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Sample records for pedicle screw insertion

  1. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  2. Thoracic pedicle screw insertion in Asian cadaveric specimen: does radiological pedicle profile affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong; Saw, Lim Beng

    2011-01-01

    Pedicle screw instrumentation has superior biomechanical as well as clinical outcome. Thoracic pedicles show great variation in different population groups, particularly in Asians who have been shown to have smaller pedicle dimensions. Although plain radiographs are widely performed prior to spine surgery, no studies have been done so far to investigate whether the thoracic pedicle profile on plain radiographs affect thoracic pedicle screw insertion. Therefore, this is a cadaveric study aimed to determine the relationship between plain radiographic thoracic pedicle profile in Asians and the outcome of pedicle screw insertion in the thoracic spine. A pre-insertion radiograph with an enlargement reference scale was performed and surgeons were blinded to the plain radiographic morphometry of the thoracic pedicles. From the pre-insertion radiograph, the normalized pedicle width and height (which controls for any magnification error) as well as the pedicle width:body width (PWBW) and pedicle width:pedicle height (PWPH) ratio was derived. 240 pedicle screws were inserted in ten Asian cadavers from T1 to T12 using the funnel technique. 5.0 mm screws were used from T1 to T6 while 6.0 mm screws were used from T7 to T12. Perforations were detected by direct visualization via wide laminectomies after pedicle screw insertion. The outcome of thoracic pedicle screw insertion was correlated with the radiological profile using independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between the ratios and the normalised pedicle width and height. The narrowest pedicle width is from T3 to T6 determined from normalized measurement of the pedicle width. T5 pedicle width is the smallest measuring 4.1 ± 1.3 mm. The overall perforation rate is 10.4% (25 perforations). There is only one significant perforation. There were twice as many lateral and inferior perforations compared to the medial perforations. 48% of the perforations occurred at T1, T2 and T

  3. Isthmus-guided cortical bone trajectory for pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ninomiya, Kosi; Ohkawa, Toshika

    2014-08-01

    Herein is described cortical bone trajectory (CBT), a new path for pedicle screw insertion for lumbar vertebral fusion. Because the points of insertion are under the end of the inferior articular process, and because the screws are inserted toward the lateral side, there is less soft tissue development than with the conventional technique; the CBT technique therefore enables less invasive surgery than the conventional technique. However, it has some drawbacks. For example, in the original CBT approach, the points of insertion are in the vicinity of the end of the inferior articular process. Because this joint has been destroyed in many patients who have indications for intervertebral fusion surgery, it is sometimes difficult to use it as a reference point for screw insertion location. With severe lateral slippage, the screw insertion site can become significantly dislocated sideways, with possible resultant damaging to the spinal canal and/or nerve root. The CBT technique here involved inserting the screws while keeping clear of the intervertebral foramen with the assistance of side view X-ray fluoroscopy and using the end of the inferior articular process and the isthmus as points of reference for screw location.

  4. CT-based patient-specific simulation software for pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shawn; Whyne, Cari M; Rush, Raphael; Ginsberg, Howard J

    2009-10-01

    Development of a 3-dimensional, patient-specific simulator for pedicle screw insertion. To allow the user to practice the insertion of pedicle screws into a 3-dimensional model of a patient-specific spine, and have both visual and quantitative feedback provided to the user. The goal is to better prepare surgeons to perform pedicle screw insertion surgery and help reduce the risk of pedicle screw misplacement. Pedicle screw insertion is particularly challenging to carry out on patients with abnormal spine morphology. Currently, preoperative planning for pedicle screw insertion is carried out using patient computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. In addition, once screws are inserted, there are no quantitative metrics against which to measure the results. The simulator was developed in the TCL scripting language as a graphical plug-in for the commercial visualization software AmiraDev 3.11. Surgical simulation uses a 3-dimensional model of patient's spine developed from the patient's computed tomography scan. Pedicle screw insertion can be practiced using pedicle screws of various sizes and analyzed in both 2-dimension and 3-dimension. Quantitative feedback is provided to the user in the form of anatomic lengths and angles, relative purchase of inserted screws, and a screw placement grading system. The software allows the user to adjust the translucency of a patient's spine to develop a better sense of the trajectories and depths involved with performing pedicle screw insertion on a patient. The simulator offers many helpful features to the surgeon with respect to complex cases and to the surgical trainee learning the basic technique of pedicle screw insertion. A study is currently underway to evaluate the efficacy of the simulator as a teaching tool for surgical trainees in placing pedicle screws. Future work will focus on the transfer of the software to a stand-alone platform.

  5. Evaluation of pedicle screw insertion monitored by intraoperative evoked electromyography.

    PubMed

    Darden, B V; Wood, K E; Hatley, M K; Owen, J H; Kostuik, J

    1996-02-01

    The insertion of pedicle screws monitored by evoked electromyography (EMG) was prospectively evaluated in the 132 consecutive patients. The technique involved constant-voltage stimulation and was statistically evaluated at both the arbitrary 20- and 40-V settings. The patients were postoperatively evaluated clinically and radiographically. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed for new neurologic deficits. Results were divided into three groups: type 1, a negative EMG response; type 2, a positive EMG response, but no corrective action taken; and type 3, a positive EMG response and corrective action undertaken. Nonparametric statistics were used to evaluate the results at both the 20- and 40-V settings. In the type 3 group, in which corrective action was undertaken, there were no neurologic injuries or screw removals, a statistically significant result. Looking at the two intensity levels, at 20- and 40-V settings, there were no statistically significant differences in the three classifications at either intensity level. We concluded the evoked EMG for monitoring pedicle screw insertion is an efficacious adjunct. A positive response at < 20 V with the constant-voltage technique warrants corrective action.

  6. Quantitative comparison between the straight-forward and anatomical insertion technique for pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Dejan; Mohar, Janez; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2016-03-01

    Spinal deformity correction with vertebral fixation is nowadays the preferred surgical treatment, where pedicle screws are inserted through pedicles into corresponding vertebral bodies and afterwards connected with rods. In clinical practice, the straight-forward and anatomical insertion technique are currently being used for pedicle screw placement surgery. However, it is difficult to quantitatively compare both techniques and determine which technique is more adequate for each planned pedicle screw before surgery (i.e. preoperatively). In this paper, we therefore describe a framework for quantitative comparison between the straight-forward and anatomical insertion technique for pedicle screw placement surgery by evaluating the screw fastening strength. Quantitative comparisons were performed on computed tomography images of 11 patients with 74 manually planned pedicle screws, who underwent the vertebral fixation procedure. The first quantitative comparison was performed between the straight-forward and anatomical pedicle screw insertion technique, which resulted in a relatively high agreement with mean absolute difference of 0.0mm in screw diameter, 2.9mm in screw length, 1.2mm in pedicle crossing point and 6.5° in screw inclinations. The second quantitative comparison was performed between the best resulting pedicle screw insertion technique and manually obtained pedicle screw plans, which again resulted in a relatively high agreement with mean absolute difference of 0.5mm in screw diameter, 4.7mm in screw length, 2.4mm in pedicle crossing point and 6.0° in screw inclinations. Both the straight-forward and anatomical insertion technique proved approximately equal in terms of the screw fastening strength.

  7. Subaxial cervical pedicle screw insertion with newly defined entry point and trajectory: accuracy evaluation in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiujun; Chaudhari, Rahul; Wu, Chunhui; Mehbod, Amir A; Transfeldt, Ensor E

    2010-01-01

    Successful placement of cervical pedicle screws requires accurate identification of both entry point and trajectory. However, literature has not provided consistent recommendations regarding the direction of pedicle screw insertion and entry point location. The objective of this study was to define a guideline regarding the optimal entry point and trajectory in placing subaxial cervical pedicle screws and to evaluate the screw accuracy in cadaver cervical spines. The guideline for entry point and trajectory for each vertebra was established based on the recently published morphometric data. Six fresh frozen cervical spines (C3-C7) were used. There were two men and four women. After posterior exposure, the entry point was determined and the cortical bone of the entry point was removed using a 2-mm burr. Pilot holes were created with a cervical probe based on the guideline using fluoroscopy. After tapping, 3.5-mm screws with appropriate length were inserted. After screw insertion, every vertebra was dissected and inspected for pedicle breach. The pedicle width, height, pedicle transverse angulation and actual screw insertion angle were measured. A total of 60 pedicle screws were inserted. No statistical difference in pedicle width and height was found between the left and right sides for each level. The overall accuracy of pedicle screws was 83.3%. The remaining 13.3% screws had noncritical breach, and 3.3% had critical breach. The critical breach was not caused by the guideline. There was no statistical difference between the pedicle transverse angulation and the actual screw trajectory created using the guideline. There was statistical difference in pedicle width between the breach and non-breach screws. In conclusion, high success rate of subaxial cervical pedicle screw placement can be achieved using the recently proposed operative guideline and oblique views of fluoroscopy. However, careful preoperative planning and good surgical skills are still required to

  8. Pedicle violation and Navigational errors in pedicle screw insertion using the intraoperative O-arm: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jacob E.; Mok, Kelvin; Goulet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of computer-assisted insertion of pedicle screws has some advantages owing to the reportedly decreased incidence of pedicle breach and clinical events. Registration-based methods based on preoperative computed tomography imaging, 2D fluoroscopy, and 3D fluoroscopy are the most popular, however each has its limitations. O-arm–based navigation, which uses intraoperative acquisition and registration of navigated images, may overcome many of these disadvantages. We set out to study the clinical accuracy and navigational accuracy for pedicle screw insertion using our recently acquired O-arm and present our preliminary findings. Methods The first 26 patients operated consecutively for L4-5 fusion were included in the study. O-arm–based navigation was used to insert the pedicle screws. Postoperative computed tomography images were acquired and assessed for pedicle breach and anterior cortical perforation. Planned trajectories of each screw were compared with the actual trajectories in the postoperative images to assess navigational accuracy in both axial and sagittal planes. Results A total of 104 screws were inserted. One screw (1%) breached the pedicle laterally. Nonsignificant anterolateral cortical perforations were noted in 7 screws (6.7%), all of which occurred at L5 level. The mean axial and sagittal navigational error was 2.3° (±1.7) and 3.1° (±2.3), respectively. There were no significant differences in the errors between L4 or L5 level. The occurrence of anterior perforation correlated with the degree of axial (P = .02) but not sagittal (P = .12) navigational error. There were no clinical events related to the screw insertion. Conclusion Use of O-arm–guided pedicle screw insertion was associated with low incidence of pedicle breach (1%) and a low range of navigational error in both sagittal and axial planes. Anterolateral vertebral body perforation was higher at L5 without any negative clinical events. Despite the high need for technical

  9. Novel Landmark for Cervical Pedicle Screw Insertion Point from Computed Tomography-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel landmark for the cervical pedicle screw insertion point. Overview of Literature To improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, several studies have employed the lateral mass, lateral vertical notch, and/or inferior articular process as landmarks; however, we often encounter patients in whom we cannot identify accurate insertion points for pedicle screws using these landmarks because of degenerative changes in the facet joints. The superomedial edge of the lamina is less affected by degenerative changes, and we hypothesized that it could be a new landmark for identifying an accurate cervical pedicle screw insertion point. Methods A total of 327 consecutive patients, who had undergone neck computed tomographic scanning for determination of neck disease in our institute, were included in the study. At first, the line was drawn parallel to the superior border of the pedicle in the sagittal plane and parallel to the vertical body in the coronal plane. The line was moved downward in 1-mm increments to the inferior border of the pedicle. We determined whether the line passing through the superomedial edge of the lamina (termed the “N-line”) was located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle in the sagittal plane. Results The percentages of N-lines located between the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle were 100% at C3, 100% at C4, 99% at C5, 96% at C6, and 97% at C7. The lower cervical spine has the higher N-line location. Conclusions The N-line was frequently located at the level of the pedicle of each cervical spine in the sagittal plane. The superomedial edge of the lamina could be a new landmark for the insertion point of the cervical pedicle screw. PMID:28243374

  10. Medially-shifted rather than high-riding vertebral arteries preclude safe pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Iijima, Yasushi; Furuya, Takeo; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Junya; Okawa, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    We enrolled 100 patients who underwent preoperative CT angiography before cervical spine instrumentation and investigated the morphology of the C2 pedicle from the perspective of pedicle screw (PS) trajectory using volume rendering and multiplanar reconstruction. The narrowest portion of the pedicle was identified as the pedicle isthmus. Safe C2 PS insertion was regarded to be not feasible when the height of the medullary cavity of the pedicle isthmus and/or width of the medullary cavity of the pedicle isthmus was ⩽4mm. Forty-five (22.5%) pedicles were ⩽4mm in width, and safe insertion of a PS was determined to be not feasible. Among these, seven pedicles were ⩽4mm in both height and width. The remaining 38 pedicles were ⩽4mm in width with heights >4mm. There was no pedicle with a width >4mm and height <4mm. In other words, short pedicles were always concomitantly narrow. Therefore, the seven pedicles ⩽4mm in both height and width were considered to be morphologically narrow. The heights of the pedicle isthmus were not limited by the vertebral artery groove (VAG) and safe C2 PS insertion can be considered feasible where the VAG is marginally cranial, whereas the widths of the pedicle isthmus are limited by the VAG. Therefore, safe C2 PS insertion is precluded only when the VAG courses cranially and medially. It is a medially-shifted, rather than a high-riding, vertebral artery that precludes safe C2 PS insertion. Therefore to avoid vertebral artery injury an axial CT scan, parallel to the pedicle axis, should be evaluated before C2 PS insertion.

  11. Effect of various tapping diameters on insertion of thoracic pedicle screws: a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuklo, Timothy R; Lehman, Ronald A

    2003-09-15

    A biomechanical cadaver study to assess the effect of various tapping diameters on thoracic pedicle screw insertional torque. Thoracic pedicle screws are now commonly used for deformity and nondeformity cases. The optimal insertion techniques, however, have not been determined. To investigate the effect of various tapping techniques before insertion of thoracic pedicle screws in terms of maximal insertional torque (MIT) or screw pullout. Thirty-four fresh cadaveric thoracic vertebrae were harvested and evaluated with dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry (DEXA) to assess bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-three matched, fixed-head, 5.0-mm pedicle screws (group 1) were placed using the straight-forward (ST) trajectory (paralleling the endplate) at various thoracic levels after random side selection using either line-to-line tapping (5.0-mm tap) or 1-mm undertapping (4.0-mm tap) under direct and fluoroscopic visualization. After this, 11 matched 5.0-mm pedicle screws (group 2) were placed comparing undertapping by 0.5 mm (4.5-mm tap) with 1 mm undertapping (4.0-mm tap). MIT was recorded for each screw revolution with a digital torque wrench. BMD averaged 0.732 g/cm2 (0.620-0.884 g/cm2) for group 1, and 614 g/cm2 (0.533-0.697 g/cm2) for group 2. In group 1, the average MIT was 0.153 +/- 0.009 (SE) Nm for line-to-line tapping and 0.295 +/- 0.021 (SE) Nm for 1-mm undertapping, a 93% increase in MIT (P < 0.0005). In group 2, the average MIT was 0.138 +/- 0.009 (SE) Nm for 0.5 mm undertapping and 0.202 +/- 0.018 (SE) Nm for undertapping by 1 mm, a 47% increase in MIT (P = 0.03). BMD correlated with undertapping by 1 mm in group 1 (P < 0.0005), but not with undertapping by 0.5 mm (P = 0.087), although there appeared to be a trend in osteoporotic specimens. There were no noted differences in MIT between thoracic regions/levels, despite small differences in thoracic pedicle widths (P = 0.193). Undertapping the thoracic pedicle by 1-mm increases MIT by 47% (P = 0.03) when

  12. Morphometric analysis of the seventh cervical vertebra for pedicle screw insertion

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wensheng; Guo, Liangbing; Bao, Heng; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anatomy of the pedicles of the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) at the cervicothoracic junction is different from other cervical vertebrae. Fixation of C7 is required during cervical vertebra and upper thoracic injuries in clinical practice. However, the typical pedicle screw insertion methods may have problems in clinical practice based on the anatomical features of C7. This study is to explore a new pedicle screw insertion technique for C7 and to provide anatomical and radiographic basis for clinical application. Materials and Methods: C7 vertebral specimens from six human cadavers were observed for the relative position between the posterior bony landmark and the pedicle projection. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for 30 patients with cervical spondylosis (26–61 years old, mean age was 42.3 years old). The CT scan data were processed by Mimics 8.1 software for associated parameter measurement. Appropriate screw entry points (Eps) and insertion angles were selected. A total of 12 pedicle screws were inserted and then observed. The six specimens were observed after inserting the screw using this method. The junction site of the middle 1/3 and outer 1/3 segment of line G [The junction between point A (the intersection point of the superior margin of the lamina of C7 and the medial margin of the superior articular process) and point B (the intersection point of the lateral margin of the inferior articular process and the transverse process)] was taken as the Ep. The screw insertion direction parallel horizontally to the upper terminal lamina of C7 and the sagittal angle was between 35° and 45°. Results: Gross and imaging observations revealed that pedicle projection was on the line (line G) between point A (the intersection point of the superior margin of the lamina of C7 and the medial margin of the superior articular process) and point B (the intersection point of the lateral margin of the inferior articular process and the transverse process

  13. Teriparatide increases the insertional torque of pedicle screws during fusion surgery in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Gen; Ueno, Masaki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Ohtori, Seiji; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    The object of this study was to examine the efficacy of preoperative teriparatide treatment for increasing the insertional torque of pedicle screws during fusion surgery in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Fusion surgery for the thoracic and/or lumbar spine was performed in 29 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis aged 65-82 years (mean 72.2 years). The patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated with teriparatide (n = 13) or not (n = 16) before the surgery. In the teriparatide-treated group, patients received preoperative teriparatide therapy as either a daily (20 μg/day, n = 7) or a weekly (56.5 μg/week, n = 6) injection for a mean of 61.4 days and a minimum of 31 days. During surgery, the insertional torque was measured in 212 screws inserted from T-7 to L-5 and compared between the 2 groups. The correlation between the insertional torque and the duration of preoperative teriparatide treatment was also investigated. The mean insertional torque value in the teriparatide group was 1.28 ± 0.42 Nm, which was significantly higher than in the control group (1.08 ± 0.52 Nm, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the daily and the weekly teriparatide groups with respect to mean insertional torque value (1.34 ± 0.50 Nm and 1.18 ± 0.43 Nm, respectively, p = 0.07). There was negligible correlation between insertional torque and duration of preoperative teriparatide treatment (r(2) = 0.05, p < 0.01). Teriparatide injections beginning at least 1 month prior to surgery were effective in increasing the insertional torque of pedicle screws during surgery in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Preoperative teriparatide treatment might be an option for maximizing the purchase of the pedicle screws to the bone at the time of fusion surgery.

  14. Accuracy of pedicle screw insertion in posterior scoliosis surgery: a comparison between intraoperative navigation and preoperative navigation techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Wu, YongGang; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masato; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and accuracy of intraoperative navigation (O-arm or Arcadis navigation) and preoperative CT-based navigation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Sixty-seven patients with scoliosis were grouped according to the method of navigation used in their fixation surgeries. A total of 492 pedicle screws were implanted in 27 patients using intraoperative navigation, and 626 screws were implanted in 40 patients using preoperative navigation. We analyzed the postoperative CT images for pedicle violations using the Gertzbein classification. There was no statistical difference in the accuracy of pedicle screw placement between two groups. However, in the apical region (the apex ± 2 vertebrae), the accuracy of safe pedicle screw placement (grades 0, 1) was significantly higher in the intraoperative navigation group than in the preoperative navigation group (94.8 vs 89.2%, respectively; P = 0.035). Intraoperative navigation significantly diminished medial perforation compared to preoperative navigation (P = 0.027), and the number of screws per vertebra that could be placed in the apical region was significantly higher in intraoperative navigation group (P < 0.001). In addition, the time required for the registration procedure and insertion of one pedicle screw was 11.3 ± 2.1 min in the preoperative group, but significantly decreased to 5.1 ± 1.1 min in the intraoperative group (P < 0.001). Both preoperative CT-based and intraoperative navigation systems provide sufficient accuracy and safety in pedicle screw insertion for AIS surgery. Intraoperative navigation systems facilitate pedicle screw insertion in the apical region and reduce registration time during AIS surgery which improves the efficacy and accuracy of pedicle screw insertion.

  15. Epidural spinal cord compression with neurologic deficit associated with intrapedicular application of hemostatic gelatin matrix during pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Buchowski, Jacob M; Bridwell, Keith H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Good, Christopher R

    2009-06-01

    Case report. In order to demonstrate the dangers of intrapedicular application of a hemostatic gelatin matrix to decrease blood loss during pedicle screw insertion, we present 2 patients who--as a result of inadvertent extravasation of the matrix into the spinal canal--developed epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) requiring emergent decompression. Variety of hemostatic agents can control bleeding during pedicle screw insertion. We have often used a hemostatic gelatin matrix to decrease bleeding from cannulated pedicles by injecting the material into the pedicle after manually palpating the pedicle. Medical records and radiographic studies of 2 patients with AIS who underwent surgical treatment of their deformity and developed a neurologic deficit due to extravasation of FloSeal were reviewed. A 15 year-old male underwent T4 to L2 posterior spinal fusion (PSF). During pedicle screw insertion, a change in NMEPs and SSEPs was noted. A wake-up test confirmed bilateral LE paraplegia. Screws were removed and no perforations were noted on manual palpation. MRI showed T7 to T10 ESCC. He underwent a T5 to T10 laminectomy and hemostatic gelatin matrix noted in the canal and was evacuated. He was ambulatory at 2 weeks and by 3 months he had complete recovery. The second patient was a 15 year-old female who underwent T4 to L1 PSF. Following screw insertion, deterioration in NMEPs and SSEPs was noted. Screws were removed and SCM data returned to baseline. Except for 3 screws that had an inferior breach (Left T7 and Bilateral T8), screws were reinserted and remainder of the surgery was uneventful. Postoperative examination was normal initially but 2 days later, she developed left LE numbness/weakness. Implants were removed and MRI showed T4 to T9 ESCC.She underwent a left (concave) T4 to T9 hemilaminectomy. Hemostatic gelatin matrix was noted and was evacuated. Six weeks following surgery, she had a complete neurologic recovery. The use of a hemostatic gelatin matrix to

  16. In vitro study of accuracy of cervical pedicle screw insertion using an electronic conductivity device (ATPS part III).

    PubMed

    Koller, Heiko; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Acosta, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Zenner, Juliane; Resch, Herbert; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Meier, Oliver; Schmidt, Rene; Mayer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Reconstruction of the highly unstable, anteriorly decompressed cervical spine poses biomechanical challenges to current stabilization strategies, including circumferential instrumented fusion, to prevent failure. To avoid secondary posterior surgery, particularly in the elderly population, while increasing primary construct rigidity of anterior-only reconstructions, the authors introduced the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation and plating. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility, its superior biomechanical pull-out characteristics compared with vertebral body screws and the accuracy of inserting ATPS using a manual fluoroscopically assisted technique. Although accuracy was high, showing non-critical breaches in the axial and sagittal plane in 78 and 96%, further research was indicated refining technique and increasing accuracy. In light of first clinical case series, the authors analyzed the impact of using an electronic conductivity device (ECD, PediGuard) on the accuracy of ATPS insertion. As there exist only experiences in thoracolumbar surgery the versatility of the ECD was also assessed for posterior cervical pedicle screw fixation (pCPS). 30 ATPS and 30 pCPS were inserted alternately into the C3-T1 vertebra of five fresh-frozen specimen. Fluoroscopic assistance was only used for the entry point selection, pedicle tract preparation was done using the ECD. Preoperative CT scans were assessed for sclerosis at the pedicle entrance or core, and vertebrae with dense pedicles were excluded. Pre- and postoperative reconstructed CT scans were analyzed for pedicle screw positions according to a previously established grading system. Statistical analysis revealed an astonishingly high accuracy for the ATPS group with no critical screw position (0%) in axial or sagittal plane. In the pCPS group, 88.9% of screws inserted showed non-critical screw position, while 11.1% showed critical pedicle perforations. The usage of an ECD for posterior and

  17. Accuracy of robot-guided versus freehand fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle screw insertion in thoracolumbar spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Molliqaj, Granit; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Alaid, Awad; Solomiichuk, Volodymyr; Rohde, Veit; Schaller, Karl; Tessitore, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The quest to improve the safety and accuracy and decrease the invasiveness of pedicle screw placement in spine surgery has led to a markedly increased interest in robotic technology. The SpineAssist from Mazor is one of the most widely distributed robotic systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of robot-guided and conventional freehand fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw placement in thoracolumbar surgery. METHODS This study is a retrospective series of 169 patients (83 women [49%]) who underwent placement of pedicle screw instrumentation from 2007 to 2015 in 2 reference centers. Pathological entities included degenerative disorders, tumors, and traumatic cases. In the robot-assisted cohort (98 patients, 439 screws), pedicle screws were inserted with robotic assistance. In the freehand fluoroscopy-guided cohort (71 patients, 441 screws), screws were inserted using anatomical landmarks and lateral fluoroscopic guidance. Patients treated before 2009 were included in the fluoroscopy cohort, whereas those treated since mid-2009 (when the robot was acquired) were included in the robot cohort. Since then, the decision to operate using robotic assistance or conventional freehand technique has been based on surgeon preference and logistics. The accuracy of screw placement was assessed based on the Gertzbein-Robbins scale by a neuroradiologist blinded to treatment group. The radiological slice with the largest visible deviation from the pedicle was chosen for grading. A pedicle breach of 2 mm or less was deemed acceptable (Grades A and B) while deviations greater than 2 mm (Grades C, D, and E) were classified as misplacements. RESULTS In the robot-assisted cohort, a perfect trajectory (Grade A) was observed for 366 screws (83.4%). The remaining screws were Grades B (n = 44 [10%]), C (n = 15 [3.4%]), D (n = 8 [1.8%]), and E (n = 6 [1.4%]). In the fluoroscopy-guided group, a completely intrapedicular course graded as A was found in 76% (n = 335). The

  18. The accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred pedicle screw insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine: a human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaquan; Wu, Chunyang; Huang, Zhongren; Pan, Zhimin; Li, Zhiyun; Zhong, Junlong; Chen, Yiwei; Han, Zhimin; Cao, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This is a cadaver specimen study to confirm new pedicle screw (PS) entry point and trajectory for subaxial cervical PS insertion. To assess the accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred PS insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine in cadaver cervical spine. Reported morphometric landmarks used to guide the surgeon in PS insertion show significant variability. In the previous study, we proposed a new technique (as called "notch-referred" technique) primarily based on coronal multiplane reconstruction images (CMRI) and cortical integrity after PS insertion in cadavers. However, the PS position in cadaveric cervical segment was not confirmed radiologically. Therefore, the difference between the pedicle trajectory and the PS trajectory using the notch-referred technique needs to be illuminated. Twelve cadaveric cervical spines were conducted with PS insertion using the lateral vertebral notch-referred technique. The guideline for entry point and trajectory for each vertebra was established based on the morphometric data from our previous study. After 3.5-mm diameter screw insertion, each vertebra was dissected and inspected for pedicle trajectory by CT scan. The pedicle trajectory and PS trajectory were measured and compared in axial plane. The perforation rate was assessed radiologically and was graded from ideal to unacceptable: Grade 0 = screw in pedicle; Grade I = perforation of pedicle wall less than one-fourth of the screw diameter; Grade II = perforation more than one-fourth of the screw diameter but less than one-second; Grade III = perforation more than one-second outside of the screw diameter. In addition, pedicle width between the acceptable and unacceptable screws was compared. A total of 120 pedicle screws were inserted. The perforation rate of pedicle screws was 78.3% in grade 0 (excellent PS position), 10.0% in grade I (good PS position), 8.3% in grade II (fair PS position), and 3.3% in grade III (poor PS position). The

  19. A Robot-Assisted Surgical System Using a Force-Image Control Method for Pedicle Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei; Han, Xiaoguang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yajun; Hu, Ying; Han, Xiao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fan, Mingxing; Jin, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement. Methods The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration. Results All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50±0.33 and 0.65±0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9±0.82° and 1.48±1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration. Conclusion These results verified the RSSS’s accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery. PMID:24466043

  20. A robot-assisted surgical system using a force-image control method for pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Han, Xiaoguang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yajun; Hu, Ying; Han, Xiao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fan, Mingxing; Jin, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement. The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration. All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50 ± 0.33 and 0.65 ± 0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9 ± 0.82° and 1.48 ± 1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration. These results verified the RSSS's accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery.

  1. Evaluating Accuracy of Free-hand Pedicle Screw Insertion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Using Postoperative Multi-Slice Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Mohammadreza; Jamalaldini, Mohammadhossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pedicle screw instrumentation has many advantages for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) deformity including better correction and fewer late complications. On the other hand, screw insertion in AIS is challenging. Intraoperative fluoroscopy or navigation techniques are expensive, time-consuming, and exposed to high radiation. Free-hand technique relies on the surgeon's experience and locating the pedicle entry point with anatomical landmarks. There are few studies that evaluated pedicle screw position accuracy with postoperative multi-slice computed tomography scan. Materials and Methods: We prospectively considered 38 consecutive AIS cases, who underwent corrective surgery with all pedicle screw technique. All the screws were inserted with free-hand technique using anatomic landmarks as a guide for an entry site. We divided pedicle penetration in medial, lateral, inferior, superior, and anterior vertebral body as Grades 0–4, that Grade 0 is fully contained within the pedicle, Grade 1 (<2 mm), Grade 2 (2.1–4 mm), Grade 3 (4.1–6 mm), and Grade 4 (>6 mm). Results: A total of 720 screws were inserted, of which 623 screws (86.5%) were perfect and 97 screws (13.5%) were misplaced. Of those which were misplaced, 39 screws (40.2%) were medial and 58 (59.8%) were lateral, which shows that the prevalence of lateral misplacement was more in comparison to medial misplacement. However, in all misplaced cases, the deviation of the screw was <2 mm (Grade 1). There was no misplacement in the inferior and superior. Conclusion: Pedicle screw insertion in AIS with the free-hand technique is a safe and reliable method. PMID:28349022

  2. [Influence of pedicle screws with different insertion depth on neighboring uninfused segments in a goat lumbar spinal fusion model].

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun; Wang, Yi-Jin; Duanmu, Qun-Li; Wu, Jun-Song; Han, Gui-He; Wu, Yong-Fang; Wei, Wei

    2010-11-01

    To observe the influences of pedicle screws in various insertion depth on the adjacent segment disc degeneration following lumbar spinal fusion. To explore the relationship between the internal fixation rigidity and incidence of adjacent segment disease. Sixteen hybrid male Bohr goats of 10 months old, weighting between 25 and 30 kg, were randomly devided into a control group (N group), and 3 experimental groups, each group had 4 goats. The L4 vertebra of each goat in the experimental groups was fractured, L3-L5 segments were internal fixed with pedicle screws followed by intervertebral joint fusion by a posterior approach. Three experimental groups were devided according to the length of pedicle screws applied, vertebras of goats in L group were internal fixed by the screws at the length of 25 mm, for M group and S group, 20 mm and 15 mm, accordingly. The goats in the control group were treated without any operation. Biomechanical changes and MRI index of upper unfused segment (L2) were measured 24 weeks after operation, and histological changes were observed as well. The pressure and straining of L2 vertebral body and intervertebral disc of L group increased more than N group (P < 0.05), and degenerated cell counting in nucleus pulposus increased as well (P < 0.05). However, MRI index remain unchanged (P > 0.05). Rigid internal fixation increases the pressure and straining of vertebral body and intervertebral disc of upper adjacent segment, accelerating the degeneration process following lumbar spinal fusion in goats.

  3. Accuracy of Pedicle Screw Insertion among Three Image-Guided Navigation Systems: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin Peng; Fan, Yong; Wu, Qi Ning; Wang, Dai Hua; Zhang, Jing; Hao, Ding Jun

    2017-09-13

    Many retrospective studies of pedicle screw placement have revealed that intraoperative navigation systems provide higher accuracy rates and safety than do free-hand techniques. The accuracy of various image-guided navigation systems has been studied; however, differences have not been well defined due to the lack of adequate evidence-based comparative studies. A meta-analysis was conducted to focus on the variation in pedicle screw insertion among three navigation systems: a three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation system (3D FluoroNav), a two-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation system (2D FluoroNav) and a conventional computed tomography navigation system (CT Nav). We screened for comparative studies on different pedicle screw insertion navigation systems published through January 2017 using the Cochrane Library, Ovid, Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE databases. From 125 papers that were identified, 10 articles were finally chosen. The present comparative study included 8 retrospective clinical studies, 1 prospective clinical trial and 1 randomized controlled cadaveric study. The prevalence rate of pedicle violation in the 3D FluoroNav group was significantly lower than the rates of the 2D FluoroNav group (RR 95% CI: 0.16-0.61, P<0.01) and the CT Nav group (RR 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, P=0.01), and the rate of the CT Nav group was significantly lower than that of the 2D FluoroNav group (RR 95% CI: 0.29-0.81, P<0.01). There are significant differences among CT Nav, 3D FluoroNav and 2D FluoroNav. Our review suggests that 3D FluoroNav may be superior to the other two methods in reducing pedicle violation and that clinicians should consider 3D FluoroNav as a better choice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Comparison study of the pullout strength of conventional spinal pedicle screws and a novel design in full and backed-out insertions using mechanical tests.

    PubMed

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn

    2014-03-01

    Recently, new pedicle screw designs have been developed. However, these designs' performances are still unclear, especially when backed out after insertion. The objective of this study was to investigate the performances of different screw designs when backed out from full insertion. Seven conventional designs of the pedicle screw and one novel design were inserted into polyurethane foam (0.32 g/cm(3)). All screws were first fully inserted (43 mm) and were backed out 360°. Axial pullout tests were performed and the reaction force was measured. The results showed that the conical screw of type 1 with a small inner diameter provided the highest pullout strength in both full insertion and backed-out insertion (2401.85 and 2169.82 N, respectively). However, this screw's pullout strength significantly decreased (9.7%) when backed out from full insertion. There was no significant difference between the conical screw of type 1 with a small inner diameter and double duo core screw (p > 0.01) in backed-out insertion. The cylindrical screw with a small diameter, dual inner core screw and double dual core screw also provided good results in both full insertion (2115.44, 2182.99 and 2226.93 N, respectively) and backed-out conditions (2065.80, 2014.28 and 1941.29 N, respectively). The increased pullout strength of the conical design could be due to the effect of bone compaction. However, the screw exhibited less consistent pullout strength when backed out when compared with the other designs. The conical screw should be inserted to the precise position without turning back, especially in osteoporosis patients. The dual inner core screw and double dual core screw could provide greater stability in both conditions. Care should be taken when using both the cylindrical screw with a small thread depth and the dual outer core screw.

  5. Pedicle Screw Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: The Insertion Technique, the Fusion Levels and Direct Vertebral Rotation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The pedicle is a power nucleus of the vertebra and offers a secure grip of all 3 columns. Pedicle screw instrumentation has advantages of rigid fixation with improved three-dimensional (3D) correction and it is accepted as a reliable method with a high margin of safety. Accurate placement of the pedicle screws is important to reduce possible irreversible complications. Many methods of screw insertion have been reported. The author has been using the K-wire method coupled with the intraoperative single posteroanterior and lateral radiographs, which is the most safe, accurate and fast method. Identification of the curve patterns and determining the fusion levels are very important. The ideal classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis should address the all patterns, predict the extent of accurate fusion and have good inter/intraobserver reliability. My classification system matches with the ideal classification system, and it is simple and easy to learn; and my classification system has only 4 structural curve patterns and each curve has 2 types. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity; the coronal and sagittal curves can be corrected with rod rotation, and rotational deformity has to be corrected with direct vertebral rotation (DVR). Rod derotation and DVR are true methods of 3D deformity correction with shorter fusion and improved correction of both the fused and unfused curves, and this is accomplished using pedicle screw fixation. The direction of DVR is very important and it should be opposite to the direction of the rotational deformity of the vertebra. A rigid rod has to be used to prevent rod bend-out during the derotation and DVR. PMID:21629468

  6. Are computer numerical control (CNC)-manufactured patient-specific metal templates available for posterior thoracic pedicle screw insertion? Feasibility and accuracy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangxue; Tang, Lei; Ye, Qiang; Huang, Wenhua; Li, Jianyi

    2017-07-17

    Accurate and safe posterior thoracic pedicle insertion (PTPI) remains a challenge. Patient-specific drill templates (PDTs) created by rapid prototyping (RP) can assist in posterior thoracic pedicle insertion, but pose biocompatibility risks. The aims of this study were to develop alternative PDTs with computer numerical control (CNC) and assess their feasibility and accuracy in assisting PTPI. Preoperative CT images of 31 cadaveric thoracic vertebras were obtained and then the optimal pedicle screw trajectories were planned. The PDTs with optimal screw trajectories were randomly assigned to be designed and manufactured by CNC or RP in each vertebra. With the guide of the CNC- or RP-manufactured PDTs, the appropriate screws were inserted into the pedicles. Postoperative CT scans were performed to analyze any deviations at entry point and midpoint of the pedicles. The CNC group was found to be significant manufacture-time-shortening, and cost-decreasing, when compared with the RP group (P < 0.01). The PDTs fitted the vertebral laminates well while all screws were being inserted into the pedicles. There were no significant differences in absolute deviations at entry point and midpoint of the pedicle on either axial or sagittal planes (P > 0.05). The screw positions were grade 0 in 90.3% and grade 1 in 9.7% of the cases in the CNC group and grade 0 in 93.5% and grade 1 in 6.5% of the cases in the RP group (P = 0.641). CNC-manufactured PDTs are viable for assisting in PTPI with good feasibility and accuracy.

  7. Comparison of perpendicular to the coronal plane versus medial inclination for atlas pedicle screw insertion: an anatomic and radiological study in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Tang, Jian; Wang, Deguang; Zhu, Yucheng; Sui, Tao; Cao, Xiaojian

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the anatomic and radiological parameters of the atlas (C1) pedicle and to explore a preferable method of C1 pedicle screw insertion. Thirty-four conserved human cadaveric cervical spines (20 males, 14 females) underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning. Trajectories P (perpendicular to the coronal plane) and I (with medial inclination) were designed for each C1 pedicle on CT images. External pedicle wall width, medullary cavity width, transverse angle, and optimal entry point along each trajectory were measured. Cortical screws of 3.5 mm in diameter were inserted into C1 pedicles along trajectory P and I, respectively, and wall perforation was assessed (post-operative CT scanning). The external pedicle wall width and medullary cavity width along trajectory I were significantly wider than trajectory P (P < 0.01). Although external pedicle wall widths were all greater than 3.5 mm, medullary cavity width <3.5 mm was found in 16.1 % pedicles along trajectory P and only 2.9 % along trajectory I. Transverse angle was 21.8° along trajectory I and 0° along trajectory P. Optimal entry point of trajectory I was 4.1 mm lateral from that of trajectory P. The lateral wall perforation rate was significantly lower along trajectory I than trajectory P (P < 0.05). C1 pedicle screw trajectory with medial inclination and more lateral entry points yielded wider medullary cavity width than that perpendicular to the coronal plane, and might minimize lateral wall perforation.

  8. A Novel Patient-Specific Drill Guide Template for Pedicle Screw Insertion into the Subaxial Cervical Spine Utilizing Stereolithographic Modelling: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Giorgio De Guzman; Grozman, Samuel Arsenio Munoz

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and feasibility of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion into the subaxial cervical spine placed using a patient-specific drill guide template constructed from a stereolithographic model. Overview of Literature CPS fixation is an invaluable tool for posterior cervical fixation because of its biomechanical advantages. The major drawback is its narrow corridor that allows very little clearance for neural and vascular injuries. Methods Fifty subaxial pedicles of the cervical vertebrae from five cadavers were scanned into thin slices using computed tomography (CT). Digital imaging and communications in medicine images of the cadaver spine were digitally processed and printed to scale as a three-dimensional (3D) model. Drill guide templates were manually moulded over the 3D-printed models incorporating pins inserted in the pedicles. The drill guide templates were used for precise placement of the drill holes in the pedicles of cadaveric specimens for pedicle screw fixation. Results The instrumented cadaveric spines were subjected to CT to assess the accuracy of our pedicle placement by an external observer. Our patient-specific drill guide template had an accuracy of 94%. Conclusions The use of a patient-specific drill guide constructed using stereolithography improved the accuracy of CPS placement in a cadaveric model. PMID:28243363

  9. Surgeon's view of pedicle screw implantation for the monitoring neurophysiologist.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Mehbod, Amir A

    2012-12-01

    Pedicle screws have become the gold standard of spinal instrumentation over the past decade owing to their biomechanical superiority. Despite their advantages, pedicle screw instrumentation is potentially dangerous, and surgeons wish to improve accuracy of screw placement to avoid complications associated with screw misplacement. The anatomy of the pedicles is variable throughout the spine, and several landmarks and trajectories have been suggested to aid safe placement of pedicle screws in the spine. Several techniques such as x-ray and computed tomography scan imaging coupled with computer-aided navigation are available to improve accuracy of screw insertion. Intraoperative neuromonitoring with the help of triggered electromyographic recordings has evolved as an objective evidence of assessing pedicle breach and proximity of the screw to neural structures. While all imaging and electrophysiological modalities should be applied on an individualized basis, finally no adjunctive technique can fully replace the need for surgical expertise and experience.

  10. Electromagnetic Navigation in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Results of a Cadaveric Study to Evaluate Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Justin F.; Von Jako, Ron; Carrino, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background This cadaveric study compared efficacy and safety of an electromagnetic (EM) guidance system versus conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. As percutaneous pedicle screw fixation becomes increasingly common in spinal surgery, intraoperative imaging systems that maximize efficiency while minimizing radiation exposure and inaccurate trajectories will be progressively more important. Published studies have validated the safety of percutaneous screw fixation using conventional fluoroscopic guidance and frameless optical stereotaxy, though EM guidance systems have not been evaluated for percutaneous placement in the lumbosacral spine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of an EM system for minimally invasive spine fusion in the lumbosacral spine. Methods Five human cadaveric specimens underwent bilateral lumbosacral percutaneous screw fixation from L1 to S1 using conventional anteroposterior (AP) and lateral fluoroscopic techniques on one side and 2-dimesional (2D) EM guidance on each matching side. Intraoperative efficiency was evaluated, and pedicle, vertebral, and critical breach rates were assessed on postoperative computed tomography (CT). Results Overall mean fluoroscopy time per screw was 58.9 ± 44.7 seconds for conventional fluoroscopy compared to 27.4 ± 13.5 seconds for electromagnetic guidance (P = .0003). Pedicle, vertebral, and critical breach rates for the L1-S1 were 32.1%, 10.7%, and 25.0% for conventional fluoroscopy and 42.8%, 10.7%, and 14.1% for electromagnetic guidance (difference not statistically significant [ns]). In comparing critical breaches in the lumbar spine (L1-L5), there was a significant difference between 2-D EM guidance (0) and CF guidance (6) (P = .02). Conclusions Two-dimensional EM navigation provides a modality for lumbosacral percutaneous pedicle screw fixation that is more efficient and safer than conventional fluoroscopy. This data provides a foundation for further

  11. Cement leakage in pedicle screw augmentation: a prospective analysis of 98 patients and 474 augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan U; Baldauf, Joerg; Marx, Sascha; Kirsch, Michael; Schroeder, Henry W S; Pillich, Dirk T

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations. METHODS All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively. RESULTS A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%). CONCLUSIONS Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening.

  12. Occam paradox? A variation of tapia syndrome and an unreported complication of guidewire-assisted pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Emohare, Osa; Peterson, Erik; Slinkard, Nathaniel; Janus, Seth; Morgan, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Study Design Case report. Clinical Question The clinical aim is to report on a previously unknown association between guidewire-assisted pedicle screw insertion and neuropraxia of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), and how this may overlap with the signs of Tapia syndrome; we also report our approach to the clinical management of this patient. Methods A 17-year-old male patient with idiopathic scoliosis experienced Tapia syndrome after posterior instrumentation and arthrodesis at the level of T1-L1. After extubation, the patient had a hoarse voice and difficulty in swallowing. Imaging showed a breach in the cortex of the anterior body of T1 corresponding to the RLN on the right. Results Otolaryngological examination noted right vocal fold immobility, decreased sensation of the endolarynx, and pooling of secretions on flexible laryngoscopy that indicated right-sided cranial nerve X injury and left-sided tongue deviation. Aspiration during a modified barium swallow prompted insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube before the patient was sent home. On postoperative day 20, a barium swallow demonstrated reduced aspiration, and the patient reported complete resolution of symptoms. The feeding tube was removed, and the patient resumed a normal diet 1 month later. Tapia syndrome, or persistent unilateral laryngeal and hypoglossal paralysis, is an uncommon neuropraxia, which has previously not been observed in association with a breached vertebral body at T1 along the course of the RLN. Conclusion Tapia syndrome should be a differential diagnostic consideration whenever these symptoms persist postoperatively and spine surgeons should be aware of this as a potential complication of guidewires in spinal instrumentation.

  13. Occam Paradox? A Variation of Tapia Syndrome and an Unreported Complication of Guidewire-Assisted Pedicle Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Emohare, Osa; Peterson, Erik; Slinkard, Nathaniel; Janus, Seth; Morgan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Clinical Question The clinical aim is to report on a previously unknown association between guidewire-assisted pedicle screw insertion and neuropraxia of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), and how this may overlap with the signs of Tapia syndrome; we also report our approach to the clinical management of this patient. Methods A 17-year-old male patient with idiopathic scoliosis experienced Tapia syndrome after posterior instrumentation and arthrodesis at the level of T1–L1. After extubation, the patient had a hoarse voice and difficulty in swallowing. Imaging showed a breach in the cortex of the anterior body of T1 corresponding to the RLN on the right. Results Otolaryngological examination noted right vocal fold immobility, decreased sensation of the endolarynx, and pooling of secretions on flexible laryngoscopy that indicated right-sided cranial nerve X injury and left-sided tongue deviation. Aspiration during a modified barium swallow prompted insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube before the patient was sent home. On postoperative day 20, a barium swallow demonstrated reduced aspiration, and the patient reported complete resolution of symptoms. The feeding tube was removed, and the patient resumed a normal diet 1 month later. Tapia syndrome, or persistent unilateral laryngeal and hypoglossal paralysis, is an uncommon neuropraxia, which has previously not been observed in association with a breached vertebral body at T1 along the course of the RLN. Conclusion Tapia syndrome should be a differential diagnostic consideration whenever these symptoms persist postoperatively and spine surgeons should be aware of this as a potential complication of guidewires in spinal instrumentation. PMID:24436711

  14. A biomechanical study of two different pedicle screw methods for fixation in osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Kim, Jin Hwan; Horton, William C; Hutton, William C

    2012-01-01

    In reconstruction of the osteoporotic spine, patients often show poor outcome because of pedicle screw failure. This study used osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic vertebrae to determine the difference in fixation strength between pedicle screws inserted straight forward and pedicle screws inserted in an upward trajectory toward the superior end plate (i.e., end-plate screws). There is some evidence to suggest that end-plate screws have a strength advantage. The particular focus was on osteoporotic vertebrae. Thirty-three vertebrae (T10-L2) were harvested. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured: 15 vertebrae were greater than 0.8 g/cm(2) and designated as nonosteoporotic (average BMD 1.146 ± 0.186 g/cm(2)) and 18 vertebrae were designated as osteoporotic (average BMD 0.643 ± 0.088 g/cm(2)). On one pedicle the screw was inserted straight forward and on the other pedicle the screw was inserted as an end-plate screw. The torque of insertion was measured (Proto 6106 torque screwdriver). Using an MTS Mini Bionix, two types of mechanical testing were carried out on each pedicle: (a) cephalocaudad toggling was first carried out to simulate some physiological type loading: 500 cycles at 0.3 Hz, at ±50 N; and (b) then each pedicle screw was pulled out at a displacement rate of 12.5 cm/min.There was no difference in pullout force between the pedicle screws inserted straight forward and the pedicle screws inserted as end-plate screws. This result applies whether the vertebrae were osteoporotic or nonosteoporotic. For both the straight-forward screws and the end-plate screws, a statistically significant correlation was observed between torque of insertion and pullout force. The results of this experiment indicate that pedicle screws inserted as end-plate screws do not provide a strength advantage over pedicle screws inserted straight forward, whether the vertebrae are osteoporotic or not.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of pedicle screws versus spinous process screws in C2 vertebra: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guan-Yi; Mao, Lu; Xu, Rong-Ming; Ma, Wei-Hu

    2014-11-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown C2 pedicle screw to be the most robust in insertional torque and pullout strength. However, C2 pedicle screw placement is still technically challenging. Smaller C2 pedicles or medial localization of the vertebral artery may preclude safe C2 pedicle screw placement in some patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the pullout strength of spinous process screws with pedicle screws in the C2. Eight fresh human cadaveric cervical spine specimens (C2) were harvested and subsequently frozen to -20°C. After being thawed to room temperature, each specimen was debrided of remaining soft tissue and labeled. A customs jig as used to clamp each specimen for screw insertion firmly. Screws were inserted into the vertebral body pairs on each side using one of two methods. The pedicle screws were inserted in usual manner as in previous biomechanical studies. The starting point for spinous process screw insertion was located at the junction of the lamina and the spinous process and the direction of the screw was about 0° caudally in the sagittal plane and about 0° medially in the axial plane. Each vertebrae was held in a customs jig, which was attached to material testing machine (Material Testing System Inc., Changchun, China). A coupling device that fit around the head of the screw was used to pull out each screw at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The uniaxial load to failure was recorded in Newton'st dependent test (for paired samples) was used to test for significance. The mean load to failure was 387 N for the special protection scheme and 465 N for the protection scheme without significant difference (t = -0.862, P = 0.403). In all but three instances (38%), the spinous process pullout values exceeded the values for the pedicle screws. The working distances for the spinous process screws was little shorter than pedicle screws in each C2 specimen. Spinous process screws provide comparable pullout strength to pedicle screws of the C2

  16. Accuracy of Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Insertion Technique with Conventional Dual Fluoroscopy Units and a Retrospective Comparative Study Based on Surgeon Experience.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Masayuki; Yasuhara, Takao; Inoue, Takafumi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Kumamoto, Shinji; Hijikata, Yasukazu; Kusumegi, Akira; Sakamoto, Yushi; Ogawa, Koichi; Nishida, Kenki

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) placement and intraoperative imaging time using dual fluoroscopy units and their differences between surgeons with more versus less experience. Methods One hundred sixty-one patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery were divided into two groups, A (n = 74) and B (n = 87), based on the performing surgeon's experience. The accuracy of PPS placement and radiation time for PPS insertion were compared. PPSs were inserted with classic technique under the assistance of dual fluoroscopy units placed in two planes. The breach definition of PPS misplacement was based on postoperative computed tomography (grade I: no breach; grade II: <2 mm; grade III: ≤2 to <4 mm). Results Of 658 PPSs, only 21 screws were misplaced. The breach rates of groups A and B were 3.3% (grade II: 3.4%, grade III: 0%) and 3.1% (grade II: 2.6%, grade III: 0.6%; p = 0.91). One patient in grade III misplacement had a transient symptom of leg numbness. Median radiation exposure time during PPS insertion was 25 seconds and 51 seconds, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions Without using an expensive imaging support system, the classic technique of PPS insertion using dual fluoroscopy units in the lumbar and sacral spine is fairly accurate and provides good clinical outcomes, even among surgeons lacking experience.

  17. Pullout performance comparison of novel expandable pedicle screw with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells and cement-augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Aycan, Mehmet Fatih; Tolunay, Tolga; Demir, Teyfik; Yaman, Mesut Emre; Usta, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study is to assess the pullout performance of various pedicle screws in different test materials. Polyurethane foams (Grade 10 and Grade 40) produced in laboratory and bovine vertebrae were instrumented with normal, cannulated (cemented), novel expandable and normal (cemented) pedicle screws. Test samples were prepared according to the ASTM F543 standard testing protocols and surgical guidelines. To examine the screw placement and cement distribution, anteriosuperior and oblique radiographs were taken from each sample after insertion process was completed. Pullout tests were performed in an Instron 3369 testing device. Load versus displacement graphs were recorded and the ultimate pullout force was defined as the maximum load (pullout strength) sustained before failure of screw. Student's t-test was performed on each group whether the differences between pullout strength of pedicle screws were significant or not. While normal pedicle screws have the lowest pullout strength in all test materials, normal pedicle screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate exhibit significantly higher pullout performance than others. For all test materials, there is a significant improvement in pullout strength of normal screws by augmentation. While novel expandable pedicle screws with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells exhibited lower pullout performance than normal screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate, their pullout performances in all groups were higher than the ones of normal and cannulated pedicle screws. For all test materials, although cannulated pedicle screws exhibit higher pullout strength than normal pedicle screws, there are no significant differences between the two groups. The novel expandable pedicle screws with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells may be used instead of normal and cannulated pedicle screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate due to their good performances.

  18. A Novel Percutaneous Guide Wire (S-Wire) for Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Insertion: Its Development, Efficacy, and Safety.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ken; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Funao, Haruki; Ishihara, Shinichi; Shinohara, Akira; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Hikata, Tomohiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Iwanami, Akio; Hosogane, Naobumi; Watanabe, Kota; Nagura, Takeo; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio

    2015-10-01

    Minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) procedures, including MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF), rely on precise placement of percutaneous pedicle screws (PPS). Serious intraoperative complications associated with PPS placement include great vessel and bowel injuries due to the guide-wire's anterior migration and penetration through the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. To address this issue, we developed a novel percutaneous guide wire (S-wire) and compared the biomechanical characteristics of S-wire and conventional wire in cadaveric spines, and to evaluate the S-wire's efficacy and safety in a clinical trial. The S-wire is hollow, with braided wires extending at one tip. We compared the push-out and penetration forces of the S-wire and conventional wire in fresh cadaveric lumbar spines, from L1 to L5. Push-out forces caused the braided tip of the S-wire to bend or spread, and thus to resist anterior migration. The mean push-out forces for the S-wire and conventional wire were 15.5 ± 1.9 and 5.7 ± 0.8 N, respectively (P < .0001); the mean penetration forces were 69.1 ± 4.2 and 37.1± 4.8 N, respectively (P < .0005). There was no wire breakage or anterior-wall penetration in a clinical trial of 922 S-wires; interestingly, the pull-out force increased in 780 (84.6%) S-wires after placement. The mean push-out and penetration forces for the S-wire were approximately 3 and 2 times greater than those of conventional wire, respectively. The S-wire effectively prevented guide-wire anterior migration and penetration of the anterior vertebral-body wall. The S-wire device should effectively improve the safety of MISt procedures, including MIS-TLIF and percutaneous kyphoplasty in selected patient with osteoporosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Korres, Demetrios S; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Sakas, Damianos E; Pneumaticos, Spiros

    2009-01-01

    Fifty consecutive patients with posterior thoracolumbar spine fusion were included in a prospective study to determine the accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) for safe pedicle screw placement using postoperative computed tomography (CT). The patients were allocated into two equal groups. Pedicle screw placement was evaluated intraoperatively by using the image intensifier. In group A, the integrity of the pedicle wall was evaluated intraoperatively with monopolar stimulation of each screw head with a hand-held single-tip stimulator; the compound muscle action potentials were recorded. A constant current threshold of 7 mA was considered indicative of pedicle breach; < 7 mA was considered as direct contact with neural elements, and > 7mA was considered normal. In group B, pedicle screw placement was performed without IONM. Overall, 306 pedicle screws were inserted in both groups. Postoperatively, all patients underwent CT scans of the spine to evaluate pedicle screw placement. Intraoperatively, five screws in respective group A patients had to be repositioned after IONM (threshold of < 7 mA); in these patients, postoperative CT scans showed proper screw placement. Postoperative CT scans showed eight misdirected screws; two screws (1.26%) in group A patients and six screws (4%) in group B patients. Two screws were misdirected through the medial pedicle wall and six screws were misdirected through the lateral pedicle wall. Both medially misdirected screws were observed in group B patients (1.35%); these patients developed neurologic symptoms postoperatively and underwent revision surgery, with redirection of the misdirected screws and subsequent resolution of the neurologic symptoms. Two of the six laterally misdirected screws were observed in group A patients (1.26%); the remaining four laterally misdirected screws were observed in group B patients (2.7%). None of these patients had neurologic sequelae; no revision surgery was required. The

  20. Different potential risk of injury from thoracic pedicle screw insertion between left and right main-stem bronchus in Lenke 1 type adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Qian, Bang-Ping; Zhu, Ze-Zhang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Qiu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    The changed relative anatomic position of trachea with increased potential risk of injury from thoracic pedicle screw (TPS) has been reported in Lenke 1 type adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. However, such change of main-stem bronchus has not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the altered positions of both left and right main-stem bronchus in Lenke 1 type patients and to assess the potential risks of main-stem bronchus injuries from TPS screw insertion in these patients. A total of 19 Lenke 1 type AIS patients and 15 normal teenagers were included. Axial computed tomography (CT) images at T5 level were obtained in all these subjects to evaluate the main-stem bronchus-vertebral distance (MVD, the closet distance between the main-stem bronchus and vertebral body) and main-stem bronchus-vertebral angle (MVA, defined as 0° when the main-stem bronchus was located directly lateral to the left and 180° when directly lateral to the right) on both left and right sides. The percentage of main-stem bronchus located adjacent to vertebrae and in the direction of screw passage was calculated to analyze potential risks of injuries from pedicle screw placement. Both the average left and right MVD were significantly smaller in AIS patients when compared with normal teenagers at T5 level (P < 0.05). Both the mean left and right MVA were lower in AIS patients than those in normal teenagers at T5 level (P < 0.05). All the AIS patients (100 %) had the right main-stem bronchus with high risk of injury from right TPS placement and only five AIS patients (26.3 %) had left main-stem bronchus with high risk of injury from left TPS placement at T5 level. No main-stem bronchus was found to be at risk of injury from TPS placement on both two sides in normal teenagers at this level. Both the right and left main-stem bronchus were located much closer to the vertebrae in Lenke 1 type AIS patients when compared with normal teenagers. However, the

  1. Hydroxyapatite coating improves fixation of pedicle screws. A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sandén, B; Olerud, C; Petrén-Mallmin, M; Larsson, S

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the purchase of pedicle screws. A total of 23 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar fusion was randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. The first received uncoated stainless-steel screws, the second screws which were partly coated with HA, and the third screws which were fully coated. The insertion torque was recorded. After 11 to 16 months, 21 screws had been extracted. The extraction torque was recorded. Radiographs were taken to assess fusion and to detect loosening of the screws. At removal, the extraction torques exceeded the upper limit of the torque wrench (600 Ncm) for many HA-coated screws. The calculated mean extraction torque was 29 +/- 36 Ncm for the uncoated group, 447 +/- 114 Ncm for the partly-coated group and 574 +/- 52 Ncm for the fully-coated group. There were significant differences between all three groups (p < 0.001). There were more radiolucent zones surrounding the uncoated screws than the HA-coated screws (p < 0.001). HA coating of pedicle screws resulted in improved fixation with reduced risk of loosening of the screws.

  2. Safety of thoracic pedicle screw application using the funnel technique in Asians: a cadaveric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong; Saw, Lim Beng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cadaveric study is to determine the safety and outcome of thoracic pedicle screw placement in Asians using the funnel technique. Pedicle screws have superior biomechanical as well as clinical data when compared to other methods of instrumentation. However, misplacement in the thoracic spine can result in major neurological implications. There is great variability of the thoracic pedicle morphometry between the Western and the Asian population. The feasibility of thoracic pedicle screw insertion in Asians has not been fully elucidated yet. A pre-insertion radiograph was performed and surgeons were blinded to the morphometry of the thoracic pedicles. 240 pedicle screws were inserted in ten Asian cadavers from T1 to T12 using the funnel technique. 5.0 mm screws were used from T1 to T6 while 6.0 mm screws were used from T7 to T12. Perforations were detected by direct visualization via a wide laminectomy. The narrowest pedicles are found between T3 and T6. T5 pedicle width is smallest measuring 4.1 +/- 1.3 mm. There were 24 (10.0%) Grade 1 perforations and only 1 (0.4%) Grade 2 perforation. Grade 2 or worse perforation is considered significant perforation which would threaten the neural structures. There were twice as many lateral and inferior perforations compared to medial perforations. 48.0% of the perforations occurred at T1, T2 and T3 pedicles. Pedicle fracture occurred in 10.4% of pedicles. Intra-operatively, the absence of funnel was found in 24.5% of pedicles. In conclusion, thoracic pedicle screws using 5.0 mm at T1-T6 and 6.0 mm at T7-T12 can be inserted safely in Asian cadavers using the funnel technique despite having smaller thoracic pedicle morphometry.

  3. The rate of screw misplacement in segmental pedicle screw fixation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose There are no reports in the literature on the influence of learning on the pedicle screw insertion. We studied the effect of learning on the rate of screw misplacement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with segmental pedicle screw fixation. Method We retrospectively evaluated low-dose spine computed tomography of 116 consecutive patients (aged 16 (12–24) years, 94 females) who were operated during 4 periods over 2005–2009 (group 1: patients operated autumn 2005–2006; group 2: 2007; group 3: 2008; and group 4: 2009). 5 types of misplacement were recorded: medial cortical perforation, lateral cortical perforation, anterior cortical perforation of the vertebral body, endplate perforation, and perforation of the neural foramen. Reslts 2,201 pedicle screws were evaluated, with an average of 19 screws per patient. The rate of screw misplacement for the whole study was 14%. The rate of lateral and medial cortical perforation was 7% and 5%. There was an inverse correlation between the occurrence of misplacement and the patient number, i.e. the date of operation (r = –0.35; p < 0.001). The skillfulness of screw insertion improved with reduction of the rate of screw misplacement from 20% in 2005–2006 to 11% in 2009, with a breakpoint at the end of the first study period (34 patients). Interpretation We found a substantial learning curve; cumulative experience may have contributed to continued reduction of misplacement rate. PMID:21189100

  4. The accuracy and the safety of individualized 3D printing screws insertion templates for cervical screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ting; Jiang, Minghui; Lei, Qing; Cai, Lihong; Chen, Li

    2016-12-01

    Clinical trial for cervical screw insertion by using individualized 3-dimensional (3D) printing screw insertion templates device. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and accuracy of the individualized 3D printing screw insertion template in the cervical spine. Ten patients who underwent posterior cervical fusion surgery with cervical pedicle screws, laminar screws or lateral mass screws between December 2014 and December 2015 were involved in this study. The patients were examined by CT scan before operation. The individualized 3D printing templates were made with photosensitive resin by a 3D printing system to ensure the screw shafts entered the vertebral body without breaking the pedicle or lamina cortex. The templates were sterilized by a plasma sterilizer and used during the operation. The accuracy and the safety of the templates were evaluated by CT scans at the screw insertion levels after operation. The accuracy of this patient-specific template technique was demonstrated. Only one screw axis greatly deviated from the planned track and breached the cortex of the pedicle because the template was split by rough handling and then we inserted the screws under the fluoroscopy. The remaining screws were inserted in the track as preoperative design and the screw axis deviated by less than 2 mm. Vascular or neurologic complications or injuries did not happen. And no infection, broken nails, fracture of bone structure, or screw pullout occurred. This study verified the safety and the accuracy of the individualized 3D printing screw insertion templates in the cervical spine as a kind of intraoperative screw navigation. This individualized 3D printing screw insertion template was user-friendly, moderate cost, and enabled a radiation-free cervical screw insertion.

  5. Rate and mode of screw misplacements after 3D-fluoroscopy navigation-assisted insertion and 3D-imaging control of 1547 pedicle screws in spinal levels T10-S1 related to vertebrae and spinal sections.

