Seto, Michael C
This article reviews the definition and assessment of pedophilia, describes the relationship between pedophilia and sexual offenses against children, and provides an overview of our current theoretical understanding of the etiology of pedophilia. A great deal is known about the assessment of pedophilia--attributable to public and professional concerns regarding the empirical association between pedophilia and sexual offenses against children--but much remains to be learned about pedophilia, including its prevalence in the general population, cross-cultural manifestations, developmental trajectories, and causes. Recent research suggests that neurodevelopmental problems and childhood sexual abuse play a role in the etiology of pedophilia, but the mechanisms that are involved are unknown. Future directions for research on assessment methods and etiology are highlighted.
Porter, Theresa M; Feldman, Marc D
Factitious disorder involves feigning, exaggerating, or self-inducing physical and/or psychological ailments with the goal of assuming the "sick" or "patient" role. In turn, the sick role entitles the factitious disorder patient to care, nurturance, and protection; it also exempts one from usual responsibilities. In this paper, we present the first reported case of factitious pedophilia. Although it seems counterintuitive, this middle-aged man has falsely claimed or exaggerated sexual desire for minors ostensibly to remain in a state hospital; indeed, he has remained in the same inpatient facility for more than 20 years as a result of his deceptions. At times, his reports have included disconfirmed claims of bizarre accidents and other physical travails. This case enlarges the literature on factitious psychological disorders and shows that some individuals may falsify paraphilic behaviors, although clearly minimization of these behaviors remains more common.
Tenbergen, Gilian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Frieling, Helge; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M.; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders. However, with the increasing use of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neuropsychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development. At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse. Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality. We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neurodevelopmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas. With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations. PMID:26157372
Bogaert, A F; Bezeau, S; Kuban, M; Blanchard, R
This study extended research on birth order and erotic preferences by examining birth order in a sample of pedophiles. Charts of 338 pedophiles, assessed from 1980-1994 in the Behavioural Sexology Department of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, were reviewed for family-demographic information. In total, 170 (57 heterosexual pedophiles, 68 homosexual pedophiles, and 45 bisexual pedophiles) of these men had sufficient sibling information to be included in the analyses. The results indicated that homosexual-bisexual pedophiles had a later birth order than heterosexual pedophiles and that this effect was primarily the result of the homosexual-bisexual group being born later among their brothers. The results extend previous findings that homosexual men, regardless of sample composition, have a later birth order than comparable groups of heterosexual men. The results also challenge some existing theories on the nature and origins of pedophilia.
Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo
Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia.
Seto, Michael C; Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray
This study investigated whether being charged with a child pornography offense is a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia, as represented by an index of phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to children. The sample of 685 male patients was referred between 1995 and 2004 for a sexological assessment of their sexual interests and behavior. As a group, child pornography offenders showed greater sexual arousal to children than to adults and differed from groups of sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and general sexology patients. The results suggest child pornography offending is a stronger diagnostic indicator of pedophilia than is sexually offending against child victims. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Łucka, Izabela; Dziemian, Anna
The main purpose of this article is presentation of several basic issues related to the phenomenon of child sexual molesters and recognition of pedophilia as a significant social problem. The article, supplemented by casuistic illustration showing adolescents with sexual behavior disorders is giving rise to the following question: do they progress in their inappropriate behaviors to grow into adult molesters or do they stop anywhere along the way of their development? Casuistry, in the intention of the authors, is the background for discussion about prevention of child sexual abuse. This article presents also a review of the current knowledge about child sexual molesters. The topics include: the definition of pedophilia itself, which varies in the literature depending on the types of activities, kinds of victims and the circumstances in which the perpetrator acts, through to the recognition of symptoms of pedophilia as well as its consequences. It includes both intra-familial and extra-familial child sexual abuse and their offenders. The more, that the history of child sexual abuse is associated with numerous long-term physical, psychological, behavioral, interpersonal and social effects on the victim. The examinations made among pedophilic molesters have shown structural and functional temporal-limbic abnormalities, including abnormalities in the amygdala and it is possible that the pedophilic inclinations are secondary to neurodevelopmental perturbations and other neuropsychiatric syndromes.
