established treatment for end-stage cardiac disease. This study describes parenthood after heart transplantation in the New Zealand population. An analysis was performed of all heart recipients from the New Zealand program. Exclusion criteria were death within 3 months of transplantation or age <18 years at the time of the survey. Recipients (or next of kin if recipients deceased) were surveyed regarding family status at the time of transplantation and new parenthood after transplantation. A total of 145 of 199 eligible recipients completed the survey ∼12.2 years after transplant (119 male, 26 female). Before transplantation, 81% were in a permanent relationship; 72% had children. After transplantation, 19/45 recipients had 27 children (2 female recipients had 3 children), of whom 15 were planned. Complications occurred in 7/27 pregnancies (including one atrial septal defect requiring surgery). Two recipients died after the birth of their children (children aged 2.6 and 14.1 years). This study provides unique data relevant to both female and male recipients regarding new parenthood after heart transplantation and will promote more informed discussion with transplant recipients.

  6. Present status and future perspectives of heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Yoshiya; Guy, T Sloane; Kashem, Abul

    2013-01-01

    Heart transplantation has evolved as the "gold standard" therapy, with median survival exceeding 10 years, for patients with endstage heart failure (HF). Advancements in the fields of immunosuppression, infection prophylaxis, and surgical techniques have transformed heart transplantation from what was once considered an experimental intervention into a routine treatment. The number of heart transplants reported to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation registry worldwide has been 3,500-4,000 annually, but has not been increased over the past 2 decades because of donor shortage despite the growing number of patients with HF. This imbalance between the supply of donor hearts and the demand of patients with endstage HF has led to increased use of mechanical circulatory support as destination therapy, because the supply of mechanical devices is virtually unlimited. Although mechanical circulatory support technology is improving, heart transplantation remains the preferred treatment for many patients because of major complications, such as stroke, bleeding and infection, and because of limited quality of life related to the driveline and the need for battery change. Therefore, significant efforts have been made to maximize the number of heart transplants and to ensure good outcomes.   PMID:23614963

  7. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  8. Islet Transplantation in Pediatric Patients: Current Indications and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Antonioli, Barbara; Tosca, Marta C; Galuzzi, Marta; Bonomo, Matteo; Marazzi, Mario; Colussi, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The first islet transplantation in diabetes mellitus was performed more than 20 years ago. Since then, clinical results have progressively improved. Nowadays, islet transplantation can be considered a real therapeutic option after pancreatectomy for painful chronic pancreatitis (autotransplantation) and in selected adult patients affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (allotransplantation). Better results are mainly due to the advances in the standardization of islet isolation and purification procedures as well as in the pharmacological treatment of recipients. Anti-inflammatory treatments facilitate islet engraftment and prevent metabolic exhaustion and functional β-cell apoptosis; new strategies better control islet graft rejection. As a consequence, islet transplantation activities are no longer confined to few centers only, rather thousands of transplants are now performed all over the world. Many attempts are actually undertaken to find solutions to current problems of islets transplantation, from toxicity of immunosuppressive therapy to the limited engraftment, function and duration. There is general hope that these procedures will offer a safe and feasible therapeutic option for an increasing number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, including pediatric patients. PMID:26682915

  9. Current Approaches to Device Implantation in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jacob R; Lancaster, Timothy S; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2015-01-01

    Summary The pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has recently shown substantial improvements in survival as a bridge to heart transplant for patients with end-stage heart failure. Since that time, its use has become much more frequent. With increasing utilization, additional questions have arisen including patient selection, timing of VAD implantation and device selection. These challenges are amplified by the uniqueness of each patient, the recent abundance of literature surrounding VAD use, as well as the technological advancements in the devices themselves. Ideal strategies for device placement must be sought, for not only improved patient care, but for optimal resource utilization. Here, we review the most relevant literature to highlight some of the challenges facing the heart failure specialist, and any physician, who will care for a child with a VAD. PMID:25732410

  10. 2013 update on congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, heart failure, and heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices.

  11. Update on heart failure, heart transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Almenar, Luis; Zunzunegui, José Luis; Barón, Gonzalo; Carrasco, José Ignacio; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Comín, Josep; Barrios, Vivencio; Subirana, M Teresa; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012, 3 scientific sections-heart failure and transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology-are presented together in the same article. The most relevant development in the area of heart failure and transplantation is the 2012 publication of the European guidelines for heart failure. These describe new possibilities for some drugs (eplerenone and ivabradine); expand the criteria for resynchronization, ventricular assist, and peritoneal dialysis; and cover possibilities of percutaneous repair of the mitral valve (MitraClip(®)). The survival of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in congenital heart diseases has improved significantly. Instructions for percutaneous techniques and devices have been revised and modified for the treatment of atrial septal defects, ostium secundum, and ventricular septal defects. Hybrid procedures for addressing structural congenital heart defects have become more widespread. In the area of clinical cardiology studies have demonstrated that percutaneous prosthesis implantation has lower mortality than surgical implantation. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc criteria and of new anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) is also recommended. In addition, the development of new sequencing techniques has enabled the analysis of multiple genes.

  12. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone.

  13. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Lisinopril in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Trachtman, Howard; Frymoyer, Adam; Lewandowski, Andrew; Greenbaum, Larry A.; Feig, Daniel I.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Warady, Bradley A.; Goebel, Jens W.; Schwartz, George J.; Lewis, Kenneth; Anand, Ravinder; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension in pediatric kidney transplant recipients contributes to long-term graft loss, yet treatment options—including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors—are poorly characterized in this vulnerable population. We conducted a multicenter, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study of daily oral lisinopril in 22 children (ages 7–17 years) with stable kidney transplant function. Standard non-compartmental PK analyses were performed at steady state. Effects on blood pressure were examined in lisinopril-naïve patients (n=13). Oral clearance declined in proportion to underlying kidney function; however, in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (30–59 ml/min per 1.73m2), exposure (standardized to 0.1 mg/kg/day dose) was within the range reported previously in children without a kidney transplant. In lisinopril-naïve patients, 85% and 77% had a ≥6 mmHg reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Lisinopril was well tolerated. Our study provides initial insight on lisinopril use in children with a kidney transplant, including starting dose considerations. PMID:25807932

  14. Prevalence of substance-related disorders in heart transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Sirri, L; Potena, L; Masetti, M; Tossani, E; Grigioni, F; Magelli, C; Branzi, A; Grandi, S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse cessation is one of the leading factors in determining the eligibility for the heart transplantation waiting list, as noncompliance with this issue may seriously endanger posttransplantation outcomes. Yet, the prevalence of substance-related disorders among candidates for heart transplantation has not been evaluated enough. Eighty three heart transplantation candidates were assessed for prior or current substance-related disorders through the Structured Clinical Interview for mental disorders according to DSM-IV. A prior history of at least one substance-related disorder was found in 64% of patients, with nicotine dependence as the most prevalent diagnosis (61.4% of the sample). Ten subjects were currently smokers, despite heart failure. A prior history of alcohol abuse and caffeine intoxication was found in 9.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. Substance abuse or dependence behaviors should be monitored during all the phases of heart transplantation program. Early identification of current substance-related disorders may allow better allocation of organ resources and proper lifestyle modification programs provision. A prior history of substance-related disorders should alert physicians to assess patients for possible relapse, especially after transplantation. The inclusion of a specialist in the assessment and treatment of substance-related disorders in the heart transplantation unit may reduce the risk of unsuccessful outcomes due to noncompliance with an adequate lifestyle.

  15. Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Riva, Silvia; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2008-09-15

    We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

  16. Lymphocyte Activation Markers in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Fatina I.; Elghoroury, Eman A.; Elshamaa, Manal F.; Bazaraa, Hafez M.; Salah, Doaa M.; Kassem, Neemat M. A.; Ibrahim, Mona H.; El-Saaid, Gamila S.; Nasr, Soha A.; Koura, Hala M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The role of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) in immune tolerance in experimental transplantation is very important but the clinical significance of circulating Tregs in the peripheral blood is undetermined. We evaluated the association between the frequency of T cell activation markers CD25 and CD71 and clinical parameters that may affect the level of these T cell markers. Methods: In 47peditric kidney transplant (KT) recipients and 20 healthy controls, the frequency of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD71 was measured with flow cytometry after transplantation. Two clinical protocols of induction immunosuppression were used: (1) anti-thymocyte globulin (THYMO) group (n =29) and Basiliximab (BSX) group (n=10). Results: The percentage of circulating CD25 after KT was significantly lower than that in the controls. There is no significant difference between KT and the controls s regard to circulating CD71. The percentage of CD25 was significantly increased in children with acute rejection compared with those without acute rejection. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) decreased the frequency of CD25 but mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor did not. The proportion of CD25 significantly decreased in THYMO group during the first year after transplantation. Conclusion: The frequency of circulating T cell activation marker CD25 in pediatric KT recipients is strongly affected by CNIs, and a high frequency of CD25 is associated with acute rejection during the early posttransplant period. The measurement of T cell activation markers, may become a useful immune monitoring tool after kidney transplantation. PMID:26508906

  17. Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Transition to Home and Chronic Illness Care

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M; Weiss, Marianne; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Menendez, Jerome; Williams, Laurel; Nadler, Michelle; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Cao, Yumei; Nugent, Melodee; Alonso, Estella; Simpson, Pippa

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients are medically fragile and present with complex care issues requiring high-level management at home. Parents of hospitalized children have reported inadequate preparation for discharge, resulting in problems transitioning from hospital to home and independently self-managing their child’s complex care needs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the transition from hospital to home and chronic illness care for parents of heart, kidney, liver, lung, or multivisceral recipients. Fifty-one parents from five pediatric transplant centers completed questionnaires on the day of hospital discharge and telephone interviews at 3-week, 3-month, and 6-months following discharge from the hospital. Care coordination (p = .02) and quality of discharge teaching (p < .01) was significantly associated with parent readiness for discharge. Readiness for hospital discharge was subsequently significantly associated with post-discharge coping difficulty (p = .02) at 3-weeks, adherence with medication administration (p = .03) at 3-months, and post-discharge coping difficulty (p = .04) and family management (p = .02) at 6-months post-discharge. The results underscore the important aspect of education and care coordination in preparing patients and families to successfully self-manage after hospital discharge. Assessing parental readiness for hospital discharge is another critical component for identifying risk of difficulties in managing post-discharge care. PMID:25425201

  18. Dysregulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis in pediatric heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Kathryn C; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Sucharov, Carmen C; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Grudis, Jonathan E; Sobus, Rebecca D; Hijmans, Jamie; Stauffer, Brian L

    2014-09-01

    Cardiolipin, a unique phospholipid in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is critical for optimal mitochondrial function. CL abnormalities have been demonstrated in the failing rodent and adult human heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether abnormalities in CL content and the CL biosynthesis and remodeling pathways are present in pediatric idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). A cross-sectional analysis of myocardial tissue from 119 IDC and non-failing (NF) control samples was performed. Electrospray ionizing mass spectrometry was used to measure total CL and CL species content in LV tissue. RT-PCR was employed to measure gene expression of the enzymes in the CL biosynthesis and remodeling pathways in both the adult and pediatric heart. Significantly lower total and (18:2)4CL (the beneficial species) content was demonstrated in myocardium from pediatric patients with IDC compared to NF controls. Analysis of mitochondrial gene transcripts was used to demonstrate that there is no decrease in mitochondrial content. Expression of two biosynthesis enzymes and one remodeling enzyme was significantly lower in pediatric IDC compared to NF controls. Expression of two phospholipases involved in CL degradation were also altered, one up- and one down-regulated. Except for one remodeling enzyme, these changes are unique from those in the failing adult heart. Similar to what has been seen in adults and in a rat model of IDC, total and (18:2)4CL are lower in pediatric IDC. Unique CL species profiles are seen in heart tissue from children with IDC compared to adults. Differences in CL biosynthesis and remodeling enzyme expression likely explain the differences in CL profiles observed in IDC and implicate unique age-related mechanisms of disease.

  19. Recovery of organ dysfunction during bridging to heart transplantation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    El-Banayosy, N Reiss A; Arusoglu, L; Kleikamp, G; Minami, K; Körfer, R

    2003-05-01

    The beneficial effects of ventricular assist devices on organ dysfunction during bridging to heart transplantation have been widely reported in the adult population. In contrast, the use of ventricular assist devices used as bridge-to-transplant in children is limited. To evaluate organ recovery during ventricular support in pediatric transplant candidate, respiratory, renal and hepatic function were reviewed retrospectively. The Thoratec device (stroke volume 65 ml) and the HIA-Medos-system (stroke volume 25/10 ml) were used as bridge-to transplant in 11 children and adolescents who were in low-output-syndrome despite maximal pharmacological support. Prior to implantation five patients were mechanically ventilated, six patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, eight patients had anuria (one treated by hemofiltration), three patients had liver dysfunction and four patients had signs of severe infection. At the time of implantation one patient was supported by the intraaortic balloon pump and one by the femorofemoral bypass for rapid hemodynamic stabilization. Eight patients were treated using the Thoratec device (one of these by Nova cor on the left side), three by the HIA-Medos system. The support time ranged between seven and 140 days. Seven patients could be extubated within three days. Renal function recovered in all pts. Liver enzymes decreased in all pts without reaching normal values. Bilirubin values also decreased in survivors but increased to 9.3 mg/dL in non-survivors. At least seven patients underwent successful heart transplantation, three patients died because of multiorgan failure after extended transfusion and one patient because of technical failure. In our experience the hemodynamic situation was sufficient in all bridging to transplant candidates. In all patients who underwent successful transplantation, transplantability was associated with rapid organ recovery within seven days after initiating mechanical assistance. Extended blood

  20. Successful heart transplantation using a donor heart afflicted by takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Yazhini; Campagna, Ryan; Rosas, Paola C; Essa, Essa; Hasan, Ayesha K; Higgins, Robert S D; Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as apical ballooning syndrome, stress cardiomyopathy, or broken heart syndrome, is a disease characterized by transient ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Herein, we present a case in which a heart with mild takotsubo cardiomyopathy was utilized as the donor organ for an orthotopic heart transplant. PMID:26722178

  1. [Painless anterior acute myocardial infarction in a transplanted heart].

    PubMed

    Poyet, R; Capilla, E; Tortat, A V; Brocq, F X; Pons, F; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Cellarier, G R

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the major determinant of long-term survival in patients after heart transplantation. Clinical presentations are congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare presentation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy due to myocardial denervation. We present the case of a 31-year-old patient, who had undergone heart transplantation 6 months earlier and who developed a painless anterior myocardial infarction revealed by syncope. He was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stent implantation. PMID:26472502

  2. Mood and health-related quality of life among pediatric patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Menteer, JonDavid; Beas, Virginia N; Chang, Jennifer C; Reed, Karen; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2013-02-01

    Adult patients with heart failure (HF) commonly experience depression, with morbid and mortal consequences. However, mood disorders in pediatric patients with HF are poorly understood. This study examined mood and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with HF and compared them cross-sectionally with those of healthy control subjects and heart transplant (Htx) recipients with good heart function. The 62 participants in this study were divided into three groups: HF subjects (n = 15), Htx subjects (n = 23), and healthy control subjects (n = 24). The HF subjects all had chronic HF with a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 35 %. All the participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Childhood Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Pediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory Cardiac Module (PedsQL CM). Overall, the MMSE scores and CDI subscale scores were similar for all the groups. The HF and Htx participants scored similarly on the PedsQL CM subscales for HRQOL, treatment anxiety, perceived physical appearance, cognitive function, and communication. However, the HF group had a significantly lower HRQOL related to heart problems and treatment than the Htx group. The prevalence of depression among children with HF is not as high as reported in the adult HF literature. However, certain aspects of HRQOL experienced by pediatric HF patients still suffer, especially those related to heart problems and treatment. Health-related QOL tended to be better for the Htx participants than for the HF participants. Exploring developmental and psychosocial outcomes is critical for patients with HF, especially because it has an impact on vital developmental, academic, and social outcomes.

  3. Generation of Antigen Microarrays to Screen for Autoantibodies in Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chruscinski, Andrzej; Huang, Flora Y. Y.; Nguyen, Albert; Lioe, Jocelyn; Tumiati, Laura C.; Kozuszko, Stella; Tinckam, Kathryn J.; Rao, Vivek; Dunn, Shannon E.; Persinger, Michael A.; Levy, Gary A.; Ross, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against endogenous proteins including contractile proteins and endothelial antigens are frequently detected in patients with heart failure and after heart transplantation. There is evidence that these autoantibodies contribute to cardiac dysfunction and correlate with clinical outcomes. Currently, autoantibodies are detected in patient sera using individual ELISA assays (one for each antigen). Thus, screening for many individual autoantibodies is laborious and consumes a large amount of patient sample. To better capture the broad-scale antibody reactivities that occur in heart failure and post-transplant, we developed a custom antigen microarray technique that can simultaneously measure IgM and IgG reactivities against 64 unique antigens using just five microliters of patient serum. We first demonstrated that our antigen microarray technique displayed enhanced sensitivity to detect autoantibodies compared to the traditional ELISA method. We then piloted this technique using two sets of samples that were obtained at our institution. In the first retrospective study, we profiled pre-transplant sera from 24 heart failure patients who subsequently received heart transplants. We identified 8 antibody reactivities that were higher in patients who developed cellular rejection (2 or more episodes of grade 2R rejection in first year after transplant as defined by revised criteria from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) compared with those who did have not have rejection episodes. In a second retrospective study with 31 patients, we identified 7 IgM reactivities that were higher in heart transplant recipients who developed antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) compared with control recipients, and in time course studies, these reactivities appeared prior to overt graft dysfunction. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the autoantibody microarray technique outperforms traditional ELISAs as it uses less patient sample, has

  4. Hypertension and Obesity after Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Management Based on Pathophysiology: A Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    John, Eunice G.; Domingo, Liezl T.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity. PMID:24791188

  5. Heart transplantation as salvage treatment of intractable infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Aymami, Marie; Revest, Matthieu; Piau, Caroline; Chabanne, Céline; Le Gall, François; Lelong, Bernard; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Flécher, Erwan

    2015-04-01

    This study reports six consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation as salvage treatment for endocarditis (Duke criteria) with extensive perivalvular lesions and end-stage heart failure. The median age was 45 years (range, 24 to 64), and the aortic valve was affected in all patients. Pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 1), or not documented (n = 1). All patients survived, with no relapse, after a median follow-up of 24.5 months. The 10 patients with heart transplantation for endocarditis previously reported also survived (median follow-up, 27.5 months). Heart transplantation may be considered as salvage treatment in selected patients with intractable infective endocarditis.

  6. Addition of long-distance heart procurement promotes changes in heart transplant waiting list status

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Fernando Antibas; Couto, Carolina Fatima; Tirado, Freddy Ponce; Moraes, Camila Scatolin; Chaves, Renato Bueno; Vieira, Nubia W.; Reis, João Gabbardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the addition of long-distance heart procurement on a heart transplant program and the status of heart transplant recipients waiting list. Methods Between September 2006 and October 2012, 72 patients were listed as heart transplant recipients. Heart transplant was performed in 41 (57%), death on the waiting list occurred in 26 (36%) and heart recovery occurred in 5 (7%). Initially, all transplants were performed with local donors. Long-distance, interstate heart procurement initiated in February 2011. Thirty (73%) transplants were performed with local donors and 11 (27%) with long-distance donors (mean distance=792 km±397). Results Patients submitted to interstate heart procurement had greater ischemic times (212 min ± 32 versus 90 min±18; P<0.0001). Primary graft dysfunction (distance 9.1% versus local 26.7%; P=0.23) and 1 month and 12 months actuarial survival (distance 90.1% and 90.1% versus local 90% and 86.2%; P=0.65 log rank) were similar among groups. There were marked incremental transplant center volume (64.4% versus 40.7%, P=0.05) with a tendency on less waiting list times (median 1.5 month versus 2.4 months, P=0.18). There was a tendency on reduced waiting list mortality (28.9% versus 48.2%, P=0.09). Conclusion Incorporation of long-distance heart procurement, despite being associated with longer ischemic times, does not increase morbidity and mortality rates after heart transplant. It enhances viable donor pool, and it may reduce waiting list recipient mortality as well as waiting time. PMID:25372907

  7. Health-related quality of life in pediatric intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Andres, A M; Alameda, A; Mayoral, O; Hernandez, F; Dominguez, E; Martinez Ojinaga, E; Ramos, E; Prieto, G; Lopez Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2014-11-01

    To determine HRQOL after pediatric intestinal transplantation. Thirty-four IT survivors from 1999 to 2012 were asked to complete age-specific HRQOL non-disease-specific questionnaires: TAPQOL (0-4 yr), KINDL-R (5-7 yr; 8-12 yr; 13-17 yr), and SF-36v2 (>18 yr), all validated with Spanish population. Primary caregiver completed a SF-36 questionnaire and CBI. Thirty-one participants were included. Median age was 10.2 yr (1-29) and time after transplant 4.4 yr (0-13). Overall patient scores were 78.2 ± 10.6 (n = 8), 83.3 ± 9.7 (n = 6), 72.2 ± 9.21 (n = 6), 80.5 ± 12.4 (n = 7), and 82.2 ± 12.4 (n = 4) for each age group. Highest scores were obtained for vitality (group I), self-esteem (group IV), and physical and social functioning and emotions (group V). Lowest scores were obtained in appetite and behavior (I), family and school (III), and chronic disease perception (III, IV). No significant differences were found between caregivers and their children. CBI showed stress in 52%. SF-36 for caregivers was lower than general population. No significant differences were found depending on relevant clinical and sociodemographic data. HRQOL was acceptable and improved with age and time since transplantation. Parents had a slighter own QOL and worse perception of health than their children. When successful, intestinal transplantation allows a normal life in most patients and can be offered as an attractive option. PMID:25180826

  8. Health-related quality of life in pediatric intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Andres, A M; Alameda, A; Mayoral, O; Hernandez, F; Dominguez, E; Martinez Ojinaga, E; Ramos, E; Prieto, G; Lopez Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2014-11-01

    To determine HRQOL after pediatric intestinal transplantation. Thirty-four IT survivors from 1999 to 2012 were asked to complete age-specific HRQOL non-disease-specific questionnaires: TAPQOL (0-4 yr), KINDL-R (5-7 yr; 8-12 yr; 13-17 yr), and SF-36v2 (>18 yr), all validated with Spanish population. Primary caregiver completed a SF-36 questionnaire and CBI. Thirty-one participants were included. Median age was 10.2 yr (1-29) and time after transplant 4.4 yr (0-13). Overall patient scores were 78.2 ± 10.6 (n = 8), 83.3 ± 9.7 (n = 6), 72.2 ± 9.21 (n = 6), 80.5 ± 12.4 (n = 7), and 82.2 ± 12.4 (n = 4) for each age group. Highest scores were obtained for vitality (group I), self-esteem (group IV), and physical and social functioning and emotions (group V). Lowest scores were obtained in appetite and behavior (I), family and school (III), and chronic disease perception (III, IV). No significant differences were found between caregivers and their children. CBI showed stress in 52%. SF-36 for caregivers was lower than general population. No significant differences were found depending on relevant clinical and sociodemographic data. HRQOL was acceptable and improved with age and time since transplantation. Parents had a slighter own QOL and worse perception of health than their children. When successful, intestinal transplantation allows a normal life in most patients and can be offered as an attractive option.

  9. Cardiac Size and Sex Matching in Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Netzer, Giora; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Rajagopal, Keshava; Scharf, Steven; Eberlein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated whether worsened outcomes in sex mismatch are related to mismatch of organ size in heart transplantation. Background Sizing for organ allocation in heart transplantation currently incorporates only body weight differences between the donor and recipient. Weight correlates poorly to cardiac size, and donor–recipient weight differences are not associated with differential survival. Heart size correlates with sex, and donor–recipient sex mismatch conveys worse-than-expected outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 31,634 donor–recipient adult heart transplant pairings from the United Network for Organ Sharing transplantation registry. We used predictive models to calculate the predicted total heart mass (pHM) for recipient and donor pairs. We assessed organ size mismatch by calculating the percent difference between the donor and recipient pHM as [(pHMrecipient − pHMdonor)/(pHMrecipient)]*100. Results The most-undersized pHM septile demonstrated higher mortality during the first year post-transplantation (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.27; p < 0.001), which remained robust in adjusted models (HR: 1.25; p = 0.03). Survival did not vary across septiles of weight differences. On univariate analysis, sex mismatch was associated with higher mortality in male patients, but not in female patients. Controlling for differences in pHM reversed these associations. Adjusted models demonstrated worse survival associated with sex mismatch in female patients (1-year HR: 1.28; p = 0.02) but no difference in male patients (1-year HR, 1.00; p = 1.0). Conclusions Differences in donor–recipient pHM modulated the survival associated with donor–recipient sex mismatch and identified donor heart undersizing as an otherwise occult and potentially preventable cause of mortality following orthotopic heart transplantation. PMID:24611131

  10. Telemedicine consultation and monitoring for pediatric liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Fiadjoe, John; Gurnaney, Harshad; Muralidhar, Kanchi; Mohanty, Surya; Kumar, John; Viswanath, Raja; Sonar, Srinivas; Dunn, Stephen; Rehman, Mohamed

    2009-04-01

    Telemedicine provides the opportunity to bring medical expertise to the bedside, even if the medical expert is not physically near the patient. Internet technology has facilitated telemedicine allowing for voice, video and other data to be exchanged between remote locations. To date, applications of telemedicine to anesthesia (Teleanesthesia) have been limited. Previous work by Cone et al., (Anesth Analg 2006;1463-7) demonstrated the ability to direct an anesthetic in a remote location using satellite communication. In this report, we describe the use of telemedicine to support two cases of elective living related pediatric liver transplants performed at the Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangalore, India with preoperative and intraoperative consultation provided by physicians at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

  11. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... an electrocardiogram (also known as an ECG or EKG), a test that records the electrical activity of ... Word! Anesthesia The Heart Heart Disease Getting an EKG (Video) What Happens in the Operating Room? Your ...

  12. High Risk Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: To Transplant or Not to Transplant?

    PubMed Central

    Pulsipher, Michael A.; Peters, Christina; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2010-01-01

    Because survival with both chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) approaches to high risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) generally improves through the years, regular comparisons of outcomes with either approach for a given indication are needed to decide when HSCT is indicated. Improvements in risk classification are allowing clinicians to identify patients at high risk for relapse early in their course of therapy. Whether patients defined as high risk by new methods will benefit from HSCT requires careful testing. Standardization and improvement of transplant approaches has led to equivalent survival outcomes with matched sibling and well-matched unrelated donors, however, survival using mismatched and haploidentical donors is generally worse. Trials comparing chemotherapy and HSCT must obtain sufficient data about therapy and stratify the analysis to assess the outcomes of best-chemotherapy with best-HSCT approaches. PMID:21195303

  13. Aspergillus Mediastinitis after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Almanfi, Abdelkader; Aftab, Muhammad; Singh, Steve K; Mallidi, Hari R; Frazier, O H

    2015-10-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted for orthotopic heart transplantation. Her medical history was notable for multiple cardiovascular problems, including ischemic cardiomyopathy that necessitated circulatory support with a left ventricular assist device. Five weeks after undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation, she developed Aspergillus calidoustus mediastinitis, for which she underwent a prolonged course of antifungal treatment that comprised (in sequence) posaconazole for 11 days, voriconazole for 10 days, and amphotericin B for 42 days. During this period, she also underwent repeated mediastinal drainage and sternal débridement, followed by sternal wiring and coverage with bilateral pectoralis advancement flaps. Four months postoperatively, she was discharged from the hospital with a successfully controlled infection and a healed sternum. To our knowledge, only 3 previous cases of Aspergillus mediastinitis after orthotopic heart transplantation have been reported in the literature, none of which was Aspergillus calidoustus.

  14. Advances in the understanding and management of heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dhssraj

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation represents one of the great triumphs in modern medicine and remains the cornerstone in the treatment of advanced heart failure. In this review, we contextualize pivotal developments in our understanding and management of cardiac transplant immunology, histopathology, rejection surveillance, drug development and surgery. We also discuss current limitations in their application and the impact of the left ventricular assist devices in bridging this gap. PMID:26097725

  15. Kidney transplantation in previous heart or lung recipients.

    PubMed

    Lonze, B E; Warren, D S; Stewart, Z A; Dagher, N N; Singer, A L; Shah, A S; Montgomery, R A; Segev, D L

    2009-03-01

    Outcomes after heart and lung transplants have improved, and many recipients survive long enough to develop secondary renal failure, yet remain healthy enough to undergo kidney transplantation. We used national data reported to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to evaluate outcomes of 568 kidney after heart (KAH) and 210 kidney after lung (KAL) transplants performed between 1995 and 2008. Median time to kidney transplant was 100.3 months after heart, and 90.2 months after lung transplant. Renal failure was attributed to calcineurin inhibitor toxicity in most patients. Outcomes were compared with primary kidney recipients using matched controls (MC) to account for donor, recipient and graft characteristics. Although 5-year renal graft survival was lower than primary kidney recipients (61% KAH vs. 73.8% MC, p < 0.001; 62.6% KAL vs. 82.9% MC, p < 0.001), death-censored graft survival was comparable (84.9% KAH vs. 88.2% MC, p = 0.1; 87.6% KAL vs. 91.8% MC, p = 0.6). Furthermore, renal transplantation reduced the risk of death compared with dialysis by 43% for KAH and 54% for KAL recipients. Our findings that renal grafts function well and provide survival benefit in KAH and KAL recipients, but are limited in longevity by the general life expectancy of these recipients, might help inform clinical decision-making and allocation in this population.

  16. Acute Kidney Disease After Liver and Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ana P; Vella, John P

    2016-03-01

    After transplantation of nonrenal solid organs, an acute decline in kidney function develops in the majority of patients. In addition, a significant number of nonrenal solid organ transplant recipients develop chronic kidney disease, and some develop end-stage renal disease, requiring renal replacement therapy. The incidence varies depending on the transplanted organ. Acute kidney injury after nonrenal solid organ transplantation is associated with prolonged length of stay, cost, increased risk of death, de novo chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. This overview focuses on the risk factors for posttransplant acute kidney injury after liver and heart transplantation, integrating discussion of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease with emphasis on pathogenesis, histopathology, and management including the use of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition and costimulatory blockade.

  17. [BK virus infection in a pediatric renal transplant recipient].

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, R; Vázquez, A; Exeni, A; Rivero, K; Freire, M C

    2005-01-01

    BK Human Polyomavirus causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, then establishing latency mainly in the urinary tratt. Viral reactivation can lead to renal pathology in individuals with impaired cellular immune response. This is particularly important in pediatric transplant recipients, who can suffer a primary infection when immunosupressed. We followed up the case of a 5 years old patient who received a renal transplant in October 2003, and presented damaged graft 45 days after the intervention. The patient suffered 3 episodes of renal function failure between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood, urine, renal biopsy and lymphocele liquid samples were analyzed. A differential diagnosis between acute rejection and infectious causes was established by testing for BK, CMV and ADV viruses, and the cytological study of renal tissue. Laboratory findings together with clinical signs suggest the patient was infected by BK virus. As a final consideration, the great importance of differentiating between acute rejection and BK infection is emphasized, since immunosuppressant management is opposite in each case.

  18. Pediatric Inpatient Hospital Resource Use for Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, Regina M.; Oster, Matthew E.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Armour, Brian S.; Gray, Darryl T.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in approximately 8 per 1000 live births. Improvements in detection and treatment have increased survival. Few national estimates of the healthcare costs for infants, children and adolescents with CHDs are available. Methods We estimated hospital costs for hospitalizations using pediatric (0–20 years) hospital discharge data from the 2009 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) for hospitalizations with CHD diagnoses. Estimates were up-weighted to be nationally representative. Mean costs were compared by demographic factors and presence of critical CHDs (CCHDs). Results Up-weighting of the KID generated an estimated 4,461,615 pediatric hospitalizations nationwide, excluding normal newborn births. The 163,980 (3.7%) pediatric hospitalizations with CHDs accounted for approximately $5.6 billion in hospital costs, representing 15.1% of costs for all pediatric hospitalizations in 2009. Approximately 17% of CHD hospitalizations had a CCHD, but it varied by age: approximately 14% of hospitalizations of infants, 30% of hospitalizations of patients aged 1 to 10 years, and 25% of hospitalizations of patients aged 11 to 20 years. Mean costs of CHD hospitalizations were higher in infancy ($36,601) than at older ages and were higher for hospitalizations with a CCHD diagnosis ($52,899). Hospitalizations with CCHDs accounted for 26.7% of all costs for CHD hospitalizations, with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot having the highest total costs. Conclusion Hospitalizations for children with CHDs have disproportionately high hospital costs compared with other pediatric hospitalizations, and the 17% of hospitalizations with CCHD diagnoses accounted for 27% of CHD hospital costs. PMID:24975483

  19. Triple bridge to simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Singh, Steve K; Mallidi, Hari R; Frazier, Oscar H

    2014-08-01

    We report a 40-year-old man who presented with irreversible cardiogenic shock. The patient was treated with three consecutive stages of mechanical circulatory support as a triple bridge to cardiac transplantation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was used for 5 days, followed by Levitronix CentriMag biventricular assist devices for 39 days. This was escalated to implantation of the CardioWest temporary total artificial heart for 107 days. The patient experienced concurrent end-stage renal disease and subsequently underwent both heart and kidney transplantation. On postoperative day 18 the patient was discharged with good cardiac and renal function.

  20. Heart Transplantation in a Patient with Left Isomerism

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Ji Hyun; Oh, You Na; Yoo, Jae Suk; Kim, Jae-Joong; Park, Chun Soo; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old man who suffered from biventricular failure due to left isomerism, inferior vena cava interruption with azygos vein continuation, bilateral superior vena cava, double outlet of right ventricle, complete atrioventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, and isolated dextrocardia. Heart transplantation in patients with systemic venous anomalies often requires the correction and reconstruction of the upper & lower venous drainage. We present a case of heart transplantation in a patient with left isomerism, highlighting technical modifications to the procedure, including the unifocalization of the caval veins and reconstruction with patch augmentation. PMID:26290840

  1. [Heart and combined heart-lung transplantation. Indications, chances and risks].

    PubMed

    Puehler, T; Ensminger, S; Schulz, U; Fuchs, U; Tigges-Limmer, K; Börgermann, J; Morshuis, M; Hakim, K; Oldenburg, O; Niedermeyer, J; Renner, A; Gummert, J

    2014-02-01

    Orthotopic heart transplantation (HTX) is nowadays the worldwide accepted gold standard for the treatment of terminal heart failure. The main indications for HTX are non-ischemic dilatative (54%) and ischemic (37%) heart failure. In the acute phase after HTX the survival rate is approximately 90%. Good short and long-term results with survival rates ranging from 81% after 1 year to more than 50% after 11 years demonstrate that there is currently no real treatment alternative to HTX for treatment of end-stage heart failure. In the case of irreversible pulmonary hypertension in combination with end-stage heart failure or complex congenital heart syndromes, a combined heart and lung transplantation (HLTX) is necessary. Compared with HTX the short-term survival of HLTX is reduced, mostly for technical reasons. Improved long-term results after HTX and HLTX are a result of highly specialized transplantation units and effective immunosuppression. However, a major problem is the shortage of organ donors in Germany and the resulting long waiting times for patients with frequently occurring blood groups of up to 10 months for transplantation. The consequence of the latter is the ever increasing number of implanted cardiac assist devices in patients not only as a bridge to transplant but also as destination therapy. PMID:24452762

  2. Adenovirus disease in six small bowel, kidney and heart transplant recipients; pathology and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vikas; Chou, Pauline C; Picken, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are emerging as important viral pathogens in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, impacting morbidity, graft survival, and even mortality. The risk seems to be highest in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as well as heart, lung, and small bowel transplant recipients. Most of the adenovirus diseases develop in the first 6 months after transplantation, particularly in pediatric patients. Among abdominal organ recipients, small bowel grafts are most frequently affected, presumably due to the presence of a virus reservoir in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Management of these infections may be difficult and includes the reduction of immunosuppression, whenever possible, combined with antiviral therapy, if necessary. Therefore, an awareness of the pathology associated with such infections is important in order to allow early detection and specific treatment. We reviewed six transplant recipients (small bowel, kidney, and heart) with adenovirus graft involvement from two institutions. We sought to compare the diagnostic morphology and the clinical and laboratory findings. The histopathologic features of an adenovirus infection of the renal graft and one native kidney in a heart transplant recipient included a vaguely granulomatous mixed inflammatory infiltrate associated with rare cells showing a cytopathic effect (smudgy nuclei). A lymphocytic infiltrate, simulating T cell rejection, with admixture of eosinophils was also seen. In the small bowel grafts, there was a focal mixed inflammatory infiltrate with associated necrosis in addition to cytopathic effects. In the heart, allograft adenovirus infection was silent with no evidence of inflammatory changes. Immunohistochemical stain for adenovirus was positive in all grafts and in one native kidney. All patients were subsequently cleared of adenovirus infection, as evidenced by follow-up biopsies, with no loss of the grafts. Adenovirus infection can

  3. Computational modeling and engineering in pediatric and congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Alison L.; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent methodological advances in computational simulations are enabling increasingly realistic simulations of hemodynamics and physiology, driving increased clinical utility. We review recent developments in the use of computational simulations in pediatric and congenital heart disease, describe the clinical impact in modeling in single ventricle patients, and provide an overview of emerging areas. Recent Findings Multiscale modeling combining patient specific hemodynamics with reduced order (i.e. mathematically and computationally simplified) circulatory models has become the defacto standard for modeling local hemodynamics and “global” circulatory physiology. We review recent advances that have enabled faster solutions, discuss new methods, (e.g. fluid structure interaction and uncertainty quantification), which lend realism both computationally and clinically to results, highlight novel computationally-derived surgical methods for single ventricle patients, and discuss areas in which modeling has begun to exert its influence including Kawasaki disease, fetal circulation, tetralogy of Fallot, (and pulmonary tree), and circulatory support. Summary Computational modeling is emerging as a crucial tool for clinical decision-making and evaluation of novel surgical methods and interventions in pediatric cardiology and beyond. Continued development of modeling methods, with an eye towards clinical needs, will enable clinical adoption in a wide range of pediatric and congenital heart diseases. PMID:26262579

  4. Pediatric split liver transplantation after Fontan procedure in left isomerism combined with biliary atresia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Youn, Joong Kee; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Choi, Young Rok; Suh, Suk-Won; You, Tae; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Jung, Chul-Woo; Lee, Ji-Won; Bae, Eun-Jung; Ko, Jae Sung; Kim, Woong-Han; Park, Kwi-Won; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-12-01

    LI is a subset of the heterotaxy syndrome and a rare birth defect that involves the heart and other organs. It can be combined with extracardiac abnormalities, especially BA. CHD can be associated with LI in up to 15% of cases, although it is rare in BA. Pediatric LT for a child with ESLD due to BA combined with LI and CHD is a challenging issue for a transplant surgeon. Herein, we report a successful split LT on a three-yr-old boy with LI who survived after a Fontan procedure due to single ventricle, but who suffered from HPS associated with BA. PMID:25263970

  5. Prevalence and subtypes of BK virus in pediatric renal transplant recipients in Russia.

    PubMed

    Momynaliev, K T; Gorbatenko, E V; Shevtsov, A B; Gribanov, O G; Babenko, N N; Kaabak, M M

    2012-03-01

    BKV reactivation is associated with impaired graft function in kidney transplant patients. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of BKV infection in consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients at our center. Fifty-eight pediatric kidney transplant recipients were studied. The mean age at screening was 9.4 ± 2.8 yr, and samples were obtained at a median of 2.4 ± 1.4 yr after transplantation. BKV-DNA was analyzed in urine and plasma by quantitative PCR. Occurrences of BK-DNAuria and BK-DNAemia did not change in the first two yr after transplantation in children and amounted to 21-23% and 7-8%, respectively (p > 0.05). In the third year, the occurrences of BK-DNAuria and BK-DNAemia increased insignificantly to 27% and 9% in the pediatric patients. We also determined the subtypes and subgroups of BK virus isolated from Russian renal transplant recipients and found that BKV isolates were composed of subtypes Ib-2 and IV/c2. The data we obtained indicate that although only 5% of BKVAN cases occurred between years two and five post-transplantation, it seems necessary to regularly monitor pediatric patients for BKV infection through the third year after transplantation.

  6. Fatal Disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata Acanthamebiasis in a Heart Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Alain; de Jonckheere, Johan F.; Datry, Annick; Varnous, Shaïda; Martinez, Valérie; Ptacek, Sara García; Caumes, Eric; Capron, Frédérique; Francès, Camille; Gibert, Claude; Chosidow, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We report a fatal case of disseminated acanthamebiasis caused by Acanthamoeba lenticulata (genotype T5) in a 39-year-old heart transplant recipient. The diagnosis was based on skin histopathologic results and confirmed by isolation of the ameba from involved skin and molecular analysis of a partial 18S rRNA gene sequence (DF3). PMID:17553253

  7. Considering death: the third British heart transplant, 1969.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen

    2014-01-01

    On May 29, 1969, London’s newspapers carried dramatic headlines:“Donor’s Heart ‘Switched Off’ by Doctors.” Margaret Sinsbury had died in Guy’s Hospital, after which her heart was removed and transplanted. This, the third British heart transplant, crystallized the deep concerns that were by then swirling around the wider transplant enterprise, notably whether the people from whom organs were being taken were dead or had been made so. Yet a year earlier, to reassure the public in this regard, a formula had been devised at the U.K. Health Ministries’ MacLennan Conference to enable death to be certified based on cerebral rather than cardiac indicators. This was the first such formula in the English-speaking world, and it included safeguards to protect the interests of dying patients who were considered to be potential organ donors. However, the third British heart transplant revealed these protections to be a chimera, and brought such operations there to a halt for a decade.

  8. Quality of life and coping in patients awaiting heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, J; Meyerowitz, B E; Leedham, B; Eastburn, T E; Merrill, W H; Frist, W H

    1992-01-01

    The psychosocial adaptation of patients awaiting heart transplantation has not been defined. Forty-one patients (36 men, 5 women; mean age, 48 years) completed standardized questionnaires before transplantation to assess quality of life, physical symptoms, marital/social adjustment, psychiatric morbidity, coping, and compliance to medical regimens. Also, data were obtained from spouses/partners and the transplantation nurse coordinator. Unlike previously reported findings with patients after transplantation, those awaiting transplantation report moderate dissatisfaction with quality of life. Patients report physical symptoms, functional disabilities, sexual dysfunction, and psychological distress. Nonetheless, reported levels of compliance with the medical regimens and of social support were high, and both patients and spouses/partners provided marital adjustment ratings on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale that were comparable to those of well-adjusted, happily married couples. High levels of coping also were recorded. Having a positive attitude and seeking social support were the most common coping strategies, whereas confrontation, acceptance, and escapism were relatively uncommon. In conclusion, patients awaiting heart transplantation, although dissatisfied with quality of life, maintain positive psychological and social adjustment.

  9. Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients: transition to home and chronic illness care.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Stacee M; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail L; Chapman, Shelley; Menendez, Jerome; Williams, Laurel; Nadler, Michelle L; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Cao, Yumei; Nugent, Melodee; Alonso, Estella M; Simpson, Pippa

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric SOT recipients are medically fragile and present with complex care issues requiring high-level management at home. Parents of hospitalized children have reported inadequate preparation for discharge, resulting in problems transitioning from hospital to home and independently self-managing their child's complex care needs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the transition from hospital to home and chronic illness care for parents of heart, kidney, liver, lung, or multivisceral recipients. Fifty-one parents from five pediatric transplant centers completed questionnaires on the day of hospital discharge and telephone interviews at three wk, three months, and six months following discharge from the hospital. Care coordination (p = 0.02) and quality of discharge teaching (p < 0.01) was significantly associated with parent readiness for discharge. Readiness for hospital discharge was subsequently significantly associated with post-discharge coping difficulty (p = 0.02) at three wk, adherence with medication administration (p = 0.03) at three months, and post-discharge coping difficulty (p = 0.04) and family management (p = 0.02) at six months post-discharge. The results underscore the important aspect of education and care coordination in preparing patients and families to successfully self-manage after hospital discharge. Assessing parental readiness for hospital discharge is another critical component for identifying risk of difficulties in managing post-discharge care. PMID:25425201

  10. Valganciclovir dosing according to body surface area and renal function in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vaudry, W; Ettenger, R; Jara, P; Varela-Fascinetto, G; Bouw, M R; Ives, J; Walker, R

    2009-03-01

    Oral valganciclovir is effective prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in adults receiving solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, data in pediatrics are limited. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of valganciclovir oral solution or tablets in 63 pediatric SOT recipients at risk of CMV disease, including 17 recipients < or =2 years old. Patients received up to 100 days' valganciclovir prophylaxis; dosage was calculated using the algorithm: dose (mg) = 7 x body surface area x creatinine clearance (Schwartz method; CrCLS). Ganciclovir pharmacokinetics were described using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Safety endpoints were measured up to week 26. Mean estimated ganciclovir exposures showed no clear relationship to either body size or renal function, indicating that the dosing algorithm adequately accounted for both these variables. Mean ganciclovir exposures, across age groups and organ recipient groups were: kidney 51.8 +/- 11.9 microg * h/mL; liver 61.7 +/- 29.5 microg * h/mL; heart 58.0 +/- 21.8 microg * h/mL. Treatment was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to that in adults. Seven serious treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in five patients. Two patients had CMV viremia during treatment but none experienced CMV disease. In conclusion, a valganciclovir-dosing algorithm that adjusted for body surface area and renal function provides ganciclovir exposures similar to those established as safe and effective in adults. PMID:19260840

  11. Hypertension and arterial stiffness in heart transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Neto, João David; de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Lima-Rocha, Hermano Alexandre; Oliveira-Lima, José Wellington; Bacal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-transplantation hypertension is prevalent and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and subsequent graft dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with arterial stiffness as measured by the ambulatory arterial stiffness index. METHODS: The current study used a prospective, observational, analytical design to evaluate a group of adult heart transplantation patients. Arterial stiffness was obtained by monitoring ambulatory blood pressure and using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index as the surrogate outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to control confounding. RESULTS: In a group of 85 adult heart transplantation patients, hypertension was independently associated with arterial stiffness (OR 4.98, CI 95% 1.06-23.4) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure averages and nighttime descent. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of ambulatory arterial stiffness index is a new, non-invasive method that is easy to perform, may contribute to better defining arterial stiffness prognosis and is associated with hypertension.