    PubMed

    Balling, Horst; Blattert, Thomas R

    2017-05-27

    In the field of spinal surgery, 3D-fluoroscopy navigation-assisted pedicle screw (PS) insertion with intra-operative 3D-image control represents a modern application of contemporary navigation technology. In literature, sectional or vertebral accuracy limitations of this image-guidance approach are not profoundly specified. This observational study explicitly differentiates accuracy rates and misplacement mode between spinal sections and single vertebrae from T10 to S1 using a navigation-assisted approach. From February 2011 through July 2015, all 3D-fluoroscopy navigation-assisted, 3D-image controlled PS insertions from T10 to S1 were prospectively recorded and evaluated for PS insertion depth, angulation, and entering-point modifications after intraoperative O-arm control scanning. Major complications requiring revision surgery for neurological damage/major bleedings, and procedure-related unintended violations of anatomical structures were recorded. In 1547 navigation-assisted PS insertions, thoracolumbar accuracy (96.4%) was significantly higher than sacral accuracy (92.6%, p ≈ 0.007) due to special requirements to exact PS (insertion depth) in S1 (p < 0.001). Vertebrae with modification rates above average were identified (T10, L5-S1) (p < 0.001). Major complications did not occur, anatomical structures were violated in 1.2% (19/1547 PS insertions). In navigation-assisted O-arm-controlled PS placements, correct PS insertion depths are less easily to achieve than correct trajectory or entering-points, which is important for bicortical PS anchorage in S1. Therefore, post-instrumentation PS control by 3D-imaging or at least intraoperative fluoroscopy is recommended for levels with special requirements to exact PS insertion depths (e.g. S1).

  6. Biomechanical study of expandable pedicle screw fixation in severe osteoporotic bone comparing with conventional and cement-augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Long; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Chou, Chi-Wei; Chen, Jou-Wen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lai, Yu-Shu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Shih-Tien

    2014-11-01

    Pedicle screws are widely utilized to treat the unstable thoracolumbar spine. The superior biomechanical strength of pedicle screws could increase fusion rates and provide accurate corrections of complex deformities. However, osteoporosis and revision cases of pedicle screw substantially reduce screw holding strength and cause loosening. Pedicle screw fixation becomes a challenge for spine surgeons in those scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine if an expandable pedicle screw design could be used to improve biomechanical fixation in osteoporotic bone. Axial mechanical pull-out test was performed on the expandable, conventional and augmented pedicle screws placed in a commercial synthetic bone block which mimicked a human bone with severe osteoporosis. Results revealed that the pull-out strength and failure energy of expandable pedicle screws were similar with conventional pedicle screws augmented with bone cement by 2 ml. The pull-out strength was 5-fold greater than conventional pedicle screws and the failure energy was about 2-fold greater. Besides, the pull-out strength of expandable screw was reinforced by the expandable mechanism without cement augmentation, indicated that the risks of cement leakage from vertebral body would potentially be avoided. Comparing with the biomechanical performances of conventional screw with or without cement augmentation, the expandable screws are recommended to be applied for the osteoporotic vertebrae. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cervical pedicle screw fixation in traumatic cervical subluxation after laminectomy using the pedicle axis view technique under fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Kanbara, Shunsuke; Morita, Daigo; Kato, Fumihiko

    2012-10-10

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation has recently been performed in patients in need of cervical reconstruction. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who was operated for traumatic cervical vertebra subluxation using CPS fixation, in whom laminectomy had been performed in the past. We performed CPS fixation using the pedicle axis view technique under fluoroscopy. The four pedicle screws were accurately inserted within the pedicles without perforating the bone cortex of the pedicles. A navigation system is useful for cervical spine surgery because it enables a surgeon to perform relatively safe and accurate surgery during transpedicular screw fixation. However, attachment of the stereotactic reference arc to the spinous process is impossible, and the application of a navigation system is limited in cases in which laminectomy has been performed in the past. We have been using the pedicle axis view technique under fluoroscopy and have found that if we take care of the entry point accurately, we can safely insert the pedicle screw in cases with fewer landmarks.

  8. Innovative approach in the development of computer assisted algorithm for spine pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Solitro, Giovanni F; Amirouche, Farid

    2016-04-01

    Pedicle screws are typically used for fusion, percutaneous fixation, and means of gripping a spinal segment. The screws act as a rigid and stable anchor points to bridge and connect with a rod as part of a construct. The foundation of the fusion is directly related to the placement of these screws. Malposition of pedicle screws causes intraoperative complications such as pedicle fractures and dural lesions and is a contributing factor to fusion failure. Computer assisted spine surgery (CASS) and patient-specific drill templates were developed to reduce this failure rate, but the trajectory of the screws remains a decision driven by anatomical landmarks often not easily defined. Current data shows the need of a robust and reliable technique that prevents screw misplacement. Furthermore, there is a need to enhance screw insertion guides to overcome the distortion of anatomical landmarks, which is viewed as a limiting factor by current techniques. The objective of this study is to develop a method and mathematical lemmas that are fundamental to the development of computer algorithms for pedicle screw placement. Using the proposed methodology, we show how we can generate automated optimal safe screw insertion trajectories based on the identification of a set of intrinsic parameters. The results, obtained from the validation of the proposed method on two full thoracic segments, are similar to previous morphological studies. The simplicity of the method, being pedicle arch based, is applicable to vertebrae where landmarks are either not well defined, altered or distorted.

  9. Cortical bone trajectory screws placement via pedicle or pedicle rib unit in the pediatric thoracic spine (T9-T12)

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Jun; Chen, Jian; He, Hui; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Di; Wu, Yao-Sen; Tian, Nai-Feng; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw fixation can maximize the thread contact with cortical bone, and it is 53.8% higher than that of the traditional pedicle screws. Moreover, it can also enable less tissue dissection and retraction for reduced muscle disruption. Eighty pediatric patients are divided into 4 age groups and their thoracic vertebrae are analyzed on computed tomography (CT) images. The maximal screw length, maximal screw diameter, screw diameter, and the cephalad angle are measured. The statistical analysis is performed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis. Maximal screw length increases from T9 to T12 and there are significant differences between girls and boys at T9, T10, T11, and T12 in majority of groups (P < 0.05). The maximal screw diameter and screw diameter increase from T9 to T12. The maximal screw diameter ranges from 6.27 mm to 10.20 mm, whereas the screw diameter ranges from 3.87 mm to 6.75 mm. Meanwhile, the maximum cephalad angle is 23.06° and the minimum is 13.11°. No statistically significant differences in the cephalad angle are found at all levels. Our study establishes the feasibility of 4.5 to 5.5 mm CBT screws fixation via pedicle or pedicle rib unit in the pediatric thoracic spine. The entry point of the pediatric thoracic CBT screws is 6 o’clock orientation of the pedicle. Findings of our study also provide insights into the screw insertion angle and screw size decision. PMID:28151859

  10. Strategy for salvage pedicle screw placement: A technical note.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Salvage surgery for failed lumbar spine fusion with a loosened pedicle screw is challenging. In general, the strategy includes replacement with larger and longer pedicle screws, augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate cement or hydroxyapatite granules, and extension of fused segments. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new technique for pedicle screw replacement after failed lumbar spine fusion. Five salvage operations were performed using a different trajectory (DT) pedicle screw replacement technique based on 3-dimensional radiological information. Position of the alternative pedicle screws was planned carefully on the computer screen of a computed tomography-based navigation system before the operation. To obtain sufficient initial stability, 1 of 2 techniques was chosen, depending on the patient. One technique created a completely new route, which did not interfere with the existing screw hole, and the other involved penetration of the existing screw hole. DT pedicle screws were replaced successfully according to the preoperative plan. In all patients, bony union were achieved at the final follow-up period without any instrument failure. Extension of the fused segments could be avoided by using the DT pedicle screw replacement technique combined with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. The DT pedicle screw replacement technique is a treatment option for salvage lumbar spine surgery. The current technique is a treatment option for salvage operations that can both avoid extension of a fused segment and achieve successful bony union.

  11. Minimally invasive guidewireless, navigated pedicle screw placement: a technical report and case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brandon W; Joseph, Jacob R; Kirsch, Michael; Strasser, Mary Oakley; Smith, Jacob; Park, Paul

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Percutaneous pedicle screw insertion (PPSI) is a mainstay of minimally invasive spinal surgery. Traditionally, PPSI is a fluoroscopy-guided, multistep process involving traversing the pedicle with a Jamshidi needle, placement of a Kirschner wire (K-wire), placement of a soft-tissue dilator, pedicle tract tapping, and screw insertion over the K-wire. This study evaluates the accuracy and safety of PPSI with a simplified 2-step process using a navigated awl-tap followed by navigated screw insertion without use of a K-wire or fluoroscopy. METHODS Patients undergoing PPSI utilizing the K-wire-less technique were identified. Data were extracted from the electronic medical record. Complications associated with screw placement were recorded. Postoperative radiographs as well as CT were evaluated for accuracy of pedicle screw placement. RESULTS Thirty-six patients (18 male and 18 female) were included. The patients' mean age was 60.4 years (range 23.8-78.4 years), and their mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m(2) (range 20.8-40.1 kg/m(2)). A total of 238 pedicle screws were placed. A mean of 6.6 pedicle screws (range 4-14) were placed over a mean of 2.61 levels (range 1-7). No pedicle breaches were identified on review of postoperative radiographs. In a subgroup analysis of the 25 cases (69%) in which CT scans were performed, 173 screws were assessed; 170 (98.3%) were found to be completely within the pedicle, and 3 (1.7%) demonstrated medial breaches of less than 2 mm (Grade B). There were no complications related to PPSI in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS This streamlined 2-step K-wire-less, navigated PPSI appears safe and accurate and avoids the need for radiation exposure to surgeon and staff.

  12. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  13. Short-Term Results of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Pedicle Screw with Cortical Bone Trajectory Compared with Conventional Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Kudo, Daisuke; Shimada, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Purpose To evaluate clinical and radiological results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) performed with cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screw insertion with those of TLIF using 'conventional' or percutaneous pedicle screw insertion. Overview of Literature CBT is a new trajectory for pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine; clinical and radiological results of TLIF using pedicle screws inserted with CBT are unclear. Methods In total, 26 patients (11 males, 15 females) were enrolled in this retrospective study and divided into three groups: TLIF with pedicle screw insertion by conventional minimally invasive methods via the Wiltse approach (M-TLIF, n=10), TLIF with percutaneous pedicle screw insertion (P-TLIF, n=6), and TLIF with pedicle screw insertion with CBT (CBT-TLIF, n=10). Surgical results and preand postoperative radiological findings were evaluated and compared. Results Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less with CBT-TLIF (p=0.03) than with M-TLIF. Postoperative lordotic angles did not differ significantly among the three groups. Complete fusions were obtained in 10 of 12 levels (83%) with M-TLIF, in seven levels (100%) with P-TLIF, and in 10 of 11 levels (91%) with CBT-TLIF. On postoperative computed tomography, correct positioning was seen in 84.1% of M-TLIF screws, 88.5% of P-TLIF screws, and 90% of CBT-TLIF screws. Conclusions CBT-TLIF resulted in less blood loss and a shorter operative duration than M-TLIF or P-TLIF. Postoperative rates of bone union, maintenance of lordotic angles, and accuracy of pedicle screw positions were similar among the three groups. PMID:26097661

  14. A new technique of bone cement augmentation via the disc space for percutaneous pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Kyu; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Dong Chan; Lee, Dong Geun

    2016-01-01

    In elderly patients with severe osteoporosis, instrumented lumbar interbody fusion may result in fixation failure or nonunion because of decreased pedicle screw pullout strength or increased interbody graft subsidence risk. Thus, given its many advantages, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation with cement augmentation can be an effective method to use in elderly patients. The authors report on an easy, safe, and economical technique for bone cement augmentation using a bone biopsy needle inserted into the disc space in 2 osteoporotic patients who were treated with posterior interbody fusion and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. Two elderly patients who complained of back pain and intermittent neurological claudication underwent posterior interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. After routinely assembling rods on the screws, a bone biopsy needle was inserted into the disc space via the operative field; the needle was then placed around the tips of the screws using fluoroscopic radiography for guidance. Bone cement was injected through the bone biopsy needle, also under fluoroscopic radiography guidance. Both patients' symptoms improved after the operation, and there was no evidence of cage subsidence or screw loosening at the 4-month follow-up. The indirect technique of bone cement augmentation via the disc space for percutaneous screw fixation could be an easy, safe, and economical method.

  15. Biomechanical comparison of anatomic trajectory pedicle screw versus injectable calcium sulfate graft-augmented pedicle screw for salvage in cadaveric thoracic bone.

    PubMed

    Derincek, Alihan; Wu, Chunhui; Mehbod, Amir; Transfeldt, Ensor E

    2006-06-01

    Many salvage options for failed thoracic pedicle screws exist including the use of a different trajectory or the augmentation of the screw with polymethylmethacrylate cement. Although polymethylmethacrylate immediately increases the construct stiffness and the pull-out strength, it may cause bone necrosis, toxin relaxation, and/or neural injury. On the other hand, calcium sulfate bone grafts have a high potential for biologic incorporation and no thermal damage effect. In the current study, polyaxial pedicle screws were first inserted with a straightforward approach on both sides in 17 fresh human cadaveric thoracic vertebrae. The maximal insertion torque for each screw was measured and then the pull-out strengths were recorded. Afterward, these pedicle screws were randomly assigned to be replaced either by graft augmentation or by anatomic trajectory technique for salvage. The graft-augmented screws were placed using the previous holes. The maximum insertional torque for each anatomic trajectory screw was measured. Finally, the pull-out strengths of the revision screws were recorded. The mean maximum insertional torque decreased with the anatomic trajectory salvage technique when compared with the straightforward approach, 0.23 versus 0.38 Nm, respectively (P=0.003). The anatomic trajectory revision resulted in decreased pull-out strength when compared with the pull-out strength of the straightforward technique, 297 versus 469 N, respectively (P=0.003). The calcium sulfate graft augmentation increased the pull-out strength when compared with the pull-out strength of the straightforward technique, 680 versus 477 N, respectively (P=0.017). The mean pull-out strength ratio of revised screw to original was 0.71 for anatomic trajectory and 1.8 for graft-augmented screws, a statistically significant difference (P=0.002).

  16. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Jun; Han, Jianda; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-01-01

    There is much more radiation exposure to the surgeons during minimally invasive pedicle screws placement. In order to ease the surgeon's hand-eye coordination and to reduce the iatrogenic radiation injury to the surgeons, a robot assisted percutaneous pedicle screw placement is useful. This study assesses the feasibility and clinical value of robot assisted navigated drilling for pedicle screw placement and the results thus achieved formed the basis for the development of a new robot for pedicle screw fixation surgery. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) of eight bovine lumbar spines (L1-L5) in axial plane were captured for each vertebra, the entry points and trajectories of the screws were preoperatively planned. On the basis of preoperative CT scans and intraoperative fluoroscopy, we aligned the robot drill to the desired entry point and trajectory, as dictated by the surgeon's preoperative plan. Eight bovine lumbar spines were inserted 80 K-wires using the spine robot system. The time for system registration and pedicle drilling, fluoroscopy times were measured and recorded. Postoperative CT scans were used to assess the position of the K-wires. Assisted by spine robot system, the average time for system registration was (343.4 ± 18.4) s, the average time for procedure of drilling one pedicle screw trajectory was (89.5 ± 6.1) s, times of fluoroscopy for drilling one pedicle screw were (2.9 ± 0.8) times. Overall, 12 (15.0%) of the 80 K-wires violated the pedicle wall. Four screws (5.0%) were medial to the pedicle and 8 (10.5%) were lateral. The number of K-wires wholly within the pedicle were 68 (85%). The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further research in this field is worthwhile especially the accuracy

  17. Robot assisted navigated drilling for percutaneous pedicle screw placement: A preliminary animal study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Jun; Han, Jianda; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is much more radiation exposure to the surgeons during minimally invasive pedicle screws placement. In order to ease the surgeon's hand-eye coordination and to reduce the iatrogenic radiation injury to the surgeons, a robot assisted percutaneous pedicle screw placement is useful. This study assesses the feasibility and clinical value of robot assisted navigated drilling for pedicle screw placement and the results thus achieved formed the basis for the development of a new robot for pedicle screw fixation surgery. Materials and Methods: Preoperative computed tomography (CT) of eight bovine lumbar spines (L1–L5) in axial plane were captured for each vertebra, the entry points and trajectories of the screws were preoperatively planned. On the basis of preoperative CT scans and intraoperative fluoroscopy, we aligned the robot drill to the desired entry point and trajectory, as dictated by the surgeon's preoperative plan. Eight bovine lumbar spines were inserted 80 K-wires using the spine robot system. The time for system registration and pedicle drilling, fluoroscopy times were measured and recorded. Postoperative CT scans were used to assess the position of the K-wires. Results: Assisted by spine robot system, the average time for system registration was (343.4 ± 18.4) s, the average time for procedure of drilling one pedicle screw trajectory was (89.5 ± 6.1) s, times of fluoroscopy for drilling one pedicle screw were (2.9 ± 0.8) times. Overall, 12 (15.0%) of the 80 K-wires violated the pedicle wall. Four screws (5.0%) were medial to the pedicle and 8 (10.5%) were lateral. The number of K-wires wholly within the pedicle were 68 (85%). Conclusions: The preliminary study supports the view that computer assisted pedicle screw fixation using spinal robot is feasible and the robot can decrease the intraoperative fluoroscopy time during the minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation surgery. As spine robotic surgery is still in its infancy, further

  18. Posterior spinal fusion using pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Athanasakopoulos, Michael; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Triantafyllopoulos, George; Koufos, Spiros; Pneumaticos, Spiros G

    2013-07-01

    Few clinical studies have reported polyetheretherketone (PEEK) rod pedicle screw spinal instrumentation systems (CD-Horizon Legacy PEEK rods; Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota). This article describes a clinical series of 52 patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion using the PEEK Rod System between 2007 and 2010. Of the 52 patients, 25 had degenerative disk disease, 10 had lateral recess stenosis, 6 had degenerative spondylolisthesis, 6 had lumbar spine vertebral fracture, 4 had combined lateral recess stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, and 1 had an L5 giant cell tumor. Ten patients had 1-segment fusion, 29 had 2-segment fusion, and 13 had 3-segment fusion. Mean follow-up was 3 years (range, 1.5-4 years); no patient was lost to follow-up. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Oswestry Disability Index and a low back and leg visual analog pain scale. Imaging evaluation of fusion was performed with standard and dynamic radiographs. Complications were recorded. Mean Oswestry Disability Index scores improved from 76% preoperatively (range, 52%-90%) to 48% at 6 weeks postoperatively, and to 34%, 28%, and 30% at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, respectively. Mean low back and leg pain improved from 8 and 9 points preoperatively, respectively, to 6 and 5 points immediately postoperatively, respectively, and to 2 points each thereafter. Imaging union of the arthrodesis was observed in 50 (96%) patients by 1-year follow-up. Two patients sustained screw breakage: 1 had painful loss of sagittal alignment of the lumbar spine and underwent revision spinal surgery with pedicle screws and titanium rods and the other had superficial wound infection and was treated with wound dressing changes and antibiotics for 6 weeks. No adjacent segment degeneration was observed in any patient until the time of this writing. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Effect of the pilot hole preparation on the anchorage of pedicle screws

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Gustavo Silva; Rosa, Rodrigo César; Okubo, Rodrigo; Shimano, Antônio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the influence of the diameter and the preparation of the pilot hole on the resistance to the pulling out and the strength when inserting pedicle screws with conical internal diameter. Methods Mechanical experiments were performed with pedicle conical screws of 4.2 mm and 5.2 mm diameter. They were inserted in the vertebral pedicles of swine. The hole was manufactured with a drill and probes with different diameters. Results While testing the 4.2 mm screw, the perforation of holes with measure equal or inferior to the lesser internal diameter of the screw increased the torque and the resistance to pull-out strength. Perforations with different instruments have presented similar results. Perforations with probes allowed the holes manufactured with dimensions superior to the lesser internal diameter of the screw to show similar resistance to that of the perforations with dimensions equal to the lesser internal diameter of the implant, made with probes and drills. Conclusion For 4.2 mm screws, the diameter and the preparation of the hole influence the torque and the resistance. For 5.2 mm screws, there is only influence on the insertion torque. There is no correlation between pulling out strength and insertion torque. Level of Evidence II, Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the Results of Treatment. PMID:24453617

  20. Cervical pedicle screw placement using the "key slot technique": the feasibility and learning curve.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Ki-Tack; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jung Hee; Park, Kyung-Jun

    2012-12-01

    A retrospective study. To present the accuracy and safety of a novel "key slot (KS)" technique for cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement with the learning curve. Safety and learning curve are the issues preventing wide acceptance of CPS. On the basis of the local anatomy of the pedicle, the authors modified the conventional technique to increase the accuracy and comfortableness of CPS placement with minimal bone loss. A total of 277 subaxial CPS in 50 patients had been inserted using author's technique were reviewed. The KS-shaped entry was created on the medial half of the lateral mass with a 3 mm cutting burr. The shape of entry was a right-angled triangle on the axial plane. The apex of triangle was the virtual pedicle inlet and the oblique side was same as pedicle axis. After making entry, the pedicle was probed with a curved awl along the medial wall. On the postoperative vascular-enhanced computed tomography scan, we analyzed the direction and grade of pedicle perforation (grade 0: no perforation, 1:< 25%, 2: 20% to 50%, 3: > 50% of screw diameter) on the chronological group of consecutive 10 cases. Grade 2 and 3 were considered as incorrect position. The correct position was found in 250 screws (90.3%); grade 0 - 215 screws, 1 - 35 screws and the incorrect position in 27 screws (9.7%); grade 2 - 21 screws, grade 3 - 6 screws. The incidence of incorrect screw position was 18% in the initial 20 cases and 2.7% after that. There was no neurovascular complication related with CPS. We performed CPS placement using the KS technique and with 90% correct position without clinical complications. After the learning curve, the incidence was 2.7%. This technique could be considered relatively concrete and safe modification of conventional technique with minimal bone loss.

  1. Pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine: a comparison study of computer-assisted navigation and conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Han, Wu; Gao, Zhong-li; Wang, Jin-cheng; Li, Ying-pu; Peng, Xia; Rui, Jiang; Jun, Wei

    2010-08-11

    The technique of computer-assisted pedicle screw installation and its clinical benefit as compared with conventional pedicle screw installation was evaluated. Twenty-two patients had thoracic screw insertion under 3-dimentional computer-assisted navigation (92 screws) and 20 patients under conventional fluoroscopic control (84 screws). The 2 groups were compared for accuracy of screw placement, screw insertion time by postoperative thin-cut computed tomography scans, and statistical analysis. The cortical perforations were graded by 2-mm increments. In the computer group, 88 (95.65%) were grade I (good), 4 (4.35%) were grade II (<2 mm), and 0 were grade III (>2 mm) violations. There were 4 cortical violations (3.57%). In the conventional group, there were 14 cortical violations (16.67%), 70 (83.33%) were grade I (good), 11 (13.1%) were grade II (<2 mm), and 3 (3.57%) were grade III (>2 mm) violations (P<.001). The number (19.57%) of upper thoracic pedicle screws (T1-T4) inserted under 3-dimensional computer-assisted navigation was significantly higher than that (3.57%) by conventional fluoroscopic control (P<.001). Average screw insertion time in the conventional group was more than in the computer group (P<.001). Three-dimensional computer-assisted navigation pedicle screw placement can increase accuracy, reduce surgical time, and be performed safely and effectively at all levels of the thoracic spine, particularly the upper thoracic spine.

  2. [Design and experimental study of individual drill templates for atlantoaxial pedicle screw fixation].

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Quan, Zhengxue; Liu, Yang; Ou, Yunsheng

    2010-10-01

    To explore and evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of individual rapid prototype (RP) drill templates for atlantoaxial pedicle screw implantation. Volumetric CT scanning was performed in 8 adult cadaveric atlas and axis to collect Dicom format datas. Then three-dimensional (3D) images of atlas and axis were reconstructed and the parameters of pedicles of 3D model were measured by using software Mimics 10.01. The 3D model was saved by STL format in Mimics. The scattered point cloud data of 3D model were processed and the 3D coordinate system was located in software Imageware 12.1. The curves and surfaces of 3D model were processed in software Geomagic Studio 10. The optimal trajectory of pedicle screw was designed and a template was constructed which accorded with the anatomical morphology of posterior arch of atlas and lamina of axis by using software Pro/Engineer 4.0. The optimal trajectory of pedicle screw and the template were integrated into a drill template finally. The drill template and physical models of atlas and axis were manufactured by RP (3D print technology). The accuracy of pilot holes of drill templates was assessed by visually inspecting and CT scanning. The individual drill template was used conveniently and each template could closely fit the anatomical morphology of posterior arch of atlas and lamina of axis. Template loosening and shifting were not found in the process of screw implantation. Thirty-two pedicle screws were inserted. Imaging and visual inspection revealed that the majority of trajectories did not penetrate the pedicle cortex, only 1 cortical penetration was judged as noncritical and did not injury the adjacent spinal cord, nerve roots, and vertebral arteries. The accuracy of atlas pedicle screw was grade 0 in 15 screws and grade I in 1 screw, and the accuracy of axis pedicle screw was grade 0 in 16 screws. The potential of individual drill templates to aid implantation of atlantoaxial pedicle screw is promising because of its

  3. Accuracy and safety of pedicle screw placement in neuromuscular scoliosis with free-hand technique.

    PubMed

    Modi, Hitesh N; Suh, Seung Woo; Fernandez, Harry; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2008-12-01

    It is a retrospective analytic study of 1,009 transpedicular screws (689 thoracic and 320 lumbosacral), inserted with free-hand technique in neuromuscular scoliosis using postoperative CT scan. The aim of paper was to determine the accuracy and safety of transpedicular screw placement with free-hand technique in neuromuscular scoliosis and to compare the accuracy at different levels in such population. All studies regarding accuracy and safety of pedicle screw in scoliosis represent idiopathic scoliosis using various techniques such as free-hand, navigation, image intensifier, etc., for screw insertion. Anatomies of vertebrae and pedicle are distorted in scoliosis, hence accurate and safe placement of pedicle screw is prerequisite for surgery. Between 2004 and 2006, 37 consecutive patients, average age 20 years (9-44 years), of neuromuscular scoliosis were operated with posterior pedicle screw fixation using free-hand technique. Accuracy of pedicle screws was studied on postoperative CT scan. Placement up to 2 mm medial side and 4 mm lateral side was considered within-safe zone. Of the 1,009 screws, 273 screws were displaced medially, laterally or on the anterior side showing that 73% screws (68% in thoracic and 82.5% in lumbar spine) were accurately placed within pedicle. Considering the safe zone, 93.3% (942/1009, 92.4% in thoracic and 95.3% in lumbar spine) of the screws were within the safe zone. Comparing accuracy according to severity of curve, accuracy was 75% in group 1 (curve <90 degrees ) and 69% in group 2 (curve >90 degrees) with a safety of 94.8 and 91.2%, respectively (P = 0.35). Comparing the accuracy at different thoracic levels, it showed 67, 64 and 72% accuracy in upper, middle and lower thoracic levels with safety of 96.6, 89.2 and 93.1%, respectively, exhibiting no statistical significant difference (P = 0.17). Pedicle screw placement in neuromuscular scoliosis with free-hand technique is accurate and safe as other conditions.

  4. Plan to procedure: combining 3D templating with rapid prototyping to enhance pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Stans, Anthony A.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Matsumoto, Jane M.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2010-02-01

    Spinal fusion procedures involving the implantation of pedicle screws have steadily increased over the past decade because of demonstrated improvement in biomechanical stability of the spine. However, current methods of spinal fusion carries a risk of serious vascular, visceral, and neurological injury caused by inaccurate placement or inappropriately sized instrumentation, which may lead to patient paralysis or even fatality. 3D spine templating software developed by the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic allows the surgeon to virtually place pedicle screws using pre-operative 3D CT image data. With the template plan incorporated, a patient-specific 3D anatomic model is produced using a commercial rapid prototyping system. The pre-surgical plan and the patient-specific model then are used in the procedure room to provide real-time visualization and quantitative guidance for accurate placement of each pedicle screw, significantly reducing risk of injury. A pilot study was conducted at Mayo Clinic by the Department of Radiology, the Department of Orthopedics, and the BIR, involving seven complicated pediatric spine cases. In each case, pre-operative 3D templating was carried out and patient specific models were generated. The plans and the models were used intra-operatively, providing precise pedicle screw starting points and trajectories. Postoperative assessment by the surgeon confirmed all seven operations were successful. Results from the study suggest that patient-specific, 3D anatomic models successfully acquired from 3D templating tools are valuable for planning and conducting pedicle screw insertion procedures.

  5. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF A DRILL GUIDE TEMPLATE FOR PEDICLE SCREW PLACEMENT IN SEVERE SCOLIOSIS.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yaoshen; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Changsong; Liu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and the effect of drill guide template for pedicle screw placement in severe scoliosis. Eight patients with rigid scoliosis were enrolled, five males and three females, ranging from nine to 23 years old. A three-dimensional CT scan of the spine was performed and saved as a DICOM file type. The multi-level template was designed by Mimics software and manufactured according to the part of the most severe deformity. The drill template was placed on the corresponding vertebral surface. Pedicle screws were carefully inserted across the trajectory of the template. Postoperatively, the positions of the pedicle screws were evaluated by CT scan and graded for validation. No spinal cord injury or nerve damage occurred. All patients had satisfactory outcomes. The abnormalities and the measures observed during operation were the same as those found in the preoperative period. The position of the pedicle screws was accurate, according to the postoperative X-ray and CT scan. The rate of scoliosis correction was 60%. Compared with controls, surgery time, blood loss and radiation were significantly lower. With the application of multi-level template, the placement of pedicle screws shows high accuracy in scoliosis with shorter surgical time, less blood loss and less radiation exposure. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.

  6. Evaluation of pedicle screw placement by pedicle channel grade in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: should we challenge narrow pedicles?

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Tsutomu; Kotani, Toshiaki; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Minami, Shohei; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Ishige, Miho

    2015-09-01

    Surgeons often have concerns about whether to place screws in narrow pedicles for correction of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to use pedicle channel grades based on preoperative CT to evaluate pedicle screw placement in posterior surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The subjects comprised 55 patients who underwent posterior correction and fusion, and a total of 810 pedicles were examined in which screw placement had been planned and probing had been performed. Pedicle channel grades were determined by measuring inner pedicle diameter on preoperative CT scans. The grades were defined as grade 1 with an inner diameter of ≥ 4 mm, grade 2 with an inner diameter of ≥ 2 mm and < 4 mm, grade 3 with an inner diameter of ≥ 1 mm and < 2 mm, and grade 4 for a "cortical channel" with an inner diameter of < 1 mm. The failure rate of screw placement was 0.5 % for pedicle channel grade 1, 2.9 % for grade 2, 12.0 % for grade 3, and 31.5 % for grade 4, showing significant differences (p < 0.001). For the laterality of curvature, the failure rate was 5.9 % for the convex side, 8.0 % for the neutral vertebra, and 9.0 % for the concave side, showing no significant difference. There was also no significant difference in failure rate between degrees of curvature of < 60° (8.2 %) and ≥ 60° (5.6 %). Logistic analysis showed that the pedicle channel grade was a significant risk factor for failure (odds ratio 4.0, p < 0.001). The failure rate of screw placement was 31.5 % for a cortical channel with a pedicle inner diameter of < 1 mm. Screw placement should be attempted in pedicles with an inner diameter of 1 mm or larger.

  7. Pedicle screw surface coatings improve fixation in nonfusion spinal constructs.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Farnsworth, Christine L; Tomlinson, Tucker; Chambers, Reid C; Tsutsui, Shunji; Slivka, Michael A; Mahar, Andrew T; Newton, Peter O

    2009-02-15

    Biomechanical and histologic analysis. To compare the strength of the bone-screw interface of standard uncoated pedicle screws with screws treated with hydroxyapatite (HA), titanium plasma spray (TPS), and a composite HA-TPS coating. Transpedicular screw fixation has become the gold standard in the treatment of various thoracolumbar spinal conditions. Pedicle screw loosening, however, has been reported, especially in mechanically demanding constructs or in vertebrae with low bone mineral density. Six mature porcine were instrumented with 4 types of titanium monoaxial pedicle screws (uncoated, HA-only coated, TPS-only coated, and HA-TPS composite coated) in a systematically varied, single-blinded fashion. After a 3-month survival period, the spines were harvested en-bloc and "time zero" control screws were instrumented in adjacent vertebrae. Screw placement and bone mineral density were evaluated with a postharvest computed tomography, and the strength of the tissue-implant interface was evaluated with a torsional screw extraction analysis (60 screws) and a nondecalcified histologic analysis (16 screws). At 3 months postoperative, peak torque increased for all 3 types of coated screws (increased fixation) and decreased significantly for the uncoated screws (P < 0.001). Although 3-month peak torque was not statistically different between the 3 screw coatings, 4 of 10 TPS-only coated screws had a peak torque that was nearly 0 (<0.1 N m) versus only 1 of 10 HA-only screws and 0 of 10 HA-TPS composite screws. Histologic analysis confirmed the biomechanical findings with improved osseointegration in the HA-only and HA-TPS composite screws. Pedicle screw coatings that promote mechanical interlocking, TPS, or direct osteoblast bonding(HA) increased screw fixation in this nonfusion model. More non-HA coated screws, however, were thought to be "loose" with a nearly zero peak extraction torque and fibrous encapsulation. Increased osseointegration with HA may result in a

  8. Three-dimensional Fluoroscopy-based Navigation for the Pedicle Screw Placement in Patients with Primary Invasive Spinal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo; Su, Yi-Bing; Zhao, Ji-Zong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although pedicle screw placement (PSP) is a well-established technique for spine surgery, the treatment of patients with primary invasive spinal tumor (PIST) has high surgical risks secondary to destroyed pedicles. Intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation (ITFN) system permits safe and accurate instrumentation of the spine with the advantage of obtaining intraoperative real-time three-dimensional images and automatic registration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of PSP using ITFN system for patients afflicted with PIST in the thoracic spine. Methods: Fifty-one patients diagnosed with PISTs were retrospectively analyzed, and 157 pedicles screws were implanted in 23 patients using the free-hand technique (free-hand group) and 197 pedicle screws were implanted in 28 patients using the ITFN system (ITFN group). Modified classification of Gertzbein and Robbins was used to evaluate the accuracy of PSP, and McCormick classification was applied for assessment of neurological function. Demographic data and factors affecting accuracy of screw insertion were compared using independent t-test while comparison of accuracy of screw insertion between the two groups was analyzed with Chi-square test. Results: Of 51 patients, 39 demonstrated improved neurological status and the other 12 patients reported that symptoms remained the same. In the free-hand group, 145 screws (92.4%) were Grade I, 9 screws (5.7%) were Grade II, and 3 screws (1.9%) were Grade III. In the ITFN group, 192 screws (97.4%) were Grade I, 5 screws (2.6%) were Grade II, and no Grade III screw was detected. Statistical analysis showed that the accuracies of pedicle screws in the two groups are significantly different (χ2 = 4.981, P = 0.026). Conclusions: The treatments of PISTs include total tumor resection and reconstruction of spine stability. The ITFN system provides a high accuracy of pedicle screw placement. PMID:27779161

  9. C2 Pedicle Screw Placement: A Novel Teaching Aid.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Olaide; Moisi, Marc; Chapman, Jens; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-06-04

    The C2 pedicle screw is more biomechanically stable and provides patients with increased postoperative range of motion in comparison to other methods of C2 fixation. However, as a result of the proximity of the C2 pedicle to the transverse foramen, there is a considerable risk of intraoperative morbidity due to vertebral artery injury laterally or vertebral canal breach medially. Other than the use of cadavers for the demonstration and practice of C2 pedicle screw placement, there are currently few other readily available teaching aids for the training of residents and fellows. Herein, we describe a simple and cost effective modality for the demonstration, evaluation, and practice of C2 pedicle screw placement in a laboratory setting.

  10. The use of pedicle-screw internal fixation for the operative treatment of spinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Gaines, R W

    2000-10-01

    Pedicle screws have dramatically improved the outcomes of spinal reconstruction requiring spinal fusion. Short-segment surgical treatments based on the use of pedicle screws for the treatment of neoplastic, developmental, congenital, traumatic, and degenerative conditions have been proved to be practical, safe, and effective. The Funnel Technique provides a straightforward, direct, and inexpensive way to very safely apply pedicle screws in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Carefully applied pedicle-screw fixation does not produce severe or frequent complications. Pedicle-screw fixation can be effectively and safely used wherever a vertebral pedicle can accommodate a pedicle screw--that is, in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Training in pedicle-screw application should be standard in orthopaedic training programs since pedicle-screw fixation represents the so-called gold standard of spinal internal fixation.

  11. Pullout strength of pedicle screws with cement augmentation in severe osteoporosis: A comparative study between cannulated screws with cement injection and solid screws with cement pre-filling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pedicle screws with PMMA cement augmentation have been shown to significantly improve the fixation strength in a severely osteoporotic spine. However, the efficacy of screw fixation for different cement augmentation techniques, namely solid screws with retrograde cement pre-filling versus cannulated screws with cement injection through perforation, remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the difference in pullout strength between conical and cylindrical screws based on the aforementioned cement augmentation techniques. The potential loss of fixation upon partial screw removal after screw insertion was also examined. Method The Taguchi method with an L8 array was employed to determine the significance of design factors. Conical and cylindrical pedicle screws with solid or cannulated designs were installed using two different screw augmentation techniques: solid screws with retrograde cement pre-filling and cannulated screws with cement injection through perforation. Uniform synthetic bones (test block) simulating severe osteoporosis were used to provide a platform for each screw design and cement augmentation technique. Pedicle screws at full insertion and after a 360-degree back-out from full insertion were then tested for axial pullout failure using a mechanical testing machine. Results The results revealed the following 1) Regardless of the screw outer geometry (conical or cylindrical), solid screws with retrograde cement pre-filling exhibited significantly higher pullout strength than did cannulated screws with cement injection through perforation (p = 0.0129 for conical screws; p = 0.005 for cylindrical screws). 2) For a given cement augmentation technique (screws without cement augmentation, cannulated screws with cement injection or solid screws with cement pre-filling), no significant difference in pullout strength was found between conical and cylindrical screws (p >0.05). 3) Cement infiltration into the open cell of the test block led to

  12. Using the freehand pedicle screw placement technique in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: what is the incidence of neurological symptoms secondary to misplaced screws?

    PubMed

    Dede, Ozgur; Ward, William Timothy; Bosch, Patrick; Bowles, Austin J; Roach, James W

    2014-02-15

    Retrospective case series. This study evaluated the incidence of postoperative neurological symptoms after a freehand pedicle screw insertion technique in idiopathic posterior scoliosis surgery. It is generally accepted that pedicle screws can be inserted by a freehand technique in the thoracic and lumbar spine in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with a very low frequency of major complications. The prevalence of clinically significant screw misplacement, with or without the need for revision surgery is less well defined. Between January 1, 2000, and October 2, 2012, five hundred fifty-nine patients with AIS had thoracolumbar posterior instrumented spine surgery at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. Each patient's chart and radiographs were reviewed and only those with AIS were included. Patients with neuromuscular and syndromic diagnoses were excluded as well as those with congenital or traumatic etiologies, incomplete charts, less than 3 months of follow-up and those without pedicle screws. The records were studied for complaints of radicular pain, neurological deficit, or severe headache that could be indicative of potential screw misplacement. Four hundred eighty-one patients with 5923 pedicle screws met the inclusion criteria. Nine patients (1.9%) developed symptoms and underwent computed tomographic scanning. Six patients were found to have pedicle screw malposition (8 screws) and 3 of these patients underwent revision surgery. Of the 3 revision patients, 2 presented with radicular symptoms (leg pain) and 1 with an orthostatic headache due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage. At the final follow-up, all revision patients had complete symptom resolution. In total, there were 8 symptomatic, misplaced pedicle screws (0.14%) in 6 patients (1.25%). During a 12-year period in a dedicated pediatric orthopedic hospital using the freehand placement technique, the incidence of symptomatic misplaced pedicle screws was exceedingly low. 4.

  13. The usefulness of electrical stimulation for assessing pedicle screw placements.

    PubMed

    Toleikis, J R; Skelly, J P; Carlvin, A O; Toleikis, S C; Bernard, T N; Burkus, J K; Burr, M E; Dorchak, J D; Goldman, M S; Walsh, T R

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further establish the efficacy of pedicle screw stimulation as a monitoring technique to avoid nerve root injury during screw placement. The study population consisted of 662 patients in whom 3,409 pedicle screws were placed and tested by electrical stimulation. If stimulation resulted in a myogenic response at a stimulation intensity of 10 mA or less, the placement of the screw was inspected. Inspection was necessary for 3.9% of the screw placements in 15.4% of the study population. None of the patients in the study experienced any new postoperative neurologic deficits. These findings provide guidelines for the interpretation of stimulation data and support the use of this technique as an easy, inexpensive, and quick method to reliably assess screw placements and protecting neurological function.

  14. Pull-out strength of cemented solid versus fenestrated pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Leichtle, C. I.; Rothstock, S.; Happel, J.; Walter, F.; Shiozawa, T.; Leichtle, U. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cement augmentation of pedicle screws could be used to improve screw stability, especially in osteoporotic vertebrae. However, little is known concerning the influence of different screw types and amount of cement applied. Therefore, the aim of this biomechanical in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of cement augmentation on the screw pull-out force in osteoporotic vertebrae, comparing different pedicle screws (solid and fenestrated) and cement volumes (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). Materials and Methods A total of 54 osteoporotic human cadaver thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were instrumented with pedicle screws (uncemented, solid cemented or fenestrated cemented) and augmented with high-viscosity PMMA cement (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). The insertion torque and bone mineral density were determined. Radiographs and CT scans were undertaken to evaluate cement distribution and cement leakage. Pull-out testing was performed with a material testing machine to measure failure load and stiffness. The paired t-test was used to compare the two screws within each vertebra. Results Mean failure load was significantly greater for fenestrated cemented screws (+622 N; p ⩽ 0.001) and solid cemented screws (+460 N; p ⩽ 0.001) than for uncemented screws. There was no significant difference between the solid and fenestrated cemented screws (p = 0.5). In the lower thoracic vertebrae, 1 mL cement was enough to significantly increase failure load, while 3 mL led to further significant improvement in the upper thoracic, lower thoracic and lumbar regions. Conclusion Conventional, solid pedicle screws augmented with high-viscosity cement provided comparable screw stability in pull-out testing to that of sophisticated and more expensive fenestrated screws. In terms of cement volume, we recommend the use of at least 1 mL in the thoracic and 3 mL in the lumbar spine. Cite this article: C. I. Leichtle, A. Lorenz, S. Rothstock, J. Happel, F. Walter, T. Shiozawa, U. G. Leichtle. Pull

  15. A Modified Personalized Image-Based Drill Guide Template for Atlantoaxial Pedicle Screw Placement: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lianghai; Dong, Liang; Tan, Mingsheng; Qi, Yingna; Yang, Feng; Yi, Ping; Tang, Xiangsheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Atlantoaxial posterior pedicle screw fixation has been widely used for treatment of atlantoaxial instability (AAI). However, precise and safe insertion of atlantoaxial pedicle screws remains challenging. This study presents a modified drill guide template based on a previous template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement. Material/Methods Our study included 54 patients (34 males and 20 females) with AAI. All the patients underwent posterior atlantoaxial pedicle screw fixation: 25 patients underwent surgery with the use of a modified drill guide template (template group) and 29 patients underwent surgery via the conventional method (conventional group). In the template group, a modified drill guide template was designed for each patient. The modified drill guide template and intraoperative fluoroscopy were used for surgery in the template group, while only intraoperative fluoroscopy was used in the conventional group. Results Of the 54 patients, 52 (96.3%) completed the follow-up for more than 12 months. The template group had significantly lower intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency (p<0.001) and higher accuracy of screw insertion (p=0.045) than the conventional group. There were no significant differences in surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss, or improvement of neurological function between the 2 groups (p>0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is feasible to use the modified drill guide template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement. Using the template can significantly lower the screw malposition rate and the frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy. PMID:28301445

  16. Proposed alternative revision strategy for broken S1 pedicle screw: radiological study, review of the literature, and case reports.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Miller, Jacob D; Benedict, Gregory M; Seal, Ryan J; Liu, Jiayong

    2013-07-01

    There have been many reports outlining differing methods for managing a broken S1 screw. To the authors' best knowledge, the technique used in the present study has not been described previously. It involves insertion of a second pedicle screw without removing the broken screw shaft. Radiological study, literature review, and two case reports of the surgical technique. To report a proposed new surgical technique for management of broken S1 pedicle screws. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 50 patients with a total of 100 S1 pedicles were analyzed. There were 25 male and 25 female patients with an average age of 51 years ranging from 36 to 68 years. The cephalad-caudal length, medial-lateral width, and cross-sectional area of the S1 pedicle were measured and compared with the diameter of a pedicle screw to illustrate the possibility of inserting a second screw in S1 pedicle without removal of the broken screw shaft. Two case reports of the proposed technique are presented. The left and right S1 pedicle cross-sectional area in female measured 456.00 ± 4.00 and 457.00 ± 3.00 mm(2), respectively. The left and right S1 pedicle cross-section area in male measured 638.00 ± 2.00 and 639.00 ± 1.00 mm(2), respectively. There were statistically significant differences when comparing male and female S1 pedicle length, width, and cross-sectional area (p<.05). At 2-year follow-up, the two case reports of the proposed technique showed resolution of low back pain and radicular pain. Plain radiograph and CT scan showed posterolateral fusion mass and hardware in good position with no evidence of screw loosening. The S1 pedicle dimensions measured on CT scan reviewed in the present study showed that it may be anatomically feasible to place a second screw through the S1 pedicle without the removal of the broken screw shaft. This treatment method will reduce the complications associated with other described revision strategies for broken S1 screws. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Use of intraoperative isocentric C-arm 3D fluoroscopy for sextant percutaneous pedicle screw placement: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Frank L; Thompson, Timothy L; Campbell, Stacey; Weinstein, Philip R; Ames, Christopher P

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fluoroscopy-based image guidance system using an isocentric C-arm (Iso-C) fluoroscope was shown to be as effective as computed tomography-based systems in guiding the accurate percutaneous placement of lumbar pedicle screws in cadavers. To date, however, no description is available of the intraoperative use of 3D fluoroscopy to guide lumbar pedicle screw placement in an actual spinal fusion procedure. We report a case in which isocentric 3D fluoroscopic images, along with image-guidance software, were used to guide the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws for fusion in a patient with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Operating room of a large academic medical center during the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws in a patient with degenerative spondylolisthesis. A percutaneous dynamic reference array was attached to the L3 spinous process. A satisfactory image set was obtained and automatically registered. The L4 and L5 pedicles were localized, and pedicle holes were then cannulated, drilled and tapped. A screw was then inserted using the Sextant system for percutaneous pedicle screws. In this manner, bilateral pedicle screws were inserted into the L4-L5 pedicles. All steps of pedicle cannulation were performed under Iso-C 3D image guidance. A postoperative computed tomography scan showed accurate placement of all pedicle screws. The patient experienced an improvement in leg pain with no new neurologic deficits. The present case is the first case to demonstrate the intraoperative use of a 3D fluoroscopy-based image-guidance system for accurate navigation during lumbar pedicle screw placement.

  18. Accuracy of Free Hand Pedicle Screw Installation in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine by a Young Surgeon: An Analysis of the First Consecutive 306 Screws Using Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Yongjung J; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and safety of free-hand pedicle screw insertion performed by a young surgeon. Overview of Literature Few articles exist regarding the safety of the free-hand technique without inspection by an experienced spine surgeon. Methods The index surgeon has performed spinal surgery for 2 years by himself. He performed fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle screw installation for his first year. Since then, he has used the free-hand technique. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all consecutive patients undergoing pedicle screw installation using the free-hand technique without fluoroscopy in the thoracic or lumbar spine by the index surgeon. Incidence and extent of cortical breach by misplaced pedicle screw was determined by a review of postoperative computed tomography (CT) images. Results A total of 36 patients received 306 free-hand placed pedicle screws in the thoracic or lumbar spine. A total of 12 screws (3.9%) were identified as breaching the pedicle in 9 patients. Upper thoracic spine was the most frequent location of screw breach (10.8%). Lateral breach (2.3%) was more frequent than any other direction. Screw breach on the right side (9 patients) was more common than that on the left side (3 patients) (p<0.01). Conclusions An analysis by CT scan shows that young spine surgeons who have trained under the supervision of an experienced surgeon can safely place free-hand pedicle screws with an acceptable breach rate through repetitive confirmatory steps. PMID:24967036

  19. Pedicle screw design and cement augmentation in osteoporotic vertebrae: effects of fenestrations and cement viscosity on fixation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Choma, Theodore J; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Swope, Ryan W; Hirner, Jesse P

    2012-12-15

    Experimental, human cadaveric study. To assess the fixation effects of injecting cement augmentation before screw insertion or after insertion of fenestrated screws; the effect of modulating cement viscosity; and the effects of these techniques on screw removal. It seems clear that cement augmentation can enhance pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic bone. What remains to be demonstrated is the aspects of optimal technique such that fixation is enhanced with the greatest safety profile. Part I: Human osteoporotic vertebrae were instrumented with solid (nonaugmented) screws, solid screws with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), partially cannulated fenestrated (Pfen) screws, or fully cannulated fenestrated (Ffen) screws through which PMMA was injected. Screw fixation was tested in pullout. Part II: Ffen screws were augmented with standard low-viscosity PMMA versus high-viscosity PMMA. Part III: Sample cohorts were extracted from vertebrae to assess required torque and characterize difficulty of extraction. Part I: Pfen screws demonstrated the greatest fixation with mean failure force of 690 ± 182 N. All methods of cement augmentation demonstrated significant increases in screw fixation. Part II: Ffen screws did not demonstrate a significant difference in pullout strength when high-viscosity PMMA was used as compared with low-viscosity PMMA. Part III: Mean extraction torque values for solid augmented screws, Ffen screws, and Pfen screws were 1.167, 1.764, and 1.794 Nm, respectively, but these differences did not reach significance. None of the osteoporotic vertebrae sustained catastrophic failure during augmented screw extraction. Polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation clearly enhances pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic vertebrae when tested in pure pullout. The technique used for cement injection and choice of specialty screws can have a significant impact on the magnitude of this effect. Fenestrated screws have the capacity to confine cement placement in the

  20. Accuracy and postoperative assessment of pedicle screw placement during scoliosis surgery with computer-assisted navigation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Zeng, Cheng; An, Yan; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yajun; Li, Jianing

    2017-03-01

    Accurate insertion of pedicle screws in scoliosis patients is a challenge for surgeons. Computer-assisted navigation techniques might help improve the accuracy of screw placement, thereby avoiding complications. Thus, the objective of this present work is to compare the accuracy and postoperative assessment of pedicle screw placement in scoliosis patients using a computer-assisted navigation technique and using a conventional free-hand method. A search of the PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases was executed. In vivo comparative studies that assessed the accuracy and postoperative evaluation of pedicle screw placement in scoliosis patients with or without navigation techniques were chosen and analyzed. The accuracy of pedicle screw insertion was significantly increased when using the navigation system, although the average operative time and correction rate was not significantly different from that with non-navigated surgery. The navigation technique improves the accuracy of pedicle screw placement during scoliosis surgery without prolonging the operative time or decreasing the deformity correction effect. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Virtual estimates of fastening strength for pedicle screw implantation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Camp, Jon J.; Augustine, Kurt E.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Robb, Richard A.; Holmes, David R.

    2014-03-01

    Traditional 2D images provide limited use for accurate planning of spine interventions, mainly due to the complex 3D anatomy of the spine and close proximity of nerve bundles and vascular structures that must be avoided during the procedure. Our previously developed clinician-friendly platform for spine surgery planning takes advantage of 3D pre-operative images, to enable oblique reformatting and 3D rendering of individual or multiple vertebrae, interactive templating, and placement of virtual pedicle implants. Here we extend the capabilities of the planning platform and demonstrate how the virtual templating approach not only assists with the selection of the optimal implant size and trajectory, but can also be augmented to provide surrogate estimates of the fastening strength of the implanted pedicle screws based on implant dimension and bone mineral density of the displaced bone substrate. According to the failure theories, each screw withstands a maximum holding power that is directly proportional to the screw diameter (D), the length of the in-bone segm,ent of the screw (L), and the density (i.e., bone mineral density) of the pedicle body. In this application, voxel intensity is used as a surrogate measure of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the pedicle body segment displaced by the screw. We conducted an initial assessment of the developed platform using retrospective pre- and post-operative clinical 3D CT data from four patients who underwent spine surgery, consisting of a total of 26 pedicle screws implanted in the lumbar spine. The Fastening Strength of the planned implants was directly assessed by estimating the intensity - area product across the pedicle volume displaced by the virtually implanted screw. For post-operative assessment, each vertebra was registered to its homologous counterpart in the pre-operative image using an intensity-based rigid registration followed by manual adjustment. Following registration, the Fastening Strength was computed

  2. Intraoperative stimulation of pedicle screws: a new method for verification of screw placement.

    PubMed

    Young, W F; Morledge, D E; Martin, W; Park, K B

    1995-12-01

    Pedicular fixation of the lumbosacral spine has become a popular procedure for improving fusion rates. Even in experienced hands, it can be associated with a significant rate of screw malpositioning and potential nerve root injury. In this report, we describe a technique for improving screw localization utilizing evoked electromyography responses from direct stimulation of pedicle instrumentation.

  3. Pedicle screw fixation combined with intermediate screw at the fracture level for treatment of thoracolumbar fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunpeng; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Dan; Xu, Hui; Geng, Wei; Luo, Dawei; Ma, Jinzhu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Use of a pedicle screw at the level of fracture, also known as an intermediate screw, has been shown to improve clinical results in managing thoracolumbar(TL) fractures, but there is a paucity of powerful evidence to support the claim. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between pedicle screw fixation combined with intermediate screw at the fracture level and conventional pedicle screw fixation (one level above and one level below the fracture level) for thoracolumbar (TL) fractures. Methods: A meta-analysis of cohort studies was conducted between pedicle screw fixation combined with intermediate screw at the fracture level (combined screw group) and conventional pedicle screw fixation (conventional group) for the treatment of TL fractures from their inception to December 2015. An extensive search of studies was performed in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library. The following outcome measures were extracted: visual analogue scale (VAS), operation time and intraoperative blood loss, Cobb angle and anterior vertebral height (AVH), and complications. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3.5. Results: From 10 relevant studies identified, 283 patients undergoing pedicle screw fixation combined with intermediate screw at the fracture level were compared with 285 conventional pedicle screw procedures. The pooled analysis showed that there was statistically significant difference in terms of postoperative Cobb angle (95% confidence interval (CI), −3.00, −0.75; P = 0.001) and AVH (95% CI, 0.04, 12.23; P = 0.05), correction loss (Cobb angle: P < 0.0001; AVH: P < 0.0001) and implant failure rate (95% CI, 0.06, 0.62; P = 0.006), and blood loss (W 95% CI, 2.22, 23.60; P = 0.02) between 2 groups. But in terms of other complications, there were no differences between 2 groups (95% CI, 0.23, 2.04; P = 0.50). No difference was found in operation time (95% CI, −5.36, 14.67; P = 0.36) and VAS scores (95% CI, −0.44, 0

  4. Multiaxial pedicle screw designs: static and dynamic mechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Ralph Edward; Loefler, Andreas Herman; Stanford, Philip Mark; Walsh, William R

    2004-02-15

    Randomized investigation of multiaxial pedicle screw mechanical properties. Measure static yield and ultimate strengths, yield stiffness, and fatigue resistance according to an established model. Compare these measured properties with expected loads in vivo. Multiaxial pedicle screws provide surgical versatility, but the complexity of their design may reduce their strength and fatigue resistance. There is no published data on the mechanical properties of such screws. Screws were assembled according to a vertebrectomy model for destructive mechanical testing. Groups of five assemblies were tested in static tension and compression and subject to three cyclical loads. Modes of failure, yield, and ultimate strength, yield stiffness, and cycles to failure were determined for six designs of screw. Static compression yield loads ranged from 217.1 to 388.0 N and yield stiffness from 23.7 to 38.0 N/mm. Cycles to failure ranged from 42 x 10(3) to 4,719 x 10(3) at 75% of static ultimate load. There were significant differences between designs in all modes of testing. Failure occurred at the multiaxial link in static and cyclical compression. Bending yield strengths just exceeded loads expected in vivo. Multiaxial designs had lower static bending yield strength than fixed screw designs. Five out of six multiaxial screw designs achieved one million cycles at 200 N in compression bending. "Ball-in-cup" multiaxial locking mechanisms were vulnerable to fatigue failure. Smooth surfaces and thicker material appeared to be protective against fatigue failure.

  5. Pedicle screw placement accuracy of bone-mounted miniature robot system.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Su, Yu-Feng; Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2017-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the accuracy of transpedicle screw placements performed with the Renaissance robot-guided system and reviews the relevant literature. Between January 2013 and January 2015, Renaissance robot-guided spinal surgery was performed in 125 patients at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The surgeries included 662 transpedicle screw implants and 49 Kirschner wire (K-wire) reimplants performed by intraoperative repositioning. The lead author evaluated the accuracy of all K-wire insertions and classified their accuracy into 3 categories relative to the preoperative plan for transpedicle screw placement. For cases in which screws required repositioning after the registration step, factors affecting pedicle screw placement were determined according to the consensus of 3 experienced spinal surgeons. According to the scheme developed by Kuo et al (PLoS One 2016;11:e0153235), the K-wire placement accuracies before and after repositioning were respectively classified as follows: 76.1% and 77.6% in type I; 12.2% and 17.7% in type IIa; 4.3% and 4.5% in type IIb; 6.4% and 0% in type IIIa; and 1% and 1% in type IIIb. The percentage of screws requiring repositioning due to drilling error was 85.7% (42/49). Comparisons of preoperative and postoperative function showed significantly improved accuracy. This study showed that inaccurate pedicle screw placement mainly results from errors in preoperative planning, mounting, registration, drilling, and robot assembly. Pedicle screw placement using a bone-mounted miniature robot system requires meticulous preoperative planning to minimize these errors.

  6. Pedicle screw placement accuracy of bone-mounted miniature robot system

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Su, Yu-Feng; Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article describes factors affecting the accuracy of transpedicle screw placements performed with the Renaissance robot-guided system and reviews the relevant literature. Between January 2013 and January 2015, Renaissance robot-guided spinal surgery was performed in 125 patients at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The surgeries included 662 transpedicle screw implants and 49 Kirschner wire (K-wire) reimplants performed by intraoperative repositioning. The lead author evaluated the accuracy of all K-wire insertions and classified their accuracy into 3 categories relative to the preoperative plan for transpedicle screw placement. For cases in which screws required repositioning after the registration step, factors affecting pedicle screw placement were determined according to the consensus of 3 experienced spinal surgeons. According to the scheme developed by Kuo et al (PLoS One 2016;11:e0153235), the K-wire placement accuracies before and after repositioning were respectively classified as follows: 76.1% and 77.6% in type I; 12.2% and 17.7% in type IIa; 4.3% and 4.5% in type IIb; 6.4% and 0% in type IIIa; and 1% and 1% in type IIIb. The percentage of screws requiring repositioning due to drilling error was 85.7% (42/49). Comparisons of preoperative and postoperative function showed significantly improved accuracy. This study showed that inaccurate pedicle screw placement mainly results from errors in preoperative planning, mounting, registration, drilling, and robot assembly. Pedicle screw placement using a bone-mounted miniature robot system requires meticulous preoperative planning to minimize these errors. PMID:28099339

  7. A Biomechanical Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screws for Severe Osteoporosis: The Effects of Screw Design and Cement Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ching-Lung; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Yi-Lu; Liu, Mu-Yi; Chen, Lih-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Expansive pedicle screws significantly improve fixation strength in osteoporotic spines. However, the previous literature does not adequately address the effects of the number of lengthwise slits and the extent of screw expansion on the strength of the bone/screw interface when expansive screws are used with or without cement augmentation. Herein, four designs for expansive pedicle screws with different numbers of lengthwise slits and different screw expansion levels were evaluated. Synthetic bones simulating severe osteoporosis were used to provide a comparative platform for each screw design. The prepared specimens were then tested for axial pullout failure. Regardless of screw design, screws with cement augmentation demonstrated significantly higher pullout strength than pedicle screws without cement augmentation (p < 0.001). For screws without cement augmentation, solid screws exhibited the lowest pullout strength compared to the four expansive groups (p < 0.01). No significant differences in pullout strength were observed between the expansive screws with different designs (p > 0.05). Taken together, our results show that pedicle screws combined with cement augmentation may greatly increase screw fixation regardless of screws with or without expansion. An increase in both the number of slits and the extent of screw expansion had little impact on the screw-anchoring strength. Cement augmentation is the most influential factor for improving screw pullout strength. PMID:26720724

  8. A Biomechanical Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screws for Severe Osteoporosis: The Effects of Screw Design and Cement Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ching-Lung; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Yi-Lu; Liu, Mu-Yi; Chen, Lih-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Expansive pedicle screws significantly improve fixation strength in osteoporotic spines. However, the previous literature does not adequately address the effects of the number of lengthwise slits and the extent of screw expansion on the strength of the bone/screw interface when expansive screws are used with or without cement augmentation. Herein, four designs for expansive pedicle screws with different numbers of lengthwise slits and different screw expansion levels were evaluated. Synthetic bones simulating severe osteoporosis were used to provide a comparative platform for each screw design. The prepared specimens were then tested for axial pullout failure. Regardless of screw design, screws with cement augmentation demonstrated significantly higher pullout strength than pedicle screws without cement augmentation (p < 0.001). For screws without cement augmentation, solid screws exhibited the lowest pullout strength compared to the four expansive groups (p < 0.01). No significant differences in pullout strength were observed between the expansive screws with different designs (p > 0.05). Taken together, our results show that pedicle screws combined with cement augmentation may greatly increase screw fixation regardless of screws with or without expansion. An increase in both the number of slits and the extent of screw expansion had little impact on the screw-anchoring strength. Cement augmentation is the most influential factor for improving screw pullout strength.

  9. Prediction of Deformity Correction by Pedicle Screw Instrumentation in Thoracolumbar Scoliosis Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Nagura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    In segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, the relationship between the combinations of pedicle screw placements and the degree of deformity correction was investigated with a three-dimensional rigid body and spring model. The virtual thoracolumbar scoliosis (Cobb’s angle of 47 deg.) was corrected using six different combinations of pedicle-screw placements. As a result, better correction in the axial rotation was obtained with the pedicle screws placed at or close to the apical vertebra than with the screws placed close to the end vertebrae, while the correction in the frontal plane was better with the screws close to the end vertebrae than with those close to the apical vertebra. Additionally, two screws placed in the convex side above and below the apical vertebra provided better correction than two screws placed in the concave side. Effective deformity corrections of scoliosis were obtained with the proper combinations of pedicle screw placements.

  10. [Venous Paravasation After Augmentation of Pedicle Screws - An Underestimated Risk].