Landini, Tatiana Savoia
This paper define the characteristics of pedophilia as it appears in the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo, including both the characteristics of the pedophile and the reasons given for such behavior. The research employs a technique called analysis by opposition which means that news coverage on other forms of sexual violence against children (sexual abuse, child pornography, rape, and incest) is used to help shed light on the characteristics of pedophilia itself. Some 384 articles were analyzed, of which 114 referred to pedophilia, all published between 1994 and 1999. News on sexual abuse of children was biased by concepts of class and violence/illness, reiterating the lay view that violence can be either a result of barbarianism and poverty or of psychological disorder, both depending on the aggressor's social class. The theoretical perspective adopted, that there is a correlation between media and reality, indicates that this bias is shared by Brazilian society as a whole.
Lally, Matthew C; Freeman, Scott A
This article explores the ethical concept of neutrality through use of a psychiatric clinical vignette. In this case a psychiatry resident is faced with the treatment of a patient who was found by the FBI to be in possession of child pornography. Although not accused of any other crimes, the patient was a fugitive from the law and requesting treatment for pedophilia. Faced with the pressures of limited resources and anxiety about the patient's dangerousness to others, the resident and his supervisor tried to strike a balance between the ethical principles of neutrality and beneficence. Through this vignette, the importance of neutrality, as well as how it can be compromised by other pressures such as expediency and anxiety, is explored.
First, Michael B
The proposal to add use of child pornography to Criterion B of pedophilia is in direct conflict with the newly proposed distinction between paraphilia and paraphilic disorder, muddying rather than clarifying the diagnostic definition of pedophilia. The proposal to distinguish paraphilic disorder from paraphilia derives from the fact that the diagnostic criteria for the paraphilias have two components: Criterion A, defining the presence of a paraphilic erotic interest, and Criterion B, requiring clinically significant distress, impairment, or acting out the paraphilia with a nonconsenting person. Meeting Criteria A and B is necessary for a diagnosis of paraphilic disorder; meeting only Criterion A indicates a paraphilia. Use of pornography is better placed within Criterion A, perhaps as an example of a behavioral manifestation of pedophilia. If the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Work Group's true intent was to add a third prong to Criterion B, then the criterion must be modified to restrict it to the use of illegal forms of pornography (i.e., visual depictions of real children), excluding written or aural forms or virtual images.
Berryessa, Colleen M
In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children's vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future.
Berryessa, Colleen M.
In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children’s vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future. PMID:25557668
Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I
To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.
Furnham, A; Haraldsen, E
The current study set out to investigate the structure, determinants, and relationship between lay theories of the etiology and efficacy of "cures" for four types of paraphilia: fetishism, pedophilia, sexual sadism, and voyeurism. One hundred and five participants completed a four-part questionnaire, which was divided into (a) demographic details, (b) perceptions of the etiology, (c) ratings of cure for each paraphilia, and (d) the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Previous studies of lay theories have demonstrated a clear and interpretable factor structure similar to that of explicit academic theories, as well as a clear and logical relationship between perceived etiology and cure. A similar structure was expected to emerge in this study, together with positive correlations between the various factors and personality type. A factor analysis revealed a clear and logical factor structure for etiology and cure items. Further, etiology and cure factors correlated strongly with each other but only moderately with demographic details and personality differences. These findings are discussed in relation to growing literature in the field.
Seto, Michael C; Fedoroff, J Paul; Bradford, John M; Knack, Natasha; Rodrigues, Nicole C; Curry, Susan; Booth, Brad; Gray, Jonathan; Cameron, Colin; Bourget, Dominique; Messina, Sarina; James, Elizabeth; Watson, Diane; Gulati, Sanjiv; Balmaceda, Rufino; Ahmed, Adekunle G
We tested the inter-rater reliability and criterion-related validity of the DSM-IV-TR pedophilia diagnosis and proposed DSM-5 pedohebephilia diagnosis in a sample of 79 men who had committed child pornography offenses, contact sexual offenses against children, or who were referred because of concerns about whether they had a sexual interest in children. Participants were evaluated by two independent psychiatrists with an interview and questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics, sexual history, and self-reported sexual interests; they also completed phallometric and visual reaction time testing. Kappa was .59 for ever meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia and .52 for ever meeting the proposed DSM-5 criteria for pedohebephilia. Ever meeting DSM-IV-TR diagnosis was significantly related to self-reported index of sexual interest in children (highest AUC=.81, 95% CI=.70-.91, p<.001) and to indices of sexual interest in children from phallometric testing (AUC=.70; 95% CI=.52-.89; p<.05) or a computerized assessment based on visual reaction time and self-report (AUC=.75; 95% CI=.62-.88; p<.005). Ever meeting the proposed DSM-5 "diagnosis" was similarly related to self-report (AUC=.84, 95% CI=.74-.94, p<.001) and to the two objective indices, with AUCs of .69 (95% CI=.53-.85; p<.05) and .77 (95% CI=.64-.89; p<.001), respectively. Because the pDSM-5 criteria did not produce significantly better reliability or validity results and users are more familiar with the current DSM-5 criteria, we believe these results suggest the revision of DSM-5 and development of ICD-11 could benefit from drawing on the current DSM-5 criteria, which are essentially the same as DSM-IV-TR except for a distinction between having a paraphilia (the interest) and a paraphilic disorder (the paraphilia plus clinically significant distress or impairment).