  12. Hypertension and arterial stiffness in heart transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Neto, João David; de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Lima-Rocha, Hermano Alexandre; Oliveira-Lima, José Wellington; Bacal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-transplantation hypertension is prevalent and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and subsequent graft dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with arterial stiffness as measured by the ambulatory arterial stiffness index. METHODS: The current study used a prospective, observational, analytical design to evaluate a group of adult heart transplantation patients. Arterial stiffness was obtained by monitoring ambulatory blood pressure and using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index as the surrogate outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to control confounding. RESULTS: In a group of 85 adult heart transplantation patients, hypertension was independently associated with arterial stiffness (OR 4.98, CI 95% 1.06-23.4) as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure averages and nighttime descent. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of ambulatory arterial stiffness index is a new, non-invasive method that is easy to perform, may contribute to better defining arterial stiffness prognosis and is associated with hypertension. PMID:27652829

  13. Changes in natural killer cell subsets in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pham, Betty; Piard-Ruster, Karine; Silva, Richard; Gallo, Amy; Esquivel, Carlos O; Martinez, Olivia M; Krams, Sheri M

    2012-03-01

    NK cells are important in the immune response against tumors and virally infected cells. A balance between inhibitory and activating receptors controls the effector functions of NK cells. We examined the fate of circulating NK cells and the expression of the NK cell-activating receptors in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Blood specimens were collected from 38 pediatric liver transplant recipients before transplant, and at one wk, one, three, six, and nine months, and one yr post-transplant. PBMCs were isolated and analyzed for the levels of NK cell activation receptors NKp30, NKp46, and NKG2D in the CD56(dim) CD16(+) and CD56(bright) CD16(+/-) subsets of NK cells. We demonstrated that there is a significant decrease in the percentage of circulating NK cells post-transplant (pretransplant 7.69 ± 1.54 vs. one wk post-transplant 1.73 ± 0.44) in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Interestingly, NKp30 expression is significantly increased, while NKp46 and NKG2D levels remain stable on the NK cells that persist at one wk post-transplant. These data indicate that the numbers and subsets of circulating NK cells are altered in children after liver transplantation.

  14. Predictors of prognosis in patients awaiting heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Campana, C; Gavazzi, A; Berzuini, C; Larizza, C; Marioni, R; D'Armini, A; Pederzolli, N; Martinelli, L; Viganò, M

    1993-01-01

    Patients enrolled in a clinical heart transplantation program were evaluated to identify the predictors of prognosis in patients with advanced heart disease and to optimize timing of heart transplantation. Three hundred eighty-eight subjects were consecutively evaluated from 1985 through 1989. One hundred eighty-four patients (47.5%) had dilated cardiomyopathy; 164 patients (42.2%) had ischemic heart disease; 34 patients (8.8%) had valvular heart disease, and six patients (1.5%) had miscellaneous disorders. In each patient, 45 different parameters were considered. During follow-up (mean, 8.4 months) 166 patients underwent heart transplantation; 99 patients died (heart failure, 66 patients; sudden death, 26 patients; thromboembolism, two patients; noncardiac causes, five patients). The actuarial survival was 83% at 3 months, 77% at 6 months, 73% at 9 months, 70% at 1 year, and 59% at 2 years. The median survival time was 28 months. Analysis by Cox proportional hazard regression model revealed seven independent and significant prognostic factors: etiology (p < 0.05), NYHA class (p < 0.05), third heart sound (p < 0.05), diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (p < 0.05), pulmonary wedge pressure (p < 0.01), mean systemic blood pressure (p < 0.05), and cardiac output (p < 0.05). Cox's analysis allows the computation of patient-specific curves for predictions of residual survival time at any moment during follow-up. Moreover it can be used to calculate a simple prognostic index, which enables stratification of the patient population into three risk classes: patients at high (n = 105), intermediate (n = 160) and low (n = 123) risk of early death. Pairwise comparisons of survival between the classes were significant at 1% level. PMID:8241212

  15. Adhesion: a confounding bias in murine cervical heterotopic heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Fang; Fu, Zhiren; Wang, Quanxing

    2015-01-01

    Tissue adhesion is a common postsurgical phenomenon among the human population. This complication also occurs in murine transplant models. In this study, we investigated the impact of adhesion on murine cervical heterotopic heart transplantation by using sodium hyaluronate (SH) as an anti-adhesive agent. Our study revealed that SH administration produced no significant effect on histological change, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 expression, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, or neutrophil and macrophage counts. Our findings suggest that SH was biocompatible and non-immunogenic. Later, we observed that adhesion not only affected the survival of the graft without mediating rejection, but was closely related to the severity of rejection as manifested by larger and more severe adhesion formation in total-allomismatched and MHC class II-allomismatched murine cardiac allografts. Therefore, we inferred that using the murine cervical heterotopic heart transplant model may lead to an exaggerated p-value in statistical significance testing which could mislead experimenters in considering that the results are more significant than the fact. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that proves that adhesion was a confounding bias in the murine cervical heterotopic heart transplant model and highlights the possibilities for improvement in future use. PMID:26550450

  16. Heart transplant coronary artery disease: Multimodality approach in percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luís; Matos, Vítor; Gonçalves, Lino; Silva Marques, João; Jorge, Elisabete; Calisto, João; Antunes, Manuel; Pego, Mariano

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most important cause of late morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation. It is usually an immunologic phenomenon termed cardiac allograft vasculopathy, but can also be the result of donor-transmitted atherosclerosis. Routine surveillance by coronary angiography should be complemented by intracoronary imaging, in order to determine the nature of the coronary lesions, and also by assessment of their functional significance to guide the decision whether to perform percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a case of coronary angiography at five-year follow-up after transplantation, using optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve to assess and optimize treatment of coronary disease in this challenging population.

  17. Pediatric Tubular Pulmonary Heart Valve from Decellularized Engineered Tissue Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Jay M.; Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Haynie, Bee H.T.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric patients account for a small portion of the heart valve replacements performed, but a pediatric pulmonary valve replacement with growth potential remains an unmet clinical need. Herein we report the first tubular heart valve made from two decellularized, engineered tissue tubes attached with absorbable sutures, which can meet this need, in principle. Engineered tissue tubes were fabricated by allowing ovine dermal fibroblasts to replace a sacrificial fibrin gel with an aligned, cell-produced collagenous matrix, which was subsequently decellularized. Previously, these engineered tubes became extensively recellularized following implantation into the sheep femoral artery. Thus, a tubular valve made from these tubes may be amenable to recellularization and, ideally, somatic growth. The suture line pattern generated three equi-spaced “leaflets” in the inner tube, which collapsed inward when exposed to back pressure, per tubular valve design. Valve testing was performed in a pulse duplicator system equipped with a secondary flow loop to allow for root distention. All tissue-engineered valves exhibited full leaflet opening and closing, minimal regurgitation (< 5%), and low systolic pressure gradients (< 2.5 mmHg) under pulmonary conditions. Valve performance was maintained under various trans-root pressure gradients and no tissue damage was evident after 2 million cycles of fatigue testing. PMID:26036175

  18. Clinical classification in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Willemijn M H; Douwes, Johannes M; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Krishnan, Usha; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Hillege, Hans L; Ivy, D Dunbar; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Berger, Rolf M F

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a frequent cause of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with diverse etiology and outcome. We aimed to describe phenotypic heterogeneity in pediatric PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD), assess the applicability of the Nice CHD classification, and explore whether this classification accurately reflects patient/disease characteristics and survival. All children with CHD from a contemporary cohort of consecutive pediatric PAH patients followed in three major referral centers (Denver, New York, the Netherlands) were characterized and classified on the basis of the latest proposed clinical classification for PAH-CHD (World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension, Nice, 2013). According to this classification, 24% of 134 children were classified into group 1, 14% into group 2, 19% into group 3, and 30% into group 4; 11% could not be classified. Types of CHD and hemodynamic profile differed between groups, with the highest right atrial pressure in group 4 (P < 0.040). Group 3 children had Down syndrome less frequently (P = 0.011) but other (un)defined syndromes most frequently (P = 0.063) and received most intense PAH-targeted therapy (P = 0.003). With 15 deaths and one lung transplant (12%; median follow-up: 4.3 years), survival differences could not be demonstrated between the groups in the Nice CHD classification. Pediatric PAH-CHD is a heterogeneous condition frequently associated with extracardiac, developmental factors that are believed to affect disease development. The Nice CHD classification identifies groups with specific patient/disease characteristics. However, a substantial proportion of children could not be classified. Group 3 forms a distinct disease entity. Its prognostic value could not be determined because of the low number of events. The Nice CHD classification supports clinical characterization of PAH-CHD; however, further refinement is needed to classify all children with PAH-CHD. PMID:27683607

  19. Clinical classification in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Krishnan, Usha; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Hillege, Hans L.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a frequent cause of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with diverse etiology and outcome. We aimed to describe phenotypic heterogeneity in pediatric PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD), assess the applicability of the Nice CHD classification, and explore whether this classification accurately reflects patient/disease characteristics and survival. All children with CHD from a contemporary cohort of consecutive pediatric PAH patients followed in three major referral centers (Denver, New York, the Netherlands) were characterized and classified on the basis of the latest proposed clinical classification for PAH-CHD (World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension, Nice, 2013). According to this classification, 24% of 134 children were classified into group 1, 14% into group 2, 19% into group 3, and 30% into group 4; 11% could not be classified. Types of CHD and hemodynamic profile differed between groups, with the highest right atrial pressure in group 4 (P < 0.040). Group 3 children had Down syndrome less frequently (P = 0.011) but other (un)defined syndromes most frequently (P = 0.063) and received most intense PAH-targeted therapy (P = 0.003). With 15 deaths and one lung transplant (12%; median follow-up: 4.3 years), survival differences could not be demonstrated between the groups in the Nice CHD classification. Pediatric PAH-CHD is a heterogeneous condition frequently associated with extracardiac, developmental factors that are believed to affect disease development. The Nice CHD classification identifies groups with specific patient/disease characteristics. However, a substantial proportion of children could not be classified. Group 3 forms a distinct disease entity. Its prognostic value could not be determined because of the low number of events. The Nice CHD classification supports clinical characterization of PAH-CHD; however, further refinement is needed to classify all children with PAH-CHD. PMID:27683607

  20. Clinical classification in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Krishnan, Usha; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Hillege, Hans L.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a frequent cause of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), with diverse etiology and outcome. We aimed to describe phenotypic heterogeneity in pediatric PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD), assess the applicability of the Nice CHD classification, and explore whether this classification accurately reflects patient/disease characteristics and survival. All children with CHD from a contemporary cohort of consecutive pediatric PAH patients followed in three major referral centers (Denver, New York, the Netherlands) were characterized and classified on the basis of the latest proposed clinical classification for PAH-CHD (World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension, Nice, 2013). According to this classification, 24% of 134 children were classified into group 1, 14% into group 2, 19% into group 3, and 30% into group 4; 11% could not be classified. Types of CHD and hemodynamic profile differed between groups, with the highest right atrial pressure in group 4 (P < 0.040). Group 3 children had Down syndrome less frequently (P = 0.011) but other (un)defined syndromes most frequently (P = 0.063) and received most intense PAH-targeted therapy (P = 0.003). With 15 deaths and one lung transplant (12%; median follow-up: 4.3 years), survival differences could not be demonstrated between the groups in the Nice CHD classification. Pediatric PAH-CHD is a heterogeneous condition frequently associated with extracardiac, developmental factors that are believed to affect disease development. The Nice CHD classification identifies groups with specific patient/disease characteristics. However, a substantial proportion of children could not be classified. Group 3 forms a distinct disease entity. Its prognostic value could not be determined because of the low number of events. The Nice CHD classification supports clinical characterization of PAH-CHD; however, further refinement is needed to classify all children with PAH-CHD.

  1. The challenge to detect heart transplant rejection and transplant vasculopathy non-invasively - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Engin; Burgstahler, Christof; Aebert, Hermann; Schroeder, Stephen; Helber, Uwe; Kopp, Andreas F; Ziemer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac allograft rejection and vasculopathy are the main factors limiting long-term survival after heart transplantation. In this pilot study we investigated whether non-invasive methods are beneficial to detect cardiac allograft rejection (Grade 0-3 R) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Thus we compared multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with invasive methods like coronary angiography and left endomyocardial biopsy. Methods 10 asymptomatic long-term survivors after heart transplantation (8 male, 2 female, mean age 52.1 ± 12 years, 73 ± 11 months after transplantation) were included. In a blinded fashion, coronary angiography and multi-slice computed tomography and ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging were compared against each other. Results Cardiac allograft vasculopathy and atherosclerosis were correctly detected by multi-slice computed tomography and coronary angiography with positive correlation (r = 1). Late contrast enchancement found by magnetic resonance imaging correlated positively (r = 0.92, r2 = 0.85, p < 0.05) with the histological diagnosis of transplant rejection revealed by myocardial biopsy. None of the examined endomyocardial specimen revealed cardiac allograft rejection greater than Grade 1 R. Conclusion A combined non-invasive approach using multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may help to assess cardiac allograft vasculopathy and cardiac allograft rejection after heart transplantation before applying more invasive methods. PMID:19682394

  2. The University of Ottawa Heart Institute Cardiac Transplant Program: the first 100 transplants. A pathologic study of the explanted hearts.

    PubMed

    Wolfsohn, A L; Walley, V M; Davies, R A; Keon, C A; Khalili, M; Keon, W J

    1992-03-01

    Since 1984, 122 orthotopic heart transplants have been performed at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. Of the 114 adult patients, 100 (87.8%) were males and 14 (12.2%) females, with mean ages of 45.8 and 47.9 yr, respectively. The hearts of these adults were pathologically diagnosed as chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD) in 55 (48.2%), acute ischemic heart disease (AIHD) in 17 (14.9%), dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) in 30 (26.3%), valvular heart disease in five (4.4%), congenital heart disease in three (2.6%), myocarditis in three (2.6%), and other in one (0.9%) of the cases. The adult hearts (94) among the first 100 transplants were studied morphologically, to look for differences among the three major groups with clinical "end-stage" heart failure. The mean heart weights were 435, 356, and 463 gm in the CIHD, AIHD, and DC groups, respectively, with AIHD less than CIHD or DC (p less than 0.01). The ventricular wall thicknesses were similar in CIHD and DC, but the left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses in AIHD were more than in CIHD or DC (p less than 0.01). The ventricular diameters were greater in DC than in CIHD or AIHD (p less than 0.01) and greater in CIHD than in AIHD (p less than 0.01). The mean LV cavity volumes were 158, 94, and 200 ml in CIHD, AIHD, and DC, respectively, with DC greater than in CIHD or AIHD (p less than 0.01) and CIHD greater than in AIHD (p less than 0.01). The relative differences in AIHD compared to CIHD and DC are referrable to the shorter duration of disease in the acute ischemic group.2+ off

  3. Organ allocation in pediatric renal transplants: is there an optimal donor?

    PubMed

    Pitt, Susan C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Doyle, Maria B; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Chapman, William C; Anderson, Christopher D; Shenoy, Surendra; Wellen, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 revised allocation scheme for pediatric renal transplantation made the decision of whether to transplant an available living-donor (LD) kidney or use a deceased-donor (DD) kidney controversial. The aim of this study was to examine kidney allograft utilization, sensitization, and outcomes of pediatric transplant recipients. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 91 consecutive pediatric kidney recipients (<20 yr) were transplanted. The LD (n = 38) and DD (n = 53) groups were similar in age, gender, dialysis status at transplant, warm ischemia time, and overall patient survival. LD recipients were more likely to be Caucasian (92 vs. 69%), receive older allografts (39 ± 10 vs. 23 ± 9 yr), and have fewer human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.01 for all). Graft survival at one, three, and five yr post-transplant was longer for LD recipients (97%, 91%, 87% vs. DD 89%, 79%, 58%, respectively, p < 0.05). At the time of transplant, 17 (33%) DD recipients had an available LD (mean age 40 yr). A greater proportion of all patients were moderately (PRA 21-79%) sensitized post-transplant (p < 0.05). A multivariable analysis of graft survival indicated that the advantage in LD organs was likely due to fewer HLA mismatched in this group. Nonetheless, LD organs appear to provide optimal outcomes in pediatric renal transplants when considering the risk of becoming sensitized post-transplant complicating later use of the LD kidney.

  4. Heart transplantation for congenital heart disease in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Chinnock, Richard E; Bailey, Leonard L

    2011-05-01

    Successful infant heart transplantation has now been performed for over 25 years. Assessment of long term outcomes is now possible. We report clinical outcomes for322 patients who received their heart transplant during infancy. Actuarial graft survival for newborn recipients is 59% at 25 years. Survival has improved in the most recent era. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the most important late cause of death with an actuarial incidence at 25 years of 35%. Post-transplant lymphoma is estimated to occur in 20% of infant recipients by25 years. Chronic kidney disease grade 3 or worse is present in 31% of survivors. The epidemiology of infant heart transplantation has changed through the years as the results for staged repair improved and donor resources remained stagnant. Most centers now employ staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and similar extreme forms of congenital heart disease. Techniques for staged repair, including the hybrid procedure, are described. The lack of donors is described with particular note regarding decreased donors due to newer programs for appropriate infant sleep positioning and infant car seats. ABO incompatible donors are a newer resource for maximizing donor resources, as is donation after circulatory determination of death and techniques to properly utilize more donors by expanding the criteria for what is an acceptable donor. An immunological advantage for the youngest recipients has long been postulated, and evaluation of this phenomenon may provide clues to the development of accommodation and/or tolerance. PMID:22548030

  5. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stuber, M L; Nader, K; Yasuda, P; Pynoos, R S; Cohen, S

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of a longitudinal prospective study of young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress were seen in these children up to 12 months after transplant. The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack. These data suggest the use of post-traumatic stress as a model in understanding some of the symptoms of pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and may be applicable to other children exposed to the double life threat of serious illness and intensive medical intervention.

  6. Racial disparities in pediatric access to kidney transplantation: does socioeconomic status play a role?

    PubMed

    Patzer, R E; Amaral, S; Klein, M; Kutner, N; Perryman, J P; Gazmararian, J A; McClellan, W M

    2012-02-01

    Racial disparities persist in access to renal transplantation in the United States, but the degree to which patient and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) impacts racial disparities in deceased donor renal transplantation access has not been examined in the pediatric and adolescent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We examined the interplay of race and SES in a population-based cohort of all incident pediatric ESRD patients <21 years from the United States Renal Data System from 2000 to 2008, followed through September 2009. Of 8452 patients included, 30.8% were black, 27.6% white-Hispanic, 44.3% female and 28.0% lived in poor neighborhoods. A total of 63.4% of the study population was placed on the waiting list and 32.5% received a deceased donor transplant. Racial disparities persisted in transplant even after adjustment for SES, where minorities were less likely to receive a transplant compared to whites, and this disparity was more pronounced among patients 18-20 years. Disparities in access to the waiting list were mitigated in Hispanic patients with private health insurance. Our study suggests that racial disparities in transplant access worsen as pediatric patients transition into young adulthood, and that SES does not explain all of the racial differences in access to kidney transplantation.

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in pediatric access to preemptive kidney transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patzer, R E; Sayed, B A; Kutner, N; McClellan, W M; Amaral, S

    2013-07-01

    Preemptive kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for pediatric end stage renal disease patients to avoid increased morbidity and mortality associated with dialysis. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and poverty influence preemptive transplant access in pediatric. We examined the incidence of living donor or deceased donor preemptive transplantation among all black, white, and Hispanic children (<18 years) in the United States Renal Data System from 2000 to 2009. Adjusted risk ratios for preemptive transplant were calculated using multivariable-adjusted models and examined across health insurance and neighborhood poverty levels. Among 8,053 patients, 1117 (13.9%) received a preemptive transplant (66.9% from LD, 33.1% from DD). In multivariable analyses, there were significant racial/ethnic disparities in access to LD preemptive transplant where blacks were 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.28-0.43) and Hispanics 52% (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.35-0.67) less likely to receive a LD preemptive transplant versus whites. Blacks were 22% less likely to receive a DD preemptive transplant versus whites (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.57-1.05), although results were not statistically significant. Future efforts to promote equity in preemptive transplant should address the critical issues of improving access to pre-ESRD nephrology care and overcoming barriers in living donation, including obstacles partially driven by poverty.

  8. Murine Cervical Heart Transplantation Model Using a Modified Cuff Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Markus; Ritschl, Paul; Oellinger, Robert; Aigner, Felix; Sucher, Robert; Schneeberger, Stefan; Pratschke, Johann; Brandacher, Gerald; Maglione, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models are of special interest in research since a wide variety of monoclonal antibodies and commercially defined inbred and knockout strains are available to perform mechanistic in vivo studies. While heart transplantation models using a suture technique were first successfully developed in rats, the translation into an equally widespread used murine equivalent was never achieved due the technical complexity of the microsurgical procedure. In contrast, non-suture cuff techniques, also developed initially in rats, were successfully adapted for use in mice1-3. This technique for revascularization involves two major steps I) everting the recipient vessel over a polyethylene cuff; II) pulling the donor vessel over the formerly everted recipient vessel and holding it in place with a circumferential tie. This ensures a continuity of the endothelial layer, short operating time and very high patency rates4. Using this technique for vascular anastomosis we performed more than 1,000 cervical heart transplants with an overall success rate of 95%. For arterial inflow the common carotid artery and the proximal aortic arch were anastomosed resulting in a retrograde perfusion of the transplanted heart. For venous drainage the pulmonary artery of the graft was anastomosed with the external jugular vein of the recipient5. Herein, we provide additional details of this technique to supplement the video. PMID:25350682

  9. Quality Improvement Targeting Adherence During the Transition from a Pediatric to Adult Liver Transplant Clinic.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Emily M; Magee, John C; Eder, Sally J; Sevecke, Jessica R; Dore-Stites, Dawn; Shieck, Victoria; Lopez, M James

    2015-09-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult transplant care is a high risk period for non-adherence and poor health outcomes. This article describes a quality improvement initiative integrated into a pediatric liver transplant program that focused on improving outcomes following the transfer from pediatric to adult liver transplant care. Using improvement science methodology, we evaluated the impact of our center's transition readiness skills (TRS) program by conducting a chart review of 45 pediatric liver transplant recipients who transferred to adult transplant care. Medication adherence, clinic attendance, and health status variables were examined for the year pre-transfer and first year post-transfer. 19 recipients transferred without participating in the TRS program (control group) and 26 recipients participated in the program prior to transferring to the adult clinic (TRS group). The TRS group was significantly older at the time of transfer, more adherent with medications, and more likely to attend their first adult clinic visit compared to the control group. Among the TRS group, better adolescent and parent regimen knowledge were associated with greater adherence to post-transfer clinic appointments. Transition planning should focus on the gradual shift in responsibility for health management tasks, including clinic attendance, from parent to adolescent. There may be support for extending transition support for at least 1 year post-transfer to promote adherence.

  10. An Intelligent Phonocardiography for Automated Screening of Pediatric Heart Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Amir A; Kocharian, Armen; Janani, Azin; Gharehbaghi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robust device for automated screening of pediatric heart diseases based on our unique processing method in murmur characterization; the Arash-Band method. The present study modifies the Arash-Band method and employs output of the modified method in conjunction with the two other original techniques to extract indicative feature vectors for the screening. The extracted feature vectors are classified by using the support vector machine method. Results show that the proposed modifications significantly enhances performance of the Arash-Band in terms of the both accuracy and sensitivity as the corresponding effect sizes are sufficiently large. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated into an Android-based tablet to constitute an intelligent phonocardiogram with the automatic screening capability. In order to obtain confidence interval of the accuracy and sensitivity, an inferable statistical test is applied on our database containing the phonocardiogram signals recorded from 263 of the referrals to a hospital. The expected value of the accuracy/sensitivity is estimated to be 87.45 % / 87.29 % with a 95 % confidence interval of (80.19 % - 92.47 %) / (76.01 % - 95.78 %) exhibiting superior performance than a pediatric cardiologist who relies on conventional or even computer-assisted auscultation.

  11. Perfusion Techniques Toward Bloodless Pediatric Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olshove, Vincent F.; Preston, Thomas; Gomez, Daniel; Phillips, Alistair; Galantowicz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: There continues to be evidence regarding the negative impact of blood transfusion on morbidity and mortality in the adult literature, including infection risk, increased hospital and intensive care length of stay, and costs. More effort has been put into reducing the use of blood components in adult surgical centers but blood transfusions continue to be used frequently in pediatric centers. From 2002 through 2005, we embarked on a mission of reduced prime volume in an effort toward bloodless cardiac surgery to meet the needs of the Jehovah’s Witness patient. The same bloodless surgical and perfusion techniques were applied to all patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass beginning in 2006. Circuit size was minimized and acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) was considered and attempted more often, especially if a re-operation. Retrograde arterial prime (RAP) and venous antegrade prime (VAP), dilutional or balanced ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass, modified arteriovenous ultrafiltration post bypass, and cell salvage of remaining circuit contents after flushing with crystalloid were recorded. ANH, RAP, and VAP, separately or in combination, were used less than 1% of the time prior to 2006. From 2006–2008 ANH was performed on 42% of the patients and RAP/VAP was performed on 70% of the patients. From 2006–2008, 43% (287 of 662) of the open heart surgeries were performed bloodless in the operating room versus 30% (193 of 633) from 2003–2005. Bloodless surgery more than doubled for the 0–6, 6–15, and 15–20 kg groups from 3.5%, 23%, and 23% respectively in 2003–2005 to 9%, 44%, and 58%, respectively in 2006–2008. With the cooperation of the entire cardiac surgical team, bloodless open heart surgery is achievable in a pediatric cardiac surgical center, including neonates. PMID:20648896

  12. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Goorhuis, Joanne F; Scheenstra, Rene; Peeters, Paul M J G; Albers, Marcel J I J

    2006-02-01

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus trough levels (TTLs) obtained after buccal administration of tacrolimus after liver transplantation have not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether buccal administration of tacrolimus is feasible and to compare TTLs after nasogastric tube (NGT) administration with buccal administration. TTLs after NGT or buccal administration during the first week after pediatric liver transplantation were analyzed from 28 cadaveric liver transplants in 23 pediatric recipients between June 2002 and March 2004. Each level was scored within, under or above the target range. Buccal administration was well tolerated in all patients. A total of 149 TTLs were obtained of which nine were excluded because of incomplete information on target levels. Overall 27% of TTLs was adequate. The percentage of levels under, within and above the target range were comparable in both groups (chi-square test; p = 0.64). Both groups had a decrease in percentages within the target range on day 3 and 4 after liver transplantation with a subsequent rise. Buccal tacrolimus administration is feasible. Similar TTLs are achieved compared with NGT tacrolimus administration during the first week after pediatric liver transplantation.

  13. Surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. Method: retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Results: the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. Conclusion: there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. PMID:27579924

  14. [The psychological evaluation of patients with severe heart failure awaiting a heart transplant].

    PubMed

    Gentili, P; De Biase, L; Franzese, A; Malgarini, R B; Vaccaro, M; Giorda, G P; Della Monica, P L; Grutter, G; Marino, B; Campa, P P

    1997-02-01

    Because of the limitations resulting from the severity of heart failure, patients in the waiting list for cardiac transplantation often show a worsening in their social life. They usually present with psychological problems caused by symptoms, medical or surgical therapies and consequences on their own work. We have devised and utilized an experimental psychodiagnostic protocol to study the psychological characteristics of a sample of patients with heart failure (NYHA functional class III and IV) candidate to heart transplantation. Our study was particularly aimed at investigating the quality of life and the psychological mechanisms of adaptation. Findings show a strong attempt of denying the discomfort deriving from the disease and the expectation for transplant. Patients seem to have an adequate reaction to the illness and, otherwise, they feel anxiety and trouble that make very fragile their psychological adaptation. This behaviour is probably correlated with symptoms and the clinical history of heart failure, and does not match with a visible state of well-being that can be detected with a superficial analysis. Nevertheless patients have a good availability in receiving a psychological support from the whole medical staff (physicians, nurses): this suggests that the benefits deriving from a contemporary medical and psychological therapy are able to prevent the appearance of clear psychiatric symptoms. Additional studies involving larger samples of selected populations are needed to confirm the results of the present investigation.

  15. Hypertension in a pediatric and adolescent population following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fennell, R S; Zalenski, R; Geary, D F; Iravani, A; Garin, E H; Pfaff, W W; Howard, R J; Brient, B W; Walker, D; Richard, G A

    1981-06-01

    The post-renal transplant courses of 53 children and adolescents were evaluated for the prevalence and the etiology of hypertension. The blood pressures were averaged over specific time periods following transplantation and converted to percentile ranks according to standards for age. The number of antihypertensives employed to control blood pressure was assessed. Factors such as sex, obesity, race, donor source, antigen match, steroid administration, rejection, recurrent glomerulonephritis, pre-transplant nephrectomy, renal function and proteinuria were assessed as to their importance in producing hypertension or normotension in the post-transplant period. The average blood pressure was well within acceptable range shortly after transplantation. The patients requiring antihypertensives to control blood pressure dropped by two years post transplant. Chronic rejection was by far the most important factor influencing average blood pressure and the need to employ antihypertensives. Alternate-day prednisone and good graft function were important in establishing the normotensive state. PMID:7042620

  16. Toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Baliu, C; Sanclemente, G; Cardona, M; Castel, M A; Perez-Villa, F; Moreno, A; Cervera, C

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations in immunosuppressed patients. Encephalitis and intracranial mass lesions are easily recognized as typical manifestations of toxoplasmosis. However, meningitis caused by T. gondii is a rare condition with very few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a heart transplant recipient who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis. After an extensive review of the medical literature, we found only 1 case of meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients and <25 cases in immunosuppressed patients, such as patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus or those with Hodgkin's disease. In this report, we consider toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of meningitis in immunocompromised individuals.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling to Study Racial Differences after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khush, Kiran K.; Pham, Michael X.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Deng, Mario C.; Kao, Andrew; Anderson, Allen S.; Cotts, William G; Ewald, Gregory A.; Baran, David A.; Hiller, David; Yee, James; Valantine, Hannah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The basis for increased mortality after heart transplantation in African Americans and other non-Caucasian racial groups is poorly defined. We hypothesized that increased risk of adverse events is driven by biological factors. To test this hypothesis in the IMAGE study, we determined whether the event rate of the primary outcome of acute rejection, graft dysfunction, death, or re-transplantation varied by race as a function of calcineurin inhibitor levels and gene expression profile (GEP) scores. Methods We determined the event rate of the primary outcome, comparing racial groups, stratified by time post-transplant. Logistic regression was used to compute the relative risk across racial groups and linear modeling was used to measure the dependence of CNI levels and GEP score on race. Results In 580 patients followed for a median of 19 months, the incidence of the primary endpoint in African Americans, other non-Caucasians, and Caucasians was 18.3%, 22.2%, and 8.5%, respectively (p<0.001). There were small but significant correlations of race and tacrolimus trough levels to GEP score. Tacrolimus levels were similar between races. Of patients receiving tacrolimus, other non-Caucasians had higher GEP scores than the other racial groups. African American recipients demonstrated a unique decrease in expression of the FLT3 gene in response to higher tacrolimus levels. Conclusions African Americans and other non-Caucasian heart transplant recipients were 2.5–3 times more likely than Caucasians to experience outcome events in IMAGE. The increased risk of adverse outcomes may be partly due to the biology of the alloimmune response, which is less effectively inhibited at similar tacrolimus levels in minority racial groups. PMID:25840504

  18. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... same transplant surgeons and quality improvement program (including oversight committee, patient protocol, and patient selection criteria); and (3) The center demonstrates to the satisfaction of...

  19. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... same transplant surgeons and quality improvement program (including oversight committee, patient protocol, and patient selection criteria); and (3) The center demonstrates to the satisfaction of...

  20. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... same transplant surgeons and quality improvement program (including oversight committee, patient protocol, and patient selection criteria); and (3) The center demonstrates to the satisfaction of...

  1. Heart and kidney transplantation using total lymphoid irradiation and donor bone marrow in mongrel dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, D.R.; Dufek, J.H.; Hong, R.; Caldwell, W.L.; Thomas, F.J.; Kolenda, D.R.; Swanson, D.K.; Struble, R.A.

    1980-07-01

    Heart and kidney allografts showed markedly prolonged survival in unrelated mongrel dogs following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow without any other immunosuppression. In every animal the heart survived longer than the kidney. Placing the kidney allograft in the abdomen with the bone marrow given intraperitoneally doubled kidney survival over placement in the neck, but heart survival was equally prolonged in the abdomen or neck. Splenectomy before TLI or after TLI, but just before transplantation, almost completely eliminated the prolonged survival of both heart and kidney allografts. Thus there is suggestive evidence that TLI plus bone marrow from the donor may be valuable for transplantation in man, particularly heart transplantation.

  2. Racial disparities in pediatric kidney transplantation in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Grace, Blair S; Kara, Tonya; Kennedy, Sean E; McDonald, Stephen P

    2014-11-01

    Racial disparities in transplantation rates and outcomes have not been investigated in detail for NZ, a country with unique demographics. We studied a retrospective cohort of 215 patients <18 yr who started renal replacement therapy in NZ 1990-2012, using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA). Primary outcomes were time to first kidney transplant, death-censored graft survival, and retransplantation after loss of primary graft. Europeans and Asians were most likely to receive a transplant (92% and 91% transplanted within five yr, respectively), and Pacific and Māori patients were less likely to receive a transplant than Europeans (51% and 46%, respectively), reflecting disparities in live donor transplantation. Pacific patients were more likely to have glomerulonephritis and FSGS. Pacific patients had five-yr death-censored graft survival of 31%, lower than Māori (61%) and Europeans (88%). No Pacific patients who lost their grafts were re-transplanted within 72 patient-years of follow-up, whereas 14% of Māori patients and 36% of European and Asian patients were retransplanted within five yr. Current programs to improve live and deceased donation within Māori and Pacific people and management of recurrent kidney disease are likely to reduce these disparities.

  3. Pediatric hematology providers on referral for transplant evaluation for sickle cell disease: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Mikles, Bethany; Bhatia, Monica; Oyeku, Suzette O; Jin, Zhezhen; Green, Nancy S

    2014-10-01

    Hematology referral for evaluation is a key step for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease (SCD). Pediatric SCD providers in the US Northeast (New York-Mid-Atlantic and New England regions) were surveyed anonymously for perspectives and practices regarding transplant referral and compared by whether they practiced at SCD transplant centers. Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, χ test, and logistic regression. Half of the respondents practiced primarily at transplant sites. Most (79%) were enthusiastic about transplant for SCD and 78% had recently referred ≥1 child for evaluation. Overall, 77% limited referral to certain sickle hemoglobinopathies and 44% preferred referral for β-thalassemia to SCD. Indications selected for referral resembled current transplant criteria, plus family request or poor response to therapy. Referral for children on chronic transfusions predicted enthusiasm and prior referral. Many (66%) referred children with multiple SCD complications, even without matched sibling donors, 37% with sibling donors despite limited disease. Practitioners at transplant centers more commonly accepted event-free survival rates of ≤90% (P=0.002). Northeastern providers expressed varying enthusiasm for referral for evaluation based on eligibility, donor availability, and acceptable risk, with modestly more interest from practitioners at transplant centers. Differing provider perspectives may affect patient referral for transplant consideration.

  4. Pediatric Deceased Donation-A Report of the Transplantation Society Meeting in Geneva.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dominique E; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Siebelink, Marion J; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Brierley, Joe; Dobbels, Fabienne; Rodrigue, James R; Sarwal, Minnie; Shapiro, Ron; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Sweet, Stuart C; Trompeter, Richard S; Moazam, Farhat; Bos, Michael A; Delmonico, Francis L

    2015-07-01

    The Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society convened a meeting on pediatric deceased donation of organs in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 21 to 22, 2014. Thirty-four participants from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, Europe, and North and South America explored the practical and ethical issues pertaining to pediatric deceased donation and developed recommendations for policy and practice. Their expertise was inclusive of pediatric intensive care, internal medicine, and surgery, nursing, ethics, organ donation and procurement, psychology, law, and sociology. The report of the meeting advocates the routine provision of opportunities for deceased donation by pediatric patients and conveys an international call for the development of evidence-based resources needed to inform provision of best practice care in deceased donation for neonates and children. PMID:25996634

  5. Total Artificial Heart as Bridge to Heart Transplantation in Chagas Cardiomyopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, A; Czer, L S C; De Robertis, M; Luthringer, D; Moriguchi, J; Kobashigawa, J; Trento, A; Arabia, F

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is becoming an increasingly recognized cause of dilated cardiomyopathy outside of Latin America, where it is endemic, due to population shifts and migration. Heart transplantation (HTx) is a therapeutic option for end-stage cardiomyopathy due to CD, but may be considered a relative contraindication due to potential reactivation of the causative organism with immunosuppression therapy. The total artificial heart (TAH) can provide mechanical circulatory support in decompensated patients with severe biventricular dysfunction until the time of HTx, while avoiding immunosuppressive therapy and removing the organ most affected by the causative organism. We report herein a patient with CD and severe biventricular dysfunction, who had mechanical circulatory support with a TAH for more than 6 months, followed by successful orthotopic HTx and treatment with benznidazole for 3 months. The patient had no evidence of recurrent disease in the transplanted heart based on endomyocardial biopsy up to 1 year post-transplantation, and remains alive more than 30 months after insertion of a TAH and 24 months after HTx. PMID:26915885

  6. Changes in lung vascular permeability after heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, M C; Borovetz, H S; Griffith, B P; Hardesty, R L

    1985-10-01

    We have employed multiple indicator dilution techniques (MID) in six patients after heart-lung transplantation to assess changes in the lung vascular permeability-surface area product for urea (PS). Serial PS values for the patients when normalized to the predicted total lung capacity (TLC) in liters, ranged between 1.04 and 6.27 ml/sec/TLC (patient 1), 0 and 2.76 ml/sec/TLC (patient 2), 0.59 and 2.88 ml/sec/TLC (patient 3), 0.13 and 1.23 ml/sec/TLC (patient 4). The elevated values for PS in patient 1 exceed the lethal range described by K.L. Brigham et al. (J. Clin. Invest. 72:339, 1983) for severe ARDS. This strongly suggests a severely increased lung microvascular permeability in this patient possibly secondary to rejection as indicated by endomyocardial biopsy. PS values for surviving patients 2-6 fell well below the corresponding lethal value for ARDS patients. We conclude that PS urea derived from MID provides an indicator of the status of lung microvascular integrity in heart-lung transplant recipients.

  7. Mediastinal radiation and adverse outcomes after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uriel, Nir; Vainrib, Alan; Jorde, Ulrich P; Cotarlan, Vlad; Farr, Maryjane; Cheema, Faisal H; Naka, Yoshifuma; Mancini, Donna; Colombo, Paolo C

    2010-03-01

    Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) may represent the only treatment option for patients with end-stage cardiovascular disease due to mediastinal radiation therapy (MRT). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of OHT in this patient population. We conducted a retrospective, single-center cohort study of patients with MRT-associated cardiovascular disease who underwent OHT between January 1987 and September 2008. Nine patients (3 men), aged 46 +/- 11 years at the time of their OHT, were identified. Time from MRT to OHT was 26 +/- 11 years. Lymphoma was the indication for MRT in all patients. Five patients had non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, 2 had ischemic cardiomyopathy and 2 had constrictive pericarditis. Three patients expired in the peri-operative period, whereas another patient died 3 years post-transplant from lung carcinoma. Two additional patients developed a secondary malignancy post-transplant. Five patients are still alive at a mean follow-up of 10 +/- 8 years. Early survival rate is poor in patients who undergo OHT for MRT-associated end-stage cardiovascular disease. In addition, long-term follow-up shows an elevated incidence of malignancies. Our results raise concern about the safety and efficacy of performing OHT in patients with MRT-associated cardiovascular disease.

  8. Total lymphoid irradiation in heart transplantation: Adjunctive treatment for recurrent rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Frist, W.H.; Winterland, A.W.; Gerhardt, E.B.; Merrill, W.H.; Atkinson, J.B.; Eastburn, T.E.; Stewart, J.R.; Eisert, D.R. )

    1989-12-01

    In the face of recurrent heart transplant graft rejection refractory to all conventional immunotherapy, retransplantation is customary treatment. The case of a heart transplant recipient unsuitable for retransplantation whose recurrent rejection was successfully treated with postoperative total lymphoid irradiation is described.

  9. Interventional Radiological Treatment of Perihepatic Vascular Stenosis or Occlusion in Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uller, Wibke; Knoppke, Birgit; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Heiss, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.; Melter, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of percutaneous treatment of vascular stenoses and occlusions in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods: Fifteen children (mean age 8.3 years) underwent interventional procedures for 18 vascular complications after liver transplantation. Patients had stenoses or occlusions of portal veins (n = 8), hepatic veins (n = 3), inferior vena cava (IVC; n = 2) or hepatic arteries (n = 5). Technical and clinical success rates were evaluated. Results: Stent angioplasty was performed in seven cases (portal vein, hepatic artery and IVC), and sole balloon angioplasty was performed in eight cases. One child underwent thrombolysis (hepatic artery). Clinical and technical success was achieved in 14 of 18 cases of vascular stenoses or occlusions (mean follow-up 710 days). Conclusion: Pediatric interventional radiology allows effective and safe treatment of vascular stenoses after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT). Individualized treatment with special concepts for each pediatric patient is necessary. The variety, the characteristics, and the individuality of interventional management of all kinds of possible vascular stenoses or occlusions after PLT are shown.

  10. Alemtuzumab with corticosteroid minimization for pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation: a seven-yr experience.

    PubMed

    Supe-Markovina, Katarina; Melquist, Jonathan J; Connolly, Deirdre; DiCarlo, Heather N; Waltzer, Wayne C; Fine, Richard N; Darras, Frank S

    2014-06-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 receptors on B and T lymphocytes and is an effective induction agent in pediatric renal transplantation. We report a seven-yr experience using alemtuzumab induction and steroid-free protocol in the pediatric population as safe and effective. Twenty-one pediatric deceased donor renal transplants were performed at a single academic institution. All received induction with single-dose alemtuzumab and were maintained on a steroid-free protocol using TAC and MMF immunosuppression. There were 15 males and six females in the study whose ages ranged from one to 19 yr. The average follow-up was 32 months (range from 12 to 78.2 months and median 33.7 ± 23.7 months). All patients had immediate graft function. Graft survival was 95%, and patient survival was 100%. Mean 12 and 36 months eGFR were 63.33 ± 21.01 and 59.90 ± 15.27 mL/min/1.73m(2), respectively. Three patients developed acute T-cell-mediated rejection due to non-adherence while no recipients developed cytomegalovirus infection, PTLD, or polyoma BK viral nephropathy. Steroid avoidance with single-dose alemtuzumab induction provides adequate and safe immunosuppression in pediatric deceased donor renal transplant recipients receiving TAC and low-dose MMF maintenance therapy.

  11. Questions and Answers for Transplant Candidates about Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Pediatric End-Stage ....

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs a liver transplant most urgently. The MELD (Model for End Stage Liver Disease) is used for ... and the PELD (Pediatric End Stage Liver Disease Model) is used for patients age 11 and younger. ...

  12. Rapid steroid discontinuation for pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Lau, Keith K; Haddad, Maha N; Berg, Gerre M; Perez, Richard V; Butani, Lavjay

    2007-08-01

    To determine the outcomes of pediatric renal transplant recipients who received immunosuppression consisting of early withdrawal of corticosteroids at a single Northern California center. Protocols using minimal steroid exposure have been recently reported in adult transplant recipients with successful results. We examined the outcomes of pediatric renal transplant recipients who were managed at our center using a protocol with very early discontinuation of steroids after renal transplantation. We retrospectively studied the medical records of all renal transplant recipients followed at the Children's Hospital at the University of California, Davis Medical Center from 01/2004 to 12/2005. All patients were less than 18 yr of age at the time of transplantation. The immunosuppressive protocol included three tapering daily doses of methylprednisolone, together with five doses of thymoglobulin followed by maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and MMF. Eight patients with equal numbers of males and females were transplanted during this time period. There were equal numbers of Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. A total of 37.5% (3/8) of the subjects received preemptive transplantation, 25% (2/8) received peritoneal, and 37.5% (3/8) received hemodialysis before transplantation. The median (range) age at transplantation was 12.3 (3.1-16.0) year with a follow-up of 1.7 (0.9-2.8) year. At one yr post-transplantation, 57% (4/7) of patients still required anti-hypertensives. Three children required erythropoietin supplementation after transplantation. The mean delta height standard deviation score at 12 months was 0.20 +/- 0.56. There were no episodes of clinical acute rejection. One patient switched from tacrolimus to sirolimus due to biopsy-proven CAN. No patient became diabetic or required hypoglycemic agents. Surveillance biopsies showed no subclinical acute rejection in any patient. Steroid-free immunosuppression is safe in children after renal

  13. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex. PMID:27196400

  14. Hypertension and ace gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in pediatric renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Serdaroglu, Erkin; Mir, Sevgi; Berdeli, Afig

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the risk factors for hypertension and to analyze the influence of insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) on hypertension in pediatric renal transplant recipients. Twenty-six pediatric renal transplant recipients with stable renal function and treated with the same immunosuppression protocol were included in the study. Their mean age was 12.5 +/- 3.3 yr and mean time after transplantation was 38.5 +/- 39.8 month. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed by SpaceLabs (90207) device. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE was determined by PCR and ACE serum level was analyzed by colorimetric method. Hypertension was present in 15 patients (57.7%) by causal blood pressure measurements and 19 patients (73.1%) by ABPM. Twenty-two patients (84.6%) were found to be non-dipper and eight of them had reverse dipping. Only time after transplantation (38 +/- 31 vs. 79 +/-49 month, p = 0.016) and cyclosporin A trough plasma levels (206 +/-78 vs. 119 +/- 83 ng/mL, p = 0.020) influenced the presence of hypertension by multiple logistic regression analysis. The distribution of genotypes were II = 2 (7.7%), ID = 8 (30.8%), DD = 16 (61.5%). There was no effect of ACE gene I/D polymorphism or serum ACE levels on hypertension prevalence and circadian variability of blood pressures. Hypertension was related to the time after transplantation and cyclosporin A levels. The ACE gene I/D polymorphism and serum ACE levels did not influence the blood pressure values or circadian variability of blood pressure among pediatric renal transplant patients. PMID:16176418

  15. Early subclinical coronary artery calcification in young adults who were pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, Michael B; Milliner, Dawn S; Kim, Dean Y; Bohorquez, Humberto E; Heimbach, Julie K; Sheedy, Patrick F; Morgenstern, Bruce Z; Gloor, James M; Murphy, Joseph G; McBane, Robert D; Bielak, Lawrence F; Peyser, Patricia A; Stegall, Mark D

    2005-07-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in adults after successful kidney transplantation. Children who have undergone successful kidney transplantation are entering young adulthood; however, the prevalence and extent of CAD in this population is unknown. We conducted a pilot study in young adults with stable allograft function, who received kidney transplants as children to measure coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of coronary artery atherosclerosis and CAD. We evaluated 19 young adults after successful pediatric kidney transplantation for known CAD risk factors; these patients underwent noninvasive imaging with electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) for measurement of CAC. Prevalence and quantity of CAC were then compared to asymptomatic individuals from the community. All patients had multiple risk factors for CAD. Mean age at evaluation was 32 years (range: 21-48 years). CAC is uncommon in individuals in the community in this age range; however, nearly half of our patients had CAC detected with the quantity of CAC comparable to asymptomatic individuals from the community 10-40 years older. These data suggest young adults who received pediatric kidney transplants are at increased risk for developing early CAC and need close monitoring to detect early CAD so as to prevent premature cardiac morbidity and mortality. PMID:15943627

  16. Clinical consequences of human herpesvirus-6 DNAemia in peripheral blood in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Al Fawaz, Tariq; Ng, Vicky; Richardson, Susan E; Barton, Michelle; Allen, Upton

    2014-02-01

    The significance of HHV6 DNAemia after solid organ transplantation has not been fully determined. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of HHV6 DNAemia in pediatric liver transplant recipients and to describe the associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. This was a retrospective case-control study. Eligible liver transplant patients aged ≤ 18 yr with HHV6 DNAemia were matched with two subjects without HHV6 DNAemia. Matching was by age ± 6 months. Among 154 subjects, 25 patients (16%) had HHV6 DNAemia detected by PCR in whole blood or plasma (M:F ratio = 0.9:1). While 28% of subjects with DNAemia (7/25) had symptoms consistent with HHV6 infection, active infection was detected in only four subjects (2.6% of liver transplant patients). The major symptoms/signs were fever, vomiting, lethargy, splenomegaly, bone marrow suppression, and elevated transaminases. The prevalence of DNAemia due to other herpesviruses in cases vs. controls was EBV 56% vs. 60%, CMV 12% vs. 12%, HHV7 20% vs. 12%; p value is not significant for all pairwise comparisons. HHV6 DNAemia in pediatric liver transplant patients is not an uncommon entity. While the clinical relevance is still not entirely established, active HHV6 infection and attributable symptoms are relatively rare.