    PubMed

    Prokop, Axel; Sagerer, Manuela; Rupp, Wolfgang; Chmielnicki, Marc

    2017-06-30

    Cement-augmented pedicle screws can increase the stability of fixators for unstable vertebral fractures in the elderly. Fixators can be inserted quickly and with minimally invasive techniques, reducing surgical risks. From March 2012 until July 2014, we treated 40 patients with percutaneous augmented fixators for unstable vertebral fractures. Average age was 77.5 years. During the six month observation period, no patients died. There were no neurological deficits. On VAS, average pain decreased from 8.5 to 4.1 points postoperatively. The average Cobb angle of 4.1° was improved after surgery. After 6 months, bony consolidation yielded angles of 1 to 4°, average 2.6°. There was often venous extravasation of cement leaking from the augmented vertebrae, even extending to pulmonary embolism. The emboli were usually asymptomatic. We report a case where the patient required resuscitation immediately after cement application because of pulmonary emboli. The patient survived because of the immediately implemented critical care measures. Little has been published about this risk, which is underestimated despite increasing numbers of augmented fixator operations. The risk can be reduced with slower cement injection, smaller cement applicators, and short term positive pressure ventilation with PEEP. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Recording triggered EMG thresholds from axillary chest wall electrodes: a new refined technique for accurate upper thoracic (T2-T6) pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Ignacio; de Blas, Gema; Barrios, Carlos; Burgos, Jesús; Montes, Elena; García-Urquiza, Sergio; Hevia, Edurado

    2011-10-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the sensitivity and safety of a new technique to record triggered EMG thresholds from axillary chest wall electrodes when inserting pedicle screws in the upper thoracic spine (T2-T6). A total of 248 (36.6%) of a total of 677 thoracic screws were placed at the T2-T6 levels in 92 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A single electrode placed at the axillary midline was able to record potentials during surgery from all T2-T6 myotomes at each side. Eleven screws were removed during surgery because of malposition according to intraoperative fluoroscopic views. Screw position was evaluated after surgery in the remaining 237 screws using a CT scan. Malposition was detected in 35 pedicle screws (14.7%). Pedicle medial cortex was breached in 24 (10.1%). Six screws (2.5%) were located inside the spinal canal. Mean EMG threshold was 24.44 ± 11.30 mA in well-positioned screws, 17.98 ± 8.24 mA (p < 0.01) in screws violating the pedicle medial cortex, and 10.38 ± 3.33 mA (p < 0.005) in screws located inside the spinal canal. Below a threshold of 12 mA, 33.4% of the screws (10/30) were malpositioned. Furthermore, 36% of the pedicle screws with t-EMG stimulation thresholds within the range 6-12 mA were malpositioned. In conclusion, assessment of upper thoracic pedicle screw placement by recording tEMG at a single axillary electrode was highly reliable. Thresholds below 12 mA should alert surgeons to suspect screw malposition. This technique simplifies tEMG potential recording to facilitate safe placement of pedicle screws at upper thoracic levels.

  12. Control of Pedicle Screw Placement with an Electrical Conductivity Measurement Device: Initial Evaluation in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Schomacher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Transpedicular screw fixation is widely used in spinal surgery. But the insertion of pedicle screws can sometimes be challenging because of the variability in pedicle size and the proximity of nerve roots. Methods. We detected intraoperatively the sensitivity for iatrogenic pedicel perforation with a hand-held electronic conductivity measurement device (ECD) that measures electrical conductivity of tissue-medium surrounding the instrument tip. ECD was used to guide the placement of 84 pedicle screws in 15 patients undergoing surgery for tumor or degenerative spinal disease at various spinal levels from T8 to L5. Additionally a CT-scan controlled screw positioning postoperatively. Results. The placement was “correct” (no mediocaudal pedicle wall penetration) for 78 of 84 (92,8%) screws, “suboptimal but acceptable” (0–2 mm penetration) for 4 of 84 (4,8%) screws, and “misplaced” (penetration > 2 mm) for 2 of 84 (2,4%) screws. Conclusion. Although this study was not designed to compare electronic conductivity technique to other guidance methods, such as fluoroscopy or navigation, a convincing “proof of concept” for ECD use in spinal instrumentation could be demonstrated. Advantages include easy handling without time-consuming setup and reduced X-ray exposure. However, further investigations are necessary to evaluate i.a. the economic aspects for this single-use developed instrument. PMID:27699203

  13. Placement of thoracic transvertebral pedicle screws using 3D image guidance.

    PubMed

    Nottmeier, Eric W; Pirris, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Transvertebral pedicle screws have successfully been used in the treatment of high-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. An advantage of transvertebral pedicle screws is the purchase of multiple cortical layers across 2 vertebrae, thereby increasing the stability of the construct. At the lumbosacral junction, transvertebral pedicle screws have been shown to be biomechanically superior to pedicle screws placed in the standard fashion. The use of transvertebral pedicle screws at spinal levels other than L5-S1 has not been reported in the literature. The authors describe their technique of transvertebral pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine using 3D image guidance. Twelve patients undergoing cervicothoracic or thoracolumbar fusion had 41 thoracic transvertebral pedicle screws placed across 26 spinal levels using this technique. Indications for placement of thoracic transvertebral pedicle screws in earlier cases included osteoporosis and pedicle screw salvage. However, in subsequent cases screws were placed in patients undergoing multilevel thoracolumbar fusion without osteoporosis, particularly near the top of the construct. Image guidance in this study was accomplished using the Medtronic StealthStation S7 image guidance system used in conjunction with the O-arm. All patients were slated to undergo postoperative CT scanning at approximately 4-6 months for fusion assessment, which also allowed for grading of the transvertebral pedicle screws. No thoracic transvertebral pedicle screw placed in this study had to be replaced or repositioned after intraoperative review of the cone beam CT scans. Review of the postoperative CT scans revealed all transvertebral screws to be across the superior disc space with the tips in the superior vertebral body. Six pedicle screws were placed using the in-out-in technique in patients with narrow pedicles, leaving 35 screws that underwent breach analysis. No pedicle breach was noted in 34 of 35 screws. A Grade 1 (< 2 mm) medial breach

  14. A comparative study of pedicle screw fixation in dorsolumbar spine by freehand versus image-assisted technique: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Archit; Chauhan, Vijendra; Singh, Deepa; Shailendra, Raghuvanshi; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Juyal, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: New and expensive technology such as three-dimensional computer assisted surgery is being used for pedicle screw fixation in dorsolumbar spine. Their availability, expenses and amount of radiation exposure are issues in a developing country. On the contrary, freehand technique of pedicle screw placement utilizes anatomic landmarks and tactile palpation without fluoroscopy or navigation to place pedicle screws. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the accuracy of freehand and image-assisted technique to place pedicle screws in the dorsolumbar spine of cadavers by an experienced surgeon and a resident. Evaluation was done using dissection of pedicle and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Materials and Methods: Ten cadaveric dorsolumbar spines were exposed by a posterior approach. Titanium pedicle screws were inserted from D5 to L5 vertebrae by freehand and image-assisted technique on either side by an experienced surgeon and a resident. CT was obtained. A blinded radiologist reviewed the imaging. The spines were then dissected to do a macroscopic examination. Screws, having evidence of cortical perforation of more than 2 mm on CT, were considered to be a significant breach. Results: A total of 260 pedicle screws were placed. The surgeon and the resident placed 130 screws each. Out of 130 screws, both of them placed 65 screws each by freehand and image- assisted technique each. The resident had a rate of 7.69% significant medial and 10.76% significant lateral breach with freehand technique while with image-assisted had a rate of 3.07% significant medial and 9.23% significant lateral breach. The expert surgeon had a rate of 6.15% significant medial and 1.53% significant lateral breach with freehand technique while with image-assisted had a rate of 3.07% significant medial and 6.15% significant lateral breach on CT evaluation. Conclusion: Freehand technique is as good as the image-assisted technique. Under appropriate supervision, residents

  15. Joint kinematics of surgeons during lumbar pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Kuh, Sung-Uk; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Su; Cho, Yong-Eun

    2016-12-01

    A surgical robot for spine surgery has recently been developed. The objective is to assess the joint kinematics of the surgeon during spine surgery. We enrolled 18 spine surgeons, who each performed pedicle screw placement, and used an optoelectronic motion analysis system. Using three-dimensional (3D) motion images, distance changes in five joints and angle changes in six joints were calculated during surgery. Distance fluctuations increased gradually from the proximal to the distal joint. Angle fluctuations were largest at the distal point but did not gradually increase, and the elbow showed the second largest fluctuation. Changes along the X axis were larger than those of the Y and Z axes. The distances gradually increased from proximal portions of the body to the hand. In angle changes, the elbow was most dynamic during pedicle screw placement. The surgeons' whole joints carry out a harmonic role during lumbar pedicle screw placement. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation Technique in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine-Tips and Tricks.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The need for spinal fixation in patients who cannot tolerate classical open surgery has led in recent years to the development of minimally invasive approaches. The use of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation offers several advantages, such as less blood loss and postoperative pain due to blunt separation of the muscles with reduction of soft tissue dissection. Medical records and demographic information, diagnosis, and preoperative pain levels of 63 patients who underwent percutaneous minimally invasive thoracolumbar spine stabilization using the Illico® Fixation System (Alphatec Spine, Carlsbad, California) were analysed: a total of 344 screws were implanted. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessment of the patients were based on a visual analogue scale. Because percutaneous techniques do not allow gross visualization of the vertebra and erroneous placement of the screw may be high in the initial cases, we discuss the techniques for a safe implantation of pedicle screws using a single or double intraoperative fluoroscopy. We report tips and tricks for technical challenges including fixation in osteoporotic patients, percutaneous insertion of long rods, compression/distraction using multiaxial screws turning into monoaxial, and use of minimally invasive retractror for interbody fusion. Recently, indications for minimally invasive percutaneous fixation have expanded and my results support that it may be considered a safe and effective option for the treatment of degenerative and traumatic thoracolumbar spinal diseases.

  17. Intraoperative 3-dimensional imaging (O-arm) for assessment of pedicle screw position: Does it prevent unacceptable screw placement?

    PubMed Central

    Sembrano, Jonathan N.; Polly, David W.; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T.; Santos, Edward Rainier G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pedicle screws are biomechanically superior over other spinal fixation devices. When improperly positioned, they lose this advantage and put adjacent structures at risk. Accurate placement is therefore critical. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans are the imaging gold standard and have shown malposition rates ranging from 2% to 41%. The O-arm (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, Colorado) is an intraoperative CT scanner that may allow intervention for malpositioned screws while patients are still in the operating room. However, this has not yet been shown in clinical studies. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the O-arm for evaluating pedicle screw position by answering the following question: What is the rate of intraoperative pedicle screw revision brought about by O-arm imaging information? A secondary question was also addressed: What is the rate of unacceptable thoracic and lumbar pedicle screw placement as assessed by intraoperative O-arm imaging? Methods This is a case series of consecutive patients who have undergone spine surgery for which an intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) CT scan was used to assess pedicle screw position. The study comprised 602 pedicle screws (235 thoracic and 367 lumbar/sacral) placed in 76 patients, and intraoperative 3D (O-arm) imaging was obtained to assess screw position. Action taken at the time of surgery based on imaging information was noted. An independent review of all scans was also conducted, and all screws were graded as either optimal (no breach), acceptable (breach ≤2 mm), or unacceptable (breach >2 mm). The rate of pedicle screw revision, as detected by intraoperative 3D CT scan, was determined. Results On the basis of 3D imaging information, 17 of 602 screws (2.8%) in 14 of 76 cases (18.4%) were revised at the time of surgery. On independent review of multiplanar images, 11 screws (1.8%) were found to be unacceptable, 32 (5.3%) were acceptable, and 559 (92.9%) were

  18. Biomechanical impact of C2 pedicle screw length in an atlantoaxial fusion construct.

    PubMed

    Xu, Risheng; Bydon, Mohamad; Macki, Mohamad; Belkoff, Stephen M; Langdale, Evan R; McGovern, Kelly; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokalsan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Posterior, atlantoaxial (AA) fusions of the cervical spine may include either standard (26 mm) or short (16 mm) C2 pedicle screws. This manuscript focused on an in vitro biomechanical comparison of standard versus short C2 pedicle screws to perform posterior C1-C2 AA fusions. Twelve human cadaveric spines underwent C1 lateral mass screw and standard C2 pedicle screw (n = 6) versus short C2 pedicle screw (n = 6) fixation. Six additional controls were not instrumented. The peak torque, peak rotational interval, and peak stiffness of the constructs were analyzed to failure levels. The peak torque to construct failure was not statistically significantly different among the control spine (12.2 Nm), short pedicle fixation (15.5 Nm), or the standard pedicle fixation (11.6 Nm), P = 0.79. While the angle at the peak rotation statistically significantly differed between the control specimens (47.7° of relative motion) and the overall instrumented specimens (P < 0.001), the 20.7° of relative rotation in the short C2 pedicle screw specimens was not statistically significantly higher than the 13.7° of relative rotation in the standard C2 pedicle screw specimens (P = 0.39). Similarly, although the average stiffness was statistically significantly lower in control group (0.026 Nm/degree) versus the overall instrumented specimens (P = 0.001), the standard C2 pedicle screws (2.54 Nm/degree) did not differ from the short C2 pedicle screws. Both standard and short C2 pedicle screws allow for equally rigid fixation of C1 lateral mass-C2 AA fusions. Usage of a short C2 pedicle screw may be an acceptable method of stabilization in carefully selected patient populations.

  19. Insertion Profiles of 4 Headless Compression Screws

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J.; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. Methods The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. Results The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of −3.1 mm, −2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of −2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. Conclusions All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of −2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Clinical relevance Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws

  20. "Inline" Axial Reconstructed CT Scans Provide a Significantly Larger Assessment of C2 Pedicle Diameter for Screw Placement Compared With "Standard" Axial Scans: Implications for Surgical Planning.

    PubMed

    Vizurraga, David E; Rhee, John M; Borden, Timothy C; Mansour, Ashton S

    2016-06-27

    Radiologic analysis. The objective was to compare C2 pedicle diameter and screw feasibility on reconstructed axial computed tomography (CT) cuts created "Inline" (IL) with the intended pedicle screw tract versus unaltered "Standard" (STD) axial cuts. Axial CT cuts through the C2 pedicle are commonly evaluated when planning pedicle screw fixation as medial aberrancies of the vertebral artery can significantly narrow pedicle diameter. STD axial CT cuts provided by radiology departments are typically formatted orthogonal to the long axis of the neck or the vertical plumb, which is often not IL with the axis of the intended C2 pedicle screw tract. A total of 89 cervical spine CT scans obtained by a single radiology department over 2 years (35 male, 54 female; mean age 64.9 y) were reviewed. STD axial cuts were not manipulated but were assessed as provided. IL axial cuts were created along the intended C2 pedicle screw tract using free, open-source DICOM viewer software. Inner and outer pedicle diameters were measured on axial cuts most closely approximating the isthmus of the intended tract. On STD cuts, the mean outer and inner pedicle diameters were 5.05±1.45 and 2.01±1.31 mm, respectively. By contrast, IL measurements yielded significantly larger outer and inner diameters: 5.85±1.78 and 2.68±1.47 mm (P<0.01). IL measurement predicted a higher number of pedicles amenable to insertion of a 3.5 mm screw with safety margins of 1 to 3 mm. Reformatted IL axial cuts through the intended path of C2 pedicle screws provide significantly larger assessments of C2 pedicle diameter than those obtained on STD cuts. IL measurements predict C2 screw insertion feasibility in a substantially higher number of pedicles. As assessment of IL cuts may alter surgical decision-making at no added cost or radiation exposure, we suggest that they be obtained whenever considering C2 pedicle screw placement.

  1. Direct C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation for Axis Body Fracture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jennifer A; MacDonald, Joel D

    2016-09-01

    Acute complex C2 vertebral body fracture specifically does not involve the odontoid process or C2 pars interarticularis. External stabilization can be effective but may prolong healing and increase morbidity. Many traditional surgical techniques can achieve internal stabilization at the expense of normal cervical motion. We describe direct surgical C2 pedicle screw fixation as an option for managing acute complex C2 vertebral body fracture. Three patients were treated with direct pedicle screw fixation of acute traumatic complex C2 vertebral body fractures. All fractures were coronally oriented Benzel type 1. None of the patients sustained neurological injury. Stereotactic navigation with intraoperative computed tomography scanning was used for each procedure. Surgery provided immediate internal orthosis and stability, as judged by intraoperative dynamic fluoroscopy. Rigid cervical collar bracing was used for 1 month after surgery when the patients were out of bed. Initial radiographs showed acceptable screw placement and fracture alignment. Dynamic radiographs at 3 months showed structural stability at the fracture site and adjacent levels, and complete bony union was confirmed with late computed tomography scanning (>1 year) in each case. Each patient reported resolution of trauma-related and postsurgical pain at 30-day follow-up. Postoperative Neck Disability Index questionnaires for each patient suggested no significant disability at 1 year. Direct pedicle screw fixation of acute complex C2 vertebral body fracture appeared to be safe and effective in our 3 patients. It may provide a more-efficient and less-morbid treatment than halo brace or cervical collar immobilization in some patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The accuracy of computer-assisted pedicle screw placement in degenerative lumbrosacral spine using single-time, paired point registration alone technique combined with the surgeon's experience.

    PubMed

    Iampreechakul, Prasert; Chongchokdee, Chana; Tirakotai, Wuttipong

    2011-03-01

    Evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted pedicle screw placement in patients with degenerative lumbrosacral spine using single-time, paired point registration alone technique in combination with the surgeon's experience. A computer-assisted pedicle screw insertion in lumbrosacral spine were performed in 62 consecutive patients (363 screws) using single-time, paired point registration without surface matching. After finding the entry point and trajectory of the pedicle under image guidance, the surgeon then inserted pedicle screws by his experience. Postoperative DynaCT scans were obtained and interpreted by two neuroradiologists. The Kappa statistic was used to measure the degree of interobserver agreement. The screw position was graded as follows: Grade A = entirely within the pedicle; B = medial or lateral pedicle wall breach less than 2 mm; C = medial or lateral pedicle wall breach equal to 2-4 mm; D = medial or lateral wall breach more than 4 mm. Clinical outcomes including a numeric pain score, neurologic symptoms, and complications were reviewed from all charts of patients. Additionally, the registration error, registration time, screwing time, and estimated blood loss were analyzed. A total of the 363 pedicle screws, the first neuroradiologist interpreted grade A in 95.6%, grade B in 4.1% and grade C in 0.3%, while the second neuroradiologist interpreted grade A in 95.3%, grade B in 3.6%, and grade C in 1.1%. There was no incidence of grade D in this present study. No neurologic or vascular injuries occurred from pedicle screw placement. The mean registration error was 1.54 +/- 1.28 (range, 0.9-2.5) mm with the mean time required for the registration process for each patient was 3.64 +/- 1.92 (range, 2-8) minutes. The mean screwing time for each patient was 20.29 +/- 9.44 (range, 13-40) minutes. The mean pain score improved from 6.45 +/- 1.74 points preoperatively to 3.04 +/- 0.82 points postoperatively. In the radiculopathy group, motor power gradually

  3. A biomechanical comparison of facet screw fixation and pedicle screw fixation: effects of short-term and long-term repetitive cycling.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Lisa A; Secor, Jessica L; Jin, Byung-Ho; Wakefield, Andrew; Inceoglu, Serkan; Benzel, Edward C

    2003-06-15

    A biomechanical study was conducted to assess the stabilization performance of transfacet pedicle screw fixation. To compare the biomechanical effects of short-term and long-term cyclic loading on lumbar motion segments instrumented with either a pedicle screw or a transfacet pedicle screw construct. Facet screw fixation is an alternative to pedicle screw fixation that permits the use of a minimally invasive strategy. It is not known whether facet screw fixation can provide stability equivalent to pedicle screw fixation during cyclical loading. Therefore, transfacet pedicle screw fixation and standard pedicle screw fixation techniques were compared biomechanically. Lumbar motion segments were tested under short-term and long-term cyclic loading conditions. For the short-term phase, specimens were tested intact for six cycles (to 400 N or 4 Nm) in compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion. The specimens then were instrumented with bilateral semicircular interbody spacers and pedicle screw instrumentation or transfacet pedicle screws, and the testing sequence was repeated. For the long-term phase, 12 specimens were instrumented in a similar manner and loaded to 6 Nm of flexion bending for 180,000 cycles. For the short-term phase, both fixation systems had significantly greater stiffness and reduced range of motion, as compared with the intact state. No differences were observed between the fixation systems except in flexion, wherein transfacet pedicle screw specimens were significantly stiffer than traditional pedicle screw specimens. For the long-term phase, the stiffness and range of motion did not significantly increase or decrease over repetitive cycling of the instrumented specimens. Furthermore, no significant difference between the fixation systems was observed. The stability provided by both transfacet pedicle screw fixation and traditional pedicle screw fixation was not compromised after repetitive cycling. In this model, transfacet

  4. Can triggered electromyography be used to evaluate pedicle screw placement in hydroxyapatite-coated screws: an electrical examination.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy T; Tadlock, Stephanie; Bernbeck, Johannes; Fung, Daniel A; Molinares, Diana M

    2014-04-01

    To assess if hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium pedicle screws exhibit the same electroconductive characteristics as non-HA-coated screws. Resistance measurements were obtained from a random sampling of 10 HA-coated pedicle screws and 10 non-HA-coated screws, and surgical conditions simulated. Surface resistivity measurements were taken for each screw to determine voltage drop over its entire length. The non-HA-coated screws tested showed low resistive properties and proved to be an ideal conductor of electrical current. The resistive properties associated with the HA-coated pedicle screws were found to be similar to those of commonly used insulators removing the effectiveness of triggered electromyographic responses. Based on test results, these data suggest that the resistance value of the HA-coated screw is large enough to prevent modern Intra-Operative Monitoring (IOM) equipment from delivering the necessary current through the shank of the screw to create a diagnostic electromyographic response. Any response that would be produced would be because of shunting of electric current from the non-coated head of the screw into adjacent tissue and not through the shank of the screw. These study results suggest that HA-coated screws cannot be stimulated to assist in determining the accuracy of pedicle screw placement.

  5. Computer navigation versus fluoroscopy-guided navigation for thoracic pedicle screw placement: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-Tong; Guan, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Hai-Long; He, Shi-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Although application of intraoperative computer navigation technique had been integrated into placement of pedicle screws (PSs) in thoracic fusion for years, its security and practicability remain controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy, the operative time consumption, the amount of intraoperative blood loss, time of pedicle insertion and the incidence of complications of thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with thoracic diseases such as scoliosis and kyphosis. Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, and Google scholar were searched to identify comparative studies of thoracic pedicle screw placement between intraoperative computer navigation and fluoroscopy-guided navigation. Outcomes of malposition rate, operative time consumption, insertion time, intraoperative blood loss, and the incidence of complications are evaluated. Fourteen articles including 1723 patients and 9019 PSs were identified matching inclusion criteria. The malposition rate was lower (RR: 0.33, 95 % CI: 0.28-0.38, P < 0.01) in computer navigation group than that in fluoroscopy-guided navigation group; the operative time was significantly longer [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 23.66, 95 % CI: 14.74-32.57, P < 0.01] in computer navigation group than that in fluoroscopy-guided navigation group. The time of insertion was shorter (WMD = -1.88, 95 % CI: -2.25- -1.52, P < 0.01) in computer navigation group than that in fluoroscopy-guided navigation group. The incidence of complications was lower (RR = 0. 23, 95 % CI: 0.12-0.46, P < 0.01) in computer navigation group than that in the other group. The intraoperative blood loss was fewer (WMD = -167.49, 95 % CI: -266.39- -68.58, P < 0.01) in computer navigation group than that in the other. In conclusion, the meta-analysis of thoracic pedicle screw placement studies clearly demonstrated lower malposition rate, less intraoperative blood loss, and fewer complications when using computer

  6. Learning curve of thoracic pedicle screw placement using the free-hand technique in scoliosis: how many screws needed for an apprentice?

    PubMed

    Gang, Chen; Haibo, Li; Fancai, Li; Weishan, Chen; Qixin, Chen

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the learning curve of thoracic pedicle screw (TPS) placement of an inexperienced apprentice in scoliosis with the free-hand technique. The patients with scoliosis who underwent TPS inserted with the free-hand technique by the apprentice under the direction of a chief surgeon were included in this study. The TPS placement by the apprentice was evaluated by examining the assessed position in chronological subgroups of 30 screws. The TPS position was assessed on the postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan images using Zdichavsky grading evaluation system and pedicle breach. The rates of good and dangerous screw placement and the rates of pedicle breaches in each apprentice subgroup were compared with those in the chief surgeon group. Thirty-eight patients with 311 TPS were retrospectively analyzed in our study. Of all screws, 154 pedicle screws were inserted by the apprentice, and were divided chronologically into five subgroups. The rates of dangerous placement performed by the apprentice in the first two subgroups were 26.7 and 23.3%, respectively, and were significantly higher than 9.1% by the chief surgeon (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the breach rate was 46.6% in subgroup 1 and 50.0% in subgroup 2, and was significantly higher than 29.3% in chief surgeon (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the first 60 TPS placements, the assessed rates in apprentice reached to a stable level, and no significant difference could be found among the subgroups (subgroup 3, 4 and 5) and the chief surgeon group (P > 0.05). For an apprentice, an experience of at least 60 screw placements under the direction of an experienced surgeon is needed for inserting the TPS in scoliosis using the free-hand technique independently.

  7. Static and cyclical biomechanical analysis of pedicle screw spinal constructs.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B W; Sefter, J C; Shono, Y; McAfee, P C

    1993-09-15

    Biomechanical evaluation of twelve different spinal devices in vitro employing pedicle screws was performed using static (n = 5) and cyclical testing (n = 3) parameters. In general, the rank order of implant failures was similar between static and cyclical tests, performed at 600 N compressive load, 5 Hz, and 1 million cycles. The mean number of cycles to failure was higher for spinal instrumentation systems employing longitudinal rods than those using plates (ANOVA F = 16.94, P < .001). At 600 N, the compact Cotrel-Dubousset, TSRH, and ISOLA rod systems demonstrated mean cycles to failure ranging from 200,000 to 800,000 cycles. The remaining devices including Dyna-lok, Kirschner plate, and VSP devices had failures ranging from 50,000 to 210,000 cycles. Polyethylene cylinders representing vertebral bodies were used to eliminate the problems of biologic deterioration encountered with cadaveric spines (a full cyclical test to 1 million cycles required 56 hours), and thus to provide analysis of the weak portion of each spinal system. The failure of eleven of the twelve spinal systems occurred by fracture of a pedicle screw, most commonly at the junction of the upper screw thread and the collar (Kirschner, AO fixator, standard CD, ISOLA, and TSRH). However, in Dynalok and VSP systems, fracture of the threaded portion of the screw just posterior to the integral nuts was the most common screw fracture location. The compact CD system was the only spinal implant that consistently failed by fracture of the longitudinal spinal member (rod). The fatigue life of rod based systems was longer than plate based systems. These studies confirm the importance of anterior column load sharing (vertebral body, corpectomy bone graft) as the mean bending strength demonstrated by these implant systems was not inordinately high using this "worst case scenario" model.

  8. Biomechanical Analysis of an S1 Pedicle Screw Salvage Technique via a Superior Articulating Process Entry Point.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Po; Ihn, Hansel E; McGarry, Michelle H; Farhan, Saifal-Deen; Bhatia, Nitin; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-07-01

    Biomechanical, cadaveric study. To compare the fixation strength of a novel S1 pedicle screw insertion technique in a revision setting to a standard S1 pedicle screw and an L5 pedicle screw. Fusions to the sacrum remain a difficult clinical challenge. Very few salvage techniques exist when a nonunion occurs. The biomechanical integrity of three screw fixations, L5 pedicle screws, a standard S1 pedicle screw, and an S1 pedicle screw placed via a superior articulating process entry point (SAP S1), was characterized by performing pullout tests using cadaveric specimens including L5 and sacrum. SAP S1 constructs (735.5 ± 110.1 N/mm) were significantly stiffer than standard S1 (P = 0.005) and L5 (P = 0.02) constructs. There was no statistically significant difference between the L5 constructs and the standard S1 constructs for linear stiffness. There was no statistical difference between the three fixations for yield load, displacement at yield load, and energy absorbed to yield load.The ultimate pullout force for the SAP S1 was statistically higher than the standard S1 (1213.7 ± 579.6 vs. 478.6 ± 452.9 N; P = 0.004). Displacement at ultimate load was significantly greater for L5 screw fixation (3.3 ± 1.1 mm) compared to the other two constructs. Both the L5 (2277.4 ± 1873.3 N-mm) and SAP S1 (2628.2 ± 2054.4 N-mm) constructs had significantly greater energy absorbed to ultimate load than the standard S1 construct (811.7 ± 937.6 N-mm), but there was no statistical difference between the L5 and SAP S1 constructs. S1 pedicle screw fixation via an SAP entry point provides biomechanical advantages compared to screws placed via the standard S1 or L5 entry point and may be a viable option for revision of a failed L5-S1 fusion with a compromised standard S1 entry point. N/A.

  9. Morphometric evaluation of subaxial cervical spine using multi-detector computerized tomography (MD-CT) scan: the consideration for cervical pedicle screws fixation.

    PubMed

    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Kraiwattanapong, Chaiwat; Aroonjarattham, Kitti; Leelapattana, Pittavat; Keorochana, Gun; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2014-04-11

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion is a technically demanding procedure. The quantitative understanding of cervical pedicle morphology, especially the narrowest part of cervical pedicle or isthmus, would minimize the risk of catastrophic damage to surrounding neurovascular structures and improve surgical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate morphology and quantify cortical thickness of the cervical isthmus by using Multi-detector Computerized Tomography (MD-CT) scan. The cervical CT scans were performed in 74 patients (37 males and 37 females) with 1-mm slice thickness and then retro-reconstructed into sagittal and coronal planes to measure various cervical parameters as follows: outer pedicle width (OPW), inner pedicle width (IPW), outer pedicle height (OPH), inner pedicle height (IPH), pedicle cortical thickness, pedicle sagittal angle (PSA), and pedicle transverse angle (PTA). Total numbers of 740 pedicles were measured in this present study. The mean OPW and IPW significantly increased from C3 to C7 while the mean OPH and IPH of those showed non-significant difference between any measured levels. The medial-lateral cortical thickness was significantly smaller than the superior-inferior one. PTA in the upper cervical spine was significantly wider than the lower ones. The PSA changed from upward inclination at upper cervical spine to the downward inclination at lower cervical spine. This study has demonstrated that cervical vertebra has relatively small and narrow inner pedicle canal with thick outer pedicle cortex and also shows a variable in pedicle width and inconsistent transverse angle. To enhance the safety of CPS insertion, the entry point and trajectories should be determined individually by using preoperative MD-CT scan and the inner pedicle width should be a key parameter to determine the screw dimensions.

  10. Effect of Off-Axis Screw Insertion, Insertion Torque, and Plate Contouring on Locked Screw Strength

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Bethany; Silva, Matthew J.; Ricci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study quantifies the effects of insertion torque, off-axis screw angulation, and plate contouring on the strength of locking plate constructs. Methods Groups of locking screws (n = 6–11 screws) were inserted at 50%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the manufacturer-recommended torque (3.2 Nm) into locking compression plates at various angles: orthogonal (control), 5-degree angle off-axis, and 10-degree angle off-axis. Screws were loaded to failure by a transverse force (parallel to the plate) either in the same (“+”) or opposite direction (“−”) of the initial screw angulation. Separately, locking plates were bent to 5 and 10-degree angles, with the bend apex at a screw hole. Locking screws inserted orthogonally into the apex hole at 100% torque were loaded to failure. Results Orthogonal insertion resulted in the highest average load to failure, 2577 ± 141 N (range, 2413–2778 N), whereas any off-axis insertion significantly weakened constructs (165–1285 N, at 100% torque) (P < 0.05). For “+” loading, torque beyond 100% did not increase strength, but 50% torque reduced screw strength (P < 0.05). Loading in the “−” direction consistently resulted in higher strengths than “+” loading (P < 0.05). Plate contouring of 5-degree angle did not significantly change screw strength compared with straight plates but contouring of 10-degree angle significantly reduced load to failure (P < 0.05). Conclusions To maximize the screw plate interface strength, locking screws should be inserted without cross-threading. The mechanical stability of locked screws is significantly compromised by loose insertion, off-axis insertion, or severe distortion of the locking mechanism. PMID:24343255

  11. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  12. Accurate and Simple Screw Insertion Procedure With Patient-Specific Screw Guide Templates for Posterior C1-C2 Fixation.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Taku; Higashiyama, Naoki; Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi

    2017-03-15

    Prospective clinical trial of the screw insertion method for posterior C1-C2 fixation utilizing the patient-specific screw guide template technique. To evaluate the efficacy of this method for insertion of C1 lateral mass screws (LMS), C2 pedicle screws (PS), and C2 laminar screws (LS). Posterior C1LMS and C2PS fixation, also known as the Goel-Harms method, can achieve immediate rigid fixation and high fusion rate, but the screw insertion carries the risk of injury to neuronal and vascular structures. Dissection of venous plexus and C2 nerve root to confirm the insertion point of the C1LMS may also cause problems. We have developed an intraoperative screw guiding method using patient-specific laminar templates. Preoperative bone images of computed tomography (CT) were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D)/multiplanar imaging software to plan the trajectories of the screws. Plastic templates with screw guiding structures were created for each lamina using 3D design and printing technology. Three types of templates were made for precise multistep guidance, and all templates were specially designed to fit and lock on the lamina during the procedure. Surgery was performed using this patient-specific screw guide template system, and placement of the screws was postoperatively evaluated using CT. Twelve patients with C1-C2 instability were treated with a total of 48 screws (24 C1LMS, 20 C2PS, 4 C2LS). Intraoperatively, each template was found to exactly fit and lock on the lamina and screw insertion was completed successfully without dissection of the venous plexus and C2 nerve root. Postoperative CT showed no cortical violation by the screws, and mean deviation of the screws from the planned trajectories was 0.70 ± 0.42 mm. The multistep, patient-specific screw guide template system is useful for intraoperative screw navigation in posterior C1-C2 fixation. This simple and economical method can improve the accuracy of screw insertion, and reduce operation time and

  13. Accuracy of Percutaneous Lumbosacral Pedicle Screw Placement Using the Oblique Fluoroscopic View Based on Computed Tomography Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Koji; Kanemura, Tokumi; Iwase, Toshiki; Togawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose This study aims to investigate the accuracy of the oblique fluoroscopic view, based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) images for accurate placement of lumbosacral percutaneous pedicle screws (PPS). Overview of Literature Although PPS misplacement has been reported as one of the main complications in minimally invasive spine surgery, there is no comparative data on the misplacement rate among different fluoroscopic techniques, or comparing such techniques with open procedures. Methods We retrospectively selected 230 consecutive patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion with a pedicle screw construct for degenerative lumbar disease, and divided them into 3 groups, those who had undergone: minimally invasive percutaneous procedure using biplane (lateral and anterior-posterior views using a single C-arm) fluoroscope views (group M-1), minimally invasive percutaneous procedure using the oblique fluoroscopic view based on preoperative CT (group M-2), and conventional open procedure using a lateral fluoroscopic view (group O: controls). The relative position of the screw to the pedicle was graded for the pedicle breach as no breach, <2 mm, 2–4 mm, or >4 mm. Inaccuracy was calculated and assessed according to the spinal level, direction and neurological deficit. Inter-group radiation exposure was estimated using fluoroscopy time. Results Inaccuracy involved an incline toward L5, causing medial or lateral perforation of pedicles in group M-1, but it was distributed relatively equally throughout multiple levels in groups M-2 and controls. The mean fluoroscopy time/case ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 minutes. Conclusions Minimally invasive lumbosacral PPS placement using the conventional fluoroscopic technique carries an increased risk of inaccurate screw placement and resultant neurological deficits, compared with that of the open procedure. Inaccuracy tended to be distributed between medial and lateral perforations of the L5 pedicle

  14. Use of the anatomic trajectory for thoracic pedicle screw salvage after failure/violation using the straight-forward technique: a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-09-15

    A biomechanical study of cadaver vertebrae to determine the feasibility of obtaining adequate thoracic pedicle screw fixation in a salvage situation. OBJECTIVE To investigate the ability to safely place a thoracic pedicle screw with adequate maximal insertional torque (MIT) using the anatomic trajectory (AT) (directed along the true anatomic axis of the pedicle) after purposeful failure/medial violation of the pedicle using the straight-forward trajectory (ST) (paralleling the vertebral endplate). Failure to place a pedicle screw at an intended segment of the thoracic spine may theoretically render the level uninstrumented, because pedicle hook placement may be unsafe and the transverse process may be fractured. An alternative pedicle screw insertion technique, if biomechanically sound in this situation, may present an excellent alternative for critical instrumentation levels. Fixed-head 5.0 mm stainless steel pedicle screws were placed using the ST and MIT was recorded after determination of bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning. Purposeful screw malposition and critical pedicle wall failure were performed, followed by salvage placement of the screw using the AT. Insertional torque was recorded for each screw revolution with a digital torque wrench and MIT was again recorded to compare the MIT obtainable in the salvage situation. BMD for the vertebrae averaged 732 g/cm2 (620-884 g/cm2). The MIT for the straight-forward technique without pedicle violation was 2.61 +/- 0.19 (SE) inches per pound, whereas that of the salvage procedure after medial wall violation (AT) averaged 1.62 +/- 0.12 (SE) inches per pound. Therefore, the AT achieved 62% (P = 0.027) of the fixation strength (in terms of MIT) during salvage after failure/medial violation of the pedicle. MIT for both the ST* and AT trajectories correlated with both global BMD of the vertebrae (*P = 0.008; P = 0.004) and regional BMD of the vertebral body (*P = 0

  15. In vivo study of pedicle screw augmentation using bioactive glass in osteoporosis sheep.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Cheng, Huan; Liu, Zhi-chen; Wu, Jian-wei; Yu, Long; Zang, Yuan; He, Qiang; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-xiang

    2013-06-01

    Augmentation of pedicle screws with bioactive glass (BG) was performed in osteoporotic ovine spine in vivo. Biomechanical tests, micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis, and histologic observation were performed. To investigate the biomechanical stability of pedicle screws augmented by BG in osteoporotic sheep and observe the bone-screw interface histologically. There is little information on the long-term biomechanical performance and screw-bone interfacial bonding of pedicle screws augmented with BG in osteoporotic spine in vivo. Twelve months after ovariectomy combined with methylprednisolone injection, 8 adult female sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups (3- and 6-mo time point groups). In each time point group, pedicles were randomly selected from the lumbar spine (L1-L6) and implanted with (1) pedicle screw alone; (2) pedicle screw augmented by polymethylmethacrylate; or (3) pedicle screw augmented by BG. Three and 6 months after implantation, animals were labeled with tetracycline and calcein before being killed. Then vertebrae with pedicle screws were obtained, and a micro-CT scan, histologic analysis, and biomechanical tests were performed. Three months after implantation, micro-CT reconstruction showed that microstructural parameters of the BG group were significantly better compared with those in the other 2 groups (P<0.05). Histologic observation revealed that bone trabeculae around the screws in the BG group were more in number and denser than those in the control group. The average mineral apposition rate of the bone in the BG group was also higher than that in the other 2 groups (P<0.05). The mechanical properties in the BG group were also significantly higher than that in the control group. Six months after implantation, similar results except mineral apposition rate can be obtained among different groups. BG can significantly improve bone microstructure of the interface in osteoporosis condition and increase the hold strength of the pedicle

  16. Cortical bone trajectory screws placement via pedicle or pedicle rib unit in the pediatric thoracic spine (T9-T12): A 2-dimensional multiplanar reconstruction study using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jun; Chen, Jian; He, Hui; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Di; Wu, Yao-Sen; Tian, Nai-Feng; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-02-01

    Thoracic cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw fixation can maximize the thread contact with cortical bone, and it is 53.8% higher than that of the traditional pedicle screws. Moreover, it can also enable less tissue dissection and retraction for reduced muscle disruption.Eighty pediatric patients are divided into 4 age groups and their thoracic vertebrae are analyzed on computed tomography (CT) images. The maximal screw length, maximal screw diameter, screw diameter, and the cephalad angle are measured. The statistical analysis is performed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis.Maximal screw length increases from T9 to T12 and there are significant differences between girls and boys at T9, T10, T11, and T12 in majority of groups (P < 0.05). The maximal screw diameter and screw diameter increase from T9 to T12. The maximal screw diameter ranges from 6.27 mm to 10.20 mm, whereas the screw diameter ranges from 3.87 mm to 6.75 mm. Meanwhile, the maximum cephalad angle is 23.06° and the minimum is 13.11°. No statistically significant differences in the cephalad angle are found at all levels.Our study establishes the feasibility of 4.5 to 5.5 mm CBT screws fixation via pedicle or pedicle rib unit in the pediatric thoracic spine. The entry point of the pediatric thoracic CBT screws is 6 o'clock orientation of the pedicle. Findings of our study also provide insights into the screw insertion angle and screw size decision.

  17. Unilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation with Bone Graft vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation with Bone Graft or Cage: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si-Dong; Chen, Qian; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Shen, Yong; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the clinical efficacy of unilateral pedicle screw fixation with bone graft (UPSFB) in treating single-segment lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD), as compared to bilateral pedicle screw fixation with bone graft (BPSFB) or with cage (BPSFC). Material/Methods Medical records were retrospectively collected between 01/2010 and 02/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. According to surgical methods used, all patients were divided into 3 groups: UPSFB group, BPSFB group, and BPSFC group. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by blood loss, blood transfusion, duration of operation, hospital stay, postoperative complications, interbody fusion rate, reoperation rate, medical expenses, patient satisfaction survey, and JOA score. Results Ninety-five patients were included and underwent 2.5-year follow-up, with 7 patients lost to regular follow-up. As compared to the BPSFB group and BPSFC group, the UPSFB group had less blood loss and less blood transfusion, as well as shorter hospital stay (p<0.05). Medical expenses were far lower in the UPSFB group (p<0.001). There were no significant differences among the 3 groups in postoperative complications, interbody fusion rate, reoperation rate, JOA score, and patient satisfaction (all p>0.05). Conclusions As compared to BPSFB and BPSFC, UPSFB has the same reliability and effectiveness in treating single-segment LDD with unilateral radicular symptoms in a single lower extremity, with the additional advantage being less expensive. PMID:26988532

  18. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective.

  19. Computed tomography assessment of lateral pedicle wall perforation by free-hand subaxial cervical pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingsong; Xie, Jingming; Yang, Zhendong; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Ying; Li, Tao; Liu, Luping

    2013-07-01

    To present the technique of free-hand subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement without using intra-operative navigating devices, and to investigate the crucial factors for safe placement and avoidance of lateral pedicle wall perforation, by measuring and classifying perforations with postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. The placement of CPS has generally been considered as technically demanding and associated with considerable lateral wall perforation rate. For surgeons without access to navigation systems, experience of safe free-hand technique for subaxial CPS placement is especially valuable. A total of 214 consecutive traumatic or degenerative patients with 1,024 CPS placement using the free-hand technique were enrolled. In the operative process, the lateral mass surface was decorticated. Then a small curette was used to identify the pedicle entrance by touching the cortical bone of the medial pedicle wall. It was crucial to keep the transverse angle and make appropriate adjustment with guidance of the resistance of the thick medial cortical bone. The hand drill should be redirected once soft tissue breach was palpated by a slim ball-tip prober. With proper trajectory, tapping, repeated palpation, the 26-30 mm screw could be placed. After the procedure, the transverse angle of CPS trajectory was measured, and perforation of the lateral wall was classified by CT scan: grade 1, perforation of pedicle wall by screw placement, with the external edge of screw deviating out of the lateral pedicle wall equal to or less than 2 mm and grade 2, critical perforation of pedicle wall by screw placement, large than 2 mm. A total of 129 screws (12.64 %) were demonstrated as lateral pedicle wall perforation, of which 101 screws (9.86 %) were classified as grade 1, whereas 28 screws (2.73 %) as grade 2. Among the segments involved, C3 showed an obviously higher perforating rate than other (P < 0.05). The difference between the anatomical pedicle transverse angle

  20. Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement Guide Plate Produced by Three-Dimensional (3-D) Laser Printing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang; Guo, Kaijing; Yang, Huilin; Wu, Dongying; Yuan, Feng

    2016-05-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an individualized thoracic pedicle screw placement guide plate produced by 3-D laser printing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thoracic pedicle samples of 3 adult cadavers were randomly assigned for 3-D CT scans. The 3-D thoracic models were established by using medical Mimics software, and a screw path was designed with scanned data. Then the individualized thoracic pedicle screw placement guide plate models, matched to the backside of thoracic vertebral plates, were produced with a 3-D laser printer. Screws were placed with assistance of a guide plate. Then, the placement was assessed. RESULTS With the data provided by CT scans, 27 individualized guide plates were produced by 3-D printing. There was no significant difference in sex and relevant parameters of left and right sides among individuals (P>0.05). Screws were placed with assistance of guide plates, and all screws were in the correct positions without penetration of pedicles, under direct observation and anatomic evaluation post-operatively. CONCLUSIONS A thoracic pedicle screw placement guide plate can be produced by 3-D printing. With a high accuracy in placement and convenient operation, it provides a new method for accurate placement of thoracic pedicle screws.

  1. Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement Guide Plate Produced by Three-Dimensional (3-D) Laser Printing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongliang; Guo, Kaijing; Yang, Huilin; Wu, Dongying; Yuan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an individualized thoracic pedicle screw placement guide plate produced by 3-D laser printing. Material/Methods Thoracic pedicle samples of 3 adult cadavers were randomly assigned for 3-D CT scans. The 3-D thoracic models were established by using medical Mimics software, and a screw path was designed with scanned data. Then the individualized thoracic pedicle screw placement guide plate models, matched to the backside of thoracic vertebral plates, were produced with a 3-D laser printer. Screws were placed with assistance of a guide plate. Then, the placement was assessed. Results With the data provided by CT scans, 27 individualized guide plates were produced by 3-D printing. There was no significant difference in sex and relevant parameters of left and right sides among individuals (P>0.05). Screws were placed with assistance of guide plates, and all screws were in the correct positions without penetration of pedicles, under direct observation and anatomic evaluation post-operatively. Conclusions A thoracic pedicle screw placement guide plate can be produced by 3-D printing. With a high accuracy in placement and convenient operation, it provides a new method for accurate placement of thoracic pedicle screws. PMID:27194139

  2. Spinal pedicle screw planning using deformable atlas registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerres, J.; Uneri, A.; De Silva, T.; Ketcha, M.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Jacobson, M.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Osgood, G.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-04-01

    Spinal screw placement is a challenging task due to small bone corridors and high risk of neurological or vascular complications, benefiting from precision guidance/navigation and quality assurance (QA). Implicit to both guidance and QA is the definition of a surgical plan—i.e. the desired trajectories and device selection for target vertebrae—conventionally requiring time-consuming manual annotations by a skilled surgeon. We propose automation of such planning by deriving the pedicle trajectory and device selection from a patient’s preoperative CT or MRI. An atlas of vertebrae surfaces was created to provide the underlying basis for automatic planning—in this work, comprising 40 exemplary vertebrae at three levels of the spine (T7, T8, and L3). The atlas was enriched with ideal trajectory annotations for 60 pedicles in total. To define trajectories for a given patient, sparse deformation fields from the atlas surfaces to the input (CT or MR image) are applied on the annotated trajectories. Mean value coordinates are used to interpolate dense deformation fields. The pose of a straight trajectory is optimized by image-based registration to an accumulated volume of the deformed annotations. For evaluation, input deformation fields were created using coherent point drift (CPD) to perform a leave-one-out analysis over the atlas surfaces. CPD registration demonstrated surface error of 0.89  ±  0.10 mm (median  ±  interquartile range) for T7/T8 and 1.29  ±  0.15 mm for L3. At the pedicle center, registered trajectories deviated from the expert reference by 0.56  ±  0.63 mm (T7/T8) and 1.12  ±  0.67 mm (L3). The predicted maximum screw diameter differed by 0.45  ±  0.62 mm (T7/T8), and 1.26  ±  1.19 mm (L3). The automated planning method avoided screw collisions in all cases and demonstrated close agreement overall with expert reference plans, offering a potentially valuable tool in support

  3. Percutaneous pedicle screw placement under single dimensional fluoroscopy with a designed pedicle finder-a technical note and case series.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, Fon-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Kuo, Yi-Jie; Tseng, Wei-Lung; Chen, Yuan-Shen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Feng-Huei; Chiang, Chang-Jung

    2017-09-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery has become increasingly popular in clinical practice, and it offers patients the potential benefits of reduced blood loss, wound pain, and infection risk, and it also diminishes the loss of working time and length of hospital stay. However, surgeons require more intraoperative fluoroscopy and ionizing radiation exposure during minimally invasive spine surgery for localization, especially for guidance in instrumentation placement. In addition, computer navigation is not accessible in some facility-limited institutions. This study aimed to demonstrate a method for percutaneous screws placement using only the anterior-posterior (AP) trajectory of intraoperative fluoroscopy. A technical report (a retrospective and prospective case series) was carried out. Patients who received posterior fixation with percutaneous pedicle screws for thoracolumbar degenerative disease or trauma comprised the patient sample. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive 670 patients who received 4,072 pedicle screws between December 2010 and August 2015. Another case series study was conducted prospectively in three additional hospitals, and 88 consecutive patients with 413 pedicle screws were enrolled from February 2014 to July 2016. The fluoroscopy shot number and radiation dose were recorded. In the prospective study, 78 patients with 371 screws received computed tomography at 3 months postoperatively to evaluate the fusion condition and screw positions. In the retrospective series, the placement of a percutaneous screw required 5.1 shots (2-14, standard deviation [SD]=2.366) of AP fluoroscopy. One screw was revised because of a medialwall breach of the pedicle. In the prospective series, 5.8 shots (2-16, SD=2.669) were required forone percutaneous pedicle screw placement. There were two screws with a Grade 1 breach (8.6%), both at the lateral wall of the pedicle, out of 23 screws placed at the thoracic spine at T9-T12. Forthe lumbar and sacral

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Power-Assisted Pedicle Tract Preparation and Screw Placement.

    PubMed

    Seehausen, Derek A; Skaggs, David L; Andras, Lindsay M; Javidan, Yashar

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective review of 1 surgeon's posterior spinal fusion cases. To assess the safety and efficacy of using power tools versus using manual tools to create pedicle tracts and place pedicle screws. This is the first study to report on the safety and efficacy of pedicle tract creation and pedicle screw placement using power tools. The study included 442 cases and 6412 pedicle screws. The manual tool cohort included 159 cases (1,870 screws, January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2007). The power tool cohort included 283 cases (4,542 screws, January 1, 2008 to August 29, 2012). Patient charts and radiographs were reviewed. The researchers recorded the number of screws placed and their positions. Screws were classified as failed if the patient returned to surgery for revision or removal of the screw. Operating and fluoroscopy times were analyzed by cohort overall and for diagnosis-specific subsets. The incidence of injury resulting from pedicle screw placement was 0.00% (0 of 1,870) with the manual method and 0.02% (1 of 4,542) with power (p = .5211). One screw, placed with power, was assumed to have caused a minor hemothorax, which was successfully treated with a chest tube. There were no neurologic or vascular injuries or other complications attributable to a pedicle screw in either group. Screws placed with power were removed or revised because of problems attributable to the pedicle screw one-sixth as often as those placed using manual tools: 2 of 1,410 (0.14%) versus 8 of 948 (0.84%) (p = .024). Fluoroscopy times in the power cohort were two-thirds as long as those in the manual cohort (p < .001). Operating times were not significantly different (p = .109). The use of power tools to create pedicle tracts and place pedicle screws was associated with shorter fluoroscopy times and a lower revision rate compared with using manual tools. Both techniques posed similar low risks of injury to the patient. Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Accuracy of robot-assisted pedicle screw placement for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Macke, Jeremy J; Woo, Raymund; Varich, Laura

    2016-06-01

    This is a retrospective review of pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under 18 years of age who underwent robot-assisted corrective surgery. Our primary objective was to characterize the accuracy of pedicle screw placement with evaluation by computed tomography (CT) after robot-assisted surgery in AIS patients. Screw malposition is the most frequent complication of pedicle screw placement and is more frequent in AIS. Given the potential for serious complications, the need for improved accuracy of screw placement has spurred multiple innovations including robot-assisted guidance devices. No studies to date have evaluated this robot-assisted technique using CT exclusively within the AIS population. Fifty patients were included in the study. All operative procedures were performed at a single institution by a single pediatric orthopedic surgeon. We evaluated the grade of screw breach, the direction of screw breach, and the positioning of the patient for preoperative scan (supine versus prone). Of 662 screws evaluated, 48 screws (7.2 %) demonstrated a breach of greater than 2 mm. With preoperative prone position CT scanning, only 2.4 % of screws were found to have this degree of breach. Medial malposition was found in 3 % of screws, a rate which decreased to 0 % with preoperative prone position scanning. Based on our results, we conclude that the proper use of image-guided robot-assisted surgery can improve the accuracy and safety of thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is the first study to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using CT assessment in robot-assisted surgical correction of patients with AIS. In our study, the robot-assisted screw misplacement rate was lower than similarly constructed studies evaluating conventional (non-robot-assisted) procedures. If patients are preoperatively scanned in the prone position, the misplacement rate is further

  6. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Dai, Jianhao; Zhang, Junxiang; Ma, Yichuan; Zhu, Guanghui; Shen, Junjie; Niu, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine. Methods Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis). The upper cervical spine models and navigation templates were produced by 3D printer with equal proportion, two sets for each case. In one set (Test group), pedicle screws fixation were guided by the navigation template; in the second set (Control group), the screws were fixed under fluoroscopy. According to the degree of pedicle cortex perforation and whether the screw needed to be refitted, the fixation effects were divided into 3 types: Type I, screw is fully located within the vertebral pedicle; Type II, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is <1 mm, but with good internal fixation stability and no need to renovate; Type III, degree of pedicle cortex perforation is >1 mm or with the poor internal fixation stability and in need of renovation. Type I and Type II were acceptable placements; Type III placements were unacceptable. Results A total of 19 upper cervical spine and 19 navigation templates were printed, and 37 pedicle screws were fixed in each group. Type I screw-placements in the test group totaled 32; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 2; with an acceptable rate of 94.60%. Type I screw placements in the control group totaled 23; Type II totaled 3; and Type III totaled 11, with an acceptable rate of 70.27%. The acceptability rate in test group was higher than the rate in control group. The operation time and fluoroscopic frequency for each screw were decreased, compared with control group. Conclusion The individualized 3D

  7. Pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative computed tomography and 3-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    PubMed

    Larson, A Noelle; Santos, Edward R G; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles G T; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Mielke, Cary H; Guidera, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study reporting the use of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) and image-guided navigation system for the placement of pedicle screws in pediatric compared with adult patients. To evaluate the accuracy of open pedicle screw placement in pediatric patients using intraoperative CT and 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation. Pedicle screws are widely used in children for the correction of spinal deformity. Navigation systems and intraoperative CT are now available as an adjunct to fluoroscopy and anatomic techniques for placing pedicle screws and verifying screw position. From 2007 to 2010, 984 pedicle screws were placed in a consecutive series cohort of 50 pediatric patients for spinal deformity correction with the use of intraoperative CT (O-arm, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO) and a computerized navigation system (Stealth, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO). The primary outcome measure for this study is redirection or removal of screw on the basis of the intraoperative CT imaging. During the study period, 1511 screws were placed in adult patients using the same image guidance system. A total of 984 pedicle screws were implanted using real-time navigation, with a mean of 20 screws per patient (range: 2-34). On the basis of intraoperative CT, 35 screws (3.6%) were revised (27 redirected and 8 removed), representing a 96.4% accuracy rate. No patients returned to the operating room because of screw malposition.Of the 1511 screws placed in adult patients, 28 (1.8%) were revised intraoperatively for malposition on CT imaging, for an overall 98.2% accuracy rate. Screw revision thus was more common in the pediatric population (P = 0.008). However, the pediatric screw accuracy rate is significantly higher than the findings from a recent meta-analysis of predominantly nonnavigated screws in children, reporting a 94.9% accuracy rate (P = 0.03). We report 96.4% accuracy in pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative CT and a 3D navigation

  8. Segmental pedicle screw fixation or cross-links in multilevel lumbar constructs. a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Brodke, D S; Bachus, K N; Mohr, R A; Nguyen, B K

    2001-01-01

    The placement of segmental pedicle screws and cross-links in short segment posterior pedicle screw constructs has been shown to increase the construct stiffness in some planes. To date, no studies have looked at the contributions of segmental pedicle screw and cross-link placement in longer constructs. To evaluate the influence of segmental pedicle screw and/or cross-link placement on flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial torsion stiffness in two- and three-level posterior pedicle screw fixation constructs. An in vitro biomechanical analysis of two- and three-level posterior pedicle screw constructs with and without segmental fixation and/or cross-links was performed using calf lumbar spines. Stiffness of the constructs was compared. Six calf lumbar specimens were used to test stiffness in one-, two- and three-level posterior pedicle screw fixation constructs in 12 configurations. A custom-made, four-axis spine simulator applied pure cyclical (+/-5 Nm) flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial torsion moments at 0.1 Hz under a constant 50-N axial compressive load. The stiffness of each construct was calculated about each axis of rotation. Data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques with statistical significance determined at alpha less than .05. The stiffness of the instrumented spines were significantly greater than the noninstrumented intact spines in all loading conditions for one-, two- and three-level constructs. There were no significant changes in flexion/extension stiffness with the addition of either the cross-links or the segmental pedicle screws. In lateral bending, the addition of segmental pedicle screws significantly increased the stiffness in the two- and three-level constructs. The addition of two cross-links increased lateral bending stiffness in the longer three-level constructs, with little change in the two-level constructs. In axial torsion, the progressive addition of cross-links showed a tendency toward increased stiffness in

  9. Utilization of paraspinal muscles for triggered EMG during thoracic pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Justin W; Mermelstein, Laurence E

    2010-03-01

    A novel intraoperative neurophysiological technique for testing the integrity of the pedicle during screw fixation for spinal deformity surgery is presented. The thoracic paraspinal muscles at the appropriate level are used as the electromyogram (EMG) pick-up for direct current stimulation of the thoracic pedicle screw at that level. This technique is shown to give reliable and reproducible results. This technique is found to produce more reliable data than the methods most commonly used at this time.

  10. A novel cost-effective computer-assisted imaging technology for accurate placement of thoracic pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Sudo, Hideki; Minami, Akio

    2011-11-01

    Use of computer-assisted spine surgery (CASS) technologies, such as navigation systems, to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw (PS) placement is increasingly popular. Despite of their benefits, previous CASS systems are too expensive to be ubiquitously employed, and more affordable and portable systems are desirable. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel and affordable computer-assisted technique that 3-dimensionally visualizes anatomical features of the pedicles and assists in PS insertion. The authors have termed this the 3D-visual guidance technique for inserting pedicle screws (3D-VG TIPS). The 3D-VG technique for placing PSs requires only a consumer-class computer with an inexpensive 3D DICOM viewer; other special equipment is unnecessary. Preoperative CT data of the spine were collected for each patient using the 3D-VG TIPS. In this technique, the anatomical axis of each pedicle can be analyzed by volume-rendered 3D models, as with existing navigation systems, and both the ideal entry point and the trajectory of each PS can be visualized on the surface of 3D-rendered images. Intraoperative guidance slides are made from these images and displayed on a TV monitor in the operating room. The surgeon can insert PSs according to these guidance slides. The authors enrolled 30 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who underwent posterior fusion with segmental screw fixation for validation of this technique. The novel technique allowed surgeons, from office or home, to evaluate the precise anatomy of each pedicle and the risks of screw misplacement, and to perform 3D preoperative planning for screw placement on their own computer. Looking at both 3D guidance images on a TV monitor and the bony structures of the posterior elements in each patient in the operating theater, surgeons were able to determine the best entry point for each PS with ease and confidence. Using the current technique, the screw malposition rate was 4.5% in the thoracic

  11. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Sohail; Munshi, Naseem; Abbas, Asad; Shaikh, Rabia Hassan; Hashmi, Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487). It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009) pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001). There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27695235

  12. A pedicle screw bridging device for posterior segmental fixation of the spine: preliminary mechanical testing results.

    PubMed

    Rahmatalla, A T; Hastings, G W; Dove, J; Crawshaw, A H

    1991-03-01

    Mechanical assessment of a new pedicle screw bridge device for spinal surgery is reported. Results are given for a series of single tests to failure and a fatigue cyclical loading test. Comparative testing of torsional and lateral bending resistance on three surgical spinal fixation systems was carried out: Luque, wired Hartshill rectangle and pedicle screwed bridge with Hartshill rectangle and pedicle screwed bridge with Hartshill rectangle. The results show the superiority of the bridged Hartshill in both rotational and lateral bending resistance. The new bridge device could also improve the versatility of the Hartshill system to cover a wider spectrum of spinal fixations. A test to determine the axial pull-out strength of three screw designs was undertaken. The differences between the forces needed were insignificant. At failure a cylinder of bone tissues greater than the major diameter of the screw was pulled out without breaking the bone.

  13. Easy retrieval of polyaxial tulip-head pedicle screws by “U” rod technique

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Cengiz; Altinel, Levent; Ates, Ali; Ozdemir, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The number of fusion surgeries increase each year which also increase the need for implant removal. In some cases, it can be extremely hard to remove a pedicle screw especially when there is a mismatch of the screw and the screwdriver. Also the screwdrivers can be contaminated during the operation, and this will cause a delay till the instruments are re-sterilized. There is a need for the removal of screws without special instruments. We describe a method for removing tulip-head polyaxial pedicle screws without special instruments. The screws are removed using an Allen key, a rod bender and a “U” shaped rod. We successfully removed 76 screws in 11 recent cases without any complications. The “U” rod technique is a simple and useful technique for the removal of tulip-head polyaxial screws. PMID:19618219

  14. Easy retrieval of polyaxial tulip-head pedicle screws by "U" rod technique.

    PubMed

    Kose, Kamil Cagri; Isik, Cengiz; Altinel, Levent; Ates, Ali; Ozdemir, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The number of fusion surgeries increase each year which also increase the need for implant removal. In some cases, it can be extremely hard to remove a pedicle screw especially when there is a mismatch of the screw and the screwdriver. Also the screwdrivers can be contaminated during the operation, and this will cause a delay till the instruments are re-sterilized. There is a need for the removal of screws without special instruments. We describe a method for removing tulip-head polyaxial pedicle screws without special instruments. The screws are removed using an Allen key, a rod bender and a "U" shaped rod. We successfully removed 76 screws in 11 recent cases without any complications. The "U" rod technique is a simple and useful technique for the removal of tulip-head polyaxial screws.