Freund, K; Watson, R; Dickey, R; Rienzo, D
Five groups of males were compared on penile volume changes elicited from viewing short movie strips and slides of nude children and adults of both genders. Subject groups were sex offenders against adult females, volunteer controls who erotically preferred adult females, volunteer controls who erotically preferred adult males, heterosexual pedophiles, and homosexual pedophiles. Pedophiles differentiated erotically between females and males less than males who erotically preferred physically mature partners.
Freund, Kurt; Kuban, Michael
Analysis of retrospective self-reports about childhood curiosity to see persons in the nude, with heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles, gynephiles, and androphiles, suggests that establishment of erotic sex preference proceeded that of age preference, and a greater proportion of pedophiles than gynephiles or androphiles remembered childhood…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.
This document contains an extensive overview of the topics of child pornography and pedophilia. Pedophilia is defined for this report as a condition in which an adult's primary sexual attraction is to prepubescent children roughly between the ages of 6 and 12. The introduction discusses the recent history of public awareness of the problem,…
This rebuttal to Goldberg's criticism (EC 609 744) concerning Herzog and Money's 1993 paper on Klinefelter Syndrome supports the use of Depo-Provera as an adjunct to counseling in cases of pedophilia in men with Klinefelter's Syndrome. (DB)
This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines one of the most controversial moments in the history of the journal, whereby a contributor was subject to governmental and popular rebuke for his scholarship on pederasty, pedophilia, and underage queer sexuality. In a chronological and intellectual appraisal of this pedophilia-themed text, the author asks us to recalibrate the disquietude we posit when same-sex affection, youthful sexuality, and sexual abuse are in close proximity.
Mackaronis, Julia E.; Strassberg, Donald S.; Marcus, David K.
The Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI; Nichols & Molinder, 1984) is a self-report measure frequently used in the assessment of sex offenders. Scores on the MSI are often used to assess levels of pedophilic interest. However, the question of whether men with pedophilia represent a unique group distinguished by their sexual interests, or whether they…
The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Myers, Beverly A.
A case history of a young man with mild mental retardation who had engaged in pedophilia and was successfully treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate is presented. The role of antiandrogen treatments of mentally retarded sexual offenders is discussed including issues of informed consent and ethical aspects of treatment. (Author/DB)
Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.
A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…
Gorrindo, Tristan; Groves, James E
Virtual worlds offer the potential for friendship, compassionate listening and support, and even love for 15 million users worldwide. But virtual analogs of crimes such as rape, murder, and pedophilia also exist within these worlds. The writings of Freud and Winnicott provide one model for understanding what may motivate these virtual crimes and how to think about them clinically. Psychiatric treatment can potentially benefit if therapists discuss virtual world use with patients as a way of understanding their inner lives.
In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest.