  17. Racial disparities in access to pediatric kidney transplantation since share 35.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Patzer, Rachel E; Kutner, Nancy; McClellan, William

    2012-06-01

    Share 35 was enacted in 2005 to shorten transplant wait times and provide high-quality donors to children with ESRD. To investigate the possible effect of this policy on racial disparities in access to pediatric transplantation, we analyzed data from the US Renal Data System before and after Share 35. Among 4766 pediatric patients with incident ESRD, the probability of receiving a deceased-donor kidney transplant increased 46% after Share 35, with Hispanics experiencing the greatest improvements (increases of 81% for Hispanics, 45% for blacks, and 37% for whites). On average, patients received a deceased-donor kidney transplant earlier after Share 35, but this finding varied by race: 63 days earlier for whites, 90 days earlier for blacks, and 201 days earlier for Hispanics. Furthermore, a shift from living- to deceased-donor sources occurred with Share 35 for all races, with a 25% reduction in living donors for whites compared with 48% and 46% reductions for Hispanics and blacks, respectively. In summary, Share 35 seems to have attenuated racial disparities in the time to and probability of children receiving a deceased-donor kidney transplant. These changes coincided with changes in the rates of living-donor sources, which vary by race. Future studies should explore how these changes may impact racial differences in long-term graft outcomes.

  18. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O

    2016-01-01

    Background Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Methods Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Results Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Conclusion Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with

  19. Development of the Rotterdam Quality of Life Questionnaire for Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    de Jeu, J.H.; Pedersen, S.S.; Balk, A.H.M.M.; van Domburg, R.T.; Vantrimpont, P.J.M.J.; Erdman, R.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Heart transplantation is a unique and life-threatening event followed by role and lifestyle adjustments, feelings of dependency, and fears about infections and rejection of the donor heart. Generic quality of life measures are unlikely to cover aspects pertinent to transplant recipients. The disease-specific measures available are lengthy and not feasible for use in clinical practice. Aim The purpose of the current study was to develop a brief and reliable disease-specific instrument to measure quality of life in heart transplant patients. Study design Survey. Methods The Rotterdam Quality of Life Questionnaire for Heart Transplant Recipients was developed according to a series of steps that included in-depth interviews with heart transplant patients, transcription of interviews to form a comprehensive item pool, reduction of the item pool through submission to a panel of healthcare professionals and transplant patients, and further reduction of the item pool through construct formation and statistical analyses. From July to September 2000, all surviving patients (n=237) following heart transplantation at the Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam were asked to fill in the 55-item questionnaire, 205 (86%) of whom replied. Results Twelve of the 55 original items were identified as contributing to overall quality of life in heart transplant patients based on four à priori selected constructs. Submission of the 12 items to a factor analysis confirmed that the four-factor structure accounted for 62% of the variance. The reliability of the four subscales was adequate. Mean scores on subscales reflected light to moderate impairment in quality of life. Conclusion The Rotterdam Quality of Life Questionnaire for Heart Transplant Recipients is a brief disease-specific instrument that measures quality of life in heart transplant patients. Although further studies are required to elaborate on the psychometric properties of the scale, the preliminary reliability of the

  20. Disparities in policies, practices and rates of pediatric kidney transplantation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harambat, J; van Stralen, K J; Schaefer, F; Grenda, R; Jankauskiene, A; Kostic, M; Macher, M-A; Maxwell, H; Puretic, Z; Raes, A; Rubik, J; Sørensen, S S; Toots, U; Topaloglu, R; Tönshoff, B; Verrina, E; Jager, K J

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to provide an overview of kidney allocation policies related to children and pediatric kidney transplantation (KTx) practices and rates in Europe, and to study factors associated with KTx rates. A survey was distributed among renal registry representatives in 38 European countries. Additional data were obtained from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA and ERA-EDTA registries. Thirty-two countries (84%) responded. The median incidence rate of pediatric KTx was 5.7 (range 0-13.5) per million children (pmc). A median proportion of 17% (interquartile range 2-29) of KTx was performed preemptively, while the median proportion of living donor KTx was 43% (interquartile range 10-52). The median percentage of children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) with a functioning graft was 62%. The level of pediatric prioritization was associated with a decreased waiting time for deceased donor KTx, an increased pediatric KTx rate, and a lower proportion of living donor KTx. The rates of pediatric KTx, distribution of donor source and time on waiting list vary considerably between European countries. The lack of harmonization in kidney allocation to children raises medical and ethical issues. Harmonization of pediatric allocation policies should be prioritized. PMID:23718940

  1. Disparities in policies, practices and rates of pediatric kidney transplantation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harambat, J; van Stralen, K J; Schaefer, F; Grenda, R; Jankauskiene, A; Kostic, M; Macher, M-A; Maxwell, H; Puretic, Z; Raes, A; Rubik, J; Sørensen, S S; Toots, U; Topaloglu, R; Tönshoff, B; Verrina, E; Jager, K J

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to provide an overview of kidney allocation policies related to children and pediatric kidney transplantation (KTx) practices and rates in Europe, and to study factors associated with KTx rates. A survey was distributed among renal registry representatives in 38 European countries. Additional data were obtained from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA and ERA-EDTA registries. Thirty-two countries (84%) responded. The median incidence rate of pediatric KTx was 5.7 (range 0-13.5) per million children (pmc). A median proportion of 17% (interquartile range 2-29) of KTx was performed preemptively, while the median proportion of living donor KTx was 43% (interquartile range 10-52). The median percentage of children on renal replacement therapy (RRT) with a functioning graft was 62%. The level of pediatric prioritization was associated with a decreased waiting time for deceased donor KTx, an increased pediatric KTx rate, and a lower proportion of living donor KTx. The rates of pediatric KTx, distribution of donor source and time on waiting list vary considerably between European countries. The lack of harmonization in kidney allocation to children raises medical and ethical issues. Harmonization of pediatric allocation policies should be prioritized.

  2. Hepatic venous outflow obstruction in pediatric liver transplantation: technical considerations in prevention, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Sommovilla, J; Doyle, M M; Vachharajani, N; Saad, N; Nadler, M; Turmelle, Y P; Weymann, A; Chapman, W C; Lowell, J A

    2014-08-01

    HVOO creates significant diagnostic and management dilemmas in pediatric liver transplant recipients, particularly with TVGs (split or reduced-size grafts). Numerous technical variations for the hepatic vein to IVC anastomosis have been described to minimize the incidence of this complication, but no consensus for an optimal anastomotic technique exists. One hundred and thirty-four liver transplants (70 TVGs) were performed in 124 patients between 1994 and 2011. These were divided into two cohorts. Group 1 (95 transplants, 41 TVGs) utilized a continuous running anastomosis. Group 2 (39 transplants, 29 TVGs) implemented a triangulated (three-stitch) anastomosis. All were reviewed for demographics, diagnostics, interventions, and outcome. The overall HVOO incidence was seven of 134 transplants (5.2%) and six of 70 transplants utilizing TVGs (8.6%). Group 1 incidence was five of 41 (12.2%) compared with one of 29 (3.4%; p = 0.20, OR 3.89) in Group 2. Liver Doppler was employed in all patients, and only three suggested HVOO. All patients with HVOO underwent venogram, at a median of 81 days post-transplant. All underwent percutaneous venoplasty and required 1-6 treatments, all resulting in HVOO resolution. Incidence of HVOO has improved since adopting the triangulated anastomosis, although not to a level of statistical significance. US is not adequately sensitive to exclude HVOO. Venogram is recommended in patients with prolonged ascites, and venoplasty has been highly successful in HVOO treatment. PMID:24815309

  3. Regional pulmonary perfusion following human heart-lung transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Hakim, T.S.; Dean, G.W.; Langleben, D.; Guerraty, A.; Levy, R.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Ventilation and perfusion scans were obtained in six subjects who had undergone heart-lung transplantation with consequent denervation of the cardiopulmonary axis. Two of the subjects had developed obliterative bronchiolitis, which is believed to be a form of chronic rejection. Their pulmonary function tests demonstrated airflow obstruction and their scintigraphic studies were abnormal. In the remaining four subjects without obstructive airways disease, ventilation and planar perfusion scans were normal. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging of pulmonary perfusion in these patients revealed a layered distribution of blood flow indistinguishable from that of normal individuals. It is concluded that neurogenic mechanisms have little influence on the pattern of local pulmonary blood flow at rest.

  4. [30 years heart transplantation program in Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Prague].

    PubMed

    Hošková, Lenka; Málek, Ivan; Melenovský, Vojtěch; Podzimková, Marianna; Hegarová, Markéta; Dorazilová, Zora; Kautzner, Josef; Netuka, Ivan; Pirk, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Heart transplantation has become in recent decades an established method for the treatment of advanced heart failure. Precisely, it was in January 2014 when 30 years have passed since the start of clinical heart transplantation program at the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 936 heart transplants were performed by the end of 2013. The transplant program has reached considerable development since its beginnings. The knowledge of whole issue has deepened, indication criteria have been extended, new immunosuppressives are available and many of them are still in research. Life expectancy of patients has been prolonged and quality of life has improved. Nevertheless, the care of transplant patient is very complicated task for medical professionals and brings a lot of problems to solve.

  5. Hepatitis C in the pediatric population: transmission, natural history, treatment and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khaderi, Saira; Shepherd, Ross; Goss, John A; Leung, Daniel H

    2014-08-28

    The number of children affected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States is estimated to be between 23000 to 46000. The projected medical cost for children with HCV in the United States is $199-366 million over the next decade. The implementation of routine screening of blood supply has virtually eliminated transmission via transfusion and vertical transmission is now the most common mode of infection in children. Infections acquired during infancy are more likely to spontaneously resolve and fibrosis of the liver tends to increase with age suggesting slow progressive histologic injury. Anti-viral treatment may be warranted in children with persistently elevated liver enzymes or with significant fibrosis on liver biopsy. Current standard of care includes weekly pegylated interferon and ribavirin twice daily. Predictors of high sustained viral response include genotype 2 and 3 and low viral load in children with genotype 1 (< 600000 IU/mL). Phase 1 and 2 trials with triple therapy (interferon, ribavirin, and a protease inhibitor) are ongoing. Triple therapy is associated with a significantly higher rate of sustained virologic response (> 90%). Only 34 pediatric patients were transplanted with hepatitis C between January 2008 and April 2013. The majority of pediatric patients were born prior to universal screening of blood products and, as of June 2013, there are only two pediatric patients awaiting liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease secondary to hepatitis C. Pediatric survival rates post-transplant are excellent but graft survivals are noticeably reduced compared to adults (73.73% for pediatric patients at one year compared to 87.69% in adult patients). New safe and effective antiviral therapies for recurrent HCV should help increase graft survival. PMID:25170212

  6. Update for 2014 on clinical cardiology, geriatric cardiology, and heart failure and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; López Díaz, Javier; Martín Santana, Antonio; García Pinilla, José Manuel; Gómez Doblas, Juan José; Gómez Bueno, Manuel; Barrios Alonso, Vivencio; Lambert, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    In the present article, we review publications from the previous year in the following 3 areas: clinical cardiology, geriatric cardiology, and heart failure and transplantation. Among the new developments in clinical cardiology are several contributions from Spanish groups on tricuspid and aortic regurgitation, developments in atrial fibrillation, syncope, and the clinical characteristics of heart disease, as well as various studies on familial heart disease and chronic ischemic heart disease. In geriatric cardiology, the most relevant studies published in 2014 involve heart failure, degenerative aortic stenosis, and data on atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population. In heart failure and transplantation, the most noteworthy developments concern the importance of multidisciplinary units and patients with preserved systolic function. Other notable publications were those related to iron deficiency, new drugs, and new devices and biomarkers. Finally, we review studies on acute heart failure and transplantation, such as inotropic drugs and ventricular assist devices.

  7. Urological complications in pediatric renal transplantation: management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zaontz, M R; Hatch, D A; Firlit, C F

    1988-11-01

    From 1973 through 1986, 166 consecutive renal transplants were performed in 143 patients. Urological complications included ureteral leakage/obstruction/necrosis, urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, pelvic lymphocele, pelvic abscess, pelvic hematoma, infected hydrocele, bladder calculus, labial edema, renal artery/segmental stenosis, hydronephrosis, urinary incontinence, renal allograft malrotation and kidney rupture. Management options and preventive measures to avoid some of these dilemmas are highlighted.

  8. Age at Graft Loss after Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Exploring the High-Risk Age Window

    PubMed Central

    Van Arendonk, Kyle J.; James, Nathan T.; Boyarsky, Brian J.; Garonzik-Wang, Jacqueline M.; Orandi, Babak J.; Magee, John C.; Smith, Jodi M.; Colombani, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objective The risk of graft loss after pediatric kidney transplantation increases during late adolescence and early adulthood, but the extent to which this phenomenon affects all recipients is unknown. This study explored interactions between recipient factors and this high-risk age window, searching for a recipient phenotype that may be less susceptible during this detrimental age interval. Design, setting, participants, & measurements With use of Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 1987 to 2010, risk of graft loss across recipient age was quantified using a multivariable piecewise-constant hazard rate model with time-varying coefficients for recipient risk factors. Results Among 16,266 recipients, graft loss during ages ≥17 and <24 years was greater than that for both 3–17 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.61; P<0.001) and ≥24 years (aHR, 1.28; P<0.001). This finding was consistent across age at transplantation, sex, race, cause of renal disease, insurance type, pretransplant dialysis history, previous transplant, peak panel-reactive antibody (PRA), and type of induction immunosuppression. The high-risk window was seen in both living-donor and deceased-donor transplant recipients, at all levels of HLA mismatch, regardless of centers’ pediatric transplant volume, and consistently over time. The relationship between graft loss risk and donor type, PRA, transplant history, insurance type, and cause of renal disease was diminished upon entry into the high-risk window. Conclusions No recipient subgroups are exempt from the dramatic increase in graft loss during late adolescence and early adulthood, a high-risk window that modifies the relationship between typical recipient risk factors and graft loss. PMID:23430210

  9. Personalized busulfan and treosulfan conditioning for pediatric stem cell transplantation: the role of pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    ten Brink, M H; Zwaveling, J; Swen, J J; Bredius, R G M; Lankester, A C; Guchelaar, H J

    2014-10-01

    Busulfan- and treosulfan-based conditionings are the cornerstone of pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although both drugs are alkylating agents, their mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics (PK) and toxicity profiles are different. Experience with busulfan in pediatric HSCT is broad and the knowledge on the pharmacodynamics (PD), PK and, to a lesser extent, pharmacogenetics (PG) has resulted in a more effective therapy. Treosulfan has only recently been introduced in pediatric HSCT and is considered a promising new therapy because of its beneficial toxicity profile. However, knowledge of the PK and PG of treosulfan is limited. In this review, we describe the pharmacology of both agents and discuss factors causing variability in PK in relation to therapeutic outcome in HSCT.

  10. Importance of anemia in the chronic Cardiorenal syndrome: Effects on renal function after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Libório, Alexandre Braga; Uchoa, Russian Soares; Aragão, Alessa Peixoto; de Sousa Neto, João David; Valdivia, Juan Miguel Cosquillo; de Alencar Matos, Filipe; Mont’Alverne, Ricardo Everton Dias; de Sá Filho, Francisco Ivan Benício; Mejia, Juan Alberto Cosquillo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Cardiorenal syndrome has been recently divided into 5 categories, according to acute or chronic evolution and primary organ dysfunction. Anemia can also accompany this disorder, leading to a more complex situation. This study aims to analyze the renal outcomes of patients, specifically patients with chronic Cardiorenal syndrome, with or without anemia, long-term after heart transplantation. Material/Methods This was a retrospective cohort study on chronic Cardiorenal syndrome patients submitted to heart transplantation. Patients were divided according to presence of anemia and renal dysfunction before heart transplantation. Results A total of 108 patients (92 males) with the mean age of 45±12 years were included. The etiologies of the heart failure were hypertensive dilated myocardiopathy (66%), ischemic (14%) and Chagasic (12%). Before the heart transplantation, 51 patients had an eGFR less than 60 mL/min. From these, 24 had concomitant anemia. One year after the transplantation, patients with previous isolated renal dysfunction ameliorates eGFR (45±11 vs. 65±26 mL/min, p<0.001), while those patients with previous renal dysfunction and anemia presented no improvement (eGFR 44±14 vs. 47±13 mL/min, p=0.619) 1 year after heart transplantation. Moreover, higher hemoglobin was an independent predictor of eGFR improvement after heart transplantation when associated with previous renal dysfunction (OR 1.8; CI 1.2–3.6, p<0.01 for each hemoglobin increment of 1 g/dL). Conclusions Patients with isolated Cardiorenal syndrome presented partial renal function recovery after heart transplantation, while the presence of cardiorenal anemia was a marker of renal function non-recovery 1 year after heart transplantation. PMID:23018354

  11. NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC First International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The Need for Pediatric Specific Long Term Follow-up Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pulsipher, Michael A.; Skinner, Roderick; McDonald, George B.; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Armenian, Saro H.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Gracia, Clarisa; Petryk, Anna; Bhatia, Smita; Bunin, Nancy; Nieder, Michael L.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Sung, Lillian; Sanders, Jean E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Baker, K. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Existing standards for screening and management of late effects occurring in children who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include recommendations from pediatric cancer networks and consensus guidelines from adult-oriented transplantation societies applicable to all recipients of HCT. While these approaches have significant merit, they are not pediatric-HCT focused and they do not address post-HCT challenges faced by children with complex non-malignant disorders. In this article we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of current published recommendations and conclude that pediatric-specific guidelines for post-HCT screening and management would be beneficial to the long-term health of these patients and would promote late-effects research in this field. Our panel of late effects experts also provides recommendations for follow up and therapy of selected post-HCT organ and endocrine complications in pediatric patients. PMID:22248713

  12. [Successful ablation of an atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia ablation 2 years after orthotopic heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Bellmann, Barbara; Reith, Sebastian; Gemein, Christopher; Schauerte, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with an orthotopic heart transplantation. Two years after transplantation, the patient reported intermittent palpitations and dyspnea. The results of the 12-lead electrogram provided suspicion of AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), which was confirmed in the electrophysiological examination. The AVNRT was successfully eliminated without complications by radiofrequency catheter ablation of the slow pathway. The case shows that an AVNRT, even with existing sinus rhythm of the original heart, can also occur on the transplanted heart and ablation is safe and feasible. PMID:26208808

  13. Health status in young adults two decades after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, S; Hormaza, L; Neighbors, K; Boone, P; Tierney, M; Azzam, R K; Butt, Z; Alonso, E M

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients who underwent pediatric liver transplant (LT) between 1988 and 1992 to evaluate long-term health status. Survivors completed socio-demographic, medical and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) surveys by mail including the SF-36v2, PedsQL™4.0 Generic Core Scale, PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale and PedsQL™3.0 Transplant Module. SF-36 scores were converted to SF6D-based utilities and risk factors for lower outcomes were assessed. Eighty-five of 171 patients had survived. Fifty-six were contacted with a response rate of 66%. Median age at LT was 0.86 years (IQR 0.58-3.0) and 64.3% had biliary atresia. Mean age at survey was 23.0 ± 4.4 years: 62% attended college, 68% lived with parents and 80% of those over 23 were employed. Patient health utilities were lower than norms (0.75 ± 0.12 vs. 0.82 ± 0.18, p < 0.01) and correlated with unemployment (p < 0.042), hospitalizations (p < 0.005) and lower education level (p < 0.016). Lower PedsQL™3.0 Transplant Module and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale scores correlated with unemployment (p = 0.006, p = 0.009) and hospitalizations (p = 0.006, p = 0.02). Pediatric transplant recipients who survive to adulthood have lower physical HRQOL, measurable transplant-related disability and lower health utility. Transplantation is life saving; however, physical and psychological sequelae continue to affect health status up to two decades later.

  14. Alemtuzumab induction with tacrolimus monotherapy in 25 pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jennifer; Barry, John M; Jenkins, Randy; Rozansky, David; Iragorri, Sandra; Conlin, Michael; Al-Uzri, Amira

    2013-12-01

    ALA induction in transplantation has been shown to reduce the need for maintenance immunosuppression. We report the outcome of 25 pediatric renal transplants between 2007 and 2010 using ALA induction followed by tacrolimus maintenance monotherapy. Patient ages were 1-19 yr (mean 14 ± 4.1 yr). Time of follow-up was 7-51 months (mean 26 ± 13 months). Tacrolimus monotherapy was maintained in 48% of patients, and glucocorticoids were avoided in 80% of recipients. Mean plasma creatinine and GFR at one yr post-transplant were 0.88 ± 0.3 mg/dL and 104.4 ± 25 mL/min/1.73m(2) , respectively. One, two, and three-yr actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 100%. The incidence of early AR (<12 months after transplantation) was 12%, while the incidence of late AR (after 12 months) was 16%. Forty-four percent of the recipients recovered normal, baseline renal function after an episode of AR, and 44% had persistent renal dysfunction (plasma creatinine 1.0-1.8 mg/dL). One graft was lost four yr after transplantation due to medication non-compliance. Four (16%) patients developed BK or CMV infection. In our experience, ALA induction with tacrolimus monotherapy resulted in excellent short- and mid-term patient and graft survival in low-immunologic risk pediatric renal transplant recipients.

  15. Increased renal and forearm vasoconstriction in response to exercise after heart transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, G A; Counihan, P J; Sneddon, J F; Jennison, S H; Bashir, Y; McKenna, W J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that the loss of the inhibitory effect of the cardiac ventricular afferent fibres on the vasomotor centre would result in increased vasoconstrictor drive to the forearm and renal vascular beds during supine exercise in heart transplant recipients. DESIGN--Comparison of regional haemodynamic response to exercise in heart transplant recipients and two age matched control groups. SETTING--Regional heart transplant unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS--Orthotopic heart transplant recipients (n = 10), patients with NYHA class II heart failure (n = 10), and normal controls (n = 10) underwent short duration maximal supine bicycle exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Simultaneous measurements were made of heart rate, systemic blood pressure, oxygen consumption (VO2), forearm blood flow, and renal blood flow. Forearm blood flow was measured by forearm plethysmography and renal blood flow by continuous renal vein thermodilution. RESULTS--The peak forearm vascular resistance was significantly greater in the transplant group than in the controls (mean (SEM) 75 (18) v 40 (7) resistance units, p < 0.05). The percentage fall in renal blood flow at peak exercise was significantly greater in heart transplant recipients than in the controls (44% (4%) v 32% (4%), p < 0.05) as was the percentage increase in renal vascular resistance (transplants: 116% (19%) v controls: 78% (17%), p < 0.05). Regional haemodynamics during exercise in the heart failure group were not significantly different from those in the controls. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that surgical division of the cardiac ventricular afferent fibres results in increased vasoconstrictor drive to the kidneys and non-exercising muscle during exercise. This mechanism may contribute to persistent exercise limitation and renal impairment after heart transplantation. PMID:8398495

  16. Introduction to the 2015 Supplement to Cardiology in the Young: Proceedings of the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    In the United States of America alone, ~14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was held on 4 and 5 February, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children's Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children's Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary "think-tank". Information about George R. Daicoff, MD, and Ed and Sarainne Andrews is provided in this introductory manuscript to the 2015 Supplement to Cardiology in the Young entitled: "Proceedings of the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute". Dr Daicoff founded the All Children's Hospital Pediatric Heart Surgery programme and directed this programme for over two decades. Sarainne Andrews made her generous bequest to All Children's Hospital in honour of her husband Ed and his friendship with Dr Daicoff in order to support cardiovascular surgery research efforts.

  17. Review of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Practice guidelines for management of heart failure in children.

    PubMed

    Colan, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004, practice guidelines for the management of heart failure in children by Rosenthal and colleagues were published in conjunction with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. These guidelines have not been updated or reviewed since that time. In general, there has been considerable controversy as to the utility and purpose of clinical practice guidelines, but there is general recognition that the relentless progress of medicine leads to the progressive irrelevance of clinical practice guidelines that do not undergo periodic review and updating. Paediatrics and paediatric cardiology, in particular, have had comparatively minimal participation in the clinical practice guidelines realm. As a result, most clinical practice guidelines either specifically exclude paediatrics from consideration, as has been the case for the guidelines related to cardiac failure in adults, or else involve clinical practice guidelines committees that include one or two paediatric cardiologists and produce guidelines that cannot reasonably be considered a consensus paediatric opinion. These circumstances raise a legitimate question as to whether the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation paediatric heart failure guidelines should be re-reviewed. The time, effort, and expense involved in producing clinical practice guidelines should be considered before recommending an update to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Paediatric Heart Failure guidelines. There are specific areas of rapid change in the evaluation and management of heart failure in children that are undoubtedly worthy of updating. These domains include areas such as use of serum and imaging biomarkers, wearable and implantable monitoring devices, and acute heart failure management and mechanical circulatory support. At the time the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines were published, echocardiographic tissue Doppler, 3 dimensional

  18. Interaction Between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate in Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Pawłowski, Mariusz; Werner, Bożena; Dąbrowski, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is primarily heart rate (HR) dependent, and therefore, different HR may exert different impact on HRV. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of HR on HRV in children and to determine whether HRV indices normalized to HR are sex- and age-related. Methods: Short-term ECG recordings were performed in 346 healthy children. Standard time and frequency domain HRV parameters and HR were analyzed in four age subgroups (6–7, 8–9, 10–11, and 12–13 years old). To investigate the HR impact on HRV, standard HRV parameters were normalized to prevailing HR. Results: Standard HRV measures did not differ between age subgroups, however, HR significantly decreased with subjects age and turned out to be the strongest determinant of HRV. The normalization of HRV to prevailing HR allowed to show that sex-related differences in standard HRV resulted from differences in HR between boys and girls. The normalized HRV significantly decreased with age—before the normalization this effect was masked by age-related HR alterations. Conclusions: HR significantly impacts HRV in pediatric population and turns out to be the strongest determinant of all standard HRV indices. The differences in standard HRV between boys and girls result from differences in their HR. The normalized HRV is decreasing with age in healthy children and it is accompanied by the reduction of HR—as a net result, the standard HRV is constant in children at different ages. This may reflect the maturation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:26733878

  19. Split-graft technique in neonatal heart transplant for aortic atresia.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; González-López, María-Teresa; Pita-Fernández, Ana; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    We describe a neonate with aortic atresia and hypoplastic aorta, listed for heart transplant after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation and ductal stenting. The donor aorta was detached from the graft, after an isolated arch reconstruction prior to the transplant itself in a routine fashion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of neonatal arch reconstruction before transplantation performed with grafts from the same donor in a split-way strategy.

  20. Split-graft technique in neonatal heart transplant for aortic atresia.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; González-López, María-Teresa; Pita-Fernández, Ana; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    We describe a neonate with aortic atresia and hypoplastic aorta, listed for heart transplant after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation and ductal stenting. The donor aorta was detached from the graft, after an isolated arch reconstruction prior to the transplant itself in a routine fashion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of neonatal arch reconstruction before transplantation performed with grafts from the same donor in a split-way strategy. PMID:27354464

  1. Allosensitization does not alter post-transplant outcomes in pediatric patients bridged to transplant with a ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Chesney; Zafar, Farhan; Thomas, Tamara; Khan, Muhammad S; Bryant, Roosevelt; Chin, Clifford; Morales, David L S; Lorts, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Patients supported with a VAD are at increased risk for sensitization. We aimed to determine risk factors for sensitization as well as the impact of sensitization on post-transplant outcomes. The UNOS database (January 2004-June 2014) was used to identify patients (≤18 yrs) supported with a durable VAD. Rates and degree of sensitization in the VAD cohort were calculated. Post-transplant survival was determined comparing outcomes of sensitized vs. non-sensitized patients. There were 3097 patients included in the study; 19% (n = 579) were bridged with a VAD. Of these, 41.8% were sensitized vs. 29.9% of the patients who were not bridged with a VAD (p < 0.001). VAD was an independent predictor of sensitization (OR 2.05 [1.63-2.57]; p < 0.001). There was no difference in sensitization based on device type (continuous vs. pulsatile flow, p = 0.990). Post-transplant survival rates between the sensitized and non-sensitized VAD patients were not different, including patients with a PRA >50% and VAD patients with a positive DSC (p = 0.280 and 0.160, respectively). In conclusion, pediatric VAD patients are more likely to be sensitized, but there was no difference in sensitization based on device type. In addition, sensitization does not appear to impact outcomes. PMID:27102953

  2. Minimally Invasive Repair of Mitral Valve Prolapse and Concomitant Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in a Heart Transplant.

    PubMed

    Martens, Thomas; Caes, Frank; De Pauw, Michel; Hens, Lineke; Bove, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    Significant mitral valve disease with atrial fibrillation after heart transplantation is unusual. We report the diagnosis and minimally invasive surgical treatment 17 years after transplantation, in which mitral valve repair together with left atrial ablation was performed, resulting in a satisfying clinical and echocardiographic improvement. PMID:27645968

  3. Is it right to promote living donor liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure in pediatric recipients?

    PubMed

    Reding, Raymond

    2005-07-01

    Good clinical results are currently achieved in elective pediatric liver transplantation (LT) with living-related donors. However, the question whether such therapeutic approach may also be promoted in case of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) remains a matter of debate. This work briefly reviews the ethical background and overall medical results of living-related donation in pediatric LT. When considering FHF, success is essentially conditioned by the availability of a suitable organ donor before the onset of irreversible brain damage and death of the transplant candidate on the waiting list. Accordingly, living donor LT provides several advantages for patients with FHF, including the short waiting time and the access to a transplant with reduced ischemic injury and optimal graft quality; however, living donation is also characterized by several drawbacks to be carefully considered, particularly the possibility of coercion to the recipient's family as well as the operative risks of the emergency donor hepatectomy. The ethical soundness of living parental donor LT for FHF is discussed, with emphasis to the type of medical context, with or without access to an efficient emergency postmortem organ sharing system. PMID:15943615

  4. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis. PMID:26022014

  5. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis.

  6. Long-Term Linear Growth and Puberty in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Saeed; Grimberg, Adda; Rand, Elizabeth; Anand, Ravinder; Yin, Wanrong; Alonso, Estella M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore linear growth, puberty, and predictors of linear growth impairment among pubertal liver transplant recipients. Study design Review of data collected prospectively through the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Thirty-one variables were tested as risk factors for linear growth impairment, and factors significant at P < .1 were included in a logistic regression model. Risk factor analysis was limited to 512 patients who had complete demographic and medical data. Results A total of 892 patients surviving their first liver transplant by >1 year, with ≥1 height recorded, who were between 8 and 18 years old between the years 2005 and 2009 were included. Median follow-up was 70.2 ± 38.6 months, mean age was 12.9 ± 3.3 years, and mean height z-score (zH) was –0.5 ±1.4 SD. Twenty percent had linear growth impairment at last follow-up. Of 353 subjects with Tanner stage data, 39% of girls and 42% of boys ages 16-18 years were not yet Tanner 5. Growth impairment rates were higher among boys than girls (30% vs 7%, P < .05) at Tanner stage 4, and occurred in 8/72 (11 %) of Tanner 5 subjects. Among patients with parental height data, zH were lower than calculated mid-parental zH (P< .005). Independent predictors of growth impairment included linear growth impairment at transplant (OR 11.53, P ≤ .0001), re-transplantation (OR 4.37, P = .001), non-white race (P = .0026), and primary diagnosis other than biliary atresia (P = .0105). Conclusions Linear growth impairment and delayed puberty are common in pubertal liver transplant recipients, with pre-transplant growth impairment identified as a potentially modifiable risk factor. Catch-up growth by the end of puberty may be incomplete. PMID:23916225

  7. Heart transplantation in Japan: a critical appraisal for the results and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Soichiro

    2012-10-01

    As of September 30, 2011, a total of 113 patients with end-stage heart failure underwent heart transplantation in Japan, and the early and late (10 years) survival rates appear better than those reported in 2011 by the Registry of the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). Among the risk factors determining survival, use of both left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) during the pretransplant care and marginal donor hearts increased the risk while factors favoring survival included younger adult recipients and fewer patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy; factors noted in Japanese patients in comparison with those registered in the ISHLT report. Although only a few patients have reached 10 years follow-up, so far none has died or required retransplantation due to cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). CAV may develop later in Japanese heart transplant patients than in those of mixed inter-ethnic transplants. Recently, survival rates with newer LVADs have dramatically improved and therefore, selection criteria for the permanent or destination use of an LVAD or for heart transplantation require further evaluation, depending upon the various factors in candidates with profound heart failure. PMID:22898800

  8. [Long-term mechanical circulatory support in 2014: A real alternative to heart transplantation?].

    PubMed

    Flécher, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end stage heart failure however results of long-term mechanical circulatory support have dramatically improved over the last 10years. One should now clearly consider a left ventricular assist device as bridge to transplant or destination therapy in refractory isolated left heart failure. Mechanical biventricular support remains more challenging with lower survival and may be proposed as bridge to transplant. Correct patient's selection and appropriate follow-up are mandatory in such critical patients. PMID:24933679

  9. Thoracic aorta aneurysm open repair in heart transplant recipient; the anesthesiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Fabrizio; Oriani, Alessandro; De Luca, Monica; Bignami, Elena; Sala, Alessandra; Chiesa, Roberto; Melissano, Germano; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Many years following transplantation, heart transplant recipients may require noncardiac major surgeries. Anesthesia in such patients may be challenging due to physiological and pharmacological problems regarding allograft denervation and difficult immunosuppressive management. Massive hemorrhage, hypoperfusion, renal, respiratory failure, and infections are some of the most frequent complications related to thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. Understanding how to optimize hemodynamic and infectious risks may have a substantial impact on the outcome. This case report aims at discussing risk stratification and anesthetic management of a 54-year-old heart transplant female recipient, affected by Marfan syndrome, undergoing thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. PMID:26750703

  10. A case of periostitis secondary to voriconazole therapy in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Wise, Steven M; Wilson, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of heart transplant for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy presented with progressive bone pain and myalgias. He has been on voriconazole for a pulmonary Aspergillus infection for 9 months. He had an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 280. There is no history of rheumatologic disease. Drug-induced periostitis has recently been reported in patients on long-term voriconazole therapy after lung transplantation for prophylaxis and treatment of Aspergillus infection. This case demonstrates the same phenomenon in a heart transplant patient. This patient's symptoms improved after discontinuation of voriconazole.

  11. Thoracic aorta aneurysm open repair in heart transplant recipient; the anesthesiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Fabrizio; Oriani, Alessandro; De Luca, Monica; Bignami, Elena; Sala, Alessandra; Chiesa, Roberto; Melissano, Germano; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Many years following transplantation, heart transplant recipients may require noncardiac major surgeries. Anesthesia in such patients may be challenging due to physiological and pharmacological problems regarding allograft denervation and difficult immunosuppressive management. Massive hemorrhage, hypoperfusion, renal, respiratory failure, and infections are some of the most frequent complications related to thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. Understanding how to optimize hemodynamic and infectious risks may have a substantial impact on the outcome. This case report aims at discussing risk stratification and anesthetic management of a 54-year-old heart transplant female recipient, affected by Marfan syndrome, undergoing thoracic aorta aneurysm repair.

  12. Orthotopic Heart Transplantation in an Adult Patient with Heterotaxy Syndrome: Surgical Implications.

    PubMed

    González-López, María-Teresa; Pérez-Caballero-Martínez, Ramón; Amoros-Rivera, Carlos; Zamorano-Serrano, José; Pita-Fernández, Ana-María; Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Modified techniques for orthotopic heart transplantation are mandatory when complex congenital anomalies are associated in adult patients. An unusual case of a heterotaxy syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy following mitral ring annuloplasty is presented in a 62-year-old male. Orthotopic cardiac transplantation was performed by using a modified operative strategy: selective peripheral and central venous cannulation according to the thoraco-abdominal venous challenges, biatrial technique, and preservation of venous drainage via the native coronary sinus. We discuss the anatomical features of heterotaxy in adult patients and surgical approaches when heart transplantation is needed. PMID:26450654

  13. [Pediatric liver transplant program at Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez].

    PubMed

    Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Hernández-Plata, J Alejandro; Nieto-Zermeño, Jaime; Alcántar-Fierros, J Manuel; Fuentes-García, Victor; Castañeda-Martínez, Pedro; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro; Salgado-Ramírez, J Manuel

    2011-09-01

    This article reports the experience of the largest pediatric liver transplant (LT) program in México. Between June 1998 and May 2011, 76 LT were performed in 74 recipients, including 80% cadaveric-whole organ grafts and 20% segmental grafts, 12% of those coming from live donors and 8% from cadaver reduced donors. The most common indication for LT was biliary atresia (43%), followed by metabolic disorders (13%) and fulminant hepatitis (12%). Most of the recipients were infants or toddlers weighing <15 kg (age range 0.7-17.2 years, weight range 6.5-66 kg), 73% had moderate to severe malnutrition and 72% had multiples surgeries previous to LT. There were 9 cases of hepatic artery thrombosis (11.8%) and 2 portal vein thrombosis (2.6%), however, 8 of these 10 grafts were rescued with early thrombectomy and reanastomosis. All biliary complications (19 cases, 25%) were solved with medical or surgical interventions and did not cause any graft loss. Acute cellular rejection (30 cases, 39%) required thymoglobulin in only 3 cases and chronic rejection (4 cases, 5%) has been retransplanted in 2 cases. CMV infection or reactivation occurred in 30% of cases and easily responded to preemptive therapy. Nine recipients developed postLT neoplasias (7 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, one multivisceral Kaposi sarcoma and one systemic smooth muscle tumor). Five of them responded to decreasing or discontinuing immunosuppression, and 2 are completely tolerant to the graft. The one and five-year patient survival for those LT performed during 2001-2011 was 85 and 75%. The first successful live donor LT in the country was performed in 2001 at this program, as was the first simultaneous liver-kidney transplant in a child. This is the largest and most successful pediatric LT series in the country. Our results demonstrate that pediatric LT is a feasible undertaking in Mexico, with survival rates similar to those of foreign centers.

  14. Psychosocial adjustment of pediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Felder-Puig, R; Peters, C; Matthes-Martin, S; Lamche, M; Felsberger, C; Gadner, H; Topf, R

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychosocial adjustment of patients who had been treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in our clinic. Selection criteria for patients were to be aged 14-30 years at the time of the follow-up, to be at least 2 years post-SCT and to have a very good knowledge of German. Among 31 eligible patients, 26 participated (84% response rate). The patients were between 15 and 27 years old and were on average 7 years (range 2-13) post-SCT. Research instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire and various subscales of established psychological measures for which data from a sample of bone cancer survivors and population norms were available. About 35% of patients showed high levels of anxiety, 62% appeared to be extremely sensitive and vulnerable, and 35% showed strong, unfulfilled needs in their love lives. In the other domains tested (self-esteem, family and peer relationships, school/vocational performance, etc), no noticeable differences were found between the subjects and comparable populations. There was no significant association between psychosocial outcome and demographic features or clinical data. Our results suggest that patients who underwent SCT in their childhood or adolescence are at risk of developing long-term emotional or social problems. Due to the retrospective design of our study and the small sample size, no predictive factors for psychosocial distress could be identified.

  15. Rituximab in post-transplant pediatric recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shatat, Ibrahim F.; Skversky, Amy L.; Woroniecki, Robert P.; Del Rio, Marcela; Perelstein, Eduardo M.; Johnson, Valerie L.; Mahesh, Shefali

    2012-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurs in 20–40 % of allografts. Plasmapheresis (TPE) has been one of the mainstays of treatment with variable results. Rituximab (RTX), a monoclonal antibody to the protein CD20, is being used for treatment of recurrent FSGS (recFSGS) but pediatric experience is limited. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of eight patients with recFSGS, treated with RTX (1–4 doses) after having minimal response to TPE. Complete response was defined as a decrease in urine protein creatinine ratio (Up/c) to less than 0.2 and partial response was a decrease in Up/c ratio by 50 % of baseline and in the sub-nephrotic range (U p/c <2). Results Complete response was seen in two of eight patients, and partial response was seen in four of eight patients. Two patients had no response. At last follow-up, all the partial responders had sub-nephrotic range proteinuria (Up/c ratios ranging from 0.29 to 1.6). Delayed response, up to 9 months post-RTX, was also seen in some of the patients. Significant complications such as rituximab-associated lung injury (RALI), acute tubular necrosis, and central nervous system (CNS) malignancy were also observed in our case series. Conclusions Rituximab can be used with caution as a treatment for recFSGS. Efficacy is variable from none to complete response. Even partial reduction in proteinuria is of benefit in prolonging the life of the allograft. Long-term, multicenter studies are needed to prove its sustained efficacy in those who respond and to monitor for serious adverse effects. PMID:23052653

  16. Risk Factors for End-Stage Kidney Disease after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ruebner, RL; Reese, PP; Denburg, MR; Rand, EB; Abt, PL; Furth, SL

    2015-01-01

    Adult liver transplant (LT) recipients commonly develop advanced kidney disease. However, burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) after pediatric LT has not been well-described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric LTs in the US from 1990–2010. Multivariable Cox regression models were fit to determine risk factors for ESKD and death. 8976 children received LTs. During median follow-up of 7.8 years, 2005 (22%) subjects died (mortality rate 26.1 cases/1000 person-years); 167 (2%) developed ESKD (incidence rate 2.2 cases/1000 person-years). Risk factors for ESKD included older age at LT (highest risk age>15 vs <5 years, HR=4.94, p<0.001), hepatitis C (HR 2.79, p=0.004), liver re-transplant (HR 2.67, p<0.001), eGFR pre-LT <60 vs ≥60 (HR 2.37, p<0.001), hepatitis B (HR 2.25, p=0.027), black race (HR 1.46, p=0.046), and male sex (HR 1.44, p=0.022). LT recipients with ESKD had increased risk of mortality (HR 2.37, p<0.001). Among pediatric LT recipients, rate of ESKD was lower than among adults and far exceeded by rate of death, however follow-up time in this study may underestimate lifetime burden of ESKD. Although uncommon, ESKD was highly associated with mortality. Pediatric LT recipients should be routinely monitored for kidney disease, particularly those at highest risk of ESKD. PMID:22994862

  17. Fecal microbiota transplantation via nasogastric tube for recurrent clostridium difficile infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kronman, Matthew P; Nielson, Heather J; Adler, Amanda L; Giefer, Matthew J; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Singh, Namita; Zerr, Danielle M; Suskind, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a safe and effective therapy for adults with recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis, but data regarding FMT in children are limited and focus on colonoscopic administration of FMT. We present 10 consecutive children who received FMT via nasogastric tube for treatment of recurrent C difficile infection. Median age was 5.4 years, and 30% were receiving simultaneous immunosuppression. Median follow-up was 44 days, and 90% of patients resolved their C difficile infection; one patient relapsed 2 months later after receiving antibiotics. FMT via nasogastric tube appears safe, well tolerated, and effective in treating pediatric recurrent C difficile colitis.