  15. Comparison Between Gearshift And Drill Techniques For Pedicle Screw Placement By Resident Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jonathan; Akpolat, Yusuf T.; Kishan, Shyam; Peppers, Tim; Asgarzadie, Farbod

    2015-01-01

    Background Various techniques have been described for pedicle screw placement with established clinical and radiological success. Suboptimal screw trajectories can compromise bony purchase and, worse yet, cause neurological and vascular injuries. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve maximum accuracy of screw placement. Our objective is to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine by resident surgeons. Two popular techniques, gearshift versus drill, were compared. Methods This is a a cadaveric surgical technique comparison study. Six resident surgeons instrumented the spine from T1 to S1 using both gearshift and drill techniques. Each pedicle was randomly assigned to either of the techniques. Pedicle screws were placed freehand without radiographic guidance. Violations (medial, lateral, anterior, superior and inferior) were recorded by studying the computerized tomographic scans of instrumented cadavers by blinded observers. Critical perforations were defined as greater than 2mm breach of the pedicle wall. Results A total of 100 vertebrae (200 pedicles) were instrumented in the six cadavers. 103 pedicles were breached (51.5% of total pedicles). Lateral violations were the most encountered (65% of violations, 67 total, 48 critical, 19 noncritical) followed by medial (24%, 25 total, 13 critical, 12 noncritical), and the rest were anterior (3%), superior (4%) and inferior (4%). There was no overall difference in violations comparing the gearshift technique (49.5%, 51 total, 37 critical, 14 noncritical) with drill technique (50.5%, 52 total, 33 critical, 19 noncritical). Analyzing the breaches at individual vertebra indicated most violations at T6 (11), T5 (10), followed by T3 (9) and T4 (9), decreasing towards the lumbosacral vertebrae. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the gearshift and drill techniques for placement of pedicle screws in the thoracolumbar spine fare similarly with regards to risk of breach

  16. Endovascular Treatment of Late Aortic Erosive Lesion by Pedicle Screw without Screw Removal: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Zerati, Antonio Eduardo; Leiderman, Dafne Braga Diamante; Teixeira, William Gemio Jacobsen; Narazaki, Douglas Kenji; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Wolosker, Nelson; de Luccia, Nelson; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2017-02-01

    Aortic lesions are uncommon complications in spine surgery, but potentially fatal, because they can cause massive bleeding and hemodynamic instability. We report the endovascular treatment of late aortic erosive lesion by pedicle screw without screw removal. A breast cancer patient had a pathological fracture on T10, with spinal cord compression, and a pseudoaneurysm of the aorta in contact with an anterolateral pedicle screw. Endovascular surgery corrected the aortic lesion and allowed decompression, a week later, by posterior arthrodesis (T7-L1), with screw maintenance. There was no contrast leakage at thorax angiotomography in 2 years, and she died of meningeal carcinomatosis. Screw maintenance was safe in the endovascular treatment of aortic lesion by erosion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability of the Planned Pedicle Screw Trajectory versus the Actual Pedicle Screw Trajectory using Intra-operative 3D CT and Image Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Ledonio, Charles G.; Hunt, Matthew A.; Siddiq, Farhan; Polly, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances, including navigation, have been made to improve safety and accuracy of pedicle screw fixation. We evaluated the accuracy of the virtual screw placement (Stealth projection) compared to actual screw placement (intra-operative O-Arm) and examined for differences based on the distance from the reference frame. Methods A retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data was conducted from January 2013 to September 2013. We evaluated thoracic and lumbosacral pedicle screws placed using intraoperative O-arm and Stealth navigation by obtaining virtual screw projections and intraoperative O-arm images after screw placement. The screw trajectory angle to the midsagittal line and superior endplate was compared in the axial and sagittal views, respectively. Percent error and paired t-test statistics were then performed. Results Thirty-one patients with 240 pedicle screws were analyzed. The mean angular difference between the virtual and actual image in all screws was 2.17° ± 2.20° on axial images and 2.16° ± 2.24° on sagittal images. There was excellent agreement between actual and virtual pedicle screw trajectories in the axial and sagittal plane with ICC = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.992-0.995) (p<0.001) and ICC= 0.81 (95%CI: 0.759-0.855) (p<0.001) respectively. When comparing thoracic and lumbar screws, there was a significant difference in the sagittal angulation between the two distributions. No statistical differences were found distance from the reference frame. Conclusion The virtual projection view is clinically accurate compared to the actual placement on intra-operative CT in both the axial and sagittal views. There is slight imprecision (~2°) in the axial and sagittal planes and a minor difference in the sagittal thoracic and lumbar angulation, although these did not affect clinical outcomes. In general, we find that pedicle screw placement using intraoperative cone beam CT and navigation to be accurate and reliable, and as such

  18. [Biomechanical study of the influence of stability for the pedicle screws fixation by injured vertebral screw when the pedicle cortex perforation].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Su, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-min

    2014-08-01

    To explore the impact of pedicle cortex perforation on the stability of internal fixation of the vertebral body fracture, and to compare the stability of the vertebrae with pedicle cortex perforation after the injured vertebra transpedicular screw fixation by different ways. A total of 36 fresh thoracic and lumbarvertebrae samples of adult sheep (T₁₃-L₁) were equally divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) by using the random number table method. The vertebral compression fracture was performed in the L1 vertebral body of the four groups using the Chiba's method. Four pedicle screws were fixed on the upper and lower injured vertebrae of four groups. In addition, the group C was fixed into a pedicle screw through the injured vertebrae; D group was set two pedicle screws through the injured vertebrae. Then the samples of group B, C, and D were removed a quarter of either side of lateral T₁₄ thoracic pedicle, which was considered as the pedicle cortex perforation model. Four groups were performed fatigue test of 10 000 times by (300 ± 105)N load. The drawing force of the screw and the stability of injured thoracolumbar vertebrae were measured and the differences in every group were compared. The axial compressive stiffness and maximum drawing force of screws in the other three groups were significantly higher than those in group B (all P=0.000). The maximum range of motion in four directions of group B were significantly larger than those of the other three groups (all P=0.000). The stiffness and the drawing force in groups C and D were significantly larger than those in the group A (all P=0.000), and the maximum range of motion in four directions of the two groups were lower than that of group A (P=0.002, P=0.005). Every testing indicator in group C had no significant difference when compared with group D (P>0.05). The pedicle cortex perforation seriously affects the stability of the fractured vertebral body. The injured vertebra transpedicular screw can

  19. Computed tomographic morphometry of thoracic pedicles: safety margin of transpedicular screw fixation in malaysian malay population.

    PubMed

    Liau, Kai Ming; Yusof, Mohd Imran; Abdullah, Mohd Shafie; Abdullah, Sarimah; Yusof, Abdul Halim

    2006-07-15

    A cross-sectional study of thoracic pedicle morphometry (T1-T12) of 180 Malaysian Malay patients obtained from computed tomographic scan. To determine the safety margin in the placement of thoracic transpedicular screw in the Malay population. Previous studies have shown a significantly smaller thoracic pedicular parameters in Asians compared with whites. The safety margin in the placement of thoracic transpedicular screw in our population therefore needs to be defined. T1-T12 vertebral pedicles were studied in 180 Malay ethnic patients (age range, 18-80 years). The following parameters were studied: transverse outer pedicle diameter, transverse inner pedicle diameter, transverse pedicle angle, chord length, pedicle length, and pedicle cortical thickness. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Student's t test and ANOVA test. Female patients have significantly smaller dimensions in most of the parameters measured compared with male patients. However, no significant difference was found between age groups. Transverse outer pedicle diameter were widest at T1 (male, 8.42 mm; female, 7.56 mm) and narrowest at T4 (male, 4.56 mm; female, 3.95 mm). Pedicle diameters of less than 5.5 mm were commonly seen at T4 followed by T5, T6, T7, T8, and T9. A significant percentage of patients have an outer diameter of less than 4.5 mm from T4-T7. The medial cortices were 50% thicker than the lateral cortices at most levels. Chord lengths were maximum at T8 and minimum at T1. Transverse pedicle angle were widest at T1 and less than 5 degrees from T7-T12. The results suggest that the current pedicle screw system is not suitable for the majority of Malay population, especially at midthoracic level. The smaller pedicle measurements in Malays may be attributed to their shorter body built compared with whites.

  20. Pedicle screw instrumentation for adult idiopathic scoliosis: an improvement over hook/hybrid fixation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Peter S; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Mulconrey, Daniel S; Cronen, Geoffrey A; Buchowski, Jacob M; Schwend, Richard M; Sides, Brenda A

    2009-04-15

    A matched cohort comparison of adult idiopathic scoliosis (AdIS) patients treated with all pedicle screw constructs compared to hook/hybrid constructs. To compare clinical and radiographic results of AdIS treatment using all pedicle screw constructs versus hook/hybrid constructs. Pedicle screw instrumentation has demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy in the treatment of pediatric spinal deformity. No prior reports have compared the outcomes of pedicle screw only constructs to hook/hybrid constructs in the treatment of AdIS. We analyzed 34 consecutive patients undergoing posterior-only correction for AdIS, using pedicle screw instrumentation at minimum 2-year follow-up. Thirty-four matching patients (11 with anterior releases) were selected from a cohort of 58 patients treated with hook/hybrid constructs based on similar age, curve type, magnitude, and fusion levels. Significantly greater curve correction was seen in the pedicle screw compared to the hook/hybrid group (56 vs. 40%, P < 0.01). Coronal and sagittal imbalance were equivalent between the groups (P = 0.91 and 0.23, respectively). Thoracic kyphosis (T5-T12) was maintained in the pedicle screw patients but significantly increased in the hybrid/hook patients over time (P < 0.05). Scoliosis Research Society outcome scores significantly improved in both groups. Blood loss was equivalent but operative time was longer in the hook/hybrid patients.No pedicle screw patients were revised for instrumentation complications with 1 lumbosacral nonunion revised at 5 years postoperative (3% revision rate). Eight of 58 patients among the hook/hybrid cohort underwent 9 revisions for instrumentation failure (n = 3) or nonunion (n = 6) (14% revision rate; P = 0.04). Pedicle screw correction of AdIS is safe and effective. Compared to hook/hybrid constructs, these patients displayed significantly improved correction of the major curve (even in the absence of anterior releases), maintenance of thoracic kyphosis, and a lower

  1. Current trends in pedicle screw stimulation techniques: lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical levels.

    PubMed

    Isley, Michael R; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Leppanen, Ronald E

    2012-06-01

    Unequivocally, pedicle screw instrumentation has evolved as a primary construct for the treatment of both common and complex spinal disorders. However an inevitable and potentially major complication associated with this type of surgery is misplacement of a pedicle screw(s) which may result in neural and vascular complications, as well as impair the biomechanical stability of the spinal instrumentation resulting in loss of fixation. In light of these potential surgical complications, critical reviews of outcome data for treatment of chronic, low-back pain using pedicle screw instrumentation concluded that "pedicle screw fixation improves radiographically demonstrated fusion rates;" however the expense and complication rates for such constructs are considerable in light of the clinical benefit (Resnick et al. 2005a). Currently, neuromonitoring using free-run and evoked (triggered) electromyography (EMG) is widely used and advocated for safer and more accurate placement of pedicle screws during open instrumentation procedures, and more recently, guiding percutaneous placement (minimally invasive) where the pedicle cannot be easily inspected visually. The latter technique, evoked or triggered EMG when applied to pedicle screw instrumentation surgeries, has been referred to as the pedicle screw stimulation technique. As concluded in the Position Statement by the American Society of Neurophysiological Monitoring (ASNM), multimodality neuromonitoring using free-run EMG and the pedicle screw stimulation technique was considered a practice option and not yet a standard of care (Leppanen 2005). Subsequently, the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves published their "Guidelines for the Performance of Fusion Procedures for Degenerative Disease of the Lumbar Spine" (Heary 2005, Resnick et al. 2005a, Resnick et al. 2005b). It was concluded that the "primary

  2. Evaluation of calcium sulfate paste for augmentation of lumbar pedicle screw pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Rohmiller, Michael T; Schwalm, Dugan; Glattes, R Chris; Elalayli, Tarek G; Spengler, Dan M

    2002-01-01

    Many authors have evaluated the components responsible for ultimate pullout strength of pedicle screws. In these studies, one important variable has been the screw fixation. Because pedicle screw fixation has increased in popularity over recent years, so has the need for augmentation in difficult situations. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been established as the gold standard in terms of strength of fixation but has the potential for severe complications when applied in spine surgery. Calcium sulfate is an alternative to PMMA, because it lacks the exothermic reaction, is potentially osteoconductive and is resorbed by the body in 30 to 60 days. To determine the strength of a new calcium sulfate cement in terms of pedicle screw augmentation. The purpose was to evaluate calcium sulfate versus PMMA in terms of pullout strength. PMMA was considered the gold standard in terms of strength for this experiment. Lumbar vertebrae implanted with pedicle screws were subjected to axial pullout tests. The force required to cause implant failure was measured and compared for three methods of fixation. Force to failure (Newtons) for each pedicle test was recorded and analyzed with results from similarly augmented pedicles. Lumbar vertebrae were harvested from four cadavers and implanted with pedicle screws. These screws were either placed in native bone or augmented with either calcium sulfate paste or PMMA. In those pedicles that had augmentation, the material was permitted to set for a minimum of 24 hours. Axial pullout tests were then performed using an MTS (Materials Testing System Corporation, Minneapolis, MN) testing machine. The screws were pulled out over a distance of up to 6 mm at 0.25 mm/sec. This rate and distance ensured failure in each case. The load to failure was recorded for each pedicle. Calcium sulfate augmentation improved pedicle screw pullout strength significantly when compared with native bone (p=.0003). This represented an average increase of 167% over

  3. Fixation Strength of Caudal Pedicle Screws after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Modified Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw Method

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Clinical case series. Purpose In the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure in our institute, the cephalad screw trajectory follows a mediolateral and caudocephalad directed path according to the original cortical bone trajectory (CBT) method. However, the starting point of the caudal screw is at the medial border of the pedicle on an articular surface of the superior articular process, and the trajectory takes a mediolateral path parallel to the cephalad endplate. The incidence of caudal screw loosening after PLIF with this modified CBT screw method was investigated, and significant risk factors for caudal screw loosening were evaluated. Overview of Literature A biomechanical study of this modified caudal screw trajectory using the finite element method reported about a 20% increase in uniaxial yield pullout load compared with the traditional trajectory. However, there has been no clinical study concerning the fixation strength of this modified caudal screw trajectory. Methods The subjects were 193 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF with modified CBT screw fixation. Caudal screw loosening was checked in computed tomography at 6 months after surgery, and screw loosening was defined as a radiolucency of 1 mm or more at the bone-screw interface. Results The incidence of caudal screw loosening after lumbosacral PLIF (46.2%) was significantly higher than that after floating PLIF (6.0%). No significant differences in sex, brand of the instruments, and diameter and length of the caudal screw were evident between patients with and without caudal screw loosening. Patients with caudal screw loosening were significantly older at the time of surgery than patients without caudal screw loosening. Conclusions Fixation strength of the caudal screw after floating PLIF with this modified CBT screw technique was sufficiently acceptable. Fixation strength after the lumbosacral procedure was not. PMID:27559442

  4. Accuracy of Pedicle Screw Placement in Scoliosis Surgery: A Comparison between Conventional Computed Tomography-Based and O-Arm-Based Navigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Tsutomu; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Koyama, Kayo; Nemoto, Tetsuharu; Nawata, Kento; Yamazaki, Atsuro; Minami, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose We compared the accuracy of O-arm-based navigation with computed tomography (CT)-based navigation in scoliotic surgery. Overview of Literature No previous reports comparing the results of O-arm-based navigation with conventional CT-based navigation in scoliotic surgery have been published. Methods A total of 222 pedicle screws were implanted in 29 patients using CT-based navigation (group C) and 416 screws were implanted in 32 patients using O-arm-based navigation (group O). Postoperative CT was performed to assess the screw accuracy, using the established Neo classification (grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: perforation <2 mm, grade 2: perforation ≥2 and <4, and grade 3: perforation ≥4 mm). Results In group C, 188 (84.7%) of the 222 pedicle screw placements were categorized as grade 0, 23 (10.4%) were grade 1, 11 (5.0%) were grade 2, and 0 were grade 3. In group O, 351 (84.4%) of the 416 pedicle screw placements were categorized as grade 0, 52 (12.5%) were grade 1, 13 (3.1%) were grade 2, and 0 were grade 3. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the prevalence of grade 2.3 perforations between groups C and O. The time to position one screw, including registration, was 10.9±3.2 minutes in group C, but was significantly decreased to 5.4±1.1 minutes in group O. Conclusions O-arm-based navigation facilitates pedicle screw insertion as accurately as conventional CT-based navigation. The use of O-arm-based navigation successfully reduced the time, demonstrating advantages in the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement for scoliotic surgery. PMID:24967047

  5. What is the learning curve for robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement in spine surgery?

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Lieberman, Isador H

    2014-06-01

    Some early studies with robotic-assisted pedicle screw implantation have suggested these systems increase accuracy of screw placement. However, the relationship between the success rate of screw placement and the learning curve of this new technique has not been evaluated. We determined whether, as a function of surgeon experience, (1) the success rate of robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement improved, (2) the frequency of conversion from robotic to manual screw placement decreased, and (3) the frequency of malpositioned screws decreased. Between June 2010 and August 2012, the senior surgeon (IHL) performed 174 posterior spinal procedures using pedicle screws, 162 of which were attempted with robotic assistance. The use of the robotic system was aborted in 12 of the 162 procedures due to technical issues (registration failure, software crash, etc). The robotic system was successfully used in the remaining 150 procedures. These were the first procedures performed with the robot by the senior surgeon, and in this study, we divided the early learning curve into five groups: Group 1 (Patients 1-30), Group 2 (Patients 31-60), Group 3 (Patients 61-90), Group 4 (Patients 91-120), and Group 5 (Patients 121-150). One hundred twelve patients (75%) had spinal deformity and 80 patients (53%) had previous spine surgery. The accuracy of screw placement in the groups was assessed based on intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopy and postoperative radiographs. The results from these five groups were compared to determine the effect on the learning curve. The numbers of attempted pedicle screw placements were 359, 312, 349, 359, and 320 in Groups 1 to 5, respectively. The rates of successfully placed screws using robotic guidance were 82%, 93%, 91%, 95%, and 93% in Groups 1 to 5. The rates of screws converted to manual placement were 17%, 7%, 8%, 4%, and 7%. Of the robotically placed screws, the screw malposition rates were 0.8%, 0.3%, 1.4%, 0.8%, and 0%. The rate of successfully

  6. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Glennie, R Andrew; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T

    2015-06-01

    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered.

  7. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using a convex pedicle screw technique: a novel concept of deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Tsirikos, A I; Mataliotakis, G; Bounakis, N

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of correcting a double or triple curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using a convex segmental pedicle screw technique. We reviewed 191 patients with a mean age at surgery of 15 years (11 to 23.3). Pedicle screws were placed at the convexity of each curve. Concave screws were inserted at one or two cephalad levels and two caudal levels. The mean operating time was 183 minutes (132 to 276) and the mean blood loss 0.22% of the total blood volume (0.08% to 0.4%). Multimodal monitoring remained stable throughout the operation. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days (5 to 15). The mean post-operative follow-up was 5.8 years (2.5 to 9.5). There were no neurological complications, deep wound infection, obvious nonunion or need for revision surgery. Upper thoracic scoliosis was corrected by a mean 68.2% (38% to 48%, p < 0.001). Main thoracic scoliosis was corrected by a mean 71% (43.5% to 8.9%, p < 0.001). Lumbar scoliosis was corrected by a mean 72.3% (41% to 90%, p < 0.001). No patient lost more than 3° of correction at follow-up. The thoracic kyphosis improved by 13.1° (-21° to 49°, p < 0.001); the lumbar lordosis remained unchanged (p = 0.58). Coronal imbalance was corrected by a mean 98% (0% to 100%, p < 0.001). Sagittal imbalance was corrected by a mean 96% (20% to 100%, p < 0.001). The Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire score improved from a mean 3.6 to 4.6 (2.4 to 4, p < 0.001); patient satisfaction was a mean 4.9 (4.8 to 5). This technique carries low neurological and vascular risks because the screws are placed in the pedicles of the convex side of the curve, away from the spinal cord, cauda equina and the aorta. A low implant density (pedicle screw density 1.2, when a density of 2 represents placement of pedicle screws bilaterally at every instrumented segment) achieved satisfactory correction of the scoliosis, an improved thoracic kyphosis and normal global sagittal balance. Both patient satisfaction and functional

  8. Pedicle screw-rod fixation: a feasible treatment for dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tellegen, Anna R; Willems, Nicole; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2015-12-07

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis is a common problem in large breed dogs. For severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, conservative treatment is often not effective and surgical intervention remains as the last treatment option. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the middle to long term outcome of treatment of severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with pedicle screw-rod fixation with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis. Twelve client-owned dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis underwent pedicle screw-rod fixation of the lumbosacral junction. During long term follow-up, dogs were monitored by clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, force plate analysis, and by using questionnaires to owners. Clinical evaluation, force plate data, and responses to questionnaires completed by the owners showed resolution (n = 8) or improvement (n = 4) of clinical signs after pedicle screw-rod fixation in 12 dogs. There were no implant failures, however, no interbody vertebral bone fusion of the lumbosacral junction was observed in the follow-up period. Four dogs developed mild recurrent low back pain that could easily be controlled by pain medication and an altered exercise regime. Pedicle screw-rod fixation offers a surgical treatment option for large breed dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis in which no other treatment is available. Pedicle screw-rod fixation alone does not result in interbody vertebral bone fusion between L7 and S1.

  9. [A method to avoid the fixator failure by using pedicle screw combined vertebroplasty for spine fractures].

    PubMed

    Tao, Sheng; Mao, Ke-ya; Liu, Bao-wei; Wang, Yan; Liang, Yu-tian; Tang, Pei-fu; Wang, Hui-xian

    2006-08-15

    To study a new implant material (carbonated hydroxyapatite, CHA) united pedicle screw to cure spine fracture. Thirty-two cases of spine compressed fracture were used with pedicle screw fixator and vertebroplasty. Before operation, patients' vertebral body were compressed (46 + 21)% (20% approximately 70%) on average. In operation, broken vertebral body was reposition through pedicle screw technique, then used self-made syringe to inject CHA into anterior and central column of broken vertebral body through pedicle. And all of patients were not given any bone-graft. In 6 - 26 months followed-up, no immunologic rejection was found about hydroxyapatite, and no any broken of the screws and shafts was found, no loosing and other complications either. All the patients could move in 3 - 5 days after operation. The height of the broken vertebral body were reduced 97% compared with pre-operation. And CHA in vertebral body was degraded gradually, and at the same time it was replace by new bone in vertebral body. After operation, VAS score was 61 +/- 32, and there was significant difference compared with pre-operation. The pedicle screw fixation united vertebroplasty is an efficient way to prevent the failure of the treatment of spine fracture.

  10. Assessing the Intraoperative Accuracy of Pedicle Screw Placement by Using a Bone-Mounted Miniature Robot System through Secondary Registration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Chang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Chih-Lung; Tsai, Tai-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pedicle screws are commonly employed to restore spinal stability and correct deformities. The Renaissance robotic system was developed to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. Purpose In this study, we developed an intraoperative classification system for evaluating the accuracy of pedicle screw placements through secondary registration. Furthermore, we evaluated the benefits of using the Renaissance robotic system in pedicle screw placement and postoperative evaluations. Finally, we examined the factors affecting the accuracy of pedicle screw implantation. Results Through use of the Renaissance robotic system, the accuracy of Kirschner-wire (K-wire) placements deviating <3 mm from the planned trajectory was determined to be 98.74%. According to our classification system, the robot-guided pedicle screw implantation attained an accuracy of 94.00% before repositioning and 98.74% after repositioning. However, the malposition rate before repositioning was 5.99%; among these placements, 4.73% were immediately repositioned using the robot system and 1.26% were manually repositioned after a failed robot repositioning attempt. Most K-wire entry points deviated caudally and laterally. Conclusion The Renaissance robotic system offers high accuracy in pedicle screw placement. Secondary registration improves the accuracy through increasing the precision of the positioning; moreover, intraoperative evaluation enables immediate repositioning. Furthermore, the K-wire tends to deviate caudally and laterally from the entry point because of skiving, which is characteristic of robot-assisted pedicle screw placement. PMID:27054360

  11. [Polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, H L; Li, C D; Yang, Z C; Yi, X D; Liu, H; Lu, H L; Li, H; Wang, Y

    2016-12-18

    To describe the application of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis. Observation group included 14 cases of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis received polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws from November 2014 to July 2015, control group included 12 cases of degenerative lumbar diseases with osteoporosis received polymethylmethacrylate augmentation with traditional pedicle screws.The operation time, blood loss, number of pedicle screws and number of augmented pedicle screws in the two groups were compared. The bone cement leakage and pulmonary bone cement embolism in the two groups were also compared. The fusion rate and pedicle screws loosening by lumbar X ray and dynamic X ray were evaluated. The clinical results were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) of pain on lumbar and lower limbers, lumbar Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores (JOA), Prolo functional scores and Oswestry disability (ODI) scores. Differences of operation time and blood loss in the two groups were not statistically significant. The average number of pedicle screws was 9.9±4.7 and the average number of augmented pedicle screws was 5.9±2.6 in observation group while the average number of pedicle screws was 7.1±2.8 and the average number of augmented pedicle screws was 3.0±1.9 in control group. The ratio of augmented pedicle screws was higher in observation group than in control group (0.69±0.30 vs.0.47±0.30,P<0.05). The bone cement leakage rate was lower in observation group than in control group (5/83 vs. 12/42, P<0.01). All the cases in observation group were without leakage to the interspinal canal while one case in control group suffered from bone cement leakage to the interspinal canal with augmentation of 3 pedicle screws. The follow up period was (10.6±2.3) months in observation group and (36.5±7

  12. Surgical safety of cervical pedicle screw placement with computer navigation system.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Nobuyuki; Takami, Toshihiro

    2017-04-01

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) may be the biomechanically best system for posterior cervical segmental fixation, but may carry a surgery-related risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of CPS placement using computer navigation system for posterior cervical instrumented fixation and discuss its complication avoidance and management. Posterior cervical instrumented fixation using CPS was performed in a total of 128 patients during the period between 2007 and 2015. Intraoperative image guidance was achieved using a preoperative 3D CT-based or an intraoperative 3D CT-based navigation system. A total of 762 CPSs were placed in the spine level of C2 to Th3. The radiological accuracy of CPS placement was evaluated using postoperative CT. Accuracy of CPS placement using a preoperative 3D CT-based navigation system was 93.6 % (423 of 452 screws) in grade 0; the screw was completely contained in the pedicle, and accuracy of CPS placement using an intraoperative 3D CT-based navigation system was a little bit improved to 97.1 % (301 of 310 screws) in grade 0. CPS misplacement (more than half of screw) was 3.3 % (15 of 452 screws) using a preoperative 3D CT-based navigation system, and CPS misplacement (more than half of screw) was 0.6 % (2 of 310 screws) using an intraoperative 3D CT-based navigation system. In total, 38 screws (5.0 %) were found to perforate the cortex of pedicle, although any neural or vascular complications closely associated with CPS placement were not encountered. Twenty nine of 38 screws (76.3 %) were found to perforate laterally, and seven screws (18.4 %) were found to perforate medially. Image-guided CPS placement has been an important advancement to secure the safe surgery, although the use of CPS placement needs to be carefully determined based on the individual pathology.

  13. Comparison of pullout strength of the thoracic pedicle screw between intrapedicular and extrapedicular technique: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Huafeng; Sribastav, Shilabant Sen; Ye, Fubiao; Liang, Chunxiang; Li, Zemin; Wang, Jianru; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Zhaomin

    2015-01-01

    Intrapedicular fixation in thoracic spine is often limited, because of high risk of complication, especially in scoliosis patients. Extrapedicular screws fixation techniques provide an alternate solution for extremely small or abnormal thoracic pedicles deformity. However, the pullout resistance of extrapedicular screws has not been clearly defined. The aim of our study was to systematically review the existing evidence regarding the pullout resistance of thoracic extrapedicular screws compared with intrapedicular screws. A systematic search of all studies published through Nov 2014 was performed using Medline, EMBASE, OVID and other databases. All studies that compared the pullout resistance of thoracic extrapedicular screws with intrapedicular screws were selected. The data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed regarding pullout resistance force. Forest plots were constructed to summarize the data and compare the biomechanical stability achieved. Five studies were included, with a total of 27 cadaveric specimens and 313 screws. The vertebral levels of the cadavers potted were T1-T8, T2-T12, T7-T9, T6-T11 and T4-T12 respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated that there was no significant difference in ultimate pullout strength between intrapedicular screws and extrapedicular screws (95% CI=-63.73 to 27.74; P=0.44); extrapedicular screws significantly increased the length of placements by a mean of 6.24 mm (95% CI=5.38 to 7.10; P<0.001); while the stiffness in intrapedicular screws was significantly stronger by a mean of 45.82 N/mm compared with extrapedicular screws (95% CI=-70.09 to -21.56; P<0.001). Meta-analysis of the existing literature showed that thoracic extrapedicular screws provided comparable but slightly lower pullout strength compared with intrapedicular screws, extrapedicular screws placement is much safer than intrapedicular screws. So thoracic extrapedicular screws offer a good alternative when it is hard to insert by

  14. Reduction in radiation (fluoroscopy) while maintaining safe placement of pedicle screws during lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; George, Keri; Samdani, Amer F; Williams, John I; Gaughan, John; Betz, Randal R

    2012-10-01

    Prospective, randomized, controlled study. To report the results of using the PediGuard (SpineGuard, Inc., San Francisco, CA), a local electrical conductivity measurement device, to reduce radiation exposure while drilling the pilot hole for pedicle screw placement. Reports of pedicle screw placement in the lumbar spine have shown medial pedicle perforations with nerve root impingement in addition to lateral pedicle and vertebral body perforations that can impinge the nerve root within the psoas. Routine use of fluoroscopy (fluoro) is thought to reduce the risk of perforations but is associated with increased radiation. A new pedicle-drilling device (PediGuard) which uses electrical conductivity differentiation at the tip for assessing bone versus soft tissue, has been developed to improve the safe positioning of pedicle screws. This device not only warns of an impending medial breach but also is the only device available to, in real time, nonradiographically detect a lateral breach. METHODS.: Eighteen patients with a diagnosis of lumbar degenerative spine who had a posterior spinal fusion were enrolled. The average age of the patients was 55 ± 12 years. Postoperative computed tomographic scans were reviewed by an independent reviewer. Screws were considered "in" (<2 mm of breach) or "out" (≥ 2 mm of breach). In a randomized fashion, the surgeon placed a pilot hole either with a standard technique (manual probe) or the PediGuard, and used fluoro for each drilling as a guidance assist as necessary. Electromyographic testing was not done by the surgeon. A total of 78 screws (39 via standard probe and 39 with PediGuard assist) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in breach rate of 2 mm or more by either of the 2 methods (P = 1.000), with 1 screw out in each group. Fluoro shots averaged 5.2 (range, 0-15) per screw in the PediGuard group versus 7.5 (range, 2-17) in the standard group (P < 0.001). This represents an average decrease of 2.3 (30%) fluoro

  15. Pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporotic spine: indications, limitations and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, S; Keel, M J B

    2017-02-01

    The need for spinal instrumented fusion in osteoporotic patients is rising. In this review, we try to give an overview of the current spectrum of pedicle screw augmentation techniques, safety aspects and indications. Review of literature and discussion of indications, limitations and technical aspects. Various studies have shown higher failure rates in osteoporotic patients, most probably due to reduced bone quality and a poor bone-screw interface. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, such as polymethylmethacrylate or calcium based cements, is one valid option to enhance fixation if required. Crucial factors for success in the use of augmented screws are careful patient selection, a proper technique and choice of the ideal cement augmentation option.

  16. Augmented reality surgical navigation with ultrasound-assisted registration for pedicle screw placement: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Longfei; Zhao, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Boyu; Fu, Ligong; Liao, Hongen

    2017-08-05

    We present a novel augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation system based on ultrasound-assisted registration for pedicle screw placement. This system provides the clinically desired targeting accuracy and reduces radiation exposure. Ultrasound (US) is used to perform registration between preoperative computed tomography (CT) images and patient, and the registration is performed by least-squares fitting of these two three-dimensional (3D) point sets of anatomical landmarks taken from US and CT images. An integral videography overlay device is calibrated to accurately display naked-eye 3D images for surgical navigation. We use a 3.0-mm Kirschner wire (K-wire) instead of a pedicle screw in this study, and the K-wire is calibrated to obtain its orientation and tip location. Based on the above registration and calibration, naked-eye 3D images of the planning path and the spine are superimposed onto patient in situ using our AR navigation system. Simultaneously, a 3D image of the K-wire is overlaid accurately on the real one to guide the insertion procedure. The targeting accuracy is evaluated postoperatively by performing a CT scan. An agar phantom experiment was performed. Eight K-wires were inserted successfully after US-assisted registration, and the mean targeting error and angle error were 3.35 mm and [Formula: see text], respectively. Furthermore, an additional sheep cadaver experiment was performed. Four K-wires were inserted successfully. The mean targeting error was 3.79 mm and the mean angle error was [Formula: see text], and US-assisted registration yielded better targeting results than skin markers-based registration (targeting errors: 2.41 vs. 5.18 mm, angle errors: [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]. Experimental outcomes demonstrate that the proposed navigation system has acceptable targeting accuracy. In particular, the proposed navigation method reduces repeated radiation exposure to the patient and surgeons. Therefore, it has promising

  17. Comparison of fatigue strength of C2 pedicle screws, C2 pars screws, and a hybrid construct in C1-C2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Su, Brian W; Shimer, Adam L; Chinthakunta, Suresh; Salloum, Kanaan; Ames, Christopher P; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Bucklen, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    A biomechanical study comparing the fatigue strength of different types of C2 fixation in a C1-C2 construct. To determine the pullout strength of a C2 pedicle screw and C2 pars screw after cyclical testing and differentiate differences in stiffness pre- and post-cyclical loading of 3 different C1-C2 fixations. Some surgeons use a short C2 pars screw in a C1-C2 construct, because it is less technically demanding and/or when the vertebral artery is high riding. Difference in construct stiffness between use of bilateral C2 pedicle screws, bilateral C2 pars screws, or a hybrid construct is unknown. Biomechanical testing was performed on 15 specimens. A bicortical C1 lateral mass screw was used in combination with 1 of 3 methods of C2 fixation: (1) bilateral long C2 pedicle screws (LL), (2) bilateral 14-mm C2 pars screws (SS), and (3) unilateral long C2 pedicle screw with a contralateral 14-mm C2 pars screw (LS). Each construct was subject to 16,000 cycles to simulate the immediate postoperative period. Changes in motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. This was followed by pullout testing. The ability to limit range of motion significantly decreased after cyclical testing in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation for all 3 groups. After loading, the LL and LS groups had less percentage of increase in motion in flexion-extension and lateral bending than the SS group. Overall, the average pullout strength of a pedicle screw was 92% stronger than a pars screw. C2 pedicle screws have twice the pullout strength of C2 pars screws after cyclical loading. In cases in which the anatomy limits placement of bilateral C2 pedicle screws, a construct using a unilateral C2 pedicle screw with a contralateral short pars screw is a viable option and compares favorably with a bilateral C2 pedicle screw construct. N/A.

  18. Safety of lumbar spine radiofrequency procedures in the presence of posterior pedicle screws: technical report of a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Gazelka, Halena M; Welch, Tasha L; Nassr, Ahmad; Lamer, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether the thermal energy associated with lumbar spine radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) performed near titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws is conducted to the pedicle screws or adjacent tissues, or both, thus introducing potential for thermal damage to those tissues. Cadaver study. Cadaver laboratory equipped with fluoroscopy, surgical spine implements, and radiofrequency generator. No live human subject; a fresh frozen (and thawed) cadaver torso was used for the study. Titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of a fresh frozen cadaver torso with real-time fluoroscopic guidance. Conventional RFN cannula placement was performed at the level of pedicle screws and a control (nonsurgically altered) lumbar level. Neurotomy was performed with conventional radiofrequency lesioning parameters. Temperatures were recorded at multiple sites through thermistor probes. Direct contact of the radiofrequency cannula with the pedicle screws during conventional RFN produced a substantial increase in temperature in the surrounding soft tissues. A small increase in temperature occurred at the same sites at the control level. Titanium and stainless steel pedicle screws are capable of sustaining large increases in temperature when the radiofrequency probe comes in contact with the screw. These results are suggestive that pedicle screws could serve as a possible source of tissue heating and thermal injury during RFN. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with PMMA-augmented pedicle screw fixation].

    PubMed

    Padányi Csaba; Misik, Ferenc; Papp, Zoltán; Vitanovics, Dusan; Balogh, Attila; Veres, Róbert; Lipóth, László; Banczerowski, Péter

    2015-01-30

    Over the last few decades many innovative operation technique were developed due to the increase of porotic vertebral fractures. These new techniques aim to reach the required stability of the vertebral column. In case of significant instability, spinal canal stenosis or neural compression, decompressive intervention may be necessary, which results in further weakening of the column of the spine, the minimal invasive percutan vertebroplasty is not an adequate method to reach the required stability, that is why insertion of complementary pedicular screws is needed. Considering the limited screw-fixing ability of the porotic bone structure, with this new technique we are able to reach the appropriate stability of cement-augmented pedicle screws by dosing cement carefully through the screws into the vertebral body. We used this technique in our Institute in case of 12 patients and followed up the required stability and the severity of complications. Fifteen vertebral compression fractures of 12 patients were treated in our Institute. Using the classification proposed by Genant et al. we found that the severity of the vertebral compression was grade 3 in case of 13, while grade 2 in case of two fractures. The average follow up time of the patients was 22 months (12-39), during this period X-ray, CT and clinical control examinations were taken. During the surgery the involved segments were localised by using X-ray and after the exploration the canulated screws were put through the pedicles of the spine and the vertebral body was filled through the transpedicular screws with bone cement. Depending on the grade of the spinal canal stenosis, we made the decompression, vertebroplasty or corpectomy of the fractured vertebral body, and the replacement of the body. Finally the concerned segments were fixed by titanium rods. In all cases the stenosis of spinal canal was resolved and the bone cement injected into the corpus resulted in adequated stability of the spine. In case

  20. Inter- and Intra-Observer Reliability of Measurement of Pedicle Screw Breach Assessed by Postoperative CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ashish; Samdani, Amer F.; Gaughan, John P.; D'Andrea, Linda P.; Betz, Randal R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pedicle screws are used increasingly in spine surgery. Concerns of complications associated with screw breach necessitates accurate pedicle screw placement. Postoperative CT imaging helps to detect screw malposition and assess its severity. However, accuracy is dependent on the reading of the CT scans. Inter- and intra-observer variability could affect the reliability of CT scans to assess multiple screw types and sites. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of multi-observer analysis of CT scans for determining pedicle screw breach for various screw types and sites in patients with spinal deformity or degenerative pathologies. Methods Axial CT scan images of 23 patients (286 screws) were read by four experienced spine surgeons. Pedicle screw placement was considered 'In' when the screw was fully contained and/or the pedicle wall breach was ≤2 mm. 'Out' was defined as a breach in the medial or lateral pedicle wall >2 mm. Intra-class coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess the inter- and intra-observer reliability. Results Marked inter- and intra-observer variability was noticed. The overall inter-observer ICC was 0.45 (95% confidence limits 0.25 to 0.65). The intra-observer ICC was 0.49 (95% confidence limits 0.29 to 0.69). Underlying spinal pathology, screw type, and patient age did not seem to impact the reliability of our CT assessments. Conclusion Our results indicate the evaluation of pedicle screw breach on CT by a single surgeon is highly variable, and care should be taken when using individual CT evaluations of millimeters of breach as a basis for screw removal. This was a Level III study. PMID:25694925

  1. Learning curve of 3D fluoroscopy image-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Yu-Mi; Villard, Jimmy; Obermüller, Thomas; Friedrich, Benjamin; Wolf, Petra; Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    During the past decade, a disproportionate increase of spinal fusion procedures has been observed. Along with this trend, image-guided spine surgery has been experiencing a renaissance in the recent years. A wide range of different navigation systems are available on the market today. However, only few published studies assess the learning curves concerning these new spinal navigation techniques. So far, a study on the learning curve for intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy (3DFL)-navigated pedicle screw (PS) placement is still lacking. The purpose of the study was to analyze the learning curve for 3DFL-navigated thoracolumbar PS placement. The study design included a prospective case series. A cohort of 145 patients were recruited from January 2011 to June 2012. The outcome measures were duration of intraoperative 3D scans, PS placement, PS accuracy on postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, and PS-related revisions and complications. From the introduction of spinal navigation to our department in January 2011 until June 2012, the learning curve for the duration of intraoperative 3D scan acquisition (navigation or control scan) and placement time per screw, intraoperative screw revisions, screw-related complications, revision surgeries, and PS accuracy on postoperative CT scans were assessed in 145 patients undergoing dorsal navigated instrumentation for 928 PS (736 lumbosacral and 192 thoracic). The observed time span was divided into four intervals. Results of the second, third, and last periods were compared with the first (reference) period, respectively. The mean navigation 3D scan time decreased (first and fourth periods) from 15.4±7.8 (range, 4-40) to 8.4±3.3 (3-15) minutes (p<.001). The mean control 3D scan time (after PS placement) decreased from 11.2±4.8 (5-25) to 6.6±3.0 (3-15) minutes (p<.001). The mean PS insertion time decreased from 5.3±2.5 (1-15) to 3.2±2.3 (1-17) minutes (p<.001). The mean proportion of correctly positioned PS

  2. Localization of the trunk muscles using musculoskeletal ultrasound guidance for pedicle screw stimulation during spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsui-Fen; Chiu, Jan-Wei; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Hsieh, Ying-Chou; Yang, Chen-Ya; Wang, Jia-Chi; Liao, Kwong-Kum

    2017-09-01

    The precise placement of recording electrodes at the relevant myotome is mandatory while performing pedicle screw stimulation (PSS) during spine surgery; however, their placement at trunk muscles is challenging. This study aimed to determine whether ultrasound guidance is useful for trunk muscle localization for PSS during spine surgery. A retrospective clinical study was conducted from a prospective database. Eighty-four patients eligible for spine surgery were recruited. Ultrasound was used to localize the intercostal, rectus abdominis, and internal oblique and psoas muscles if pedicle screw placement was performed at T3 to L1. After the operation, patients were examined for any new neurological deficits related to this procedure, and computed tomography was performed to check screw position if indicated. Four to 22 pedicle screws were used for spinal fixation. The threshold of stimulus to obtain a compound muscle action potential ranged from 1.29 to >20mA during PSS. Six of our patients sustained new postoperative deficits, and only one case was related directly to pedicel screw misplacement. Loss of motor evoked potential (MEP) over both the lower limbs was noted during pedicle screw placement, and the stimulus threshold during PSS were 1.29mA at the left T9 and 3.8mA at the right T5 level. MEP remained absent at the end of surgery despite removal of those two screws. The patient woke with significant weakness in both lower limbs (muscle power 0/0) and voiding difficulty. Fortunately, he regained walking ability 4.5months later after intensive rehabilitation therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement based on preoperative computed tomography versus intraoperative data set acquisition for spinal navigation system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Weikai; Liu, Tao; Meng, Bin; Yang, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement based on preoperative computed tomography in comparison with intraoperative data set acquisition for spinal navigation system. The PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched for the literature published up to September 2015. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. The dichotomous data for the pedicle violation rate was summarized using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the fixed-effects model. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. For this meta-analysis, seven studies used a total of 579 patients and 2981 screws. The results revealed that the accuracy of intraoperative data set acquisition method is significantly higher than preoperative one using 2 mm grading criteria (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.04, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference between two kinds of methods at the 0 mm grading criteria (RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.46, I(2) = 17%, p = 0.34). Using the 2-mm grading criteria, there was a higher accuracy of pedicle screw insertion in O-arm-assisted navigation than CT-based navigation method (RR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.64, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.03). The accuracy between CT-based navigation and two-dimensional-based navigation showed no significant difference (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.35-3.03, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.97). The intraoperative data set acquisition method may decrease the incidence of perforated screws over 2 mm but not increase the number of screws fully contained within the pedicle compared to preoperative CT-based navigation system. A significantly higher accuracy of intraoperative (O-arm) than preoperative CT-based navigation was revealed using 2 mm grading criteria.

  4. Are pedicle screw perforation rates influenced by distance from the reference frame in multilevel registration using a computed tomography-based navigation system in the setting of scoliosis?

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masashi; Takahashi, Jun; Ikegami, Shota; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Oba, Hiroki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Pedicle screw fixation is commonly employed for the surgical correction of scoliosis but carries a risk of serious neurovascular or visceral structure events during screw insertion. To avoid these complications, we have been using a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system during pedicle screw placement. As this could also prolong operation time, multilevel registration for pedicle screw insertion for posterior scoliosis surgery was developed to register three consecutive vertebrae in a single time with CT-based navigation. The reference frame was set either at the caudal end of three consecutive vertebrae or at one or two vertebrae inferior to the most caudal registered vertebra, and then pedicle screws were inserted into the three consecutive registered vertebrae and into the one or two adjacent vertebrae. This study investigated the perforation rates of vertebrae at zero, one, two, three, or four or more levels above or below the vertebra at which the reference frame was set. This is a retrospective, single-center, single-surgeon study. One hundred sixty-one scoliosis patients who had undergone pedicle screw fixation were reviewed. Screw perforation rates were evaluated by postoperative CT. We evaluated 161 scoliosis patients (34 boys and 127 girls; mean±standard deviation age: 14.6±2.8 years) who underwent pedicle screw fixation guided by a CT-based navigation system between March 2006 and December 2015. A total of 2,203 pedicle screws were inserted into T2-L5 using multilevel registration with CT-based navigation. The overall perforation rates for Grade 1, 2, or 3, Grade 2 or 3 (major perforations), and Grade 3 perforations (violations) were as follows: vertebrae at which the reference frame was set: 15.9%, 6.1%, and 2.5%; one vertebra above or below the reference frame vertebra: 16.5%, 4.0%, and 1.2%; two vertebrae above or below the reference frame vertebra: 20.7%, 8.7%, and 2.3%; three vertebrae above or below the reference frame vertebra: 23

  5. Are C2 pars-pedicle screws alone for type II Hangman's fracture overrated?

    PubMed

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Krishnan, Prasad; Chaterjee, Debarshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir Singh

    2016-02-01

    The recent trend for treatment of certain cases of type II Hangman's fracture has been towards motion preserving surgery. This is claimed to be achieved with placement of pedicle screws across the fracture fragments. However, the long term outcome in clinical scenario is not yet clear, neither are the factors determining suitability of such a technique. We have retrospectively analyzed the results of 11 patients of type II Hangman's fracture, according to the extent of translation. Nine patients underwent stabilization of fracture with C2 pedicle screws and 2 were managed with halo immobilization. The conservative management failed in one and this patient underwent internal fixation using pars-pedicle screw as well. The long term clinical and radiological (CT and dynamic X-rays) outcome was analyzed. All patients including the one with halo immobilization, showed solid fusion across the fracture fragments. With the exception of one patient none had any clinical symptoms. This lone patient complained of restricted neck movements. Three different types of radiological results were observed. Two patients with translation >8mm showed C2-3 body fusion. Three of 6 patients with minimal translational (3-4mm) showed facet fusion. Three patients with moderate translational dislocation (4.5-5.5mm) showed persisting C2-3 angular instability. The C2 pedicle screw is a good technique for osteosynthesis. However, the claimed long term advantage of motion segment preservation with this technique remains doubtful. It may be suitable for those fractures with minimal translation (<4mm), where the superiority of surgery, itself, over external immobilization is questionable. C2-3 fusion is preferable for those fractures with translation >4mm as these are unstable and C2 pedicle screws alone are likely to have less desirable results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multilevel mini-open TLIFs and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation: description of a simple technical nuance used to increase intraoperative safety and improve workflow. Tips and tricks and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Giuseppe M V; Certo, Francesco; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Sciacca, Giovanni; Piccini, Mario; Albanese, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    We describe a technical variation used to enhance intraoperative safety and efficiency in multilevel percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSFs) and mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (m-TLIFs). A review of the literature on percutaneous screw insertion techniques and related pitfalls is presented. PPSFs and m-TLIFs are increasingly used techniques in multilevel lumbar degenerative disease. Facetectomy and TLIF are usually performed before inserting ipsilateral pedicle screws. Such techniques can cause unintended violation of the pedicle and injure the dura or neural structures, particularly in multilevel cases. A literature review revealed a lack of intraoperative and fluoroscopic images detailing the technique for multilevel PPSF and m-TLIF(s) performed through tubular, expandable retractors. Thirteen patients with two- to four-level disease underwent multilevel PPSF and m-TLIF (one to four levels). The Kirschner Cage Screw (KCS) technique, consisting of early insertion of K-wires in all pedicles followed by facetectomy and m-TLIF(s) and, finally, screw insertion, was used in order to minimize the risk of dural/neural injuries. Neither CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leaks nor nerve root injuries nor technique-related complications were encountered with a follow-up ranging from 7 to 38 months (mean 23.6). In conclusion, the KCS technique allows safe identification of the pedicles without opening the canal during m-TLIF(s). Moreover, by visualizing the K-wires inside the retractor, the surgeon can check the pedicle position during facetectomy, and screws can be introduced with a minimal risk of neural or dural injuries. We believe that the proposed technique increases the safety and ease of the procedure, particularly in multilevel cases.

  7. Augmentation of pedicle screw fixation strength using an injectable calcium sulfate cement: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yu; Lu, Hailin; Li, Chunde; Zhu, Tianyue

    2008-11-01

    An in vivo landrace model of cement augmentation of pedicle screw was established, and axial pull-out tests and histological analysis were performed. To investigate the long-term in vivo biomechanical performance of pedicle screws augmented with calcium sulfate cement. Little information is available on the long-term biomechanical performance of pedicle screws augmented with calcium sulfate cement in vivo. Ten pedicle screws were implanted into the lumbar vertebrae of 15 adult females landraces weighing 105 to 115 kg. The pedicle screws were augmented with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), augmented with the calcium sulfate cement, or not augmented. The landraces were randomized into 3 study periods of day 1, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. At the end of the assigned study periods, the animals were killed and axial pull-out tests and histological analyses were conducted on the isolated specimen vertebrae. No significant difference was found among the 1-day, 6-week,and 12-week control group (P > 0.18), no significant difference was found among the 1-day, 6-week and 12-week PMMA group (P > 0.59), and no significant difference was found among the 1-day, 6-week and 12-week calcium sulfate group (P > 0.27). The maximum POS of the PMMA groups was significantly greater than that of the calcium sulfate groups (P < 0.002), the maximum POS of the calcium sulfate groups was significantly greater than that of the control groups (P < 0.004). Histologically progressive absorption of the calcium sulfate was evident. The bone walls around the screws in the 12-week calcium sulfate group were statistically significantly thicker than that of the 12-week control group and that of the 12-week PMMA group. Results of this study demonstrate that the injectable calcium sulfate cement can significantly improve the immediate POS of pedicle screw fixation, and this effect can be maintained even if the calcium sulfate cement has been absorbed completely, which may result from that the calcium sulfate

  8. A study on a pedicle-screw-based reduction method for artificially reduced artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is a quantitative analysis of the degree of the reduction of the artifacts that are induced by pedicle screws through the application of the recently developed iterative metallic artifact reduction (I MAR) software. Screw-type implants that are composed of 4.5 g/cm3 titanium (Ti) with an approximate average computed tomography (CT) value of 6500 Hounsfield units (HUs) that are used for the treatment of spinal diseases were placed in paraffin, a tissueequivalent material, and then dried. After the insertion, the scanning conditions were fixed as 120 kVp and 250 mA using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) (Enlarge, Siemens, Germany). The slice thickness and the increment were set at the fields of view (FOVs) of 3 mm and 120 mm, respectively; the pitch is 0.8; the rotation time is 1 s; and the I MAR software was applied to the raw data of the acquired images to compare the CT-value changes of the posterior images. When the I MAR software was applied to animal vertebrae, it was possible to reduce the 65.7% image loss of the black-hole-effect image through the application of the I MAR software. When the I MAR image loss (%) was compared with the white-streak-effect image, the high-intensity image type with the white-streak effect could be reduced by 91.34% through the application of the I MAR software. In conclusion, a metal artifact that is due to a high-density material can be reduced more effectively when the I MAR algorithm is applied compared with that from the application of the conventional MAR algorithm. The I MAR can provide information on the various tissues that form around the artifact and the reduced metal structures, which can be helpful for radiologists and clinicians in their determination of an accurate diagnosis.

  9. SU-E-T-609: Perturbation Effects of Pedicle Screws On Radiotherapy Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Deroma, R; Borzov, E; Nevelsky, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy in conjunction with surgical implant fixation is a common combined treatment in case of bone metastases. However, metal implants generally used in orthopedic implants perturb radiation dose distributions. Carbon-Fiber Reinforced (CFR) PEEK material has been recently introduced for production of intramedullary screws and plates. Gold powder can be added to the CFR-PEEK material in order to enhance visibility of the screws during intraoperative imaging procedures. In this work, we investigated the perturbation effects of the pedicle screws made of CFR-PEEK, CFR-PEEK with added gold powder (CFR-PEEK-AU) and Titanium (Ti) on radiotherapy dose distributions. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using the EGSnrc code package for 6MV beams with 10×10 fields at SSD=100cm. By means of MC simulations, dose distributions around titanium, CFR- PEEK and CFR-PEEK-AU screws (manufactured by Carbo-Fix Orthopedics LTD, Israel) placed in a water phantom were calculated. The screw axis was either parallel or perpendicular to the beam axis. Dose perturbation (relative to dose in homogeneous water phantom) was assessed. Results: Maximum overdose due to backscatter was 10% for the Ti screws, 5% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and effectively zero for the CFR-PEEK screws. Maximum underdose due to attenuation was 25% for the Ti screws, 15% for the CFR-PEEK-AU screws and 5% for the CFR-PEEK screws. Conclusion: Titanium screws introduce the largest distortion on the radiation dose distribution. The gold powder added to the CFR-PEEK material improves visibility at the cost of increased dose perturbation. CFR-PEEK screws caused minimal alteration on the dose distribution. This can decrease possible over and underdose of adjacent tissue and thus favorably influence treatment efficiency. The use of such implants has potential clinical advantage in the treatment of neoplastic bone disease.

  10. Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) with plate fixation and unilateral pedicle screws: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Sharma, Amit K; Huang, Russel C

    2011-08-01

    Retrospective cohort study. We present the radiographic and clinical outcomes of 13 patients who underwent lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) stabilized by unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation and anterior instrumentation. LTIF is a surgical technique that permits anterior column lumbar interbody fusion via a direct lateral transpsoas approach. Because of the inherent stability of the implants used and the minimal disruption of stabilizing ligaments associated with LTIF, this technique may allow use of less invasive adjunctive fixation methods including unilateral pedicle screw fixation. Information from medical records included patient demographics, medical comorbidities, clinical assessment, surgical time, blood loss, implant information, and complications. Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-12, and visual analog pain scale scores were obtained. Postoperative imaging allowed assessment of fusion, subsidence, and alignment. Estimated blood loss averaged 225 mL and operative time averaged 261 minutes. No patients received a transfusion. Average length of hospital stay was 4.6 days. Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-12, and visual analog pain scores demonstrated significant improvement. All patients with available 1 year postoperative imaging demonstrated solid fusion with average cranial and caudal subsidence of 1.8 and 0.8 mm, respectively. Two patients developed postoperative nondisplaced vertebral fractures through the anterior fixation screw tracts. Three patients developed transient postoperative hip flexion weakness and one also developed transient hypoesthesia in the anterior thigh, likely approach related. We report a series of patients treated with unilateral pedicle screw fixation with LTIF. Although the patient cohort is small, validated outcomes instruments were used and fusion was assessed by computed tomography scan in most cases. The data suggest that unilateral pedicle screw fixation may be adequate to achieve high fusion rates

  11. Fretting corrosion behavior of nitinol spinal rods in conjunction with titanium pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Lukina, Elena; Kollerov, Mikhail; Meswania, Jay; Khon, Alla; Panin, Pavel; Blunn, Gordon W

    2017-03-01

    Untypical corrosion damage including erosions combined with the build-up of titanium oxide as a corrosion product on the surface of explanted Nitinol spinal rods in the areas where it was in contact with titanium pedicle screw head is reported. It was suggested that Nitinol rods might have inferior fretting corrosion resistance compared with that made of titanium or CoCr. Fretting corrosion of Nitinol spinal rods with titanium (Ti6Al4V) pedicle screws were tested in-vitro by conducting a series of potentiostatic measurements of the peak-to-peak values of fretting corrosion current under bending in a 10% solution of calf serum in PBS. The test included Nitinol rods locked in titanium pedicle screws of different designs. Performance of commercially available titanium (Ti6Al4V) and CoCr spinal rods was also investigated for a comparison. Corrosion damage observed after the in-vitro tests was studied using SEM and EDAX analysis and was compared with patterns on Nitinol rods retrieved 12months after initial surgery. Metal ions level was measured in the test media after in-vitro experiments and in the blood and tissues of the patients who had the rods explanted. The results of this study revealed that Nitinol spinal rods locked in Ti pedicle screws are susceptible to fretting corrosion demonstrating higher fretting corrosion current compared with commercially used Ti6Al4V and CoCr rods. On the surface of Nitinol rods after in-vitro tests and on those retrieved from the patients similar corrosion patterns were observed. Improved resistance to fretting corrosion was observed with Nitinol rods in the in-vitro tests where pedicle screws were used with a stiffer locking mechanism. Since the development of the localized corrosion damage might increase the risk of premature fatigue failure of the rods and result in leaching of Ni ions, it is concluded that Nitinol rods should not be used in conjunction with Ti pedicle screws without special protection especially where the

  12. Placement of thoracolumbar pedicle screws using three-dimensional image guidance: experience in a large patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Nottmeier, Eric W; Seemer, Will; Young, Phillip M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the placement accuracy and complications of thoracolumbar pedicle screws (PSs) inserted using 3D image guidance in a large patient cohort. The authors reviewed the charts of 220 consecutive patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion using 3D image guidance for instrumentation placement. A total of 1084 thoracolumbar PSs were placed using either the BrainLAB Vector Vision (BrainLAB, Inc.) or Medtronic StealthStation Treon (Medtronic, Inc.) image guidance systems. Postoperative CT scanning was performed in 184 patients, allowing for 951 screws to be graded by an independent radiologist for bone breach. All complications resulting from instrumentation placement were noted. Using the intraoperative planning function of the image-guided system, the largest diameter screw possible in each particular case was placed. The screw diameter of instrumentation placed into the L3-S1 levels was noted. No vascular or visceral complications occurred as a result of screw placement. Two nerve root injuries occurred in 1084 screws placed, resulting in a 0.2% per screw incidence and a 0.9% patient incidence of nerve root injury. Neither nerve root injury was associated with a motor deficit. The breach rate was 7.5%. Grade 1 and minor anterolateral "tip out" breaches accounted for 90% of the total breaches. Patients undergoing revision surgery accounted for 46% of the patients in this study. Accordingly, 154 screws placed through previous fusion mass could be evaluated using postoperative CT scanning. The breach rate in this specific cohort was 7.8%. A total of 765 PSs were placed into the L3-S1 levels in this study; 546 (71%) of these screws were > or = 7.5 mm in diameter. No statistical difference in breach rate was noted in PSs placed through revision spinal levels versus nonrevision spinal levels (p = 0.499). Additionally, no increase in breach rate was noted with placement of 7.5-mm-diameter screws. Three-dimensional image guidance is a useful

  13. Fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw accuracy with a mini-open approach: a tomographic evaluation of 470 screws in 125 patients

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Sánchez, José Antonio; Gutiérrez-Partida, Carlos Francisco; Ramírez-Barrios, Luis Rodolfo; Ortíz-Leyva, Ramses Uriel; Rodríguez-García, Manuel; Sánchez-Escandón, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Background Transpedicular screws are currently placed with open free hand and minimally invasive techniques assisted with either fluoroscopy or navigation. Screw placement accuracy had been investigated with several methods reaching accuracy rates from 71.9% to 98.8%. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and safety for 2-D fluoroscopy-guided screw placement assisted with electrophysiological monitoring and the inter-observer agreement for the breach classification. Methods A retrospective review was performed on 125 consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and transpedicular screws placement between the levels of T-12 and S-1. Screw accuracy was evaluated using a postoperative computed tomography by three independent observers. Pedicle breach was documented when there was a violation in any direction of the pedicle. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with the Kappa coefficient. Results A total of 470 transpedicular screws were evaluated between the levels of T-12 and S-1. In 57 patients the instrumentation was bilateral and in 68 unilateral. A substantial degree of agreement was found between the observers AB (κ=0.769) and A-C (κ=0.784) and almost perfect agreement between observers B-C (κ=0.928). There were a total of 427.33 (90.92%) screws without breach, 39.33 (8.37%) minor breach pedicles and 3.33 (0.71%) major breach pedicles. The pedicle breach rate was 9.08% Trajectory pedicle breach percentages were as follows: minor medial pedicle breach 4.68%, minor lateral pedicle breach 3.47%, minor inferior pedicle breach 0.22%, and major medial breach 0.70%. No intraoperative instrumentation-related or postoperative clinical complications were encountered and no surgical revision was needed. Conclusions Our study demonstrated a high accuracy (90.2%) for 2-D fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw using electromonitoring. Only 0.71% of the 470 screws had a major breach. Knowing the radiological spine

  14. Designs and Techniques That Improve the Pullout Strength of Pedicle Screws in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Thomas M.; Laun, Jake; Gonzalez-Blohm, Sabrina A.; Doulgeris, James J.; Lee, William E.; Vrionis, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion) is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant's trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device's effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein. PMID:24724097

  15. Triggered electromyography for placement of thoracic pedicle screws: is it reliable?

    PubMed

    Samdani, Amer F; Tantorski, Mark; Cahill, Patrick J; Ranade, Ashish; Koch, Stephen; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R; Asghar, Jahangir

    2011-06-01

    Reliable electromyography (EMG) thresholds for detecting medial breaches in the thoracic spine are lacking, and there is a paucity of reports evaluating this modality in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This retrospective analysis evaluates the ability of triggered EMG to detect medial breaches with thoracic pedicle screws in patients with AIS. We reviewed 50 patients (937 pedicle screws) undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with intraoperative EMG testing. Postoperative CT scans were used for breach identification, and EMG values were analyzed. There were 47 medial breaches noted with a mean threshold stimulus of 10.2 mA (milliamperes). Only 8/47 breaches stimulated at 2-6 mA. Thirteen of the forty-seven screws tested at an EMG value ≤6 mA and/or a decrease of ≥65% compared with intraosseously placed screws. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for EMG was 0.28 and 0.21. A subanalysis of T10-T12 screws identified six of seven medial breaches. Using guidelines from the current literature, EMG does not appear to be reliable in detecting medial breaches from T2 to T9 but may have some utility from T10 to T12.

  16. Effects on Subtalar Joint Stress Distribution After Cannulated Screw Insertion at Different Positions and Directions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cheng-song; Chen, Wan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guang-hua; Hu, Chao; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects on subtalar joint stress distribution after cannulated screw insertion at different positions and directions. After establishing a 3-dimensional geometric model of a normal subtalar joint, we analyzed the most ideal cannulated screw insertion position and approach for subtalar joint stress distribution and compared the differences in loading stress, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength among lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion, traditional screw insertion, and ideal cannulated screw insertion. The screw insertion approach allowing the most uniform subtalar joint loading stress distribution was lateral screw insertion near the border of the talar neck plus medial screw insertion close to the ankle joint. For stress distribution uniformity, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength, lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was superior to traditional double-screw insertion. Compared with ideal cannulated screw insertion, slightly poorer stress distribution uniformity and better antirotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength were observed for lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion. Traditional single-screw insertion was better than double-screw insertion for stress distribution uniformity but worse for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was slightly worse for stress distribution uniformity than was ideal cannulated screw insertion but superior to traditional screw insertion. It was better than both ideal cannulated screw insertion and traditional screw insertion for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion is an approach with simple localization, convenient operation, and good safety.

  17. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei

    2017-08-02

    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p < 0.001), and implant costs ($10,191.0 vs. $13,577.3, p = 0.003) in the LD group. Both low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  18. Minimally invasive treatment of unstable pelvic ring injuries with modified pedicle screw-rod fixator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Tian; Liu, Zuo-Qing; Fu, Wen-Qin; Zhao, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the minimally invasive modified pedicle screw-rod fixator for unstable pelvic ring injuries, including its feasibility, merits, and limitations. Methods Twenty-three patients (13 males, 10 females; average age, 36.3 years) with unstable pelvic ring injuries underwent anterior fixation using a modified pedicle screw-rod fixator with or without posterior fixation using a transiliac internal fixator. The clinical findings were assessed using Majeed scores. The quality of reduction was evaluated using the Matta criteria. Results Clinical results at 1 year postoperatively were excellent in 14 patients, good in 7, and fair in 2. The two patients with fair results had intermittent pain at the sacroiliac joint because of the posterior implant. One woman complained of persistent pain at the pubic tubercle during sexual intercourse. Iatrogenic neuropraxia of the unilateral lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred in three patients. Unilateral femoral nerve palsy occurred in one patient. The quality of fracture reduction was excellent in 12 patients, good in 8, and fair in 3. Heterotopic ossification occurred in eight patients; all were asymptomatic. Conclusions Minimally invasive modified pedicle screw-rod fixation is an effective alternative treatment for pelvic ring injuries.