Walter, Garry; Pridmore, Saxby
Background: Current clinical wisdom is that the vast majority of those who complete suicide suffer from a mental disorder. Uncritical adherence to this belief may limit our understanding and restrict the full range of prevention activities. We aimed to examine the public record for accounts of suicide by men who had been, or were about to be, investigated or apprehended for “sex only” child sex offences, with a view to presenting a collection of case histories, and identifying examples of suicide in the apparent absence of mental disorder other than pedophilia. Methods: The public record (hard and electronic copy) was examined. Results: Twenty case histories were identified of men with no apparent mental disorder (other than pedophilia) who completed suicide shortly after exposure or threatened public exposure and/or early or potential legal punishment. Conclusion: This evidence strongly suggests that exposure or threatened public exposure of pedophilia and/or early or potential legal punishment creates a predicament, which may lead to completed suicide. PMID:23613648
Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M
Hebephilia refers to sexual interest in pubescent children who are beginning to show early signs of sexual development but are sexually immature. The present study examined the relationship between hebephilia and victim age choice in a sample of 2,238 adult male sexual offenders. On average, offenders were 39 years old at the time of their assessments, and approximately half (48%) were referred by probation or parole offices. Assessment data included self-report, sexual arousal measured by volumetric phallometry, and victims' ages. Results suggested that, similar to pedophilia, hebephilia had a medium sized association with a greater number of victims under age 11 and a small sized association with a greater number of victims ages 11 to 14. Unlike pedophilia, a small positive association was consistently found between hebephilia and a greater number of victims ages 15 or 16. Furthermore, a small positive association was observed between victim age polymorphism and hebephilia and pedophilia. The present results suggested that hebephilia was associated with a greater number of victims age 14 or younger and had similar victim age correlates to pedophiles.
Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M
Hebephilia refers to a persistent intense sexual interest in pubescent children. Although not as widely studied as pedophilia, studies of hebephilia have indicated convergence in self-report and sexual arousal. The present study expanded on previous work by examining convergent and divergent validity across indicators of hebephilia that included self-report, sexual behavior, and sexual arousal in a sample of 2238 men who had sexually offended. We included men who denied such interest and specifically examined the overlap between hebephilia and pedophilia and examined pedohebephilia (i.e., sexual interests in both prepubescent and pubescent children). Results indicated that there was considerable convergence across indicators of hebephilia. The results suggested poor divergent validity between hebephilia and pedophilia, as there was substantial overlap between the two constructs across analyses. Finally, a distinct pattern of sexual arousal was found in offenders with pedohebephilia. The results of the present study were discussed with a focus on implications for the assessment of sexual interest in children and the conceptualization of pedohebephilia.
Lahl, R; Thomas, B; Zernahle, K
The authors report various sexual instinct disturbances and, more specifically, exhibitionism and pedophilia of a 25-year-old patient with Klinefelter's syndrome. The patient had committed several punishable offenses and was referred to our specialty clinic for psychologic and psychiatric examinations. Aspects of psychopathology and causal etiopathogenetic relationships of the authors' own observations are discussed and compared with those reported in the literature. Environmental factors are considered to be primarily responsible for the development of sexual perversions. The Klinefelter syndrome as such may be regarded as being of predispositional importance only.
Seto, Michael C; Kingston, Drew A; Bourget, Dominique
Paraphilias are recurrent, persistent, and intense sexual interests in atypical objects or activities. The most commonly encountered paraphilias in sexological or forensic settings are pedophilia, sexual sadism, exhibitionism, and voyeurism. Paraphilias are often comorbid with other sexual, mood, and personality disorders. Assessment and diagnosis require an integration of multiple sources of clinical information, given the limits and biases of self-report (through clinical interview or questionnaires). Clinicians ideally have access to more objective assessment methods, such as phallometric testing of sexual arousal. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of paraphilias is essential to effective treatment and management.
Houtepen, Jenny A B M; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Bogaerts, Stefan
This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in nonclinical pedophiles. Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings. Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.
Jahnke, Sara; Schmidt, Alexander F; Geradt, Max; Hoyer, Jürgen
Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma. In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending. We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German-speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (Brief Symptom Inventory-53, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Emotion Subscale of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Fear of Negative Evaluation-5, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed. In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. Results were controlled for the effects of confounding variables (e.g., age, educational level, social desirability, relationship status). We critically evaluate the empirical contribution of this study to research on stigma and child sex offenses, including a discussion of the results in light of the potential indirect effects that public stigma may have on the overall risk for sexual offenses.
During the 1960s and 1970s, Kurt Freund and other researchers developed phallometry to demonstrate the effectiveness of behaviorism in the diagnosis and treatment of male homosexuality and pedophilia. Researchers used phallometers to segment different aspects of male arousal, to discern cryptic hierarchies of eroticism, and to monitor the effectiveness of treatments to change an individual's sexuality. Phallometry ended up challenging the expectations of behaviorist researchers by demonstrating that most men could not change their sexual preferences--no matter how hard they tried or how hard others tried to change them. This knowledge, combined with challenges mounted by gay political activists, eventually motivated Freund and other researchers to revise their ideas of what counted as therapy. Phallometric studies ultimately revealed the limitations of efforts to shape "abnormal" and "normal" masculinity and heralded the rise of biologically determinist theories of sexuality.
Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul
Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults.
Smallbone, Stephen W; Wortley, Richard K
Official demographic and offense history data (n = 362) and confidential self-report data on paraphilic interests and behavior (n = 221) obtained on adult males convicted of sexual offenses against children were analyzed. Considerable criminal diversity was observed, with all standard categories of offenses represented in offenders' criminal histories. Most (86%) of the offenders' previous convictions were for nonsexual offenses, and most (92%) of the recidivist offenders had previously been convicted of at least one nonsexual offense. The prevalence of diagnosable paraphilias was low, with only 5% meeting formal diagnostic criteria for multiple (two or more) paraphilias other than pedophilia. Sexual offenders' paraphilic interests were unrelated to the extent of their sexual offense convictions but were significantly related to the extent of their nonsexual offense convictions. The results are better explained by a general theory of crime than by traditional clinical conceptions linking sexual offenses specifically with sexual psychopathology.
Reavis, James A.
A case of a 61-year-old African-American male who sexually assaulted and murdered four individuals, of different ethnicities and both genders, is reported. The subject additionally engaged in sexual activity with each victim postmortem. Each murder is reviewed in detail, and the subjective state of the offender during the murders is commented upon. Psychological test data are reviewed. The subject met criteria for several Axis I disorders, including Bipolar I Disorder, Pedophilia, and Sexual Sadism, and met criteria for Axis II diagnoses of Narcissistic and Antisocial Personality disorder. He was additionally classified as a Psychopath, which, in combination with his Sexual Sadism, general psychiatric state, and exquisite sensitivity to humiliation, led to his decision to murder. PMID:22937398
Mauroy, M C
In view of the numerous questions raised by the recently disclosed pedophilia, sexual abuses and prostitution of children, it appeared worthwhile to review the recent studies dealing with the child sexual development and the onset of the gender identity. These studies consist partly in retrospective analysis of pathological situations and partly in the analysis of normal development. It appears that the social and emotional surroundings of the child, provided that they were continuous and devoid of ambiguity, play a prominent role in this process. At present, numerous authors consider that gender identity is achieved at about 2 years of age when the child has a harmonious general development. The family physician and the paediatrician are on the first line to detect potential problems provided that they were aware of the main determinants and symptoms involved.
Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M
In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men.
Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D
This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.
Müller, Sabine; Walter, Henrik; Christen, Markus
This paper investigates the question whether it is ethically justified to treat Parkinsonian patients with known or suspected pedophilia with deep brain stimulation - given increasing evidence that this treatment might cause impulse control disorders, disinhibition, and hypersexuality. This specific question is not as exotic as it looks at a first glance. First, the same issue is raised for all other types of sexual orientation or behavior which imply a high risk for harming other persons, e.g. sexual sadism. Second, there are also several (psychotropic) drugs as well as legal and illegal leisure drugs which bear severe risks for other persons. We show that Beauchamp and Childress' biomedical ethics fails to derive a veto against medical interventions which produce risks for third persons by making the patients dangerous to others. Therefore, our case discussion reveals a blind spot of the ethics of principles. Although the first intuition might be to forbid the application of deep brain stimulation to pedophilic patients, we argue against such a simple way out, since in some patients the reduction of dopaminergic drugs allowed by deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus improves impulsive control disorders, including hypersexuality. Therefore, we propose a strategy consisting of three steps: (1) risk assessment, (2) shared decision-making, and (3) risk management and safeguards.
Holt, Thomas J; Blevins, Kristie R; Burkert, Natasha
The development of the Internet and computer-mediated communications has fostered the growth of a wide range of deviant sexual behaviors along with deviant subcultures that support and approve of these behaviors. Some of these practices pose little risk to public safety, though acts such as pedophilia and the creation and distribution of child pornography have significant negative ramifications for victims. A growing literature has examined the function of the Internet for child pornography distribution, social networks of pedophiles, and tactics of child solicitation. Few, however, have explored the utility of the Internet to develop a subculture of pedophiles and its role in fostering attitudes and justifications for relationships with children. This study will explore the subcultural norms and enculturation of the pedophile community using a qualitative analysis of five Web forums run by and for pedophiles. The findings suggest that the values of the pedophile culture support and encourage emotional and, in some cases, sexual relationships with boys and girls in virtual and real settings. Implications for the study of pedophiles and the role of the Internet are explored.