  18. Rehabilitative intervention during and after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: An analysis of the existing literature.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Coppo, Monica; Zucchetti, Giulia; Bazzano, Daniela; Ricci, Federica; Vassallo, Elena; Nesi, Francesca; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic strategy for several oncohematological diseases. It increases survival rates but leads to a high incidence of related effects. The objective of this paper was to examine the existing literature on physical exercise interventions among pediatric HSCT recipients to explore the most often utilized rehabilitative assessment and treatment tools. Studies published from 2002 to April 1, 2015 were selected: 10 studies were included. A previous literary review has shown that rehabilitation programs have a positive impact on quality of life. Our analysis identified some significant outcome variables and shared intervention areas. PMID:27409063

  19. Technology and vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA)-lessons learned from the first bilateral pediatric hand transplant.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-11-01

    The reconstructive principle of replacing "like with like" is best met with vascularized composite allotransplantation in which the components of an existing defect are "matched" to the greatest extent possible in a single stage restoration. Hand transplantation is a labor-intensive and time-intensive process and can be conceptualized into distinct phases that include (1) patient selection and preoperative preparation, (2) technical execution of the procedure, and (3) postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up. The advent of technological innovations, such as 3D printing technology, novel implant technology, as well as innovative imaging technology, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging have the potential of favorably affecting all phases of this process, thus contributing to improved outcomes. The use of these technologies in the world's first case of bilateral hand transplantation in a pediatric patient is discussed. PMID:27638100

  20. Technology and vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA)-lessons learned from the first bilateral pediatric hand transplant.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-11-01

    The reconstructive principle of replacing "like with like" is best met with vascularized composite allotransplantation in which the components of an existing defect are "matched" to the greatest extent possible in a single stage restoration. Hand transplantation is a labor-intensive and time-intensive process and can be conceptualized into distinct phases that include (1) patient selection and preoperative preparation, (2) technical execution of the procedure, and (3) postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up. The advent of technological innovations, such as 3D printing technology, novel implant technology, as well as innovative imaging technology, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging have the potential of favorably affecting all phases of this process, thus contributing to improved outcomes. The use of these technologies in the world's first case of bilateral hand transplantation in a pediatric patient is discussed.

  1. Anesthetic considerations for an adult heart transplant recipient undergoing noncardiac surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Regalado; Durra, Omar; Gold, Michele E

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 3,500 Americans undergo heart transplantation each year. A portion of this patient population will possibly present later for an elective noncardiac surgery. Anesthesia professionals can be tasked to assess and provide the anesthesia management for heart transplant recipients undergoing a noncardiac surgical procedure. A 57-year-old man with a complicated cardiac history before undergoing heart transplantation was scheduled to undergo a right inguinal hernia repair. The patient underwent general anesthesia and had an uneventful course of surgery and recovery. Management of the patient with a heart transplant includes consideration of the altered physiology of a denervated heart; the perioperative anesthetic considerations specific to this patient population; and the risks of rejection, infection, and pharmacologic interactions brought about by immunosuppression. The purposes of this case report were to discuss the indications for the perioperative care of heart transplant recipients undergoing noncardiac procedures, and to discuss the evidence-based literature to provide delivery of safe and effective patient care. PMID:25167609

  2. Doppler tissue imaging for assessing left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, S; Allemann, Y; Zimmerli, M; Lipp, E; Kucher, N; Mohacsi, P; Seiler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that diastolic mitral annular motion velocity, as determined by Doppler tissue imaging and left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity, is related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).
METHODS—In 41 heart transplant recipients undergoing 151 myocardial biopsies, the following Doppler echocardiographic measurements were performed within one hour of biopsy: transmitral and pulmonary vein flow indices; mitral annular motion velocity indices; left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity.
RESULTS—Late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (ADTI) and mitral annular systolic contraction velocity (SCDTI) were higher in patients with ISHLT < IIIA than in those with ISHLT ⩾ IIIA (ADTI, 8.8 cm/s v 7.7 cm/s (p = 0.03); SCDTI, 19.3 cm/s v 9.3 cm/s (p < 0.05)). Sensitivity and specificity of ADTI < 8.7 cm/s (the best cut off value) in predicting significant heart transplant rejection were 82% and 53%, respectively. Early diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (EDTI) and flow propagation velocity were not related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection.
CONCLUSIONS—Doppler tissue imaging of the mitral annulus is useful in diagnosing heart transplant rejection because a high late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity can reliably exclude severe rejection. However, a reduced late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity cannot predict severe rejection reliably because it is not specific enough.


Keywords: heart transplant rejection; diastolic function; Doppler tissue imaging; echocardiography PMID:11559685

  3. Electronic Tool for Distribution and Allocation of Heart on Donation and Transplantation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Maqueda Tenorio, S E; Meixueiro Daza, L A; Maqueda Estrada, S

    2016-03-01

    In Mexico and globally, organs and/or tissues donated from deceased people are insufficient to cover the demand for transplants. In 2014, a rate of 3.6 organ donors per million in habitants was recorded; this is reflected in the transplants performed, including heart transplantation, with a rate of 0.4 per million population. According to the legal framework of Mexico, the National Transplant Center is responsible for coordinating National Subsystem of donation and transplantation, and one of its functions is to integrate and backup information regarding donation and transplantation through the National Transplant Registry System. In July 2015, 45 people were registered in the database of patients waiting for a heart transplant, of which 34.61% were female recipients and 65.39% male. Distribution and allocation processes are a key element to provide a fair distribution for those patients waiting for that organ; thus the creation of an electronic tool is proposed, one that aims to support the decision of the donation and/or transplants coordination committee by providing the necessary elements to make this process more efficient. PMID:27110003

  4. Beyond the Pediatric end-stage liver disease system: solutions for infants with biliary atresia requiring liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Mary Elizabeth M; Harpavat, Sanjiv; Shepherd, Ross W; Hiremath, Girish S; Brandt, Mary L; Fisher, Amy; Goss, John A

    2014-08-28

    Biliary atresia (BA), a chronic progressive cholestatic disease of infants, is the leading cause for liver transplant in children, especially in patients under two years of age. BA can be successfully treated with the Kasai portoenterostomy; however most patients still require a liver transplant, with up to one half of BA children needing a transplant by age two. In the current pediatric end-stage liver disease system, children with BA face the risk of not receiving a liver in a safe and timely manner. In this review, we discuss a number of possible solutions to help these children. We focus on two general approaches: (1) preventing/delaying need for transplantation, by optimizing the success of the Kasai operation; and (2) expediting transplantation when needed, by performing techniques other than the standard deceased-donor, whole, ABO-matched organ transplant. PMID:25170195

  5. Occurrence of neuropathies in patients with severe heart failure before and after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Sergio; Minà, Chiara; Sant'Angelo, Antonino; Boccagni, Cristina; Prestandrea, Caterina; Caronia, Alessandra; Clemenza, Francesco; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Neuropathies may affect heart reinnervation and functional outcome after heart transplantation (HT). In this study, neurological evaluations, standard nerve conduction studies, and electromyography were performed in 32 HT candidates without a previous history of neuromuscular disorder. Ten patients underwent HT and were revaluated 3 months later. We found that before HT 10 (31.3%) patients had sensorimotor polyneuropathy (18.8%) or sensory polyneuropathy (12.5%). After HT, the percentage of patients with a neuromuscular disorder increased to 70%, most of them showing new or worsening neuropathies or neuromyopathies. The most sensitive abnormality that indicated neuromuscular involvement after HT was a reduction of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the deep peroneal nerve. In conclusion, neuromuscular disorders are common in HT candidates, and they further increase in occurrence after HT. A reduction of the deep peroneal nerve CMAP amplitude after HT may help to identify patients who need a more detailed neurophysiological evaluation. The diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders before and after HT may contribute to the development of more accurate therapeutic and rehabilitative strategies for these patients. PMID:26573590

  6. "A beacon of light". Spirituality in the heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Walton, J; St Clair, K

    2000-03-01

    For the cardiac transplant recipients in this study, spirituality was like a beacon of light, providing illumination and sustaining hope while enduring illness. Spirituality was nurtured by Developing Faith and by the Presence of significant others, health care providers, and the Divine to sustain hope. Spirituality throughout the transplantation process was described by concepts of faith, presence, enduring illness, and sustaining hope. The four dynamic phases of Enduring Illness can assist health care providers in understanding what spirituality means to transplant patients. This conceptual model of spirituality demonstrates the important role that spirituality plays in recovery. Clinical application of this model will allow health care providers involved in the care of cardiac transplant patients to integrate spirituality into their patients' plan of care. With future research, this model can be easily modified and built upon to meet the needs of cardiac transplant patients in all phases of transplantation.

  7. Orthotopic heart transplant versus left ventricular assist device: A national comparison of cost and survival

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Stone, Matthew L.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Kern, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Orthotopic heart transplantation is the standard of care for end-stage heart disease. Left ventricular assist device implantation offers an alternative treatment approach. Left ventricular assist device practice has changed dramatically since the 2008 Food and Drug Administration approval of the HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, Calif), but at what societal cost? The present study examined the cost and efficacy of both treatments over time. Methods All patients who underwent either orthotopic heart transplantation (n = 9369) or placement of an implantable left ventricular assist device (n = 6414) from 2005 to 2009 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were selected. The trends in treatment use, mortality, and cost were analyzed. Results The incidence of orthotopic heart transplantation increased marginally within a 5-year period. In contrast, the annual left ventricular assist device implantation rates nearly tripled. In-hospital mortality from left ventricular assist device implantation decreased precipitously, from 42% to 17%. In-hospital mortality for orthotopic heart transplantation remained relatively stable (range, 3.8%–6.5%). The mean cost per patient increased for both orthotopic heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device placement (40% and 17%, respectively). With the observed increase in both device usage and cost per patient, the cumulative Left ventricular assist device cost increased 232% within 5 years (from $143 million to $479 million). By 2009, Medicare and Medicaid were the primary payers for nearly one half of all patients (orthotopic heart transplantation, 45%; left ventricular assist device, 51%). Conclusions Since Food and Drug Administration approval of the HeartMate II, mortality after left ventricular assist device implantation has decreased rapidly, yet has remained greater than that after orthotopic heart transplantation. The left ventricular assist device costs have continued to increase and have been

  8. Routine pediatric immunization, special cases in pediatrics: prematurity, chronic disease, congenital heart disease: recent advancements/changes in pediatric vaccines.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination is a powerful and dynamic weapon in reducing the impact of infectious diseases in children. The field and schedules are constantly evolving, with significant changes resulting in new and exciting vaccines almost yearly. Special cases in pediatrics represent unique challenges and differences in vaccinations. Health care providers need to be knowledgable about the current vaccines and to remain up to date with the constant evolution, as well as be aware of the latest recommendations, warnings, and news about vaccines and their use. This article updates and discusses current but ever-changing routine pediatric vaccination programs.

  9. Autoantibodies to red blood cell antigens occur frequently with hemolysis among pediatric small bowel transplant recipients: clinical implications and management.

    PubMed

    Koepsell, Scott A; Grant, Wendy; Landmark, James D

    2015-02-01

    Reports have linked pediatric solid organ transplant recipients with the development of hemolytic autoimmune antibodies, especially in the setting of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. This study aims to identify whether these observations also occurred at an institution that frequently performs pediatric multivisceral transplants and to characterize the treatment and outcome. Chart review was performed on all patients with RBC autoantibodies. Laboratory and clinical data were used to identify hemolysis. For transplant recipients with RBC autoantibodies, the type of transplant and outcome of the AIHA were profiled. One hundred twenty-eight patients were identified with RBC autoantibodies, of which 22 patients were solid organ transplant recipients, including 18 SB graft recipients. Sixteen of the 18 had evidence of hemolysis. The incidence rate of AIHA in this population is estimated to be 10%, resulting in significant cost. Treatment included immunosuppressant modulation, steroids, IVIG, and plasma exchange, with 12 of the 16 patients responding. RBC autoantibodies occur in up to 10% in pediatric SB transplant recipients, with high cost of obtaining compatible blood. Neither tacrolimus nor receipts of a donor spleen were associated with the development of AIHA. Treatment using steroids and IVIG appears to be effective.

  10. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. . E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao; Chan, Ka Wah; Antolak, John; Ha, Chul S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  11. Current prevention strategies against cytomegalovirus in the studies in pediatric liver transplantation (SPLIT) centers.

    PubMed

    Danziger-Isakov, L; Bucavalas, J

    2014-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) continues to be a significant posttransplant infectious complication after pediatric liver transplant (PLT). The optimal prevention strategy is not currently known. To assess current CMV prevention practices, a web-based survey was conducted within the North American Studies in Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) network. Twenty-nine of the 31 centers (94%) surveyed responded. Only seven centers reported evidence-based development of protocols. For most at-risk (donor or recipient CMV seropositive) PLT recipients, a prophylactic strategy predominates current practice. For high-risk (D+/R-), only three centers used nonprophylaxis-based protocols: one preemptive and two sequential/hybrid. Duration of prophylaxis ranged from 84 to 730 days with 14 centers using around 100 days and nine centers using around 200 days. Initial therapy with ganciclovir followed by valganciclovir was the most common strategy. For lower-risk recipients (CMV D-/R-), more centers (10/29) employed a preemptive strategy while the remainder described prophylaxis (15) and sequential/hybrid (3) strategies. Prophylaxis predominates current CMV prevention strategies for at-risk recipients within SPLIT. The variation in duration of therapy provides the opportunity to perform comparative effectiveness studies within SPLIT. PMID:24903621

  12. Statin therapy in cardiac allograft vasculopathy progression in heart transplant patients: Does potency matter?

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Weeks, Phillip; Krustchinsky, Lori; Rajapreyar, Indranee

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a unique multi-factorial pathologic process encountered following heart transplantation. Several risk factors have been identified including a combination of immunologic and non-immunologic processes. Significant research has been conducted to elucidate the driving forces of CAV as well as improved identification, prevention and treatment strategies. Statin therapy following transplant remains the standard of care to help prevent the progression of CAV. The benefits of statin therapy following transplantation correspond to cholesterol control, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms as well as potentially unknown mechanisms. Despite known drug interactions with calcineurin inhibitors, the use of statins is highly recommended in the current International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines. Limited research has been conducted on the impact of higher intensity statin therapy following heart transplant and the relative risks and benefits are unknown. This review focuses on risk factors and pathophysiology of CAV, the role of statin therapy in heart transplantation, and the potential added benefit of more intense statin therapy to limit the progression of this graft-limiting complication. PMID:27079752

  13. In my shoes: children’s quality of life after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean; Ainley, Kathy; Bryant, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Background Although heart transplantation has been offered for 2 decades to prolong the lives of children with end-stage heart disease, we know little about how these children view their lives, how they deal with their complicated medical regimen, and how the transplantation affects their quality of life. Objectives To examine the quality of life of school-aged heart transplant recipients and to identify the key factors they believe affect their quality of life. Design Focused ethnography. Participants and Setting Eleven children (7 girls, 4 boys) between the ages of 6 and 12 years (mean 9.1 years) who had received a transplant at least 6 months earlier were recruited from a large children’s hospital. Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews were conducted in private locations. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Results The children described their quality of life as “mostly good,” yet reported that life was “easy and not easy.” Ten factors that affected the children’s quality of life were Doing Things/Going Places, Favorite School Activities, Hard Things About School, Being With Friends and Family, Doing Things/Going Places With Friends and Family, Interactions With Friends and Family, Taking Care of My Heart, My Body, The Transplant Team, and Other Health Problems. Based on similarities in meaning, these factors were combined into 3 themes: Doing What Kids Do, Being With Friends and Family, and Being a Heart Transplant Kid. The themes and factors can provide useful direction for interventions aimed at improving the quality of life for children after heart transplantation. PMID:17944159

  14. Human leukocyte antigens and alloimmunization in heart transplantation: an open debate.

    PubMed

    Picascia, Antonietta; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Casamassimi, Amelia; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Considerable advances in heart transplantation outcome have been achieved through the improvement of donor-recipient selection, better organ preservation, lower rates of perioperative mortality and the use of innovative immunosuppressive protocols. Nevertheless, long-term survival is still influenced by late complications. We support the introduction of HLA matching as an additional criterion in the heart allocation. Indeed, allosensitization is an important factor affecting heart transplantation and the presence of anti-HLA antibodies causes an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection and graft failure. On the other hand, the rate of heart-immunized patients awaiting transplantation is steadily increasing due to the limited availability of organs and an increased use of ventricular assist devices. Significant benefits may result from virtual crossmatch approach that prevents transplantation in the presence of unacceptable donor antigens. A combination of both virtual crossmatch and a tailored desensitization therapy could be a good compromise for a favorable outcome in highly sensitized patients. Here, we discuss the unresolved issue on the clinical immunology of heart transplantation.

  15. The incidence of cancer in a population-based cohort of Canadian heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Villeneuve, P J; Wielgosz, A; Schaubel, D E; Fenton, S S A; Mao, Y

    2010-03-01

    To assess the long-term risk of developing cancer among heart transplant recipients compared to the Canadian general population, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 1703 patients who received a heart transplant between 1981 and 1998, identified from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register database. Vital status and cancer incidence were determined through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Database and Canadian Cancer Registry. Cancer incidence rates among heart transplant patients were compared to those of the general population. The observed number of incident cancers was 160 with 58.9 expected in the general population (SIR = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.3, 3.2). The highest ratios were for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (SIR = 22.7, 95% CI = 17.3, 29.3), oral cancer (SIR = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.1, 8.0) and lung cancer (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0). Compared to the general population, SIRs for NHL were particularly elevated in the first year posttransplant during more recent calendar periods, and among younger patients. Within the heart transplant cohort, overall cancer risks increased with age, and the 15-year cumulative incidence of all cancers was estimated to be 17%. There is an excess of incident cases of cancer among heart transplant recipients. The relative excesses are most marked for NHL, oral and lung cancer. PMID:20121725

  16. Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2011-11-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation.

  17. Varicella-zoster immunization in pediatric liver transplant recipients: safe and immunogenic.

    PubMed

    Posfay-Barbe, K M; Pittet, L F; Sottas, C; Grillet, S; Wildhaber, B E; Rodriguez, M; Kaiser, L; Belli, D C; McLin, V A; Siegrist, C A

    2012-11-01

    Varicella can have a severe course in immunosuppressed patients. Although prevention is fundamental, live-attenuated varicella-zoster (VZV) vaccine is not currently recommended in transplant recipients. Our aims were to (1) evaluate VZV immunity in pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients; (2) immunize (two doses) seronegative patients post-LT; (3) monitor vaccine safety, (4) assess B and T cell vaccine responses. All patients followed at the Swiss National Pediatric LT Center were approached and 77/79 (97.5%) were enrolled (median age 7.8 years). Vaccine safety was monitored by standardized diary cards and phone calls. VZV-specific serology and CD4(+) T cells were assessed before and after immunization. Thirty-nine patients (51.1%) were seronegative including 14 children immunized pre-LT. Thirty-six of 39 seronegative patients were immunized post-LT (median 3.0 years post LT). Local (54.8%) and systemic (64.5%) reactions were mild and transient. The frequency of VZV-specific CD4(+) T cells and antibody titers increased significantly (respectively from 0.085% to 0.16%, p = 0.04 and 21.0 to 1134.5 IU/L, p < 0.001). All children reached seroprotective titers and 31/32 (97%) patients assessed remained seroprotected at follow-up (median 1.7 years). No breakthrough disease was reported during follow-up (median 4.1 years). Thereby, VZV vaccine appears to be safe, immunogenic and provide protection against disease in pediatric LT patients. PMID:22994936

  18. Successful replacement of malfunctioning TCI HeartMate LVAD with DeBakey LVAD as a bridge to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Claudio F; Fratto, Pasquale A; Milazzo, Filippo; Vitali, Ettore

    2004-12-01

    Congestive heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in the developed world and affects about 0.4-2% of the adult population [Ann Thorac Surg 1999;68:637-40]. Heart transplantation remains the most effective therapy for end-stage heart disease, but the shortage of donors has led to increasing interest in other surgical options, especially ventricular assist devices (VAD). Several VADs are available to bridge patients to transplantation [N Engl J Med 2001;345:1435-43], including pulsatile devices like the HeartMate (HeartMate, Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) and Novacor (World Heart, Netherlands), and the DeBakey VAD (MicroMed Technology, Inc., Houston, TX), which is an electromagnetically driven implantable titanium axial flow blood pump designed for left ventricular support. Despite technical improvements, VADs still are associated with serious complications. We reporte a successfull case where we replaced a TCI HeartMate with a DeBakey VAD because of a serious pocket infection, deterioration and failure of the inflow valve. PMID:17670305

  19. Urological complications after 134 pediatric kidney transplants: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F; Branco, F; Cavadas, V; Ribeiro, S; Osório, L; Rocha, A; Ramos, M; Martins, L; Castro-Henriques, A; Mota, C; Reis, A; Fraga, A

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of surgical complications after kidney transplantation has been reported to range from 1% to 33%. The aim of this work was to report surgical urological complications among our cohort of 134 pediatric kidney transplantations. Epidemiological and clinical data of all patients younger than 18 years transplanted between January 1984 and May 2012 were collected from our prospective database. Urologic complications and management are reported herein. One hundred twenty-four patients, including 44% females underwent 134 renal transplants. Median age at the time of the surgery was 13 years. Mean time of end-stage renal disease was 25 months. We identified 10 subjects (7.5%) with urological complications: 5 ureterovesical stenoses, 2 lymphoceles, and 3 lower ureteral fistulas. All of the renal allografts were obtained from cadaveric donors. Mean age of these patients at the time of transplantation was 13 years. Mean cold ischemia time was 1613 minutes. All the patients required surgical management. All patients with ureterovesical stenoses underwent ureteral reimplantation using a Boari flap; those with lymphoceles underwent open marsupialization; 2 with ureteral fistulas underwent reimplantation of the ureter, and the other patient's case required placement of a nephrostomy tube and an antegrade ureteral catheter. All patients were treated successfully. Mean follow-up time of cases with urological complications was 9.5 years. Currently, 60% has nonfunctioning allografts; the mean current glomerular filtration rate of the functioning renal allografts is 55 mL/min. Despite requiring surgical management, all patients were treated successfully. Prompt identification and treatment of any complication are critical for graft and patient survival.

  20. Pediatric liver transplantation: preliminary results at Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione.

    PubMed

    Cintorino, D; Spada, M; Clarizia, S; Vasta, F; Mandalà, L; Aricò, M; Traverso, G; Luca, A; Panarello, G; Minervini, M; Gruttadauria, S; Verzaro, R; Volpes, R; Scotti Foglieni, C; Gridelli, B

    2005-01-01

    Between July 2003 and November 2004 14 pediatric liver transplantations (LTx) have been performed in 12 children using cadaveric donors. The primary diseases were as follows biliary atresia in 9 cases, whereas the other 3 children were affected by cystic fibrosis, Langherans cells histiocytosis, and hepatoblastoma, respectively. Median patient waiting time was 103 days (range, 2-158); no patient died while on the waiting list. Patients who underwent transplantation included 7 boys and 5 girls, ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years (median age, 5 years). Recipient median weight was 16 kg (range, 6-38). Donor median age was 19 years (range, 3-47), whereas donor median weight was 74 kg (range, 15-90). All children who underwent primary LTx were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status 2B. Of the 12 transplanted patients, 9 received a left lateral segment (LLS) from an in situ split liver, whereas 3 received a whole graft. Two children developed an episode of acute cellular rejection on the seventh postoperative day, which was treated successfully with a course of intravenous steroids for 3 days. After a median follow-up of 245 days, 10 children are alive but 2 children died due to primary nonfunction (PNF) on the second postoperative day and septic shock on the fifth postoperative day after retransplantation for acute hepatic artery thrombosis, respectively. One child who underwent retransplantation for hepatic artery thrombosis on the 31st postoperative day after primary LTx is currently alive. Evaluation of our initial data suggests that the split liver technique has the potential to meet the needs of pediatric LTx allowing grafting early in the course of the original disease and reducing waiting time. PMID:16182756

  1. Diffuse gastrointestinal bleeding and BK polyomavirus replication in a pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, M; Lautenschlager, I; Kardas, P; Auvinen, E; Mannonen, L; Huttunen, P; Taskinen, M; Vettenranta, K; Hirsch, H H

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk of severe gastrointestinal bleeding caused by infections, graft versus host disease, and disturbances in haemostasis. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is known to cause hemorrhagic cystitis, but there is also evidence of BKV shedding in stool and its association with gastrointestinal disease. We report putative association of BKPyV replication with high plasma viral loads in a pediatric HSCT patient developing hemorrhagic cystitis and severe gastrointestinal bleeding necessitating intensive care. The observation was based on chart review and analysis of BKPyV DNA loads in plasma and urine as well as retrospective BKPyV-specific IgM and IgG measurements in weekly samples until three months post-transplant. The gastrointestinal bleeding was observed after a >100-fold increase in the plasma BKPyV loads and the start of hemorrhagic cystitis. The BKPyV-specific antibody response indicated past infection prior to transplantation, but increasing IgG titers were seen following BKPyV replication. The gastrointestinal biopsies were taken at a late stage of the episode and were no longer informative of BK polyomavirus involvement. In conclusion, gastrointestinal complications with bleeding are a significant problem after allogeneic HSCT to which viral infections including BKPyV may contribute. PMID:25542476

  2. Biliary complications after pediatric liver transplantation: Risk factors, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Feier, Flavia H; da Fonseca, Eduardo A; Seda-Neto, Joao; Chapchap, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The expanded indications of partial grafts in pediatric liver transplantation have reduced waiting list mortality. However, a higher morbidity is observed, including an increased rate of biliary complications (BCs). Factors such as the type of graft, the preservation methods applied, the donor characteristics, the type of biliary reconstruction, and the number of bile ducts in the liver graft influences the occurrence of these complications. Bile leaks and strictures comprise the majority of post-transplant BCs. Biliary strictures require a high grade of suspicion, and because most children have a bileo-enteric anastomosis, its diagnosis and management rely on percutaneous hepatic cholangiography and percutaneous biliary interventions (PBI). The success rates with PBI range from 70% to 90%. Surgery is reserved for patients who have failed PBI. BCs in children after liver transplantation have a prolonged treatment and are associated with a longer length of stay and higher hospital costs. However, with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, patient and graft survival are not significantly compromised. PMID:26328028

  3. Can pre-implantation biopsies predict renal allograft function in pediatric renal transplant recipients?

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Jameela A.; Ma, Alison L.; Dufek, Stephanie; Mohamed, Ismail; Mamode, Nizam; Sebire, Neil J.; Marks, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the utility of pre-implantation renal biopsy (PIB) to predict renal allograft outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective review of all patients that underwent PIB from January 2003 to December 2011 at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, United Kingdom. Thirty-two male patients (56%) aged 1.5-16 years (median: 10.2) at the time of transplantation were included in the study and followed-up for 33 (6-78) months. The results were compared with 33 controls. Results: The PIB showed normal histopathological findings in 13 patients (41%), mild chronic vascular changes in 8 (25%), focal tubular atrophy in one, moderate to severe chronic vascular change in 3, mild to moderate acute tubular damage in 6, and tissue was inadequate in one subject. Delayed graft function (DGF) was observed in 3 patients; 2 with vascular changes in PIB, and one with normal histopathological findings. Two subjects with PIB changes lost their grafts. The estimated glomerular filtration rate at 3-, and 6-months post-transplantation was lower in children with abnormal PIB changes compared with those with normal PIB. There was one case of DGF in the control group, and 4 children lost their grafts including the one with DGF. Conclusion: Pre-implantation renal biopsy can provide important baseline information of the graft with implications on subsequent medical treatment for pediatric renal transplant recipients. PMID:26593162

  4. Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M S; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Bogers, A J J C; Hoerstrup, S P; Baaijens, F P T

    2013-08-01

    Transcatheter heart valve replacement is an attractive and promising technique for congenital as well as acquired heart valve disease. In this procedure, the replacement valve is mounted in a stent that is expanded at the aimed valve position and fixated by clamping. However, for this technique to be appropriate for pediatric patients, the material properties of the host tissue need to be determined to design stents that can be optimized for this particular application. In this study we performed equibiaxial tensile tests on four adult ovine pulmonary artery walls and compared the outcomes with one pediatric pulmonary artery. Results show that the pediatric pulmonary artery was significantly thinner (1.06 ± 0.36 mm (mean ± SD)) than ovine tissue (2.85 ± 0.40 mm), considerably stiffer for strain values that exceed the physiological conditions (beyond 50% strain in the circumferential and 60% in the longitudinal direction), more anisotropic (with a significant difference in stiffness between the longitudinal and circumferential directions beyond 60% strain) and presented stronger non-linear stress-strain behavior at equivalent strains (beyond 26% strain) compared to ovine tissue. These discrepancies suggest that stents validated and optimized using the ovine pre-clinical model might not perform satisfactorily in pediatric patients. The material parameters derived from this study may be used to develop stent designs for both applications using computational models. PMID:23849135

  5. Patterns of evolution of myocyte damage after human heart transplantation detected by indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester-Rodes, M.; Carrio-Gasset, I.; Abadal-Berini, L.; Obrador-Mayol, D.; Berna-Roqueta, L.; Caralps-Riera, J.M.

    1988-09-15

    The indium-111 labeled Fab fragment of antimyosin monoclonal antibody was used to study cardiac rejection and the time course of myocyte damage after transplantation. Fifty-three studies were performed in 21 patients, 17 men and 4 women, aged 19 to 54 years (mean 37 +/- 8), from 7 to 40 months after transplantation. Repeat studies were available in 8, and 10 were studied after the first year of transplantation. A heart-to-lung ratio was used for quantitation of uptake (normal 1.46 +/- 0.04). Differences between absent (1.69 +/- 0.29) and moderate (1.90 +/- 0.36) rejection were significant (p less than 0.03). Antimyosin ratio at 1 to 3 months (1.89 +/- 0.35) differed from that at greater than 12 months (1.65 +/- 0.2) (p less than 0.01). Repeat studies revealed a decrease in antimyosin ratio in 5 patients with uneventful clinical course; 2 had persistent activity after transplantation and suffered heart failure from rejection. After 1 year of transplantation uptake was within normal limits in 7 of 10 patients, and high uptake was associated with vascular rejection in 1. Because they can define evolving patterns of myocardial lesion activity, antimyosin studies could be useful both in patient management and in concentrating resources for those patients who most require them. The heart-to-lung ratio is suggested to monitor sequentially the degree of myocyte damage after transplantation.

  6. Transplanted Bone Marrow Cells Repair Heart Tissue and Reduce Myocarditis in Chronic Chagasic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Milena B. P.; Lima, Ricardo S.; Rocha, Leonardo L.; Takyia, Christina M.; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    A progressive destruction of the myocardium occurs in ∼30% of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, causing chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, a disease so far without effective treatment. Syngeneic bone marrow cell transplantation has been shown to cause repair and improvement of heart function in a number of studies in patients and animal models of ischemic cardiopathy. The effects of bone marrow transplant in a mouse model of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, in the presence of the disease causal agent, ie, the T. cruzi, are described herein. Bone marrow cells injected intravenously into chronic chagasic mice migrated to the heart and caused a significant reduction in the inflammatory infiltrates and in the interstitial fibrosis characteristics of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. The beneficial effects were observed up to 6 months after bone marrow cell transplantation. A massive apoptosis of myocardial inflammatory cells was observed after the therapy with bone marrow cells. Transplanted bone marrow cells obtained from chagasic mice and from normal mice had similar effects in terms of mediating chagasic heart repair. These results show that bone marrow cell transplantation is effective for treatment of chronic chagasic myocarditis and indicate that autologous bone marrow transplant may be used as an efficient therapy for patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:14742250

  7. Cardiogenic shock and coronary endothelial dysfunction predict cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Silvia; Manito-Lorite, Nicolas; Gómez-Hospital, Joan Antoni; Roca, Josep; Fontanillas, Carles; Melgares-Moreno, Rafael; Azpitarte-Almagro, José; Cequier-Fillat, Angel

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains one of the major causes of death post-heart transplantation. Its etiology is multifactorial and prevention is challenging. The aim of this study was to prospectively determine factors related to cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation. This research was planned on 179 patients submitted to heart transplant. Performance of an early coronary angiography with endothelial function evaluation was scheduled at three-month post-transplant. Patients underwent a second coronary angiography after five-yr follow-up. At the 5- ± 2-yr follow-up, 43% of the patients had developed cardiac allograft vasculopathy (severe in 26% of them). Three independent predictors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy were identified: cardiogenic shock at the time of the transplant operation (OR: 6.49; 95% CI: 1.86-22.7, p = 0.003); early coronary endothelial dysfunction (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.49-10.2, p = 0.006), and older donor age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00-1.10, p = 0.044). Besides early endothelial coronary dysfunction and older donor age, a new predictor for development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy was identified: cardiogenic shock at the time of transplantation. In these high-risk patient subgroups, preventive measures (treatment of cardiovascular risk factors, use of novel immunosuppressive agents such as mTOR inhibitors) should be earlier and much more aggressive.

  8. Pancreatic islet cell transplantation using non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    Recent dramatic improvements in clinical islet cell transplantation demonstrated by the Edmonton group have increased the demand for this treatment, and donor shortage could become a major problem. Utilization of marginal donors could alleviate the donor shortage, and non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) might be good resources. The University of Pennsylvania group demonstrated that it was possible to isolate islets from NHBDs, and the group actually transplanted islets from NHBDs, for the first time. The patient became insulin-independent; however, there had been no more cases using NHBDs until our group initiated islet transplantations from NHBDs in Japan. In order to utilize NHBDs effectively, we modified the standard islet isolation method. These modifications included minimizing the warm ischemic time, the use of trypsin inhibition during isolation, carrying out density measurement before purification and the use of a less toxic islet purification solution. With these modifications we were able to transplant nine of ten islet preparations from ten NHBDs (90%), into five type-1 diabetic patients. The first transplantation was performed on April 7, 2004 (the first time in Japan), and this patient became insulin-independent after the second islet transplantation (first time in Japan). All patients showed improved glycemic control and reduced insulin requirements, without hypoglycemic events. We also performed living-donor islet transplantation, with our modified islet isolation protocol, on January 19, 2005. The improved islet isolation protocol enabled us to perform effective islet transplantations from NHBDs, and it also enabled us to perform the living-donor islet transplantation.

  9. In vitro evaluation of the TandemHeart pediatric centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Svitek, Robert G; Smith, Douglas E; Magovern, James A

    2007-01-01

    The pediatric TandemHeart pump is being developed for short-term circulatory support of patients varying in size from 2 to 40 kg. The pump withdraws blood from the left atrium via cannula inserted percutaneously, either through the right internal jugular vein or transhepatically, and pumps the blood back into the arterial system via the carotid or femoral artery. High resolution stereolithography (SLA) was used to create an upper housing and impeller design, which were assembled into a functional pump prototype. Pressure-flow characteristics of the pump were determined in a blood analogue solution and compared with the pressure-flow requirements of the intended cannulation. At 5,500 rpm, the pump was able to generate 0.4 L/min of flow with a pressure rise of 325 mm Hg and 2.0 L/min with a pressure rise of 250 mm Hg. The hydraulic performance of the pump will enable at least 50% of cardiac output when the arterial cannula is placed in the carotid artery. The hemolysis of the TandemHeart pediatric pump at 5,500 rpm was compared with the BP-50 pediatric centrifugal pump in vitro using bovine blood flowing at 0.4 L/min against 250 mm Hg. The TandemHeart pump produced a similar increase in plasma free hemoglobin levels during the duration of the 6 hour test.

  10. Asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of ascending aorta after heart transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Behzadnia, N; Ahmadi, Z H; Mandegar, M H; Salehi, F; Sharif-Kashani, B; Pourabdollah, M; Ansari-Aval, Z; Kianfar, A-A; Mirhosseini, S M; Eiji, M

    2015-01-01

    Mycotic pseudoaneurysm and aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a very rare and potentially fatal complication of heart transplantation. It usually presents with fever, chest pain, dyspnea, or constitutional symptoms. Most reports in the literature are about mycotic pseudoaneurysm, but mycotic aneurysm is rarer. Herein we report a 39-year-old man in who had an asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta developed late (1 year) after orthotopic heart transplantation. There was no history of previous mediastinitis or any other important infection. He underwent an uneventful replacement of the ascending aorta.

  11. How to Improve the Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Ischemic Heart?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangpeng; Chen, Xiongwen; Wang, Wei Eric; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is an intensely studied stem cell type applied for cardiac repair. For decades, the preclinical researches on animal model and clinical trials have suggested that MSC transplantation exerts therapeutic effect on ischemic heart disease. However, there remain major limitations to be overcome, one of which is the very low survival rate after transplantation in heart tissue. Various strategies have been tried to improve the MSC survival, and many of them showed promising results. In this review, we analyzed the studies in recent years to summarize the methods, effects, and mechanisms of the new strategies to address this question. PMID:26681958

  12. Cutaneous Necrotic Papule as Invasive Aspergillosis in a Heart Transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Edidiong C N; Pei, Susan; Kenkare, Sonya; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna; Tsoukas, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    A 46-year-old African American man presented with a 3- to 4-day history of a new painful lesion on his left lower extremity. Other reported symptoms included a productive cough and chest pain; the patient denied fever and chills. His medical history was significant for a heart transplant 4 months prior to presentation followed by transplant rejection 2 weeks after the transplant. Medications included an antirejection/immunosuppressive regimen consisting of prednisone, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prophylaxis treatment with valganciclovir and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:26861437

  13. Which patients are candidates for lung transplantation? Indications for unilateral, bilateral, and heart-lung procedures.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, N A

    1994-01-01

    Single-lung transplantation, long successful in resolving interstitial lung disease, can now be used in COPD patients and shows promise in managing pulmonary hypertension. The bilateral procedure, which often avoids cardiopulmonary bypass, is preferred when chronic airway infection is present. Heart-lung transplants, now rare, are used when pulmonary hypertension is complicated by congestive cardiomyopathy or irreparable cardiac defects. Mechanical ventilation, prior cardiothoracic surgery, and corticosteroid use no longer constitute absolute contraindications to lung transplantation. The growing scarcity of donor organs is increasing waiting times; thus, earlier recognition of potential recipients is necessary.

  14. Pediatric heart surgery in Ghana: three ethical questions.

    PubMed

    Eyal, Nir

    2014-01-01

    When a group of doctors and nurses from Boston, Massachusetts, provided evaluation and heart surgery to children in Ghana, they encountered three rationing dilemmas: (1) What portion of surgery slots should they reserve for the simplest, most cost-effective surgeries? (2) How much time should be reserved for especially simple, nonsurgical interventions? (3) How much time should be reserved to training local staff to perform such surgeries? This article investigates these three dilemmas.

  15. Mediastinal irradiation in a patient affected by lung carcinoma after heart transplantation: Helical tomotherapy versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Francesca M; Iorio, Vincenzo; Cammarota, Fabrizio; Toledo, Diego; Senese, Rossana; Francomacaro, Ferdinando; Muto, Matteo; Muto, Paolo

    2016-04-26

    Patients who have undergone solid organ transplants are known to have an increased risk of neoplasia compared with the general population. We report our experience using mediastinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy to treat a patient with lung carcinoma 15 years after heart transplantation. Our dosimetric evaluation showed no particular difference between the techniques, with the exception of some organs. Mediastinal irradiation after heart transplantation is feasible and should be considered after evaluation of the risk. Conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy appears to be the appropriate treatment in heart-transplanted oncologic patients.

  16. Risk-adjusted outcome measurement in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Pötschger, Ulrike; Bergmann, Kirsten; Frommlet, Florian; Brannath, Werner; Bauer, Peter; Klingebiel, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to define a risk score for 1-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) in children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation as a basis for risk-adjusted outcome assessment. We analyzed 1364 consecutive stem cell transplants performed in 24 German and Austrian centers between 1998 and 2003. Five well-established risk factors were tested by multivariate logistic regression for predictive power: patient age, disease status, donor other than matched sibling donor, T cell depletion (TCD), and preceding stem cell transplantation. The risk score was defined by rounding the parameter estimates of the significant risk factors to the nearest integer. Crossvalidation was performed on the basis of 5 randomly extracted equal-sized parts from the database. Additionally, the score was validated for different disease entities and for single centers. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant correlation of TRM with 3 risk factors: age >10 years, advanced disease, and alternative donor. The parameter estimates were 0.76 for age, 0.73 for disease status, and 0.97 for donor type. Rounding the estimates resulted in a score with 1 point for each risk factor. One-year TRM (overall survival [OS]) were 5% (89%) with a score of 0, 18% (74%) with 1, 28% (54%) with 2, and 53% (27%) with 3 points. Crossvalidation showed stable results with a good correlation between predicted and observed mortality but moderate discrimination. The score seems to be a simple instrument to estimate the expected mortality for each risk group and for each center. Measuring TRM risk-adjusted and the comparison between expected and observed mortality may be an additional tool for outcome assessment in pediatric stem cell transplantation. PMID:18275900

  17. Use of a virtual community as a psychosocial support system in pediatric transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bers, Marina U; Beals, Laura M; Chau, Clement; Satoh, Keiko; Blume, Elizabeth D; DeMaso, David Ray; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Despite significant interest by pediatric transplant patients in meeting others who have undergone transplantation, geographic distances combined with their daily routines make this difficult. This mixed-method study describes the use of Zora, a Web-based virtual community designed to create a support system for these patients. The Zora software allows participants to create a graphical online virtual city with houses expressing their individuality and objects conveying their concerns and personal stories. Zora allows real-time chat between participants further facilitating communication. Twenty-two post-transplant patients used Zora over nine months. The median number of log ons per participant was 19.50 times (q1 = 5.25, q3 = 41.50), and each participant spent a median of 12.48 h (q1 = 2.13, q3 = 25.55) logged into the program. This represented a median of 18.27 min/wk (q1 = 6.88, q3 = 37.40) per participant. Users created a total of 3736 objects (median/participant = 12.5, q1 = 2.25, q3 = 30) and created 66 virtual houses (median/participant = 2.00, q1 = 1.00, q3 = 3.00). In addition, a total of 14,444 lines of chat were recorded (median/participant = 228.5, q1 = 30.00, q3 = 663.25), and a total 278 messages were sent between users (median/participant = 3.50, q1 = 0.25, q3 = 15.5). Qualitative data show the preliminary success of the project, as three major themes emerged: (i) increased sense of normalcy for the patients, (ii) enhanced sense of self and contribution to the community, and (iii) increased social network. There were no instances of harmful interactions in the virtual world. This study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of a virtual community as a potential psychosocial intervention for post-transplant adolescents.

  18. A consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2014--an update from the Pulmonary Transplantation Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weill, David; Benden, Christian; Corris, Paul A; Dark, John H; Davis, R Duane; Keshavjee, Shaf; Lederer, David J; Mulligan, Michael J; Patterson, G Alexander; Singer, Lianne G; Snell, Greg I; Verleden, Geert M; Zamora, Martin R; Glanville, Allan R

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate selection of lung transplant recipients is an important determinant of outcomes. This consensus document is an update of the recipient selection guidelines published in 2006. The Pulmonary Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) organized a Writing Committee of international experts to provide consensus opinion regarding the appropriate timing of referral and listing of candidates for lung transplantation. A comprehensive search of the medical literature was conducted with the assistance of a medical librarian. Writing Committee members were assigned specific topics to research and discuss. The Chairs of the Writing Committee were responsible for evaluating the completeness of the literature search, providing editorial support for the manuscript, and organizing group discussions regarding its content. The consensus document makes specific recommendations regarding the timing of referral and of listing for lung transplantation. These recommendations include discussions not present in previous ISHLT guidelines, including lung allocation scores, bridging to transplant with mechanical circulatory and ventilator support, and expanded indications for lung transplantation. In the absence of high-grade evidence to support decision making, these consensus guidelines remain part of a continuum of expert opinion based on available studies and personal experience. Some positions are immutable. Although transplant is rightly a treatment of last resort for end-stage lung disease, early referral allows proper evaluation and thorough patient education. Subsequent waiting list activation implies a tacit agreement that transplant offers a significant individual survival advantage. It is both the challenge and the responsibility of the transplant community globally to ensure organ allocation maximizes the potential benefits of a scarce resource, thereby achieving that advantage. PMID:25085497

  19. Transplantation of autologously derived mitochondria protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Masuzawa, Akihiro; Black, Kendra M.; Pacak, Christina A.; Ericsson, Maria; Barnett, Reanne J.; Drumm, Ciara; Seth, Pankaj; Bloch, Donald B.; Levitsky, Sidney; Cowan, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction occur during ischemia and modulate cardiac function and cell survival significantly during reperfusion. We hypothesized that transplantation of autologously derived mitochondria immediately prior to reperfusion would ameliorate these effects. New Zealand White rabbits were used for regional ischemia (RI), which was achieved by temporarily snaring the left anterior descending artery for 30 min. Following 29 min of RI, autologously derived mitochondria (RI-mitochondria; 9.7 ± 1.7 × 106/ml) or vehicle alone (RI-vehicle) were injected directly into the RI zone, and the hearts were allowed to recover for 4 wk. Mitochondrial transplantation decreased (P < 0.05) creatine kinase MB, cardiac troponin-I, and apoptosis significantly in the RI zone. Infarct size following 4 wk of recovery was decreased significantly in RI-mitochondria (7.9 ± 2.9%) compared with RI-vehicle (34.2 ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). Serial echocardiograms showed that RI-mitochondria hearts returned to normal contraction within 10 min after reperfusion was started; however, RI-vehicle hearts showed persistent hypokinesia in the RI zone at 4 wk of recovery. Electrocardiogram and optical mapping studies showed that no arrhythmia was associated with autologously derived mitochondrial transplantation. In vivo and in vitro studies show that the transplanted mitochondria are evident in the interstitial spaces and are internalized by cardiomyocytes 2–8 h after transplantation. The transplanted mitochondria enhanced oxygen consumption, high-energy phosphate synthesis, and the induction of cytokine mediators and proteomic pathways that are important in preserving myocardial energetics, cell viability, and enhanced post-infarct cardiac function. Transplantation of autologously derived mitochondria provides a novel technique to protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:23355340

  20. Clinical Research Careers: Reports from a NHLBI Pediatric Heart Network Clinical Research Skills Development Conference

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wyman W.; Richmond, Marc; Li, Jennifer S.; Saul, J. Philip; Mital, Seema; Colan, Steven D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; McCrindle, Brain W.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Marino, Bradley S.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Evans, Frank; Scott, Jane D.; Cohen, Meryl S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Wyman W. Lai, MD, MPH, and Victoria L. Vetter, MD, MPH. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded under the U.S. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH–NHLBI), includes two Clinical Research Skills Development (CRSD) Cores, which were awarded to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and to the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York–Presbyterian. To provide information on how to develop a clinical research career to a larger number of potential young investigators in pediatric cardiology, the directors of these two CRSD Cores jointly organized a one-day seminar for fellows and junior faculty from all of the PHN Core sites. The participants included faculty members from the PHN and the NHLBI. The day-long seminar was held on April 29, 2009, at the NHLBI site, immediately preceding the PHN Steering Committee meeting in Bethesda, MD. Methods The goals of the seminar were 1) to provide fellows and early investigators with basic skills in clinical research 2) to provide a forum for discussion of important research career choices 3) to introduce attendees to each other and to established clinical researchers in pediatric cardiology, and 4) to publish a commentary on the future of clinical research in pediatric cardiology. Results The following chapters are compilations of the talks given at the 2009 PHN Clinical Research Skills Development Seminar, published to share the information provided with a broader audience of those interested in learning how to develop a clinical research career in pediatric cardiology. The discussions of types of clinical research, research skills, career development strategies, funding, and career management are applicable to research careers in other areas of clinical medicine as well. Conclusions The aim of this compilation is to stimulate those who might be interested in the research career options available to investigators. PMID:21167335

  1. [Anesthesiological management in transplantation of the heart after temporary mechanical substitution of its function].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, I A; Piliaeva, I E; Matveev, Iu G; Kormer, A Ia

    1994-01-01

    The first experience of anesthesiological management of three two-step orthotopic heart transplantations is reviewed. As the first step of surgical treatment one recipient was implanted an artificial heart "POISK-IOM" (Russia), in 2 other patients left ventricular bypass was achieved using a "Biopump" ("Biomedics", USA). Anesthesia techniques, methods of infusion-transfusion therapy, and other components of intraoperative management are described. Hemodynamics, donor heart function recovery, and other homeostasis parameters have been analysed. It has been noted that high doses of fentanyl in combination with ketamine and diazepam ensured satisfactory course of general anesthesia. There were no cases of intraoperative lethality. A more complex aspect of anesthesiological management was correction of various homeostasis disturbances which progressed during surgery in patients with left ventricular bypass. In two cases the intraoperative period was characterized by the onset of multiorgan failure (heart, respiratory, renal failure, metabolic disorders, coagulopathy), which played a negative part for the postoperative period of heart transplantations. It is concluded that prediction of possible complications during temporary mechanical replacement of the cardiac function and timely determination of contraindications for the second step of two-step heart transplantations are the most important trends of investigations for anesthesiologists, intensive care specialists, and transplantologists. PMID:8010503

  2. Effectiveness of oral chlorhexidine for reducing stomatitis in a pediatric bone marrow transplant population.

    PubMed

    Raether, D; Walker, P O; Bostrum, B; Weisdorf, D

    1989-03-01

    Disruption of the oral mucosal lining and the lack of normal defense mechanisms predispose bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients to life-threatening infections, often caused by oral flora. Chlorhexidine, used as an oral antiseptic, appears promising in limiting oral bacteria and fungi, and therefore, may decrease oral complications associated with BMT. The purpose of this study was to determine in pediatric BMT recipients if a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse, used as an adjunct to normal in-hospital oral care regimens, would decrease the severity of oral mucositis as measured by oral ulcerations, bacteremia, and length of hospital stay. Forty-seven pediatric BMT subjects were included in this double-blind study. Subjects were instructed to use 15 ml of a mouthrinse 3 times daily to be swished and gargled for 30 sec. Each subject had 7 oral sites scored for the percentage of ulcerated mucosa twice weekly until day +35 or hospital discharge or death. Blood was cultured daily during neutropenia. Additionally, the number of days from onset of cytoreduction to hospital discharge or death was recorded for each subject. Alpha was set at .05. There was no significant difference in the severity of oral ulceration between the chlorhexidine and placebo groups (P = .18). Chlorhexidine did not reduce the development of bacteremia (P greater than .5), nor did it significantly decrease the length of hospital stay (P = .68).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Successful Orthotopic Heart Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Management in 2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonio Hernandez; Kittleson, Michelle M; Dilibero, Deanna; Hardy, W David; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Esmailian, Fardad

    2016-02-01

    Few orthotopic heart transplantations have been performed in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus since the first such case was reported in 2001. Since that time, advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy have resulted in potent and durable suppression of the causative human immunodeficiency virus-accompanied by robust immune reconstitution, reversal of previous immunodeficiency, a marked decrease in opportunistic and other infections, and near-normal long-term survival. Although human immunodeficiency virus infection is not an absolute contraindication, few centers in the United States and Canada have performed heart transplantations in this patient population; these patients have been de facto excluded from this procedure in North America. Re-evaluation of the reasons for excluding these patients from cardiac transplantation is warranted in light of such significant advances in antiretroviral therapy. This case report documents successful orthotopic heart transplantation in 2 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and we describe their antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive management challenges. Both patients were doing well without sequelae 43 and 38 months after transplantation.