  19. 3D printing-assisted preoperative plan of pedicle screw placement for middle-upper thoracic trauma: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Xuming; Ke, Tie; Cai, Hongru; Gao, Xiang

    2017-08-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the application of 3D printing in assisting preoperative plan of pedicle screw placement for treating middle-upper thoracic trauma. A preoperative plan was implemented in seven patients suffering from middle-upper thoracic (T3-T7) trauma between March 2013 and February 2016. In the 3D printing models, entry points of 56 pedicle screws (Magerl method) and 4 important parameters of the pedicle screws were measured, including optimal diameter (ϕ, mm), length (L, mm), inclined angle (α), head-tilting angle (+β), and tail-tilting angle (-β). In the surgery, bare-hands fixation of pedicle screws was performed using 3D printing models and the measured parameters as guidance. A total of seven patients were enrolled, including five men and two women, with the age of 21-62 years (mean age of 37.7 years). The position of the pedicle screw was evaluated postoperatively using a computerized tomography scan. Totally, 56 pedicle screws were placed, including 33 pieces of level 0, 18 pieces of level 1, 4 pieces of level 2 (pierced lateral wall), and 1 piece of level 3 (pierced lateral wall, no adverse consequences), with a fine rate of 91.0%. 3D printing technique is an intuitive and effective assistive technology to pedicle screw fixation for treating middle-upper thoracic vertebrae, which improve the accuracy of bare-hands screw placement and reduce empirical errors. The trial was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Fujian Provincial Hospital. It was registered on March 1st, 2013, and the registration number was K2013-03-001.

  20. A New Entrance Technique for C2 Pedicle Screw Placement and the Use in Patients With Atlantoaxial Instability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Jiang, Jian; Liu, Zhi-Li; Long, Xin-Hua; Chen, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Yang; Gao, Song; He, Lai-Chang; Huang, Shan-Hu

    2017-06-01

    A prospective study and a technique note. To introduce a new entrance technique for C2 pedicle screw placement and to measure the related linear and angular parameters about the entrance point on computed tomography (CT) images. The safety of this technique for patients with atlantoaxial instability was also evaluated. Although earlier studies have introduced different methods for C2 pedicle screw placement, the entry points and the angular parameters may be variable. Few studies have established a fixed entry point on the basis of the anatomic structure of C2 for pedicle screw placement. A total of 60 dry C2 vertebrae were obtained for anatomic measurement in the study. The posterior bilateral nutrient foramens of C2 lamina were selected as the entry points for pedicle screw placement. The foramens were marked with needles and then the vertebrae underwent CT scan. The axial and sagittal planes of C2 pedicles were harvested and 4 linear and 2 angular parameters about the entry point were determined. After that, we used the entrance technique on 31 patients with atlantoaxial instability in a prospective study. CT of the cervical spine was performed to evaluate the safety of the entrance technique. The nutrient foramens exist in 97% of the left lamina and 93% of the right lamina of the C2 vertebra. The overall mean distance from the entry point (nutrient foramen) to the superior border of lamina (PSD), to the inferior border of lamina (PID), to the medial border of the pedicle (PMD), and the length of pedicle screw trajectory (PL, transit the pedicle center) were 3.32±0.63, 8.33±1.21, 6.85±1.00, and 24.47±1.51, respectively. The averaged transverse angle (α) on the axial plane and the superior angle (β) on the sagittal plane were 19.83±3.83 and 30.12±6.02 degrees, respectively. Then, 31 patients underwent bilateral C2 pedicle screw fixation without screw violation into the spinal canal or vertebral artery injury by the new entrance technique. The overall mean

  1. Biomechanical study of the sacroiliac fracture fixation with titanium rods and pedicle screws

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Fabrício Hidetoshi; Pisani, Marina Justi; Machado, André Nunes; Rodrigues, Fábio Lucas; Fujiki, Edison Noburo; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess biomechanically different fixations means of the sacroiliac joint with pedicle screws and to compare the traditional head height with reduced ones. METHODS: We used a polyethylene model representing the pelvic ring and simulated a unilateral sacroiliac dislocation. We set up three different constructions: 1) two screws attached to a rod; 2) two rods connected to two small head screws each; and 3) two rods connected to two average headed screws each. We conducted tests in a biomechanical testing and a mechanized processing laboratory. RESULTS: Group 1 supported an average maximum load of 99.70 N. Group 2 supported an average maximum load of 362.46 N. Group 3 endured an average maximum load of 404.15 N. In the assembly with one rod, the resistance decreased as compared with the one with two bars: 72.5 % compared to small-headed screws and 75.3 % to the traditional screw. CONCLUSION: The assembly with a single bar presented inferior results when compared to the double bar assembly. There was no statistical difference in the results between the screws used. Experimental Study. PMID:26207094

  2. Surgical Treatment With Pedicle Screws of Scoliosis Associated With Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Children.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, Lucas; Noel, Mariano A; Francheri Wilson, Ida A; Tello, Carlos A; Galaretto, Eduardo; Remondino, Rodrigo G; Bersusky, Ernesto S

    2017-09-01

    Retrospective study. To assess results of posterior instrumented fusion using pedicle screws in 12 children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with spinal deformity at a single institution from 2001 to 2012. This is the first case series of OI patients who underwent non-cement augmented screw-rod instrumented fusion published in the literature. Of a total of 54 children with spinal deformity associated with OI, 12 (22.2%) were submitted to posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screws (80% density) because of severe spinal deformity. Here we reported the results in seven females and five males. Five thoracic (41.7%), five double (thoracic and lumbar 41.7%), and two lumbar (16.7%) curves were considered. The mean number of fused levels was 11.8 (range: 5 to 16). Mean age at surgery was 13 years 8 months. Mean follow-up was 7 years 11 months (range: 3 years 7 months to 16 years 1 month). The mean preoperative scoliosis angle was 75.6°, whereas the postoperative angle was 31.4° (58.5% correction rate). The mean preoperative kyphosis angle was 57.4° and the postoperative angle was 42.3°. We observed one superficial infection, one dural tear, and three cases of proximal junctional kyphosis; two patients required one revision surgery each (2 years and 4 months postoperatively on average). To our knowledge, this is the first case series published in the literature regarding OI with instrumented fusion with non-cement augmented pedicle screws exclusively in children with spinal deformity. We found that posterior spinal fusion with the screw-rod system in OI deformity in children is feasible and reliable, and has acceptable clinical and imaging results in the long-term follow-up. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment strategies for early neurological deficits related to malpositioned pedicle screws in the lumbosacral canal

    PubMed Central

    Du, J-Y.; Wu, J-S.; Wen, Z-Q.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To employ a simple and fast method to evaluate those patients with neurological deficits and misplaced screws in relatively safe lumbosacral spine, and to determine if it is necessary to undertake revision surgery. Methods A total of 316 patients were treated by fixation of lumbar and lumbosacral transpedicle screws at our institution from January 2011 to December 2012. We designed the criteria for post-operative revision scores of pedicle screw malpositioning (PRSPSM) in the lumbosacral canal. We recommend the revision of the misplaced pedicle screw in patients with PRSPSM = 5′ as early as possible. However, patients with PRSPSM < 5′ need to follow the next consecutive assessment procedures. A total of 15 patients were included according to at least three-stage follow-up. Results Five patients with neurological complications (PRSPSM = 5′) underwent revision surgery at an early stage. The other ten patients with PRSPSM < 5′ were treated by conservative methods for seven days. At three-month follow-up, only one patient showed delayed onset of neurological complications (PRSPSM 7′) while refusing revision. Seven months later, PRSPSM decreased to 3′ with complete rehabilitation. Conclusions This study highlights the significance of consecutively dynamic assessments of PRSPSMs, which are unlike previous implementations based on purely anatomical assessment or early onset of neurological deficits.and also confirms our hypothesis that patients with early neurological complications may not need revision procedures in the relatively broad margin of the lumbosacral canal. Cite this article: X-J. Lin. Treatment strategies for early neurological deficits related to malpositioned pedicle screws in the lumbosacral canal: A pilot study. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:46–51. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000477. PMID:26868892

  4. Management of spinal cord injury-related scoliosis using pedicle screw-only constructs.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Steven W; Safain, Mina G; King, Joseph J; Kimball, Jeff S; Ames, Robert; Betz, Randall R; Cahill, Patrick J; Samdani, Amer F

    2015-02-01

    Almost all pediatric patients who incur a spinal cord injury (SCI) will develop scoliosis, and younger patients are at highest risk for curve progression requiring surgical intervention. Although the use of pedicle screws is increasing in popularity, their impact on SCI-related scoliosis has not been described. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic outcomes of pedicle screw-only constructs in all patients who had undergone SCI-related scoliosis correction at a single institution. Medical records and radiographs from Shriner's Hospital for Children-Philadelphia for the period between November 2004 and February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven patients, whose mean age at the index surgery was 14.91±3.29 years, were identified. The cohort had a mean follow-up of 33.2±22.8 months. The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angle was 65.5°±25.7°, which corrected to 20.3°±14.4°, translating into a 69% correction (p<0.05). The preoperative coronal balance was 24.4±22.6 mm, with a postoperative measurement of 21.6±20.7 mm (p=1.00). Preoperative pelvic obliquity was 12.7°±8.7°, which corrected to 4.1°±3.8°, translating into a 68% correction (p<0.05). Preoperative shoulder balance, as measured by the clavicle angle, was 8.2°±8.4°, which corrected to 2.7°±3.1° (67% correction, p<0.05). Preoperatively, thoracic kyphosis measured 44.2°±23.7° and was 33.8°±11.5° postoperatively. Thoracolumbar kyphosis was 18.7°±12.1° preoperatively, reduced to 8.1°±7.7° postoperatively, and measured 26.8°±20.2° at the last follow-up (p<0.05). Preoperatively, lumbar lordosis was 35.3°±22.0°, which remained stable at 35.6°±15.0° postoperatively. Pedicle screw constructs appear to provide better correction of coronal parameters than historically reported and provide significant improvement of sagittal kyphosis as well. Although pedicle screws appear to provide good radiographic results, correlation with clinical outcomes is

  5. Comparison of Consecutive, Interval, and Skipped Pedicle Screw Techniques in Moderate Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Shen, Mingkui; Wang, Wengang; Xia, Lei

    2017-02-01

    To compare perioperative, radiographic, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) outcomes of consecutive, interval, and skipped pedicle screw techniques in patients with moderate Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive moderate Lenke type 1 AIS patients at a single institution using all-pedicle screw constructs, with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. In the consecutive group (C group, n = 22), pedicle screws were instrumented at consecutive levels bilaterally. In the interval group (I group, n = 18), pedicle screws were placed at every level on the concave side while skipping levels on the convex side. In the skipped group (S group, n = 25), pedicle screws were instrumented by skipping levels bilaterally. Perioperative, radiographic, and SRS-22 measurements were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance. No significant differences were found in length of hospital stay, fused levels, coronal correction, and SRS-22 scores among the 3 groups. Increased surgery time was found in the C group compared with the I and S groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). Decreased blood loss and blood transfusions were found in the S group compared with the C group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.047, respectively). Decreased implant costs were found in the S group compared with the C and I groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Consecutive, interval, and skipped pedicle screw techniques all provide satisfactory deformity correction and SRS-22 outcomes with few complications. With better perioperative outcomes, interval and skipped pedicle screw techniques are the more cost-effective options for patients with moderate Lenke type 1 AIS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of the screw augmentation technique and a diameter increase on pedicle screw fixation in the osteoporotic spine: pullout versus fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Kueny, Rebecca A; Kolb, Jan P; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2014-10-01

    For posterior spinal stabilization, loosening of pedicle screws at the bone-screw interface is a clinical complication, especially in the osteoporotic population. Axial pullout testing is the standard pre-clinical testing method for new screw designs although it has questioned clinical relevance. The aim of this study was to determine the fixation strength of three current osteoporotic fixation techniques and to investigate whether or not pullout testing results can directly relate to those of the more physiologic fatigue testing. Thirty-nine osteoporotic, human lumbar vertebrae were instrumented with pedicle screws according to four treatment groups: (1) screw only (control), (2) prefilled augmentation, (3) screw injected augmentation, and (4) unaugmented screws with an increased diameter. Toggle testing was first performed on one pedicle, using a cranial-caudal sinusoidal, cyclic (1.0 Hz) fatigue loading applied at the screw head. The initial compressive forces ranged from 25 to 75 N. Peak force increased stepwise by 25 N every 250 cycles until a 5.4-mm screw head displacement. The contralateral screw then underwent pure axial pullout (5 mm/min). When compared to the control group, screw injected augmentation increased fatigue force (27 %, p = 0.045) while prefilled augmentation reduced fatigue force (-7 %, p = 0.73). Both augmentation techniques increased pullout force compared to the control (ps < 0.04). Increasing the screw diameter by 1 mm increased pullout force (24 %, p = 0.19), fatigue force (5 %, p = 0.73), and induced the least stiffness loss (-29 %) from control. For the osteoporotic spine, screw injected augmentation showed the best biomechanical stability. Although pullout testing was more sensitive, the differences observed were not reflected in the more physiological fatigue testing, thus casting further doubt on the clinical relevance of pullout testing.

  7. Subsidence of metal interbody cage after posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Ajiro, Yasumitsu; Umezawa, Natsuki

    2009-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion is considered to be an excellent fusion procedure to stabilize anterior support, correct alignment in the sagittal and coronal plane, and achieve foraminal decompression by lifting the disk height. The metal interbody cage in posterior lumbar interbody fusion is thought to be useful to prevent collapse of the graft bone and to correct and maintain disk height; however, some studies have noted a gradual decrease of disk height due to cage subsidence. Therefore, to investigate the significance of cage subsidence, 86 disk levels radiographically confirmed to have good union in 66 patients with posterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with pedicle screw fixation and a single metal cage for degenerative lumbar disease were retrospectively evaluated. The follow-up period ranged from 3 years to 10 years 3 months, with a mean of 7 years 9 months. Cage subsidence often showed a gradual increase over time. At final follow-up, subsidence averaged 4.0 mm on the cranial surface and 2.7 mm on the caudal surface. Although the average increase of disk height was 3.2 mm immediately postoperatively, the final disk height decreased by 4.2 mm on average from that time. The degree of cage subsidence and decrease of disk height were not correlated with the final clinical results. Subsidence was not correlated with bone mineral density in the vertebral body, body weight, or site of the insertion. On the other hand, the wedge shape of the cage and the thickness of the resected endplate had a significant influence on cage subsidence.

  8. Comparison between two pedicle screw augmentation instrumentations in adult degenerative scoliosis with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The operative treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis combined with osteoporosis increase following the epidemiological development. Studies have confirmed that screws in osteoporotic spines have significant lower-screw strength with more frequent screw movements within the vertebra than normal spines. Screws augmented with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or with autogenous bone can offer more powerful corrective force and significant advantages. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 31 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with osteoporosis who had surgery from December 2000. All had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. All patients had posterior approach surgery. 14 of them were fixed with pedicle screw by augmentation with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and the other 17 patients with autogenous bone. Age, sex and whether smoking were similar between the two groups. Surgical time, blood loss, blood transfusion, medical cost, post surgery ICU time, hospital day, length of oral pain medicines taken, Pre-and postoperative Oswestry disability index questionnaire and surgical revision were documented and compared. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow up Cobb angle, sagittal lumbar curve, correction rate, and Follow up Cobb loss were also compared. Results No significant differences were found between the autogenous bone group and Polymethylmethacrylate group with regards to all the targets above except for length of oral pain medicines taken and surgery cost. 2 patients were seen leakage during operation, but there is neither damage of nerve nor symptom after operation. No revision was needed. Conclusion Both augmentation pedicle screw with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and autogenous bone treating degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with osteoporosis can achieve a good surgical result. Less oral pain medicines taken are the potential benefits of Polymethylmethacrylate augmentation, but that is at the cost of more

  9. Clinical accuracy of computer-assisted two-dimensional fluoroscopy for the percutaneous placement of lumbosacral pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Zahrai, Ali; Rampersaud, Raja

    2011-01-01

    Clinical case series. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of computer-assisted two-dimensional fluoroscopy (2D-CAS) for the percutaneous placement of lumbosacral pedicle screws. Loss of visual anatomic landmarks and reduced tactile feedback increases the risk of pedicle screw misplacement by when using minimally invasive (MIS) percutaneous techniques. However, objective data on screw misplacement in this scenario is lacking. A MIS-2D-CAS technique (FluoroNav) was used for the placement of pedicle screws in 41 consecutive patients undergoing MIS-interbody instrumented fusion. Postoperative computerized tomography (CT) was obtained in all patients at 6 months after surgery and was evaluated by 3 observers. The relative position of the screw to the pedicle was graded regarding pedicle breach (I, no breach; II, <2 mm; III, 2-4 mm; IV, >4 mm), breach direction, vertebral body perforation and screw trajectory. Interobserver reliability of CT grading was assessed with kappa statistics. A total of 161 screws were placed. No neurologic, vascular, or visceral injuries occurred. About 37 (23%) screws breached the pedicle. The majority (83.8%, 31/37) of breaches were graded II. There were 5 Grade III and 1 Grade IV breaches. Medial versus lateral breaches occurred in 30% (11/37) and 60% (22/37), respectively; 10% (4/37) of the breaches were superior. Overall, 8 (5%) vertebral body breaches occurred. Of the pedicle screws, 19 (12%) had trajectories that deviated from acceptable, with the majority being medial (16/19, 84%). Fluoroscopy time for screw placement was typically less than 20 seconds total per case. There was 1 clinically significant breach at L5 (III, medial) which resulted in a L5 radiculopathy. Kappa statistics showed excellent overall agreement between reviewers (k = 0.73-0.92; 90%-96% agreement). The two-dimensional (2D) virtual fluoroscopy is a clinically acceptable option for percutaneous placement of pedicle screws

  10. Surgical complications in neuromuscular scoliosis operated with posterior- only approach using pedicle screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Hitesh N; Suh, Seung-Woo; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Cho, Jae Woo; Hong, Jae-Young; Singh, Surya Udai; Jain, Sudeep

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no reports describing complications with posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI) using pedicle screw fixation in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Methods Fifty neuromuscular patients (18 cerebral palsy, 18 Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 8 spinal muscular atrophy and 6 others) were divided in two groups according to severity of curves; group I (< 90°) and group II (> 90°). All underwent PSF and SSI with pedicle screw fixation. There were no anterior procedures. Perioperative (within three months of surgery) and postoperative (after three months of surgery) complications were retrospectively reviewed. Results There were fifty (37 perioperative, 13 postoperative) complications. Hemo/pneumothorax, pleural effusion, pulmonary edema requiring ICU care, complete spinal cord injury, deep wound infection and death were major complications; while atelectesis, pneumonia, mild pleural effusion, UTI, ileus, vomiting, gastritis, tingling sensation or radiating pain in lower limb, superficial infection and wound dehiscence were minor complications. Regarding perioperative complications, 34(68%) patients had at least one major or one minor complication. There were 16 patients with pulmonary, 14 with abdominal, 3 with wound related, 2 with neurological and 1 cardiovascular complications, respectively. There were two deaths, one due to cardiac arrest and other due to hypovolemic shock. Regarding postoperative complications 7 patients had coccygodynia, 3 had screw head prominence, 2 had bed sore and 1 had implant loosening, respectively. There was a significant relationship between age and increased intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.024). However it did not increased complications or need for ICU care. Similarly intraoperative blood loss > 3500 ml, severity of curve or need of pelvic fixation did not increase the complication rate or need for ICU. DMD patients had higher chances of coccygodynia postoperatively. Conclusion

  11. Evaluation of robot-guided minimally invasive implantation of 2067 pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Keric, Naureen; Doenitz, Christian; Haj, Amer; Rachwal-Czyzewicz, Izabela; Renovanz, Mirjam; Wesp, Dominik M A; Boor, Stephan; Conrad, Jens; Brawanski, Alexander; Giese, Alf; Kantelhardt, Sven R

    2017-05-01

    Objective Recent studies have investigated the role of spinal image guidance for pedicle screw placement. Many authors have observed an elevated placement accuracy and overall improvement of outcome measures. This study assessed a bi-institutional experience following introduction of the Renaissance miniature robot for spinal image guidance in Europe. Methods The medical records and radiographs of all patients who underwent robot-guided implantation of spinal instrumentation using the novel system (between October 2011 and March 2015 in Mainz and February 2014 and February 2016 in Regensburg) were reviewed to determine the efficacy and safety of the newly introduced robotic system. Screw position accuracy, complications, exposure durations to intraoperative radiation, and reoperation rate were assessed. Results Of the 413 surgeries that used robotic guidance, 406 were via a minimally invasive approach. In 7 cases the surgeon switched to conventional screw placement, using a midline approach, due to referencing problems. A total of 2067 screws were implanted using robotic guidance, and 1857 screws were evaluated by postoperative CT. Of the 1857 screws, 1799 (96.9%) were classified as having an acceptable or good position, whereas 38 screws (2%) showed deviations of 3-6 mm and 20 screws (1.1%) had deviations > 6 mm. Nine misplaced screws, implanted in 7 patients, required revision surgery, yielding a screw revision rate of 0.48% of the screws and 7 of 406 (1.7%) of the patients. The mean ± SD per-patient intraoperative fluoroscopy exposure was 114.4 (± 72.5) seconds for 5.1 screws on average and any further procedure required. Perioperative and direct postoperative complications included hemorrhage (2 patients, 0.49%) and wound infections necessitating surgical revision (20 patients, 4.9%). Conclusions The hexapod miniature robotic device proved to be a safe and robust instrument in all situations, including those in which patients were treated on an emergency

  12. Computer analysis of the safety of using three different pedicular screw insertion points in the lumbar spine in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hailong, Yu; Wei, Lei; Zhensheng, Ma; Hongxun, Sang

    2007-05-01

    To help decide the best starting point for lumbar spine pedicle screw insertion in the Chinese population using three different techniques (Roy-Camille, Magerl, and Du). Three-dimensional CT reconstructions were created from 40 adult lumbar vertebral segments. Three different starting points for lumbar pedicle screw insertion were used. The direction of the pedicle screw through each hole was simulated on three-dimensional reconstructed images. Precise CT measurements were made to assess the distance from the simulated screw and the medial and lateral pedicle walls at the smallest transverse section of each pedicle. To measure a pedicle transverse section angle (TSA) lines were drawn on a CT scan in the direct axis of the pedicle, tangential to the medial, and separately lateral, walls of the pedicles at the isthmus. The angle these lines made with an anterior to posterior line, which directly bisected the mid-portion of the vertebral body was called the TSA. The greater the difference between the TSA between the medial and lateral walls provides the greatest flexibility for the insertion angle of the pedicle screw. Additionally, the distance from a line drawn in the direct central axis of the pedicle was measured from the point of exit from the pedicle to the entry point of each of three insertion techniques (Du, Mageral, and Roy-Camille), to help understand potential risk factors. There were statistically significant differences between the distances from the entrance point to the direct pedicle axis among the three methods (P < 0.001). Du's insertion point was the shortest from L1 to L4. The distances measured following Magerl's technique were shortest at L5 (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference of the safe range of the TSA between the three methods from L1 and L2 (P > 0.05), but significant differences at L3, L4, and L5 (P < 0.05). At L3 and L4 the safe ranges of TSA using Du and Magerl's methods were significantly larger than those measured by Roy

  13. Utility of a custom screw insertion guide and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster model for guiding safe surgical exposure and screw insertion during spine revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Bungo; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Kimura, Hiroaki; Masamoto, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Several articles have described the use of screw insertion guides during primary spine surgery; however, the use of such a guide during revision surgeries has not been described. The purpose of this study is to describe the utility of a custom screw insertion (CSI) guide assembled using a novel method and a full-scale, color-coded 3D plaster (FCTP) model for safe and accurate revision surgery. The authors applied the CSI guide and the FCTP model in 3 cases. In the first case, a patient with multiple failed cervical spine surgeries underwent occipitocervicothoracic fusion. After a successful result for this patient, the authors applied the CSI guide in 2 other patients who underwent revision lumbar fusion surgeries to confirm the accuracy and the efficacy of the CSI guides in such cases. The models and guides were fabricated using rapid prototyping technology. The effectiveness of these methods was examined. The FCTP model was designed using CT data. During model assembly, implants inserted during previous surgery were removed virtually, and for the cervical spine, vertebral arteries were colored red for planning. The CSI guide was designed with 5 or 6 arms to fit the bone surface precisely after removing artifacts. Surgery was performed by referring to the FCTP model. Because the actual structure of the bone surface was almost identical to that of the FCTP model, surgical exposure around the complex bone shape proceeded smoothly. The CSI guides were positioned accurately to aid the successful insertion of a pedicle screw into the C-2 vertebra in the case of cervical revision surgery, and 4 pedicle screws for lumbar vertebrae in the 2 other patients. Postoperative CT scans showed that all screw positions closely matched those predicted during the preoperative planning. In conclusion, the FCTP models and the novel CSI guides were effective for safe and accurate revision surgery of the spine.

  14. Feasibility study of patient-specific surgical templates for the fixation of pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Salako, F; Aubin, C-E; Fortin, C; Labelle, H

    2002-01-01

    Surgery for scoliosis, as well as other posterior spinal surgeries, frequently uses pedicle screws to fix an instrumentation on the spine. Misplacement of a screw can lead to intra- and post-operative complications. The objective of this study is to design patient-specific surgical templates to guide the drilling operation. From the CT-scan of a vertebra, the optimal drilling direction and limit angles are computed from an inverse projection of the pedicle limits. The first template design uses a surface-to-surface registration method and was constructed in a CAD system by subtracting the vertebra from a rectangular prism and a cylinder with the optimal orientation. This template and the vertebra were built using rapid prototyping. The second design uses a point-to-surface registration method and has 6 adjustable screws to adjust the orientation and length of the drilling support device. A mechanism was designed to hold it in place on the spinal process. A virtual prototype was build with CATIA software. During the operation, the surgeon places either template on patient's vertebra until a perfect match is obtained before drilling. The second design seems better than the first one because it can be reused on different vertebra and is less sensible to registration errors. The next step is to build the second design and make experimental and simulations tests to evaluate the benefits of this template during a scoliosis operation.

  15. Comparison of Open Versus Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation Using the Sextant System in the Treatment of Traumatic Thoracolumbar Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Jun; Xiang, Liangbi

    2017-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 100 patients who were posterior stabilized without graft fusion. Using the Sextant system, 22 patients underwent minimally invasive short-segment 4-pedicle screw fixation (MIF4) and 39 patients underwent minimally invasive short-segment combined with intermediate screws fixation, that is, 6-pedicle screw fixation (MIF6). The conventional open posterior short-segment 4-pedicle screw fixation (OPF4) technique was used in 39 patients. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation using the Sextant system in the treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures compared with the conventional open posterior short-segment pedicle screw fixation technique. To the best of our knowledge, the clinical and radiographic outcomes of MIF4, MIF6 with polyaxial pedicle screws, and OPF4 with monoaxial pedicle screws have not been compared in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures. Visual analogue scores (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, clinical outcomes including surgical blood loss, operation time, and postoperative hospital stay, sagittal Cobb angle, vertebral body angle, and anterior height of the fractured vertebrae were compared among the 3 groups. Significant postoperative improvements, relative to baseline, were observed in the VAS and ODI scores (P<0.05 each). There were no significant differences between the MIF4 and MIF6 groups in clinical outcomes, including surgical blood loss, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, VAS, and ODI scores (P>0.05 each). However, there were significant differences between both MIF groups and the OPF group (P<0.05 each). Significant improvements were observed in the sagittal Cobb angle, vertebral body angle, and anterior height of the fractured vertebrae (P<0.05 each). During follow-up, however, the correction loss of the sagittal Cobb angle was smallest in the MIF6 group (P<0.05). Minimally invasive posterior stabilization using the Sextant system

  16. C1-c2 pedicle screw fixation for treatment of old odontoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lei; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Si, Haipeng; Xue, Jingsong

    2015-02-01

    Nonunion and C1-C2 instability of odontoid fractures usually result from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. However, the available treatment options for odontoid fractures remain controversial. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle in cases of old odontoid fractures. This retrospective study included 21 patients with old odontoid fractures (13 men and 8 women; mean age, 46.5 years; range, 24-69 years). Internal screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was performed in all patients. Fracture reduction and C1-C2 fusion were assessed with imaging. The neck pain visual analog scale score and cervical spinal cord functional Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (for those who had cervical spinal cord injury) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Postoperative complications were recorded. Postoperative imaging showed that the C1-C2 dislocation was satisfactorily repositioned in all patients. Bone fusion was observed 1 year after surgery in all patients. No loosening or breaking of internal fixation occurred. The preoperative neck pain visual analog scale score was 5.9±1.5 and improved significantly to 1.8±0.8 after surgery (P<.001). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score in patients with cervical spinal injury (n=14) was 9.2±1.9 and also significantly improved to 13.8±1.9 at the last follow-up examination (P<.001), with an average improvement rate of 61.0%. No iatrogenic vertebral artery injury or severe spinal cord injury occurred. Screw fixation via the C1 and C2 pedicle was found to be an effective and safe surgical approach for the treatment of old odontoid fractures with C1-C2 dislocation or instability.

  17. Biomechanical Analysis of a Pedicle Screw-Rod System with a Novel Cross-Link Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masahito; Umebayashi, Daisuke; Haimoto, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Yu; Nishimura, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Study Design The strength effects of a pedicle screw-rod system supplemented with a novel cross-link configuration were biomechanically evaluated in porcine spines. Purpose To assess the biomechanical differences between a conventional cross-link pedicle screw-rod system versus a novel cross-link instrumentation, and to determine the effect of the cross-links. Overview of Literature Transverse cross-link systems affect torsional rigidity, but are thought to have little impact on the sagittal motion of spinal constructs. We tested the strength effects in pullout and flexion-compression tests of novel cross-link pedicle screw constructs using porcine thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Methods Five matched thoracic and lumbar vertebral segments from 15 porcine spines were instrumented with 5.0-mm pedicle screws, which were then connected with 6.0-mm rods after partial corpectomy in the middle vertebral body. The forces required for construct failure in pullout and flexion-compression tests were examined in a randomized manner for three different cross-link configurations: un-cross-link control, conventional cross-link, and cross-link passing through the base of the spinous process. Statistical comparisons of strength data were analyzed using Student's t-tests. Results The spinous process group required a significantly greater pullout force for construct failure than the control group (p=0.036). No difference was found between the control and cross-link groups, or the cross-link and spinous process groups in pullout testing. In flexion-compression testing, the spinous processes group required significantly greater forces for construct failure than the control and cross-link groups (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). However, there was no difference between the control and cross-link groups. Conclusions A novel cross-link configuration that features cross-link devices passing through the base of the spinous processes increased the mechanical resistance in pullout and

  18. Ideal starting point and trajectory for C2 pedicle screw placement: a 3D computed tomography analysis using perioperative measurements.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kingsley R; Mills, Michael V; Seale, Jason; Cumming, Vanessa

    2014-04-01

    C2 pedicle screws provide stable fixation for posterior cervical fusion. Placing C2 pedicle screws is fraught with risks, and a misplaced screw can result in cortical breach of the pedicle, resulting in injury to the vertebral artery or spinal cord. We sought to identify a reproducible starting point and trajectory for C2 pedicle screw placement using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging. Our aims included identifying correct cephalad and mediolateral angles used for determining the most accurate trajectory through the C2 pedicle. A radiographic analysis of the anatomy of the C2 pedicle using CT. A random sample of 34 cervical spine CT scans in patients without medical or surgical pathology of the cervical spine. Normal anatomic measurements made in the axial and sagittal planes of the CT scans. Angles and measures in millimeters were recorded. The C2 pedicles were evaluated using CT scanning with a 3D imaging application. The ideal trajectory through each pedicle was plotted. The mediolateral and cephalad angles were measured using the midline sagittal plane and the inferior vertebral body border as references. Other measurements made were the distances through the pedicle and vertebral bodies, and the surface distances along the laminae between the isthmus and the starting point of the chosen trajectories. Other measurements involving the height of the laminae were also made. The mean values, standard deviations, and intraobserver variations are presented. CT scans from 34 patients were reviewed. The sex of the patient did not predict angle measurements (p=.2038), so combined male and female patient measures are presented. The mean mediolateral angle measured was 29.2°, and the mean cephalad angle was 23.0°. The mean distance along the lamina surface between the isthmus and the starting point was 8.1 mm. The mean distance from the superior border of the lamina to the starting point was 5.7 mm. There were no statistically significant

  19. Use of anteroposterior view fluoroscopy for targeting percutaneous pedicle screws in cases of spinal deformity with axial rotation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faiz U; Wang, Michael Y

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade percutaneous pedicle screws have become popular for the minimally invasive treatment of spinal disorders. However, until the last 5 years the presence of a significant spinal deformity was regarded as a relative contraindication for percutaneous instrumentation. Recent advances in surgical technique and intraoperative technology have made percutaneous fixation in complex spinal pathologies more commonplace. The authors report their experience using a parsimonious method for uniplanar fluoroscopic targeting of pedicles in challenging cases. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients with adult spinal deformity who underwent percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation from 2008 to 2013. Cases were included if a spiral slice postoperative CT scan was obtained. All cases had a minimum of 10° of axial rotation and typically had additional accompanying anatomical abnormalities. Screws were assessed for any pedicle violations as well as any impingement of the surrounding facet joints. A total of 410 pedicle screws were placed in 36 patients with an average 6.4 levels of instrumentation per patient. The mean age was 67 years (range 44-86 years) and there were 25 females. Of the 410 screws, 29 (7.1%) had some medial or lateral pedicle violation. Of these, 15 (3.7%) were Grade 1, 6 (1.4%) were Grade 2, and 8 (2.0%) were Grade 3 violations. Of the Grade 3 violations, 2 each were at the L-4, L-5, and S-1 levels, and 1 each was at the T-10 and L-1 levels. Two of the patients had symptoms and both underwent screw repositioning, one during the same admission and the other in a delayed fashion. Both were at the L-5 and S-1 levels with anatomically highly medialized pedicles. There were no motor deficits, and both removals were for numbness. Of the 72 screws at the proximal end of the construct, there were 6 facet violations (8.3%). Four (5.6%) of these were Grade 1, 1 (1.4%) was Grade 2, and 1 (1.4%) was Grade 3. The anteroposterior

  20. Mid-Term Results of Computer-Assisted Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Masashi; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The present study aimed to evaluate mid-term results of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation for cervical instability. Overview of Literature CPS fixation has widely used in the treatment of cervical spinal instability from various causes; however, there are few reports on mid-term surgical results of CPS fixation. Methods Record of 19 patients who underwent cervical and/or upper thoracic (C2-T1) pedicle screw fixation for cervical instability was reviewed. The mean observation period was 90.2 months. Evaluated items included Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and C2-7 lordotic angle before surgery and at 5 years after surgery. Postoperative computerized tomography was used to determine the accuracy of screw placement. Visual analog scale (VAS) for neck pain and radiological evidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) at the 5-year follow-up were also evaluated. Results Mean JOA score was significantly improved from 9.0 points before surgery to 12.8 at 5 years after surgery (p=0.001). The C2-7 lordotic angle of the neutral position improved from 6.4° to 7.8° at 5 years after surgery, but this was not significant. The major perforation rate was 5.0%. There were no clinically significant complications such as vertebral artery injury, spinal cord injury, or nerve root injury caused by any screw perforation. Mean VAS for neck pain was 49.4 at 5 years after surgery. The rate of ASD was 21.1%. Conclusions Our mid-term results showed that CPS fixation was useful for treating cervical instability. Severe complications were prevented with the assistance of a computed tomography-based navigation system. PMID:25558318

  1. Minimally Invasive Pedicle Screw Placement in A Case of L4 Fracture: Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Mizuno, Junichi; Kato, Yoko; Inoue, Tatsushi; Sano, Hirotoshi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pedicle screw instrumentation provides a rigid construct to promote fusion in cases of spinal trauma and degenerative diseases. Minimally invasive percutaneous technique in lumbar spine is a safe and reliable procedure as compared to the well established Magerl technique. It is a straight forward alternative to open approaches or minimally invasive ones and the accuracy of screw placement is also similar to that reported for other techniques. Case Report: A 16 year old high school boy presented to us with accidental fall from third floor. He was suffering from common cold with resulting high fever. He developed low back ache with bilateral radiculopathy and weakness of dorsiflexors. Neuro-imaging revealed a burst fracture of L4 vertebral body (type A 3.3 according to Magerl/AO spine classification), with bone fragments compromising the spinal canal. Delayed surgery was planned in view of anticipated excessive bleeding from the wound site in addition to poor general condition. Using a bone impactor, the bony fragments were impacted back into the original vertebral body space. Sextant (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Tennessee, USA) percutaneous pedicle screw and rod fixation device was then used as a rigid construct to stabilize the lumbar spine. Post-operative CT scan and MRI revealed accurate pedicle screw fixation with adequately decompressed spinal canal. Conclusion: Short segment fusion with minimally invasive pedicle screwing following decompression of cauda equina was considered to be a minimally invasive approach for this case. PMID:22028760

  2. Biomechanical comparison of translaminar versus pedicle screws at T1 and T2 in long subaxial cervical constructs.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Sutter, Edward G; Xu, Risheng; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali

    2009-12-01

    The first in vitro biomechanical investigation comparing the immediate and postcyclical rigidities of thoracic translaminar versus pedicle screws in posterior constructs crossing the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ). Ten human cadaveric spines underwent C4-C6 lateral mass screw and T1-T2 translaminar (n = 5) versus pedicle (n = 5) screw fixation. Spines were then potted in polymethylmethacrylate bone cement and placed on a materials testing machine. Rotation about the axis of bending was measured using passive retroreflective markers and infrared motion capture cameras. The motion of C6 relative to T2 in flexion-extension and lateral bending was assessed uninstrumented, immediately after instrumentation, and after 40,000 cycles of 4 N.m flexion-extension and lateral bending moments at 1 Hz. The effect of instrumentation and cyclical loading on rotational motion across the CTJ was analyzed for significance. Compared with preinstrumented spines, pedicle and translaminar screw constructs significantly (P < 0.001) decreased motion during flexion-extension and lateral bending. After cyclical loading, rotational motion at the CTJ was significantly increased (P < 0.05) during flexion-extension and lateral bending in both groups. With flexion-extension, the mean rotational motion across the CTJ was similar in the translaminar and pedicle constructs immediately after fixation, but slightly greater (P = 0.03) after cyclical loading in the translaminar versus the pedicle screw constructs (0.39 degrees versus 0.26 degrees). Nevertheless, after cyclical loading, the mean angular motion across the CTJ remained less than one half of a degree in both groups. With lateral bending, the mean rotational motion was similar in both translaminar and pedicle screw constructs. Both upper thoracic translaminar and pedicle screws allow for rigid fixation at the CTJ. Although translaminar screw constructs demonstrated one eighth of a degree more motion at the CTJ after cycling, this minimal

  3. Elective thoracotomy for pedicle screw removal to prevent severe aortic bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Sebastian; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 33-year-old female who sustained multiple injuries of her spine, including spinous process fractures of C5 to C7 and a lamina fracture of C6 and C7. Her thoracic spine showed transverse process fractures of T4 to T10, a compression fracture and lamina fracture of T3, spinous process and transverse process fractures of T4 and T5, a rotation injury of T6, as well as a compression fracture of L1. Thirteen months after posterior thoracic spinal instrumentation, a pedicle screw was suspected to be in contact with the aorta, which was proved by computed tomography angiograms. Consequently, implant removal was planned with direct exposure of the aorta in order to allow for immediate repair if needed. So far, studies that compare different techniques to remove pedicle screws that are suspected to penetrate the aorta are missing. However, different techniques have been described in case reports, mainly minimally invasive endovascular techniques vs open techniques such as thoracotomy. PMID:24749121

  4. A CT-Based Simulation Study to Compare the Risk of Facet Joint Violation by the Cervical Pedicle Screw Between Degenerative and Nondegenerative Cervical Spines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ho; Noh, Hyounmin; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Choon Sung; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Cho, Jae Hwan

    2017-02-01

    A retrospective case-control study. This study aimed (A) to compare entry points and trajectories of the cervical pedicle screw (CPS) between degenerative and nondegenerative spines, and (B) to evaluate the risk of facet joint violation by the CPS according to the degree of facet degeneration. Entry point, trajectories, and risk of misplacement of the CPS have been widely researched; however, its application to degenerative cervical spine has to be elucidated. Sixty patients who underwent cervical surgeries at our institution were classified into two groups according to cervical facet joint degeneration. A simulation program with 0.7-mm thickness axial computed tomographic images was used to evaluate facet joint violation by the CPS from C3 to C6. Horizontal and vertical offsets of entry points were measured from two different anatomical landmarks on lateral mass, namely the lateral notch and the center of the superior ridge. The transverse and sagittal angles of the screws were also measured. Facet joint violation was evaluated and classified into either "minor" (<50% of screw diameter) or "major" (≥50% of screw diameter). The mean transverse and sagittal angles showed no difference between the two groups. However, a more superior vertical offset from the superior ridge in terms of entry point was observed in the degenerative cervical spine group at all levels (P = 0.001-0.026). In addition, facet joint violation was more frequently found in severely degenerated facet joints than in mild to moderately degenerated facet joints (P = 0.011). The entry point of CPS was moved more superiorly in the degenerative cervical spine in this study, which increased the risk of facet joint violation in our patients. Thus, surgeons need to modify the insertion technique of the CPS or to insert lateral mass screw instead of the CPS when it is considered to insert screws at the uppermost vertebra in the degenerative cervical spine. 4.

  5. Short segment pedicle screw instrumentation and augmentation vertebroplasty in lumbar burst fractures: an experience

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Saleem; Dhar, Shabir A.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and feasibility of vertebroplasty and posterior short-segment pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of traumatic lumbar burst fractures. Short-segment pedicle screw instrumentation is a well described technique to reduce and stabilize thoracic and lumbar spine fractures. It is relatively a easy procedure but can only indirectly reduce a fractured vertebral body, and the means of augmenting the anterior column are limited. Hardware failure and a loss of reduction are recognized complications caused by insufficient anterior column support. Patients with traumatic lumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficits were included. After a short segment posterior reduction and fixation, bilateral transpedicular reduction of the endplate was performed using a balloon, and polymethyl methacrylate cement was injected. Pre-operative and post-operative central and anterior heights were assessed with radiographs and MRI. Sixteen patients underwent this procedure, and a substantial reduction of the endplates could be achieved with the technique. All patients recovered uneventfully, and the neurologic examination revealed no deficits. The post-operative radiographs and magnetic resonance images demonstrated a good fracture reduction and filling of the bone defect without unwarranted bone displacement. The central and anterior height of the vertebral body could be restored to 72 and 82% of the estimated intact height, respectively. Complications were cement leakage in three cases without clinical implications and one superficial wound infection. Posterior short-segment pedicle fixation in conjunction with balloon vertebroplasty seems to be a feasible option in the management of lumbar burst fractures, thereby addressing all the three columns through a single approach. Although cement leakage occurred but had no clinical consequences or neurological deficit. PMID:18193300

  6. Improving fixation strength of pedicle screw by microarc oxidation treatment: an experimental study of osteoporotic spine in sheep.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Zheng; Wu, Zi-xiang; Liu, Da; Gao, Ming-xuan; Chen, Huan; Fu, Suo-chao; Lei, Wei

    2012-08-01

    Failure of fixation caused by loosening of pedicle screws in osteoporosis is a problem in spinal surgery. We compared the in vivo fixation strength between pedicle screws treated with microarc oxidation (MAO) and untreated screws in an osteoporotic model of ovariectomized sheep. The MAO treated and untreated screws were placed in lumbar vertebral bodies. After 3 months of implantation, biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis, and histological observations were conducted to examine the performance of the two groups. At time 0, no significant difference was found between the two groups in biomechanical tests (p > 0.05); 3 months later, higher pull-out strength and load with less displacement were detected in the MAO-treated group (p < 0.05). Micro-CT analysis showed that the tissue mineral density, bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number in the MAO-treated group were all higher than those in untreated group (p < 0.05), and trabecular spacing was smaller (p < 0.05). Histologically, the bone-implant interface in the MAO-treated group was better than that in untreated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, pedicle screws with a bioactive surface treated by MAO can improve screw fixation strength in osteoporotic spines in sheep.

  7. The use of a pedicle screw-cortical screw hybrid system for the surgical treatment of a patient with congenital multilevel spinal non-segmentation defect and spinal column deformity: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Ashayeri, Kimberly; Nasser, Rani; Nakhla, Jonathan; Yassari, Reza

    2016-11-01

    This technical note presents, to the authors' knowledge, the first reported case of a hybrid pedicle-cortical screw system for instrumented fusion in a patient with congenital vertebral column deformity. Cortical screws were navigated using stereotactic guidance to extend a prior non-segmented fusion mass, facilitating instrumentation in a circumstance with completely distorted anatomy. This technique provided a safe trajectory with excellent cortical purchase in an anatomically deformed spine. Cortical screw fixation may serve to be helpful in augmenting pedicle screw fixation and in circumstances in which the bone quality is suboptimal or the pedicles are compromised. Cortical screw fixation is a relatively new technology, but it may prove to be invaluable in providing an adjunct to pedicle screw constructs in anatomically distorted or osteoporotic spines.

  8. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Mo Lin, Ruey; Chen, Hsiang-Ho; Tsai, Kai-Jow

    2007-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block) and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1) large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2) polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3) polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment is set at large lordotic

  9. Short Segment versus Long Segment Pedicle Screws Fixation in Management of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Posterior pedicle screw fixation has become a popular method for treating thoracolumbar burst fractures. However, it remains unclear whether additional fixation of more segments could improve clinical and radiological outcomes. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fixation levels with pedicle screw fixation for thoracolumbar burst fractures. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Springer, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant randomized and quasirandomized controlled trials that compared the clinical and radiological efficacy of short versus long segment for thoracolumbar burst fractures managed by posterior pedicle screw fixation. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Based on predefined inclusion criteria, Nine eligible trials with a total of 365 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Results were expressed as risk difference for dichotomous outcomes and standard mean difference for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence interval. Baseline characteristics were similar between the short and long segment fixation groups. No significant difference was identified between the two groups regarding radiological outcome, functional outcome, neurologic improvement, and implant failure rate. The results of this meta-analysis suggested that extension of fixation was not necessary when thoracolumbar burst fracture was treated by posterior pedicle screw fixation. More randomized controlled trials with high quality are still needed in the future. PMID:28243383

  10. Inertial Measurement Unit-Assisted Implantation of Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral Pedicle Screws Improves Precision of a Freehand Technique.

    PubMed

    Jost, Gregory F; Walti, Jonas; Mariani, Luigi; Schaeren, Stefan; Cattin, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    A method applying inertial measurement units (IMUs) was developed to implant pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. This was compared with a freehand technique. The study was done on 9 human cadavers. For each cadaver, a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to measure the axial and sagittal tilt angles of the screw trajectories from T1 to S1. After the entry points were defined on the exposed spine, the IMU-equipped pedicle finder and screwdriver were used to reproduce these tilt angles and implant half of the screws. The other half was implanted with a freehand technique. Fluoroscopy was not used. The screw trajectories were analyzed on postoperative CTs. A hundred and sixty-two screws were placed with use of the IMUs and 162 screws were implanted by freehand. The IMU-guided technique matched the planned trajectories significantly better than the freehand technique (axial tilt P < 0.001, sagittal tilt P < 0.001). With IMU assistance, the mean offsets between the planned and postoperatively measured tilt angles of the screws were 3.3 degrees ± 3.5 degrees for the axial plane (median 2 degrees, range 0-23 degrees) and 3.4 degrees ± 3 degrees for the sagittal plane (median 3 degrees, range 0-13 degrees). For the freehand technique, the mean offsets between the planned and postoperatively measured tilt angles of the screws were 5.6 degrees ± 4.5 degrees for the axial plane (median 5 degrees, range 0-31 degrees) and 6.7 degrees ± 5.4 degrees for the sagittal plane (median 6 degrees, range 0-33 degrees). IMU-assisted implantation of pedicle screws may enhance the performance of a freehand technique in the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Pedicle Screws and Titanium Mesh Cage in the Treatments of Tuberculous Spondylitis of the Thoracolumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Yon-Il

    2008-01-01

    Study Design This is a retrospective series. Purpose We wanted to analyze the safety and effectiveness of using the newer generation metallic implants (pedicle screws and/or titanium mesh) for the treatment of tuberculous spondylitis. Overview of the Literature There have been various efforts to prevent the development of a kyphotic deformity after the treatment of tuberculous spondylitis, including instrumentation of the spine. Pedicle screws and titanium mesh cages have become more and more popular for treating various spinal problems. Methods Twenty two patients who had tuberculous spondylitis were treated with anterior radical debridement and their anterior column of spine was supported with a tricortical iliac bone graft (12 patients) or by mesh (10 patients). Supplementary posterior pedicle screw instrumentation was performed in 17 of 22 patients. The combination of surgeries were anterior strut bone grafting and posterior pedicle screws in 12 patients, anterior titanium mesh and posterior pedicle screws in 5 patients and anterior mesh only without pedicle screws in 5 patients. The patients were followed up with assessing the laboratory inflammatory parameters, the serial plain radiographs and the neurological recovery. Results The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were eventually normalized and there was no case of persistent infection or failure to control infection in spite of a mettalic implant in situ. The overall correction of kyphotic deformity was initially 8.9 degrees, and the loss of correction was 6.2 degrees. In spite of some loss of correction, this technique effectively prevented clinically significant kyphotic deformity. The preoperative Frankel grades were B for 1 patient, C for 4, D for 4 and E for 13. At the final follow-up, 7 of 9 patients recovered completely to Frankel grade E and only two patients showed a Frankel grade of D. Conclusions Stabilizing the spine with pedicle screws and/or titanium mesh in patients

  12. Reduction and fixation of sacroiliac joint dislocation by the combined use of S1 pedicle screws and the galveston technique.

    PubMed

    Abumi, K; Saita, M; Iida, T; Kaneda, K

    2000-08-01

    This retrospective study was designed to analyze the results of the treatment with S1 pedicle screws and the Galveston technique of seven patients with sacroiliac dislocation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the combined use of S1 pedicle screws and the Galveston technique for the treatment of sacroiliac dislocation. Although several procedures for internal fixation of sacroiliac dislocation have been reported, there have been no reports discussing surgical treatment of sacroiliac dislocation by the combined use of S1 pedicle screws and the Galveston technique. Seven patients with sacroiliac dislocation were treated with pedicle screws of S1 and iliac rod according to the Galveston technique. In the seven patients, the dislocation was associated with vertical displacement of the sacroiliac joint and rotational deformity of the pelvic ring. They were classified into Type-C pelvic disruption according to the Tile's classification. Three patients with disruption of the symphysis pubis underwent additional fixation of the symphysis using a dynamic compression plate. The remaining four patients were treated by the posterior procedure alone. The vertical displacement was completely reduced in five patients, and the rotational deformity was completely corrected in four patients. The reduction was maintained at the time of the final follow-up evaluation. There were no perioperative complications with the exception of late infection in one patient. The combined use of S1 pedicle screws and the Galveston technique provided immediate stability and sufficient reduction for sacroiliac dislocation in seven patients in this study. This hybrid internal fixation procedure is useful for reduction and fixation of sacroiliac dislocation associated with the vertical and rotational instability of the pelvic ring.

  13. Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Xu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhang, Bi; Lin, Qiuyan; He, Mingchang

    2013-08-01

    Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases has won the support of many surgeons. However, few data are available regarding clinical research on unilateral pedicle screw fixation associated with minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of lumbar spinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes in a selected series of patients with lumbar degenerative diseases treated with minimally invasive unilateral vs classic bilateral pedicle screw fixation and lumbar interbody fusion. Patients in the unilateral group (n=43) underwent minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation with the Quadrant system (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee). The bilateral group (n=42) underwent bilateral instrumentation via the classic approach. Visual analog scale pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index scores, fusion rate, operative time, blood loss, and complications were analyzed. Mean operative time was 75 minutes in the unilateral group and 95 minutes in the bilateral group. Mean blood loss was 220 mL in the unilateral group and 450 mL in the bilateral group. Mean postoperative visual analog scale pain score was 3.10±0.16 in the unilateral group and 3.30±1.10 in the bilateral group. Mean postoperative Oswestry Disability Index score was 15.67±2.3 in the unilateral group and 14.93±2.6 in the bilateral group. Successful fusion was achieved in 92.34% of patients in the unilateral group and 93.56% of patients in the bilateral group. Minimally invasive unilateral pedicle screw fixation is an effective and reliable option for the surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. It causes less blood loss, requires less operative time, and has a fusion rate comparable with that of conventional bilateral fixation. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Treatment of dystrophic scoliosis in neurofibromatosis Type 1 with one-stage posterior pedicle screw technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Fu, Changfeng; Leng, Jiali; Qu, Zhigang; Xu, Feng; Liu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Corrective surgery for dystrophic scoliosis in neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) is challenging. There are various surgical methods, all with unsatisfactory outcomes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the treatment of dystrophic scoliosis in NF-1 with one-stage posterior pedicle screw approach. This is a retrospective clinical study. Sixteen patients with dystrophic scoliosis in NF-1 underwent one-stage posterior surgery with pedicle screw system. We used preoperative and postoperative whole-spine radiographs to determine coronal and sagittal Cobb angles (curve correction); distance between apex vertebra and central sacral vertical line (DAC), pelvic obliquity, and shoulder tilt (coronal balance improvement); and sagittal vertical axis and pelvic tilt angle (sagittal balance improvement). We assessed the fusion rate using fusion segment computed tomography scan. Patients underwent surgery with or without osteotomy according to spinal flexibility. Fusion segment selection method of fusion segments selection which mean fusing from one or two levels proximal to upper end vertebra to one or two levels distal to the lower end vertebra (EV+1 or 2) or stable vertebrae fusion. There were no study-specific conflict of interest-associated biases. The average follow-up time was 40.9 months. Mean scoliosis and kyphosis improved from 83.2° to 27.6° and 58.5° to 26.8°, respectively; at the last follow-up, it was 30.4° and 27.4°, respectively. Mean DAC, pelvic obliquity, and shoulder tilt improved from 53.0 to 23.9, 8.1 to 4.9, and 9.8 to 7.5 mm, respectively. Sagittal vertical axis and pelvic tilt angle improved from -5.8 to 1.6 mm and 17.9° to -5.8°, respectively. During follow-up, mean coronal and sagittal correction losses were 2.8° and 0.7°, respectively. Two EV+1 or 2 patients had decompensation. No pseudoarthrosis was identified. The one-stage posterior pedicle screw approach is safe and effective in the treatment of dystrophic

  15. Intraosseous Injection of Simvastatin in Poloxamer 407 Hydrogel Improves Pedicle-Screw Fixation in Ovariectomized Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Fu, X; Tan, J; Sun, C G; Leng, H J; Xu, Y S; Song, C L

    2016-11-16

    Osteoporosis leads to poor osseointegration and reduces implant stability. Statins have been found to stimulate bone formation, but the bioavailability from oral administration is low. Local application may be more effective at augmenting bone formation and enhancing implant stability. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of an intraosseous injection of simvastatin in thermosensitive poloxamer 407 hydrogel to enhance pedicle-screw fixation in calcium-restricted ovariectomized minipigs. Nine mature female Guangxi Bama minipigs underwent bilateral ovariectomy and were fed a calcium-restricted diet for 18 months. Simvastatin (0, 0.5, or 1 mg) in thermosensitive poloxamer 407 hydrogel was injected into the lumbar vertebrae (L4-L6), and titanium alloy pedicle screws were implanted. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar vertebrae were determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and 3 months after treatment. The lumbar vertebrae were harvested and analyzed with use of microcomputed tomography, biomechanical pull-out testing, histological analysis, and Western blot analysis for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Evaluation over a 3-month study period demonstrated that the BMD of the vertebrae injected with 0.5 and 1.0 mg of simvastatin had increased by 31.25% and 31.09%, respectively, compared with vehicle-only injection (p ≤ 0.00014 for both) and increased by 32.12% and 28.16%, respectively, compared with the pre-treatment levels (p < 0.0001 for both). A single injection of simvastatin in poloxamer 407 increased trabecular volume fraction, thickness, and number and decreased trabecular separation (p ≤ 0.002). The bone formation and mineral apposition rates significantly increased (p ≤ 0.023). The percentage of osseointegration in the simvastatin 0.5 and 1-mg groups was 46.54% and 42.63% greater, respectively, than that in the vehicle-only group (p ≤ 0.006), and the

  16. Addressing Stretch Myelopathy in Multilevel Cervical Kyphosis with Posterior Surgery Using Cervical Pedicle Screws

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Bijjawara; Vijay, Shekarappa; Arun, Kumar; Srinivasa, Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Technique description and retrospective data analysis. Purpose To describe the technique of cervical kyphosis correction with partial facetectomies and evaluate the outcome of single-stage posterior decompression and kyphosis correction in multilevel cervical myelopathy. Overview of Literature Kyphosis correction in multilevel cervical myelopathy involves anterior and posterior surgery. With the advent of cervical pedicle screw-rod instrumentation, single-stage posterior kyphosis correction is feasible and can address stretch myelopathy by posterior shortening. Methods Nine patients underwent single-stage posterior decompression and kyphosis correction for multilevel cervical myelopathy using cervical pedicle screw instrumentation from March 2011 to February 2014 and were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scoring and computed tomography scans for radiological measurements. Kyphosis assessment was made with Ishihara curvature index and C2–C7 Cobb's angle. The linear length of the spinal canal and the actual spinal canal length were also evaluated. The average follow-up was 40.56 months (range, 20 to 53 months). Results The average preoperative C2–7 Cobb's angle of 6.3° (1° to 12°) improved to 2° (10° to −9°). Ishihara index improved from −15.8% (−30.5% to −4.7%) to −3.66% (−14.5% to +12.6%). The actual spinal canal length decreased from 83.64 mm (range, 76.8 to 91.82 mm) to 82.68 mm (range, 75.85 to 90.78 mm). The preoperative mJOA score of 7.8 (range, 3 to 11) improved to 15.0 (range, 13 to 17). Conclusions Single-stage posterior decompression and kyphosis correction using cervical pedicle screws for multilevel cervical myelopathy may address stretch myelopathy, in addition to decompression in the transverse plane. However, cervical lordosis was not achieved with this method as predictably as by the anterior approach. The present study shows evidence of mild

  17. Treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis with posterior-only pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Modi, Hitesh N; Suh, Seung-Woo; Song, Hae-Ryong; Fernandez, Harry M; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2008-06-10

    To determine whether posterior-only approach using pedicle screws in neuromuscular scoliosis population adequately addresses the correction of scoliosis and maintains the correction over time. Between 2003 and 2006, 26 consecutive patients (7 cerebral palsy, 10 Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 5 spinal muscular atrophy and 4 others) with neuromuscular scoliosis underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation for the deformity. Preoperative, immediate postoperative and final follow-up Cobb's angle and pelvic obliquity were analyzed on radiographs. The average age of the patients was 17.5 years (range, 8-44 years) and the average follow-up was 25 months (18-52 months). Average Cobb's angle was 78.53 degrees before surgery, 30.70 degrees after surgery (60.9% correction), and 33.06 degrees at final follow-up (57.9% correction) showing significant correction (p < 0.0001). There were 9 patients with curves more than 90 degrees showed an average pre-operative, post operative and final follow up Cobb's angle 105.67 degrees , 52.33 degrees (50.47% correction) and 53.33 degrees (49.53% correction) respectively and 17 patients with curve less than 90 degrees showed average per operative, post operative and final follow up Cobb's angle 64.18, 19.24(70% correction) and 21.41(66.64 correction); which suggests statistically no significant difference in both groups (p = 0.1284). 7 patients underwent Posterior vertebral column resection due to the presence of a rigid curve. The average spinal-pelvic obliquity was 16.27 degrees before surgery, 8.96 degrees after surgery, and 9.27 degrees at final follow-up exhibited significant correction (p < 0.0001). There was 1 poliomyelitis patient who had power grade 3 in lower limbs pre-operatively, developed grade 2 power post-operatively and gradually improved to the pre-operative stage. There was 1 case of deep wound infection and no case of pseudo-arthrosis, instrument failures or mortality. Results indicate that in patients with neuromuscular

  18. [Transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach for thoracolumbar fractures].

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-sheng; Guo, Lin-xin; Ding, Zhen-qi; Chen, Chang-qing; Lian, Ke-jian; Hong, Jia-yuan

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of the treatment for thoracolumbar fractures with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach. From June 2007 to December 2008, 19 cases of thoracolumbar fractures were treated with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach. There were 7 female and 12 male, ranging from 21 to 57 years of age (mean 40.8 years) at surgery. The time from injury to surgery varied from 1 d to 5 d (mean 2.9 d). Nineteen patients all suffered from single thoracolumbar fracture with the distribution of injury level being T(11) in 1, T(12) in 5, L(1) in 9, and L(2) in 4. According to Denis fracture classification, there were 5 compression fractures and 14 burst fractures. The mean preoperative ratio of the anterior height of the body was 57.2%, kyphosis angle was 17.6° and occupation of spinal canal was 27.7%. The mean preoperative load-sharing classification of spine fractures was 5.2. Based on the ASIA neurologic grading system, preoperative neurological function was grade B in 2 cases, C in 9 and D in 8. Median operating time was 83.8 min (range 60-95 min) and median blood loss was 133 ml (range 90 - 200 ml). Infection did not occur in any of the patients and the operative incisions were healing well. Average follow-up time was 19.2 months (range 12 - 36 months). At the latest follow-up, the height of the anterior border was corrected to 88.4%, the kyphosis angle was 6.1°, and the occupation of spinal canal was 8.2% on average. The postoperative neurologic function of all 19 patients was improved with grade D in 2 cases and E in 17. There were no instances of instrumentation failure and no patient had persistent postoperative back pain. Transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach could provide reliable neurologic improvement in patients with incomplete neurologic

  19. Surgical treatment of osteoporotic thoraco-lumbar compressive fractures: the use of pedicle screw with augmentation PMMA.

    PubMed

    Girardo, Massimo; Cinnella, P; Gargiulo, G; Viglierchio, P; Rava, A; Aleotti, S

    2017-03-21

    The osteoporosis prevalence in population is age related. The aim of this single-center observational study was evaluate the middle- to long-term performance of cement (PMMA) augmented fenestrated pedicle screws in elderly patients with thoraco-lumbar compressive fractures by osteoporosis. From 2011 to 2015 we treated 52 patients (20 males and 32 females) suffering from somatic osteoporotic fractures (T10-L2). The average age was 73.4 years, with an age range between 65 and 82 years. The treatment consisted of stabilization with pedicle screw augmentation with PMMA cement. Patients were clinically evaluated with Visual Analyzing System scale (VAS scale) and with low back disability questionnaire Oswestry, in pre and post surgery and during the follow up at 12 and 24 months. A total of 410 fenestrated pedicle screws with PMMA augmentation were implanted. No cases of loosening or pulling out of screws were recorded. There have been n 3 cases of thrombophlebitis, treated with oral anticoagulant drugs and 1 case of post-operative death due to ventricular fibrillation. No neurological complications occurred during the study. The mean VAS score decreased from 8.5 to 4.8 and the result remained stable during follow up. Oswestry questionnaire showed a mean decrease of low back pain of 24% in post-op period. Fenestrated screws with PMMA augmentation offers a possibility to treat patients with reduced bone quality due to severe osteoporosis.

  20. Effect of different inner core diameters on structural strength of cannulated pedicle screws under various lumbar spine movements.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Lai, Yu-Shu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2017-08-15

    Currently, cannulated pedicle screws have been widely used in minimal invasive or navigation techniques. However, the stress distribution and the strength of different core diameters of cannulated screw are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanical strength of cannulated screws with different inner core diameter under various lumbar spine movements using finite element analysis. The results showed that the von-Mises stress of a cannulated screw was larger than that of a solid screw in all loading conditions, especially above 2 mm in cannulated core diameter. In lateral bending, extension, and flexion, the maximum von-Mises stress was found approximate to the proximal thread for all types of screws. In rotation condition, the maximum von-Mises stress was located at the middle of the screw. Additionally, the difference in stiffness of instrumented levels was not significant among four screws under the same loading condition. Cannulated screws could provide enough stability for the vertebral body fusion comparing to solid screws. The diameter of cannulated core is suggested not to exceed 2.0 mm.