De Block, Andreas; Adriaens, Pieter R
This article provides a historical perspective on how both American and European psychiatrists have conceptualized and categorized sexual deviance throughout the past 150 years. During this time, quite a number of sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors have been pathologized and depathologized at will, thus revealing psychiatry's constant struggle to distinguish mental disorder--in other words, the "perversions," "sexual deviations," or "paraphilias"--from immoral, unethical, or illegal behavior. This struggle is apparent in the works of 19th- and early-20th-century psychiatrists and sexologists, but it is also present in the more recent psychiatric textbooks and diagnostic manuals, such as the consecutive editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). While much of the historical literature revolves around the controversy over homosexuality, this article also reviews the recent medicohistorical and sociohistorical work on other forms of sexual deviance, including the diagnostic categories listed in the latest edition, the DSM-IV-TR: exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, and transvestic fetishism.
Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael
Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.
Neutze, Janina; Seto, Michael C; Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Beier, Klaus M
Little is known about factors that distinguish men who act upon their self-identified sexual interest in prepubescent or pubescent children from those who do not. Even less is known about pedophiles or hebephiles who are not involved with the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 155 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia (or paraphilia not otherwise specified for those who were sexually attracted to pubescent children). Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on sociodemographic variables and measures of dynamic risk factors. The first set was based on recent activity and compared men who had committed child pornography only or child sexual abuse offenses in the past six months with men who remained offense-free during the same period. The second set was based on lifetime offense history (excluding the most recent six months) and compared child pornography offenders with child sexual abuse offenders and men who had committed both kinds of offenses. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between groups.
Fabian, John Matthew
In recent years, state and federal legislative initiatives have heavily emphasized punitive laws to combat sexual crime. These statutes include indefinite civil commitment, which is the ultimate infringement on sexual offenders' civil liberties. Many of these committed offenders have repeatedly offended against prepubescent children (pedophiles), and many have committed nonconsensual sexual offenses against adults (rapists). A substantial number of sex offenders have offended against postpubescent adolescents and teenagers outside the age range of pedophilia (commonly referred to by some clinicians and researchers as hebephilia). The use of the term hebephilia has recently received heightened scrutiny in sexually violent predator civil commitment proceedings. Specifically, experts debate whether hebephilia is recognized within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and whether it is a generally accepted diagnosis within the field of sexual offender assessment. Scholars and practitioners question how hebephilia pertains to sexual deviance and one's risk of reoffending and whether it ultimately meets the legal mental abnormality threshold of civil commitment through DSM diagnostic criteria. This article addresses these questions and provides recent federal case law that attends to hebephilia in sexually violent predator proceedings.
Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas
Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity.
Suchy, Yana; Eastvold, Angela D; Strassberg, Donald S; Franchow, Emilie I
Research shows that pedophilic (PED) child molesters exhibit slower performance speed and greater performance accuracy when compared to nonpedophilic (N-PED) child molesters or other criminal and noncriminal controls. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences reflect a slow/deliberate response style among PEDS (as we have previously hypothesized; Eastvold, Suchy, & Strassberg, 2011; Suchy, Whittaker, Strassberg, & Eastvold, 2009a, 2009b), or a fundamental neuropathological weakness in processing speed. Data came from a larger study examining neurocognition among sex offenders. Processing speed in three different domains (motor speed, visual-perceptual speed, and visual-motor integration) was examined in 20 phallometrically identified PEDs, 20 N-PEDs, and 20 nonsexual offenders, using both clinical (Finger Tapping, Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding) and experimental measures (Inspection Time Task [ITT]). The ITT assessed speed of visual-perceptual processing independent of response speed. On clinical measures, PEDs exhibited slower visual perception [F(2, 57) = 5.24, p = .008] and visual-motor integration [F(2, 57) = 5.02, p = .010] than the other groups, with no differences for simple motor speed. On the ITT, PEDs performed less accurately than the other groups [F(2, 57) = 3.95, p = .025], clearly indicating that slow processing speed cannot be explained by a deliberate response style. Group differences persisted after controlling for other potential confounds (age, estimate IQ, working memory, ethnicity, and substance use). PEDs' slower performance is due to a fundamental neurocognitive weakness, rather than a slow/deliberate response style. These results are consistent with Cantor et al.'s (2008) work identifying white matter abnormalities among PEDs and provide further support for a neurodevelopmental etiology of pedophilia.