  4. Fluid balance of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and intensive care unit admission.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Geneviève; Phan, Véronique; Duval, Michel; Champagne, Martin; Litalien, Catherine; Merouani, Aicha

    2007-03-01

    Fluid administration is essential in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Admission to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is required for 11-29% of pediatric HSCT recipients and is associated with high mortality. The objective of this study was to determine if a positive fluid balance acquired during the HSCT procedure is a risk factor for PICU admission. The medical records of 87 consecutive children who underwent a first HSCT were reviewed retrospectively for the following periods: from admission for HSCT to PICU admission for the first group (PICU group), and from admission for HSCT to hospital discharge for the second group (non-PICU group). Fluid balance was determined on the basis of weight gain (WG) and fluid overload (FO). PICU group consisted of 19 patients (21.8%). Among these, 13 (68.4%) developed>or=10% WG prior to PICU admission compared with 15 (22.1%) in the non-PICU group (p<0.001). Thirteen patients (68.4%) developed>or=10% FO prior to PICU admission compared with 31 (45.6%) in the non-PICU group (p=0.075). Following multivariate analysis, >or=10% WG (p=0.018) and cardiac dysfunction on admission for HSCT (p=0.036) remained independent risk factors for PICU admission. Smaller children (p=0.033) and patients with a twofold increase in serum creatinine (p=0.026) were at risk of developing>or=10% WG. This study shows that WG is a risk factor for PICU admission in pediatric HSCT recipients. Further research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of WG in these patients and to determine the impact of WG prevention on PICU admission. PMID:17123119

  5. Changing Factors associated with Parent Activation after Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Bingen, Kristin; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Patel, Sunita K.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Guinan, Eva C.; Kupst, Mary Jo; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors associated with parent activation in parents of children undergoing pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the 6 months following HSCT, and to address if their association with parent activation changes over time. Methods Measures for this analysis, including the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), were completed by parents (N=198) prior to their child’s HSCT preparative regimen and again at 6 months post-HSCT. Clinical data were also collected. A repeated measures model was built to estimate the association between clinical and demographic factors and parent well-being on Parent-PAM scores. Interactions with time were considered to test for changing effects over time. Results Throughout the HSCT course, older parent age was associated with lower Parent-PAM scores (β=−0.29, p=0.02) and never being married was associated with higher scores (versus married, β=12.27, p=0.03). While higher parent emotional functioning scores were not associated with activation at baseline, they were important at 6 months (baseline: β=−0.002, p=0.96; interaction: β=0.14, p=0.03). At baseline longer duration of illness was associated with increased activation, but this effect diminished with time (baseline: β=3.29, p=0.0002; interaction: β=−2.40, p=0.02). Activation levels dropped for parents of children who went from private to public insurance (baseline: β=2.95, p=0.53; interaction: β=−13.82, p=0.004). Clinical events did not affect Parent-PAM scores. Conclusions Our findings reveal important changes in the factors associated with parent activation in the first 6 months after pediatric HSCT. These findings may reflect the emotional and financial toll of pediatric HSCT on parent activation. PMID:25519755

  6. Risk factors and surgical management of anastomotic biliary complications after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Darius, Tom; Rivera, Jairo; Fusaro, Fabio; Lai, Quirino; de Magnée, Catherine; Bourdeaux, Christophe; Janssen, Magdalena; Clapuyt, Philippe; Reding, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Biliary complications (BCs) still remain the Achilles heel of liver transplantation (LT) with an overall incidence of 10% to 35% in pediatric series. We hypothesized that (1) the use of alternative techniques (reduced size, split, and living donor grafts) in pediatric LT may contribute to an increased incidence of BCs, and (2) surgery as a first treatment option for anastomotic BCs could allow a definitive cure for the majority of these patients. Four hundred twenty-nine primary pediatric LT procedures, including 88, 91, 47, and 203 whole, reduced size, split, and living donor grafts, respectively, that were performed between July 1993 and November 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and surgical variables were analyzed, and their respective impact on BCs was studied with univariate and multivariate analyses. The modalities of BC management were also reviewed. The 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 94% and 90%, 89% and 85%, 94% and 89%, and 98% and 94% for whole, reduced size, split, and living donor liver grafts, respectively. The overall incidence of BCs was 23% (n = 98). Sixty were anastomotic complications [47 strictures (78%) and 13 fistulas (22%)]. The graft type was not found to be an independent risk factor for the development of BCs. According to a multivariate analysis, only hepatic artery thrombosis and acute rejection increased the risk of anastomotic BCs (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). Anastomotic BCs were managed primarily with surgical repair in 59 of 60 cases with a primary patency rate of 80% (n = 47). These results suggest that (1) most of the BCs were anastomotic complications not influenced by the type of graft, and (2) the surgical management of anastomotic BCs may constitute the first and best therapeutic option. PMID:24809592

  7. Posttransplant metabolic syndrome in the withdrawal of immunosuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (WISP-R) pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Perito, E R; Mohammad, S; Rosenthal, P; Alonso, E M; Ekong, U D; Lobritto, S J; Feng, S

    2015-03-01

    Posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS)-obesity, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, low HDL and glucose intolerance-is a major contributor to morbidity after adult liver transplant. This analysis of the Withdrawal of Immunosuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (WISP-R) pilot trial is the first prospective study of PTMS after pediatric liver transplant. Twenty children were enrolled in WISP-R, at median age 8.5 years (IQR 6.4-10.8), and weaned from calcineurin-inhibitor monotherapy. The 12 children who tolerated complete immunosuppression withdrawal were compared to matched historical controls. At baseline, 45% of WISP-R subjects and 58% of controls had at least one component of PTMS. Calcineurin-inhibitor withdrawal in the WISP-R subjects did not impact the prevalence of PTMS components compared to controls. At 5 years, despite weaning off of immunosuppression, 92% of the 12 tolerant WISP-R subjects had at least one PTMS component and 58% had at least two; 33% were overweight or obese, 50% had dyslipidemia, 33% glucose intolerance and 42% systolic hypertension. Overweight/obesity increased the risk of hypertension in all children. Compared to controls, WISP-R tolerant subjects had similar GFR at baseline but did have higher GFR at 2, 3 and 4 years. Further study of PTMS and immunosuppression withdrawal after pediatric liver transplant is warranted.

  8. A formula to calculate the standard liver volume in children and its application in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Wischhusen, Friedel; Heinemann, Axel; Ganschow, Rainer; Grabhorn, Enke; Vettorazzi, Eik; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2013-12-01

    Due to a lack of available size-matched liver grafts from children, most pediatric recipients are transplanted with technical variant grafts from adult donors. Size requirements for these grafts are not well defined, and consequences of mismatched graft sizes in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Existing formulas for calculation of a standard liver volume are mostly derived from adults disregarding the age-related percentual liver weight changes in children. In this study, we aimed to establish a formula for general use in children to calculate the standard liver volume. In a second step, the formula was applied in pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation at our institution between 2000 and 2010 (n = 377). Analysis of a large number (n = 388) of autopsy data from children by regression analysis revealed a best fit for two formulas: "Formula 1," children 0 to ≤1 year (n = 246): standard liver volume [ml] = -143.062973 +4.274603051 * body length [cm] + 14.78817631 * body weight [kg]; "Formula 2," children >1 to <16 years (n = 142): standard liver volume [ml] = -20.2472281 + 3.339056437 * body length [cm] + 13.11312561 * body weight [kg]. In comparison with children receiving size-matched organs, we found an elevated risk of liver graft failure in children transplanted with a small-for-size graft, whereas large-for-size organs seem to have no negative impact.

  9. Choosing the Order of Deceased Donor and Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in Pediatric Recipients: A Markov Decision Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Arendonk, Kyle J.; Chow, Eric K.H.; James, Nathan T.; Orandi, Babak J.; Ellison, Trevor A.; Smith, Jodi M.; Colombani, Paul M.; Segev, Dorry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most pediatric kidney transplant recipients eventually require retransplantation, and the most advantageous timing strategy regarding deceased and living donor transplantation in candidates with only one living donor remains unclear. Methods A patient-oriented Markov decision process model was designed to compare, for a given patient with one living donor, living-donor-first followed if necessary by deceased donor retransplantation versus deceased-donor-first followed if necessary by living donor (if still able to donate) or deceased donor (if not) retransplantation. Based on Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, the model was designed to account for waitlist, graft, and patient survival, sensitization, increased risk of graft failure seen during late adolescence, and differential deceased donor waiting times based upon pediatric-priority allocation policies. Based on national cohort data, the model was also designed to account for aging or disease development leading to ineligibility of the living donor over time. Results Given a set of candidate and living donor characteristics, the Markov model provides the expected patient survival over a time horizon of 20 years. For the most highly sensitized patients (PRA>80%), a deceased-donor-first strategy was advantageous, but for all other patients (PRA<80%), a living-donor-first strategy was recommended. Conclusions This Markov model illustrates how patients, families, and providers can be provided information and predictions regarding the most advantageous use of deceased donor versus living donor transplantation for pediatric recipients. PMID:25594552

  10. First case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by heart transplantation from donor to recipient.

    PubMed

    Weile, Jan; Eickmeyer, Holm; Dreier, Jens; Liebke, Michael; Fuchs, Uwe; Wittke, Johann-Wolfgang; Richter, Elvira; Gummert, Jan; Knabbe, Cornelius; Schulz, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    We report the first documented case of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by an orthotopic heart transplantation from the donor to the recipient. Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive blood culture showed systemic prevalence of the Mycobacteria, however, prophylactic therapy was able to prevent a clinical manifestation of tuberculosis in the recipient.

  11. Acquired toxoplasmosis after orthotopic heart transplantation in a sulfonamide-allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Mejia, Aura; Debrunner, Mark; Cox, Elaine; Caldwell, Randall

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a young adult with a history of an allergic reaction to a sulfonamide antibiotic who developed toxoplasmosis after his second orthotopic heart transplant. As a result of this drug allergy, the patient did not receive prophylaxis with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. He was successfully treated with clindamycin, pyrimethamine, and folic acid. PMID:20936468

  12. Isoflurane compared with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia in patients undergoing heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Che-Hao; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Huang, Go-Shine; Lu, Chih-Cherng; Ho, Shung-Tai; Liaw, Wen-Jinn; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Tso-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inhalation anesthetics provide myocardial protection for cardiac surgery. This study was undertaken to compare the perioperative effects between isoflurane and fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia for heart transplantation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of heart transplantation in a single medical center from 1990 to 2013. Patients receiving isoflurane or fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia were included. Those with preoperative severe pulmonary, hepatic, or renal comorbidities were excluded. The perioperative variables and postoperative short-term outcomes were analyzed, including blood glucose levels, urine output, inotropic use, time to extubation, and length of stay in the intensive care units. After reviewing 112 heart transplantations, 18 recipients with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia, and 29 receiving isoflurane anesthesia with minimal low-flow technique were analyzed. After cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass, recipients with isoflurane anesthesia had a significantly lower mean level and a less increase of blood glucose, as compared with those receiving fentanyl-based anesthesia. In addition, there was less use of dobutamine upon arriving the intensive care unit and a shorter time to extubation after isoflurane anesthesia. Compared with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia, isoflurane minimal low-flow anesthesia maintained better perioperative homeostasis of blood glucose levels, less postoperative use of inotropics, and early extubation time among heart-transplant recipients without severe comorbidities. PMID:27583900

  13. Recurrence of gingival overgrowth in CO2 laser-treated heart-transplant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rysky, Carlo; Forni, Franco

    1993-07-01

    In this work we update our report about CO2 laser surgery used to remove hypertrophic gingiva in patients under cyclosporine treatment after heart-transplant. The indications and basic results were confirmed, but we present two cases where a second surgery was needed to remove recurrent overgrowing gingival tissue.

  14. Pure red cell aplasia caused by parvovirus B19 in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Rosangela; Bastia, Raffaella; Quaglia, Federica

    2016-09-01

    A case of parvovirus B19-induced pure red cell aplasia occurring in a heart transplant recipient is reported. The diagnosis of this rare but clinically important complication can be suspected on the basis of the pathognomonic morphological features of the bone marrow. PMID:27648265

  15. Cardiac CT of the transplanted heart: indications, technique, appearance, and complications.

    PubMed

    Bogot, Naama R; Durst, Ronen; Shaham, Dorith; Admon, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Effective antirejection therapy and infection control have significantly improved the long-term survival of heart transplant recipients, but coronary allograft vasculopathy remains an important limiting factor. Most heart transplant recipients undergo annual coronary angiography for the detection of allograft vasculopathy, which is often clinically silent. Angiography allows detection of vasculopathy only indirectly, with depiction of the lumen, and does not depict the wall thickening and intimal hyperplasia that typify this disease; the procedure also is invasive and is associated with a 1%-2% risk of complication. In contrast, electrocardiographically gated multidetector computed tomography (CT) can provide a comprehensive and noninvasive evaluation of the transplanted heart in a single study. Cardiac CT enables evaluation of the coronary artery lumen and wall and thus may be used for screening, diagnosis, grading, and follow-up of coronary allograft vasculopathy. It also may be used to detect other posttransplantation complications, such as malignancy and infection, and to assess cardiac and vascular anastomoses and cardiac function. However, special strategies may be needed to reduce the transplant heart rate so as to obtain images of diagnostic quality. PMID:17848692

  16. [Anatomic orthotopic heart transplantation: the surgical characteristics and the advantages of the method].

    PubMed

    Dzemeshkevich, S L; Ivanov, A S; Rykunov, I E; Kuznetsova, L M; Trekova, N A; Poplavskiĭ, I V; Belous, A E; Zhidkov, I L; Koseros, Kh; Eremenko, A A; Chaus, N I

    1998-01-01

    Standard technique of establishment of interatrial anastomoses allows to carry out orthotopic transplantation of the heart quickly and reliably. However the accumulation of collective experience evidences about a number of unavoidable shortcomings of such operation: rhythm disturbances, worsening of hemodynamics in discordant atrial contractions of recipient and donor, atrio-ventricular valve insufficiency, thromboembolism, coronary fistulas. Since 1990 in RRCS 25 operations were carried out with the use of standard technique and we also met with the risk of developing the above complications. In experiment on 30 mongrel dogs the technique of anatomical, truly orthotopic transplantation of the heart with six anastomoses was developed: left pulmonary veins with a common cuff, separate anastomoses of the superior and inferior caval veins, anastomoses of aorta and pulmonary artery. Particular attention was paid to developing of original surgical modes for prophylaxis of stenoses in the area of anastomoses of pulmonary and caval veins. In 1997 the anatomical technique of heart transplantation was successfully introduced by us into clinical practice. Clinical electrophysiological, echocardiographic and functional examinations have confirmed the results of the experiments and have evidenced for substantial advantages of the anatomical technique of orthotopic transplantation of the heart. By reliability the new operation is not inferior to standard method of N. Shumway.

  17. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  18. South American Heart Transplantation Registry of patients receiving everolimus in their immunosuppressive regimens.

    PubMed

    Bortman, G V; Ceruti, B; Ahualli, L; Colque, R; Amuchástegui, M; Sgrosso, J L; Muñoz, J; Vulcano, N; Burgos, C; Diez, F; Rodriguez, M C; Perrone, S V

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of heart transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors prompted the implementation of a South American Transplant Physicians Group to register these patients in a database. Everolimus (EVL) is a signal proliferation inhibition that reduces graft vascular disease when used de novo. Recently, its administration has expanded to subjects with resistant rejection or with side effects due to other immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors and/or steroids), allowing for better regulation of the immunosuppressive regimen. Herein we have shown the data collected from patients receiving EVL in ten South American Heart Transplant Centers. We have concluded that the administration of EVL is a useful adjunctive therapy that allows the reduction or suspension of other immunosuppressive drugs that caused unwanted side effects, without a loss of immunosuppressive efficacy, with manageable side effects, and constituting a valuable therapeutic option. PMID:20172342

  19. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient. PMID:25674158

  20. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  1. Does Previous Abdominal Surgery Alter the Outcome of Pediatric Patients Subjected to Orthotopic Liver Transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    CUERVAS-MONS, VALENTIN; RIMOLA, ANTONI; VAN THIEL, DAVID H.; GAVALER, JUDITH S.; SCHADE, ROBERT R.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    The medical, anesthesia, and surgical records of 89 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent an orthotopic hepatic transplantation procedure at the University of Pittsburgh from February 1981 to May 1984 were reviewed to evaluate the effect of prior abdominal surgery upon the morbidity and mortality of orthotopic liver transplantation in children. Fifty-seven children (group 1) had had prior abdominal surgery, whereas 32 (group 2) had not. The group 1 subjects were younger (p < 0.001), had better prothrombin times (p < 0.01), and better platelet counts (p < 0.02) than did those in group 2. No difference in the duration of anesthesia or intra-operative use of fresh frozen plasma or platelets was evident between the two groups. However, group 1 patients were given more red blood cells intraoperatively than were the group 2 patients (p < 0.01). The group 1 patients had more total postoperative infections (p < 0.05), which was due solely to a greater number of abdominal infections (p < 0.05), but similar total hospital and intensive care unit stays as did the group 2 patients. When those in group 1 were divided into those having a previous Kasai procedure versus those who did not, no differences between the two groups were apparent except for age. Based upon these data, we conclude that prior abdominal surgery does not affect mortality, the duration of hospital or intensive care unit stay, plasma or platelet requirements, and total anesthesia time required for orthotopic liver transplantation, but does enhance the number of red blood cell transfusions and infections, particularly abdominal infections, in children undergoing this procedure. PMID:3512356

  2. Clinical, immunological, and pathological aspects of operational tolerance after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Takaaki; Li, Ying; Takemura, Mami; Wu, Yanling; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Minato, Nagahiro; Wood, Kathryn J; Haga, Hironori; Ueda, Mikiko; Uemoto, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    In the setting of our pediatric living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), 87 patients (15.0% of all the patients: significantly higher proportion, compared with those of other transplant centers) achieved complete withdrawal of immunosuppression, which is referred to as "operational tolerance". Immunosuppressants were completely discontinued for 54 patients as scheduled, and for 33 because of EBV infection or other complications. Immunological analyses of the peripheral blood derived from operationally tolerant patients demonstrated that non-deletional tolerance takes place in which potentially reactive T cells to donor-antigens remain physically in the immune repertoire, but specifically suppressed by certain mechanisms. Not only CD4(+)CD25(high+) T cells were increased in the proportion in the tolerant patients' peripheral lymphocytes and suppressed MLR specifically to the donor antigen, but also FOXP3 expressing cells were present within the tolerant liver. Thus, among several mechanisms accounting for non-deletional tolerance, Tregs are likely to involve at least in part in our tolerant patients. Vdelta1gammadeltaT cells, a subset of gammadeltaT cells, which otherwise reside mainly in the intestine, emerge into the peripheral blood during successful pregnancy but not abortive pregnancy. Since Vdelta1gammadeltaT cells produce massive IL-10, it is proposed that Vdelta1gammadeltaT cells induce fetomaternal tolerance by promoting Th2 immune deviation. Consistent with pregnancy, IL-10 producing Vdelta1gammadeltaT cells emerge into the blood of our tolerant patients. This may reflect a common feature between fetomaternal tolerance and transplant tolerance. We began protocol biopsy in post-LDLT patients who exhibit normal liver function from January 2003. Operationally tolerant patients, albeit showing normal liver function, exhibited decrease in size and increase in number of the bile duct and the fibrosis to a greater extent, compared with patients on maintenance

  3. Using an interactive water bottle to target fluid adherence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Kristin A; Scholl, Penny; Kidwell, Kelley M; Hmiel, S Paul

    2015-02-01

    Hydration is important post-renal transplant to maintain adequate renal perfusion and graft function. Adherence to fluid recommendations is challenging given barriers to staying hydrated. There are no studies of adherence to fluid intake recommendations following pediatric renal transplant. Through this pilot study, we sought to determine whether the use of a commercially available interactive water bottle would lead to better adherence to recommended fluid intake and improved kidney functioning post-transplant relative to standard of care. Participants included 32 youth ages 7-19 ≥1 month post-kidney transplant randomized to the intervention (HydraCoach(®) water bottle) or standard education control group. Laboratory records were reviewed for serum chemistries (Na, BUN, creatinine) at baseline and one-month follow-up, and participants recorded daily fluid intake for 28 days. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to meet or exceed their fluid target, but this did not translate into better kidney functioning. Participants in the intervention group largely reported satisfaction with the water bottle and were likely to continue its use. While an interactive water bottle providing real-time feedback may be a promising intervention to help pediatric kidney transplant patients meet fluid goals, it did not appear to impact kidney function. PMID:25388882

  4. De novo therapy with everolimus and reduced-exposure cyclosporine following pediatric kidney transplantation: a prospective, multicenter, 12-month study.

    PubMed

    Grushkin, Carl; Mahan, John D; Mange, Kevin C; Hexham, J Mark; Ettenger, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Prospective data regarding the de novo use of everolimus following kidney transplantation in children are sparse. In a prospective, 12-month, single-arm, open-label study, pediatric kidney transplant patients received everolimus (target trough concentration ≥3 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure CsA and corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. Sixteen of the 18 patients completed the study on-treatment. Age range was 2-16 yr (mean 10.9 yr); eight patients received a living donor graft. Mean (s.d.) everolimus level was 7.4 (3.1) ng/mL during the first 12 months post-transplant. There were no cases of BPAR, graft loss, or death during the study. Protocol biopsies were performed at month 12 in seven patients, with subclinical (untreated) acute rejection diagnosed in one case. Mean (s.d.) estimated GFR (Schwartz formula) was 98 (34) mL/min/1.73 m(2) at month 12. Three patients experienced one or more serious adverse events with a suspected relation to study medication. One patient discontinued study medication due to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (5.6%). Everolimus with reduced-dose CsA and corticosteroids achieved good efficacy and renal function and was well tolerated in this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant patients. Controlled trials are required to answer remaining questions about the optimal use of everolimus in this setting.

  5. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons.

  6. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  7. Visualization of Heart Rate Variability of Long-Term Heart Transplant Patient by Transition Networks: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wdowczyk, Joanna; Makowiec, Danuta; Dorniak, Karolina; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV) indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or non-conducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons. PMID:27014081

  8. Mediastinal irradiation in a patient affected by lung carcinoma after heart transplantation: Helical tomotherapy versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Vincenzo; Cammarota, Fabrizio; Toledo, Diego; Senese, Rossana; Francomacaro, Ferdinando; Muto, Matteo; Muto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients who have undergone solid organ transplants are known to have an increased risk of neoplasia compared with the general population. We report our experience using mediastinal irradiation with helical tomotherapy versus three‐dimensional conformal radiation therapy to treat a patient with lung carcinoma 15 years after heart transplantation. Our dosimetric evaluation showed no particular difference between the techniques, with the exception of some organs. Mediastinal irradiation after heart transplantation is feasible and should be considered after evaluation of the risk. Conformal radiotherapy or intensity‐modulated radiotherapy appears to be the appropriate treatment in heart‐transplanted oncologic patients. PMID:27148425

  9. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with acute pancreatitis in a heart transplant recipient treated with tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Im, Moon-Sun; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Kim, Ki-Bong; Lee, Hae-Young

    2013-02-01

    New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplant is a well-recognized complication of tacrolimus immunosuppression and commonly occurs as a form of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, tacrolimus-associated acute pancreatitis causing diabetic ketoacidosis has not been reported in heart transplant patients. We report a 22-year-old women hospitalized owing to diabetic ketoacidosis associated with acute pancreatitis 7 months after a heart transplant. Her immunosuppression included tacrolimus. She was admitted with complaints of polydipsia, anorexia, and abdominal pain of 3 days' duration. Her initial laboratory test revealed a toxic level of tacrolimus (> 30 ng/mL), severe hyperglycemia (39 mmol/L), severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.9), and ketonuria, although diabetes mellitus had never been diagnosed. Serum amylase and lipase levels and abdominal computed tomography suggested the presence of acute pancreatitis. After correcting the diabetic ketoacidosis and getting the tacrolimus level to the normal range, she was discharged home. Three months later, insulin was replaced with oral hypoglycemic agents. Pancreatitis can present with diabetic ketoacidosis in the recipient of a heart transplant treated with tacrolimus. Clinicians should pay more attention to tacrolimus levels and the risk of pancreatitis.

  10. Progressive improvement in hemodynamic response to muscle metaboreflex in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo; Milia, Raffaele; Angius, Luca; Pinna, Marco; Olla, Sergio; Roberto, Silvana; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Porcu, Maurizio; Concu, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Exercise capacity remains lower in heart transplant recipients (HTRs) following transplant compared with normal subjects, despite improved cardiac function. Moreover, metaboreceptor activity in the muscle has been reported to increase. The aim of the present investigation was to assess exercise capacity together with metaboreflex activity in HTR patients for 1 yr following heart transplant, to test the hypothesis that recovery in exercise capacity was paralleled by improvements in response to metaboreflex. A cardiopulmonary test for exercise capacity and Vo(2max) and hemodynamic response to metaboreflex activation obtained by postexercise ischemia were gathered in six HTRs and nine healthy controls (CTL) four times: at the beginning of the study (T0, 42 ± 6 days after transplant), at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month after TO (T1, T2, and T3). The main results were: 1) exercise capacity and Vo(2max) were seen to progressively increase in HTRs; 2) at T0 and T1, HTRs achieved a higher blood pressure response in response to metaboreflex compared with CTL, and this difference disappeared at T2 and T3; and 3) this exaggerated blood pressure response was the result of a systemic vascular resistance increment. This study demonstrates that exercise capacity progressively improves in HTRs after transplant and that this phenomenon is accompanied by a progressive reduction of the metaboreflex-induced increase in blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. These facts indicate that, despite improved cardiac function, resetting of cardiovascular regulation in HTRs requires months. PMID:23195627

  11. Split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yersiz, H; Cameron, A M; Carmody, I; Zimmerman, M A; Kelly, B S; Ghobrial, R M; Farmer, D G; Busuttil, R W

    2006-03-01

    Seventy-five thousand Americans develop organ failure each year. Fifteen percent of those on the list for transplantation die while waiting. Several possible mechanisms to expand the organ pool are being pursued including the use of extended criteria donors, living donation, and split deceased donor transplants. Cadaveric organ splitting results from improved understanding of the surgical anatomy of the liver derived from Couinaud. Early efforts focused on reduced-liver transplantation (RLT) reported by both Bismuth and Broelsch in the mid-1980s. These techniques were soon modified to create both a left lateral segment graft appropriate for a pediatric recipient and a right trisegment for an appropriately sized adult. Techniques of split liver transplantation (SLT) were also modified to create living donor liver transplantation. Pichlmayr and Bismuth reported successful split liver transplantation in 1989 and Emond reported a larger series of nine split procedures in 1990. Broelsch and Busuttil described a technical modification in which the split was performed in situ at the donor institution with surgical division completed in the heart beating cadaveric donor. In situ splitting reduces cold ischemia, simplifies identification of biliary and vascular structures, and reduces reperfusion hemorrhage. However, in situ splits require specialized skills, prolonged operating room time, and increased logistical coordination at the donor institution. At UCLA over 120 in situ splits have been performed and this technique is the default when an optimal donor is available. Split liver transplantation now accounts for 10% of adult transplantations at UCLA and 40% of pediatric transplantations.

  12. Time Course of Cell Sheet Adhesion to Porcine Heart Tissue after Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dehua; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Haraguchi, Yuji; Gao, Shuai; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Liu, Zhongmin; Okano, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Multilayered cell sheets have been produced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for investigating their adhesion properties onto native porcine heart tissue. Once MSCs reached confluence after a 7-day culture on a temperature-responsive culture dish, a MSCs monolayer spontaneously detached itself from the dish, when the culture temperature was reduced from 37 to 20°C. The basal extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the single cell sheet are preserved, because this technique requires no proteolytic enzymes for harvesting cell sheet, which become a basic building block for assembling a multilayer cell sheet. The thickness of multilayered cell sheets made from three MSC sheets was found to be approximately 60 μm. For investigating the adhesion properties of the basal and apical sides, the multilayered cell sheets were transplanted onto the surface of the heart’s left ventricle. Multilayered cell sheets were histological investigated at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after transplantation by hematoxylin eosin (HE) and azan dyes to determine required time for the adhesion of the multilayered sheets following cell-sheet transplantation. The results showed that only the basal side of multilayered cell sheets significantly enhanced the sheets adhesion onto the surface of heart 30 minutes after transplantation. This study concluded that (1) cell sheets had to be transplanted with its basal side onto the surface of heart tissue and (2) at least 30 minutes were necessary for obtaining the histological adhesion of the sheets to the heart tissue. This study provided clinical evidence and parameters for the successful application of MSC sheets to the myocardium and allowed cell sheet technology to be adapted clinical cell-therapy for myocardial diseases. PMID:26444683

  13. Postoperative complications necessitating right lower lobectomy in a heart-lung transplant recipient with previous sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, E B; Bahadir, I; Gordon, M; Maki, P; Warner, M G; Clark, R; Siever, J; Silverthorn, A

    1987-09-01

    Heart-lung transplantation for treatment of end-stage cardiopulmonary disease continues to be plagued by many problems. Three primary ones are the technical difficulties that can be encountered, particularly in those patients who have undergone previous cardiac operations, the additional restriction on donor availability imposed by the lack of satisfactory preservation techniques, and the need for lung size compatibility. Two of these difficulties and others surfaced postoperatively in a heart-lung transplant recipient who presented a series of unique operative and therapeutic challenges. A 42-year-old woman with chronic pulmonary hypertension and previous atrial septal defect repair underwent a heart-lung transplantation in August 1985. The operative procedure was expectedly complicated by bleeding from extensive mediastinal adhesions from the previous sternotomy and bronchial collateralization. Excessive chest tube drainage postoperatively necessitated reoperation to control bleeding from a right bronchial artery tributary. Phrenic nerve paresis, hepatomegaly, and marked abdominal distention caused persistent atelectasis and eventual right lower lobe collapse. Arteriovenous shunting and low oxygen saturation necessitated right lower lobectomy 15 days after transplantation, believed to be the first use of this procedure in a heart-lung graft recipient. Although oxygenation improved dramatically, continued ventilatory support led to tracheostomy. An intensive, psychologically oriented physical therapy program was initiated to access and retrain intercostal and accessory muscles. The tracheostomy cannula was removed after 43 days and gradual weaning from supplemental oxygen was accomplished. During this protracted recovery period, an episode of rejection was also encountered and successfully managed with steroid therapy. The patient continued to progress satisfactorily and was discharged 83 days after transplantation. She is well and active 20 months after discharge.

  14. Identifying predictive factors for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients with Epstein-Barr virus viremia.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Lauren; Weiner, Chana; Miloh, Tamir; Tomaino, Juli; Joashi, Umesh; Benchimol, Corinne; Strauchen, James; Roth, Michael; Wistinghausen, Birte

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia (EV) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is a significant risk factor for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) but not all patients with EV develop PTLD. We identify predictive factors for PTLD in patients with EV. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all pediatric SOT recipients (0 to 21 y) at a single institution between 2001 and 2009. A total of 350 pediatric patients received a SOT and 90 (25.7%) developed EV. Of EV patients, 28 (31%) developed PTLD. The median age at transplant was 11.5 months in the PTLD group and 21.5 months in the EV-only group (P=0.003). Twenty-three (37%) EV-only patients had immunosuppression increased before EV, compared with 28 (100%) of PTLD patients (P<0.001). The median peak EBV level was 3212 EBV copies/10 lymphocytes for EV-only and 8392.5 EBV copies/10 lymphocytes for PTLD (P=0.005). All patients who developed PTLD had ≥1 clinical symptoms. Younger age at transplant, increased immunosuppression before EV, higher peak EBV level, and presence of clinical symptoms have predictive value in the development of PTLD in SOT patients with EV.

  15. Building A New Treatment For Heart Failure-Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cells into the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Imanishi, Yukiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Masuda, Shigeo; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Advanced cardiac failure is a progressive intractable disease and is the main cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Since this pathology is represented by a definite decrease in cardiomyocyte number, supplementation of functional cardiomyocytes into the heart would hypothetically be an ideal therapeutic option. Recently, unlimited in vitro production of human functional cardiomyocytes was established by using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which avoids the use of human embryos. A number of basic studies including ours have shown that transplantation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) into the damaged heart leads to recovery of cardiac function, thereby establishing “proof-of-concept” of this iPSC-transplantation therapy. However, considering clinical application of this therapy, its feasibility, safety, and therapeutic efficacy need to be further investigated in the pre-clinical stage. This review summarizes up-to-date important topics related to safety and efficacy of iPSC-CMs transplantation therapy for cardiac disease and discusses the prospects for this treatment in clinical studies.

  16. Computational simulations of flow dynamics and blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve scaled to pediatric size and flow.

    PubMed

    Yun, B Min; McElhinney, Doff B; Arjunon, Shiva; Mirabella, Lucia; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-09-22

    Despite pressing needs, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic valves available for use in the pediatric population. This study is performed for predictive assessment of blood damage in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) with pediatric sizing and flow conditions. A model of an adult-sized 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent(™) valve is selected for use in simulations, which is scaled in size for a 5-year old child and 6-month old infant. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow with thousands of suspended platelets for cases of adult, child, and infant BMHV flows. Adult BMHV flows demonstrate more disorganized small-scale flow features, but pediatric flows are associated with higher fluid shear stresses. Platelet damage in the pediatric cases is higher than in adult flow, highlighting thrombus complication dangers of pediatric BMHV flows. This does not necessarily suggest clinically important differences in thromboembolic potential. Highly damaged platelets in pediatric flows are primarily found far downstream of the valve, as there is less flow recirculation in pediatric flows. In addition, damage levels are well below expected thresholds for platelet activation. The extent of differences here documented between the pediatric and adult cases is of concern, demanding particular attention when pediatric valves are designed and manufactured. However, the differences between the pediatric and adult cases are not such that development of pediatric sized valves is untenable. This study may push for eventual approval of prosthetic valves resized for the pediatric population. Further studies will be necessary to determine the validity and potential thrombotic and clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25011622

  17. The effects of interferon-alpha/beta in a model of rat heart transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, A. D.; Klein, J. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Ogden, L. L. 2nd; Gray, L. A. Jr

    1992-01-01

    Interferons have multiple immunologic effects. One such effect is the activation of expression of cell surface antigens. Interferon alpha/beta enhance expression of class I but not class II histocompatibility antigens. Contradictory information has been published regarding the effect of interferon-alpha/beta administration in patients with kidney transplantation. In a model of rat heart transplantation we demonstrated that administration of interferon-alpha/beta accelerated rejection in a dose-dependent fashion in the absence of maintenance cyclosporine. Animals treated with maintenance cyclosporine had evidence of increased rejection at 20 days that was resolved completely at 45 days with cyclosporine alone.

  18. Expression of NF-kappaB and cytokines in chronic rejection of transplanted murine heart.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. R.; Seok, C. J.; Kim, J. S.; Chang, J. M.; Seo, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    The heart transplantation-associated accelerated graft arteriosclerosis (AGAS) is one of the major causes of cardiac allograft failure. We investigated the early time-course of expresssion patterns of cytokines, transcription factor, and its inhibitor in the intraabdominally transplanted mice hearts that differed only in the D locus of class I histocompatibility antigen. The allograft hearts were harvested at 1-3, 5, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after the transplantation, and the expressions of NF-kappaB/I-kappaB and cytokines (TNF-alpha, INF-gamma) were examined in these specimens. The expressions of TNF-alpha and INF-gamma were observed on day 1, peaking on day 5 and 7, respectively. Activated NF-kappaB (p65) expression was present on the cytoplasm and perinuclear area in the endothelial cells of coronary arteries on day 1. The peak of translocation of NF-B from cytoplasm to nucleus appeared on day 5 in the endothelial cells, myocytes, and leukocytes within the vessels, and remained elevated until day 42. The I-kappaB expression gradually increased from day 1 until day 5, but a remarkable decrease was detected on day 7. Our data suggest that the increased expressions of NF-kappaB/I-kappaB and cytokines (TNF-alpha, INF-gamma) play an important role in inducing immune responses in the donor allograft heart and hence the blockage of the expressions might be mandatory to avoid a potential graft failure. PMID:11511783

  19. Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Hepatic Artery Stenosis in Adult and Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Maruzzelli, Luigi; Miraglia, Roberto Caruso, Settimo; Milazzo, Mariapina; Mamone, Giuseppe; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous endovascular techniques for the treatment of hepatic artery stenosis (HAS) occurring after liver transplantation (LT) in adult and pediatrics patients. From February 2003 to March 2009, 25 patients (15 adults and 10 children) whose developed HAS after LT were referred to our interventional radiology unit. Technical success was achieved in 96% (24 of 25) of patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in 13 patients (7 children), and stenting was performed in 11 patients (2 children). After the procedure, all patients were followed-up with liver function tests, Doppler ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. Mean follow-up was 15.8 months (range 5 days to 58 months). Acute hepatic artery thrombosis occurred immediately after stent deployment in 2 patients and was successfully treated with local thrombolysis. One patient developed severe HA spasm, which reverted after 24 h. After the procedure, mean trans-stenotic pressure gradient decreased from 30.5 to 6.2 mmHg. Kaplan-Meyer curve of HA primary patency was 77% at 1 and 2 years. During the follow-up period, 5 patients (20%) had recurrent stenosis, and 2 patients (8.3%) had late thrombosis. Two of 7 patients with stenosis/thrombosis underwent surgical revascularization (n = 1) and liver retransplantation (n = 1). Six (25%) patients died during follow-up, but overall mortality was not significantly different when comparing patients having patent hepatic arteries with those having recurrent stenosis/thrombosis. There were no significant differences in recurrent stenosis/thrombosis and mortality comparing patients treated by PTA versus stenting and comparing adult versus pediatric status. Percutaneous interventional treatment of HAS in LT recipients is safe and effective and decreases the need for surgical revascularization and liver retransplantation. However, the beneficial effects for survival are not clear, probably because

  20. Performance of Busulfan Dosing Guidelines for Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zao, Jamie H; Schechter, Tal; Liu, Wenchao Jessica; Gerges, Sandra; Gassas, Adam; Egeler, R Maarten; Grunebaum, Eyal; Dupuis, L Lee

    2015-08-01

    Achievement of a busulfan area-under-the-concentration versus time curve (AUC) of 900 to 1500 μM·min is associated with improved hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) outcomes. Multiple pediatric busulfan dosing guidelines aim to achieve this target. The authors' objective was to describe the AUCs achieved after simulated dosing using available pediatric i.v. busulfan dosing guidelines. The health records of children who received i.v. busulfan for HSCT conditioning at The Hospital for Sick Children were reviewed. Busulfan AUCs were calculated for each patient based on plasma busulfan concentrations using either a 1-compartment model or a validated limited-sampling strategy. Published pediatric busulfan dosing guidelines were identified. Initial busulfan doses were determined for all patients using each dosing guideline and total body weight (TBW). For overweight patients (TBW-to-ideal body weight [IBW] ≥ 1.25), initial busulfan doses were also determined using IBW and adjusted IBW (IBWadj). The resulting AUCs were simulated. The proportion of subjects (TBW/IBW < 1.25, TBW/IBW ≥ 1.25, and infants) with an AUC within target (900 to 1500 μM·min) after dosing simulation with each guideline was compared. One hundred eleven children (mean age, 6.2 years [SD, ±5.2]) who received i.v. busulfan were included. When dosing with each of the 12 i.v. busulfan dosing guidelines identified was simulated using TBW in 97 non-overweight patients, the proportion of patients with an AUC within the target range varied from 51% to 74% and from 45% to 64% in infants. Use of IBW or IBWadj to calculate initial busulfan doses in overweight children improved the performance of most guidelines. Current busulfan dosing guidelines vary in their ability to achieve AUCs within the target range. For children who are not overweight, we recommend 1 of 3 high-performing guidelines that allow individualization of the target busulfan AUC. Use of either IBW or IBWadj in overweight children

  1. Functional evaluation of rat hearts transplanted after preservation in a high-pressure gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Hatayama, Naoyuki; Inubushi, Masayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Hirai, Shuichi; Jin, Yong-Nan; Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Seki, Kunihiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Saga, Tsuneo; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We recently succeeded in resuscitating an extracted rat heart following 24–48 hours of preservation in a high-pressure gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2). This study aimed to examine the function of rat hearts transplanted after being preserved in the high-pressure CO and O2 gas mixture. The hearts of donor rats were preserved in a chamber filled with CO and O2 under high pressure for 24 h (CO24h) or 48 h at 4 °C. For the positive control (PC) group, hearts immediately extracted from donor rats were used for transplantation. The preserved hearts were transplanted into recipient rats by heterotopic cervical heart transplantation. CO toxicity does not affect the grafts or the recipients. Light microscopy and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed that there were no significant differences in the size of the myocardial infarction or apoptosis of myocardial cells in post-transplant hearts between the PC and CO24h groups. Furthermore, at 100 days after the transplantation, the heart rate, weight and histological staining of the post-transplanted hearts did not differ significantly between the PC and CO24h groups. These results indicate that the function of rat hearts is well preserved after 24 hours of high-pressure preservation in a CO and O2 gas mixture. Therefore, high-pressure preservation in a gas mixture can be a useful method for organ preservation. PMID:27562456

  2. Outcomes of pediatric bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and myelodysplasia using matched sibling, mismatched related, or matched unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter J; Kan, Fangyu; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Spellman, Stephen R; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Ayas, Mouhab; Burke, Michael; Cairo, Mitchell S; Chen, Allen R; Davies, Stella M; Frangoul, Haydar; Gajewski, James; Gale, Robert Peter; Godder, Kamar; Hale, Gregory A; Heemskerk, Martin B A; Horan, John; Kamani, Naynesh; Kasow, Kimberly A; Chan, Ka Wah; Lee, Stephanie J; Leung, Wing H; Lewis, Victor A; Miklos, David; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Petersdorf, Effie W; Ringdén, Olle; Sanders, Jean; Schultz, Kirk R; Seber, Adriana; Setterholm, Michelle; Wall, Donna A; Yu, Lolie; Pulsipher, Michael A

    2010-11-11

    Although some trials have allowed matched or single human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donors (mmRDs) along with HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs) for pediatric bone marrow transplantation in early-stage hematologic malignancies, whether mmRD grafts lead to similar outcomes is not known. We compared patients < 18 years old reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic T-replete, myeloablative bone marrow transplantation between 1993 and 2006. In total, patients receiving bone marrow from 1208 MSDs, 266 8/8 allelic-matched unrelated donors (URDs), and 151 0-1 HLA-antigen mmRDs were studied. Multivariate analysis showed that recipients of MSD transplants had less transplantation-related mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD, along with better disease-free and overall survival than the URD and mmRD groups. No differences were observed in transplant-related mortality, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the mmRD and URD groups. These data show that mmRD and 8/8 URD outcomes are similar, whereas MSD outcomes are superior to the other 2 sources. Whether allele level typing could identify mmRD recipients with better outcomes will not be known unless centers alter practice and type mmRD at the allele level.