  1. "NIMS technique" for minimally invasive spinal fixation using non-fenestrated pedicle screws: A technical note.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Alugolu; Pelluru, Pavan Kumar; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Case series. To reduce the cost of minimally invasive spinal fixation. Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery is an upcoming modality of managing a multitude of spinal pathologies. However, in a resource-limited situations, using fenestrated screws (FSs) may prove very costly for patients with poor affordability. We here in describe the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) experience of using routine non-FSs (NFSs) for transpedicular fixation by the minimally invasive way to bridge the economic gap. A total of 7 patients underwent NFS-minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery. Male to female distribution was 6:1. The average blood loss was 50 ml and the mean operating time was 2 and 1/2 h. All patients were mobilized the very next day after confirming the position of implants on X-ray/computed tomography. All 7 patients are doing well in follow-up with no complaints of a backache or fresh neurological deficits. There was no case with pedicle breach or screw pullout. The average cost of a single level fixation by FS and NFS was ₹1, 30,000/patient and ₹32,000/patient respectively ('2166 and '530, respectively). At the end of 1-year follow-up, we had two cases of screw cap loosening and with a displacement of the rod cranio-caudally in one case which was revised through the same incisions. Transpedicular fixation by using NFS for thoracolumbar spinal pathologies is a cost-effective extension of MIS surgery. This may extend the benefits to a lower socioeconomic group who cannot afford the cost of fenestrated screw (FS).

  2. Percutaneous pedicle screw for unstable spine fractures in polytraumatized patients: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Boon Beng; Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Saw, Lim Beng; Kwan, Mun Keong

    2012-01-01

    Unstable spine fractures commonly occur in the setting of a polytraumatized patient. The aim of management is to balance the need for early operative stabilization and prevent additional trauma due to the surgery. Recent published literature has demonstrated the benefits of early stabilization of an unstable spine fracture particularly in patients with higher injury severity score (ISS). We report two cases of polytrauma with unstable spine fractures stabilized with a minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation system as a form of damage control surgery. The patients had good recovery from the polytrauma injuries. These two cases illustrate the role of minimally invasive stabilization, its limitations and technical pitfalls in the management of unstable spine fractures in the polytrauma setting as a form of damage control surgery. PMID:23325978

  3. All-pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: a comparative radiographical study with a minimum 2-Year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Alvin H; Lykissas, Marios G; Gao, Xu; Eismann, Emily; Anadio, Jennifer

    2013-06-15

    Comparative analysis of 2 groups of patients who underwent surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To compare a segmental pedicle screw only system with a hybrid system for the treatment of Lenke type 1 AIS curves. Although previous AIS studies have tried to compare various constructs with the all-pedicle screw fixation, all have failed to address important confounding variables, such as skeletal maturity, preoperative flexibility of the curve, and factors associated with a multicenter or multisurgeon analysis. The medical records and spinal radiographs of patients with AIS treated surgically by a single surgeon between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with Lenke type 1 curves and minimum follow-up of 2 years were divided into 2 groups that were meticulously matched: group 1 consisted of patients in whom the all-pedicle screw construct was used, whereas group 2 included patients who were treated with the hybrid hook-screw system. Group 1 included 34 patients and group 2 included 29 patients. At the last follow-up, thoracic curve correction averaged 70.4% for the all-pedicle screw group and 60% for the hybrid group (P = 0.19). The all-pedicle screw group showed a significantly greater increase in thoracic kyphosis than the hybrid group system (P = 0.04). Global sagittal balance showed greater improvement in the all-pedicle screw group during the immediate postoperative that was lost by the last follow-up. The all-pedicle screw system revealed less intraoperative blood loss but greater operating time than the hybrid construct. After controlling for length of follow-up, no statistical difference in any of the radiographical parameters measured was recorded. With the exception of global sagittal balance, the pedicle screw system provided better maintenance of its corrective parameters when followed for greater than two years. 3.

  4. The surgical learning curve and accuracy of minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement using CT based computer-assisted navigation plus continuous electromyography monitoring – a retrospective review of 627 screws in 150 patients

    PubMed Central

    McMillen, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study retrospectively assessed the accuracy of placement of lumbar pedicle screws placed by a single surgeon using a minimally-invasive, intra-operative CT-based computer navigated technique in combination with continuous electromyography (EMG) monitoring. The rates of incorrectly positioned screws were reviewed in the context of the surgeon's experience and learning curve. Methods Data was retrospectively reviewed from all consecutive minimally invasive lumbar fusions performed by the primary author over a period of over 4 years from April 2008 until October 2012. All cases that had utilized computer-assisted intra-operative CT-based image guidance and continuous EMG monitoring to guide percutaneous pedicle screw placement were analysed for the rates of malposition of the pedicle screws. Pedicle screw malposition was defined as having occurred if the screw trajectory was adjusted intraoperatively due to positive EMG responses, or due to breach of the pedicle cortex by more than 2mm on intraoperative CT imaging performed at the end of the instrumentation procedure. Further analysis of the data was undertaken to determine if the rates of malposition changed with the surgeon's experience with the technique. Results Six hundred and twenty-seven pedicle screws were placed in one hundred and fifty patients. The overall rate of intraoperative malposition and subsequent adjustment of pedicle screw placement was 3.8% (24 of 627 screws). Screw malposition was detected by intraoperative CT imaging. Warning of potential screw misplacement was provided by use of the EMG monitoring. With increased experience with the technique, rates of intraoperative pedicle screw malposition were found to decrease from 5.1% of screws in the first fifty patients, to 2.0% in the last 50 patients. Only one screw was suboptimally placed at the end of surgery, which did not result in a neurological deficit. Conclusion The use of CT-based computer-assisted navigation in combination

  5. Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilisation of the lumbar spine: in vitro cadaver investigation and a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Oktenoglu, T; Erbulut, D U; Kiapour, A; Ozer, A F; Lazoglu, I; Kaner, T; Sasani, M; Goel, V K

    2015-08-01

    Pedicle screw-based dynamic constructs either benefit from a dynamic (flexible) interconnecting rod or a dynamic (hinged) screw. Both types of systems have been reported in the literature. However, reports where the dynamic system is composed of two dynamic components, i.e. a dynamic (hinged) screw and a dynamic rod, are sparse. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of a novel pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilisation system were investigated and compared with equivalent rigid and semi-rigid systems using in vitro testing and finite element modelling analysis. All stabilisation systems restored stability after decompression. A significant decrease in the range of motion was observed for the rigid system in all loadings. In the semi-rigid construct the range of motion was significantly less than the intact in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation loadings. There were no significant differences in motion between the intact spine and the spine treated with the dynamic system (P>0.05). The peak stress in screws was decreased when the stabilisation construct was equipped with dynamic rod and/or dynamic screws.

  6. Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation (ATPS)—Part II. Accuracy of manual insertion and pull-out strength of ATPS

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Martin, Hudelmaier; Forstner, Rosmarie; Augat, Peter; Penzkofer, Rainer; Pirich, Christian; Kässmann, H.; Resch, Herbert; Hitzl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction after multilevel decompression of the cervical spine, especially in the weakened osteoporotic, neoplastic or infectious spine often requires circumferential stabilization and fusion. To avoid the additional posterior surgery in these cases while increasing rigidity of anterior-only screw-plate constructs, the authors introduce the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility as well as its indications in a previous study in Part I of our project. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to assess the ex vivo accuracy of placing ATPS into the cervical vertebra as well as the biomechanical performance of ATPS in comparison to traditional vertebral body screws (VBS) in terms of pull-out strength (POS). Twenty-three ATPS were inserted alternately to two screws into the pedicles and vertebral bodies, respectively, of six cadaveric specimens from C3–T1. For insertion of ATPS, a manual fluoroscopically assisted technique was used. Pre- and post insertional CT-scans were used to assess accuracy of ATPS insertion in the axial and sagittal planes. A newly designed grading system and accuracy score were used to delineate accuracy of ATPS insertion. Following insertion of screws, 23 ATPS and 22 VBS were subjected to pull-out testing (POT). The bone mineral density (BMD) of each specimen was assessed prior to POT. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of correctly placed screws and non-critical pedicles breaches in axial plane was 78.3%, and 95.7% in sagittal plane. Hence, according to our definition of “critical” pedicle breach that exposes neurovascular structures at risk, 21.7% (n = 5) of all ATPS inserted showed a critical pedicle breach in axial plane. Notably, no critical pedicle perforation occurred at the C6 to T1 levels. Pull-out testing of ATPS and VBS revealed that pull-out resistance of ATPS was 2.5-fold that of VBS. Mean POS of 23 ATPS with a mean BMD of 0.566

  7. The pedicle screw-rod system is an acceptable method of reconstructive surgery after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Jun; Yunus, Akbar; Tian, Zheng; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Chong; Xu, Lei-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hemipelvic resections for primary bone tumours require reconstruction to restore weight bearing along anatomic axes. However, reconstruction of the pelvic arch remains a major surgical challenge because of the high rate of associated complications. We used the pedicle screw-rod system to reconstruct the pelvis, and the purpose of this investigation was to assess the oncology, functional outcome and complication rate following this procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative indications and technique of the pedicle screw-rod system in reconstruction of the stability of the sacroiliac joint after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours. The average MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumour Society) score was 26.5 at either three months after surgery or at the latest follow-up. Seven patients had surgery-related complications, including wound dehiscence in one, infection in two, local necrosis in four (including infection in two), sciatic nerve palsy in one and pubic symphysis subluxation in one. There was no screw loosening or deep vein thrombosis occurring in this series. Using a pedicle screw-rod after resection of a sacroiliac joint tumour is an acceptable method of pelvic reconstruction because of its reduced risk of complications and satisfactory functional outcome, as well as its feasibility of reconstruction for type IV pelvis tumour resection without elaborate preoperative customisation. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:27095944

  8. Posterior Spinal Reconstruction with Pedicle Screws, Multiple Iliac Screws and Wisconsin Spinal Wires in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Scoliosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong-Beom; Park, Young-Seop; Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae

    2015-09-01

    A 54-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with progressing truncal shift owing to spinal deformity. On plain radiograph, the Cobb angle was 54 degree in coronal plane. Radiological examinations showed severe dystrophic change with dysplastic pedicles, bony scalloping, neural foraminal widening from dural ectasia. The patient underwent deformity correction and reconstruction surgery from the T9 to the pelvis using multiple iliac screws and Wisconsin interspinous segmental instrumentation by wiring due to maximize fixation points. The postoperative course was uneventful. One-year follow-up radiographs showed a successful curve correction with solid fusion. We report a case of pedicle dysplasia and dystrophic change treated by posterior segmental spinal instrumentation and fusion with help of multiple iliac screws and modified Wisconsin interspinous segmental wiring.

  9. Radiation exposure during pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: is fluoroscopy safe?

    PubMed

    Ul Haque, Maahir; Shufflebarger, Harry L; O'Brien, Michael; Macagno, Angel

    2006-10-01

    With institutional review board approval, prospective data were collected during fluoroscopically guided pedicle screw placement. To estimate a surgeon's radiation exposure with all screw constructs during surgery to repair idiopathic scoliosis. To our knowledge, there is no established consensus regarding the safety of radiation exposure during fluoroscopically guided procedures. A surgeon was outfitted intraoperatively with a thermoluminescent dosimeter to estimate radiation exposure to his whole body and thyroid gland. The index surgeon is projected to receive 13.49 mSv of whole body ionizing radiation and 4.31 mSv of thyroid gland irradiation annually. The National Council on Radiation Protection's current recommendations set lifetime dose equivalent limits for classified workers (radiologists) at 10 mSv per year of life and at 3 mSv for nonclassified workers (spinal surgeons). At the levels estimated, a surgeon beginning his/her career at age 30 years would exceed the lifetime limit for nonclassified workers in less than 10 years. The National Council on Radiation Protection limits the single-year maximum safe dosage to the thyroid to 500 mSv; the yearly exposure estimated here is significantly less. The spinal surgeon's intraoperative radiation exposure may be unacceptable. Spinal surgeons should be considered classified workers and monitored accordingly. Methods to lower radiation dosage seem strongly indicated.

  10. Biomechanical comparison between C-7 lateral mass and pedicle screws in subaxial cervical constructs. Presented at the 2009 Joint Spine Meeting. Laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Risheng; McGirt, Matthew J; Sutter, Edward G; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct the first in vitro biomechanical comparison of immediate and postcyclical rigidities of C-7 lateral mass versus C-7 pedicle screws in posterior C4-7 constructs. Ten human cadaveric spines were treated with C4-6 lateral mass screw and C-7 lateral mass (5 specimens) versus pedicle (5 specimens) screw fixation. Spines were potted in polymethylmethacrylate bone cement and placed on a materials testing machine. Rotation about the axis of bending was measured using passive retroreflective markers and infrared motion capture cameras. The motion of C-4 relative to C-7 in flexion-extension and lateral bending was assessed uninstrumented, immediately after instrumentation, and following 40,000 cycles of 4 Nm of flexion-extension and lateral bending moments at 1 Hz. The effect of instrumentation and cyclical loading on rotational motion across C4-7 was analyzed for significance. Preinstrumented spines for the 2 cohorts were comparable in bone mineral density and range of motion in both flexion-extension (p = 0.33) and lateral bending (p = 0.16). Lateral mass and pedicle screw constructs significantly reduced motion during flexion-extension (11.3°-0.26° for lateral mass screws, p = 0.002; 10.51°-0.30° for pedicle screws, p = 0.008) and lateral bending (7.38°-0.27° for lateral mass screws, p = 0.003; 11.65°-0.49° for pedicle screws, p = 0.03). After cyclical loading in both cohorts, rotational motion over C4-7 was increased during flexion-extension (0.26°-0.68° for lateral mass screws; 0.30°-1.31° for pedicle screws) and lateral bending (0.27°-0.39° and 0.49°-0.80°, respectively), although the increase was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference in postcyclical flexion-extension (p = 0.20) and lateral bending (0.10) between lateral mass and pedicle screws. Both C-7 lateral mass and C-7 pedicle screws allow equally rigid fixation of subaxial lateral mass constructs ending at C-7

  11. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-Yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  12. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  13. Pullout characteristics of percutaneous pedicle screws with different cement augmentation methods in elderly spines: An in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Charles, Y P; Pelletier, H; Hydier, P; Schuller, S; Garnon, J; Sauleau, E A; Steib, J-P; Clavert, P

    2015-05-01

    Vertebroplasty prefilling or fenestrated pedicle screw augmentation can be used to enhance pullout resistance in elderly patients. It is not clear which method offers the most reliable fixation strength if axial pullout and a bending moment is applied. The purpose of this study is to validate a new in vitro model aimed to reproduce a cut out mechanism of lumbar pedicle screws, to compare fixation strength in elderly spines with different cement augmentation techniques and to analyze factors that might influence the failure pattern. Six human specimens (82-100 years) were instrumented percutaneously at L2, L3 and L4 by non-augmented screws, vertebroplasty augmentation and fenestrated screws. Cement distribution (2 ml PMMA) was analyzed on CT. Vertebral endplates and the rod were oriented at 45° to the horizontal plane. The vertebral body was held by resin in a cylinder, linked to an unconstrained pivot, on which traction (10 N/s) was applied until rupture. Load-displacement curves were compared to simultaneous video recordings. Median pullout forces were 488.5 N (195-500) for non-augmented screws, 643.5 N (270-1050) for vertebroplasty augmentation and 943.5 N (750-1084) for fenestrated screws. Cement augmentation through fenestrated screws led to significantly higher rupture forces compared to non-augmented screws (P=0.0039). The pullout force after vertebroplasty was variable and linked to cement distribution. A cement bolus around the distal screw tip led to pullout forces similar to non-augmented screws. A proximal cement bolus, as it was observed in fenestrated screws, led to higher pullout resistance. This cement distribution led to vertebral body fractures prior to screw pullout. The experimental setup tended to reproduce a pullout mechanism observed on radiographs, combining axial pullout and a bending moment. Cement augmentation with fenestrated screws increased pullout resistance significantly, whereas the fixation strength with the vertebroplasty

  14. Diathermy testing: a novel method with electric knife stimulation to avoid nerve injuries during lumbar pedicle screw placement. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Takashi; Matsudaira, Ko

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to demonstrate the utility of diathermy in avoiding nerve injuries due to misplacement of lumbar pedicle screws (PSs). The authors used diathermy to assess whether a screw deviated from the pedicle by observing synchronous leg movements caused by intermittently touching an electric knife to the pedicular instrument. Diathermy was performed in 259 cases in which 1301 PSs had been placed. Leg movements were observed in 36 cases, and the sensitivity of diathermy was 85.7%, with a specificity of 99.5%. No neurological complications associated with the placement of PSs were observed after adding diathermy testing to conventional methods. Diathermy testing may be a way to avoid nerve injuries during lumbar PS placement.

  15. Effect of cutting flute design on cortical bone screw insertion torque and pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Yerby, S; Scott, C C; Evans, N J; Messing, K L; Carter, D R

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of the number and length of cutting flutes on the insertion torque and pullout strength for self-tapping 4.5-millimeter cortical bone screws. Screws were self-tapped in the diaphysis of human cadaver femurs. Each of the six screw types studied had different designs with varying cutting flute lengths and numbers. Bone mineral density, insertion torque, and pullout strength were measured. The study was conducted at an experimental biomechanics laboratory associated with a university medical center. Insertion torque and pullout strength were normalized by the local bone mineral density. The mean normalized insertion torque of the design with four full-length cutting flutes was less than the design with three full-length flutes and the two designs with one-third length flutes (p < 0.05). The mean normalized pullout strength of the screw with four full-length flutes was significantly greater than that of all screws with fewer than three flutes (p < 0.05). Priorities for a cutting flute design should ideally include ease of screw insertion, minimal soft tissue irritation, and maximal screw holding power. Screws with more than two flutes were easier to insert and did not cause cortical damage during insertion. The screw with four full-length flutes showed a trend toward being the easiest to insert and having the greatest holding strength.

  16. Treatment of Unstable Posterior Pelvic Ring Fracture with Pedicle Screw-Rod Fixator Versus Locking Compression Plate: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Chun; Wang, Qiugen; Nagelli, Christopher; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the clinical results of treatment for unstable posterior pelvic fractures using a pedicle screw-rod fixator compared to use of a locking compression plate. Material/Methods A retrospective study was performed between June 2010 and May 2014 and the data were collected from 46 patients with unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures. All patients were treated using either a pedicle screw-rod fixator (study group, 24 patients) or locking compression plate (control group, 22 patients). In these patients, causes of injury included traffic accidents (n=27), fall from height (n=12), and crushing accidents (n=7). The quality of reduction and radiological grading were assessed. Clinical assessments included the operation time, times of X-ray exposures, bleeding volume during operation, incision length, and Majeed postoperative functional evaluation. Results No iatrogenic neurovascular injuries occurred during the operations in these 2 groups. The average follow-up time was 24.5 months. All fractures were healed. The significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 groups were operation duration, size of incision, and intraoperative bleeding volume. Statistically significant differences in the Majeed postoperative functional evaluation and times of X-ray exposures were not found between the 2 groups. Conclusions Similar clinical effects were achieved in treating the posterior pelvic ring fractures using the pedicle screw-rod fixator and the locking compression plate. However, the pedicle screw-rod fixator has the advantages of smaller incision, shorter duration of the operation, and less bleeding volume compared to using the locking compression plate. PMID:27748355

  17. [Expansive pedicle screws fixation combined with Wright artificial bone implantation for treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture of the elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin-feng; Dong, Yi; Lü, Jian-yuan; Gu, Xiao-juan

    2011-07-01

    To observe the effects of expansive pedicle screws fixation combined Wright artificial bone implantation in treating thoracolumbar burst fracture of the elderly. From March 2007 to July 2009, 12 patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures were treated with surgery in the study. There were 7 males and 5 females, with an average age of 62.3 years (from 56 to 71 years). Nerve functions of all patients were ASIA classified grade E. According to TLICS score system, 6 points were in 5 cases and 7 points were in 7 cases. Expansive pedicle screw system was used and Wright artificial bone was injected into the injuried vertebrae. The anterior border height of vertebral body and Cobb angle were observed at the preoperation, postoperation and final follow-up. All patients were followed up from 10 to 15 months with an average of 12 months. Wounds healed well, pain in the chest-back abated, no the expansive pedicle screws loosened or broke down. The anterior border height of vertebral body increased from (32.3 +/- 9.1)% preoperatively to (95.3 +/- 3.2)% postoperatively; and the Cobb angle decreased from (31.6 +/- 6.8) degrees preoperatively to (4.5 +/- 3.2) degrees postoperatively. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). After 3 months, the anterior border height of vertebral body was (94.7 +/- 3.3)% and the Cobb angle was (4.6 +/- 3.4) degrees; at the final follow-up, the anterior border height of vertebral body was (93.2 +/- 3.6)% and the Cobb angle was (5.3 +/- 3.7) degrees. There was no significant difference between the two data (P>0.05). The combination of expansive pedicle screws fixation and Wright artificial bone injection is a good treatment for thoracolumbar burst fracture, with advantages such as easy operation and good effect, which mainly applied to patients with no obvious nerve injuries.

  18. Accuracy of free-hand placement of thoracic pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: how much of a difference does surgeon experience make?

    PubMed

    Samdani, Amer F; Ranade, Ashish; Sciubba, Daniel M; Cahill, Patrick J; Antonacci, M Darryl; Clements, David H; Betz, Randal R

    2010-01-01

    The use of thoracic pedicle screws for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has gained widespread popularity. However, the placement of pedicle screws in the deformed spine poses unique challenges, and surgeons experience a learning curve. The in vivo accuracy as determined by computed tomography (CT) of placement of thoracic pedicle screws in the deformed spine as a function of surgeon experience is unknown. We undertook a retrospective review to determine the effect of surgeon experience on the accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement in AIS. In 2005, we started to obtain routine postoperative CT scans on patients undergoing a spinal fusion. From a database of these patients, we selected AIS patients, who underwent a posterior spinal fusion. Fifteen consecutive patients for each of the following three groups stratified by attending surgeon experience were selected (N = 45): A) less than 20 cases of all pedicle screw constructs for AIS (surgeons <2 years of practice), B) 20-50 cases (surgeons 2-5 years of practice), and C) greater than 50 cases (surgeons greater than 5 years of practice). Intraoperative evaluation of all screws included probing of the pedicle screw tract, neurophysiologic monitoring, and fluoroscopic confirmation. A total of 856 thoracic pedicle screws were studied. Postoperative CT scans were evaluated by two spine surgeons and a consensus read established as follows: (1) In: intraosseous placement or 2-mm breach, either medial or lateral. Of the 856 screws, 104 demonstrated a >2-mm breach, for an overall rate of 12.1% (medial = 55, lateral = 49, P = 0.67). When the breach rates were stratified by surgeon experience, there was a trend toward decreased rate of breach for the most experienced surgeons, although this did not attain statistical significance (Group A: 12.7%, Group B: 12.9%, Group C: 10.8%, P = 0.58). However, the most experienced group (C) had a markedly decreased rate of medial

  19. The Use of Percutaneous Lumbar Fixation Screws for Bilateral Pedicle Fractures with an Associated Dislocation of a Lumbar Disc Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, William D.; Harrison, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Case report. Objective. To identify a safe technique for salvage surgery following complications of total disc replacement. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) is considered by some as the gold standard for discogenic back pain. Revision techniques for TDR and their complications are in their infancy. This case describes a successful method of fixation for this complex presentation. Methods and Results. A 48-year-old male with lumbar degenerative disc disease and no comorbidities. Approximately two weeks postoperatively for a TDR, the patient represented with acute severe back pain and the TDR polyethylene inlay was identified as dislocated anteriorly. Subsequent revision surgery failed immediately as the polyethylene inlay redislocated intraoperatively. Further radiology identified bilateral pedicle fractures, previously unseen on the plain films. The salvage fusion of L5/S1 reutilized the anterior approach with an interbody fusion cage and bone graft. The patient was then turned intraoperatively and redraped. The percutaneous pedicle screws were used to fix L5 to the sacral body via the paracoccygeal corridor. Conclusion. The robust locking screw in the percutaneous screw allowed a complete fixation of the pedicle fractures. At 3-year followup, the patient has an excellent result and has returned to playing golf. PMID:24294533

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of Spinal Fusion Methods Using Interspinous Process Compressor and Pedicle Screw Fixation System Based on Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jisoo; Kim, Sohee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical effects of a newly proposed Interspinous Process Compressor (IPC) and compare with pedicle screw fixation at surgical and adjacent levels of lumbar spine. Methods A three dimensional finite element model of intact lumbar spine was constructed and two spinal fusion models using pedicle screw fixation system and a new type of interspinous devices, IPC, were developed. The biomechanical effects such as range of motion (ROM) and facet contact force were analyzed at surgical level (L3/4) and adjacent levels (L2/3, L4/5). In addition, the stress in adjacent intervertebral discs (D2, D4) was investigated. Results The entire results show biomechanical parameters such as ROM, facet contact force, and stress in adjacent intervertebral discs were similar between PLIF and IPC models in all motions based on the assumption that the implants were perfectly fused with the spine. Conclusion The newly proposed fusion device, IPC, had similar fusion effect at surgical level, and biomechanical effects at adjacent levels were also similar with those of pedicle screw fixation system. However, for clinical applications, real fusion effect between spinous process and hooks, duration of fusion, and influence on spinous process need to be investigated through clinical study. PMID:26962413

  1. Modified pedicle screw-rod fixation as a minimally invasive treatment for anterior pelvic ring injuries: an initial case series.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaotian; Liu, Zuoqing; Fu, Wenqin; Zhao, Shan; Feng, Juntao

    2017-06-06

    Unstable pelvic ring injuries often involve high mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to evaluate the modified minimally invasive pedicle screw-rod fixation for anterior pelvic ring injuries, in the respects of its feasibility, merits, and limitations. Twenty-three patients with unstable pelvic ring injuries underwent the modified anterior pedicle screw-rod fixation, with or without posterior fixation. The clinical outcomes were assessed using Majeed scores, and the quality of reduction was evaluated according to the criteria of Matta. Majeed scores showed that the clinical outcomes at postoperatively 1 year were excellent in 14 patients, good in 7, and fair in 2. One woman complained of persistent pain at the pubic tubercle during sexual intercourse. Iatrogenic neuropraxia of the unilateral lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred in 3 patients. Unilateral femoral nerve palsy occurred in 1 patient. The reduction was found to be excellent in 12 patients, good in 8, and fair in 3. Heterotopic ossification occurred in 8 patients, all being asymptomatic. The modified pedicle screw-rod fixation with the minimally invasive technique offered an effective alternative for unstable anterior pelvic ring injuries.

  2. The outcome of pedicle screw instrumentation removal for ongoing low back pain following posterolateral lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Mario G; Brumby-Rendell, Oscar P; McDonald, Ben; Fisher, Tom; Tsimiklis, Christovalantis; Yoon, Wai Weng; Osti, Orso L

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether patients derived benefit from removal of pedicle screw instrumentation for axial pain without other cause using our surgical technique and patient selection. A secondary aim was to investigate factors that were associated with poorer outcomes for this procedure as well as complication rate in this cohort. Theater records from a single spinal surgeon's practice were reviewed to identify patients that had undergone lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain with subsequent pedicle screw instrumentation removal (Expedium, DePuy Synthes) in the preceding 3 years with a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Inclusion criteria were persisting midline axial back pain with computed tomography (CT)-confirmed solid fusion with non-radicular symptoms and nil other potential causes found, e.g., infection. Case note review along with pre- and post-operative Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaires and visual analog scores (VAS) were assessed for all patients. Surgical technique included re-use of previous midline posterior incision and the Wiltse approach with removal of implants, confirmation of a solid fusion mass, washout and bone grafting of removal sites. From 50 consecutive patients who underwent removal of posterolateral instrumentation for an index elective lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain, 34 patients were identified that met the criteria with a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 18-36 months). The VAS and ODI improved in 22/34 (65%) of participants. The mean cohort VAS score was 6.6 pre-surgery and 4.3 post-surgery (P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative mean Oswestry disability scores were 64 and 41, respectively (P=0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with poorer compared to satisfactory outcomes with regards to compensable status, preoperative grade II opioid use and shorter time between fusion and removal procedure. Complications were one postoperative hematoma and one

  3. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies.The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies.Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery.There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly higher than

  4. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies. Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly

  5. In vitro biomechanical analysis of a new lumbar low-profile locking screw-plate construct versus a standard top-loading cantilevered pedicle screw-rod construct: technical report.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Neil R; Doğan, Seref; Yüksel, K Zafer; Villasana-Ramos, Octavio; Soto-Barraza, Julio C; Sawa, Anna G U; Porter, Randall W; Marciano, Frederick F; Theodore, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    A standard top-loading lumbar pedicle screw-rod system is compared with a pedicle screw-plate system with smaller-diameter screws, more medial entry, and lower profile to assess the relative stability, strength, and resistance to fatigue of the 2 systems. Seven human cadaveric specimens were studied with each surgical construct. Nondestructive, nonconstraining pure moments were applied to specimens to induce flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while recording L5-S1 motion optoelectronically. After initial tests, specimens were fatigued for 10,000 cycles and retested to assess early postoperative loosening. Specimens were then loaded to failure in hyperextension. The standard screw-rod construct reduced range of motion to a mean of 20% of normal, whereas the screw-plate construct reduced range of motion to 13% of normal. Differences between systems were not significant in any loading mode (P > 0.06). The 14% loosening of the screw-rod system with fatigue was not significantly different from the 10% loosening observed with the screw-plate system (P > 0.15). Mean failure loads of 30 Nm for screw-rod and 37 Nm for screw-plate were also not significantly different (P = 0.38). Posterior fixation at L5-S1 using the low-profile screw-plate system offers stability, resistance to fatigue, and resistance to failure equivalent to fixation using a standard cantilevered pedicle screw-rod system.

  6. Comparison of Surgical Outcomes Between Short-Segment Open and Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation Techniques for Thoracolumbar Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xi; Shi, Yaohua; Dong, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the surgical outcomes between open pedicle screw fixation (OPSF) and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures, which has received scant research attention to date. Material/Methods Eight-four patients with acute and subacute thoracolumbar fractures who were treated with SSPSF from January 2013 to June 2014 at the Changzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Changzhou, China) were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into 4 groups: the OPSF with 4 basic screws (OPSF-4) group, the OPSF with 4 basic and 2 additional screws (OPSF-6) group, the PPSF with 4 basic screws (PPSF-4) group, and the PPSF with 4 basic and 2 additional screws (PPSF-6) group. The intraoperative, immediate postoperative, and over 1-year follow-up outcomes were evaluated and compared among these groups. Results Blood loss in the PPSF-4 group and the PPSF-6 group was significantly less than in the OPSF-4 group and the OPSF-6 group (P<0.05). The OPSF-6 group exhibited significantly higher immediate postoperative correction percentage of anterior column height of fractured vertebra than the other 3 groups (P<0.05), and higher correction of sagittal regional Cobb angle and kyphotic angle of injured vertebra than in the PPSF-4 and -6 groups (P<0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in the correction loss of percentage of anterior column height, and loss of sagittal Cobb angle and kyphotic angle of fractured vertebrae at final follow-up among the 4 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions OPSF with 6 screws had an advantage in the correction of injured vertebral height and kyphosis, and PPSF reduced the intraoperative blood loss of patients. PMID:27602557

  7. Freehand Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement: Review of Existing Strategies and a Step-by-Step Guide Using Uniform Landmarks for All Levels

    PubMed Central

    Baaj, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle screw fixation in the thoracic spine presents certain challenges due to the critical regional neurovascular anatomy as well as the narrow pedicular corridor that typically exists. With increased awareness of the dangers of intraoperative radiation, the ability to place pedicle screws with anatomic landmarks alone is paramount. In this study, we reviewed the literature from 1990 to 2015 for studies that included freehand pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine with special emphasis on entry points and the trajectories of the screws. We excluded studies that used fluoroscopy guidance, navigation techniques, cadaveric and biomechanical articles, case reports, and experimental studies on animals. The search retrieved 40 articles, and after careful selection, seven articles were analyzed. Over 8,000 screws were placed in the different studies. The mean accuracy for placement of the thoracic screws was 93.3%. However, there is little consensus between studies in entry points, sagittal, and axial trajectories of the screws. We complete this review by presenting our step-by-step technique for the placement of freehand pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. PMID:27014535

  8. Influence of screw insertion order on compression generated by bone plates in a fracture model.

    PubMed

    Jermyn, K; Roe, S C

    2011-01-01

    Present recommendations regarding order of screw insertion for compression plate osteosynthesis in veterinary training are variable. We hypothesized that placement of a neutrally positioned screw would reduce the magnitude of compression that could be generated by a subsequently placed compression screw. Canine tibial diaphyseal segments were fixed to a plate attached to a bone surrogate and load cell, and the compression generated by screw tightening was measured. Three different screw insertion order patterns were evaluated using both dynamic compression plate (DCP) and limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) implants. In group CN, the first screw was placed in compression mode and the second in neutral mode; in group NC, the first screw was placed in neutral mode and the second in compression mode; in group LNC, the first screw was placed partially tightened in neutral mode and the second in compression mode followed by complete tightening of the neutral screw. Screw insertion order significantly influenced the amount of compression generated with both groups CN and LNC demonstrating significantly greater compression generation when compared with group NC (p <0.0001). Compression generated by group CN constructs was also significantly greater than group LNC (p = 0.0013). Evaluation of group CN data to assess the influence of plate and drill guide combinations on compressive force generated did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference. To maximize compression using a load screw in a bone plate, following securement of the opposite bone fragment to the plate, it should be placed before a neutral screw is placed.

  9. Known-component 3D-2D registration for quality assurance of spine surgery pedicle screw placement

    PubMed Central

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Stayman, JW; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Khanna, AJ; Gokaslan, ZL; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, JH

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A 3D-2D image registration method is presented that exploits knowledge of interventional devices (e.g., K-wires or spine screws – referred to as “known components”) to extend the functionality of intraoperative radiography/fluoroscopy by providing quantitative measurement and quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. Methods The known-component registration (KC-Reg) algorithm uses robust 3D-2D registration combined with 3D component models of surgical devices known to be present in intraoperative 2D radiographs. Component models were investigated that vary in fidelity from simple parametric models (e.g., approximation of a screw as a simple cylinder, referred to as “parametrically-known” component [pKC] registration) to precise models based on device-specific CAD drawings (referred to as “exactly-known” component [eKC] registration). 3D-2D registration from three intraoperative radiographs was solved using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize image-gradient similarity, relating device placement relative to 3D preoperative CT of the patient. Spine phantom and cadaver studies were conducted to evaluate registration accuracy and demonstrate QA of the surgical product by verification of the type of devices delivered and conformance within the “acceptance window” of the spinal pedicle. Results Pedicle screws were successfully registered to radiographs acquired from a mobile C-arm, providing TRE 1–4 mm and <5° using simple parametric (pKC) models, further improved to <1 mm and <1° using eKC registration. Using advanced pKC models, screws that did not match the device models specified in the surgical plan were detected with an accuracy of >99%. Visualization of registered devices relative to surgical planning and the pedicle acceptance window provided potentially valuable QA of the surgical product and reliable detection of pedicle screw breach. Conclusions 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models

  10. Known-component 3D-2D registration for quality assurance of spine surgery pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Stayman, J W; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Khanna, A J; Gokaslan, Z L; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, J H

    2015-10-21

    A 3D-2D image registration method is presented that exploits knowledge of interventional devices (e.g. K-wires or spine screws-referred to as 'known components') to extend the functionality of intraoperative radiography/fluoroscopy by providing quantitative measurement and quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. The known-component registration (KC-Reg) algorithm uses robust 3D-2D registration combined with 3D component models of surgical devices known to be present in intraoperative 2D radiographs. Component models were investigated that vary in fidelity from simple parametric models (e.g. approximation of a screw as a simple cylinder, referred to as 'parametrically-known' component [pKC] registration) to precise models based on device-specific CAD drawings (referred to as 'exactly-known' component [eKC] registration). 3D-2D registration from three intraoperative radiographs was solved using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize image-gradient similarity, relating device placement relative to 3D preoperative CT of the patient. Spine phantom and cadaver studies were conducted to evaluate registration accuracy and demonstrate QA of the surgical product by verification of the type of devices delivered and conformance within the 'acceptance window' of the spinal pedicle. Pedicle screws were successfully registered to radiographs acquired from a mobile C-arm, providing TRE 1-4 mm and  <5° using simple parametric (pKC) models, further improved to  <1 mm and  <1° using eKC registration. Using advanced pKC models, screws that did not match the device models specified in the surgical plan were detected with an accuracy of  >99%. Visualization of registered devices relative to surgical planning and the pedicle acceptance window provided potentially valuable QA of the surgical product and reliable detection of pedicle screw breach. 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models of known surgical devices offers a

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Fusion Segment Rigidity Upon Stress at Both the Fusion and Adjacent Segments: A Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of unilateral pedicle screw fixation on the fusion segment and the superior adjacent segment after one segment lumbar fusion using validated finite element models. Materials and Methods Four L3-4 fusion models were simulated according to the extent of decompression and the method of pedicle screws fixation in L3-4 lumbar fusion. These models included hemi-laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation in the L3-4 segment (BF-HL model), total laminectomy with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BF-TL model), hemi-laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-HL model), and total laminectomy with unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UF-TL model). In each scenario, intradiscal pressures, annulus stress, and range of motion at the L2-3 and L3-4 segments were analyzed under flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments. Results Under four pure moments, the unilateral fixation leads to a reduction in increment of range of motion at the adjacent segment, but larger motions were noted at the fusion segment (L3-4) in the unilateral fixation (UF-HL and UF-TL) models when compared to bilateral fixation. The maximal von Mises stress showed similar patterns to range of motion at both superior adjacent L2-3 segments and fusion segment. Conclusion The current study suggests that unilateral pedicle screw fixation seems to be unable to afford sufficient biomechanical stability in case of bilateral total laminectomy. Conversely, in the case of hemi-laminectomy, unilateral fixation could be an alternative option, which also has potential benefit to reduce the stress of the adjacent segment. PMID:25048501

  12. Vertebroplasty plus short segment pedicle screw fixation in a burst fracture model in cadaveric spines.

    PubMed

    Grossbach, Andrew J; Viljoen, Stephanus V; Hitchon, Patrick W; DeVries Watson, Nicole A; Grosland, Nicole M; Torner, James

    2015-05-01

    The current project investigates the role of vertebroplasty in supplementing short segment (SS) posterior instrumentation, only one level above and below a fracture. In the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, long segment (LS) posterior instrumentation two levels above and below the fracture level has been used. In our study, burst fractures were produced at L1 in eight fresh frozen human cadaveric spines. The spines were then tested in three conditions: 1) intact, 2) after LS (T11-L3), 3) SS (T12-L2) instrumentation with pedicle screws and rods, and 4) short segment instrumentation plus cement augmentation of the fracture level (SSC). LS instrumentation was found to significantly reduce the motion at the instrumented level (T12-L2) as well as the levels immediately adjacent in flexion, extension and lateral bending. Similarly, SSC augmentation was found to significantly reduce the motion compared to intact at T12-L2 but still maintained the adjacent level motion. However, SS instrumentation alone did not significantly reduce the motion at T12-L2 except for left lateral bending. While LS instrumentation remains the most stable construct, SS instrumentation augmented with vertebroplasty at the fracture level increases rigidity in flexion, extension and right lateral bending beyond SS instrumentation alone.

  13. Experiments on robot-assisted navigated drilling and milling of bones for pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Ortmaier, T; Weiss, H; Döbele, S; Schreiber, U

    2006-12-01

    This article presents experimental results for robot-assisted navigated drilling and milling for pedicle screw placement. The preliminary study was carried out in order to gain first insights into positioning accuracies and machining forces during hands-on robotic spine surgery. Additionally, the results formed the basis for the development of a new robot for surgery. A simplified anatomical model is used to derive the accuracy requirements. The experimental set-up consists of a navigation system and an impedance-controlled light-weight robot holding the surgical instrument. The navigation system is used to position the surgical instrument and to compensate for pose errors during machining. Holes are drilled in artificial bone and bovine spine. A quantitative comparison of the drill-hole diameters was achieved using a computer. The interaction forces and pose errors are discussed with respect to the chosen machining technology and control parameters. Within the technological boundaries of the experimental set-up, it is shown that the accuracy requirements can be met and that milling is superior to drilling. It is expected that robot assisted navigated surgery helps to improve the reliability of surgical procedures. Further experiments are necessary to take the whole workflow into account. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation through the pedicle of fractured vertebra in the treatment of type A thoracolumbar fractures using Sextant system: an analysis of 38 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-wei; Li, Chang-qing; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Zheng-feng; Wang, Jian; Chu, Tong-wei

    2010-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the percutaneous pedicle screw fixation through the pedicle of fractured vertebra in the treatment of type A thoracolumbar fractures using Sextant system in the retrospective non-randomized case-control study. A total of 38 consecutive non-randomized patients with type A thoracolumbar fractures, which had been stabilized posteriorly from December 2006 to March 2009, were examined retrospectively more than 9 months after surgery. Twenty-one patients had been treated conventionally with open pedicle screw fixation (OPSF) and 17 patients received minimally invasive treatment with Sextant percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (SPPSF). As a method of evaluation, the incision size, the intraoperation and postoperative volume of blood loss, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, blood transfusion, the radiological assessment of the sagittal Cobb;s angle, vertebral body angle and vertebral body height were recorded and compared. All patients were followed up for 8-24 months (average 11.6 months). There were significant differences in the incision size, surgical blood loss, surgical draining loss, operation time, hospital stay after operation, blood transfusion, the proportion of antalgic supplement and postoperative incisional VAS between the two groups (P less than 0.05). Mean preoperative kyphotic deformity was 16.0 degree and improved by 9.3 degree after surgery in OPSF group, but 15.2 degree and 10.3 degree respectively in SPPSF group. Mean preoperative angle of the fractured vertebral body was 15.9 degree and improved by 7.9 degree after surgery in OPSF group, but 14.9 degree and 6.6 degree respectively in SPPSF group. Mean anterior vertebral body height (% of normal) was 67.3% before surgery and 95.8% after surgery, but 69.1% and 90.1% respectively in SPPSF group. Mean posterior vertebral body height (% of normal) was 93.3% before surgery and 99.5% after surgery, but 88.9% and 93.3% respectively in

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of bending strength of spinal pedicle screws, including cylindrical, conical, dual core and double dual core designs using numerical simulations and mechanical tests.

    PubMed

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn

    2014-09-01

    Pedicle screws are used for treating several types of spinal injuries. Although several commercial versions are presently available, they are mostly either fully cylindrical or fully conical. In this study, the bending strengths of seven types of commercial pedicle screws and a newly designed double dual core screw were evaluated by finite element analyses and biomechanical tests. All the screws had an outer diameter of 7 mm, and the biomechanical test consisted of a cantilever bending test in which a vertical point load was applied using a level arm of 45 mm. The boundary and loading conditions of the biomechanical tests were applied to the model used for the finite element analyses. The results showed that only the conical screws with fixed outer diameter and the new double dual core screw could withstand 1,000,000 cycles of a 50-500 N cyclic load. The new screw, however, exhibited lower stiffness than the conical screw, indicating that it could afford patients more flexible movements. Moreover, the new screw produced a level of stability comparable to that of the conical screw, and it was also significantly stronger than the other screws. The finite element analysis further revealed that the point of maximum tensile stress in the screw model was comparable to the point at which fracture occurred during the fatigue test. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Material and Method Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. Results The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of

  17. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of this system is comparable. EMF

  18. The Vertebral Artery Cave at C2: Anatomic Study with Application to C2 Pedicle Screw Placement.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Granger, Andre; Fisahn, Christian; Loukas, Marios; Moisi, Marc; Iwanaga, Joe; Paulson, David; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the course of the vertebral artery during instrumentation is of paramount importance. It has been shown that erosion of the C2 pedicle and body can occur due to pulsations of the adjacent vertebral artery. This often results in a "cave" for this segment of the artery. The descriptions of this anatomy are limited. The current study was performed with the hope that these data will be of use to spine surgeons during C2 instrumentation. In 40 human adult C2 bone specimens, the position of the vertebral artery in relation to the undersurface of the superior articular facet, pedicle, and C2 body was observed. A classification system was used to better describe these relationships. Pedicle screws were then placed into selected examples of each type. We found type 0 specimens, with no cave, on 8 sides (10%). Types I, II, and III caves with minimal, moderate, and significant encroachment of the pedicle were observed on 40%, 35%, and 27.5% sides, respectively. Type IV caves with erosion into the lateral C2 body and undersurface of the superior articular facet were observed on 12.5% of sides. Although larger caves were found on left sides, this did not reach statistical significance. Pedicle screw placement for types III and IV were most likely to enter the vertebral artery cave (P < 0.05). Additional osteologic data regarding the course of the vertebral artery while within C2 may decrease morbidity during surgery in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pedicle Screw Fluid Sign: An Indication on Magnetic Resonance Imaging of a Deep Infection After Posterior Spinal Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Odate, Seiichi; Soeda, Tsunemitsu

    2017-05-01

    A single-center case-referent study. To assess whether the "pedicle screw (PS) fluid sign" on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to diagnose deep surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior spinal instrumentation (PSI). MRI is a useful tool for the early diagnosis of a deep SSI. However, the diagnosis is frequently difficult with feverish patients with clear wounds after PSI because of artifacts from the metallic implants. There are no reports on MRI findings that are specific to a deep SSI after PSI. We found that fluid collection outside the head of the PS on an axial MRI scan (PS fluid sign) strongly suggested the possibility of an abscess. The SSI group comprised 17 patients with a deep SSI after posterior lumbar spinal instrumentation who had undergone an MRI examination at the onset of the SSI. The non-SSI group comprised 64 patients who had undergone posterior lumbar spinal instrumentation who did not develop an SSI and had an MRI examination within 4 weeks after surgery. The frequency of a positive PS fluid sign was compared between both groups. The PS fluid sign had a sensitivity of 88.2%, specificity of 89.1%, positive predictive value of 68.1%, and negative predictive value of 96.6%. The 2 patients with a false-negative PS fluid sign in the SSI group had an infection at the disk into which the interbody cage had been inserted. Three of the 7 patients with a false-positive PS fluid sign in the non-SSI group had a dural tear during surgery. The PS fluid sign is a valuable tool for the early diagnosis of a deep SSI. The PS fluid sign is especially useful for diagnosing a deep SSI in difficult cases, such as feverish patients without wound discharge.

  20. A comparative study on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement assisted by personalized rapid prototyping template between pre- and post-operation in patients with relatively normal mid-upper thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Yuan, Zhen-Shan; Spiker, William Ryan; Dong, Wei-Xin; Sun, Xiao-Yang; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Zhang, Jiao; Zhu, Bingke

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of rapid prototyping drill template technique for placing pedicle screws in the mid-upper thoracic vertebrae in clinics. 151 consecutive patients underwent thoracic instrumentation and fusion for a total of 582 pedicle screws placed in the mid-upper thoracic vertebrae. Using computer software, the authors constructed drill templates that fit onto the posterior elements of the mid-upper thoracic vertebrae with drill guides designed to instrument the pedicles. The start point and three dimensional location of the planned and inserted screws were measured and compared. Grading of the CT scans revealed 559 (96.1 %) out of 582 screws completely within the desired pedicle. The direction of pedicle violation included 5 medial, 2 airball, and 16 lateral. The paired t test suggested that these results were statistically significant in more than half of the locations (T1-left-TA(P = 0.024), T2-left-SA(P = 0.031), T3-left-SA(P = 0.014), T4-left-TA(P = 0.004), T5-left-TA(P = 0.034), T7-left-TA(P = 0.000). T1-right-TA(P = 0.049), T2-right-TA(P = 0.044), T3-right-TA(P = 0.014), T5-right-TA(P = 0.013)). The paired t-test suggested that these results were statistically significant at several locations (T4-left-Δy(P = 0.041), T5-left-Δx(P = 0.016), T3-right-Δy(P = 0.015)). Use of a rapid prototyping drill template to assist in the placement of mid and upper thoracic pedicle screws may lead to increased accuracy. This patient specific technology must be combined with an understanding of the patients' anatomy and carefully secured to the posterior elements intraoperatively to avoid nerve or vascular complications.

  1. Known-component 3D-2D registration for quality assurance of spine surgery pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; De Silva, T.; Stayman, J. W.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    A 3D-2D image registration method is presented that exploits knowledge of interventional devices (e.g. K-wires or spine screws—referred to as ‘known components’) to extend the functionality of intraoperative radiography/fluoroscopy by providing quantitative measurement and quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. The known-component registration (KC-Reg) algorithm uses robust 3D-2D registration combined with 3D component models of surgical devices known to be present in intraoperative 2D radiographs. Component models were investigated that vary in fidelity from simple parametric models (e.g. approximation of a screw as a simple cylinder, referred to as ‘parametrically-known’ component [pKC] registration) to precise models based on device-specific CAD drawings (referred to as ‘exactly-known’ component [eKC] registration). 3D-2D registration from three intraoperative radiographs was solved using the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize image-gradient similarity, relating device placement relative to 3D preoperative CT of the patient. Spine phantom and cadaver studies were conducted to evaluate registration accuracy and demonstrate QA of the surgical product by verification of the type of devices delivered and conformance within the ‘acceptance window’ of the spinal pedicle. Pedicle screws were successfully registered to radiographs acquired from a mobile C-arm, providing TRE 1-4 mm and  <5° using simple parametric (pKC) models, further improved to  <1 mm and  <1° using eKC registration. Using advanced pKC models, screws that did not match the device models specified in the surgical plan were detected with an accuracy of  >99%. Visualization of registered devices relative to surgical planning and the pedicle acceptance window provided potentially valuable QA of the surgical product and reliable detection of pedicle screw breach. 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models of known surgical

  2. Clinical and radiological results 6 years after treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with pedicle screw instrumentation and balloon assisted endplate reduction.

    PubMed

    Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Somers, Inne; Dhert, Wouter J A; Oner, F Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    When used to fixate traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures, pedicle screw constructs may fail in the presence of severe vertebral body comminution as the intervertebral disc can creep through the fractured endplates leading to insufficient anterior column support. Balloon-assisted endplate reduction (BAER) and subsequent calcium phosphate cement augmentation may prevent this event by restoring the disc space boundaries. The results of the first studies using BAER after pedicle screw fixation are encouraging, showing good fracture reduction, few complications, and minimal loss of correction at 2 years of follow-up. To present the clinical and radiological outcome of 20 patients treated for traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with pedicle screws and BAER after a minimum of 6 years follow-up. Prospective trial. Twenty consecutive neurologically intact adult patients with traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures were included. Radiological parameters (wedge/Cobb angle on plain radiographs and mid-sagittal anterior/central vertebral body height on magnetic resonance imaging scans) and patient reported parameters (EQ-5D and Oswestry Disability Index) were used. All patients had previously undergone pedicle screw fixation and BAER with calcium phosphate cement augmentation. The posterior instrumentation was removed approximately 1.5 years after index surgery. Radiographs were obtained preoperatively, postoperatively, after removal of the pedicle screws, and at final follow-up (minimum 6 years post-trauma). Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained preoperatively, 1 month after index surgery, and 1 month after pedicle screw removal. Health questionnaires were filled out during the last outpatient visit. The pedicle screw instrumentation was removed uneventfully in all patients and posterolateral fusion was observed in every case. The mean wedge and Cobb angle converged to almost identical values (5.3° and 5.8°, respectively) and the mid-sagittal anterior and

  3. Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Interspinous Fastener Provides Comparable Clinical Outcome and Fusion Rate to Pedicle Screws.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Min; Yu, Xing-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Duo; Song, Ruo-Xian; Yu, Li-Li; Yu, Xiu-Chun

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the clinical feasibility and validity of interspinous fastener (ISF) for lumbar degenerative diseases. From October 2013 to March 2014, a total of 46 patients suffering from lumbar degenerative diseases underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) randomly augmented by ISF or pedicle screws. The clinical outcome was primarily measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score. The minimal clinical important difference (MCID) was defined as an eight-point decrease in ODI. The second clinical outcome measurement was Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Interbody fusion rates were evaluated by lumbar plain radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan. Complications were also compared between groups. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 13.0. Sample size calculation was performed before the study. The type I error α was set at 0.05 and the type II error β at 0.1. Based on these assumptions and adding 10% for possible drop-outs, sample size calculations indicated that a total of 46 patients were required for the study. Parametric data was compared by independent t-test and categorical variables were compared using χ(2) -tests or Fisher exact tests depending on the sample size. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significantly statistically different. Fleiss kappa coefficients were calculated for intra-observer and inter-observer reliability. A total of 43 patients completed the follow-up, with 22 cases in the ISF group and 21 patients in the pedicle screws group, respectively. Less intraoperative blood loss and shorter operation time were observed in the ISF group. The mean ODI significantly declined in both groups, with the ISF group's decreasing from preoperative 43.3 ± 8.2 to 21.4 ± 3.5 at 24-month follow-up and the pedicle screws group's decreasing from preoperative 42.9 ± 7.9 to 22.5 ±3.8 at 24-month follow-up, respectively. The ODI changes between groups had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). Of the 43

  4. Biomechanical flexion-extension forces in normal canine lumbosacral cadaver specimens before and after dorsal laminectomy-discectomy and pedicle screw-rod fixation.

    PubMed

    Meij, Björn P; Suwankong, Niyada; Van der Veen, Albert J; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2007-12-01

    To determine biomechanical flexion-extension forces in cadaveric canine lumbosacral specimens, before and after dorsal laminectomy with partial discectomy, and after dorsal pedicle screw-rod fixation of L7 and S1. Biomechanical cadaver study. Cadaveric spine specimens without lumbosacral pathology from mature, intact Labrador retrievers (n=12). Lumbosacral spine segments were subjected to a constant bending moment from L6 to S1 in a hydraulic 4-point bending materials testing machine. Force and displacement were recorded during each loading cycle constituting 1 complete flexion-extension cycle of the spine. Each spine segment had 3 series of recordings of 5 loading cycles each: (1) intact spine, (2) after surgical destabilization by dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy, and (3) after surgical stabilization using dorsal pedicle screw-rod fixation. After dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy, the neutral zone and range of motion were not different from those in the native spine specimen. After pedicle screw-rod fixation, the neutral zone and range of motion of the instrumented specimen significantly (P<.0001) decreased compared with the native specimen and the specimen after dorsal laminectomy. Dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy does not lead to significant spinal instability in flexion and extension whereas pedicle screw and rod fixation effectively stabilizes the lumbosacral spine. Dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy does not lead to significant spinal instability. Pedicle screw-rod fixation of L7 and S1 may be used to stabilize an unstable L7-S1 junction in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of Sacral Fixation Characteristics of Standard S1-Pedicle Screw Fixation versus a Novel Constrained S1-Dual-Screw Anchorage in the S1-Pedicle and S1-Alar Bone.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Stephan, Daniel; Resch, Herbert; Augat, Peter; Auffarth, Alexander; Blocher, Martina; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Defossez, Henri; Rouge, Renaud; Koller, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    Biomechanical Laboratory Study. Analysis of the biomechanical characteristics of a novel sacral constrained dual-screw fixation device (S1-PALA), combining a S1-pedicle screw and a S1-ala screw, compared to a standard bicortical S1-pedicle screw (S1-PS) fixation. Instrumented fusions to the sacrum are biomechanically challenging and plagued by a high risk of nonunion when S1-PS is used as the sole means of fixation. Thus, lumbopelvic fixation is increasingly selected instead, although associated with a reasonable number of instrumentation-related complications. Around 30 fresh-frozen human sacral bones were harvested and embedded after CT scans. Instrumentation was conducted in alternating order with bicortical 7.0 mm S1-PS and with the S1-PALA including a S1-PS screw and a S1-ala screw, of 7.0 and 6.0 mm diameter, respectively. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading with increasing loads (25-250 N) until a maximum of 2000 cycles or displacement >2 mm occurred. All implant sacral units (ISUs) were subject to coaxial pullout tests. Failure load, number of ISUs surpassing 2000 cycles, number of cycles, and loads at failure were recorded and compared. Donors' age averaged 77 ± 14.2 years, and BMD was 115 ± 64.8 mgCA-HA/ml. Total working length of screws implanted was 90 ± 8.6 mm in the S1-PALA group and 46 ± 5 mm in the S1-PS group (P = 0.0002). In the S1-PALA group, displacement >2 mm occurred after 845 ± 325 cycles at 149 ± 41 N compared to 512 ± 281 cycles at 106 ± 36 N in the S1-PS group (P = 0.004; P = 0.002). In coaxial pull-out testing, failure load was 2118.1 ± 1166 N at a displacement of 2.5 ± 1 mm in the S1-PALA group compared to 1375.6 ± 750.1 N at a displacement of 1.6 ± 0.5 mm in the S1-PS group (P = 0.0007; P = 0.0003). The novel sacral constrained dual-screw anchorage (S1-PALA) significantly improved holding strength after cyclic loading compared to S1-PS. The S1-PALA demonstrated mechanical potential as a useful adjunct in the

  6. [Pedicle screw-based systems for dynamic stabilization : An insight into the philosophy, technique, indications and success of these systems].

    PubMed

    Richolt, J; Rauschmann, M

    2010-06-01

    Pedicle screw-based dorsal dynamic systems for segmental stabilization of the lumbar spine are an addition to established surgical methods. They differ in terms of their kinetics as well as their materials. The long-term load on these systems is much higher than in spondylodesis systems, which can only successfully bear loads until bone fusion; cases of implant failure and screw loosening are not rare.Pedicle screw-based systems represent a therapeutic option when conservative treatment proves unsuccessful and fusion seems to be too early. Finding the correct indication versus that of established methods is complex given our limited knowledge to date; symptomatic segments with moderate degenerative changes in facet joints and disc height, as well as Modic 2-3 signs seem to be appropriate cases. The same is true of segments adjacent to planned fusions. Dynamic stabilization can be considered in the case of long fusion, cranial location in the lumbar spine and high likelihood of instability and deformity.

  7. Multiobjective Optimization Design of Spinal Pedicle Screws Using Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm: Mathematical Models and Mechanical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong

    2013-01-01

    Short-segment instrumentation for spine fractures is threatened by relatively high failure rates. Failure of the spinal pedicle screws including breakage and loosening may jeopardize the fixation integrity and lead to treatment failure. Two important design objectives, bending strength and pullout strength, may conflict with each other and warrant a multiobjective optimization study. In the present study using the three-dimensional finite element (FE) analytical results based on an L25 orthogonal array, bending and pullout objective functions were developed by an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm, and the trade-off solutions known as Pareto optima were explored by a genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that the knee solutions of the Pareto fronts with both high bending and pullout strength ranged from 92% to 94% of their maxima, respectively. In mechanical validation, the results of mathematical analyses were closely related to those of experimental tests with a correlation coefficient of −0.91 for bending and 0.93 for pullout (P < 0.01 for both). The optimal design had significantly higher fatigue life (P < 0.01) and comparable pullout strength as compared with commercial screws. Multiobjective optimization study of spinal pedicle screws using the hybrid of ANN and GA could achieve an ideal with high bending and pullout performances simultaneously. PMID:23983810

  8. Multiobjective optimization design of spinal pedicle screws using neural networks and genetic algorithm: mathematical models and mechanical validation.

    PubMed

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn

    2013-01-01

    Short-segment instrumentation for spine fractures is threatened by relatively high failure rates. Failure of the spinal pedicle screws including breakage and loosening may jeopardize the fixation integrity and lead to treatment failure. Two important design objectives, bending strength and pullout strength, may conflict with each other and warrant a multiobjective optimization study. In the present study using the three-dimensional finite element (FE) analytical results based on an L25 orthogonal array, bending and pullout objective functions were developed by an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm, and the trade-off solutions known as Pareto optima were explored by a genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that the knee solutions of the Pareto fronts with both high bending and pullout strength ranged from 92% to 94% of their maxima, respectively. In mechanical validation, the results of mathematical analyses were closely related to those of experimental tests with a correlation coefficient of -0.91 for bending and 0.93 for pullout (P < 0.01 for both). The optimal design had significantly higher fatigue life (P < 0.01) and comparable pullout strength as compared with commercial screws. Multiobjective optimization study of spinal pedicle screws using the hybrid of ANN and GA could achieve an ideal with high bending and pullout performances simultaneously.

  9. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral pedicle screw fixation: comparison between primary and revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery.

  10. The outcome of pedicle screw instrumentation removal for ongoing low back pain following posterolateral lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brumby-Rendell, Oscar P.; McDonald, Ben; Fisher, Tom; Tsimiklis, Christovalantis; Yoon, Wai Weng; Osti, Orso L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to determine whether patients derived benefit from removal of pedicle screw instrumentation for axial pain without other cause using our surgical technique and patient selection. A secondary aim was to investigate factors that were associated with poorer outcomes for this procedure as well as complication rate in this cohort. Methods Theater records from a single spinal surgeon’s practice were reviewed to identify patients that had undergone lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain with subsequent pedicle screw instrumentation removal (Expedium, DePuy Synthes) in the preceding 3 years with a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Inclusion criteria were persisting midline axial back pain with computed tomography (CT)−confirmed solid fusion with non-radicular symptoms and nil other potential causes found, e.g., infection. Case note review along with pre- and post-operative Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaires and visual analog scores (VAS) were assessed for all patients. Surgical technique included re-use of previous midline posterior incision and the Wiltse approach with removal of implants, confirmation of a solid fusion mass, washout and bone grafting of removal sites. Results From 50 consecutive patients who underwent removal of posterolateral instrumentation for an index elective lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain, 34 patients were identified that met the criteria with a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 18-36 months). The VAS and ODI improved in 22/34 (65%) of participants. The mean cohort VAS score was 6.6 pre-surgery and 4.3 post-surgery (P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative mean Oswestry disability scores were 64 and 41, respectively (P=0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with poorer compared to satisfactory outcomes with regards to compensable status, preoperative grade II opioid use and shorter time between fusion and removal procedure. Complications were one

  11. Construction and Accuracy Assessment of Patient-Specific Biocompatible Drill Template for Cervical Anterior Transpedicular Screw (ATPS) Insertion: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangxue; Zhao, Weidong; Tang, Lei; Li, Jianyi; Ouyang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background With the properties of three-column fixation and anterior-approach-only procedure, anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) is ideal for severe multilevel traumatic cervical instabilities. However, the accurate insertion of ATPS remains challenging. Here we constructed a patient-specific biocompatible drill template and evaluated its accuracy in assisting ATPS insertion. Methods After ethical approval, 24 formalin-preserved cervical vertebrae (C2–C7) were CT scanned. 3D reconstruction models of cervical vertebra were obtained with 2-mm-diameter virtual pin tracts at the central pedicles. The 3D models were used for rapid prototyping (RP) printing. A 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was then inserted into the pin tract of the RP model before polymethylmethacrylate was used to construct the patient-specific biocompatible drill template. After removal of the anterior soft tissue, a 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was inserted into the cervical pedicle with the assistance of drill template. Cadaveric cervical spines with pin tracts were subsequently scanned using the same CT scanner. A 3D reconstruction was performed of the scanned spines to get 3D models of the vertebrae containing the actual pin tracts. The deviations were calculated between 3D models with virtual and actual pin tracts at the middle point of the cervical pedicle. 3D models of 3.5 mm-diameter screws were used in simulated insertion to grade the screw positions. Findings The patient-specific biocompatible drill template was constructed to assist ATPS insertion successfully. There were no significant differences between medial/lateral deviations (P = 0.797) or between superior/inferior deviations (P = 0.741). The absolute deviation values were 0.82±0.75 mm and 1.10±0.96 mm in axial and sagittal planes, respectively. In the simulated insertion, the screws in non-critical position were 44/48 (91.7%). Conclusions The patient-specific drill template is biocompatible, easy-to-apply and accurate

  12. A demineralized calf vertebra model as an alternative to classic osteoporotic vertebra models for pedicle screw pullout studies

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Gokhan; Ilgaz, Ozgur; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Akalan, Nejat; Benzel, Edward C.