  3. Reno-portal anastomosis as an approach to pediatric kidney transplantation in the setting of inferior vena cava thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cauley, R P; Potanos, K; Fullington, N; Lillehei, C; Vakili, K; Kim, H B

    2013-05-01

    In pediatric renal transplantation in the setting of IVC thrombosis, the retrohepatic IVC or gonadal veins are often used for outflow. However, if use of systemic venous outflow is unsuccessful, options become limited. We report the use of the portal vein for venous outflow in kidney retransplantation in the setting of IVC thrombosis. The patient is a 19-month-old male who developed end-stage renal failure at seven months of age secondary to hypotension after spontaneous rupture of an accessory renal vein. The IVC was occluded during emergent laparotomy, and the patient developed extensive IVC thrombosis. The first two transplant attempts used the retrohepatic IVC for venous outflow. Despite good initial flow, in both instances the renal vein thrombosed on post-operative day 1. In an unsuccessful salvage attempt of the second transplant, a reno-portal anastomosis was performed. With few options for vascular access, a third transplant was attempted. The reno-portal stump from the second transplant was used for outflow. The patient recovered well from his third transplant (creatinine 0.6 mg/dL 35 months post-surgery), demonstrating that the portal vein can be used for outflow in cases of extensive IVC thrombosis.

  4. AST-to-platelet ratio index in non-invasive assessment of long-term graft fibrosis following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rashmi S; Neves Souza, Lara; Isted, Alexander; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Cotoi, Corina; Amin, Saista; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Long-term graft fibrosis occurs in the majority of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Serial biopsies to monitor graft health are impractical and invasive. The APRI has been evaluated in pediatric liver disease, but not in the context of post-transplantation fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the validity of APRI as a predictor of long-term graft fibrosis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective, observational study of a cohort of children who underwent liver transplantation at King's College Hospital between 1989 and 2003, with a relevant dataset available. Protocol liver biopsies were performed at 10-yr follow-up and fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, with S3-6 denoting "significant fibrosis." APRI was calculated concurrently with biopsy. A total of 39 asymptomatic patients (20 males; median age at transplant, 1.43 yr) underwent protocol liver biopsies at a median of 10.39 yr post-transplantation. APRI was associated with significant fibrosis (p = 0.012). AUROC for APRI as a predictor of significant fibrosis was 0.74 (p = 0.013). The optimal cutoff APRI value for significant fibrosis was 0.45 (sensitivity = 0.67; specificity = 0.79; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.79). APRI appears to be a useful non-invasive adjunct in the assessment of significant graft fibrosis in the long-term follow-up of pediatric liver transplant survivors. PMID:26806646

  5. AST-to-platelet ratio index in non-invasive assessment of long-term graft fibrosis following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rashmi S; Neves Souza, Lara; Isted, Alexander; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Cotoi, Corina; Amin, Saista; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Long-term graft fibrosis occurs in the majority of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Serial biopsies to monitor graft health are impractical and invasive. The APRI has been evaluated in pediatric liver disease, but not in the context of post-transplantation fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the validity of APRI as a predictor of long-term graft fibrosis in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This was a retrospective, observational study of a cohort of children who underwent liver transplantation at King's College Hospital between 1989 and 2003, with a relevant dataset available. Protocol liver biopsies were performed at 10-yr follow-up and fibrosis was graded using the Ishak scoring system, with S3-6 denoting "significant fibrosis." APRI was calculated concurrently with biopsy. A total of 39 asymptomatic patients (20 males; median age at transplant, 1.43 yr) underwent protocol liver biopsies at a median of 10.39 yr post-transplantation. APRI was associated with significant fibrosis (p = 0.012). AUROC for APRI as a predictor of significant fibrosis was 0.74 (p = 0.013). The optimal cutoff APRI value for significant fibrosis was 0.45 (sensitivity = 0.67; specificity = 0.79; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.79). APRI appears to be a useful non-invasive adjunct in the assessment of significant graft fibrosis in the long-term follow-up of pediatric liver transplant survivors.

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a young heart transplant recipient crossing the traditional boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khalil; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Terp, Kim Allan; Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Andersen, Henning Rud; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2016-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Hitherto, TAVI is not recommended in young and low-intermediate risk patients. However, TAVI may also serve as an alternative to SAVR in selected young patients, e.g., patients who have previously undergone multiple cardiac surgery procedures. We report a case of trans-femoral TAVI in a 25-year-old heart transplant (HTx) recipient with prior surgery for congenital heart disease.

  7. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a young heart transplant recipient crossing the traditional boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Terp, Kim Allan; Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Andersen, Henning Rud; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Hitherto, TAVI is not recommended in young and low-intermediate risk patients. However, TAVI may also serve as an alternative to SAVR in selected young patients, e.g., patients who have previously undergone multiple cardiac surgery procedures. We report a case of trans-femoral TAVI in a 25-year-old heart transplant (HTx) recipient with prior surgery for congenital heart disease. PMID:27621906

  8. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a young heart transplant recipient crossing the traditional boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Terp, Kim Allan; Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Andersen, Henning Rud; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Hitherto, TAVI is not recommended in young and low-intermediate risk patients. However, TAVI may also serve as an alternative to SAVR in selected young patients, e.g., patients who have previously undergone multiple cardiac surgery procedures. We report a case of trans-femoral TAVI in a 25-year-old heart transplant (HTx) recipient with prior surgery for congenital heart disease.

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a young heart transplant recipient crossing the traditional boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khalil; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Terp, Kim Allan; Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Andersen, Henning Rud; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt

    2016-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established therapeutic alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Hitherto, TAVI is not recommended in young and low-intermediate risk patients. However, TAVI may also serve as an alternative to SAVR in selected young patients, e.g., patients who have previously undergone multiple cardiac surgery procedures. We report a case of trans-femoral TAVI in a 25-year-old heart transplant (HTx) recipient with prior surgery for congenital heart disease. PMID:27621906

  10. Materializing Heart Regeneration: Biomimicry of Key Observations in Cell Transplantation Therapies and Natural Cardiac Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yen P.; Jongpaiboonkit, Leena

    2016-07-01

    New regenerative paradigms are needed to address the growing global problem of heart failure as existing interventions are unsatisfactory. Outcomes from the current paradigm of cell transplantation have not been stellar but the mechanistic knowledge learned from them is instructive in the development of future paradigms. An emerging biomaterial-based approach incorporating key mechanisms and additional ones scrutinized from the process of natural heart regeneration in zebrafish may become the next evolution in cardiac repair. We highlight, with examples, tested key concepts and pivotal ones that may be integrated into a successful therapy.

  11. Hospital Charges for Pediatric Heart Failure-Related Hospitalizations from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Deipanjan; Lin, Kimberly Y; O'Connor, Matthew J; Elci, Okan U; Kim, Jeffrey J; Decker, Jamie A; Price, Jack F; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David L S; Denfield, Susan W; Dreyer, William J; Jefferies, John L; Rossano, Joseph W

    2016-03-01

    Scarce data exist regarding costs of pediatric heart failure-related hospitalizations (HFRH) or how costs have changed over time. Pediatric HFRH costs, due to advances in management, will have increased significantly over time. A retrospective analysis of Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database was performed on all pediatric HFRH. Inflation-adjusted charges are used as a proxy for cost. There were a total of 33,189 HFRH captured from 2000 to 2009. Median charges per HFRH rose from $35,079 in 2000 to $72,087 in 2009 (p < 0.0001). The greatest median charges were incurred in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ($442,134 vs $53,998) or ventricular assist devices ($462,647 vs $55,151). Comorbidities, including sepsis ($207,511 vs $48,995), renal failure ($180,624 vs $52,812), stroke ($198,260 vs $54,974) and respiratory failure ($146,200 vs $48,797), were associated with greater charges (p < 0.0001). Comorbidities and use of mechanical support increased over time. After adjusting for these factors, later year remained associated with greater median charges per HFRH (p < 0.0001). From 2000 to 2009, there has been an almost twofold increase in pediatric HFRH charges, after adjustment for inflation. Although comorbidities and use of mechanical support account for some of this increase, later year remained independently associated with greater charges. Further study is needed to understand potential factors driving these higher costs over time and to identify more cost-effective therapies in this population. PMID:26645995

  12. High incidence of monoclonal immunoglobulins in patients after liver or heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peest, D; Schaper, B; Nashan, B; Wonigeit, K; Raude, E; Pichlmayr, R; Haverich, A; Deicher, H

    1988-09-01

    Sera from 56 recipients of liver or heart transplants were investigated for monoclonal immunoglobulins (mIg) by immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) at different times during 4 years after transplantation. Transient, changing, or stable mIgs were found in 18 patients. A significantly increased mIg incidence was observed in heart Tx patients, patients over 40 years of age, and those receiving azathioprine or antithymocyte globulin in addition to prednisolone and cyclosporine as immunosuppressive treatment. No correlations could be found between the presence of mIg and the number of rejection episodes or intercurrent infections. Such serum mIg represent monoclones of at least 1 x 10(9) cells of B lymphocyte lineage that apparently proliferate without adequate suppressive control. Since immunosuppressed allograft recipients are at risk of developing B cell lymphomas, such monoclones may be regarded as prelymphomas necessitating a careful follow-up in these patients.

  13. Prolonged duration of transbrachial intra-aortic balloon pump as bridge to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Triston B B J; Shridhar, Puneeth; Khalil, Ramzi; Lasorda, David Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case demonstrating the quality of life (QOL) benefit and safety of using a transbrachial approach for insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in a patient awaiting cardiac transplantation. A 68-year-old man with ischaemic cardiomyopathy was admitted to our cardiac intensive care unit to await the availability of a suitable donor organ for orthotopic heart transplant. An IABP was needed for haemodynamic support due to cardiogenic shock. Since the patient did not want to be committed to lying supine in bed for multiple days, as would have been the case had the IABP been placed using the conventional femoral route, we inserted a 7.5 Fr 'sheathless' IABP via the transbrachial approach. The patient's haemodynamics improved and the device was left in place for 240 h without vascular compromise. He was subsequently successfully transplanted and is doing well on follow-up. PMID:25657198

  14. The Impact of a Defensive Response Set on the Relationship between MMPI and Cognitive Tests among Heart Transplant Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzke, John D.; Williams, Mark A.; Millsaps, Cheryl L.; McCarty, Harry J.; Azrin, Richard L.; LaMarche, Judith A.; Boll, Thomas J.; Bourge, Robert C.; Kirklin, James K.; McGiffin, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The emotional cognitive relationship was examined in 136 heart transplant candidates undergoing psychosocial and cognitive assessment as part of evaluation for transplantation. Results show increased emotional distress was reliably associated with decreased cognitive functioning in patients who scored as nondefensive on the Minnesota Multiphasic…

  15. [Prophylaxis against Toxoplasma gondii disease in pediatric and adult patients undergoing solid organ and hematopoietic stem cells transplantation].

    PubMed

    Payá, Ernesto; Noemí, Isabel; Tassara, Renzo; Catalán, Paula; Avilés, Carmen L

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed zoonosis produced by the parasite T. gondii. In Chile the seroprevalence has been estimated between 20-37% in general population. Defined risk groups acquire or reactivate the infection by T. gondii in patients undergoing SOT and HSCT are: heart transplant or heart-lung with D (+) and R (-), allogeneic HSCT with R (+), HSCT with cord cells, GVHD, history of previous clinical toxoplasmosis and use of corticosteroids for prolonged periods or in high doses. Hand washing, hygiene in food handling and weekly post-transplant surveillance since day 15 post transplant for six months, are universally recommended. All patients with SOT and HSCT, regardless of risk, should receive prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole and require no another specific prophylaxis against T. gondii (A2). It is particularly important in high-risk patients who cannot receive cotrimoxazole prophylaxis establish specific alternative against T. gondii (B3). PMID:23282555

  16. Perceptions of stress, burnout, and support systems in pediatric bone marrow transplantation nursing.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Regan; Gormley, Denise K

    2009-12-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat various conditions, ranging from immune disorders to many types of cancer. The critical complexity of patients and the environment in which BMT nurses work can lead to stress, burnout, and, ultimately, poor retention. This study aimed to investigate nurses' perceptions of work-related stress and burnout as well as current support systems for nurses. The study included 30 BMT staff nurses from a large pediatric medical center in the midwestern United States. Critical illness or acuity of patients was reported as the most stressful factor; long work hours was the least stressful factor. Most nurses perceived moderate to high levels of emotional exhaustion, and 33% reported moderate levels of depersonalization. Fifty percent perceived high levels of personal accomplishment, despite the critical illness or acuity of their patients, demanding patient families, rotating shifts, short staffing, and caring for dying patients. Most nurses felt that support systems were in place and that staff was accessible, but most respondents were undecided about the helpfulness of the support systems. Results suggest that support systems may significantly affect work satisfaction and feelings of accomplishment for BMT nurses.

  17. Oral Disease Burden and Utilization of Dental Care Patterns Among Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Kawada, Phyllis; Golinveaux, Megan; Tornabene, Ann; Krishnan, Sumathi; Mathias, Robert; Besten, Pamela Den; Rosenthal, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a study among pediatric renal (RTRs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) to determine: a) the overall burden of oral disease; and b) the frequency with which this population utilizes dental care services in relation to sociodemographic factors and oral disease burden. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, study procedures included the completion of a standardized questionnaire (by parents/guardians), oral mucosal examination, assessment of caries, gingival enlargement, and plaque index. Results The 142 children (82 RTRs and 60 LTRs) enrolled from April 2002 to November 2005 were predominantly Latino (41 percent) and Caucasian (34 percent). Forty-three percent had at least one carious surface (in either a deciduous or permanent tooth), 19 percent had five or more carious surfaces, and 25 percent had gingival enlargement. We found only one case of oral candidiasis. Even though 72 percent of parents/guardians reported their child had a regular source of dental care, only 49 percent had a dental cleaning and 44 percent had dental radiographs in the past year, reflecting a low prevalence of preventive dental care. Among children with no regular source of dental care, there were statistically significantly higher proportions of Latinos, younger children, and families with an annual household income <$35,000. Conclusion While the prevalence of oral mucosal disease and gingival enlargement was low, the prevalence of children with caries was high, and there was low use of preventive dental care. Strategies to improve this population's utilization of preventive dental care are needed. PMID:18662252

  18. Implementation of structured physical activity in the pediatric stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosenhagen, A; Bernhörster, M; Vogt, L; Weiss, B; Senn, A; Arndt, S; Siegler, K; Jung, M; Bader, P; Banzer, W

    2011-05-01

    The peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) represents a specific, but stressful therapy for hemato-oncological diseases. While for adults, data suggest positive eff ects for a supportive sport therapy, this question is not evaluated sufficiently for children. The objective of this study was to examine the integration of sports activity into pediatric PBSCT and to indicate attainable results. This 2-step case-control-study included 23 children and adolescents from the PBSCT: During the isolation phase 13 patients trained 3 times per week on a cycle ergometer and passed a course with different sports equipment. Apart from recording physiologic adaptations, quality of live was inquired in a pre-post design using questionnaires. Guided interviews according to necessity and requirements for sports activity at the PBSCT unit completed the evaluation and were used for the intervention as well as for the control group (n = 10) without sports therapy. On the ergometer, patients trained average 25 min with 0.6 watt / kg. In the majority, a loss of muscular power could be avoided. Quality of life and fatigue symptoms improved by trend. Interview analysis showed general acceptance of physical activity during PBSCT. After initial skepticism due to the additional burden, our implementation study showed the feasibility of supportive sports therapy in PBSCT. Quality and flexibility of the equipment should be higher than normal and different physical and psychological conditions of the patients should be anticipated and integrated into the training program.

  19. Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) results.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, L G; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J C; Alonso, E M

    2011-02-01

    This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 ± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 ± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 ± 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ ≤ 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  20. Venous Thromboembolism after Allogeneic Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Azık, Fatih; Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Tavil, Betül; Işık, Pamir; Tunç, Bahattin; Uçkan, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has high morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of VTE in allogeneic pediatric HSCT recipients and the contribution of pretransplant prothrombotic risk factors to thrombosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 92 patients between April 2010 and November 2012 undergoing allogeneic HSCT who had completed 100 days post-HSCT. Before HSCT, coagulation profiles; acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors including FV G1691A (factor V Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations; and serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a), plasma antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S levels were obtained from all patients. Results: In the screening of thrombophilia, 8 patients (9%) were heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 (6%) were homozygous for MTHFR 677TT, 12 (14%) were homozygous for MTHFR 1298CC, and 2 (2%) were heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A mutation. We observed VTE in 5 patients (5.4%); a prothrombotic risk factor was found in 3 out of these 5 patients, while 4 out of 5 patients had central venous catheters. It was determined there was no significant relationship between VTE and inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Conclusion: VTE after HSCT seems to be a low-frequency event that may be due to low-dose, low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis, and the role of inherited prothrombotic risk factors cannot be entirely excluded without a prospective study. PMID:25912774

  1. Use of CO2 laser gingivoplasty in heart-transplant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rysky, Carlo; Forni, Franco

    1992-08-01

    In this work we observed the result of CO2 laser surgery used to remove hyperplastic gingiva in patients who were under cyclosporine maintenance treatment after they underwent heart transplant. The objectives were to reduce, as much as possible, bleeding, to avoid any subsequent intervention to remove stitches, and to minimize the operatory and postoperatory discomfort for the patient. Our data confirm the advantages of CO2 laser surgery when used to remove overgrowing tissue in accessible areas.

  2. Nucleotide metabolic mismatches in mammalian hearts: implications for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, MH; Smolenski, RT

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human donor organ shortages have led surgeons and scientists to explore the use of animals as alternative organ sources. Acute thrombovascular rejection (AVR) is the main hurdle in xenotransplantation. Disparities in nucleotide metabolism in the vessels of different species may contribute significantly to the microvascular component of AVR. Methods We evaluated the extent of nucleotide metabolism mismatch in selected organs and endothelial cells of different mammals with particular focus on the changes in activity of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (E5’N) elicited by exposure of porcine hearts or endothelial cells to human blood (ex vivo) or human plasma (in vitro). Results E5’N activity in the rat heart was significantly higher than in other species. We noted a significant difference (p<0.001) in E5’N activity between human and pig endothelial cell lines. Initial pig aortic endothelial E5’N activity decreased in vitro after a three-hour exposure to human and porcine plasma while remaining constant in controls. Ex vivo perfusion with fresh human blood for four hours resulted in a significant decrease of E5’N activity in both wild type and transgenic pig hearts overexpressing human decay accelerating factor (p<0.001). Conclusions This study provides evidence that mismatches in basal mammalian metabolic pathways and humoral immunity interact in a xenogeneic environment. Understanding the role of nucleotide metabolism and signalling in xenotransplantation may identify new targets for genetic modifications and may lead to the development of new therapies extending graft survival. PMID:23317713

  3. Tracking Fusion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Transplantation to the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Brian T.; Kouris, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can aid recovery of damaged myocardium caused by myocardial infarction. One possible mechanism for MSC-mediated recovery is reprogramming after cell fusion between transplanted MSCs and recipient cardiac cells. We used a Cre/LoxP-based luciferase reporter system coupled to biophotonic imaging to detect fusion of transplanted human pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs to cells of organs of living mice. Human MSCs, with transient expression of a viral fusogen, were delivered to the murine heart via a collagen patch. At 2 days and 1 week later, living mice were probed for bioluminescence indicative of cell fusion. Cell fusion was detected at the site of delivery (heart) and in distal tissues (i.e., stomach, small intestine, liver). Fusion was confirmed at the cellular scale via fluorescence in situ hybridization for human-specific and mouse-specific centromeres. Human cells in organs distal to the heart were typically located near the vasculature, suggesting MSCs and perhaps MSC fusion products have the ability to migrate via the circulatory system to distal organs and engraft with local cells. The present study reveals previously unknown migratory patterns of delivered human MSCs and associated fusion products in the healthy murine heart. The study also sets the stage for follow-on studies to determine the functional effects of cell fusion in a model of myocardial damage or disease. Significance Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are transplanted to the heart, cartilage, and other tissues to recover lost function or at least limit overactive immune responses. Analysis of tissues after MSC transplantation shows evidence of fusion between MSCs and the cells of the recipient. To date, the biologic implications of cell fusion remain unclear. A newly developed in vivo tracking system was used to identify MSC fusion products in living mice. The migratory patterns of fusion products were determined both in the

  4. [Polyneuropathy and central nervous system diseases before and after heart transplantation. Is cyclosporin neurotoxic?].

    PubMed

    Porschke, H; Strenge, H; Stauch, C

    1991-10-18

    In a cross-sectional study, 52 patients (44 men, 8 women, mean age 50.6 [19-68] years) were investigated clinically and electrophysiologically for evidence of peripheral and central nervous system damage before and after heart transplantation. 20 patients were investigated before heart transplantation (group 1), 16 at 7 days to 5 months after transplantation (early post-operative group; group 2) and 16 at 6 to 32 months after transplantation (late post-operative group; group 3). Nerve conduction studies (median, peroneal and sural nerves) revealed polyneuropathy in 14 out of 16 patients in group 2, significantly more than in group 1 (11 out of 19) and group 3 (9 out of 16). The mean blood cyclosporin concentration was 656 ng/ml in group 2 and 409 ng/ml in group 3 (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3 with polyneuropathy had significantly higher cyclosporin concentrations than patients without polyneuropathy (505 vs 284 ng/ml; P less than 0.01). Among patients who had undergone operations, there were no noteworthy differences between the mean cyclosporin concentrations and clinical data in those with or without central nervous system lesions. There is preliminary evidence of a neurotoxic effect of cyclosporin on the peripheral but not the central nervous system. PMID:1935623

  5. Reversion of gingival hyperplasia in a heart transplant patient upon interruption of cyclosporine therapy.

    PubMed

    Somacarrera, M L; Lucas, M; Acero, J

    1996-01-01

    A heart transplant patient undergoing a combined cyclosporine and prednisone treatment was monitored during the 18 months following transplantation. A complete oral and dental examination was performed in each of the first six months after transplantation, and then in the 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th months. The data collected included gingival hyperplasia secondary to cyclosporine use, and clinical and periodontal variables. Histological studies were also conducted on gingival tissue samples in months 1, 3, 9, 15, and 18. Cyclosporine treatment was replaced by azathioprine treatment in month 10 because the patient was experiencing nephrotoxicity. Between months 9 and 18, gingival hyperplasia regressed by 26.5% due to a reduction in the fibrous connective tissue mass, fibroblasts, and inflammatory infiltration. The control group included 13 heart transplant patients subject to equivalent conditions except discontinuance of cyclosporine treatment; seven of the patients had developed hyperplasia by month 9. Average hyperplasia in the control group increased by 2% between months 9 and 18; only one patient showed a 6.2% decrease in hyperplasia. This provides further evidence for the causal relationship between cyclosporine therapy and gingival hyperplasia, and suggests that this side-effect is reversible.

  6. Morbimortality in heart and lung transplantation in Cuba: a 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bazán Milián, M; Delgado Bereijo, L; González Jiménez, N

    2009-10-01

    The first orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) was performed in 1967 by C.N. Barnard in Cape Town, South Africa. The first OHT in Cuba was performed in 1985. The main purpose of our study was to determine some of the aspects related to the short-, mid-, and long-term morbimortality rates of OHT patients in Cuba. We analyzed the first 120 OHTs (3 heart plus lung transplantations, 4 retransplantations, and 113 heart transplantations) which were performed in Cuba from December 1985 to December 2005. Based on the analysis, we performed a descriptive, retrospective research about morbimortality. There was a predominance of the masculine sex (5.31:1). The overall mean age was 45.13 +/- 11.58 years (range, 14-67 years). The most frequent pretransplant diagnosis was coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 69; 57.5%). Analyzing the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, we observed that the survival probability at 1 year was 83.3%; at 5 years, 45.7%; and at 10 years 19.2%. The complications by frequency were: sepsis (n = 41; 37%), acute rejection episodes (n = 42; 35.0%), and neoplasia (n = 4; 3.3%). Complications in frequency order were sepsis and acute rejection episodes among short term and chronic rejection and chronic renal failure among long-term survivors.

  7. A Proposal for Early Dosing Regimens in Heart Transplant Patients Receiving Thymoglobulin and Calcineurin Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Barten, Markus J; Schulz, Uwe; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Berchtold-Herz, Michael; Boeken, Udo; Garbade, Jens; Hirt, Stephan; Richter, Manfred; Ruhpawar, Arjang; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Schönrath, Felix; Schramm, Rene; Schweiger, Martin; Wilhelm, Markus; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the dose or duration of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in different types of heart transplant patients, or the timing and intensity of initial calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy in rATG-treated individuals. Based on limited data and personal experience, the authors propose an approach to rATG dosing and initial CNI administration. Usually rATG is initiated immediately after exclusion of primary graft failure, although intraoperative initiation may be appropriate in specific cases. A total rATG dose of 4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg is advisable, tailored within that range according to immunologic risk and adjusted according to immune monitoring. Lower doses (eg, 3.0 mg/kg) of rATG can be used in patients at low immunological risk, or 1.5 to 2.5 mg/kg for patients with infection on mechanical circulatory support. The timing of CNI introduction is dictated by renal recovery, varying between day 3 and day 0 after heart transplantation, and the initial target exposure is influenced by immunological risk and presence of infection. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin and CNI dosing should not overlap except in high-risk cases. There is a clear need for more studies to define the optimal dosing regimens for rATG and early CNI exposure according to risk profile in heart transplantation. PMID:27500271

  8. A Proposal for Early Dosing Regimens in Heart Transplant Patients Receiving Thymoglobulin and Calcineurin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Barten, Markus J.; Schulz, Uwe; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Berchtold-Herz, Michael; Boeken, Udo; Garbade, Jens; Hirt, Stephan; Richter, Manfred; Ruhpawar, Arjang; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Schönrath, Felix; Schramm, Rene; Schweiger, Martin; Wilhelm, Markus; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the dose or duration of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in different types of heart transplant patients, or the timing and intensity of initial calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy in rATG-treated individuals. Based on limited data and personal experience, the authors propose an approach to rATG dosing and initial CNI administration. Usually rATG is initiated immediately after exclusion of primary graft failure, although intraoperative initiation may be appropriate in specific cases. A total rATG dose of 4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg is advisable, tailored within that range according to immunologic risk and adjusted according to immune monitoring. Lower doses (eg, 3.0 mg/kg) of rATG can be used in patients at low immunological risk, or 1.5 to 2.5 mg/kg for patients with infection on mechanical circulatory support. The timing of CNI introduction is dictated by renal recovery, varying between day 3 and day 0 after heart transplantation, and the initial target exposure is influenced by immunological risk and presence of infection. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin and CNI dosing should not overlap except in high-risk cases. There is a clear need for more studies to define the optimal dosing regimens for rATG and early CNI exposure according to risk profile in heart transplantation. PMID:27500271

  9. Ferritin as an early marker of graft rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Feucht, Judith; Queudeville, Manon; Teltschik, Heiko-Manuel; Lang, Peter; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Handgretinger, Rupert; Müller, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of adverse events following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is mainly assigned to clinical symptoms or biopsies and thus rather unspecific and/or invasive. Studies indicate a distinct role of serum ferritin in HSCT and its correlation with adverse events such as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), veno-occlusive disease (VOD), or infections. However, published data on the relevance of ferritin as a prognostic marker for post-transplant adverse events is rare, especially in pediatric patients. The present study analyzes ferritin plasma concentrations of 138 pediatric patients after HSCT between 2007 and 2010 including the control group (n = 21). Given the initial results regarding ferritin as a significant predictor for acute graft rejection after allogeneic HSCT in 9 of the 138 pediatric patients, serum ferritin of all pediatric patients (n = 27) who experienced graft rejection between 2007 and 2014 was analyzed. In addition, laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, and D-dimer as possible differentiation markers for graft rejection were determined. In 24 (88.9 %) of the 27 pediatric patients with graft rejection, a significant increase of ferritin levels was observed 1 to 7 days prior to (P < 0.0001) and at the time of graft rejection (P < 0.0001). Moreover, there was an increase of D-dimer, CRP, LDH, and fibrinogen 1-7 days before graft rejection. Ferritin increased significantly at time of VOD (P = 0.0067), at time of intestinal (P < 0.0001) and skin GvHD (P < 0.0001), and at time of sepsis (P = 0.0005) and bacteremia (P = 0.0029). Ferritin might serve as a readily available identification marker for differentiation and identification of adverse events after HSCT in combination with other laboratory markers. PMID:26611853

  10. Rat Heterotopic Heart Transplantation Model to Investigate Unloading-Induced Myocardial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuebin; Segiser, Adrian; Carrel, Thierry P.; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik T.; Most, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Unloading of the failing left ventricle in order to achieve myocardial reverse remodeling and improvement of contractile function has been developed as a strategy with the increasing frequency of implantation of left ventricular assist devices in clinical practice. But, reverse remodeling remains an elusive target, with high variability and exact mechanisms still largely unclear. The small animal model of heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTX) in rodents has been widely implemented to study the effects of complete and partial unloading on cardiac failing and non-failing tissue to better understand the structural and molecular changes that underlie myocardial recovery. We herein review the current knowledge on the effects of volume unloading the left ventricle via different methods of hHTX in rats, differentiating between changes that contribute to functional recovery and adverse effects observed in unloaded myocardium. We focus on methodological aspects of heterotopic transplantation, which increase the correlation between the animal model and the setting of the failing unloaded human heart. Last, but not least, we describe the late use of sophisticated techniques to acquire data, such as small animal MRI and catheterization, as well as ways to assess unloaded hearts under “reloaded” conditions. While giving regard to certain limitations, heterotopic rat heart transplantation certainly represents the crucial model to mimic unloading-induced changes in the heart and as such the intricacies and challenges deserve highest consideration. Careful translational research will further improve our knowledge of the reverse remodeling process and how to potentiate its effect in order to achieve recovery of contractile function in more patients. PMID:27807535

  11. Stable pediatric kidney transplant recipients run higher urine indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) levels than healthy children.

    PubMed

    Al Khasawneh, Eihab; Gupta, Sushil; Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Shahlaee, Amir H; Garrett, Timothy J; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2014-05-01

    Immune cells utilize the IDO enzymatic conversion of trp to kyn to determine T-cell activation vs. anergy/apoptosis. In prior studies, urine IDO levels were higher in rejecting renal allografts than in stable state. However, urine IDO levels in healthy subjects or children are unknown. As a corollary to a larger longitudinal and prospective study of serum and urine IDO levels for transplant immune monitoring, here, we analyzed the difference between urine IDO levels in stable post-transplant vs. healthy children. IDO levels were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as kyn/trp ratios. We compared one-time urine samples, from 34 well children at general pediatric clinics, to the first-month post-transplant urine samples from 18 children, while in stable state (no acute rejection or major infection event in next 30 days). Urine kyn/trp ratios were significantly higher in stable children in first-month post-kidney transplant (median 16.6, range 3.9-44.0) vs. healthy children (median 9.2, range 3.51-17.0; p = 0.0057 by nonparametric Mann-Whitney test). Higher urine IDO levels even with stable transplant suggest a continuous ongoing low-grade allorecognition/inflammatory process. Our data also provide baseline urine IDO levels in healthy subjects for use in future studies.

  12. Heart transplant recipient with history of Chagas disease and elevated panel-reactive antibodies.

    PubMed

    Davalos-Krebs, Gleidys

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by a protozoan named Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted to humans by reduviid bugs. Severe dilated cardiomyopathy from chronic T cruzi infection is the most common finding, leading to end-stage heart failure. Heart transplant is an effective treatment for Chagas heart disease. However, T cruzi reactivation is of great concern, predisposing patients to episodes of myocarditis and rejection. A 56-year-old woman with a history of Chagas disease and elevated calculated panel reactive antibodies (CPRAs) underwent induction therapy and desensitization strategies aimed at lowering CPRAs, as elevated CPRAs have been implicated in the development of antibody-mediated rejection and reduced allograft survival. Clinical phases and signs and symptoms of Chagas disease are briefly described in an attempt to promote awareness of the disease among clinicians. In addition, serology assays approved in the United States as well as recommendations of experts on Chagas disease to assess tissues and blood specimens from endemic areas are outlined. Ultimately, the importance of ongoing surveillance is emphasized, as the future of heart transplant recipients with Chagas disease is unpredictable and the presence or reactivation of the disease requires prompt attention in an effort to prevent graft failure and death.

  13. Heart transplant recipient with history of Chagas disease and elevated panel-reactive antibodies.

    PubMed

    Davalos-Krebs, Gleidys

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by a protozoan named Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted to humans by reduviid bugs. Severe dilated cardiomyopathy from chronic T cruzi infection is the most common finding, leading to end-stage heart failure. Heart transplant is an effective treatment for Chagas heart disease. However, T cruzi reactivation is of great concern, predisposing patients to episodes of myocarditis and rejection. A 56-year-old woman with a history of Chagas disease and elevated calculated panel reactive antibodies (CPRAs) underwent induction therapy and desensitization strategies aimed at lowering CPRAs, as elevated CPRAs have been implicated in the development of antibody-mediated rejection and reduced allograft survival. Clinical phases and signs and symptoms of Chagas disease are briefly described in an attempt to promote awareness of the disease among clinicians. In addition, serology assays approved in the United States as well as recommendations of experts on Chagas disease to assess tissues and blood specimens from endemic areas are outlined. Ultimately, the importance of ongoing surveillance is emphasized, as the future of heart transplant recipients with Chagas disease is unpredictable and the presence or reactivation of the disease requires prompt attention in an effort to prevent graft failure and death. PMID:26645921

  14. [Pediatric open heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass without the use of blood products].

    PubMed

    Procelewska, Małgorzata; Januszewska, Katarzyna; Kołcz, Jacek; Mroczek, Tomasz; Kral, Artur; Stycuła, Wojciech; Stebel, Adam; Malec, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric open heart surgery is associated with the usage of cardiopulmonary bypass. The circuit is primed with blood products because of risk of excessive hemodilution. The aim of the study was to prove the safety of open heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass without the use of blood products in the pediatric group. In this study, 78 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD type II) were enrolled and underwent elective atrial septal defect repair between the years of 1999 and 2003. The group I included 37 children aged from 3 to 16 years (8.79 +/- 4.45) who weighed from 13 to 68.8 kg (29.93 +/- 15.00). In this group, the transfusion of blood products during the surgery and postoperative course was avoided. Blood products were used in a control group (group II 4.1 patients) both during and after surgery. Children from this population ranged in age from 2.5 to 17 years (8.41+/- 4.18) and weighed from 11.5 to 59.7 kg (26.99 +/-12.95). For statistical analysis the t-Student test and U Mann Whitney test were used. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (1.18 +/- 0.47 vs 1.20 +/- 0.61 days) and total hospital stay (8.91 +/- 3.05 vs 10.05 +/- 4.28 days) did not differ statistically between the groups. Values of haematocrit and hemoglobin levels were statistically lower in group I during the postoperative course compared to the control group (intraoperative Hct: 19.43 +/- 4.93 vs 23.37 +/- 4.68%, p < 0.001), but these levels did not correlate with the occurrence of hypoxic, neurologic or coagulation complications. Directly after the surgery, group I had significantly higher platelet and leucocyte counts compared to the control group. There were no differences between the confronted populations in regard to postoperative bleeding (4.61 +/- 2.24 vs 4.76 +/- 1.75 ml/kg). The avoidance of using blood products in pediatric patients during open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is found to be safe, is not correlated with an increased surgical risk, and does not

  15. Spectrum of heart diseases in children: an echocardiographic study of 1,666 subjects in a pediatric hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Menanga, Alain P.; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Gody, Jean C.; Tatah, Sandra A.; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children’s health programs in Sub-Saharan Africa have always been oriented primarily to infectious diseases and malnutrition. We are witnessing in the early 21st century an epidemiological transition marked by the decline of old diseases and the identification of new diseases including heart disease. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the spectrum of these diseases in order to better prepare health workers to these new challenges. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study focused on heart disease diagnosed by echocardiography in children seen from January 2006 to December 2014 in a pediatric hospital of Yaounde. We collected socio-demographic data and the types of heart disease from registers, patients files as well as the electronic database of echocardiographic records. Results A total of 2,235 patients underwent echocardiographic examination during the study period including 1,666 subjects with heart disease. Congenital cardiopathies were found in 1,230 (73.8%) patients and acquired abnormalities in 429 (25.8%). Seven children (0.4%) had a combination of both types. Congenital heart defects (CHD) were dominated by ventricular septal defect (VSD). Acquired heart disease was mostly rheumatic valvulopathies. Dyspnea on exertion was the most frequent presenting complaint (87.6%). Discovery of a heart murmur was the principal clinical finding on physical examination (81.4%). The median age was 9 months for congenital heart disease and 132 months for acquired heart disease. Conclusions As infectious diseases recede and the diagnostic facilities are improving, pediatric heart diseases occupy a more important position in the spectrum of pediatric diseases in our context. However, the ability to evoke the diagnosis remains unsatisfactory by the majority of health personnel and therefore needs to be improved. Apart from congenital heart diseases, the impact of acquired heart diseases, rheumatic valvulopathy being the highest ranking, is remarkable in

  16. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study.

  17. Heart Transplant Survival Based on Recipient and Donor Risk Scoring: A UNOS Database Analysis.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jaimin R; Cheng, Allen; Ising, Mickey; Lenneman, Andrew; Birks, Emma; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the lung allocation score, currently, there is no quantitative scoring system available for patients on heart transplant waiting list. By using United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data, we aim to generate a scoring system based on the recipient and donor risk factors to predict posttransplant survival. Available UNOS data were queried between 2005 and 2013 for heart transplant recipients aged ≥18 years to create separate cox-proportional hazard models for recipient and donor risk scoring. On the basis of risk scores, recipients were divided into five groups and donors into three groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for survival. Total 17,131 patients had heart transplant within specified time period. Major factors within high-risk groups were body mass index > 30 kg/m (46%), mean pulmonary artery pressure >30 mmHg (65%), creatinine > 1.5 mg% (63%), bilirubin > 1.5 mg% (54%), noncontinuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (45%) for recipients and gender mismatch (81%) and ischemia time >4 hours (88%) for donors. Survival in recipient groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 at 5 years was 81, 80, 77, 74, and 62%, respectively, and in donor groups 1, 2, and 3 at 5 years was 79, 77, and 70%, respectively (p < 0.001). Combining donor and recipient groups based on scoring showed acceptable survival in low-risk recipients with high-risk donor (75% at 5 years). A higher recipient and donor risk score are associated with worse long-term survival. A low-risk recipient transplanted with high-risk donor has acceptable survival at 5 years, but high-risk recipient combined with a high-risk donor has marginal results. Using an objective scoring system could help get the best results when utilizing high-risk donors. PMID:26771395

  18. Clinical outcome and quality of life of patients surviving 20 years or longer after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Galeone, Antonella; Kirsch, Matthias; Barreda, Eleodoro; Fernandez, Flor; Vaissier, Elisabeth; Pavie, Alain; Leprince, Pascal; Varnous, Shaida

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate outcome and quality of life (QoL) in ≥ 20 years survivors after heart transplantation. Patients surviving ≥ 20 years with a single graft were retrospectively reviewed. Heterotopic, multiorgan and retransplantations were excluded. QoL was evaluated using the SF-36 survey. Eight hundred and twenty-seven heart transplants were performed from 1981 to 1993, and among these, 131 (16%) patients survived ≥ 20 years; 98 (75%) were male and mean age at transplant was 43 ± 13 years. Conditional survival in these 20 years survivors was 74.1 ± 4.3% at 23 years and 60.9 ± 5.3% at 25 years (45 deaths, 34%). Forty-four (34%) patients suffered rejection ≥ 2R. Conditional survival free from rejection ≥ 2R was 68 ± 4.1% at 5 years and 66.4 ± 4.2% at 10 years. Thirty-five (27%) patients had cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) grade 2-3. Conditional CAV-free survival was 76 ± 3.8% at 20 years and 72.1 ± 4% at 25. Sixty-nine (53%) patients developed malignancy, mostly skin cancers. Conditional malignancy-free survival was 53.5 ± 4.4% at 20 years and 45.2 ± 4.6% at 25 years. At latest follow-up, 24.0 ± 3.0 years after transplantation, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 62 ± 11% and mean physical and mental scores were 57 ± 23 and 58 ± 21, respectively. Sixteen per cent of heart recipients survived ≥ 20 years with good ventricular performance and QoL. CAV and malignancies account for late morbidity and mortality. PMID:24606025

  19. A surgical robot with a heart-surface-motion synchronization mechanism for myoblast cell sheet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kangyi; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Myoblast cell sheets are employed in the clinical treatment of heart disorders. We propose a surgical robot system with two endoscopic cameras, characterized by a double remote center of motion (RCM) mechanism, to realize heart-surface-motion synchronization movement for myoblast cell sheet transplantation on a beating heart surface. A robot system with the double RCM mechanism was developed for which the linear and rotation motions are totally isolated, and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the tracking accuracy of the robot system when tracking a randomly moving target. The tracking data were updated with a Polaris system at 30 Hz. The experiment results showed linear and rotation tracking errors of 4.93 ± 5.92 mm and 2.54 ± 5.44°, respectively.

  20. Inhibition of Autoimmune Chagas-Like Heart Disease by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Guimaro, Maria C.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Rose, Ester; Sousa, Alessandro O.; de Cássia Rosa, Ana; Hecht, Mariana M.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Andrade, Rafael R.; Vital, Tamires; Plachy, Jiří; Nitz, Nadjar; Hejnar, Jiří; Gomes, Clever C.; L. Teixeira, Antonio R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi manifests in mammals as Chagas heart disease. The treatment available for chagasic cardiomyopathy is unsatisfactory. Methods/Principal Findings To study the disease pathology and its inhibition, we employed a syngeneic chicken model refractory to T. cruzi in which chickens hatched from T. cruzi inoculated eggs retained parasite kDNA (1.4 kb) minicircles. Southern blotting with EcoRI genomic DNA digests revealed main 18 and 20 kb bands by hybridization with a radiolabeled minicircle sequence. Breeding these chickens generated kDNA-mutated F1, F2, and F3 progeny. A targeted-primer TAIL-PCR (tpTAIL-PCR) technique was employed to detect the kDNA integrations. Histocompatible reporter heart grafts were used to detect ongoing inflammatory cardiomyopathy in kDNA-mutated chickens. Fluorochromes were used to label bone marrow CD3+, CD28+, and CD45+ precursors of the thymus-dependent CD8α+ and CD8β+ effector cells that expressed TCRγδ, vβ1 and vβ2 receptors, which infiltrated the adult hearts and the reporter heart grafts. Conclusions/Significance Genome modifications in kDNA-mutated chickens can be associated with disruption of immune tolerance to compatible heart grafts and with rejection of the adult host's heart and reporter graft, as well as tissue destruction by effector lymphocytes. Autoimmune heart rejection was largely observed in chickens with kDNA mutations in retrotransposons and in coding genes with roles in cell structure, metabolism, growth, and differentiation. Moreover, killing the sick kDNA-mutated bone marrow cells with cytostatic and anti-folate drugs and transplanting healthy marrow cells inhibited heart rejection. We report here for the first time that healthy bone marrow cells inhibited heart pathology in kDNA+ chickens and thus prevented the genetically driven clinical manifestations of the disease. PMID:25521296

  1. Management of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropic support.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, Maeve; Mott, Sandra; Tong, Elizabeth; Handa, Sonia; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean Anne

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate present practice of maintaining PICC line patency in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropes by comparing one cohort receiving low dose continuous heparin with one receiving no heparin. A case control retrospective chart review compared the two cohorts on duration of patency (measured in days) and need for thrombolytic agents. Median duration of patency for the heparin group was 24 days versus 16 days for the no heparin group (p=0.07). Use of thrombolytic agents was 28% in the heparin group compared to 50% in the no heparin group (p=0.08). Although not statistically significant, findings were clinically significant and supportive of current practice.

  2. Pediatrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spackman, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The utilization of the Lixiscope in pediatrics was investigated. The types of images that can presently be obtained are discussed along with the problems encountered. Speculative applications for the Lixiscope are also presented.

  3. Cellular and humoral immunity elicited by influenza vaccines in pediatric hematopoietic-stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guérin-El Khourouj, Valérie; Duchamp, Marie; Krivine, Anne; Pédron, Béatrice; Ouachée-Chardin, Marie; Yakouben, Karima; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Baruchel, André; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Sterkers, Ghislaine

    2012-09-01

    Immunity induced by influenza vaccines following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is poorly understood. Here, 14 pediatric recipients (mean age: 6 years) received H1N1 (n=9) or H1N1/H3N2 (n=5) vaccines at a median of 5.7 months post-HSCT (HLA-identical related bone-marrow graft: 10/14). Fourteen clinically-matched non-vaccinated recipients were included as controls. Cellular response to vaccination was assessed by a T-cell proliferation assay. Humoral response was assessed by H1N1-specific antibody titration. IL2 and IFNγ responses to influenza were also evaluated by an intracellular cytokine accumulation method for some of the recipients. Higher proliferative responses to H1N1 (p=0.0001) and higher H1N1-specific antibody titers (p<0.02) were observed in vaccines opposed to non-vaccinated recipients. In some cases, proliferative responses to H1N1 developed while at the same time antibody titers did not reach protective (≥1:40) levels. Most recipients vaccinated with only the H1N1 strain had proliferative responses to both H1N1 and H3N2 (median stimulation index H1N1: 96, H3N2: 126 in responders). Finally, IL2 responses predominated over IFNγ responses (p<0.02) to influenza viruses in responders. In conclusion, H1N1 vaccination induced substantial cell-mediated immunity, and to a lesser extent, humoral immunity at early times post-HSCT. H1N1/H3N2 T-cell cross-reactivity and protective (IL2) rather than effector (IFNγ) cytokinic profiles were elicited.