    2007-01-01

    Screws, clamps and other spinal instrumentation materials are tested using healthy animal and healthy human vertebrae, but the application of similar tests to an osteoporotic vertebra is generally neglected because of high costs and limited availability of high quality and consistent osteoporotic vertebrae. The objective of this study is to develop an in-vitro method to decrease the mineral content of an animal vertebra utilizing decalcifying chemical agents that alters the bone mineral density and some biomechanical properties to such an extent that they biomechanically mimic the osteoporotic spine. This study was performed on 24 fresh calf lumbar vertebrae. Twelve out of these 24 vertebrae were demineralized and the others served as control. A hole was opened in the pedicles of each vertebrae and the bone mineral density was measured. Each vertebra was then placed into a beher-glass filled with hydrochloric acid decalcifier solution. The decalcifier solution was introduced through the holes in the pedicles with an infusion pump. The vertebrae were then subjected to DEXA to measure post process BMD. Pedicle screws were introduced into both pedicles of each vertebrae and pullout testing was performed at a rate of 5 mm/min. The difference of BMD measurements between pre- and post-demineralizing process were also statistically significant (p < 0.001). The difference of pullout loads between pre- and post-demineralizing process were also statistically significant (p < 0.001). The acid demineralizing process may be useful for producing a vertebra that has some biomechanical properties that are consistent with osteopenia or osteoporosis in humans. PMID:18026760

  13. A demineralized calf vertebra model as an alternative to classic osteoporotic vertebra models for pedicle screw pullout studies.

    PubMed

    Akbay, Atilla; Bozkurt, Gokhan; Ilgaz, Ozgur; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Akalan, Nejat; Benzel, Edward C

    2008-03-01

    Screws, clamps and other spinal instrumentation materials are tested using healthy animal and healthy human vertebrae, but the application of similar tests to an osteoporotic vertebra is generally neglected because of high costs and limited availability of high quality and consistent osteoporotic vertebrae. The objective of this study is to develop an in-vitro method to decrease the mineral content of an animal vertebra utilizing decalcifying chemical agents that alters the bone mineral density and some biomechanical properties to such an extent that they biomechanically mimic the osteoporotic spine. This study was performed on 24 fresh calf lumbar vertebrae. Twelve out of these 24 vertebrae were demineralized and the others served as control. A hole was opened in the pedicles of each vertebrae and the bone mineral density was measured. Each vertebra was then placed into a beher-glass filled with hydrochloric acid decalcifier solution. The decalcifier solution was introduced through the holes in the pedicles with an infusion pump. The vertebrae were then subjected to DEXA to measure post process BMD. Pedicle screws were introduced into both pedicles of each vertebrae and pullout testing was performed at a rate of 5 mm/min. The difference of BMD measurements between pre- and post-demineralizing process were also statistically significant (p < 0.001). The difference of pullout loads between pre- and post-demineralizing process were also statistically significant (p < 0.001). The acid demineralizing process may be useful for producing a vertebra that has some biomechanical properties that are consistent with osteopenia or osteoporosis in humans.

  14. A Universal Pedicle Screw and V-Rod System for Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolysis: A Retrospective Analysis of 21 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiong-sheng; Zhou, Sheng-yuan; Jia, Lian-shun; Gu, Xiao-min; Fang, Lei; Zhu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical outcome of a universal pedicle screw-V rod system and isthmic bone grafting for isthmic spondylolysis. Methods Twenty-four patients with isthmic spondylolysis at L5 and grade 0–I spondylolisthesis (Meyerding classification) received isthmic bone graft and stabilization using the universal pedicle screw-V rod system. Back pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and time to bone healing, improvement in spondylolisthesis and intervertebral space height at L5/S1 and L4/L5 were assessed. Results Twenty-one patients were followed up for 24 months and included in the analysis. Back pain was markedly improved at 3 months postoperatively with a statistical difference in VAS scores compared with preoperative VAS scores (P<0.001). The VAS scores were 0 to 3 at 6 months postoperatively in all patients and no back pain was reported in all patients except 2 patients who complained of back pain after prolonged sitting. X-ray examination showed a bone graft healing time of 3 to 12 months. Grade I spondylolisthesis improved to grade 0 in 4 patients and no noticeable change was observed in the remaining 17 cases. The intervertebral space height at L5/S1 was statistically increased (P<0.05) while no statistically significant change was seen at L4/L5. There was no statistically significant difference in the ROM of the intervertebral disks of L5/S1 and L4/5 before and after surgery. Conclusions The universal pedicle screw-V rod system and isthmic bone grafting directly repairs isthmic spondylolysis and reduces back pain, prevents anterior displacement of the diseased segment and maintains intervertebral space height, thus offering a promising alternative to current approaches for isthmic spondylolysis. PMID:23691090

  15. Posterior fusion only for thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of more than 80°: pedicle screws versus hybrid instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Martikos, Konstantinos; Parisini, Patrizio

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) of more than 80° traditionally consisted of a combined procedure, an anterior release performed through an open thoracotomy followed by a posterior fusion. Recently, some studies have reassessed the role of posterior fusion only as treatment for severe thoracic AIS; the correction rate of the thoracic curves was comparable to most series of combined anterior and posterior surgery, with shorter surgery time and without the negative effect on pulmonary function of anterior transthoracic exposure. Compared with other studies published so far on the use of posterior fusion alone for severe thoracic AIS, the present study examines a larger group of patients (52 cases) reviewed at a longer follow-up (average 6.7 years, range 4.5–8.5 years). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of surgical treatment for severe thoracic (>80°) AIS treated with posterior spinal fusion alone, and compare comprehensively the results of posterior fusion with a hybrid construct (proximal hooks and distal pedicle screws) versus a pedicle screw instrumentation. All patients (n = 52) with main thoracic AIS curves greater than 80° (Lenke type 1, 2, 3, and 4), surgically treated between 1996 and 2000 at one institution, by posterior spinal fusion either with hybrid instrumentation (PSF–H group; n = 27 patients), or with pedicle screw-only construct (PSF–S group; n = 25 patients) were reviewed. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of age, Risser’s sign, Cobb preoperative main thoracic (MT) curve magnitude (PSF–H: 92° vs. PSF–S: 88°), or flexibility on bending films (PSF–H: 27% vs. PSF–S: 25%). Statistical analysis was performed using the t test (paired and unpaired), Wilcoxon test for non-parametric paired analysis, and the Mann–Whitney test for non-parametric unpaired analysis. At the last follow-up, the PSF–S group, when compared to the PSF

  16. The effect of screw insertion torque on tendons fixed with spiked washers.

    PubMed

    Beynnon, B D; Meriam, C M; Ryder, S H; Fleming, B C; Johnson, R J

    1998-01-01

    The long-term success of a hamstring tendon graft depends not only on the type of device that is used for fixation but also on the mechanical interlocking of the soft tissue between the fixation device and bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of screw insertion torque on the structural properties of soft tissue fixed to bone with a spiked metal washer. Two bovine tendons, one similar in size to a human semitendinosus tendon and the other similar in size to a human gracilis tendon, were secured to a bovine femur using a figure-of-8 technique with screws and metal spiked washers. A single load to failure was applied at 25 mm/sec. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between fixation screw insertion torque magnitude and the ultimate failure load value. An increase in the fixation screw insertion torque produced an increase in the ultimate failure load value. Similarly, there was a significant positive linear correlation between fixation screw insertion torque magnitude and the average maximum linear load value. No relationship was detected between screw insertion torque magnitude and the linear stiffness values of the tendon-fixation construct, indicating that a reproducible model was used. This study demonstrates that screw insertion torque is an important variable that controls the initial strength of soft tissue fixation to bone.

  17. One-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion for the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingchen; Li, Ye; Wu, Yuntao

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of using one-stage posterior C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion in the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. A total of 13 patients with unstable hangman's fractures underwent C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation, lamina interbody fusion or combined anterior C2-C3 fusion and imaging examinations to evaluate the fracture fixation and healing condition at three days and three months following surgery. Postoperative X-ray and computed tomography (CT) results showed high fracture reduction, good internal fixation position and reliable fracture fixation. The three-month postoperative CT showed good vertebral fracture healing. C2 and C3 pedicle screw fixation has a good curative effect in the treatment of unstable hangman's fracture. The direct fixation of the fracture enables early ambulation by the patients.

  18. Finite element analysis of Stryker Xia pedicle screw in artificial bone samples with and without supplemental cement augmentation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Choma, Theodore J; Kueny, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    A validated, using in vitro biomechanical testing, finite element model was used to evaluate the affects of (1) cement augmentation and (2) an intact posterior cortex in osteoporotic bone. The presence of augmentation and/or a posterior cortical cortex increased the stabilization of the pedicle screw 2-5 fold. Placement of cement influenced failure load and toggle; with distal placement having the largest increase in failure load and decrease in cephalad-caudad toggle. The presence of posterior cortex caused a decrease in the amount of toggle, a proximal shift of the center of rotation and an increase in the maximum failure force.

  19. The effect of insertion angle on orthodontic mini-screw torque

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Seyed Hamid; Noorollahian, Saeed; Niknam, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary stability is an important factor for the clinical success of orthodontic mini-screws. The present study made an attempt to evaluate the effect of insertion angle changes on the maximum insertion and removal torque of orthodontic mini-screws. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 mini-screws (Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil, 1.6 mm diameter, 8 mm length) were used. They were randomly divided into four equal groups and inserted in poly-carbonate plates with 3 mm thickness. Then, their maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT) were recorded using a digital torque tester/screwdriver. Each group had a different insertion angle (90°, 75°, 60° and 45°). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18) using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The maximum MIT was observed in 45° insertion angle (14.84 Ncm) and the minimum MIT was reported in 75° insertion angle (12.66 Ncm). The maximum MRT was observed in 45° insertion angle (23.21 Ncm) and the minimum MRT was reported in the 90° insertion angle (17.43 Ncm). Conclusion: Oblique insertion of the mini-screws results in higher insertion and removal torques and probably more primary stability compared to the vertical insertion. PMID:25225557

  20. Radiographic anatomical relationship between spinous process and pedicle in thoracolumbar and lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xingang; Wang, Guodong

    2017-05-01

    Pedicle screws are widely used in spinal surgeries, but it remains technically demanding to place. There are numerous studies on the anatomy of pedicle; however, there is very little insight on the relationship between the pedicle and the spinous process, which is an important part of the spinal posterior column.The aim of the study was to investigate the radiographic anatomical relationship between spinous processes and pedicles in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, in order to reveal a novel entrance point for pedicle screw insertion.Sixty candidates were enrolled in this study; cases were excluded with degenerative disorders and other disorders as osteoporosis, deformity, and tumor. Radiographs and computer tomography scans between T10 and L5 were obtained on each case. The distance was measured that between the superior margin of spinous process root and the superior border, the inferior border and the axis of pedicle. In laboratory, 5 fresh cadavers were used to imitate the pedicle screw insertion.The basic reference point was supposed as the intersection between the horizontal line of superior margin of spinous process root and the central vertical line of the superior facet. For T10 to T12, the pedicle axis was 5 mm beyond the reference point. For L1 to L4, the pedicle axis was at the reference point. At L5, the pedicle axis was 5 mm beneath the reference point. In laboratory, 80 screws were all inserted into pedicles successfully according to the newly referred entrance point.The study reveals the radiographic anatomical relationship between the pedicle and the spinous process. The pedicle axis is around the horizontal line of the superior margin of spinous process root. It provides a new anatomic mark of pedicle screw entrance point.

  1. Radiographic anatomical relationship between spinous process and pedicle in thoracolumbar and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xingang; Wang, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pedicle screws are widely used in spinal surgeries, but it remains technically demanding to place. There are numerous studies on the anatomy of pedicle; however, there is very little insight on the relationship between the pedicle and the spinous process, which is an important part of the spinal posterior column. The aim of the study was to investigate the radiographic anatomical relationship between spinous processes and pedicles in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, in order to reveal a novel entrance point for pedicle screw insertion. Sixty candidates were enrolled in this study; cases were excluded with degenerative disorders and other disorders as osteoporosis, deformity, and tumor. Radiographs and computer tomography scans between T10 and L5 were obtained on each case. The distance was measured that between the superior margin of spinous process root and the superior border, the inferior border and the axis of pedicle. In laboratory, 5 fresh cadavers were used to imitate the pedicle screw insertion. The basic reference point was supposed as the intersection between the horizontal line of superior margin of spinous process root and the central vertical line of the superior facet. For T10 to T12, the pedicle axis was 5 mm beyond the reference point. For L1 to L4, the pedicle axis was at the reference point. At L5, the pedicle axis was 5 mm beneath the reference point. In laboratory, 80 screws were all inserted into pedicles successfully according to the newly referred entrance point. The study reveals the radiographic anatomical relationship between the pedicle and the spinous process. The pedicle axis is around the horizontal line of the superior margin of spinous process root. It provides a new anatomic mark of pedicle screw entrance point. PMID:28538370

  2. The use of computer-assisted surgery as an educational tool for the training of orthopedic surgery residents in pedicle screw placement: a pilot study and survey among orthopedic residents

    PubMed Central

    Aoude, Ahmed; Alhamzah, Hamzah; Fortin, Maryse; Jarzem, Peter; Ouellet, Jean; Weber, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The training of orthopedic residents in adequate pedicle screw placement is very important. We sought to investigate orthopedic residents’ perspectives on the use of computer-assisted surgery (CAS) in a training trial. Methods Orthopedic residents were randomly assigned to independently place a screw using the free-hand technique and the CAS technique on 1 of 3 cadavers (Cobb angles 5º, 15º and 67º) at randomly selected thoracolumbar vertebral levels. All residents were blinded to their colleagues’ pedicle screw placements and were asked to complete a short questionnaire at the end of the session to evaluate their experience with CAS. We obtained CT images for each cadaver to assess pedicle screw placement accuracy and classified placement as A) screw completely in pedicle, B) screw < 2 mm outside pedicle, C) screw 2–4 mm outside pedicle, or D) screw > 4 mm outside pedicle. Results Twenty-four orthopedic residents participated in this trial study. In total, 65% preferred using the free-hand technique in an educational setting even though most (60%) said that CAS is safer. The main reason for free-hand technique preference was the difficult technical aspects encountered with CAS. In addition, accuracy of pedicle screw placement in this trial showed that 5 screws were classified as A or B (safe zone) and 19 as grade C or D (unsafe zone) using the free-hand technique compared with 15 and 9, respectively, using CAS (p = 0.008). Conclusion Orthopedic residents perceived CAS as safe and demonstrated improved accuracy in pedicle screw placement in a single setting. However, the residents preferred the free-hand technique in an educational stetting owing to the difficult technical aspects of CAS. PMID:28234614

  3. Effect of bone mineral density and amorphous diamond coatings on insertion torque of bone screws.

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Arto; Santavirta, Seppo S; Kröger, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the potential of high-quality amorphous diamond (AD) coatings in reducing the torque and failures of bone screws was studied. Torque values were recorded for 32 stainless steel screws, 2.7 or 3.5 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length. Half of the screw sets were coated with the AD coating before installing in predrilled holes of human cadaveric femoral bone samples. The bone samples were selected from two groups of four persons with mean ages of 34 years (range 25-41 years) and 75 years (range 73-77 years), respectively. The bone mineral density (BMD) values of the samples were determined exactly at the screw insertion site by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). In the mechanical tests, insertion and removal torques were measured. BMD had a significant effect on insertion torque; the maximum torque (adjusted with respect to the screw diameter) was significantly higher for the young bone than for the old bone (p < 0.05). By using a polished AD coating, insertion torque was decreased even up to 50% in comparison with the screws without coating. The results suggest that AD coating provides a stable, smooth surface and reduces the risk of screw failures.

  4. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. Materials and Methods: In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most screw hole, a 3.2 mm drill bit is inserted to drill the distal locking screw hole of the intramedullary nail (inner nail). With a small skin incision over the distal screw holes, the distal-most screw hole is identified; the bone window overlying the screw hole is widened with an awl and a locking bolt is inserted with a washer under direct visualization. The other distal interlocking screw is simply drilled by matching the other three holes of the outer and inner nails. We have operated 86 patients (39 femoral shaft fracture and 47 tibial shaft fracture) in 1 year where this technique was used. There were 41 open fracture and 45 closed fracture. Results: Within 6 months of follow-up, bony union was achieved in 36 of 39 femur fractures and 45 of 47 tibial fractures. No unwanted complications were observed during the postoperative period and in follow-up. Conclusion: This method of radiation-free distal interlocking screw insertion is simple and can be used in third world country where image intensifier facility is not available. However, surgeons are encouraged to use image intensifier facility where the facility is available. PMID:23066456

  5. The pedicled masseter muscle transfer for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis: repositioning the origin and insertion.

    PubMed

    Matic, Damir B; Yoo, John

    2012-08-01

    The pedicled masseter muscle transfer (PMMT) is introduced as a new reconstructive option for dynamic smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis. The masseter muscle is detached from both its origin and insertion and transferred to a new position to imitate the function of the native zygomaticus major muscle. Part one of this study consisted of cadaveric dissections of 4 heads (eight sides) in order to determine whether the masseter muscle could be (a) pedicled solely by its dominant neurovascular bundle and (b) repositioned directly over the native zygomaticus major. The second part of the study consisted of clinical assessments in three patients in order to confirm the applicability of this muscle transfer. Commissure excursion and vector of contraction following PMMT were compared to the non-paralyzed side. In all eight sides, the masseter muscles were successfully isolated on their pedicle and transposed on top of and in-line with the ipsilateral zygomaticus major. The mean length of the masseter and its angle from Frankfurt's horizontal line after transposition compared favorably to the native zygomaticus major muscle. In the clinical cases, the mean commissure movements of the paralyzed and normal sides were 7 mm and 12 mm respectively. The mean angles of commissural movement for the paralyzed and normal sides were 62° and 59° respectively. The PMMT can be used as a dynamic reconstruction for patients with permanent facial paralysis. As we gain experience with the PMMT, it may be possible to use it as a first-line option for patients not eligible for free micro-neurovascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Less invasive lumbopelvic fixation technique using a percutaneous pedicle screw system for unstable pelvic ring fracture in a patient with severe multiple traumas.

    PubMed

    Yano, Sei; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Nakajima, Takayuki; Takazawa, Makoto; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi; Nakajima, Arata; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Takane; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-02-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are defined as life-threatening injuries that can be treated surgically with external or internal fixation. The authors report on an 81-year-old woman with an unstable pelvic fracture accompanying multiple traumas that was successfully treated with a less invasive procedure. The patient was injured in a traffic accident and sustained a total of 20 fractures, including pelvic ring, bilateral rib, and lumbar transverse processes fractures, and multiple fractures of both upper and lower extremities. The pelvic ring fracture was unstable with fractures of the bilateral sacrum with right sacroiliac disruption, right superior and inferior pubic rami, left superior pubic ramus, and ischium. During emergency surgery, bilateral external fixation was applied to the iliac crest to stabilize the pelvic ring. Second and third surgeries were performed 11 and 18 days after the first emergency surgery, respectively, to treat the multiple fractures. At the third surgery, the pelvic ring fracture was stabilized surgically using a less invasive posterior fixation technique. In this technique, 2 iliac screws were inserted on each side following an 8-cm midline posterior incision from the S-1 to S-3 spinous process, with the subcutaneous tissue detached from the fascia of the paraspinal muscles. The S-2 spinous process was removed and 2 rods were connected to bilateral iliac screws to stabilize the bilateral ilium in a switchback fashion. A crosslink device was applied to connect the 2 rods at the base of the S-2 spinous process. Following pelvic fixation, percutaneous pedicle screws were inserted into L-4 and L-5 vertebral bodies on both sides, and connected to the cranial rod connecting the bilateral iliac screws, thus completing the lumbopelvic fixation. The postoperative course was favorable with no postoperative complications. At the 10-month follow-up, bone union had been achieved at the superior ramus of the pubis, the patient did not complain of pain, and

  7. Radiolucent Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Pedicle Screws for Treatment of Spinal Tumors: Advantages for Radiation Planning and Follow-Up Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Florian; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Kirschke, Jan S; Müller, Birgit S; Wilkens, Jan J; Brodard, Jeremy; Combs, Stephanie E; Meyer, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    Surgical treatment of spinal tumors regularly includes spinal instrumentation with pedicle screws. Most modern pedicle screws are made of titanium alloy, which is associated with artifacts on postoperative imaging such as computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. These artifacts hamper radiation treatment planning and execution and follow-up imaging. Recently, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRP) implants became available for posterior instrumentation with the aim to reduce imaging artifacts by implants. Patients harboring spinal tumors underwent posterior stabilization using CFRP pedicle screws. Postoperative imaging was evaluated for implant artifacts. Radiation planning was assessed. Thirty-five patients with spinal tumors were assessed (metastases n = 30; lymphoma n = 2, myeloma n = 1, chordoma n = 1, fibrous dysplasia n = 1). Implantation of CFRP implants was feasible in all but 1 case. Postoperative images show reduced artifacts in comparison with standard titanium alloy implants. Implant position and integrity is sufficiently assessable despite reduced image contrast. Radiation planning is improved. Carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK pedicle screws reduce image artifacts on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thereby, they are a valuable and feasible option for spinal instrumentations in patients harboring spinal tumors where postoperative imaging and radiation therapy planning are necessary and might be crucial for long-term outcome and overall survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of robot-assisted vs freehand pedicle screw fixation in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Jung, Whan-Ik; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Yeom, Jin S

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and safety of an instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a robot-assisted minimally invasive (Robot-PLIF) or a conventional open approach (Freehand-PLIF). Patients undergoing an instrumented PLIF were randomly assigned to be treated using a Robot-PLIF (37 patients) and a Freehand-PLIF (41 patients). For intrapedicular accuracy, there was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.534). For proximal facet joint accuracy, none of the 74 screws in the Robot-PLIF group violated the proximal facet joint, while 13 of 82 in the Freehand-PLIF group violated the proximal facet joint (P < 0.001). The average distance of the screws from the facets was 5.2 ± 2.1 mm and 2.7 ± 1.6 mm in the Robot-PLIF and Freehand-PLIF groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement was associated with fewer proximal facet joint violations and better convergence orientations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Does Navigation Improve Pedicle Screw Placement Accuracy? Comparison Between Navigated and Non-navigated Percutaneous and Open Fixations.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Gualtiero; Bistazzoni, Simona; D'Ercole, Manuela; Cardarelli, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess how a preoperative computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system affected the correctness and safety of transpedicular screw insertion, compared with standard techniques. Between January 2012 and February 2014, 203 patients underwent thoracic and lumbar fixation, with open and percutaneous techniques; 218 screws were implanted through an open navigated technique (1.0 Spine & Trauma 3d ver. 2.0 BrainLab, Feldkirchen Germany) in 43 patients; 220 screws were inserted with an open free-hand technique in 45 patients; 230 screws were implanted in 56 patients using percutaneous CT-based navigation; and 236 screws were inserted in 59 patients using a percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided technique. To our knowledge, this is the first work comparing these four different techniques. The position of each screw was evaluated on CT scan reconstruction and classified according to a four-point grading scale (grade 0: no breach, grade 1: breach < 2 mm, grade 2: breach between 2 and 4 mm; grade 3: breach >4 mm). Statistical analysis was assessed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) t test, while the Fisher least significant difference (LSD) method was employed to determine statistical significance. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in accuracy between the open CT-based navigation and the percutaneous CT-based navigation techniques (P= 0.0263) and between the open CT-based navigation and the percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided techniques (P=0.0258): a particular difference was observed in anterior misplacement between open CT-based navigation and the percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided technique (P= 0.0153). Our results confirm the advantages of the navigation technique, which ensures greater accuracy, in open as well as percutaneous procedures.

  10. Posterior hemivertebra resection and short segment fusion with pedicle screw fixation for congenital scoliosis in children younger than 10 years: greater than 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong-Gune; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Ha, Kee-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sub; Jang, Ji-Seok; Suk, Se-Il

    2015-04-15

    A retrospective study. To evaluate the surgical outcomes of posterior hemivertebra resection and short segment fusion with segmental pedicle screw fixation in congenital scoliosis in children younger than 10 years. This is the first long-term follow-up on surgical outcomes of posterior hemivertebra resection and short segment fusion using segmental pedicle screw fixation in children younger than 10 years with congenital scoliosis. Patients with congenital scoliosis (n = 18) younger than 10 years at the time of the surgery were treated by posterior hemivertebra resection and bilateral pedicle screw fixation. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.6 years (range, 2.6-9.8 yr). They were retrospectively studied with a mean follow-up of 11.4 years (range, 7.1-17.3 yr). The mean Cobb angle of the main curve was 34.4° before surgery, 8.6° after surgery, and 12.9° at last follow-up. In the compensatory cranial curve, the preoperative Cobb angle of 14.5° was corrected to 5.9° postoperatively and was 8.4° at last follow-up. In the compensatory caudal curve, the preoperative Cobb angle of 17.4° improved to 4° postoperatively and 6.6° at last follow-up. There were no crankshaft phenomena and no clinical and radiographical features suggestive of spinal stenosis during follow-up. There were no major vascular or neurological complications related to the pedicle screws. Posterior hemivertebra resection after pedicle screw fixation in congenital scoliosis is a safe and effective procedure that can achieve rigid fixation and deformity correction and restore spinal balance. This study showed that early posterior hemivertebra resection of congenital scoliosis before structural changes occur above or below can reduce fusion length, prevent curve progression, and effectively achieve a more satisfactory correction without hazardous iatrogenic spinal stenosis, crankshaft phenomena, or neurological complications. 3.

  11. Three-Dimensional Correction in Patients With Lenke 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Comparison of Consecutive Versus Interval Pedicle Screw Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Yanik, Hakan Serhat; Demiroz, Serdar; Ulusoy, Ayhan; Erdem, Sevki

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective-matched cohort study. To assess the correction of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) deformity in three dimensions, comparing consecutive and interval pedicle screw (PS) instrumentation techniques. The number of the sites that should be implanted with pedicle screws in AIS surgery is controversial. Coronal and sagittal planes have been investigated thoroughly but there are very little data about transverse plane correction according to PS density. A total of 76 AIS patients who underwent posterior fusion with PS instrumentation were recruited in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to PS density with 38 patients in each group. In group 1, consecutive PS instrumentation was used (CPS group), and in group 2 interval pedicle screw instrumentation (IPS group). Two groups were matched according to similar patient age, fusion levels, curve magnitude and flexibility, identical Lenke curve type, and identical operative methods. Patients were compared at 1-year follow-up according to radiographic changes in coronal, sagittal, and transverse planes. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Scoliosis Research Society-22 and spinal appearance questionnaires. The two cohorts were well matched. At 1-year follow-up, major coronal Cobb angle changes were 45.4° in CPS group and 38.9° in IPS group (P = 0.049). T5-T12 sagittal Cobb angle changes were 5.1° and 5.9° in CPS and IPS groups, respectively (P = 0.897). Apical vertebral rotation changes were measured as 12.0° in CPS group and as 3.6° in IPS group, which demonstrated a significant difference (P = 0.001). Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores were similar in both groups, whereas spinal appearance questionnaire appearance domain was significantly better in CPS group at 1-year follow-up (P = 0.035). CPS provides better deformity correction in AIS surgery in all three planes, compared with IPS. Improved deformity correction results in better appearance outcomes. 3.

  12. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cortical bone trajectory screw fixation versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion using traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Several biomechanical studies have demonstrated the favorable mechanical properties of the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw. However, no reports have examined surgical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with CBT screw fixation for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) compared with those after PLIF using traditional pedicle screw (PS) fixation. The purposes of this study were thus to elucidate surgical outcomes after PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS and to compare these results with those after PLIF using traditional PS fixation. METHODS Ninety-five consecutive patients underwent PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS (CBT group; mean followup 35 months). A historical control group consisted of 82 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with traditional PS fixation (PS group; mean follow-up 40 months). Clinical status was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale score. Fusion status was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT. The need for additional surgery and surgery-related complications was also evaluated. RESULTS The mean JOA score improved significantly from 13.7 points before surgery to 23.3 points at the latest follow-up in the CBT group (mean recovery rate 64.4%), compared with 14.4 points preoperatively to 22.7 points at final follow-up in the PS group (mean recovery rate 55.8%; p < 0.05). Solid spinal fusion was achieved in 84 patients from the CBT group (88.4%) and in 79 patients from the PS group (96.3%, p > 0.05). Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease developed in 3 patients from the CBT group (3.2%) compared with 9 patients from the PS group (11.0%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS provided comparable improvement of clinical symptoms with PLIF using traditional PS fixation. However, the successful fusion rate tended to be lower in the CBT group than in the PS group, although the difference was not statistically significant between the 2 groups.

  13. Anterior debridement and fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation in pyogenic spondylodiscitis: autologous iliac bone strut versus cage.

    PubMed

    Pee, Yong Hun; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2008-05-01

    An anterior approach for debridement and fusion with autologous bone graft has been recommended as the gold standard for surgical treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. The use of anterior foreign body implants at the site of active infection is still a challenging procedure for spine surgeons. Several authors have recently introduced anterior grafting with titanium mesh cages instead of autologous bone strut in the treatment of spondylodiscitis. The authors present their experience of anterior fusion with 3 types of cages followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation. They also compare their results with the use of autologous iliac bone strut. The authors retrospectively reviewed the cases of 60 patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated by anterior debridement between January 2003 and April 2005. Fusion using either cages or iliac bone struts was performed during the same course of anesthesia followed by posterior fixation. Twenty-three patients underwent fusion with autologous iliac bone strut, and 37 patients underwent fusion with 1 of the 3 types of cages. The infections resolved in all patients, as noted by normalization of their erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels. Patients in both groups were evaluated in terms of their preoperative and postoperative clinical and imaging findings. Single-stage anterior debridement and cage fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation can be effective in the treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. There was no difference in clinical and imaging outcomes between the strut group and cage group except for the subsidence rate. The subsidence rate was higher in the strut group than in the cage group. The duration until subsidence was also shorter in the strut group than in the cage group.

  14. Iliosacral screw insertion using CT-3D-fluoroscopy matching navigation.

    PubMed

    Takao, Masaki; Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Percutaneous iliosacral screw insertion requires substantial experience and detailed anatomical knowledge to find the proper entry point and trajectory even with the use of a navigation system. Our hypothesis was that three-dimensional (3D) fluoroscopic navigation combined with a preoperative computed tomography (CT)-based plan could enable surgeons to perform safe and reliable iliosacral screw insertion. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the navigation accuracy for sacral fractures and sacroiliac dislocations on widely displaced cadaveric pelves; and (2) to report the technical and clinical aspects of percutaneous iliosacral screw insertion using the CT-3D-fluoroscopy matching navigation system. We simulated three types of posterior pelvic ring disruptions with vertical displacements of 0, 1, 2 and 3cm using cadaveric pelvic rings. A total of six fiducial markers were fixed to the anterior surface of the sacrum. Target registration error over the sacrum was assessed with the fluoroscopic imaging centre on the second sacral vertebral body. Six patients with pelvic ring fractures underwent percutaneous iliosacral screw placement using the CT-3D-fluoroscopy matching navigation. Three pelvic ring fractures were classified as type B2 and three were classified as type C1 according to the AO-OTA classification. Iliosacral screws for the S1 and S2 vertebra were inserted. The mean target registration error over the sacrum was 1.2mm (0.5-1.9mm) in the experimental study. Fracture type and amount of vertical displacement did not affect the target registration error. All 12 screws were positioned correctly in the clinical series. There were no postoperative complications including nerve palsy. The mean deviation between the planned and the inserted screw position was 2.5mm at the screw entry point, 1.8mm at the area around the nerve root tunnels and 2.2mm at the tip of the screw. The CT-3D-fluoroscopy matching navigation system was accurate and

  15. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  16. Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw fixation of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Yipeng; Li, Zhengyao; Yu, Bin; Li, Ye

    2014-11-06

    A few studies focused on unilateral or bilateral pedicle screw (PS) fixation of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) to treat lumbar degenerative diseases have been published. There is still debate over whether one method is superior to another. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed to compare the efficacy of the two methods. We searched the established electronic literature databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for RCTs comparing the unilateral with bilateral pedicle screw fixation of MIS-TLIF. Pooled mean differences (MD) and odds ratios (OR) and with 95% CIs were calculated for the outcomes. Three RCTs were identified and analyzed. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the two methods in terms of postoperative VAS-BP score (WMD = -0.09; 95% CI: -0.69 to 0.51; P =0.78), ODI (WMD, -0.09; 95% CI -5.85 to 5.67; P =0.98), fusion rate (OR = 2.99; 95% CI 0.55 to 16.38; P = 0.21) or complication rate (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.49 to 5.37; P =0.43). Unilateral pedicle screw fixation was associated with less blood loss (WMD = -87.83; 95% CI: -160.70 to -14.96; P =0.02). The existing evidence indicate that no superiority exists between the two fixation methods of MIS-TLIF in terms of functional outcome, fusion rate and complication rate, in spite of that unilateral pedicle screw fixation can achieve less blood loss than bilateral fixation.

  17. Application of dual-energy CT to suppression of metal artefact caused by pedicle screw fixation in radiotherapy: a feasibility study using original phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyuan; Ishihara, Takeaki; Kono, Atsushi; Yoshida, Naoki; Akasaka, Hiroaki; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Yada, Ryuichi; Ejima, Yasuo; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Kakutani, Kenichiro; Nishida, Kotaro; Negi, Noriyuki; Minami, Toshiaki; Aoyama, Yuuichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryohei

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was the determination of the potential dosimetric benefits of using metal-artefact-suppressed dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images for cases involving pedicle screw implants in spinal sites. A heterogeneous spinal phantom was designed for the investigation of the dosimetric effect of the pedicle-screw-related artefacts. The dosimetric comparisons were first performed using a conventional two-directional opposed (AP-PA) plan, and then a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan, which are both used for the treatment of spinal metastases in our institution. The results of Acuros® XB dose-to-medium (Dm) and dose-to-water (Dw) calculations using different imaging options were compared with experimental measurements including the chamber and film dosimetries in the spinal phantom. A dual-energy composition image with a weight factor of  -0.2 and a dual-energy monochromatic image (DEMI) with an energy level of 180 keV were found to have superior abilities for artefact suppression. The Dm calculations revealed greater dosimetric effects of the pedicle screw-related artefacts compared to the Dw calculations. The results of conventional single-energy computed tomography showed that, although the pedicle screws were made from low-Z titanium alloy, the metal artefacts still have dosimetric effects, namely, an average (maximum) Dm error of 4.4% (5.6%) inside the spinal cord for a complex VMAT treatment plan. Our findings indicate that metal-artefact suppression using the proposed DECT (DEMI) approach is promising for improving the dosimetric accuracy near the implants and inside the spinal cord (average (maximum) Dm error of 1.1% (2.0%)).

  18. Low-density versus high-density thoracic pedicle screw constructs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: do more screws lead to a better outcome?

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Neil J; Lonner, Baron S; Auerbach, Joshua D; Kean, Kristin E; Trobisch, Per D

    2013-04-01

    Thoracic pedicle screw (TPS) constructs have improved curve correction measurements compared with hook and hybrid constructs in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but the optimal implant density, or the number of screws per level, remains unknown in the treatment of flexible thoracic curves. To determine how implant density affects clinical outcome, radiographic outcome, and cost in the treatment of Lenke Curve Type I AIS. A retrospective clinical study. Ninety-one consecutive AIS patients with Lenke Type I curves who underwent surgical correction with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Radiographic outcomes included assessment of preoperative and 2-year postoperative thoracic Cobb angle, T5-T12 kyphosis, and curve flexibility. We also assessed SRS-22 outcome measures and thoracic angle of trunk rotation (ATR) before surgery and at the 2-year postoperative time point. The cost of each construct was also evaluated. Bivariate analysis was conducted between implant density and the following factors: percent correction of the major curve, ATR, and change in kyphosis. The correlation between curve flexibility and percent correction of the major curve was determined. Patients were then divided into two groups: the low-density (LD) TPS group defined by implant density below the mean number of screws per level for the entire cohort (less than 1.3 screws per level) and the high-density (HD) TPS group defined by implant density above the mean number of screws per level (more than 1.3 screws per level). Independent sample t tests were used to compare demographic data as well as radiographic and clinical outcomes at baseline and at follow-up between the two groups. Sixty-one female and 30 male patients met inclusion criteria. No significant correlations were found between implant density and the following parameters: percent correction of the major curve (p=.25), ATR (p=.75), and change in T5-T12 kyphosis (p=.40). No correlation was found between curve

  19. Two levels above and one level below pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of unstable thoracolumbar fracture with partial or intact neurology

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Hitesh N; Chung, Kook Jin; Seo, Il Woo; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Hwang, Ji Hyo; Kim, Hong Kyun; Noh, Kyu Cheol; Yoo, Jung Han

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of unstable thoracolumbar fractures is controversial regarding short or long segment pedicle screw fixation. Although long level fixation is better, it can decrease one motion segment distally, thus increasing load to lower discs. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 31 unstable thoracolumbar fractures with partial or intact neurology. All patients were operated with posterior approach using pedicle screws fixed two levels above and one level below the fracture vertebra. No laminectomy, discectomy or decompression procedure was done. Posterior fusion was achieved in all. Post operative and at final follow-up radiological evaluation was done by measuring the correction and maintenance of kyphotic angle at thoracolumbar junction. Complications were also reported including implant failure. Results Average follow-up was 34 months. All patients had full recovery at final follow-up. Average kyphosis was improved from 26.7° to 4.1° postoperatively and to 6.3° at final follow-up. And mean pain scale was improved from 7.5 to 3.9 postoperatively and to 1.6 at final follow-up, All patients resumed their activity within six months. Only 4 (12%) complications were noted including only one hardware failure. Conclusion Two levels above and one level below pedicle screw fixation in unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture is useful to prevent progressive kyphosis and preserves one motion segment distally. PMID:19635134

  20. The effect of polyethylene creep on tibial insert locking screw loosening and back-out in prosthetic knee joints.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-10-01

    A prosthetic knee joint typically comprises a cobalt-chromium femoral component that articulates with a polyethylene tibial insert. A locking screw may be used to prevent micromotion and dislodgement of the tibial insert from the tibial tray. Screw loosening and back-out have been reported, but the mechanism that causes screw loosening is currently not well understood. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate the effect of polyethylene creep on the preload of the locking screw. We find that the preload decreases significantly as a result of polyethylene creep, which reduces the torque required to loosen the locking screw. The torque applied to the tibial insert due to internal/external rotation within the knee joint during gait could thus drive locking screw loosening and back-out. The results are very similar for different types of polyethylene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic evaluation comparing intraoperative cone beam CT-based navigation and conventional fluoroscopy for the placement of spinal pedicle screws: a patient-level data cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Dea, Nicolas; Fisher, Charles G; Batke, Juliet; Strelzow, Jason; Mendelsohn, Daniel; Paquette, Scott J; Kwon, Brian K; Boyd, Michael D; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Street, John T

    2016-01-01

    . Annual maintenance costs were also added. Finally, reoperation costs using a micro-costing approach were calculated for both groups. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated and reported as cost per reoperation avoided. Based on reoperation costs in Canada and in the United States, a minimal caseload was calculated for the more expensive alternative to be cost saving. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. A total of 5,132 pedicle screws were inserted in 502 patients during the study period: 2,682 screws in 253 patients in the treatment group and 2,450 screws in 249 patients in the control group. Overall accuracy rates were 95.2% for the treatment group and 86.9% for the control group. Within 1 year post treatment, two patients (0.8%) required a revision surgery in the treatment group compared with 15 patients (6%) in the control group. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $15,961 per reoperation avoided was calculated for the CAS group. Based on a reoperation cost of $12,618, this new technology becomes cost saving for centers performing more than 254 instrumented spinal procedures per year. Computer-assisted spinal surgery has the potential to reduce reoperation rates and thus to have serious cost-effectiveness and policy implications. High acquisition and maintenance costs of this technology can be offset by equally high reoperation costs. Our cost-effectiveness analysis showed that for high-volume centers with a similar case complexity to the studied population, this technology is economically justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Radiation Exposure in Lumbar Pedicle Screw Placement With Fluoroscopy Vs Computer-Assisted Image Guidance With Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Harvey E; Welsch, Matthew D; Sasso, Rick C; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies have shown that spine surgeons may be exposed to significantly more radiation than that observed in surgery on the appendicular skeleton. Computer-assisted image guidance systems have been shown in preliminary studies to enable accurate instrumentation of the spine. Computer-assisted image guidance systems may have significant application to the surgical management of spinal trauma and deformity. The objective of this study was to compare C-arm fluoroscopy and computer-assisted image guidance in terms of radiation exposure to the operative surgeon when placing pedicle screw-rod constructs in cadaver specimens. Methods: Twelve single-level (2 contiguous vertebral bodies) lumbar pedicle screw-rod constructs (48 screws) in 4 fresh cadavers were placed using standard C-arm fluoroscopy and computer-assisted image guidance (Stealth Station with Iso-C3D). Pedicle screw-rod constructs were placed at L1–L2, L3–L4, and L5–S1 in 4 fresh cadaver specimens. Imaging was alternated between C-arm fluoroscopy and computer-assisted image guidance with StealthStation Iso-C3D. Radiation exposure was measured using ring and badge dosimeters to monitor the thyroid, torso, and index finger. Postprocedure CT scans were obtained to judge accuracy of screw placement. Results: Mean radiation exposure to the torso was 4.33 ± 2.66 mRem for procedures performed with standard fluoroscopy and 0.33 ± 0.82 mRem for procedures performed with computer-assisted image guidance. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.012). Radiation exposure to the index finger and thyroid was negligible for all procedures. The accuracy of screw placement was similar for both techniques. Conclusions: Computer-assisted image guidance systems allow for the safe and accurate placement of pedicle screw-rod constructs with a significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation to the

  3. Postoperative quality-of-life assessment in patients with spine metastases treated with long-segment pedicle-screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Florian; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Olivier; Menei, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE In recent decades, progress in the medical management of cancer has been significant, resulting in considerable extension of survival for patients with metastatic disease. This has, in turn, led to increased attention to the optimal surgical management of bone lesions, including metastases to the spine. In addition, there has been a shift in focus toward improving quality of life and reducing hospital stay for these patients, and many minimally invasive techniques have been introduced with the aim of reducing the morbidity associated with more traditional open approaches. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of long-segment percutaneous pedicle screw stabilization for the treatment of instability associated with thoracolumbar spine metastases in neurologically intact patients. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of data from a prospective database. The authors analyzed cases in which long-segment percutaneous pedicle screw fixation was performed for the palliative treatment of thoracolumbar spinal instability due to spinal metastases in neurologically intact patients. All of the patients included in the study underwent surgery between January 2014 and May 2015 at the authors' institution. Postoperative radiation therapy was planned within 10 days following the stabilization in all cases. Clinical and radiological follow-up assessments were planned for 3 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Outcome was assessed by means of standard postoperative evaluation and oncological and spinal quality of life measures (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 3.0 [EORTC QLQ-C30] and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], respectively). Moreover, 5 patients were given an activity monitoring device for recording the distance walked daily; preoperative and postoperative daily distances were compared. RESULTS Data from 17 cases were analyzed. There were no

  4. Does cancellous screw insertion torque depend on bone mineral density and/or microarchitecture?

    PubMed

    Ab-Lazid, Rosidah; Perilli, Egon; Ryan, Melissa K; Costi, John J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-01-22

    During insertion of a cancellous bone screw, the torque level reaches a plateau, at the engagement of all the screw threads prior to the screw head contact. This plateau torque (T(Plateau)) was found to be a good predictor of the insertion failure torque (stripping) and also exhibited strong positive correlations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ovine bone. However, correlations between T(Plateau) and aBMD, as well as correlations between T(Plateau) and bone microarchitecture, have never been explored in human bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether T(Plateau), a predictor of insertion failure torque, depends on aBMD and/or bone microarchitecture in human femoral heads. Fifty-two excised human femoral heads were obtained. The aBMD and microarchitecture of each specimen were evaluated using dual X-ray Absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography. A cancellous screw was inserted into specimens using an automated micro-mechanical test device, and T(Plateau) was calculated from the insertion profile. T(Plateau) exhibited the strongest correlation with the structure model index (SMI, R=-0.82, p<0.001), followed by bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R=0.80, p<0.01) and aBMD (R=0.76, p<0.01). Stepwise forward regression analysis showed an increase for the prediction of T(Plateau) when aBMD was combined with microarchitectural parameters, i.e., aBMD combined with SMI (R(2) increased from 0.58 to 0.72) and aBMD combined with BV/TV and BS/TV (R(2) increased from 0.58 to 0.74). In conclusion, T(Plateau), a strong predictor for insertion failure torque, is significantly dependent on bone microarchitecture (particularly SMI and BV/TV) and aBMD.

  5. Known-Component 3D-2D Registration for Image Guidance and Quality Assurance in Spine Surgery Pedicle Screw Placement

    PubMed Central

    Uneri, A.; Stayman, J. W.; De Silva, T.; Wang, A. S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To extend the functionality of radiographic/fluoroscopic imaging systems already within standard spine surgery workflow to: 1) provide guidance of surgical device analogous to an external tracking system; and 2) provide intraoperative quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. Methods Using fast, robust 3D-2D registration in combination with 3D models of known components (surgical devices), the 3D pose determination was solved to relate known components to 2D projection images and 3D preoperative CT in near-real-time. Exact and parametric models of the components were used as input to the algorithm to evaluate the effects of model fidelity. The proposed algorithm employs the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize gradient correlation (GC) between measured projections and simulated forward projections of components. Geometric accuracy was evaluated in a spine phantom in terms of target registration error at the tool tip (TREx), and angular deviation (TREϕ) from planned trajectory. Results Transpedicle surgical devices (probe tool and spine screws) were successfully guided with TREx <2 mm and TREϕ<0.5° given projection views separated by at least >30° (easily accommodated on a mobile C-arm). QA of the surgical product based on 3D-2D registration demonstrated the detection of pedicle screw breach with TREx <1 mm, demonstrating a trend of improved accuracy correlated to the fidelity of the component model employed. Conclusions 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models of known surgical components provides a novel method for near-real-time guidance and quality assurance using a mobile C-arm without external trackers or fiducial markers. Ongoing work includes determination of optimal views based on component shape and trajectory, improved robustness to anatomical deformation, and expanded preclinical testing in spine and intracranial surgeries. PMID:26028805

  6. Known-component 3D-2D registration for image guidance and quality assurance in spine surgery pedicle screw placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneri, A.; Stayman, J. W.; De Silva, T.; Wang, A. S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Khanna, A. J.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose. To extend the functionality of radiographic / fluoroscopic imaging systems already within standard spine surgery workflow to: 1) provide guidance of surgical device analogous to an external tracking system; and 2) provide intraoperative quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. Methods. Using fast, robust 3D-2D registration in combination with 3D models of known components (surgical devices), the 3D pose determination was solved to relate known components to 2D projection images and 3D preoperative CT in near-real-time. Exact and parametric models of the components were used as input to the algorithm to evaluate the effects of model fidelity. The proposed algorithm employs the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) to maximize gradient correlation (GC) between measured projections and simulated forward projections of components. Geometric accuracy was evaluated in a spine phantom in terms of target registration error at the tool tip (TREx), and angular deviation (TREΦ) from planned trajectory. Results. Transpedicle surgical devices (probe tool and spine screws) were successfully guided with TREx<2 mm and TREΦ <0.5° given projection views separated by at least >30° (easily accommodated on a mobile C-arm). QA of the surgical product based on 3D-2D registration demonstrated the detection of pedicle screw breach with TREx<1 mm, demonstrating a trend of improved accuracy correlated to the fidelity of the component model employed. Conclusions. 3D-2D registration combined with 3D models of known surgical components provides a novel method for near-real-time guidance and quality assurance using a mobile C-arm without external trackers or fiducial markers. Ongoing work includes determination of optimal views based on component shape and trajectory, improved robustness to anatomical deformation, and expanded preclinical testing in spine and intracranial surgeries.

  7. [Use of pedicle percutaneous cemented screws in the management of patients with poor bone stock].

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Graillon, T; Mansouri, N; Adetchessi, T; Tropiano, P; Blondel, B; Fuentes, S

    2016-12-01

    Management of patients with poor bone stock remains difficult due to the risks of mechanical complications such as screws pullouts. At the same time, development of minimal invasive spinal techniques using a percutaneous approach is greatly adapted to these fragile patients with a reduction in operative time and complications. The aim of this study was to report our experience with cemented percutaneous screws in the management of patients with a poor bone stock. Thirty-five patients were included in this retrospective study. In each case, a percutaneous osteosynthesis using cemented screws was performed. Indications were osteoporotic fractures, metastasis or fractures on ankylosing spine. Depending on radiologic findings, short or long constructs (2 levels above and below) were performed and an anterior column support (kyphoplasty or anterior approach) was added. Evaluation of patients was based on pre and postoperative CT-scans associated with clinical follow-up with a minimum of 6 months. Eleven men and 24 women with a mean age of 73 years [60-87] were included in the study. Surgical indication was related to an osteoporotic fracture in 20 cases, a metastasis in 13 cases and a fracture on ankylosing spine in the last 2 cases. Most of the fractures were located between T10 and L2 and a long construct was performed in 22 cases. Percutaneous kyphoplasty was added in 24 cases and a complementary anterior approach in 3 cases. Average operative time was 86minutes [61-110] and blood loss was estimated as minor in all the cases. In the entire series, average volume of cement injected was 1.8 cc/screw. One patient underwent a major complication with a vascular leakage responsible for a cement pulmonary embolism. With a 9 months average follow-up [6-20], no cases of infection or mechanical complication was reported. Minimal invasive spinal techniques are greatly adapted to the management of fragile patients. The use of percutaneous cemented screws is, in our experience

  8. Effect of screw insertion torque on push-out and cantilever bending properties of five different angle-stable systems.

    PubMed

    Boero Baroncelli, Alessandro; Reif, Ulrich; Bignardi, Cristina; Peirone, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    To compare the screw push-out strength and resistance to cantilever bending of 5 different angle-stable systems using 4 different insertion torque values to tighten locking screws. In vitro mechanical testing of 5 screw-plate constructs. Screw plate constructs (n = 60) were tested; 12 of each design, 3 for each torque value. To compare push-out strength, screws were loaded in axial direction on the screw tip until loosening of the locking mechanism was recorded. For cantilever bending test, screws were loaded perpendicularly to their longitudinal axis at 2 mm of distance from the under surface of the plate. Load was applied in displacement control at 1 mm/min. There was a significant difference between the 5 different angle-stable systems regarding both push-out and cantilever bending strength. There was an influence of insertion torque value on push-out strength for 2 systems and insertion torque value influenced cantilever bending behavior only in 1 locking system. Locking mechanisms using "thread in thread" principle provided a stronger screw push-out behavior. Screws materials and core diameter of the different screws were directly related to cantilever bending strength. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Computer navigation-assisted spinal fusion with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation for scoliosis with Rett syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Misawa, Haruo; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Keiichiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2009-12-01

    Scoliosis is a common clinical manifestation of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that almost exclusively affects females. The spinal curve in patients with Rett syndrome is typically a long C curve of a neuromuscular type. As the onset of the scoliosis is very early and shows rapid progression, early surgical intervention has been recommended to prevent a life-threatening collapsing spine syndrome. However, there are high perioperative risks in Rett syndrome patients who undergo spinal surgery, such as neurological compromise and respiratory dysfunction due to rigid spinal curve. We herein report the surgical result of treating severe rapid progressive thoracic scoliosis in a 16-year-old girl with Rett syndrome. Posterior segmental pedicle screw fixation was performed from T1 to L3 using a computer-assisted technique. Post-operative radiography demonstrated a good correction of the curve in both the sagittal and coronal alignment. There were no postoperative complications such as neurological compromise. The patient had maintained satisfactory spinal balance as of the 3-year follow-up examination.

  10. Shoulder balance after surgery in patients with Lenke Type 2 scoliosis corrected with the segmental pedicle screw technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Gu, Suxi; Ni, Jianqiang; Fang, Xiutong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2009-03-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Lenke Type 2 criteria in scoliosis correction with the segmental pedicle screw (PS) technique, with emphasis on shoulder balance. Twenty-five consecutive patients with Lenke Type 2 scoliosis (structural double thoracic curves, sidebending Cobb angle > 25 degrees , or T2-5 kyphosis > 20 degrees ) who underwent segmental PS instrumentation were included in this study. At surgery, the patients were an average of 14.1 years of age, and the average duration of follow-up was 2.9 years. For radiological evaluation of the patients, preoperative, postoperative, and the latest available follow-up radiographs were used. The difference between right and left shoulder heights was determined to assess shoulder balance. All patients were treated with fusion of both the proximal and distal curves. The mean preoperative proximal thoracic curve of 43 degrees was corrected to 21 degrees postoperatively, a 51.2% correction. The preoperative lower thoracic curve of 61 degrees was corrected to 23 degrees , for a 62.3% correction. The preoperative shoulder height difference of -5.92 +/- 12.52 mm (range: -31 to +14 mm, negative designating a lower left shoulder) was improved to 1.52 +/- 8.12 mm. Postoperatively, no patient had significant or moderate shoulder imbalance, 4 patients had minimal shoulder imbalance, and 21 patients had balanced shoulders. Although Lenke Type 2 criteria were developed wth Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation, they are successfully applied to determining thoracic fusion when segmental PS instrumentation is used.

  11. The Effect of Concomitant Rib Deformity in Congenital Scoliosis on Spinal Curve Correction After Segmental Pedicle Screw Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Ebrahim; Fouladi, Daniel F; Safari, Mir Bahram; Tari, Hossein Vahid; Ghandhari, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    A single-center, prospective study. To investigate the effect of rib anomaly on surgical curve correction outcome in congenital scoliosis. The presence of rib anomalies may complicate surgical correction of congenital scoliosis. The outcome of surgical correction, however, has not been documented in scoliotic patients with and without rib deformity. Percent Cobb angle decrease (CAD) after operation was calculated in 94 patients with congenital scoliosis. Posterior segmental pedicle screw instrumentation (posterior approach) with or without previous anterior spinal release and fusion (anterior approach) was the method of correction. The impact of vertebral anomaly and rib deformity on CAD was examined. Although the type of vertebral anomaly had no significant effect on the mean CAD, it was significantly lower in 56 patients with rib deformity compared with that in the remaining patients without rib deformity (35.14%±15.83% vs. 51.54%±17.82%, P<0.001); particularly in those with complex, unilateral rib abnormalities, and in those with same-level vertebral and rib deformities. Patients' sex and age at the time of operation, rib number abnormality, and the type of operation (ie, posterior-only approach vs. anterior and posterior approach) did not contribute significantly to Cobb angle change after operation. Concomitant rib deformities, particularly of complex and unilateral types, significantly compromise operative curve correction outcome in congenital scoliosis.

  12. Radiological Evaluation of the Initial Fixation between Cortical Bone Trajectory and Conventional Pedicle Screw Technique for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To compare initial fixation using the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) technique versus conventional pedicle screws (PS) in radiographs of postsurgical lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature Few reports have documented the holding strength of CBT technique for spondylolisthesis cases. Methods From October 2009 to June 2014, 21 cases of degenerative spondylolisthesis were surgically treated in our institution. Ten were treated with conventional PS technique and 11 of with CBT technique. Mean lumbar lordosis and percent slippage were evaluated preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 6 months and 1 year postoperatively using radiographs. We also investigated percent loss of slip reduction. Results There were statistically significant differences between preoperative percent slippage and postoperative slippage in both PS and CBT procedures over 1 year, and both techniques showed good slip reduction. On the other hand, lumbar lordosis did not change significantly in either the PS or CBT groups over 1 year. Conclusions CBT technique showed similarly good initial fixation compared with the PS procedure in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:27114765

  13. Error Analysis and Experimental Study of a Bi-Planar Parallel Mechanism in a Pedicle Screw Robot System

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingjuan; Du, Zhijiang; Yu, Hongjian; Wang, Yongfeng; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for high precision surgical equipment for minimally invasive spinal surgery, a novel robot-assistant system was developed for the accurate placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spinal surgeries. The structure of the robot was based on a macro-micro mechanism, which includes a serial mechanism (macro part) and a bi-planar 5R parallel mechanism (micro part). The macro part was used to achieve a large workspace, while the micro part was used to obtain high stiffness and accuracy. Based on the transfer function of dimension errors, the factors affecting the accuracy of the end effectors were analyzed. Then the manufacturing errors and joint angle error on the position-stance of the end effectors were investigated. Eventually, the mechanism of the strain energy produced by the deformation of linkage via forced assembly and displacements of the output point were calculated. The amount of the transfer errors was quantitatively analyzed by the simulation. Experimental tests show that the error of the bi-planar 5R mechanism can be controlled no more than 1 mm for translation and 1° for rotation, which satisfies the required absolute position accuracy of the robot. PMID:27916869

  14. Error Analysis and Experimental Study of a Bi-Planar Parallel Mechanism in a Pedicle Screw Robot System.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qingjuan; Du, Zhijiang; Yu, Hongjian; Wang, Yongfeng; Dong, Wei

    2016-11-30

    Due to the urgent need for high precision surgical equipment for minimally invasive spinal surgery, a novel robot-assistant system was developed for the accurate placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spinal surgeries. The structure of the robot was based on a macro-micro mechanism, which includes a serial mechanism (macro part) and a bi-planar 5R parallel mechanism (micro part). The macro part was used to achieve a large workspace, while the micro part was used to obtain high stiffness and accuracy. Based on the transfer function of dimension errors, the factors affecting the accuracy of the end effectors were analyzed. Then the manufacturing errors and joint angle error on the position-stance of the end effectors were investigated. Eventually, the mechanism of the strain energy produced by the deformation of linkage via forced assembly and displacements of the output point were calculated. The amount of the transfer errors was quantitatively analyzed by the simulation. Experimental tests show that the error of the bi-planar 5R mechanism can be controlled no more than 1 mm for translation and 1° for rotation, which satisfies the required absolute position accuracy of the robot.

  15. Biomechanical study of novel unilateral C1 posterior arch screws and C2 laminar screws combined with an ipsilateral crossed C1-C2 pedicle screw-rod fixation for atlantoaxial instability.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai; Deng, Zhongliang; Yang, Junsong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Ranxi

    2017-08-29

    Current surgical methods to treat atlantoaxial instability pose potential risks to the surrounding blood vessels and nerves of operative approach. Therefore, more secure and highly effective methods are expected. This study sought to assess the biomechanical efficacy of a novel unilateral double screw-rod fixation system by comparing with traditional and emerging fixation methods in cadaveric models. Ligamentous cervical spines (C0-C7) from ten fresh cadaveric specimens were used to complete range of motion (ROM) test in their intact condition (control group), destabilization, and stabilization after different fixations, including unilateral C1-C2 pedicle screws (PS) with a screw-rod system (Group A), bilateral C1-C2 PS with screw-rod systems (Group B), unilateral C1 posterior arch screws (PAS) and C2 laminar screws (LS) combined with an ipsilateral paralleled C1-C2 PS-rod (Group C), and unilateral C1 PAS and C2 LS combined with an ipsilateral crossed C1-C2 PS-rod (Group D). After that, pullout strength test was performed between PS and PAS using ten isolated atlas vertebras. All fixation groups reduced flexibility in all directions compared with both control group and destabilization group. Furthermore, comparisons among different fixation groups showed that bilateral C1-C2 PS-rod (Group B), unilateral C1 PAS + C2 LS combined with an ipsilateral paralleled C1-C2 PS-rod (Group C) and unilateral C1 PAS + C2 LS combined with an ipsilateral crossed C1-C2 PS-rod (Group D) could provide a better stability, respectively, in all directions than unilateral C1-C2 PS-rod (Group A). However, no statistical significance was observed among Groups B, C, and D. Data from pullout strength test showed that both C1 PS (585 ± 53 N) and PAS (463 ± 49 N) could provide high fixed strength, although PS was better (P = 0.009). The surgical technique of unilateral C1 PAS + C2 LS combined with a ipsilateral crossed C1-C2 PS-rod fixation could provide a better stability than

  16. Economic study: a cost-effectiveness analysis of an intraoperative compared with a preoperative image-guided system in lumbar pedicle screw fixation in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Francesco; Porazzi, Emanuele; Restelli, Umberto; Foglia, Emanuela; Cardia, Andrea; Ortolina, Alessandro; Tomei, Massimo; Fornari, Maurizio; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    In spinal surgery, newly developed technology seems to play a key role, especially with the use of computer-assisted image-guided navigation, giving excellent results. However, these tools are expensive and may not be affordable for many facilities. To compare the cost-effectiveness of preoperative versus intraoperative CT (computed tomography) guidance in spinal surgery. A retrospective economic study. A cost-effectiveness study was performed analyzing the overall costs of a population of patients operated on for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis using an image-guided system (IGS) based on a CT scan. The population was divided into two groups according to the type of CT data set acquisition adopted: Group I (IGS based on a preoperative spiral CT scan), Group II (IGS based on an intraoperative CT scan-O-Arm system). The costs associated with each procedure were assessed through a process analysis, where clinical procedures were broken down into single phases and the related costs from each phase were evaluated. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from commercial parties directly or indirectly related to the subject of this article. Four hundred ninety-nine patients met the criteria for this study. In total, 2,542 screws were inserted with IGS. Baseline data were similar for the two groups, as were hospitalization and complications. The surgical time was 119±43 minutes in Group I and 92±31 minutes in Group II. The full cost of the two procedures was analyzed: the mean cost, using the O-Arm system (Group II), was found to be €255.83 (3.80%) less than the cost of Group I. Moreover, the O-Arm system was also used in other surgical procedures as an intraoperative control, thus reducing the final costs of radiologic examinations (a reduction of around 550 CT scans/year). In conclusion, the authors of the study are of the opinion that the surgical procedure of pedicle screw fixation, using a CT-based computer-guidance system with support of the O

  17. Morphological study of subaxial cervical pedicles by using three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction image.

    PubMed

    Wasinpongwanich, Kanthika; Paholpak, Permsak; Tuamsuk, Panya; Sirichativapee, Winai; Wisanuyotin, Taweechok; Kosuwon, Weerachai; Jeeravipoolvarn, Polasak

    2014-01-01

    Malpositioning of cervical screws risks neurovascular injury. A cervical screw fixation system can provide proper rigidity, alignment correction, and high rates of fusion afforded by high pullout biomechanical strength. The objective is to assess the dimensions and axis of the C3-C7 cervical pedicles. A 1-mm slice thickness computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine of 30 patients (15 males, 15 females) were analyzed and reconstructed in three-dimensions using Mimics(®) 10.01 software. We measured pedicle axis length (PAL), pedicle and lateral mass length (PL-LM), pedicle length (PL), outer pedicle width (OPW), and pedicle transverse angle (PTA) from the axial image and outer pedicle height (OPH) and pedicle sagittal angle (PSA) from the sagittal image. The OPH and OPW at all subaxial cervical spines were suitable for insertion of 3.5 mm cervical pedicle screws. PSA was directed cranially at C3 to C5 (13.84, 7.09, and 2.71) and directed caudally at C6 and C7 (-4.55, -6.94). PTA was greatest at C5 and smallest at C7. The respective difference between the left and right side for nearly all parameters was not statistically significant (except for C6 PL and C7 OPH). Females had a significantly smaller OPH and OPW than males at nearly all levels. The PTA was not significantly different between the sexes. Cervical pedicle screw fixation in the Thai population can be safely performed and guidelines for insertion at each vertebra documented. Appropriate preoperative planning is necessary to achieve safe and accurate placement of the screws.

  18. A comparative analysis of a disposable and a reusable pedicle screw instrument kit for lumbar arthrodesis: integrating HTA and MCDA.

    PubMed

    Ottardi, Claudia; Damonti, Alessio; Porazzi, Emanuele; Foglia, Emanuela; Ferrario, Lucrezia; Villa, Tomaso; Aimar, Enrico; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Galbusera, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Lumbar arthrodesis is a common surgical technique that consists of the fixation of one or more motion segments with pedicle screws and rods. However, spinal surgery using these techniques is expensive and has a significant impact on the budgets of hospitals and Healthcare Systems. While reusable and disposable instruments for laparoscopic interventions have been studied in literature, no specific information exists regarding instrument kits for lumbar arthrodesis. The aim of the present study was to perform a complete health technology assessment comparing a disposable instrument kit for lumbar arthrodesis (innovative device) with the standard reusable instrument. A prospective and observational study was implemented, by means of investigation of administrative records of patients undergoing a lumbar arthrodesis surgical procedure. The evaluation was conducted in 2013, over a 12- month time horizon, considering all the procedures carried out using the two technologies. A complete health technology assessment and a multi-criteria decision analysis approach were implemented in order to compare the two alternative technologies. Economic impact (with the implementation of an activity based costing approach), social, ethical, organisational, and technology-related aspects were taken into account. Although the cost analysis produced similar results in the comparison of the two technologies (total cost equal to € 4,279.1 and € 4,242.6 for reusable instrument kit and the disposable one respectively), a significant difference between the two instrument kits was noted, in particular concerning the organisational impact and the patient safety. The replacement of a reusable instrument kit for lumbar arthrodesis, with a disposable one, could improve the management of this kind of devices in hospital settings.