  4. Impact of Vice President Cheney on public interest in left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambarish; Abdullah, Kazeen; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    Although celebrity illnesses attract a significant amount of media attention in the United States, there are few studies that have looked at how celebrity health conditions impact the awareness of the illness in the general population. Recently, Vice President Cheney underwent left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and subsequently a cardiac transplant. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of increased interest in these 2 procedures as assessed by social media. We determined the relative frequency of Google searches for LVAD and heart transplantation from 2004 to 2013 using Google trends. We also counted the number of YouTube videos and Twitter messages posted monthly concerning LVADs over a 7-year time frame. There was a significant spike in the Google search interest for LVAD and heart transplantation in the month when Vice President Cheney underwent the respective procedure. Similarly, there was a large increase in YouTube videos and Twitter messages concerning LVADs shortly after he was implanted. In total, these data support the concept that a public figure's illness can significantly influence the public's interest in that condition and its associated therapies.

  5. Successful cord blood transplantation in an adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kowata, Shugo; Fujishima, Yukiteru; Suzuki, Yuzo; Tsukushi, Yasuhiko; Oyake, Tatsuo; Togawa, Ryou; Oyama, Kotaro; Ikai, Akio; Ito, Shigeki; Ishida, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in surgical corrections and supportive care for congenital heart disease have resulted in increasing numbers of adult survivors who may develop hematological malignancies. Treatments including chemotherapy for such patients may cause serious hemodynamic or cardiac complications, especially in those receiving stem cell transplantation. We present a 29-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and congenital heart disease. She had been diagnosed with pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum at birth, and the anomaly was surgically corrected according to the Fontan technique at age 9 years. Her induction chemotherapy required modifications due to poor cardiac status with Fontan circulation. However, after surgical procedures including total cavopulmonary connection and aortic valve replacement at first complete remission, her cardiac status was significantly improved. Subsequently, she underwent cord blood stem cell transplantation at the third complete remission. She required intensive supportive care for circulatory failure as a pre-engraftment immune reaction and stage III acute graft versus host disease of the gut, but recovered from these complications. She was discharged on day 239, and remained in complete remission at 1-year post-transplantation. PMID:27599417

  6. Psychosocial, neuropsychological and neurological status in a sample of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Thormann, T; Strenge, H; Biernath, E; Foerst, U; Stauch, C; Torp, U; Bernhard, A; Speidel, H

    1992-04-01

    The sample for this psychosocial follow-up study was formed using the 71 surviving patients from a total of 100 who underwent heart transplantation up until March 1990 at Kiel University Hospital. Forty of these could be investigated comprehensively. The neurological investigation comprised EEG and auditory and visually evoked potentials. The psychological investigation started with several neuropsychological tests; additionally all patients were interviewed and they completed questionnaires concerning anxiety, depression, ways of coping, personality characteristics and life satisfaction. Within the entire sample, there were few indications for specific psychological impairment. The psychosocial status of the patients was not significantly related to the time which had elapsed since they underwent transplantation. There were few associations between neuropsychological and psychosocial data, and several indicators of early postoperative complications which are described in the literature (e.g., length of stay in the intensive care unit). Clinically relevant subgroups (formed on the basis of neuropsychological test results, anxiety and depression) did not differ in terms of these indicators. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of the patients (25%) were characterized by having a higher level of affective and neuropsychological impairment. Although based upon retrospective investigations, the results of this follow-up generally correlate with those gained from Anglo-American countries. In interpreting the results one needs to consider the possible influence of premorbid personality characteristics as well as denial which may be typical for patients undergoing heart transplantation. PMID:1301119

  7. Predictors of re-hospitalization time during the first year after heart transplant

    PubMed Central

    Jalowiec, Anne; Grady, Kathleen L.; White-Williams, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient problems after heart transplant (HT) can lead to re-hospitalization. Objectives To examine re-hospitalization patterns and identify predictors of the number of days re-hospitalized at the transplant site during the first year after HT surgery. Methods Hierarchical regression identified predictors of greater re-hospitalization time from chart data collected from two transplant sites during the first post-transplant year on 269 adult HT recipients. Variables (total = 32) were entered in six steps: clinical site, demographics, peri-operative variables, cardiac function, immunosuppressant dosages, post-HT complications. Results The number of days re-hospitalized at the transplant site during the first year after HT ranged from 0–142 (mean = 25, median = 16); 64% were re-hospitalized; 37% were re-hospitalized more than once. Main reasons were rejections, infections, cardiovascular problems, and GI problems. The regression model explained 48.7% of the variance in re-hospitalization time, with post-HT complications explaining the most variance. Ten predictors were significant: IV-treated infections, treated acute rejections, shorter stay for HT surgery, GI complications, higher prednisone dose, female gender, coma, sex mismatch between donor and recipient, renal complications, and clinical site. Conclusion Sixty-four percent of the patients were re-hospitalized at the transplant site during the first year after HT surgery (with a median of 16 hospital days); 37% were re-hospitalized more than once. Significant predictors of the amount of time re-hospitalized pertained to five types of complications (rejections, infections, GI, renal, coma), shorter HT surgical stay, female gender, higher prednisone dose, sex-mismatched donor, and clinical site. Implications The study identifies who uses the most hospital resources during the first year after HT. PMID:18790335

  8. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole.

  9. How the system functions. The roles of the United Network of Organ Sharing, the organ procurement and transplantation network, and the organ procurement organization in heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J E

    2000-03-01

    Have the limits for suitable recipient candidates for heart transplantation been exceeded? Does the current legislation and policy instituted at all levels, from DHHS to individual transplant programs, critically address the use of a dangerously limited resource? These and other questions must be the focus of future discussions regarding equitable and efficient heart transplantation in this country. The past has shown that many individuals working cooperatively within committees at federal and organizational levels have already made great strides in making organ transplantation a successful reality. Many factors influence the broadening gap between supply and demand. Each level of the system can make contributions that bring positive and creative solutions to old and new problems. Each team and committee must continue to demand representation from diverse, yet attentive, members to ensure that the specific needs of the thoracic organ recipients are properly reviewed and addressed. UNOS and its membership must continue to work together to meet the challenges of the growing acceptance of organ transplantation and the limited supply of donor organs. Continued efforts of politicians, health care professionals, and the general public must seek newer and more creative ways to manage the critical organ shortage and the ever-growing population of patients who seek heart transplantation as the only viable treatment option for their disease process. OPOs must continue their efforts to educate and promote organ donation and continue to work diligently toward increasing the pool of acceptable organ donors through improved patient management and the development of improved preservation and transport techniques. The transplant community must take the initiative to modify current legislation and to author new legislation to serve as better representors for the transplant patient population that desperately needs it.

  10. Reverse ventricular remodeling and improved ventricular compliance after heart transplantation in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lopez, Leo; Pass, Robert H; Hsu, Daphne T; Lamour, Jacqueline M

    2014-08-01

    After heart transplantation (HT) in infants and young children, environmental and intrinsic factors may lead to changes in the geometry and compliance of the donor heart. Serial demographic, clinical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic data were obtained from HT recipients younger than 4 years of age. Echocardiographic chamber measurement z-scores were compared using recipient body surface area from the time of HT to 1 week, 3 months, and last follow-up visit. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) z-scores were correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) at each time point. Heart transplantation was performed for 13 children between March 2009 and December 2012, 9 of whom (69%) were boys. The median age at HT was 8 months (range, 4-43 months), and the mean follow-up period was 13 ± 7 months. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-scores decreased significantly (p = 0.03) between HT and 1 week, then increased from 1 week to 3 and 12 months. (-1.32 ± 1.7, -0.71 ± 1.8, 0.41 ± 2.1, 0.79 ± 2.3, respectively). A positive relationship (R(2) = 0.48) between the LVEDV z-score and PCPW was present at the last follow-up visit. For infants and young children, the allograft demonstrates appropriate growth by 1 year after HT. Left ventricular compliance improves over time.

  11. Transplantation in end-stage pulmonary hypertension (Third International Right Heart Failure Summit, part 3)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Third International Right Heart Summit was organized for the purpose of bringing an interdisciplinary group of expert physician-scientists together to promote dialogue involving emerging concepts in the unique pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and therapies of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and right heart failure (RHF). This review summarizes key ideas addressed in the section of the seminar entitled “Transplantation in End-Stage Pulmonary Hypertension.” The first segment focused on paradigms of recovery for the failing right ventricle (RV) within the context of lung-alone versus dual-organ heart-lung transplantation. The subsequent 2-part section was devoted to emerging concepts in RV salvage therapy. A presentation of evolving cell-based therapy for the reparation of diseased tissue was followed by a contemporary perspective on the role of mechanical circulatory support in the setting of RV failure. The final talk highlighted cutting-edge research models utilizing stem cell biology to repair diseased tissue in end-stage lung disease—a conceptual framework within which new therapies for PVD have potential to evolve. Together, these provocative talks provided a novel outlook on how the treatment of PVD and RHF can be approached. PMID:25610607

  12. Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety-related disorders during the year after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Roth, L H; Schulberg, H C; Simmons, R G; Kormos, R L; Trzepacz, P T; Griffith, B P

    1996-11-01

    This study longitudinally evaluates prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for DSM-III-R Major Depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), associated Adjustment Disorders, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to the transplant (PTSD-T) in a large, representative sample of heart recipients followed during the first year after transplantation. Lifetime pretransplant prevalence as well as 1-year posttransplant rates were determined for the 154 recipients via standardized clinical interview schedules. Major Depression was the most prevalent disorder posttransplant (1- year rate of 17.3%), followed by PTSD-T (13.7%), and Adjustment Disorders (10.0%). There were no cases of GAD. Specific pretransplant and perioperative factors increased recipients' risk for any psychiatric disorder (vs none) posttransplant, including pretransplant psychiatric history; poor social supports from primary family caregiver, other relatives, and friends; the use of avoidance coping strategies for managing health problems; and low self-esteem early posttransplant. Within diagnostic groups, additional risk factors distinguished recipients with anxiety-related vs depressive disorders posttransplant: those at highest relative risk for anxiety had waited more briefly for a donor heart, were more likely to have a family psychiatric history, had the poorest family and friend support of all recipients, utilized the poorest coping skills, and had a poor sense of mastery. The findings have implications for the development of primary and secondary prevention strategies for psychiatric disorder in heart recipient populations.

  13. Safe orthotopic transplantation of hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Stig; Paskevicius, Audrius; Liao, Qiuming; Sjöberg, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to demonstrate safe orthotopic transplantation of porcine donor hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours before transplantation. Design. Circulatory normalization of brain dead (decapitated) pigs was obtained using a new pharmacological regimen (n = 10). The donor hearts were perfused at 8 °C in cycles of 15 min perfusion followed by 60 min without perfusion. The perfusate consisted of an albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic nutrition solution with hormones and erythrocytes. Orthotopic transplantation was done in 10 recipient pigs after 24 hours’ preservation. Transplanted pigs were monitored for 24 hours, then an adrenaline stress test was done. Results. All transplanted pigs were stable throughout the 24-hour observation period with mean aortic pressure around 80 mmHg and normal urine production. Mean right and left atrial pressures were in the range of 3–6 and 5–10 mmHg, respectively. Blood gases at 24 hours did not differ from baseline values. The adrenaline test showed a dose dependent response, with aortic pressure increasing from 98/70 to 220/150 mmHg and heart rate from 110 to 185 beats/min. Conclusion. Orthotopic transplantation of porcine hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours can be done safely. PMID:26882241

  14. Restrictive Palivizumab Use Does Not Lead to Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients.

    PubMed

    Teusink-Cross, Ashley; Davies, Stella M; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; El-Bietar, Javier; Grimley, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infection in immunocompromised patients and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and patients with a primary immune deficiency (PID). Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the F glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV virus, preventing RSV replication. Palivizumab was initially licensed for the prevention of RSV infections in children at high risk of severe disease. Since licensure, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued guidelines to help ensure appropriate use of palivizumab in pediatric patients. In the 2014 edition of the guidelines, the AAP recognizes that severe and fatal disease secondary to RSV can be seen in patients receiving chemotherapy or patients who are immunocompromised because of other conditions. However, they recognize that no large clinical trials exist to support the use of palivizumab, and efficacy and safety data in this population are limited. Despite this, the AAP recommends considering prophylaxis for children younger than 24 months who are profoundly immunocompromised during the RSV season. Because of the high cost of palivizumab, the uncertainty of its efficacy as prophylaxis in hospitalized pediatric HSCT and PID patients, and secondary to recent data from our center that suggested immunocompromised patients diagnosed with RSV did not have worse outcomes, we implemented very restrictive criteria for the use of palivizumab in the 2015 to 2016 RSV season in our pediatric HSCT population. Despite these strict criteria, there was no change in the number of patients developing RSV during this season compared with previous seasons, and there was no change in RSV course in those patients developing RSV compared with previous seasons. Restricted use also resulted in a significant dose and cost savings. Based on our experience, we recommend only administering prophylaxis

  15. Restrictive Palivizumab Use Does Not Lead to Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients.

    PubMed

    Teusink-Cross, Ashley; Davies, Stella M; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; El-Bietar, Javier; Grimley, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infection in immunocompromised patients and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and patients with a primary immune deficiency (PID). Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the F glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV virus, preventing RSV replication. Palivizumab was initially licensed for the prevention of RSV infections in children at high risk of severe disease. Since licensure, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued guidelines to help ensure appropriate use of palivizumab in pediatric patients. In the 2014 edition of the guidelines, the AAP recognizes that severe and fatal disease secondary to RSV can be seen in patients receiving chemotherapy or patients who are immunocompromised because of other conditions. However, they recognize that no large clinical trials exist to support the use of palivizumab, and efficacy and safety data in this population are limited. Despite this, the AAP recommends considering prophylaxis for children younger than 24 months who are profoundly immunocompromised during the RSV season. Because of the high cost of palivizumab, the uncertainty of its efficacy as prophylaxis in hospitalized pediatric HSCT and PID patients, and secondary to recent data from our center that suggested immunocompromised patients diagnosed with RSV did not have worse outcomes, we implemented very restrictive criteria for the use of palivizumab in the 2015 to 2016 RSV season in our pediatric HSCT population. Despite these strict criteria, there was no change in the number of patients developing RSV during this season compared with previous seasons, and there was no change in RSV course in those patients developing RSV compared with previous seasons. Restricted use also resulted in a significant dose and cost savings. Based on our experience, we recommend only administering prophylaxis

  16. Cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shanewise, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Cardiac transplantation is a proven, accepted mode of therapy for selected patients with end-stage heart failure, but the inadequate number of suitable donor hearts available ultimately limits its application. This chapter reviews adult cardiac transplantation, with an emphasis on the anesthetic considerations of the heart transplant operation itself.

  17. Risk factors for rejection for morphological reasons of heart valves for transplantation.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Marja J; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

    2013-03-01

    The study aim was to identify risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation that could be used to optimize donor selection. The files of all Dutch heart valve donors, donating in a 2.5 years period, whose hearts were processed at Heart Valve Bank Rotterdam, were reviewed for all factors that could be relevant for valve rejection and related to outcome of morphological assessment of the valves. Valves were retrieved from 813 deceased Dutch donors, 24.1% also donating organs. For 797 aortic and 767 pulmonary valves, who met retrieval criteria, morphological assessment was done. 69.5% of aortic and 37.5% of pulmonary valves were considered unsuitable for transplantation at morphological assessment. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, showed age, cardiac cause of death, cerebrovascular accident as cause of death or in medical history, and number of cardiovascular risk factors in a donor to be independent risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic valves. Age, sex, weight >100 kg and ruptured aortic aneurysm as cause of death were independent risk factors for morphological rejection of pulmonary valves. Being an organ donor was an independent predictor of morphological approval of aortic and pulmonary valves, while hypertension was an independent predictor for morphological approval of aortic valves. Thus, independent factors were identified that are associated with morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation, and that could be used to optimize donor selection by preventing unnecessary retrievals, limiting costs, while improving yield per donor with minimal compromise for availability.

  18. Liver transplantation for Wilson's disease in pediatric patients: decision making and timing.

    PubMed

    Narumi, S; Umehara, M; Toyoki, Y; Ishido, K; Kudo, D; Kimura, N; Kobayashi, T; Sugai, M; Hakamada, K

    2012-03-01

    Transplantation for Wilson's disease occupies 1/3 of the cases for metabolic diseases in Japan. At the end of 2009, 109 transplantations had been performed including three deceased donor cases in the Japanese registry. We herein discuss problems of transplantation for Wilson's disease as well as its indication, timing, and social care. We retrospectively reviewed four fulminant cases and two chronic cases who underwent living donor liver transplantation. There were two boys and two girls. Four adolescents of average age 11.3 years underwent living donor liver transplantation. Duration from onset to transplantation ranged from 10 to 23 days. Average Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 27.8 (range=24-31). All patients were administrated chelates prior to transplantation. MELD, New Wilson's index, Japanese scoring for liver transplantation, and liver atrophy were useful tools for transplantation decision making; however, none of them was an independent decisive tool. Clinical courses after transplantation were almost uneventful. One girl, however, developed an acute rejection episode due to noncompliance at 3 years after transplantation. All patients currently survive without a graft loss. No disease recurrence had been noted even using living related donors. Two adults evaluated for liver transplantation were listed for deceased donor liver transplantation. Both candidates developed cirrhosis despite long-term medical treatment. There were no appropriate living donors for them. There are many problems in transplantation for Wilson's disease. The indications for liver transplantation should be considered individually using some decision-making tools. The safety of the living donor should be paid the most attention.

  19. Heart transplantation in the elderly: why cardiac transplantation does not need to be limited to younger patients but can be safely performed in patients above 65 years of age.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Daniel A; Czer, Lawrence S C; Phan, Anita; Trento, Alfredo; Schwarz, Ernst R

    2010-01-01

    Within the last forty years, heart transplantation as the ultimate option for the treatment of end-stage heart disease has undergone dramatic changes and advances in operative techniques, postoperative care, immunosuppression, and rejection management which resulted in reduced morbidity and mortality. As the heart failure epidemic worsens and the population grows older, cardiac transplantation criteria have expanded for end-stage heart disease refractory to medical management. Although outcomes after cardiac transplantation have improved, the critical organ shortage is a limitation to its efficacy. The demand-supply disparity for heart transplantations has led to clinical and ethical issues examining adequate candidacy for organ transplantation. Cardiac transplantation in the elderly recipient was considered a contraindication due to poor survival rates compared to younger recipients. Given the increase in life expectancy over the last decades, single-center studies have assessed the outcome of transplantation among elderly recipients and comparable survival and quality of life have been described among older heart transplantation recipients. Alternatives to cardiac transplantation which have become more common, such as mechanical circulatory support, and further investigation of the viability of transplantation in the elderly may help determine the proper allocation of the limited organ supply. PMID:21183885

  20. Efficacy and safety of constant-rate intravenous cyclosporine infusion immediately after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, T J; Myre, S A; Melvin, D B; Van der Bel-Kahn, J; Stephens, G W; Collins, J A; Wolf, R K; Brown, L L; Pesce, A J; First, M R

    1989-01-01

    Oral cyclosporine therapy immediately after heart transplantation is erratic and difficult to predict. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of cyclosporine when administered by constant-rate infusion immediately after transplantation. Nineteen patients (17 men and two women) aged 50 years (range 25 to 61 years) who weighed 71 +/- 9 kg, participated in the study and received cyclosporine, 7 to 10 mg/hr (117 +/- 15 micrograms/kg/hr). The infusions were initially maintained for 26 +/- 5 hours (range 18 to 42 hours) without adjustments in dosage. Whole blood samples were obtained at hourly intervals for the first 8 to 12 hours and then daily throughout the 7-day study period and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Constant-rate cyclosporine infusion resulted in therapeutic blood levels (350 to 450 ng/ml) at 6 hours. These levels remained relatively steady throughout the 7-day infusion, requiring only minimal dosage adjustments. Kidney function was not altered significantly after 7 days of intravenous cyclosporine therapy as evidenced by a mean serum creatinine level of 1.3 mg/dl before therapy and 1.4 mg/dl after therapy. There, however, was a transient rise in serum creatinine level in most patients on the second or third day after transplantation that resolved without a reduction in cyclosporine dosage. The mean endomyocardial biopsy score at 1 week after transplantation was 0.1, and only four of the patients required additional immunosuppressive therapy to treat rejection during the first 6 weeks after transplantation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2647932

  1. Targeting the Innate Immune Response to Improve Cardiac Graft Recovery after Heart Transplantation: Implications for the Donation after Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Toldo, Stefano; Quader, Mohammed; Salloum, Fadi N; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the ultimate treatment for end-stage heart failure. The number of patients on waiting lists for heart transplants, however, is much higher than the number of available organs. The shortage of donor hearts is a serious concern since the population affected by heart failure is constantly increasing. Furthermore, the long-term success of HTx poses some challenges despite the improvement in the management of the short-term complications and in the methods to limit graft rejection. Myocardial injury occurs during transplantation. Injury initiated in the donor as result of brain or cardiac death is exacerbated by organ procurement and storage, and is ultimately amplified by reperfusion injury at the time of transplantation. The innate immune system is a mechanism of first-line defense against pathogens and cell injury. Innate immunity is activated during myocardial injury and produces deleterious effects on the heart structure and function. Here, we briefly discuss the role of the innate immunity in the initiation of myocardial injury, with particular focus on the Toll-like receptors and inflammasome, and how to potentially expand the donor population by targeting the innate immune response.

  2. Targeting the Innate Immune Response to Improve Cardiac Graft Recovery after Heart Transplantation: Implications for the Donation after Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Toldo, Stefano; Quader, Mohammed; Salloum, Fadi N; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the ultimate treatment for end-stage heart failure. The number of patients on waiting lists for heart transplants, however, is much higher than the number of available organs. The shortage of donor hearts is a serious concern since the population affected by heart failure is constantly increasing. Furthermore, the long-term success of HTx poses some challenges despite the improvement in the management of the short-term complications and in the methods to limit graft rejection. Myocardial injury occurs during transplantation. Injury initiated in the donor as result of brain or cardiac death is exacerbated by organ procurement and storage, and is ultimately amplified by reperfusion injury at the time of transplantation. The innate immune system is a mechanism of first-line defense against pathogens and cell injury. Innate immunity is activated during myocardial injury and produces deleterious effects on the heart structure and function. Here, we briefly discuss the role of the innate immunity in the initiation of myocardial injury, with particular focus on the Toll-like receptors and inflammasome, and how to potentially expand the donor population by targeting the innate immune response. PMID:27322252

  3. Targeting the Innate Immune Response to Improve Cardiac Graft Recovery after Heart Transplantation: Implications for the Donation after Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Toldo, Stefano; Quader, Mohammed; Salloum, Fadi N.; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the ultimate treatment for end-stage heart failure. The number of patients on waiting lists for heart transplants, however, is much higher than the number of available organs. The shortage of donor hearts is a serious concern since the population affected by heart failure is constantly increasing. Furthermore, the long-term success of HTx poses some challenges despite the improvement in the management of the short-term complications and in the methods to limit graft rejection. Myocardial injury occurs during transplantation. Injury initiated in the donor as result of brain or cardiac death is exacerbated by organ procurement and storage, and is ultimately amplified by reperfusion injury at the time of transplantation. The innate immune system is a mechanism of first-line defense against pathogens and cell injury. Innate immunity is activated during myocardial injury and produces deleterious effects on the heart structure and function. Here, we briefly discuss the role of the innate immunity in the initiation of myocardial injury, with particular focus on the Toll-like receptors and inflammasome, and how to potentially expand the donor population by targeting the innate immune response. PMID:27322252

  4. Is heart transplantation after circulatory death compatible with the dead donor rule?

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-05-01

    Dalle Ave et al (2016) provide a valuable overview of several protocols for heart transplantation after circulatory death. However, their analysis of the compatibility of heart donation after circulatory death (DCD) with the dead donor rule (DDR) is flawed. Their permanence-based criteria for death, which depart substantially from established law and bioethics, are ad hoc and unfounded. Furthermore, their analysis is self-defeating, because it undercuts the central motivation for DDR as both a legal and a moral constraint, rendering the DDR vacuous and trivial. Rather than devise new and ad hoc criteria for death for the purpose of rendering DCD nominally consistent with DDR, we contend that the best approach is to explicitly abandon DDR. PMID:26984898

  5. Organ transplantation in the Madrid Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Aparicio, M; Marmisa, G; Martinez-Urrialde, J L

    2009-01-01

    The Madrid Autonomous Region, a Spanish area with 6,200,000 inhabitants, has 7 hospitals authorized for organ transplantation, with 25 active programs for carrying out various transplantations: 18 for adults and 7 for children. Most of these hospitals are reference transplant centers for other Spanish regions. Between 715 and 760 transplantations are performed annually, which represents between 19% and 22% of Spanish activity. During 2007, 395 kidney, 220 liver, 55 heart, and 35 lung transplantations were performed, as well as 23 isolated or combination transplantations of other abdominal organs (pancreatic, intestinal, or multivisceral). Kidney, liver, heart, and children's intestinal transplant activity in 2007 represented 37%, 63%, 80%, and 100%, respectively, of all pediatric national activity. The Madrid Autonomous Region has a donation rate of 34.2 donors per million inhabitants. Of these, 30% are from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD), Maastrich criteria category 1 or 2. Various hospitals perform kidney, liver, and lung transplantations with these organs, representing 11% of the lung transplantations carried out in recent years, with this being a pioneer procedure worldwide. Despite the important transplant activity, we are working to increase donations, to improve organ donor detection and management protocols, as well as to reach a consensus on criteria to decrease the nonviability rates of potential transplant organs.

  6. Comparison across races of peak oxygen consumption and heart failure survival score for selection for cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Goda, Ayumi; Lund, Lars H; Mancini, Donna M

    2010-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and the Heart Failure Survival Score (HFSS) predict prognosis in European-American, African-American, and Hispanic-American patients with chronic heart failure referred for heart transplantation. The peak VO(2) and the HFSS have previously been shown to effectively risk stratify patients with chronic heart failure and are criteria for the listing for heart transplantation. However, the effect of race on the predictive value of these variables has not been studied. A total of 715 patients with congestive heart failure (433 European American, 126 African American, 123 Hispanic American, and 33 other), who had been referred for heart transplantation, underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with measurement of the peak VO(2) and calculation of the HFSS. A total of 354 patients had died or undergone urgent heart transplantation or implantation of a left ventricular assist device during the 962 +/- 912 days of follow-up. On univariate and multivariate Cox hazard analysis, both peak VO(2) and the HFSS were powerful prognostic markers in the overall cohort and in the separate races. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the areas under the curve at 1 and 2 years of follow-up were greater for the HFSS than for peak VO(2). In conclusion, HFSS and peak VO(2) can be used for transplant selection; however, in the era of modern therapy and across races and genders, the HFSS might perform better than the peak VO(2). PMID:20451691

  7. Stem cell homing and angiomyogenesis in transplanted hearts are enhanced by combined intramyocardial SDF-1α delivery and endogenous cytokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tiemin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Millard, Ronald W.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2009-01-01

    We used a heterotopic transplanted working heart model to probe the collaborative role of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BPCs) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α in attenuating tissue remodeling in recipient and transplanted hearts. BPCs from male transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP+ BPCs, 2 × 106 cells) were injected intravenously into myeloablated female rats. One month later, heterotopic heart transplantation was performed. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of the recipient heart was occluded permanently. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; 2 × 106 cells) with a null gene (null group) or overexpressing SDF-1α (SDF-1α group) were injected intramyocardially in the LAD perfusion region of both recipient and transplanted hearts. Recipient and transplanted hearts (n = 10 hearts/group) were harvested 21 days later for analysis. The survival of transplanted hearts was assessed daily by palpation in additional animals (n = 7). Five days after LAD occlusion, subpopulations of GFP+ BPCs in the circulation were significantly higher in the SDF-1α group. Y chromosome, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, Ki67-positive nuclei, newly formed vessels, and GFP+ cells significantly increased in transplanted hearts of the SDF-1α group at 21 days after the injection of MSCs overexpressing SDF-1α, whereas fewer TUNEL-positive nuclei were found. The survival of transplanted hearts was also markedly increased in the SDF-1α group (P < 0.05). Supplementation of endogenous cytokines released from the ischemic myocardium with exogenous MSCs overexpressing SDF-1α significantly increased BPC homing to acutely ischemic recipient and progressively ischemic transplanted hearts. BPC recruitment resulted in the regeneration of new cardiomyocytes and blood vessels and extended survival of the transplanted hearts. PMID:19181961

  8. Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism and Maximal Exercise Capacity after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Helene; Martin, David; Regamey, Julien; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Meyer, Philippe; Hullin, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Maximal exercise capacity after heart transplantion (HTx) is reduced to the 50–70% level of healthy controls when assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) despite of normal left ventricular function of the donor heart. This study investigates the role of donor heart β1 and β2- adrenergic receptor (AR) polymorphisms for maximal exercise capacity after orthotopic HTx. Methods CPET measured peak VO2 as outcome parameter for maximal exercise in HTx recipients ≥9 months and ≤4 years post-transplant (n = 41; mean peak VO2: 57±15% of predicted value). Donor hearts were genotyped for polymorphisms of the β1-AR (Ser49Gly, Arg389Gly) and the β2-AR (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu). Circumferential shortening of the left ventricle was measured using magnetic resonance based CSPAMM tagging. Results Peak VO2 was higher in donor hearts expressing the β1-Ser49Ser alleles when compared with β1-Gly49 carriers (60±15% vs. 47±10% of the predicted value; p = 0.015), and by trend in cardiac allografts with the β1-AR Gly389Gly vs. β1-Arg389 (61±15% vs. 54±14%, p = 0.093). Peak VO2 was highest for the haplotype Ser49Ser-Gly389, and decreased progressively for Ser49Ser-Arg389Arg > 49Gly-389Gly > 49Gly-Arg389Arg (adjusted R2 = 0.56, p = 0.003). Peak VO2 was not different for the tested β2-AR polymorphisms. Independent predictors of peak VO2 (adjusted R2 = 0.55) were β1-AR Ser49Gly SNP (p = 0.005), heart rate increase (p = 0.016), and peak systolic blood pressure (p = 0.031). Left ventricular (LV) motion kinetics as measured by cardiac MRI CSPAMM tagging at rest was not different between carriers and non-carriers of the β1-AR Gly49allele. Conclusion Similar LV cardiac motion kinetics at rest in donor hearts carrying either β1-AR Gly49 or β1-Ser49Ser variant suggests exercise-induced desensitization and down-regulation of the β1-AR Gly49 variant as relevant pathomechanism for reduced peak VO2 in β1-AR Gly49 carriers. PMID:27669015

  9. Use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in fulminant chagasic myocarditis as a bridge to heart transplant

    PubMed Central

    Durães, André Rodrigues; Figueira, Fernando Augusto Marinho dos Santos; Lafayette, André Rabelo; Martins, Juliana de Castro Solano; Juliano Cavalcante de, Sá

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old Brazilian male presented with progressive dyspnea for 15 days, worsening in the last 24 hours, and was admitted in respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock, with multiple organ dysfunctions. Echocardiography showed a left ventricle ejection fraction of 11%, severe diffuse hypokinesia, and a systolic pulmonary artery pressure of 50mmHg, resulting in the need for hemodynamic support with dobutamine (20mcg/kg/min) and noradrenaline (1.7mcg/kg/min). After 48 hours with no clinical or hemodynamic improvement, an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was implanted. The patient presented with hemodynamic, systemic perfusion and renal and liver function improvements; however, his cardiac function did not recover after 72 hours, and he was transfer to another hospital. Air transport was conducted from Salvador to Recife in Brazil. A heart transplant was performed with rapid recovery of both liver and kidney functions, as well as good graft function. Histopathology of the explanted heart showed chronic active myocarditis and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. The estimated global prevalence of T. cruzi infections declined from 18 million in 1991, when the first regional control initiative began, to 5.7 million in 2010. Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease due to infectious or non-infectious conditions. Clinical manifestation is variable, ranging from subclinical presentation to refractory heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Several reports suggest that the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients presenting with severe refractory myocarditis is a potential bridging therapy to heart transplant when there is no spontaneous recovery of ventricular function. In a 6-month follow-up outpatient consult, the patient presented well and was asymptomatic. PMID:26761479

  10. Comparing Parents’ and Children’s Views of Children’s Quality of Life after Heart Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Green, Angela L.; McSweeney, Jean; Ainley, Kathy; Bryant, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this focused ethnographic study was to explore the quality of life (QOL) of school-age heart-transplant recipients. Design and Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child dyads. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Results Participants identified key factors impacting the children’s QOL including: participation in normal activities, normalcy, staying healthy, sources of strength and support, and struggles (parents’ perspectives) and doing what kids do, being with family and friends, and being a heart transplant kid (children’s perspectives). Practice Implications Interventions focusing on the key factors identified by participants may impact the QOL of school-age heart-transplant recipients. PMID:19161575

  11. Are elevated levels of soluble ICAM-1 a marker of chronic graft disease in heart transplant recipients?

    PubMed

    Campana, E; Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Papalia, U; Laurenti, A; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Marangi, M; Sanguigni, S

    2000-02-01

    Positivity for circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in heart transplant recipients has been claimed to predict the development of coronary artery disease and risk of graft failure. Soluble ICAM-1 were evaluated in 32 heart transplant recipients. Five of these patients, who had undergone transplantation several years before, were positive for soluble ICAM-1 but did not present any clinical sign of graft rejection. Furthermore, although heart graft coronary disease was diagnosed in 15 of the 32 patients, they did not show significantly higher titres of soluble ICAM-1 compared to the remaining patients. These findings suggest that major caution is necessary when considering ICAM-1 positivity as a marker of graft disease. PMID:10657564

  12. Risk factors for molecular detection of adenovirus in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Watson, Theresa; MacDonald, David; Song, Xiaoyan; Bromwich, Kira; Campos, Joseph; Sande, Jane; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2012-08-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the use of molecular AdV testing in HSCT at our institution and identify risk factors for AdV viremia and disease, we performed a retrospective cohort study of all HSCT recipients who had undergone AdV polymerase chain reaction testing over a 2-year period. Two cohorts were identified: cohort 1, comprising patients testing positive for AdV (n = 7) and cohort 2, comprising patients testing negative (n = 36). Overall patient characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the 2 cohorts. A comparison of cohort 1 and cohort 2 identified the following medication exposures as risk factors influencing AdV status: preparatory regimens using fludarabine (relative risk [RR], 8.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-64.27; P = .006), melphalan (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 0.76-15.94: P = .08), and/or cyclophosphamide (RR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.02-1.4; P = .05), and GVHD prophylaxis with methylprednisone (RR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.01-13.9; P = .04). AdV-positive patients had higher grades of GVHD and higher rates of GVHD of the gastrointestinal tract (RR, 4; 95% CI, 1.18-13.5; P = .03) compared with AdV-negative patients. Four of the 7 AdV-positive patients had concomitant clinical manifestations of disease, including pneumonia, diarrhea, and/or disseminated disease. Clinical outcomes in symptomatic patients included resolution of disease in 2 patients and death in 2 patients. All 7 AdV-positive patients received antiviral therapy, including 1 patient with severe disseminated disease that resolved after administration of liposomal cidofovir. Our study at a large pediatric HSCT center provides important preliminary data for the development of a prospective trial destined to identify specific HCST patient subpopulations that might benefit most from molecular screening and early preemptive therapy. PMID:22281300

  13. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yanshun; Qin, Maoquan; Wang, Bin; Li, Sidan; Zhu, Guanghua; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Huyong

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI) myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD). The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27217774

  14. Three dimensional CT angiography for patients with congenital heart disease: scanning protocol for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jelnin, Vladimir; Co, Jennifer; Muneer, Basharat; Swaminathan, Balasubramanian; Toska, Suzanna; Ruiz, Carlos E

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the contrast attenuation level that yields high quality cardiac three-dimensional (3-D) images and to predict the contrast injection rate (IR), from body weight, to reach this attenuation level. Enhanced electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT) with 3-D reconstruction is useful in delineating cardiac anatomy in complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The current experience of using electron beam angiography (EBA) in pediatric CHD is limited. Well-defined contrast injection protocols, specifically the contrast IR, have not been standardized when compared to those for adults. Establishing the contrast IR is essential in obtaining high quality 3-D images. We retrospectively analyzed the studies of 115 pediatric patients with CHD. EBA images were divided into group 1 with good quality 3-D images and group 2 with poor quality. The mean of measured enhancement level, expressed in Hounsfield units (HU), and contrast IR were analyzed in both groups. Spearman correlation was used to examine the relationship between weight and IR. The IR was predicted from weight using simple linear regression analysis. The mean level of enhancement was 344 +/- 91 and 174 +/- 31 HU for group 1 and group 2, respectively. Group 1 consisted of 103 patients (90%) and the IR strongly correlated with weight (rho = 0.861, P < 0.01). The IR was estimated from the linear regression equation IR = 0.59 + 0.056 x weight. Necessary contrast enhancement level for quality 3-D reconstruction should be greater than 250 HU, and the IR can be estimated from patient's weight. PMID:16342271

  15. [First successful bridge to cardiac transplantation in Chile using the Heart Mate II device. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Bunster, Nicolás; Villavicencio, Mauricio; Lim, Jongsung; Donoso, Erika; Gajardo, Francesca; Rossel, Víctor

    2014-04-01

    Implantable ventricular assist devices are an effective treatment option for end-stage heart failure patients as a bridge to cardiac transplantation, to improve the clinical condition and organ function allowing discharge from the hospital to await for transplantation. The second alternative is to use the device as destination therapy for patients with contraindications for cardiac transplantation, in whom it is maintained indefinitely. We report a 43-year-old patient, with a dilated cardiomyopathy, severe left ventricular dysfunction and advanced heart failure. A ventricular assist device Heart Mate II©, as a bridge to transplantation, was implanted to the patient in the United States. It was explanted for the first time in Chile at the National Thorax Institute. Heart transplantation was performed using the bicaval technique. Induction of immunosuppression was done with basiliximab. Generic immunosuppression was carried out with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Postoperatively the patient evolved with right femoral vein thrombosis in the femoral cannulation site, phlegmasia alba dolens, rhabdomyolysis, oliguric acute renal failure, which required renal replacement therapy, severe shock, with high requirements of vasoactive drugs and need for mechanical ventilation. He required a reoperation for hemothorax and had an Enterobacter pneumonia. After a period of serious illness, he began a gradual recovery and was discharged from the hospital after 58 days. After two years, he remains in functional class I, with a normal graft function.

  16. Prevention of allograft rejection in heart transplantation through concurrent gene silencing of TLR and Kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xusheng; Zheng, Xiufen; Lan, Zhu; Shi, Jun; Jiang, Jifu; Zwiep, Terry; Li, Qing; Quan, Douglas; Zhang, Zhu-Xu; Min, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as initiators and conductors responsible for both innate and adaptive immune responses in organ transplantation. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is one of the most critical signaling kinases that affects broad aspects of cellular functions including metabolism, growth, and survival. Recipients (BALB/c) were treated with MyD88, TRIF and mTOR siRNA vectors, 3 and 7 days prior to heart transplantation and 7, 14 and 21 days after transplantation. After siRNA treatment, recipients received a fully MHC-mismatched C57BL/6 heart. Treatment with mTOR siRNA significantly prolonged allograft survival in heart transplantation. Moreover, the combination of mTOR siRNA with MyD88 and TRIF siRNA further extended the allograft survival; Flow cytometric analysis showed an upregulation of FoxP3 expression in spleen lymphocytes and a concurrent downregulation of CD40, CD86 expression, upregulation of PD-L1 expression in splenic dendritic cells in MyD88, TRIF and mTOR treated mice. There is significantly upregulated T cell exhaustion in T cells isolated from tolerant recipients. This study is the first demonstration of preventing immune rejection of allogeneic heart grafts through concurrent gene silencing of TLR and kinase signaling pathways, highlighting the therapeutic potential of siRNA in clinical transplantation. PMID:27659428

  17. Long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) as bridge to heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Matteo; Giraud, Raphaël; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Bendjelid, Karim; Robin, Jacques; Meyer, Philippe; Obadia, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the treatment of choice for end-stage heart failure but the limited availability of heart’s donors still represents a major issue. So long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has been proposed as an alternative treatment option to assist patients scheduled on HTx waiting list bridging them for a variable time period to cardiac transplantation—the so-called bridge-to-transplantation (BTT) strategy. Nowadays approximately 90% of patients being considered for MCS receive a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). In fact, LVAD experienced several improvements in the last decade and the predominance of continuous-flow over pulsatile-flow technology has been evident since 2008. The aim of the present report is to give an overview of continuous-flow LVAD utilization in the specific setting of the BTT strategy taking into consideration the most representative articles of the scientific literature and focusing the attention on the evolution, clinical outcomes, relevant implications on the HTx strategy and future perspectives of the continuous-flow LVAD technology. PMID:25922736

  18. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and other malignancies after pediatric intestinal transplantation: incidence, clinical features and outcome.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Esther; Hernández, Francisco; Andres, Ane; Martínez-Ojinaga, Eva; Molina, Manuel; Sarría, Jesús; Lopez-Santamaria, Manuel; Prieto, Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    PTLDs are a well-recognized and potentially fatal complication after intestinal transplantation. We analyzed the incidence, clinical features, and outcome in a 63 intestinal transplantation series performed in our unit between October 1999 and July 2011. Types of graft included ISB (n = 23), LSB (n = 20), and MV (n = 20). Patients were categorized into three groups of immunosuppression: I (n = 43) received basiliximab, tacrolimus, and steroids; II (n = 11) thymoglobulin and tacrolimus, and III (n = 9) alemtuzumab and tacrolimus. EBV status was serially assessed. All PTLD cases were biopsied to establish histopathological diagnosis. The incidence of PTLD was 14.2% (9/63). Median onset of PTLD after transplant was four months (range: 0.5-28), within first postoperative year in 6 (66.6%) patients. Fever was the most common symptom. Graft removal was needed in four patients (44%). The patient survival rate was 66.6% (6/9). We have not found any association between PTLD and immunosuppression regimen or transplant type. However, there was a statistical association with EBV active infection.

  19. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and other malignancies after pediatric intestinal transplantation: incidence, clinical features and outcome.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Esther; Hernández, Francisco; Andres, Ane; Martínez-Ojinaga, Eva; Molina, Manuel; Sarría, Jesús; Lopez-Santamaria, Manuel; Prieto, Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    PTLDs are a well-recognized and potentially fatal complication after intestinal transplantation. We analyzed the incidence, clinical features, and outcome in a 63 intestinal transplantation series performed in our unit between October 1999 and July 2011. Types of graft included ISB (n = 23), LSB (n = 20), and MV (n = 20). Patients were categorized into three groups of immunosuppression: I (n = 43) received basiliximab, tacrolimus, and steroids; II (n = 11) thymoglobulin and tacrolimus, and III (n = 9) alemtuzumab and tacrolimus. EBV status was serially assessed. All PTLD cases were biopsied to establish histopathological diagnosis. The incidence of PTLD was 14.2% (9/63). Median onset of PTLD after transplant was four months (range: 0.5-28), within first postoperative year in 6 (66.6%) patients. Fever was the most common symptom. Graft removal was needed in four patients (44%). The patient survival rate was 66.6% (6/9). We have not found any association between PTLD and immunosuppression regimen or transplant type. However, there was a statistical association with EBV active infection. PMID:23730927

  20. Experience of 100 solid organ transplants over a five-yr period from the first successful pediatric multi-organ transplant program in India.

    PubMed

    Sibal, Anupam; Malhotra, Smita; Guru, Faisal R; Bhatia, Vidyut; Kapoor, Akshay; Seth, Swati; Jerath, Nameet; Jasuja, Sanjeev; Rajkumari, Vijaya; Wadhawan, Manav; Aggarwal, D K; Guleria, Sandeep; Shrivastava, R N; Gupta, Subash

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the clinical profile and outcome of pediatric patients who had undergone a liver and/or RT at our center over a five yr period, case records of all the patients who had undergone a liver or RT were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred solid organ transplants were performed at our center between January 2007 and January 2012. These included 50 liver, 44 renal, one sequential liver and renal, and two CLKT. BA was the most common indication for an LT (38%). At a median follow-up of two yr three months, the patient survival was 88%. The most common indication for an RT was chronic glomerulonephritis (54.5%). At a median follow-up of three yr, the survival was 91%. The CLKT were performed for hyperoxaluria. Two yr post LT, a sequential RT was performed for ESRD resulting from transplant associated microangiopathy. All patients received a living related graft. The common post-operative complications were infections, vascular complications, and graft dysfunction. Survival rates for liver and RT at our center are comparable to those in the established centers in the West.

  1. Experience of 100 solid organ transplants over a five-yr period from the first successful pediatric multi-organ transplant program in India.