  19. Does pedicle screw fixation under age 5 cause spinal canal narrowing? A CT study with minimum 5 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Sinan; Karadereler, Selhan; Cobanoglu, Mutlu; Yilar, Sinan; Mutlu, Ayhan; Ulusoy, Levent Onur; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the changes in the vertebral body and spinal canal area in a group of patients who had pedicle screw fixation under age 5 for the treatment of congenital spinal deformity at least 5 year follow-up. 11 patients who had been operated due to spinal deformity under age 5 with who had a CT examination at least 5 years after the initial operation were included in the study. All patients underwent hemivertebrectomy and transpedicular fixation procedures at an average age of 3.18 years (range 2-5 years). All had preoperative CT to evaluate the congenital deformities. Measurements were done at the instrumented vertebrae as well as the un-instrumented ones above and below them to evaluate; vertebral body parameters, pedicle parameters and spinal canal area of upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), lower instrumented vertebra (LIV), upper adjacent un-instrumented vertebra and lower adjacent un-instrumented vertebra. The average follow-up was 7.2 (range 5-12) years. Six of the patients were over age 10 during the final CT examination while 5 were at age 7. Female-to male ratio was 8-3. Measurement of all the parameters in 22 instrumented and 22 non-instrumented segments showed a proportional increase rather than a decrease at each segment. The percentage of canal area growth at UIV and LIV was 21 and 17.5 %, respectively. Pedicle screw instrumentation has no adverse effect on further spinal body, pedicle and canal growth and does not result in iatrogenic spinal canal stenosis.

  20. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Monocentric Study of 215 Patients With a Minimum of 4-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fubing; Feng, Zhenzhou; Zhou, Xiaogang; Liang, Yun; Jiang, Chun; Li, Xilei; Li, Zheng; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Dong, Jian

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective clinical study. This study sought to retrospectively compare the mid-term to long-term outcomes between unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) and bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) augmented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in lumbar degenerative diseases. Recently, UPS fixation has been applied in TLIF, for its satisfactory clinical outcome, less implants and less invasiveness. However, only short-term outcome has been reported, the mid-term to long-term outcome has not been well characterized. From June 2007 to February 2011, 215 of 348 consecutive patients suffering from lumbar degenerative diseases were operated in our hospital and accomplished a minimum of 4-year follow-up. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the operative techniques: UPS group (n=109), and bilateral pedicle screw group (n=106). Operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, hospital bill, fusion status, and complications were recorded and analyzed statistically. Visual analog scale, Oswestry disability index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores were used to assess the preoperative and postoperative pain and functional outcome. The mean follow-up duration was 52.2 months. A significant decrease occurred in operative time, blood loss, and hospital bill in unilateral group, compared with bilateral group (P<0.05). The average postoperative visual analog scale, Oswestry disability index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores improved significantly in each group than the preoperative counterparts (P<0.05); however, there were no significant difference between groups at any follow-up time point (P>0.05). No statistically difference was detected regarding fusion rate and complication rate between the 2 groups (P>0.05), except the cage migration rate (P<0.05). UPS fixation could achieve satisfactory clinical outcome similar to bilateral fixation in TLIF at a mid-term to long-term follow-up. To avoid cage migration, bullet-shaped cages should not

  1. Surgical Intervention for Unstable Craniovertebral Junction Anomalies with Narrow C2 Pedicle.

    PubMed

    Darwazeh, Rami; Liu, Qiang; Deng, Lei; Xia, Jiajie; Elzain, Mohammed A; Darwazeh, Mazhar; Sharma, Piyush; Zhang, Bo; Yan, Yi

    2017-07-01

    We sought to investigate and report a novel surgical technique of screws insertion and posterior surgical reduction, as well as explore its clinical results. From September 2008 to September 2012, we treated 41 cases of unstable craniovertebral junction anomalies with a narrow C2 pedicle at our department. All patients underwent "posterior reduction and internal fixation of the occipital bone with superior or inferior articular process of C2 and lateral mass of C3 on the narrowed C2 pedicle side-for non-narrowed C2 pedicle side, the screw was only inserted into C2 pedicle without extending the fixation to C3 vertebrae-using a titanium screw-rod (plate) fixation system." The preoperative and postoperative atlantodens interval, Chamberlain line, McRae line, and cervicomedullary angle were all measured. In addition, the preoperative and postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association score was used to evaluate the cervical myelopathy. A total of 134 screws were inserted into the C2 pedicle (30 screws), superior (35 screws) or inferior (17 screws) articular process of C2, and lateral mass of C3 (52 screws). There was a significant statistical difference between the preoperative and postoperative results in the reduction of the odontoid process, decompression of the upper cervical spinal cord and medulla, as well as the improvement of neurologic functions (P < 0.05). All patients have exhibited a major neurologic improvement and solid bony fusion. This novel surgical technique is safe, feasible, and effective for the treatment of unstable craniovertebral junction anomalies with a narrow C2 pedicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The biomechanical effect of artificial and human bone density on stopping and stripping torque during screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Matthew; Crookshank, Meghan; Olsen, Michael; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad

    2013-06-01

    Orthopedic surgeons apply torque to metal screws manually by "subjective feel" to obtain adequate fracture fixation, i.e. stopping torque, and attempt to avoid accidental over-tightening that leads to screw-bone interface failure, i.e. stripping torque. Few studies have quantified stripping torque in human bone, and only one older study from 1980 reported stopping/ stripping torque ratio. The present aim was to measure stopping and stripping torque of cortical and cancellous screws in artificial and human bone over a wide range of densities. Sawbone blocks were obtained having densities from 0.08 to 0.80g/cm(3). Sixteen fresh-frozen human femurs of known standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) were also used. Using a torque screwdriver, 3.5-mm diameter cortical screws and 6.5-mm diameter cancellous screws were inserted for adequate tightening as determined subjectively by an orthopedic surgeon, i.e. stopping torque, and then further tightened until failure of the screw-bone interface, i.e. stripping torque. There were weak (R=0.25) to strong (R=0.99) linear correlations of absolute and normalized torque vs. density or sBMD. Maximum stopping torques normalized by screw thread area engaged by the host material were 15.2N/mm (cortical screws) and 13.4N/mm (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks and 20.9N/mm (cortical screws) and 6.1N/mm (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Maximum stripping torques normalized by screw thread area engaged by the host material were 23.4N/mm (cortical screws) and 16.8N/mm (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks and 29.3N/mm (cortical screws) and 8.3N/mm (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Combined average stopping/ stripping torque ratios were 80.8% (cortical screws) and 76.8% (cancellous screws) in sawbone blocks, as well as 66.6% (cortical screws) and 84.5% (cancellous screws) in human femurs. Surgeons should be aware of stripping torque limits for human femurs and monitor stopping torque during surgery. This is the first study of the

  3. [Atlanto-axial dislocation associated with os odontoideum. Reduction and fixation with sublaminar wires in Cl and pedicle screws in C2. Case report].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flórez, P; Chillón-Medina, D; Escosa-Bage, M; Manzanares-Soler, R

    2004-12-01

    This report describes a case of atlanto-axial dislocation associated with os odontoideum. This 18-year-old male had a traumatic episode when he was 2 years old. As a result he suffered progressive chronic myelopathy on the verge of death. For the reduction and fixation of the atlanto-axial dislocation, sublaminar wires have been used anchored to C1 and to screws placed in the pedicles of C2. The authors present a surgical technique that has not been previously described.

  4. Modified C1 lateral mass screw insertion using a high entry point to avoid postoperative occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, a screw-rod construct has been used commonly to stabilize the atlantoaxial joint, but the insertion of the screw through the C1 lateral mass (LM) can cause several complications. We evaluated whether using a higher screw entry point for C1 lateral mass (LM) fixation than in the standard procedure could prevent screw-induced occipital neuralgia. We enrolled 12 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral C1 LM fixation, with the modified screw insertion point at the junction of the C1 posterior arch and the midpoint of the posterior inferior portion of the C1 LM. We measured postoperative clinical and radiological parameters and recorded intraoperative complications, postoperative neurological deficits and the occurrence of occipital neuralgia. Postoperative plain radiographs were used to check for malpositioning of the screw or failure of the construct. Four patients underwent atlantoaxial stabilization for a transverse ligament injury or a C1 or C2 fracture, six patients for os odontoideum, and two patients for C2 metastasis. No patient experienced vertebral artery injury or cerebrospinal fluid leak, and all had minimal blood loss. No patient suffered significant occipital neuralgia, although one patient developed mild, transient unilateral neuralgia. There was also no radiographic evidence of construct failure. Twenty screws were positioned correctly through the intended entry points, but three screws were placed inferiorly (that is, below the arch), and one screw was inserted too medially. When performing C1-C2 fixation using the standard (Harms) construct, surgeons should be aware of the possible development of occipital neuralgia. A higher entry point may prevent this complication; therefore, we recommend that the screw should be inserted into the arch of C1 if it can be accommodated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Precision insertion of percutaneous sacroiliac screws using a novel augmented reality-based navigation system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Leong, Anthony Peng Yew; Xu, Lu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wang, Qiugen

    2016-09-01

    Augmented reality (AR) enables superimposition of virtual images onto the real world. The aim of this study is to present a novel AR-based navigation system for sacroiliac screw insertion and to evaluate its feasibility and accuracy in cadaveric experiments. Six cadavers with intact pelvises were employed in our study. They were CT scanned and the pelvis and vessels were segmented into 3D models. The ideal trajectory of the sacroiliac screw was planned and represented visually as a cylinder. For the intervention, the head mounted display created a real-time AR environment by superimposing the virtual 3D models onto the surgeon's field of view. The screws were drilled into the pelvis as guided by the trajectory represented by the cylinder. Following the intervention, a repeat CT scan was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the system, by assessing the screw positions and the deviations between the planned trajectories and inserted screws. Post-operative CT images showed that all 12 screws were correctly placed with no perforation. The mean deviation between the planned trajectories and the inserted screws was 2.7 ± 1.2 mm at the bony entry point, 3.7 ± 1.1 mm at the screw tip, and the mean angular deviation between the two trajectories was 2.9° ± 1.1°. The mean deviation at the nerve root tunnels region on the sagittal plane was 3.6 ± 1.0 mm. This study suggests an intuitive approach for guiding screw placement by way of AR-based navigation. This approach was feasible and accurate. It may serve as a valuable tool for assisting percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion in live surgery.

  6. Kinematic Accuracy Analysis of Lead Screw W Insertion Mechanism with Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hu; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Jiayuan

    According to the actual requirements of w insertion, a set of variable lead screw w mechanism was designed, motion characteristics of the mechanism were analyzed and kinematics simulation was carried out with MATLAB. Mechanism precision was analyzed with the analytical method and the error coefficient curve of each component in the mechanism was obtained. Dynamics simulation for rigid mechanism and mechanism with flexibility in different speed was conducted with ADAMS, furthermore, real-time elastic deformation of the flexible Connecting rod was obtained. In consideration of the influences of the elastic connecting rod, the outputs motion error and elastic deformation of components were increased with the speed of the loom.

  7. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Percutaneous Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation for Lumbosacral Spine Degenerative Diseases. A retrospective database of 40 consecutive treated cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Millimaggi, Daniele Francesco; DI Norcia, Valerio; Luzzi, Sabino; Alfiero, Tommaso; Galzio, Renato Juan; Ricci, Alessandro

    2017-04-12

    To report our results about minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) with bilateral pedicle screw fixation, in patients with degenerative lumbosacral spine disease. To describe the indications, surgical technique and results of a consecutive series of 40 patients undergone MI-TLIF. Despite the limited number of clinical studies, published data suggest tremendous potential advantages of this technique. Forty patients with radiological findings of degenerative lumbosacral spine disease were undergone MI-TLIF between July 2012 and January 2015. Clinical outcomes were assessed by means of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Health Survey Scoring (SF36) before surgery and at first year follow-up. Furthermore, the following parameters were retrospectively reviewed: age, sex, working activity, body mass index (BMI), type of degenerative disease, number of levels of fusion, operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay. Average operative time was of 230 minutes, mean estimated blood loss 170 mL, average length of hospital stay 5 days. The ODI improved from a score of 59, preoperatively, to post-operative score of 20 at first year follow-up. Average SF36 score increased from 36 to 54 (Physical Health) and from 29 to 50 (Mental Health) at first year outcome evaluation. MI-TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation is an excellent choice for selected patients suffering from symptomatic degenerative lumbosacral spine disease, especially secondary to recurrent disk herniations.

  8. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  9. Accuracy and complications of transpedicular C2 screw placement without the use of spinal navigation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian-Andreas; Roesseler, Lukas; Podlogar, Martin; Kovacs, Attlila; Kristof, Rudolf Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the technique, accuracy of placement and complications of transpedicular C2 screw fixation without spinal navigation. Patients treated by C2 pedicle screw fixations were identified from the surgical log book of the department. Clinical data were extracted retrospectively from the patients' charts. Pedicle screw placement accuracy was assessed on postoperative CT scans according to Gertzbein and Robbins (GRGr). A total of 27 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 56 +/- 22.0 years; 51.9% of them were female. As much as 17 patients suffered from trauma, 5 of degenerative disease, 3 of inflammations and 2 of metastatic disease. A total of 47 C2 transpedicular screw fixations were performed. The canulated screws were inserted under visual control following the preparation of the superior surface of the isthmus and of the medial surface of the pedicles of the C2. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was additionally used. The postoperative CT findings showed in 55.3% GRGr 1, in 27.7% GRGr 2, in 10.6% GRGr 3, and in 6.3% GRGr 4 pedicle screw insertion accuracy. Screw insertions GRGr 5 were not observed. Screw malpositioning (i.e., GRGr 3 and 4) was significantly associated with thin (<5 mm) pedicle diameters and with surgery for C2 fractures. In the three patients with screw insertions GRGr 4, postoperative angiographies were performed to exclude vertebral artery affections. In one of these three cases, the screw caused a clinically asymptomatic vertebral artery compression. Hardware failures did not occur. In one patient, postoperative pneumonia resulted in the death of the patient. Careful patient selection and surgical technique is necessary to avoid vertebral artery injury in C2 pedicle screw fixation without spinal navigation. A slight opening of the vertebral artery canal (Gertzbein and Robbins grade < or =3) does not seem to put the artery at risk. However, the high rate of misplaced screws when

  10. Significance of the Pars Interarticularis in the Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw Technique: An In Vivo Insertional Torque Study

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose Cortical bone trajectory (CBT), a more medial-to-lateral and shorter path than the traditional one for spinal fusion, is thought to be effective for severely degenerated vertebrae because screws are primarily stabilized at the posterior elements. We evaluated the efficacy of this approach through in vivo insertional torque measurement. Overview of Literature There has been only one prior in vivo study on CBT insertional torque. Methods Between January 2013 and April 2014, a total of 22 patients underwent posterior lumbar fusion using the CBT technique. The maximum insertional torque, which covers the radial strength needed for insertion, was measured for 113 screws, 8 of which were inserted for L5 spondylolysis. The insertional torque for cases with (n=8) and without (n=31) spondylolysis of L5 were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). To evaluate vertebral degeneration, we classified 53 vertebrae without spondylolysis by lumbar radiography using semiquantitative methods; the insertional torque for the 105 screws used was compared on the basis of this classification. Additionally, differences in insertional torque among cases grouped by age, sex, and lumbar level were evaluated for these 105 screws using ANOVA and the Tukey test. Results The mean insertional torque was significantly lower for patients with spondylolysis than for those without spondylolysis (4.25 vs. 8.24 in-lb). There were no statistical differences in insertional torque according to vertebral grading or level. The only significant difference in insertional torque between age and sex groups was in men <75 years and women ≥75 years (10 vs. 5.5 in-lb). Conclusions Although CBT should be used with great caution in patient with lysis who are ≥75 years, it is well suited for dealing with severely degenerated vertebrae because the pars interarticularis plays a very important role in the implementation of this technique. PMID:27790318

  11. Biomechanical advantages of robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation in posterior lumbar interbody fusion compared with freehand technique in a prospective randomized controlled trial-perspective for patient-specific finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Park, Sung-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Hyo; Son, Juhyun; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    There have been conflicting results on the surgical outcome of lumbar fusion surgery using two different techniques: robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation and conventional freehand technique. In addition, there have been no studies about the biomechanical issues between both techniques. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical properties in terms of stress at adjacent segments using robot-assisted pedicle screw insertion technique (robot-assisted, minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Rom-PLIF) and freehand technique (conventional, freehand, open approach, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Cop-PLIF) for instrumented lumbar fusion surgery. This is an additional post-hoc analysis for patient-specific finite element (FE) model. The sample is composed of patients with degenerative lumbar disease. Intradiscal pressure and facet contact force are the outcome measures. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo an instrumented PLIF procedure using a Rom-PLIF (37 patients) or a Cop-PLIF (41), respectively. Five patients in each group were selected using a simple random sampling method after operation, and 10 preoperative and postoperative lumbar spines were modeled from preoperative high-resolution computed tomography of 10 patients using the same method for a validated lumbar spine model. Under four pure moments of 7.5 Nm, the changes in intradiscal pressure and facet joint contact force at the proximal adjacent segment following fusion surgery were analyzed and compared with preoperative states. The representativeness of random samples was verified. Both groups showed significant increases in postoperative intradiscal pressure at the proximal adjacent segment under four moments, compared with the preoperative state. The Cop-PLIF models demonstrated significantly higher percent increments of intradiscal pressure at proximal adjacent segments under extension, lateral bending, and torsion moments than the Rom-PLIF models (p=.032, p=.008, and p

  12. The Efficacy of Hydroxyapatite for Screw Augmentation in Osteoporotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang Hoon; Lee, June Ho; Cho, Ji Young; Lee, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The stability of screw constructs is of considerable importance in determining the outcome, especially in spinal osteoporosis. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been proven as an effective material for increasing the pullout strength of pedicle screws inserted into the osteoporotic bones. However, PMMA has several disadvantages, such as its exothermic properties, the risk of neural injury in the event of extravasation, and difficulties in performing revision surgery. In the current study, we used hydroxyapatite (HA) cement for screw augmentation in spinal osteoporosis. We conclude that HA cement is a useful tool for screw augmentation and recommend it as a promising option for spinal instrumentation in osteoporotic patients. PMID:24201099

  13. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Pedicle Screw Fixation for Traumatic Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;05:CD009073].

    PubMed

    Linhares, Daniela; Neves, Nuno; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel; Almeida Fonseca, João

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine are common causes of spine surgery. Pedicle screw fixation is usually chosen, using monosegmentar, short or long segment instrumentations, with or without bone graft. This review aims to evaluate the effect of transpedicular fixation in traumatic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. A systematic search on controlled, randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing different methods of surgical treatment of this fractures was performed, followed by a process of article selection, data extraction and bias assessment by 3 independent authors. Eight articles were included in a total of 5 comparisons, between different transpedicular fixation techniques. No significant differences on function or quality of life, neurologic status or limitation of motion were found. Only instrumentation with fracture level screw incorporation showed significant decrease of pain when compared with instrumentation alone. Several techniques resulted in significant improvements of different radiological parameters. Significantly, surgeries with smaller duration were associated with lesser blood loss. Bone graft use caused a significant raise in post-operative complications, namely donor site pain. So, this paper showed that significative improvements in radiological parameters do not associate with correspondent clinical benefits, and only instrumentation with level screw incorporation is associated with a clear benefit on pain. Moreover, the need for bone graft is questioned, since it leads to no clinic-radiological improvement with a raise of complications. However, a small number of controlled studies is available on this topic.

  14. Effect of Micrometer-Scale Roughness of the Surface of Ti6Al4V Pedicle Screws in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Zvi; Raz, Perry; Zhao, Ge; Barak, Yael; Tauber, Michael; Yao, Hai; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Titanium implants that have been grit-blasted and acid-etched to produce a rough microtopography support more bone integration than do smooth-surfaced implants. In vitro studies have suggested that this is due to a stimulatory effect on osteoblasts. It is not known if grit-blasted and acid-etched Ti6Al4V implants also stimulate osteoblasts and increase bone formation clinically. In this study, we examined the effects of micrometer-scale-structured Ti6Al4V surfaces on cell responses in vitro and on tissue responses in vivo. Methods: Ti6Al4V disks were either machined to produce smooth surfaces with an average roughness (Ra) of 0.2 μm or grit-blasted, resulting in an Ra of 2.0, 3.0, or 3.3 μm. Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the disks and on tissue culture polystyrene. The cell number, markers of osteoblast differentiation, and levels of local factors in the conditioned media were determined at confluence. In addition, Ti6Al4V pedicle screws with smooth or rough surfaces were implanted into the L4 and L5 vertebrae of fifteen two-year-old sheep. Osteointegration was evaluated at twelve weeks with histomorphometry and on the basis of removal torque. Results: The cell numbers on the Ti6Al4V surfaces were lower than those on the tissue culture polystyrene; the effect was greatest on the roughest surface. The alkaline-phosphatase-specific activity of cell lysates was decreased in a surface-dependent manner, whereas osteocalcin, prostaglandin E2, transforming growth factor-β1, and osteoprotegerin levels were higher on the rough surfaces. Bone-implant contact was greater around the rough-surfaced Ti6Al4V screws, and the torque needed to remove the rough screws from the bone was more than twice that required to remove the smooth screws. Conclusions: Increased micrometer-scale surface roughness increases osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in vitro, which may contribute to increased bone formation and osteointegration in vivo

  15. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

    PubMed

    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load under axial compression and torsion, single cycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  16. Augmented PMMA distribution: improvement of mechanical property and reduction of leakage rate of a fenestrated pedicle screw with diameter-tapered perforations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quan-Chang; Wu, Jian-Wei; Peng, Fei; Zang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xiong; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-Xiang

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the optimum injection volume of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) to augment a novel fenestrated pedicle screw (FPS) with diameter-tapered perforations in the osteoporotic vertebral body, and how the distribution characteristics of PMMA affect the biomechanical performance of this screw. METHODS Two types of FPSs were designed (FPS-A, composed of 6 perforations with an equal diameter of 1.2 mm; and FPS-B, composed of 6 perforations each with a tapered diameter of 1.5 mm, 1.2 mm, and 0.9 mm from tip to head. Each of 28 human cadaveric osteoporotic vertebrae were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: FPS-A1.0: FPS-A+1.0 ml PMMA; FPS-A1.5: FPS-A+1.5 ml PMMA; FPS-A2.0: FPS-A+2.0 ml PMMA; FPS-B1.0: FPS-B+1.0 ml PMMA; FPS-B1.5: FPS-B+1.5 ml PMMA; FPS-B2.0: FPS-B+2.0 ml PMMA; and conventional pedicle screws (CPSs) without PMMA. After the augmentation, 3D CT was performed to assess the cement distribution characteristics and the cement leakage rate. Axial pullout tests were performed to compare the maximum pullout force thereafter. RESULTS The CT construction images showed that PMMA bone cement formed a conical mass around FPS-A and a cylindrical mass around FPS-B. When the injection volume was increased from 1.0 ml to 2.0 ml, the distribution region of the PMMA cement was enlarged, the PMMA was distributed more posteriorly, and the risk of leakage was increased. When the injection volume reached 2.0 ml, the risk of cement leakage was lower for screws having diameter-tapered perforations. The pullout strengths of the augmented FPS-A groups and FPS-B groups were higher than that of the CPS group (p < 0.0001). All FPS-B groups had a higher pullout strength than the FPS-A groups. CONCLUSIONS The diameter of the perforations affects the distribution of PMMA cement. The diameter-tapered design enabled PMMA to form larger bone-PMMA interfaces and achieve a relatively higher pullout strength, although statistical significance was not reached. Study

  17. Adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar dynamic stabilization using pedicle screws and a nitinol spring rod system with 2-year minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Hwa; Cho, Yong Jun; Cho, Sung Min; Choi, Hyun Chul; Kang, Suk Hyung

    2012-12-01

    Prospective study evaluating the adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar dynamic stabilization using pedicle screws and a Nitinol spring rod system. To assess the changes of the adjacent and implantation segments after lumbar dynamic stabilization surgery using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lumbar fusion operations can accelerate the degeneration of adjacent levels. Recently, motion preservation surgery has been attempted for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases to prevent degeneration of adjacent levels. However, there is a controversy over whether lumbar dynamic stabilization accelerates degeneration of adjacent levels. We performed the dynamic stabilization procedure in patients with grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, lumbar spondylotic stenosis with segmental instability, or a herniated lumbar disc with segmental instability. Postoperative MRI scans were taken for >2 years in all enrolled 25 patients. We compared the findings regarding disc degeneration in the cranial, implantation, and caudal segments between the preoperative period and 2-year-plus postoperative period using T2-weighted sagittal MR images. In addition, we investigated the progression of the central and foraminal stenosis of the adjacent cranial and caudal levels. Three of the 25 cranial adjacent discs (12.0%) and 4 of the 25 (16%) caudal adjacent discs demonstrated progression of degeneration after dynamic stabilization. One of the 13 discs in the implantation segment demonstrated progression of degeneration, and 2 of the 13 discs in the implantation segment showed improvement of their disc degeneration (disc rehydration). A total of 5 (10.0%) of the 50 segments (3 cranial and 2 caudal adjacent) showed increased spinal stenosis postoperatively. Among the 5 cases, 3 patients had symptomatic adjacent stenosis. According to our results, lumbar dynamic stabilization using pedicle screws and a Nitinol spring rod system may not prevent adjacent level degeneration

  18. Bilateral C1 laminar hooks combined with C2 pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of atlantoaxial subluxation after Grisel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morales, Luis C; Alvarado, Fernando; Corredor, José A; Rodríguez, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Many etiologies can lead to atlantoaxial subluxaion. In Grisel syndrome (GS), this subluxation occurs spontaneously after inflammatory processes of the head and neck. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical history and a strong suspicion of this syndrome. Nonsurgical treatment most often resolves the symptoms; however, in some cases surgical treatment is necessary to repair the subluxation. Various surgical techniques and instrumentation systems have been used to treat atlantoaxial subluxation, although there is no consensus regarding the best treatment method for the pediatric population. To describe a case of atlantoaxial subluxation in a child with GS treated surgically with an alternative construct. This is a case report and literature review. Our case study involves a 5-year-old girl with a 6-month history of unresolved Fielding type II atlantoaxial subluxation caused by GS. Despite conservative treatment, the patient's symptoms continued to progress. After two failed closed reduction attempts, open reduction and C1-C2 fusion were performed with atlas laminar hook and axis pedicle polyaxial screws. A literature review of the surgical treatment of GS was also performed. After surgery, the patient exhibited full clinical and functional recovery with complete resolution of symptoms. At the 36-month follow-up examination, there was continual evidence of satisfactory reduction and fusion. No complications were observed. Upon completion of the literature review, eight GS cases were found to have been treated surgically with the minimum patient age being 9 years. Conservative management of GS is the most common and effective treatment; however, a few surgical cases have been reported in the literature with good results. Satisfactory clinical results and fusion at 36 months post surgery were seen in a pediatric patient with atlantoaxial subluxation and instability using atlas laminar hook and axis pedicle polyaxial screws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. A retrospective study to validate an intraoperative robotic classification system for assessing the accuracy of kirschner wire (K-wire) placements with postoperative computed tomography classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Dong-Syuan; Su, Yu-Feng; Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-09-01

    This purpose of this retrospective study is validation of an intraoperative robotic grading classification system for assessing the accuracy of Kirschner-wire (K-wire) placements with the postoperative computed tomography (CT)-base classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 35 consecutive patients who underwent 176 robotic assisted pedicle screws instrumentation at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from September 2014 to November 2015. During the operation, we used a robotic grading classification system for verifying the intraoperative accuracy of K-wire placements. Three months after surgery, we used the common CT-base classification system to assess the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw placements. The distributions of accuracy between the intraoperative robot-assisted and various postoperative CT-based classification systems were compared using kappa statistics of agreement.The intraoperative accuracies of K-wire placements before and after repositioning were classified as excellent (131/176, 74.4% and 133/176, 75.6%, respectively), satisfactory (36/176, 20.5% and 41/176, 23.3%, respectively), and malpositioned (9/176, 5.1% and 2/176, 1.1%, respectively)In postoperative CT-base classification systems were evaluated. No screw placements were evaluated as unacceptable under any of these systems. Kappa statistics revealed no significant differences between the proposed system and the aforementioned classification systems (P <0.001).Our results revealed no significant differences between the intraoperative robotic grading system and various postoperative CT-based grading systems. The robotic grading classification system is a feasible method for evaluating the accuracy of K-wire placements. Using the intraoperative robot grading system to classify the accuracy of K-wire placements enables predicting the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw

  20. The effect of screw angulation and insertion torque on the push-out strength of polyaxial locking screws and the single cycle to failure in bending of polyaxial locking plates.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, B W; Barnhart, M D; Kazanovicz, A J; Naber, S J; Kennedy, S C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the mechanical properties of the Polyaxial Advanced Locking System (PAX) in screw push-out and four-point bending. Screw push-out: PAX locking screws were applied to first generation PAX plates at three different insertion angles with two different insertion torques. A load was applied parallel to the screw axis, and screw push-out force was measured. Four-point bending: PAX plates were applied to a bone model and a fracture gap was simulated. Bending stiffness, bending strength, and bending structural stiffness were evaluated and compared to published data. Screw push-out forces were significantly higher at 0 and 5 degree insertion angles when compared with an insertion angle of 10 degrees. An insertion torque of 3.5 Nm also produced significantly higher push-out forces compared to 2.5 Nm. Four-point bending: Qualitative comparison of the data gained in this study with previously published data suggests that the PAX system bending stiffness and bending structural stiffness seems to be higher than that of other veterinary orthopaedic implants, but the bending strength was similar. The PAX locking system offers the benefit of polyaxial screw insertion while maintaining comparable biomechanical properties to other currently available orthopaedic implants.

  1. Outcome of Bilateral C1 Laminar Hooks Combined With C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation for the Treatment of C1-C2 Instability: A Report of 18 Cases From a Single Chinese Center.

    PubMed

    Lao, Lifeng; Zhong, Guibin; Li, Qianyi; Li, Xinfeng; Chen, Bin; Qian, Lie; Liu, Zude

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective technical report. To assess the effect of bilateral C1 laminar hooks combined with C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of C1-C2 instability. Various posterior atlantoaxial fixations for C1-C2 instability have been developed. However, due to anatomic anomalies of the vertebral artery, the smallness of the pedicle, trajectories of broken screws, or a lack of surgical experience, a simple atlantoaxial fixation technique with good safety and effectiveness is urgently needed. From January 2007 to September 2012, 18 patients with C1-C2 instability who underwent posterior bilateral C1 laminar hooks combined with C2 pedicle screw fixation were evaluated. Six patients had acute odontoid fractures (Anderson IIc type), 8 patients had odontoid pseudarthrosis, 3 had os odontoideum, and 1 had a traumatic rupture of the transverse ligament. The mean age at the time of surgery was 34.1 years. The clinical and radiographic analyses were performed before and after the operation and at follow-up. The follow-up period was 12-78 months (with an average follow-up period of 25.6 mo). All patients were relieved of pain and their neurological symptoms were substantially improved. The postoperative JOA score improved significantly (t=-7.234, P<0.001). No neurological or vascular complications occurred in these cases. The device was placed well and had not loosened or broken and plain radiographs revealed bony fusion in 17 patients. One patient had C1 posterior arch fracture 3 weeks postoperatively and she was followed up for 18 months without revision surgery. When appropriate patients were selected, bilateral C1 laminar hooks combined with C2 pedicle screw fixation can be an alternative method to treat C1-C2 instability effectively with a relatively simple procedure. Preoperative planning and evaluation were crucial for the solid atlantoaxial fusion.

  2. Late Implant Removal After Posterior Correction of AIS With Pedicle Screw Instrumentation-A Matched Case Control Study With 10-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Farshad, Mazda; Sdzuy, Christoph; Min, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Matched case-control study. To find the amount of progression of deformity and its clinical consequences in the long term after implant removal (IR) as a result of late infection in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Late IR is occasionally necessary after instrumented posterior correction of AIS because of late implant infection or implant-associated pain. The long-term outcome is not yet known because of the lack of studies with a comparable control group. We observed 50 patients with AIS, who had pedicle screw instrumentation for posterior correction, for at least 10 years. Seven of these patients needed IR after 3.4 years (range, 1.1-7.9 years) years because of late implant-associated infection. We matched these patients with another 7 who had no complications (control), by curve type, Risser stage, age, and gender. We performed radiological measurements preoperatively, at 6 weeks, and 2, 5, and 10 years postoperatively. All patients completed the SRS-24 questionnaire at 2- and 10-year follow-up. Although the curve magnitude of the main thoracic curve was similar preoperatively (Cobb angle: IR, 57°±6°; control, 57°±10°) and corrected equally (IR, 18°±4°; control, 20°±7°) at 6 weeks, the deformity progressed in the IR group at 2 years (IR, 25°±11°; control, 17°±6°) and became statistically different at 10 years (IR, 31°±10°; control, 19°±6°; p<.05). There was no significant difference in total Scoliosis Research Society score between groups (IR, 99±13; control, 90±17; p>.05) at 10 years. Late implant removal after posterior correction of thoracic AIS with pedicle screw instrumentation results in a loss of Cobb angle correction of about one third in coronal plane at 10-year follow-up, but without clinical relevance, as measured by the Scoliosis Research Society-24 questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. C7 pars fracture subadjacent to C7 pedicle screw instrumentation at the caudal end of a posterior cervical instrumentation construct.

    PubMed

    Halim, Andrea; Grauer, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of a C7 pars fracture subadjacent to C7 pedicle screw instrumentation at the caudal end of posterior cervical instrumentation construct. To date, posterior cervical instrumentation has been "off label"; however, the US Food and Drug Administration is considering approving label indication of such instrumentation for this common surgical practice. Complications related to the techniques are reported to be relatively low. We know of no previous reports of pars fractures occurring subadjacent to such instrumentation. A 43-year-old man underwent posterior C5-C7 instrumented fusion. Postoperatively, the patient experienced cervical spine injury after a mechanical fall down stairs. Work-up detected bilateral C7 pars fractures subadjacent to the posterior instrumentation construct. After we treated the pars fracture with distal extension of the posterior fusion to the level of T2, the patient progressed to union and marked improvement of initial clinical symptoms that was maintained 2.5 years after posterior instrumentation. To our knowledge, a C7 pars fracture subadjacent to posterior cervical instrumentation construct has not been reported. We hypothesize that the pars may have been vulnerable to fracture because of excessive bone resection during foraminotomy or decortication. This complication was successfully treated by extending the fusion caudally.

  4. Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures.

  5. Training Distal Locking Screw Insertion Skills to Novice Trainees: A Comparison Between Fluoroscopic- and Electromagnetic-Guided Techniques.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Timothy; Khoshbin, Amir; Nousiainen, Markku T

    2015-10-01

    To compare the effect fluoroscopy or electromagnetic (EM) guidance has on the learning of locking screw insertion in tibial nails in surgical novices. A randomized, prospective, controlled trial was conducted involving 18 surgical trainees with no prior experience inserting locking screws in intramedullary nails. After a training session using fluoroscopy, participants underwent a pretest using fluoroscopic guidance. Participants were then randomized into either the fluoroscopy or EM group and were further trained using their respective technique. Post, retention, and transfer tests were conducted. Outcomes included task completion, drill attempts, screw changes, and radiation time. Intragroup comparisons revealed that the EM group used significantly less drill attempts during the post and retention tests compared with the pretest (P = 0.016 and P = 0.016, respectively). Intergroup comparisons revealed that the EM group was (1) more likely to complete the task during the retention test (P = 0.043) and (2) had significantly less radiation time during the post and retention tests (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003, respectively). Radiation time in the EM group during the transfer test increased to a level equal to what the fluoroscopy group used during the post and retention tests (P = 0.71 and P = 0.92, respectively). No other significant between-group differences occurred. EM guidance may be safely used to assist in the training of surgical novices in the skill of distal locking screw insertion. Not only does this technology significantly improve the ability to complete the task and decrease radiation use but also it does so without compromising skill acquisition. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of a novel hook-screw technique for C1-2 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marco Túlio; Nottmeier, Eric W; Reyes, Phillip M; Baek, Seungwon; Crawford, Neil R

    2012-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has not cleared the following medical devices for the use described in this study. The following medical devices are being discussed for an off-label use: cervical lateral mass screws. As an alternative for cases in which the anatomy and spatial relationship between C-2 and a vertebral artery precludes insertion of C-2 pedicle/pars or C1-2 transarticular screws, a technique that includes opposing laminar hooks (claw) at C-2 combined with C-1 lateral mass screws may be used. The biomechanical stability of this alternate technique was compared with that of a standard screw-rod technique in vitro. Flexibility tests were performed in 7 specimens (occiput to C-3) in the following 6 different conditions: 1) intact; 2) after creating instability and attaching a posterior cable/graft at C1-2; 3) after removing the graft and attaching a construct comprising C-1 lateral mass screws and C-2 laminar claws; 4) after reattaching the posterior cable-graft at C1-2 (posterior hardware still in place); 5) after removing the posterior cable-graft and laminar hooks and placing C-2 pedicle screws interconnected to C-1 lateral mass screws via rod; and 6) after reattaching the posterior cable-graft at C1-2 (screw-rod construct still in place). All types of stabilization significantly reduced the range of motion, lax zone, and stiff zone compared with the intact condition. There was no significant biomechanical difference in terms of range of motion or lax zone between the screw-rod construct and the screw-claw-rod construct in any direction of loading. The screw-claw-rod technique restricts motion much like the standard Harms technique, making it an acceptable alternative technique when aberrant arterial anatomy precludes the placement of C-2 pars/pedicle screws or C1-2 transarticular screws.

  7. Circumferential Fusion: A Comparative Analysis Between Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Posterior Pedicle Screw Fixation and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for L5-S1 Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Tye, Erik Y; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Alonso, Andrea S; Xiao, Roy; Steinmetz, Michael P; Mroz, Thomas E; Savage, Jason W

    2017-08-15

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) or anterior lumbar interbody fusion with percutaneous pedicle screws (ALIFPS) offer significantly higher radiographic fusion rates than other fusion techniques for L5-S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS). As it stands, there is a relative paucity of comparative data of the two techniques. To define the clinical, radiographic, and financial differences between TLIF and ALIFPS for L5-S1 IS. A retrospective cohort study conducted at a single-tertiary care center. 66 patients who underwent either TLIF or ALIPFS for L5-S1 IS at a single-tertiary care center between 2009-2014. Self-reported health status measures, including the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Radiographic parameters including pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, segmental lordosis, total lordosis, degree of slip, disc height, and L1-Axis S1 Distance (LASD). Cost measures included in-hospital charges, hospital length of stay (LOS), and post-admission costs out to 1 year. Quality of life (QoL) outcome scores, radiographic data, and financial data were collected with a minimum of 1-year follow up. Clinical results were investigated using the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and EuroQol-5 Dimension Health State (EQ-5D). Radiographic measurements included lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, height of disc, L-1 axis S-1 distance (LASD), and the degree of slip. Cost data were generated based on patient-level resource utilization. Comparative data were presented as median with interquartile range (IQR). Continuous variables were compared using either independent student t-tests assuming unequal variance or Whitney-Mann U tests for parametric and non-parametric variables, respectively. The minimally clinical important difference (MCID) used for each questionnaire was as follows: PDQ (26), PHQ-9 (5), and EQ-5D

  8. Analysis of the Fusion and Graft Resorption Rates, as Measured by Computed Tomography, 1 Year After Posterior Cervical Fusion Using a Cervical Pedicle Screw.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Koo; Jung, Sang Ku; Lee, Young-Seok; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Roh, Sung Woo; Rhim, Seung Chul; Park, Jin Hoon

    2017-03-01

    We previously showed that cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement is safe even with the freehand technique. The posterolateral fusion rate 1 year after CPS placement, as measured by computed tomography (CT), is reported here. The graft resorption rates when different graft materials were used were also analyzed. Between 2012 and 2015, 93 patients underwent posterior cervical fusion surgery with the CPS from C2 to C7. Of these patients, 56 consented to CT scans immediately and 1 year after surgery. These patients formed the present study group. The patients were categorized according to whether the graft material was local bone, allograft, or a mixture. Graft volume was measured at both CT scans. Graft resorption rate was determined by comparing the 2 scans. Radiologic fusion was assessed on the 1 year postoperative CT scan and radiography. The reason for surgery was trauma (n = 19), degenerative disease (n = 35), tumor (n = 1), and spondylitis (n = 1). Surgery was performed with CPS fixation and decompression. Even although iliac bone grafting was not performed, the overall fusion rate was 98.2% (55/56). The single fusion failure case received a mixture of local bone and allograft. Although the allograft group showed the greatest graft resorption rate (91.5%), all patients in this group had a bony bridge that crossed the facet joint on the 1 year CT scan. CPS placement yielded a posterolateral cervical fusion rate of 98.2%. Despite the high resorption rate of allograft only, this material yielded fusion rates that were similar to those of the other materials. Thus, the strong fixation power of CPS might compensate for the delayed fusion and high resorption rates of allograft bone chips. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A minimally invasive surgery combining temporary percutaneous pedicle screw fixation without fusion and vertebroplasty with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite blocks grafting for fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Takami, Masanari; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Munehito

    2014-07-01

    The conventional surgical treatment for thoracolumbar burst fractures is physically invasive for the patient and also causes problems such as the sacrifice of healthy mobile segments to stabilize the fracture site. We performed a procedure for the treatment of fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures by combining percutaneous short pedicle screw fixation and vertebroplasty with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite blocks grafting. Patients with type A3 fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures with no or mild neurological symptoms were treated using temporary posterior fixation without fusion. Consecutive 21 patients were studied, with a mean age of 45.4 years (range 23-73) and a mean follow-up period of 21.9 months (range 15-25). We evaluated operative time, estimated blood loss, low back pain on a visual analogue scale, change in the kyphotic angle, correction loss, bone union, and complications. The average operative time was 95.7 min (range 69-143), and the average blood loss was 38.6 mL (range 10-130). The average correction angle was 9.6°. There were slight correction losses of height of the vertebral bodies. Bone union was obtained in all patients, with no instrumentation failures. Our procedure resulted in no surgery-related complications. For the treatment of type A3 fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures, this method is less invasive and can preserve the adjacent healthy mobile segment. Our treatment is an optional therapeutic strategy for patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures and is a good option particularly for young adult patients.

  10. Screw insertion in osteoporotic bone: turn-of-the-nut and torque-based techniques provide similar resistance to bone plate slippage.

    PubMed

    Mears, Simon C; Langdale, Evan R; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2015-02-01

    To measure the resistance to plate slippage provided by a screw inserted to various torsional and rotational endpoints. A 7-hole, 3.5-mm narrow dynamic compression plate was affixed to an osteoporotic humeral shafts using screws inserted: (1) to 90 degrees after plate contact, (2) to 180 degrees after plate contact, (3) by the 1.4-N·m torque limit method, and (4) by the "2-fingers tight" method. The resistance of the plate to sliding against the bone was measured using a materials testing machine. We checked for an effect of screw insertion method on bone-plate slippage with a general linearized latent and mixed model, controlling for bone mineral density, sex, and specimen clustering. Significance was set at P < 0.05. The force required to slip the plate for 180 degrees of screw rotation was not significantly greater than that of the other insertion groups. Inserting screws 180 degrees after seating can be expected to yield plate contact to bone similar to that of the "2-fingers tight" standard.

  11. Comparative study on thermal performance of helical screw tape inserts in laminar flow using Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S.; Venkitaraj, K. P.; Selvakumar, P.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison of thermal performance of helical screw tape inserts in laminar flow of Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluids through a straight circular duct with constant heat flux boundary condition. The helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios Y = 1.78, 2.44 and 3 were used in the experimental study using 0.1% volume concentration Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluids. Nanofluids with required volume concentration of 0.1% were prepared by dispersing specified amounts of Al 2O 3 and CuO nanoparticles in deionised water. The performance analysis of helical screw tape inserts in laminar flow of Al 2O 3/water and CuO/water nanofluids is done by evaluating thermal performance factor for constant pumping power condition. Thermal performance factor of helical screw tape inserts using CuO/water nanofluid is found to be higher when compared with the corresponding value using Al 2O 3/water. Therefore, the helical screw tape inserts show better thermal performance when used with CuO/water nanofluid than with Al 2O 3/water nanofluid.

  12. Subjective evaluation of treatment outcomes of instrumentation with pedicle screws or hybrid constructs in Lenke Type 1 and 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: what happens when judges are blinded to the instrumentation?

    PubMed

    Arlet, Vincent; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Shilt, Jeffrey; Shen, Francis H; Wood, Kirkham; Chan, Donald; Hicks, John; Bersusky, Ernesto; Reddi, Vasantha

    2009-12-01

    Superiority of pedicle screws over hybrid/hook instrumentation or vice versa in the treatment of Lenke Type 1 and 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains unresolved for moderate curves. Our objective was therefore to compare the assessment of pedicle screw and hybrid/hooks instrumentation with special attention to cosmesis and uninstrumented spine using novel assessment methods. We carried out a retrospective study of radiographs and clinical photos of 40 cases of thoracic AIS between 40 degrees and 70 degrees of Cobb angle Lenke Type 1 and 2, treated with either pedicle screws or hybrid/hooks. The cases were subjectively assessed by four spine surgeons (SRS Travelling Fellows) for radiographic and operative cosmetic result, shoulder balance, trunk shift, rib hump, and waist asymmetry. Instrumentation in the radiographs was obscured with only the non-instrumented part visible, and the surgeons were asked to guess the instrumentation being used. Eighty photographs of patients before and after surgery were assessed for cosmesis by ten non-medical judges for overall cosmetic score, shoulder balance, waist asymmetry, and shoulder blade prominence. Objective assessment of radiographs and clinical photos was performed for Cobb angle of instrumented and non-instrumented spine, global coronal and sagittal balance, number of unfused vertebrae, disc angulation, tilt of last instrumented vertebra, shoulder balance, waist asymmetry, rib prominence, and percent correction. SRS-24 questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality of life in patients. Subjective assessments by surgeons and non-medical judges showed no significant difference by instrumentation (P > or = 0.05) for all variables. Out of the 160 guesses by surgeons of the cases with instrumentation blocked in the radiographs, they were unable to guess the instrumentation in 92% of the cases. Objective assessment of all variables and SRS-24 scores of all five domains showed no significant difference by

  13. Subjective evaluation of treatment outcomes of instrumentation with pedicle screws or hybrid constructs in Lenke Type 1 and 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: what happens when judges are blinded to the instrumentation?

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Jean Albert; Shilt, Jeffrey; Shen, Francis H.; Wood, Kirkham; Chan, Donald; Hicks, John; Bersusky, Ernesto; Reddi, Vasantha

    2009-01-01

    Superiority of pedicle screws over hybrid/hook instrumentation or vice versa in the treatment of Lenke Type 1 and 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains unresolved for moderate curves. Our objective was therefore to compare the assessment of pedicle screw and hybrid/hooks instrumentation with special attention to cosmesis and uninstrumented spine using novel assessment methods. We carried out a retrospective study of radiographs and clinical photos of 40 cases of thoracic AIS between 40° and 70° of Cobb angle Lenke Type 1 and 2, treated with either pedicle screws or hybrid/hooks. The cases were subjectively assessed by four spine surgeons (SRS Travelling Fellows) for radiographic and operative cosmetic result, shoulder balance, trunk shift, rib hump, and waist asymmetry. Instrumentation in the radiographs was obscured with only the non-instrumented part visible, and the surgeons were asked to guess the instrumentation being used. Eighty photographs of patients before and after surgery were assessed for cosmesis by ten non-medical judges for overall cosmetic score, shoulder balance, waist asymmetry, and shoulder blade prominence. Objective assessment of radiographs and clinical photos was performed for Cobb angle of instrumented and non-instrumented spine, global coronal and sagittal balance, number of unfused vertebrae, disc angulation, tilt of last instrumented vertebra, shoulder balance, waist asymmetry, rib prominence, and percent correction. SRS-24 questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality of life in patients. Subjective assessments by surgeons and non-medical judges showed no significant difference by instrumentation (P ≥ 0.05) for all variables. Out of the 160 guesses by surgeons of the cases with instrumentation blocked in the radiographs, they were unable to guess the instrumentation in 92% of the cases. Objective assessment of all variables and SRS-24 scores of all five domains showed no significant difference by

  14. Free Hand Insertion Technique of S2 Sacral Alar-Iliac Screws for Spino-Pelvic Fixation: Technical Note, Acadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn

    2015-01-01

    A rigid spino-pelvic fixation to anchor long constructs is crucial to maintain the stability of long fusion in spinal deformity surgery. Besides obtaining immediate stability and proper biomechanical strength of constructs, the S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screws have some more advantages. Four Korean fresh-frozen human cadavers were procured. Free hand S2AI screw placement is performed using anatomic landmarks. The starting point of the S2AI screw is located at the midpoint between the S1 and S2 foramen and 2 mm medial to the lateral sacral crest. Gearshift was advanced from the desired starting point toward the sacro-iliac joint directing approximately 20° angulation caudally in sagittal plane and 30° angulation horizontally in the coronal plane connecting the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). We made a S2AI screw trajectory through the cancellous channel using the gearshift. We measured caudal angle in the sagittal plane and horizontal angle in the coronal plane. A total of eight S2AI screws were inserted in four cadavers. All screws inserted into the iliac crest were evaluated by C-arm and naked eye examination by two spine surgeons. Among 8 S2AI screws, all screws were accurately placed (100%). The average caudal angle in the sagittal plane was 17.3±5.4°. The average horizontal angle in the coronal plane connecting the PSIS was 32.0±1.8°. The placement of S2AI screws using the free hand technique without any radiographic guidance appears to an acceptable method of insertion without more radiation or time consuming. PMID:26819698

  15. Biomechanical comparison of anterior lumbar interbody fusion: stand-alone interbody cage versus interbody cage with pedicle screw fixation -- a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Chul; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yeong Hyeon; Lee, Sung Jae; Park, Chun-Kun

    2013-07-26

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) followed by pedicle screw fixation (PSF) is used to restore the height of the intervertebral disc and provide stability. Recently, stand-alone interbody cage with anterior fixation has been introduced, which eliminates the need for posterior surgery. We compared the biomechanics of the stand-alone interbody cage to that of the interbody cage with additional PSF in ALIF. A three-dimensional, non-linear finite element model (FEM) of the L2-5 segment was modified to simulate ALIF in L3-4. The models were tested under the following conditions: (1) intact spine, (2) destabilized spine, (3) with the interbody cage alone (type 1), (4) with the stand-alone cage with anterior fixation (SynFix-LR®; type 2), and (5) with type 1 in addition to PSF (type 3). Range of motion (ROM) and the stiffness of the operated level, ROM of the adjacent segments, load sharing distribution, facet load, and vertebral body stress were quantified with external loading. The implanted models had decreased ROM and increased stiffness compared to those of the destabilized spine. The type 2 had differences in ROM limitation of 8%, 10%, 4%, and 6% in flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending, respectively, compared to those of type 3. Type 2 had decreased ROM of the upper and lower adjacent segments by 3-11% and 3-6%, respectively, compared to those of type 3. The greatest reduction in facet load at the operated level was observed in type 3 (71%), followed by type 2 (31%) and type 1 (23%). An increase in facet load at the adjacent level was highest in type 3, followed by type 2 and type 1. The distribution of load sharing in type 2 (anterior:posterior, 95:5) was similar to that of the intact spine (89:11), while type 3 migrated posterior (75:25) to the normal. Type 2 reduced about 15% of the stress on the lower vertebral endplate compared to that in type 1. The stress of type 2 increased two-fold compared to the stress of type 3, especially in

  16. Lumbar-sacral fusion by a combined approach using interbody PEEK cage and posterior pedicle-screw fixation: clinical and radiological results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boissiere, L; Perrin, G; Rigal, J; Michel, F; Barrey, C

    2013-12-01

    This prospective series evaluated the clinical and radiological results of a circumferential lumbar fusion achieved by a combined approach in one stage (anterior then posterior) using interbody PEEK cages and posterior pedicle-screw fixation. The combined approach in one stage is a safe and efficient technique with few complications to achieve a fusion with a satisfying clinical and radiological outcome. Thirty-nine consecutive patients were prospectively included, with a one-year clinical and radiological minimum follow-up, from December 2008 to July 2011. All patients suffering from degenerative disc disease or low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis requiring L5S1, L4L5 or L4S1 spinal fusions were included. Clinical outcome was assessed using VAS, ODI and Rolland-Morris scores. Radiological outcome was assessed by analyzing PI, PT, lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, disc height, C7/CSFD ratio on full spine radiographies and the quality of bone fusion on a CT scan at 1-year follow-up. Blood loss, surgery time and adverse events were also recorded. Twenty-nine patients (74%) were operated for a lumbar degenerative disc disease and 10 patients (26%) for an isthmic spondylolisthesis. Mean age was 46 (± 10.1) years old. Clinical outcome were satisfactory. VAS, ODI and Rolland-Morris scores substantially improved. Mean follow-up was 22.5 months (± 8.7). Mean surgery time was 227 min (± 41.4) for complete surgical procedure time. Mean blood loss was 308 mL (± 179.2) for total surgery. Fusion was assessed in all cases. Disc height and segmental lordosis significantly improved in postoperative. The segmental lordosis at operated level(s) increased by 8.5° (± 5) regardless of the level, and by 11.6° (± 6) for L5-S1. The combined procedure meets the requested criteria for a lumbar fusion in terms of clinical and functional results, fusion rates, and restoration of segmental lordosis. It cumulates the advantages of the anterior and posterior approach performed alone

  17. A preliminary study of reliability of impedance measurement to detect iatrogenic initial pedicle perforation (in the porcine model).

    PubMed

    Bolger, Ciaran; Carozzo, C; Roger, T; McEvoy, Linda; Nagaria, Jabir; Vanacker, Gerard; Bourlion, Maurice

    2006-03-01

    Accidental perforation of the vertebral pedicle wall is a well-known complication associated with standard approach of pedicle screw insertion. Depending on detection criteria, more than 20% of screws are reported misplaced. Serious clinical consequences, from dysesthesia to paraplegia, although not common, may result from these misplaced screws. Many techniques have been described to address this issue such as somatosensory evoked potentials, electromyography, surgical navigation, etc. Each of these techniques presents advantages and drawbacks, none is simple and ergonomic. A new drilling tool was evaluated which allows for instant detection of pedicle perforation by emission of variable beeps. This new device is based on two original principles: the device is integrated in the drilling or screwing tool, the technology allows real-time detection of perforation through two independent parameters, impedance variation and evoked muscular contractions. A preliminary animal study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of this system based upon electrical conductivity. A total of 168 manual pedicle drillings followed by insertion of implants were performed in 11 young porcine lumbar and thoracic spines. The presence or absence of perforation detection, which defines the reliability of the device, was correlated with necropsic examination of the spines. Using this protocol the device demonstrated 100% positive predictive value, 96% negative predictive value, 100% specificity, and 97% sensitivity. Of 168 drillings there were three (1.79%) false-negatives, leading to a minor effraction, cranially in the intervertebral disks, nine (5.36%) screw threads breaching the vertebral cortex when inserting screws, although preparation of the holes did not indicate any perforation, 34 (36%) breaches detected by the instrument and not detected by the surgeon. These results confirm that the impedance variation detection capability of this device offers a simple and effective

  18. Neurovascular risks of sacral screws with bicortical purchase: an anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    Ergur, Ipek; Kiray, Amac; Kosay, Can; Tayefi, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this cadaver study is to define the anatomic structures on anterior sacrum, which are under the risk of injury during bicortical screw application to the S1 and S2 pedicles. Thirty formaldehyde-preserved human male cadavers were studied. Posterior midline incision was performed, and soft tissues and muscles were dissected from the posterior part of the lumbosacral region. A 6 mm pedicle screw was inserted between the superior facet of S1 and the S1 foramen. The entry point of the S2 pedicle screw was located between S1 and S2 foramina. S1 and S2 screws were placed on both right and the left sides of all cadavers. Then, all cadavers were turned into supine position. All abdominal and pelvic organs were moved away and carefully observed for any injury. The tips of the sacral screws were marked and the relations with the anatomic structures were defined. The position of the sacral screws relative to the middle and lateral sacral arteries and veins, and the sacral sympathetic trunk were measured. There was no injury to the visceral organs. In four cases, S1 screw tip was in direct contact with middle sacral artery. In two cases, S1 screw tip was in direct contact with middle sacral vein. It was observed that the S1 screw tips were in close proximity to sacral sympathetic trunk on both right and the left sides. The tip of the S2 screw was in contact with middle sacral artery on the left side only in one case. It is found that the tip of the S2 screw was closely located with the middle sacral vein in two cases. The tip of the S2 pedicle screw was in contact with the sacral sympathetic trunk in eight cases on the right side and seven cases on the left side. Lateral sacral vein was also observed to be disturbed by the S1 and S2 screws. As a conclusion, anterior cortical penetration during sacral screw insertion carries a risk of neurovascular injury. The risk of sacral sympathetic trunk and minor vascular structures together with the major neurovascular

  19. Selection of Fusion Levels Using the Fulcrum Bending Radiograph for the Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients with Alternate Level Pedicle Screw Strategy: Clinical Decision-making and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Dino; Leung, Yee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Natarajan, Deepa; Stokes, Oliver; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Yao, Guanfeng; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2015-01-01

    Selecting fusion levels based on the Luk et al criteria for operative management of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with hook and hybrid systems yields acceptable curve correction and balance parameters; however, it is unknown whether utilizing a purely pedicle screw strategy is effective. Utilizing the fulcrum bending radiographic (FBR) to assess curve flexibility to select fusion levels, the following study assessed the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation with alternate level screw strategy (ALSS) for thoracic AIS. A retrospective study with prospective radiographic data collection/analyses (preoperative, postoperative 1-week and minimum 2-year follow-up) of 28 operative thoracic AIS patients undergoing ALSS was performed. Standing coronal/sagittal and FBR Cobb angles, FBR flexibility, fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI), trunkal shift, radiographic shoulder height (RSH), and list were assessed on x-rays. Fusion level selection was based on the Luk et al criteria and compared to conventional techniques. In the primary curve, the mean preoperative and postoperative 1 week and last follow-up standing coronal Cobb angles were 59.9, 17.2 and 20.0 degrees, respectively. Eighteen patients (64.3%) had distal levels saved (mean: 1.6 levels) in comparison to conventional techniques. Mean immediate and last follow-up FBCIs were 122.6% and 115.0%, respectively. Sagittal alignment did not statistically differ between any assessment intervals (p>0.05). A decrease in trunkal shift was noted from preoperative to last follow-up (p = 0.003). No statistically significant difference from preoperative to last follow-up was noted in RSH and list (p>0.05). No "add-on" of other vertebra or decompensation was noted and all patients achieved fusion. This is the first report to note that using the FBR for decision-making in selecting fusion levels in thoracic AIS patients undergoing management with pedicle screw constructs (e.g. ALSS) is a cost-effective strategy that

  20. A novel method of C1–C2 transarticular screw insertion for symptomatic atlantoaxial instability using a customized guiding block

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Fang, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atlantoaxial instability treated with the C1-2 transarticular screw fixation is biomechanically more stable; however, the technique demanding and the potential risk of neurovascular injury create difficulties for clinical usage, and there is still lack of clinical experience till now. We reported an adult female patient with symptomatic atlantoaxial instability due to rheumatoid arthritis that was successfully treated with a bilateral C1–C2 transarticular screw fixation using a customized guiding block. We preoperatively determined the trajectories for bilateral C1–C2 transarticular screws on a 3-dimensional reconstruction model from the computed tomography (CT) and self-developed computer software, and designed a rapid prototyping customized guiding block in order to offer a guide for the entry point and insertion angle of the C1–C2 transarticular screws. The clinical outcome was good, and the follow-up period was >3 years. The accuracy of the screws is good in comparison with preoperative and postoperative CT findings, and no neurovascular injury occurred. The patient was accurately and successfully treated with a bilateral C1–C2 transarticular screw fixation using a customized guiding block. PMID:27787362

  1. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S.

    2007-02-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

  2. Clinical application of a pedicle nail system with polymethylmethacrylate for osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Konishi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The instrumentation of the osteoporotic spine may sometimes result in failure due to the loosening or pullout of the conventional pedicle screw. Moreover, augmentation of screws with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has risks of complications. We developed a new and original pedicle nail system with PMMA for osteoporotic vertebral fractures. A clinical evaluation of this novel pedicle nail system utilized in patients with an osteoporotic vertebral collapse was performed to determine the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Thirty-four elderly patients who suffered from osteoporotic compression fractures were treated by posterolateral fusion using the pedicle nail system. The mean follow-up period was 37 months. Of the 25 patients with neurological symptoms, two patients improved two stages at the Frankel level. Fifteen patients improved one stage at the Frankel level, and eight other patients improved, however, their improvement did not exceed a Frankel level. Nine cases with neuralgia symptoms improved from 4.4 to 2.2 points on average on the Denis pain scale (p < 0.01). The fusion rate was 94% as determined by X-rays of flexion and extension, and the correction of the compression fracture site was maintained well. A pedicle nail system stabilizes the spinal column with osteoporosis and reduces the instrumentation failure. The technique for the insertion of the pedicle nail reduces complication from cement augmentation. The authors speculate that the strategy using the pedicle nail system for osteoporotic spine may be effective and safe when the surgery is performed through a posterior approach. PMID:20414689

  3. Selective use of hand and forearm muscles during bone screw insertion: a natural torque meter.

    PubMed

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly; Ferreira, Eduardo Silveira; Janson, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    To compare the maximum torque produced by different muscle groups and its influence on mini-implant insertion torque and fracture prevention. Eighty-seven professionals were evaluated for the maximum torque produced on a screwdriver by a combined action between the thumb and index finger (maximum digital torque [MDT]) and by the forearm supination movement (maximum brachial torque [MBT]). Ninety mini-implants distributed among 9 different diameters were fractured to determine the fracture torque (FT). The fracture resistance index (FRI) was obtained from: FRI_MDT = FT/MDT and FRI_MBT = FT/MBT. Analysis of variance and t tests were used to compare the groups. The MDT was smaller than the MBT, and the 2 measurements were smaller in female subjects. The FT increased for each 0.1-mm increment in diameter. The FRI_MDT was greater than FRI_MBT for all diameters. An FRI_MDT greater than 1 was found when the diameter was greater than or equal to 1.5 mm. An FRI_MBT greater than 1 occurred with diameters equal to or greater than 1.7 mm for female subjects and 1.8 mm for male subjects. The digital torque was 42% smaller than the brachial torque, and it was mechanically safer and biologically more compatible, allowing the prevention of the fracture of mini-implants with a diameter 1.5 mm or thicker owing to an insertion torque limitation at 15 N-cm. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Guidewire Aiming Device to Improve the Accuracy of Guidewire Insertion in Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery Using Cannulated Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Haitao; Xu, Peijun; Hu, Tu; An, Zhiquan; Zhang, Changqing; Sheng, Jiagen

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy of guidewire insertion in the femoral neck fracture surgery using cannulated screw fixation. Material/Methods A novel aiming device was designed and manufactured. Between January 2010 and June 2012, 64 femoral neck fracture patients were included into the study. All 64 patients were divided into 2 groups randomly. The aiming device was used during the operation for patients in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Results There were no statistically significant differences in operative time or bleed volume between the groups (P>0.05)