    PubMed

    Sibal, Anupam; Malhotra, Smita; Guru, Faisal R; Bhatia, Vidyut; Kapoor, Akshay; Seth, Swati; Jerath, Nameet; Jasuja, Sanjeev; Rajkumari, Vijaya; Wadhawan, Manav; Aggarwal, D K; Guleria, Sandeep; Shrivastava, R N; Gupta, Subash

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the clinical profile and outcome of pediatric patients who had undergone a liver and/or RT at our center over a five yr period, case records of all the patients who had undergone a liver or RT were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred solid organ transplants were performed at our center between January 2007 and January 2012. These included 50 liver, 44 renal, one sequential liver and renal, and two CLKT. BA was the most common indication for an LT (38%). At a median follow-up of two yr three months, the patient survival was 88%. The most common indication for an RT was chronic glomerulonephritis (54.5%). At a median follow-up of three yr, the survival was 91%. The CLKT were performed for hyperoxaluria. Two yr post LT, a sequential RT was performed for ESRD resulting from transplant associated microangiopathy. All patients received a living related graft. The common post-operative complications were infections, vascular complications, and graft dysfunction. Survival rates for liver and RT at our center are comparable to those in the established centers in the West. PMID:25092050

  2. Clinical Lessons to Be Learned from Patients Developing Chronic Myeloid Leukemia While on Immunosuppressive Therapy after Solid Organ Transplantation: Yet Another Case after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oberender, Christian; Kleeberg, Lorenz; Nienhues, Nicola; Dörken, Bernd; Riess, Hanno

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia developing after transplantation of solid organs and concomitant immunosuppression is a rare but still significant clinical phenomenon. We here describe an additional case of a 62-year-old male patient developing CML after orthotopic heart transplantation and medication with cyclosporine A, mofetil-mycophenolate, and steroids. Initial antileukemic therapy was imatinib at a standard dose and within 15 months of therapy a complete cytogenetic response was noted. In this report we discuss the clinical implications of these rare but biologically important cases. PMID:25478254

  3. Hepatic Dysfunction and Survival After Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: Application of the MELD Scoring System for Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Aalap; Cheema, Faisal H.; Schaefle, Kenneth J.; Jiang, Jeffrey; Collado, Elias; Shahzad, Khurram; Khawaja, Tuba; Farr, Maryjane; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Schulze, P. Christian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is rising and the only corrective treatment is cardiac transplantation. Advanced HF is associated with congestive hepatopathy and progressive functional and ultrastructural changes of the liver. We hypothesized that hepatic dysfunction is associated with impaired clinical outcome after heart transplantation. METHODS Data of 617 adult patients (75% males, mean age of 53±12 years, mean BMI of 25±4 and mean ejection fraction of 19±9%) undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) were analyzed retrospectively. Deviation from institutional normal ranges was used to define abnormal liver function. Standard model for end Stage liver disease (MELD) scores were calculated and a modified MELD score with albumin replacing INR (modMELD) was created to eliminate the confounding effects of anticoagulation. RESULTS Before OHT, AST, ALT and total bilirubin were elevated in 20%, 18% and 29% of the population, respectively. Total protein and albumin were decreased in 25 and 52% of the population, respectively. By 2 months post-transplantation, percentages of individuals with pathological values decreased significantly except ALT, total protein and albumin, all of which took longer to normalize. Individuals with a higher pre-transplantation MELD or modMELD score had worse outcome 30 days post-transplant and reduced long-term survival over a 10-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS In this large, single-center retrospective study, we demonstrate dynamics of liver dysfunction after cardiac transplantation and that elevated MELD scores indicating impaired liver function are associated with poor clinical outcome following OHT. Therefore, preoperative liver dysfunction has a significant impact on survival of patients after cardiac transplantation. PMID:22458996

  4. Childhood Abuse, Nonadherence, and Medical Outcome in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…

  5. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Associated with Congenital Heart Disease and Eisenmenger Syndrome: Current Practice in Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David B.; Hanna, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon but serious disease characterized by severe pulmonary vascular disease and significant morbidity and mortality. PAH associated with congenital heart disease (APAH-CHD) is one etiology of PAH that has innate characteristics delineating it from other forms of PAH. The patient with APAH-CHD presents with unique challenges consisting of not only pulmonary vascular disease but also the complexity of the cardiac lesion. Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) represents the severe end of the spectrum for disease in APAH-CHD. Over time, systemic-to-pulmonary shunting through cardiac defects increases pulmonary vascular resistance to levels significant enough to reverse shunting across the defect. Historically, ES patients have been reported to have better outcomes than IPAH despite similarities in pulmonary vascular disease. However, recent studies are challenging this notion. Nonetheless, APAH-CHD survival has improved with the advent of modern PAH targeted therapies. New therapeutic options have allowed us to reconsider the dogma of inoperability in APAH-CHD patients with unrepaired defects. Certainly advances have been made, however, investigators must continue to advance the field through controlled clinical trials in both adult and pediatric APAH-CHD patients. PMID:25604592

  6. Invasive aspergillosis successfully treated by combined antifungal therapy and immunosuppressive monotherapy two months following heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Żabicki, Bartłomiej; Baszyńska-Wachowiak, Hanna; Straburzyńska-Migaj, Ewa; Juszkat, Robert; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is becoming increasingly prevalent, especially following transplantation. Invasive aspergillosis is associated with mortality. Successful therapy is related to early diagnosis and proper therapy. We present the case of a 61-year-old man suffering from invasive aspergillosis 2 months following heart transplantation. He was suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and he underwent orthotropic heart transplantation. He was readmitted to the Department of Cardiology 69 days following transplantation due to symptoms of productive cough for 5 days. It was accompanied by chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever up to 39°C. He was slightly cyanotic and confused on physical examination. The patient's status deteriorated within the following 2 days. On bronchoscopic specimen examinations Aspergillus mould filaments were detected and the serum galactomannan index was 12.162. His blood saturation decreased to 85%. C-reactive protein serum level increased to 273 mg/l. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and intubated due to severe respiratory insufficiency. Computed tomography revealed massive, mostly homogeneous consolidation. The patient was treated with 200 mg of voriconazole and 50 mg of caspofungin daily. Caspofungin therapy was continued for 23 days and voriconazole was administered parenterally for 62 days. Voriconazole therapy was continued orally for 9 months. During combined antifungal therapy, the galactomannan serum index constantly decreased from 12.1 to 0.33 (end-point of caspofungin therapy) and to 0.23 (end-point of voriconazole parenteral administration). His immunosuppressive therapy was limited to calcineurin inhibitor (tacrolimus) monotherapy. Post-treatment imaging 9 months after diagnosis confirmed the efficacy of therapy as a lack of pulmonary infiltration associated with left apical peribronchial scarring as a result of treatment. The present case proved the efficiency of combined (voriconazole and caspofungin

  7. Invasive aspergillosis successfully treated by combined antifungal therapy and immunosuppressive monotherapy two months following heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Tomasz; Żabicki, Bartłomiej; Baszyńska-Wachowiak, Hanna; Straburzyńska-Migaj, Ewa; Juszkat, Robert; Grajek, Stefan; Jemielity, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is becoming increasingly prevalent, especially following transplantation. Invasive aspergillosis is associated with mortality. Successful therapy is related to early diagnosis and proper therapy. We present the case of a 61-year-old man suffering from invasive aspergillosis 2 months following heart transplantation. He was suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and he underwent orthotropic heart transplantation. He was readmitted to the Department of Cardiology 69 days following transplantation due to symptoms of productive cough for 5 days. It was accompanied by chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever up to 39°C. He was slightly cyanotic and confused on physical examination. The patient's status deteriorated within the following 2 days. On bronchoscopic specimen examinations Aspergillus mould filaments were detected and the serum galactomannan index was 12.162. His blood saturation decreased to 85%. C-reactive protein serum level increased to 273 mg/l. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and intubated due to severe respiratory insufficiency. Computed tomography revealed massive, mostly homogeneous consolidation. The patient was treated with 200 mg of voriconazole and 50 mg of caspofungin daily. Caspofungin therapy was continued for 23 days and voriconazole was administered parenterally for 62 days. Voriconazole therapy was continued orally for 9 months. During combined antifungal therapy, the galactomannan serum index constantly decreased from 12.1 to 0.33 (end-point of caspofungin therapy) and to 0.23 (end-point of voriconazole parenteral administration). His immunosuppressive therapy was limited to calcineurin inhibitor (tacrolimus) monotherapy. Post-treatment imaging 9 months after diagnosis confirmed the efficacy of therapy as a lack of pulmonary infiltration associated with left apical peribronchial scarring as a result of treatment. The present case proved the efficiency of combined (voriconazole and caspofungin

  8. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  9. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  10. Isoflurane compared with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia in patients undergoing heart transplantation: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Che-Hao; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Huang, Go-Shine; Lu, Chih-Cherng; Ho, Shung-Tai; Liaw, Wen-Jinn; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Tso-Chou

    2016-08-01

    Inhalation anesthetics provide myocardial protection for cardiac surgery. This study was undertaken to compare the perioperative effects between isoflurane and fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia for heart transplantation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of heart transplantation in a single medical center from 1990 to 2013. Patients receiving isoflurane or fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia were included. Those with preoperative severe pulmonary, hepatic, or renal comorbidities were excluded. The perioperative variables and postoperative short-term outcomes were analyzed, including blood glucose levels, urine output, inotropic use, time to extubation, and length of stay in the intensive care units. After reviewing 112 heart transplantations, 18 recipients with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia, and 29 receiving isoflurane anesthesia with minimal low-flow technique were analyzed. After cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass, recipients with isoflurane anesthesia had a significantly lower mean level and a less increase of blood glucose, as compared with those receiving fentanyl-based anesthesia. In addition, there was less use of dobutamine upon arriving the intensive care unit and a shorter time to extubation after isoflurane anesthesia. Compared with fentanyl-midazolam-based anesthesia, isoflurane minimal low-flow anesthesia maintained better perioperative homeostasis of blood glucose levels, less postoperative use of inotropics, and early extubation time among heart-transplant recipients without severe comorbidities. PMID:27583900

  11. The role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) imaging as a noninvasive surveillance method of human heart transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, D.; Scibilia, G.; Macchiarelli, A.G.; Cassisi, A.; Tonelli, E.; Papalia, U.; Gallo, P.; Antolini, M.; Pitucco, G.; Reale, A. )

    1989-09-01

    The identification of rejection after heart transplantation in patients receiving cyclosporine immunosuppressive therapy requires the endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive method associated with a finite morbidity. To evaluate the role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) scintigraphy as a noninvasive surveillance method of heart transplant rejection, the Fab fragment of murine monoclonal antimyosin antibodies labeled with indium-111 was administered intravenously in 30 scintigraphic studies to 10 consecutive heart transplant recipients. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained 72 hours after each scintigraphic study. Nineteen scintigraphic studies had negative findings; no false negative finding was obtained. Eleven antimyosin scintigraphic studies had positive findings, and in these studies endomyocardial biopsy revealed mild rejection in two cases, moderate acute rejection with myocyte necrosis in two cases, myocyte necrosis as a consequence of ischemic injury in six cases, and possibly cytotoxic damage in one case. Antimyosin scintigraphy may represent a reliable screening method for the surveillance of heart transplant patients. In the presence of a negative finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, it may be possible to avoid endomyocardial biopsy. Conversely, in patients who have a positive finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, the endomyocardial biopsy is mandatory to establish the definitive diagnosis by histologic examination of the myocardium.

  12. Recommendations for the use of everolimus (Certican) in heart transplantation: results from the second German-Austrian Certican Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Markus; Zuckermann, Andreas; Bara, Christoph; Hummel, Manfred; Strüber, Martin; Hirt, Stephan; Lehmkuhl, Hans

    2007-04-01

    Everolimus (Certican; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) represents the latest generation of proliferation signal inhibitors (PSIs). Everolimus is indicated for use as an immunosuppressive drug in renal and heart transplantation. This report reflects the recommendations of the second German-Austrian Certican Consensus Conference, held in January 2006, for the clinical use of everolimus. PMID:17403469

  13. NSS for an RCC in a patient with renal insufficiency after heart transplant because of right ventricular tumor

    PubMed Central

    Życzkowski, Marcin; Nowakowski, Krzysztof; Bryniarski, Piotr; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the immunosuppressive therapy on the development of neoplasms has become the object of an ever increasing interest for clinicians all over the world. The literature on neoplasms development in the course of therapy following transplants has confirmed a considerable increase in the incidence of neoplasms of the skin and lymph nodes. Organ neoplasms developing in patients after transplants are characterized by increased progression, poor cellular diversification and a more unfavorable prognosis than in the general population The aim of the study is to present the case of a nephron–sparing surgery of a renal tumor (NSS) without any intraoperative ischaemia in a 55–year–old female patient with an orthotopic heart transplant and renal insufficiency following a prolonged immune suppression. It is estimated that the patients at the highest risk of neoplasm development are those in the first months after transplant, especially heart transplant. They require maximum doses of immunosuppressive drugs. In the case of patients with initial renal insufficiency the duration of ischaemia of the organ operated on should be minimized, and if possible, surgery should be conducted without clamping the renal pedicle. The surgical treatment of RCC (renal cell carcinoma) in transplant patients does not require any reduction in the amount of the immunosuppressive drugs. PMID:24578985

  14. NSS for an RCC in a patient with renal insufficiency after heart transplant because of right ventricular tumor.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Grzegorz; Zyczkowski, Marcin; Nowakowski, Krzysztof; Bryniarski, Piotr; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the immunosuppressive therapy on the development of neoplasms has become the object of an ever increasing interest for clinicians all over the world. The literature on neoplasms development in the course of therapy following transplants has confirmed a considerable increase in the incidence of neoplasms of the skin and lymph nodes. Organ neoplasms developing in patients after transplants are characterized by increased progression, poor cellular diversification and a more unfavorable prognosis than in the general population The aim of the study is to present the case of a nephron-sparing surgery of a renal tumor (NSS) without any intraoperative ischaemia in a 55-year-old female patient with an orthotopic heart transplant and renal insufficiency following a prolonged immune suppression. It is estimated that the patients at the highest risk of neoplasm development are those in the first months after transplant, especially heart transplant. They require maximum doses of immunosuppressive drugs. In the case of patients with initial renal insufficiency the duration of ischaemia of the organ operated on should be minimized, and if possible, surgery should be conducted without clamping the renal pedicle. The surgical treatment of RCC (renal cell carcinoma) in transplant patients does not require any reduction in the amount of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  15. Panic attacks 10 years after heart transplantation successfully treated with low-dose citalopram: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chenyu; Zhuang, Yamin; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-25

    Panic attacks are common among patients who have undergone heart transplantation, but there are no clinical guidelines for the treatment of panic attacks in this group of patients. This report describes a 22-year-old woman who experienced panic attacks 10 years after heart transplant surgery. The attacks started after she discovered that the average post-transplantation survival is 10 years. Treated with citalopram 10 mg/d, her symptoms improved significantly after 2 weeks and had completely resolved after 8 weeks. A positive physician-patient relationship with the doctors who regularly followed her medical condition was crucial to encouraging her to adhere to the treatment with citalopram. She continued taking the citalopram for 7 months without any adverse effects. When followed up 3 months after stopping the citalopram, she had had no recurrence of the panic attacks. PMID:27199531

  16. Mycoplasma hominis septic arthritis in a pediatric renal transplant recipient: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesa N; Farney, Alan C; Mendley, Susan R

    2005-01-01

    Septic arthritis (SA) typically occurs in young children, often from Staphylococcus. With chronic immunosuppression, however, pathogens may be atypical. A 15-year-old African-American female developed Mycoplasma hominis SA in her right hip 2 months following cadaveric renal transplant (Tx). Her presentation was subtle and indolent, without fever or leukocytosis. Although reported in adult Tx recipients, M. hominis infections have not been described in pediatric recipients. Early immunosuppression (basiliximab, prednisone, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and Thymoglobulin) may have increased her susceptibility to M. hominis. Optimal therapy for M. hominis SA is not well established and relapses occur. This patient underwent joint incision and drainage, treatment for 8 weeks with doxycycline and levofloxacin guided by in vitro sensitivities, and a reduction in immunosuppression. She has been free of ongoing infection for 3 years with stable graft function (Cr 1.1 mg/dL) on moderate immunosuppression with prednisone, tacrolimus and MMF.

  17. Effect of adopting a new histological grading system of acute rejection after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Balk, A.; Zondervan, P.; van der Meer, P.; van Gelder, T.; Mochtar, B.; Simoons, M.; Weimar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Background—Treatment policy of acute rejection after heart transplantation has been changed after adopting the ISHLT endomyocardial biopsy grading system in 1991.
Objective—To determine the effect of this policy change on clinical outcome after transplantation.
Methods—The outcome of 147 patients who had a transplant before (early group, median follow up 96 months) and 114 patients who had a transplant after (late group, median follow up 41 months) the introduction of the ISHLT biopsy grading system was studied retrospectively. Initially "moderate rejection" according to Billingham's conventional criteria was treated. From January 1991 grade 3A and higher was considered to require intensification of immunosuppression.
Results—There were some differences between the two groups: recipients (50 v 44 years) as well as donors (28 v 24 years) were older in the "late group" and more patients of this group received early anti-T cell prophylaxis (92% v 56%). Despite more extensive use of early prophylaxis more rejection episodes were diagnosed (2.4 v 1.4) and considerably more courses of rejection treatment were instituted in the late compared with the early group (3.2 v 1.5). There were no deaths because of rejection in the late group, however, more infections occurred within the first year (mean 1.8 v 1.4) and more non-skin malignancies within the first 41 months were diagnosed (8 of 57 v 6 of 147, 95% CIs of difference includes 0). The incidence of graft vascular disease in the late group has been comparable to the early group until now. 
Conclusion—The interpretation of the ISHLT grading system resulted in lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis of rejection thereby increasing the number of rejections and subsequently the immunosuppressive load and its complications.

 Keywords: transplantation;  biopsy grading system;  rejection PMID:9470880

  18. A New Animal Model for Investigation of Mechanical Unloading in Hypertrophic and Failing Hearts: Combination of Transverse Aortic Constriction and Heterotopic Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stenzig, Justus; Biermann, Daniel; Jelinek, Marisa; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ehmke, Heimo; Schwoerer, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous small animal models for simulation of mechanical unloading are solely performed in healthy or infarcted hearts, not representing the pathophysiology of hypertrophic and dilated hearts emerging in heart failure patients. In this article, we present a new and economic small animal model to investigate mechanical unloading in hypertrophic and failing hearts: the combination of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTx) in rats. Methods To induce cardiac hypertrophy and failure in rat hearts, three-week old rats underwent TAC procedure. Three and six weeks after TAC, hHTx with hypertrophic and failing hearts in Lewis rats was performed to induce mechanical unloading. After 14 days of mechanical unloading animals were euthanatized and grafts were explanted for further investigations. Results 50 TAC procedures were performed with a survival of 92% (46/50). When compared to healthy rats left ventricular surface decreased to 5.8±1.0 mm² (vs. 9.6± 2.4 mm²) (p = 0.001) after three weeks with a fractional shortening (FS) of 23.7± 4.3% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.01). Six weeks later, systolic function decreased to 17.1± 3.2% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.0001) and left ventricular inner surface increased to 19.9±1.1 mm² (p = 0.0001). Intraoperative graft survival during hHTx was 80% with 46 performed procedures (37/46). All transplanted organs survived two weeks of mechanical unloading. Discussion Combination of TAC and hHTx in rats offers an economic and reproducible small animal model enabling serial examination of mechanical unloading in a truly hypertrophic and failing heart, representing the typical pressure overloaded and dilated LV, occurring in patients with moderate to severe heart failure. PMID:26841021

  19. Clinical features and treatment of Malassezia folliculitis with fluconazole in orthotopic heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rhie, S; Turcios, R; Buckley, H; Suh, B

    2000-02-01

    Orthotopic heart transplant recipients need immunosuppressive treatment and are at an increased risk for opportunistic infections such as Malassezia folliculitis. During a 4-month period (July to October 1990), 11 such cases were identified and treated; all were male with mean age of 43+/-9 years and on standard triple immunosuppressive therapy. Skin scrapings in potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation with microscopy and/or culture identified either Malassezia furfur or Malassezia pachydermatis as the etiologic agent. A treatment with topical preparation (clotrimazole 1% and selenium sulfide lotion) was effective in 6 patients, whereas the rest received systemic fluconazole treatment with satisfactory outcome; all lesions were resolved within 3 weeks. Fluconazole appears to be an effective agent with excellent therapeutic outcome when administered for 3 weeks.

  20. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Cho, Bin; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, pediatricians outside the hemato-oncology and nephrology specialties tend to be unfamiliar with hemorrhagic cystitis and the BK virus. Moreover, no standard guidelines for the early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation have been established. Here, we briefly introduce poststem cell transplantation BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis.

  1. Safety of Live Attenuated High-Titer Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takahiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kawano, Yutaka; Mori, Makiko; Arakawa, Yuki; Kato, Motohiro; Hanada, Ryoji

    2016-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients have a high risk of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Although VZV vaccination may be beneficial in preventing VZV infections, data on safety and efficacy of VZV vaccines in HSCT recipients, particularly of zoster vaccine, are limited. We report our experience with the use of a single dose of an Oka strain high-titer zoster-equivalent varicella vaccine in pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients. We administered the high-titer VZV vaccine to 31 pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients without vaccine-type VZV infections. One patient developed varicella due to wild-type VZV 13 days after vaccination. No zoster developed after vaccination during a median follow-up period of 4.8 years from vaccination. No other adverse effects were observed. Eighteen of the 31 patients (58.1%) were seropositive after vaccination. Seventeen patients were vaccinated within 24 months after HSCT; the seropositivity of these patients did not significantly differ from that of patients vaccinated > 24 months after HSCT. VZV vaccination may be a safe and beneficial approach in preventing VZV infections after HSCT.

  2. Factors predicting health-related quality of life in pediatric liver transplant recipients in the functional outcomes group.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Estella M; Martz, Karen; Wang, Deli; Yi, Michael S; Neighbors, Katie; Varni, James W; Bucuvalas, John C

    2013-11-01

    Data from 997 pediatric LT recipients were used to model demographic and medical variables as predictors of lower levels of HRQOL. Data were collected through SPLIT FOG project. Patients were between 2 and 18 yr of age and survived LT by at least 12 months. Parents and children (age ≥ 8 yr) completed PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core and CF Scales at one time point. Demographic and medical variables were obtained from SPLIT. HRQOL scores were categorized as "poor" based on lower 25% of scores for each measure. Logistic regression models were generated. Single-parent households (OR 1.94, CI 1.13-3.33, p = 0.017), anti-seizure medications (OR 3.99, CI 1.26-12.70, p = 0.019), and number of days hospitalized (OR 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06, p = 0.0067) were associated with lower self-reported HRQOL. Parent data identified increasing age at transplant, age 5-12 yr at survey, hospitalization >21 days at LT, re-operations, diabetes, and growth failure at LT as additional predictors of generic HRQOL. Male gender, single-parent households, higher bilirubin levels at LT, and use of anti-seizure medication predicted lower cognitive function scores. HRQOL following pediatric LT is related to medical and demographic variables.

  3. Reference Intervals of Thromboelastometric Evaluation of Coagulation in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Diseases: A Retrospective Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Shin, Yu Rim; Kil, Hae Keum; Park, Mi Ran; Lee, Jong Wha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) is a point-of-care test for coagulation, enabling physicians to make a swift decision. The aim of this investigation was to establish reference intervals of thromboelastometric evaluation for coagulation in pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Material/Methods As baseline data, 3 assays of ROTEM® (INTEM, EXTEM, and FIBTEM) were measured after anesthesia induction. ROTEM® parameters were clotting time (CT), amplitude at 10 min (A10), clot formation time (CFT), α angle, maximal clot firmness (MCF), clot lysis index at 60 min (LI60), and maximal clot elasticity (MCE). As age is a well-known factor for maturation, age groups were determined as follows; 1) <1 month, 2) 1–3 months, 3) 4–12 months, 4) 1–3 years, 5) 4–6 years, 6) 7–12 years, and 7) 13–16 years. Reference limits representing 95% of distribution of ROTEM® parameters and 90% confidence intervals of upper and lower reference limits were calculated. Results The data of 413 patients were analyzed. Although INTEM CT was prolonged, significantly shorter CT and CFT, steeper α, and greater A10, MCF, and MCE were shown in patients age <3 months compared to older children. Conclusions Reference intervals of thromboelastometric evaluation for coagulation from pediatric patients with CHD were shown to have similar pattern to those obtained from healthy pediatric patients. Pediatric patients with CHD, even with cyanosis, were demonstrated to have functionally intact coagulation profile before surgery. PMID:27711024

  4. Immunization practices in acute lymphocytic leukemia and post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant in Canadian Pediatric Hematology/Oncology centers.

    PubMed

    Top, Karina A; Pham-Huy, Anne; Price, Victoria; Sung, Lillian; Tran, Dat; Vaudry, Wendy; Halperin, Scott A; De Serres, Gaston

    2016-04-01

    There are no Canadian immunization guidelines for children treated for malignancy. Guidelines do exist for patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), but they provide broad timeframes for initiating vaccination; there is no standard schedule. The optimal approach to immunization in these populations is unclear. We sought to describe immunization practices at Canadian Pediatric Hematology/Oncology centers. A 43-item online questionnaire was distributed to the 16 programs in the C(17) research network of pediatric hematology/oncology centers to capture information on timing and criteria for immunization of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and those who have undergone HSCT. At each center, 1-2 physicians or pharmacists completed the survey to reflect center-wide immunization practices. Responses were received from 11/16 (69%) programs; 11 respondents reported on practices for patients with ALL and 9 reported on practices for patients who are post-HSCT. In 5/11 ALL programs (45%) re-immunization is recommended routinely after chemotherapy, starting 3-6 months post-chemotherapy. In HSCT programs, timing of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) varied from 3 months post-HSCT (4 programs) to 12 months post-HSCT (4 programs). Live vaccines were administered 24 months post-HSCT in 8/9 programs. All HSCT programs considered graft-versus-host-disease and 7 considered discontinuation of immunosuppression in immunization decisions. Pediatric hematology/oncology programs were divided in regards to re-immunization of patients with ALL post-chemotherapy. After HSCT, timing of PCV administration varied, with 4 programs initiating immunization later than Canadian guidelines recommend (3-9 months post-HSCT). These findings suggest a need to standardize immunization practices in these populations.

  5. The incidence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell recipients post-first and post-second hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrahim; Teruya, Jun; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Krance, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The reported incidence of post-allogeneic HSCT AIHA was between 4.4% and 6% following a single transplant. Cord blood transplantation, T-cell depletion, and chronic GvHD are significantly associated with post-transplant AIHA. During an 11-yr period, data for 500 pediatric HSCT recipients were eligible for evaluation of the incidence of AIHA post-first and post-second transplants. Demographic, transplant, and post-transplant-related variables were analyzed. Twelve of 500 (2.4%) recipients at a median of 273 days and seven of 72 (9.7%) recipients at a median of 157 days developed AIHA post-first and post-second HSCT, respectively. Post-first HSCT, none of the MRD recipients developed AIHA (0/175 MRD vs. 12/325 other donors, p = 0.04). Four of 12 required a second HSCT to control the AIHA. After the second HSCT, MUD was significantly associated with the development of AIHA. No other variables were associated with the post-second transplant AIHA. The incidence of AIHA post-first and post-second HSCT was less than the reported. The increased incidence of AIHA among recipients of second HSCT is most likely due to the profound immune dysregulation. A much larger, prospective study would be needed to evaluate the incidence, complications, and management of post-transplant AIHA.

  6. Immunosuppressive therapies after heart transplantation--The balance between under- and over-immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Carl; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-07-01

    Since the first heart transplantation (HT) in 1967, survival has steadily improved. Issues related to over- and under-immunosuppression are, however, still common following HT. Whereas under-immunosuppression may result in rejection, over-immunosuppression may render other medical problems, including infections, malignancies and chronic kidney disease (CKD). As such complications constitute major limiting factors for long-term survival following HT, identifying improved diagnostic and preventive methods has been the focus of many studies. Notably, research on antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) has recently led to the development of nomenclatures that may aid in their diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, novel immunosuppressants (such as mammalian target of rapamycin [m-TOR] inhibitors) and strategies aimed at minimizing the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and corticosteroids (CSs), have provided alternatives to the traditional combination maintenance immunosuppressive therapy of CSs, cyclosporine (CSA) or tacrolimus (TAC), and azathioprine (AZA) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Research within this field of medicine is not only extensive, but also in constant progress. The purpose of the present review was therefore to summarize some major points regarding immunosuppressive therapies after HT and the balance between under- and over-immunosuppression. Transplant immunology, rejection, common medical problems related to over-immunosuppression, as well as induction and maintenance immunosuppressive drugs and therapies, are addressed.

  7. Assessment and Optimization of Cell Engraftment after Transplantation into the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Terrovitis, John V.; Smith, Rachel Ruckdeschel; Marbán, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration using stem and progenitor cell transplantation in the injured heart has recently become a major goal in the treatment of cardiac disease. Experimental studies and clinical applications have generally been encouraging, although the functional benefits that have been attained clinically are modest and inconsistent. Low cell retention and engraftment after myocardial delivery is a key factor limiting the successful application of cell therapy, irrespective of the type of cell or the delivery method. In order to improve engraftment, accurate methods for tracking cell fate and quantifying cell survival need to be applied. Several laboratory techniques (histological methods, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, radiolabeling) have provided invaluable information about cell engraftment. In vivo imaging (nuclear medicine modalities, bioluminescence and magnetic resonance imaging) has the potential to provide quantitative information non-invasively, enabling longitudinal assessment of cell fate. In the present review, we present several available methods for assessing cell engraftment, and we critically discuss their strengths and limitations. In addition to providing insights about the mechanisms mediating cell loss after transplantation, these methods can evaluate techniques for augmenting engraftment, such as tissue engineering approaches, preconditioning and genetic modification, allowing optimization of cell therapies. PMID:20167944

  8. RAndomized Comparison of raDIal vs. femorAL Access for Routine Catheterization of Heart Transplant Patients (RADIAL-heart transplant study).

    PubMed

    Scalone, G; Brugaletta, S; Martín-Yuste, V; Seixo, F; Cotes, C; Gómez-Monterrosas, O; Alvarez-Contreras, L; Campreciós, M; Mirabet, S; Brossa, V; Sabaté, M

    2014-12-01

    Although a transradial approach (TRA) is considered feasible in many clinical situations, no data are available in patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Our goal was to randomly compare TRA versus a transfemoral approach (TFA) in this clinical setting. This single-center, prospective, randomized trial was conducted from January to November 2006, and all OHT patients scheduled for a control coronary angiography were randomized to receive TRA or TFA. The primary endpoint was the amount of contrast used during the procedure. The participating interventional cardiologists were intermediate-volume radial operators, and this was their initial experience of TRA in OHT patients. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Overall, 49 patients (mean age, 55 ± 13 years; 74% male) were included in the trial: 26 patients were assigned to TRA, and 23 were assigned to TFA. A higher amount of contrast (147 mL [range, 113-175 mL] vs 105 mL [range, 86-127 mL]; P = .009), a longer fluoroscopy time (9.2 minutes [range, 6-12 minutes] vs 3.5 minutes [range, 3-5 minutes]; P < .001), a trend toward increased number of catheters used for left ostium cannulation, and a higher crossover rate (19% vs 0%; P = .03) were associated with TRA compared with TFA. Furthermore, patients treated with TRA exhibit a shorter hospital stay (6 [range 4-8]) compared with the other group (26 [range 24-28]) (P < .001). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding total procedural time, and no vascular complications were reported in either group. For these operators with their first experience of TRA in OHT patients, TFA seemed to be more efficient. PMID:25498035

  9. Risk Factors and Timing of Relapse after Allogeneic Transplantation in Pediatric ALL: For Whom and When should Interventions be Tested?

    PubMed Central

    Pulsipher, Michael A.; Langholz, Bryan; Wall, Donna A.; Schultz, Kirk R.; Bunin, Nancy; Carroll, William; Raetz, Elizabeth; Gardner, Sharon; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Borowitz, Michael; Teachey, David; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that minimal residual disease (MRD) detection pre- hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) independently predicted risk of relapse in pediatric ALL. In this study we further define risk by assessing timing of relapse and the effects of leukemia risk category and post-HCT MRD. By multivariate analysis, pre-HCT MRD < 0.1% and aGVHD by day +55 were associated with decreased relapse and improved EFS. Intermediate leukemia risk status predicted decreased relapse, and improved EFS and OS. Patients with pre-HCT MRD ≥ 0.1% who did not develop aGVHD compared to those with MRD <0.1% who did develop aGVHD had much worse survival (2yr EFS 18 vs. 71%; p=0.001, 2yr OS 46 vs. 74%; p=0.04). Patients with pre-HCT MRD <0.1% who did not experience aGVHD had higher rates of relapse if they did not develop aGVHD (40% vs 13%; p= 0.008). Post-HCT MRD led to a substantial increase in relapse risk (HR=4.5, p<0.01). Patients at high risk of relapse can be defined after transplant using leukemia risk category, presence of MRD pre- or post-HCT, and occurrence of aGVHD. An optimal window to initiate intervention to prevent relapse occurs between day +55 and +200 after HCT. PMID:25961775

  10. Postoperative Care of the Transplanted Patient

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Gajarski, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The successful delivery of optimal peri-operative care to pediatric heart transplant recipients is a vital determinant of their overall outcomes. The practitioner caring for these patients must be familiar with and treat multiple simultaneous issues in a patient who may have been critically ill preoperatively. In addition to the complexities involved in treating any child following cardiac surgery, caretakers of newly transplanted patients encounter multiple transplant-specific issues. This chapter details peri-operative management strategies, frequently encountered early morbidities, initiation of immunosuppression including induction, and short-term outcomes. PMID:22548034

  11. High-dose busulfan/melphalan as conditioning for autologous PBPC transplantation in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M A; Vicent, M G; Madero, L

    1999-12-01

    We conducted a prospective pilot study to assess the feasibility and safety of high-dose busulfan/melphalan as conditioning therapy prior to autologous PBPC transplantation in pediatric patients with high-risk solid tumors. From January 1995 to January 1999, 30 patients aged 2-21 years (median 8) were entered into the study. There were 14 females and 16 males. Diagnoses included neuroblastoma in 10 patients; Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 15 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma in five patients. Treatment consisted of busulfan 16 mg/kg, orally over 4 days (from days -5 to -2) in 6 hourly divided doses, and melphalan at a dose of 140 mg/m2 given by intravenous infusion over 5 min on day -1. G-CSF mobilized PBPC were used as autologous stem-cell rescue. One patient developed a single generalized convulsion during busulfan therapy. The most relevant non-hematologic toxicity was gastrointestinal, manifesting as grade 2-3 mucositis and diarrhea in 12 patients. Two patients died of procedure-related complications, one from veno-occlusive disease of liver and multiorgan failure and the other from adult respiratory distress syndrome. Probability of treatment-related mortality was 6.6 +/- 4.5%. With a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 1-48), 19 patients are alive and disease-free, the actuarial EFS at 4 years being 55 +/- 12% for the whole group. We conclude that high-dose busulfan/melphalan for autologous transplantation in children with solid tumors is feasible even in small patients. It is well-tolerated, with an acceptable transplant-related mortality and has proven antitumor activity.

  12. Changes in exercise capacity induced by heart transplantation: prognostic and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Grigioni, F; Specchia, S; Maietta, P; Potena, L; Bacchi-Reggiani, M L; Ghetti, G; Boriani, G; Foschi, E; Corazza, I; Ionico, T; Magnani, G; Zannoli, R; Tentoni, C; Branzi, A

    2011-08-01

    Survival and exercise performance are key targets of heart transplantation (HT). We designed this study to help in identifying (1) patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) at risk of poor exercise capacity after HT and (2) HT recipients presenting risk factors modifiable with exercise showing a potential impact on outcome. We enrolled 49 HT recipients (age 52 ± 12 years, 84% males) who underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test before (9 ± 6 months) and after (20 ± 14 months) HT. In the CHF phase, lower peak oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) (odds ratio 0.69, P=0.017) independently predicted peak VO(2) improvement after HT. In the post-HT phase, body mass index (BMI) [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.16, P=0.034] and VE (ventilation)/VCO(2) (carbon dioxide production) slope (adjusted HR 1.07, P=0.031) independently predicted mortality. In conclusion, CHF patients with only a moderate impairment of peak VO(2) are at a risk of failing to achieve a significant improvement of exercise performance after HT. In the post-HT phase, a BMI≥28 and/or a VE/VCO(2) slope ≥47 represent risk factors for death, which are potentially modifiable with exercise. Prospective randomized studies are needed to analyze the effects of training on functional capacity and outcome in the different subsets of HT recipients.

  13. An Update on Heart Transplantation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Agüero, F; Castel, M A; Cocchi, S; Moreno, A; Mestres, C A; Cervera, C; Pérez-Villa, F; Tuset, M; Cartañà, R; Manzardo, C; Guaraldi, G; Gatell, J M; Miró, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have become a significant cause of morbidity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Heart transplantation (HT) is a well-established treatment of end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and is performed in selected HIV-infected patients in developed countries. Few data are available on the prognosis of HIV-infected patients undergoing HT in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) because current evidence is limited to small retrospective cohorts, case series, and case reports. Many HT centers consider HIV infection to be a contraindication for HT; however, in the era of cART, HT recipients with HIV infection seem to achieve satisfactory outcomes without developing HIV-related events. Consequently, selected HIV-infected patients with ESHF who are taking effective cART should be considered candidates for HT. The present review provides epidemiological data on ESHF in HIV-infected patients from all published experience on HT in HIV-infected patients since the beginning of the epidemic. The practical management of these patients is discussed, with emphasis on the challenging issues that must be addressed in the pretransplant (including HIV criteria) and posttransplant periods. Finally, proposals are made for future management and research priorities. PMID:26523614

  14. Effect of Immigration Status on Outcomes in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    McEnhill, M E; Brennan, J L; Winnicki, E; Lee, M M; Tavakol, M; Posselt, A M; Stock, P G; Portale, A A

    2016-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for children with end-stage renal disease. For children with undocumented immigration status, access to kidney transplantation is limited, and data on transplant outcomes in this population are scarce. The goal of the present retrospective single-center study was to compare outcomes after kidney transplantation in undocumented children with those of US citizen children. Undocumented residency status was identified in 48 (17%) of 289 children who received a kidney transplant between 1998 and 2010. In undocumented recipients, graft survival at 1 and 5 years posttransplantation was similar, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1 year was higher than that in recipients who were citizens. The risk of allograft failure was lower in undocumented recipients relative to that in citizens at 5 years posttransplantation, after adjustment for patient age, donor age, donor type, and HLA mismatch (p < 0.04). In contrast, nearly one in five undocumented recipients who reached 21 years of age lost their graft, primarily because they were unable to pay for immunosuppressive medications once their state-funded insurance had ended. These findings support the ongoing need for immigration policies for the undocumented that facilitate access to work-permits and employment-related insurance for this disadvantaged group.

  15. Evidence for regional catecholamine uptake and storage sites in the transplanted human heart by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Hutchins, G.D.; Kalff, V.; Rosenspire, K.; Haka, M.S.; Mallette, S.; Deeb, G.M.; Abrams, G.D.; Wieland, D. )

    1991-05-01

    Positron emission tomography in combination with the newly introduced catecholamine analogue ({sup 11}C)hydroxyephedrine (({sup 11}C)HED) enables the noninvasive delineation of sympathetic nerve terminals of the heart. To address the ongoing controversy over possible reinnervation of the human transplant, 5 healthy control subjects and 11 patients were studied after cardiac transplant by this imaging approach. Regional ({sup 11}C)HED retention was compared to regional blood flow as assessed by rubidium-82. Transplant patients were divided into two groups. Group I had recent (less than 1 yr, 4.4 +/- 2.3 mo) surgery, while group II patients underwent cardiac transplantation more than 2 yr before imaging (3.5 +/- 1.3 yr). ({sup 11}C)HED retention paralleled blood flow in normals, but was homogeneously reduced in group I. In contrast, group II patients revealed heterogeneous ({sup 11}C)HED retention, with increased uptake in the proximal anterior and septal wall. Quantitative evaluation of ({sup 11}C)HED retention revealed a 70% reduction in group I and 59% reduction in group II patients (P less than 0.001). In group II patients, ({sup 11}C)HED retention reached 60% of normal in the proximal anterior wall. These data suggest the presence of neuronal tissue in the transplanted human heart, which may reflect regional sympathetic reinnervation.

  16. Analysis of malignancies in patients after heart transplantation with subsequent immunosuppressive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Klein, Berthold; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of malignancies in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and to evaluate the risk factors including immunosuppressive therapy with regard to the development of malignancies and survival. Special emphasis was placed on the effects of a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) containing immunosuppressive regimen. Methods A total of 381 patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX were included in the present analysis. All patients were followed-up at the University of Heidelberg Heart Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Data were retrieved from the Heidelberg Registry for Heart Transplantation being collected between 1989 and 2014. According to center standard, all patients received induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin guided by T-cell monitoring since 1994. The initial immunosuppressive regimen consisting of cyclosporine A (CsA) and azathioprine (AZA) was replaced by CsA and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in 2001 and by tacrolimus (TAC) and MMF in 2006. Additionally, mTOR inhibitors (everolimus/sirolimus) were applied since 2003. Results Mean recipient age at HTX was 51.2±10.5 years and the mean follow-up period after HTX was 9.7±5.9 years. During follow-up, 130 patients developed a neoplasm (34.1% of total). Subgroup analysis revealed 58 patients with cutaneous malignancy only (15.2%), 56 patients with noncutaneous malignancy only (14.7%), and 16 patients with both cutaneous and noncutaneous malignancy (4.2%). Statistically significant risk factors associated with an increased risk of malignancy after HTX were older age (P<0.0001), male recipients (P=0.0008), dyslipidemia (P=0.0263), diabetes mellitus (P=0.0003), renal insufficiency (P=0.0247), and >1 treated rejection episode (TRE) in the first year after HTX (P=0.0091). Administration of CsA (P=0.0195), AZA (P=0.0008), or steroids (P=0.0018) for >1 year after HTX was associated with increased development of malignancy, whereas administration of MMF

  17. Blood gas dynamics at the onset of exercise in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Braith, R W; Limacher, M C; Staples, E D; Pollock, M L

    1993-06-01

    One hypothesis to explain the rapid neural component of exercise hyperpnea contends that afferent stimuli originating in the ventricles of the heart act reflexly on the respiratory center at the onset of exercise, ie, "cardiodynamic hyperpnea." Orthotopic cardiac transplantation (Tx) results in the loss of afferent information from the ventricles. Thus, Tx possibly results in transient hypercapnia and hypoxemia in deafferented heart transplant recipients (HTR) at the onset of exercise due to hypoventilation. To examine the cardiodynamic hypothesis, we collected serial arterial blood gas (ABG) samples during both the transient and the steady-state responses to moderate cycle exercise in 5 HTRs (55 +/- 7 years) 14 +/- 7 months post-Tx and 5 control subjects matched with respect to gender, age, and body composition. Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, total lung capacity, and diffusion capacity did not differ (p > or = 0.05) between groups. Resting arterial PO2, PCO2, and pH did not differ between groups (p > or = 0.05). The ABGs were drawn every 30 s during the first 5 min and at 6, 8, and 10 min of constant load square wave cycle exercise at 40 percent of the peak power output (watts). Absolute and relative changes in arterial PO2, PCO2, and pH were similar (p > or = 0.05) between HTR and the control group at all measurement periods during exercise. Heart rate (%HRmax reserve), rating of perceived exertion, and reductions in plasma volume (% delta from baseline) did not differ between HTR and control during exercise at 40 percent of peak power output (p > or = 0.05). Our results demonstrate that there is no discernible abnormality in ABG dynamics during the transient response to exercise at 40 percent of peak power output in patients with known cardiac denervation. These data do not support the cardiodynamic hyperpnea hypothesis of ventilatory control in humans. The absence of hypercapnia in HTRs is further evidence for the existence of redundant

  18. Hypothyroidism complicates bradyarrhythmic episodes in a heart-transplanted patient: Can it be treated with low-dose dopamine?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation decreases thyroid hormone levels in peripheral blood. This clinical entity may complicate the postoperative period after heart transplantation if the recipient has taken thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Cardiac transplantation was performed on a patient in whom thyroid hormone levels decreased after surgery. Sinus bradycardia was seen after surgery (30-40 bpm). Thyroid hormones were replaced in the patient. Due to the fact that temporary pacing decreased blood pressure, dopamine was safely given in very low doses. This case was discussed under the literature knowledge. PMID:26855660

  19. 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC4, Kcentra®) Protocol Reduces Blood Requirements for Heart Transplantation: A Novel Protocol.

    PubMed

    Pratt Cleary, Jacqueline; Hodge, Laura; Palmer, Brittany; Barreiro, Christopher J; Ingemi, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND All patients with a ventricular assist device (VAD) awaiting heart transplantation are anticoagulated with warfarin to prevent thromboembolism. The use of 4 factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC4, Kcentra®) for anticoagulation reversal prior to surgery may include benefits such as quicker reversal, longer duration of action, and a reduction in total volume of blood products used compared to other reversal practices. The study objective is to evaluate benefits of using an anticoagulation reversal protocol featuring PCC4, over standard of care in heart transplant patients requiring anticoagulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a single center, combined retrospective and prospective, time-matched cohort study compared 12 patients transplanted pre-protocol and 11 patients transplanted post-protocol. The primary outcome was the total volume of blood and blood products used. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital and ICU stay, safety and adverse events, primary chest closure, and a cost comparison. RESULTS The PCC4 reversal protocol showed a significant reduction in total blood volume received with an overall decrease of 1.76L (4.20L pre-protocol, 2.45L post-protocol, P=0.037), total units of blood products infused (20 units pre, 12 units post, P=0.033), and units of packed red blood cells (7 units pre, 3 units post, P=0.033). All heart transplant recipients were listed Status 1A with the primary indication being infection (n=12; 52%). Baseline characteristics, survival, and cost were not different between the two groups. There were no thrombotic events or patient that experienced serious reactions to PCC4. Secondary outcomes were only significant to time to INR reversal. CONCLUSIONS Patients treated with the PCC4 protocol demonstrated a significant decrease in volume of blood and units of blood products required prior to chest closure for heart transplant patients. PCC4 was found to be a safe and beneficial agent in anticoagulation reversal for

  20. Prevalence and profile of congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension in Down syndrome in a pediatric cardiology service

    PubMed Central

    Mourato, Felipe Alves; Villachan, Lúcia Roberta R.; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequence and profile of congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients referred to a pediatric cardiologic center, considering the age of referral, gender, type of heart disease diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and its association with pulmonary hypertension at the initial diagnosis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection of 138 patients with Down syndrome from a total of 17,873 records. Descriptive analysis of the data was performed, using Epi-Info version 7. RESULTS: Among the 138 patients with Down syndrome, females prevailed (56.1%) and 112 (81.2%) were diagnosed with congenital heart disease. The most common lesion was ostium secundum atrial septal defect, present in 51.8%, followed by atrioventricular septal defect, in 46.4%. Ventricular septal defects were present in 27.7%, while tetralogy of Fallot represented 6.3% of the cases. Other cardiac malformations corresponded to 12.5%. Pulmonary hypertension was associated with 37.5% of the heart diseases. Only 35.5% of the patients were referred before six months of age. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of referral until six months of age highlights the need for a better tracking of patients with Down syndrome in the context of congenital heart disease, due to the high frequency and progression of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25119745

  1. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes. PMID:25307141

  2. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabb