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Sample records for peg interferon alpha

  1. Vitamin D in addition to peg-interferon-alpha/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: ANRS-HC25-VITAVIC study

    PubMed Central

    Terrier, Benjamin; Lapidus, Nathanael; Pol, Stanislas; Serfaty, Lawrence; Ratziu, Vlad; Asselah, Tarik; Thibault, Vincent; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Carrat, Fabrice; Cacoub, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if correction of hypovitaminosis D before initiation of Peg-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy could improve the efficacy of PegIFN/RBV in previously null-responder patients with chronic genotype 1 or 4 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Genotype 1 or 4 HCV-infected patients with null response to previous PegIFN/RBV treatment and with hypovitaminosis D (< 30 ng/mL) prospectively received cholecalciferol 100000 IU per week for 4 wk [from week -4 (W-4) to W0], followed by 100000 IU per month in combination with PegIFN/RBV for 12 mo (from W0 to W48). The primary outcome was the rate of early virological response defined by an HCV RNA < 12 IU/mL after 12 wk PegIFN/RBV treatment. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients were included, 19 (59%) and 13 (41%) patients were HCV genotype 1 and 4, respectively. The median baseline vitamin D level was 15 ng/mL (range: 7-28). In modified intention-to-treat analysis, 29 patients who received at least one dose of PegIFN/RBV were included in the analysis. All patients except one normalized their vitamin D serum levels. The rate of early virologic response was 0/29 (0%). The rate of HCV RNA < 12 IU/mL after 24 wk of PegIFN/RBV was 1/27 (4%). The safety profile was favorable. CONCLUSION: Addition of vitamin D to PegIFN/RBV does not improve the rate of early virologic response in previously null-responders with chronic genotype 1 or 4 HCV infection. PMID:25987791

  2. Treatment discontinuation with peg-interferon: what to consider.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Vincenzo; Russo, Maria Luisa; Carbone, Marco; Bruno, Savino

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of chronic hepatitis C virus infection improves the outcome of both liver and extrahepatic-related diseases and interferon-based regimens represented, for years, the standard of care to achieve this goal. Several baseline and on-treatment predictors of response, associated with a lower chance to achieve sustained virological response after interferon-based treatment, were developed. In the past few years, the advent of direct acting antivirals has dramatically modified the landscape of antiviral therapy, leading to an evolution from interferon-based to interferon-free therapies. This review will focus on the usefulness of futility stopping rules that allow the discontinuation of therapy in patients with a reduced chance to obtain sustained virological response if treated with interferon-containing regimens.

  3. Anti-interferon alpha treatment in SLE.

    PubMed

    Kirou, Kyriakos A; Gkrouzman, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Several studies in the last decade have highlighted the role of the type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway, and particularly interferon alpha (IFNα) in SLE pathogenesis. As a result, a multitude of potential treatments targeting IFNα have emerged in the last few years, a few of which have already completed phase II clinical trials. Some of the treatment strategies have focused on blocking IFNα or its receptor and others the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC), which is the principal IFNα producing cell. In this review, we will discuss the evidence supporting a pathogenic role of IFNα and pDC in SLE, provide an update on the current status of these therapeutic strategies, and discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of each therapeutic approach.

  4. Cytokine therapeutics: lessons from interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gutterman, J U

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that allow for communication between cells and the external environment. Interferon (IFN) alpha, the first cytokine to be produced by recombinant DNA technology, has emerged as an important regulator of growth and differentiation, affecting cellular communication and signal transduction pathways as well as immunological control. This review focuses on the biological and clinical activities of the cytokine. Originally discovered as an antiviral substance, the efficacy of IFN-alpha in malignant, viral, immunological, angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrotic diseases suggests a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologies. The principles learned from in vivo studies will be discussed, particularly hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, certain angiogenic diseases, and hepatitis. After the surprising discovery of activity in a rare B-cell neoplasm, IFN-alpha emerged as a prototypic tumor suppressor protein that represses the clinical tumorigenic phenotype in some malignancies capable of differentiation. Regulatory agencies throughout the world have approved IFN-alpha for treatment of 13 malignant and viral disorders. The principles established with this cytokine serve as a paradigm for future development of natural proteins for human disease. PMID:8108387

  5. [Interferon alpha antibodies show no cross reactions with typical autoantibodies].

    PubMed

    Görg, S; Klouche, M; Wilhelm, D; Kirchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Patients treated with natural human interferon alpha develop anti-interferon antibodies (IFN-AB) only in very rare cases. By contrast, patients with autoimmune disorders are able to generate high-titered IFN-AB against endogenous interferon alpha. One explanation for the development of auto-IFN-AB could be cross-reactivity with typical autoimmune antigens. We investigated the cross-reactivity of 3 high-titered IgG IFN-AB of female autoimmune patients (aged 32, 36, 74 years; two severe cases of SLE, one case of autoimmune thyroiditis) as well as 25 low-titered natural IgM IFN-AB of healthy blood donors (aged 19-48 years). Typical autoimmune antigens including dsDNA, ENA, as well as natural interferon beta and recombinant interferon gamma are not able to inhibit binding of IFN-AB to interferon alpha in an ELISA test system. Preincubation of sera containing either dsDNA antibodies (dsDNA-AB) (24 patients), thyroid peroxidase (TPO-AB) (9 patients) or thyroglobulin (TG-AB) (12 patients) with interferon alpha resulted in no change in the respective autoantibody titer. These data suggest that there is no cross-reactivity between IFN-alpha-AB and dsDNA-AB, TPO-AB or TG-AB. Thus, an explanation for the occurrence of IFN-AB in autoimmune disorders cannot be found in a cross-reaction between interferon alpha with typical autoimmune antigens.

  6. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of pegylated interferon-alpha2b in patients with chronic renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir K; Pittenger, Amy L; Swan, Suzanne K; Marbury, Thomas C; Tobillo, Emlyn; Batra, Vijay; Sack, Marshall; Glue, Paul; Jacobs, Sheila; Affrime, Melton

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluates the pharmacokinetics and safety of pegylated interferon-alpha2b (PEG-Intron) following a single-dose subcutaneous injection into subjects with normal renal function, subjects with chronic renal impairment, and patients on hemodialysis. In this open-label, single-dose, parallel group study, subjects were divided into five groups according to their degree of renal function: four groups as defined by measured creatinine clearance and a fifth hemodialysis dependent group. They received 1 microg/kg PEG-Intron subcutaneously after a 10-hour fast. Pharmacokinetic and safety assessments were performed up to 168 hours postdose. Hemodialysis patients had a second PEG-Intron dose 12 hours prior to a hemodialysis session. PEG-Intron pharmacokinetic parameters (AUCtf, Cmax, and t1/2) increased progressively as CL(CR) declined. All subjects reported at least one adverse event, which were typical of those reported after alpha-interferon administration (e.g., flu-like symptoms, headache). Single-dose PEG-Intron administration to volunteers with normal renal function and chronic renal impairment was safe and well tolerated. In patients with CL(CR) < 30 ml/min, AUCand Cmax values were increased 90% compared with controls, while half-life was increased by up to 40% over controls. Based on the relationship between PEG-Intron apparent clearance and CL(CR), renal clearance accountsfor less than half of its total clearance. Hemodialysis did not affect PEG-Intron apparent clearance.

  7. Therapeutic alpha-interferons protein: structure, production, and biosimilar.

    PubMed

    El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the world solemnized the golden jubilee of the discovery of interferon (IFN). Interferon is a small protein messenger called a pluripotent cytokine, produced by several cells of the host in response to various biological as well as synthetic stimuli. There are three major classes of interferons in humans: IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma. As a treatment option, interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is the most effective one. IFN-α has proved to be effective as an antiviral therapy and tumor-fighting drug in the past two decades. Meanwhile, great progress has been achieved in establishing IFN-α as the first choice of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Recently, novel pegylated IFN-α2 products with extended in vivo half-lives and consensus interferon, an artificially engineered type I interferon, have been developed to substantially improve treatment regimes for HCV patients. Undesirable acute and chronic side effects in addition to immunogenicity of therapeutic IFN products remain constraints to conquer for further improvements in clinical applications of IFN. It is certainly expected that more research will be conducted in the future, not only to face these challenges but also to extend the range of IFN products and their clinical targets. The objective herein is to review the current therapeutic alpha-interferons production, formulation technologies, and prospective future for the original entity and its biogeneric version.

  8. Shared receptor components but distinct complexes for alpha and beta interferons.

    PubMed

    Lewerenz, M; Mogensen, K E; Uzé, G

    1998-09-25

    The type I interferon family includes 13 alpha, one omega and one beta subtypes recognized by a complex containing the receptor subunits ifnar1 and ifnar2 and their associated Janus tyrosine kinases, Tyk2 and Jak1. To investigate the reported differences in the way that alpha and beta interferons signal through the receptor, we introduced alanine-substitutions in the ifnar2 extracellular domain, and expressed the mutants in U5A cells, lacking endogenous ifnar2. A selection, designed to recover mutants that responded preferentially to alpha or beta interferon yielded three groups: I, neutral; II, sensitive to alpha interferon, partially resistant to beta interferon; III, resistant to alpha interferon, partially sensitive to beta interferon. A mutant clone, TMK, fully resistant to alpha interferon with good sensitivity to beta interferon, was characterized in detail and compared with U5A cells complemented with wild-type ifnar2 and also with Tyk2-deficient 11.1 cells, which exhibit a similar alpha-unresponsive phenotype with a partial beta interferon response. Using anti-receptor antibodies and mutant forms of beta interferon, three distinct modes of ligand interaction could be discerned: (i) alpha interferon with ifnar1 and ifnar2; (ii) beta interferon with ifnar1 and ifnar2; (iii) beta interferon with ifnar2 alone. We conclude that alpha and beta interferons signal differently through their receptors because the two ligand subtypes interact with the receptor subunits ifnar 1 and ifnar2 in entirely different ways.

  9. Remission of liver fibrosis by interferon-alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M G; Muriel, P

    1995-08-01

    Fibrosis is a dynamic process associated with the continuous deposition and resorption of connective tissue, mainly collagen. Therapeutic strategies are emerging by which this dynamic process can be modulated. Since interferons are known to inhibit collagen production, the aim of this study was to investigate if the administration of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha) can restore the normal hepatic content of collagen in rats with established fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced by prolonged bile duct ligation. IFN-alpha (100,000 IU/rat/day; s.c.) was administered to fibrotic rats for 15 days. Bile duct ligation increased liver collagen content 6-fold. In addition, serum and liver markers of hepatic injury increased significantly; liver histology showed an increase in collagen deposition, and the normal architecture was lost, with large zones of necrosis being observed frequently. IFN-alpha administration reversed to normal the values of all the biochemical markers measured and restored the normal architecture of the liver. Our results demonstrated that IFN-alpha is useful in reversing fibrosis and liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in the rat. However, further investigations are required to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of interferons on non-viral fibrosis and cholestasis. PMID:7646558

  10. Organization, structure and expression of murine interferon alpha genes.

    PubMed

    Zwarthoff, E C; Mooren, A T; Trapman, J

    1985-02-11

    Using a human interferon-alpha probe we have isolated recombinant phages containing murine interferon-alpha (Mu IFN-alpha) genes from a genomic library. One of these phages contained two complete Mu IFN-alpha genes and part of a third gene. The insert of a second phage held two IFN genes. This indicates that the Mu IFN-alpha genes are clustered in the genome as is the case for the analogous human genes. The nucleotide sequences of these 5 genes were determined. They show that the genes are all different, albeit highly homologous. The deduced amino acid sequences show that four of the five genes contain a putative glycosylation site. Three genes were transiently expressed in COS cells and they gave rise to protein products showing antiviral properties. The expression of the five Mu IFN-alpha genes and the Mu IFN-beta gene was studied in virus-induced mouse L cells. The individual mRNAs were visualized in a nuclease S1 experiment, using a specific probe for each gene. In RNA preparations from induced cells mRNAs for each of the five alpha genes and the beta gene were present. However, substantial differences in the amounts of the individual mRNAs were observed.

  11. A comparative study of variants of pegylated interferon alpha in treatment of chronic HCV patients.

    PubMed

    El Sabaawy, Dalia; El-Haggar, Sahar; El-Bahrawy, Hoda; Waked, Imam; El-Said, Hala

    2015-06-01

    HCV infection presents a vast burden in the regions of high prevalence such as Egypt, where most HCV isolates are genotype 4b. Combined treatment of three variants of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is still the standard of care in Egypt. However, no conclusive data confirming their efficacy are available. Here, 60 chronic HCV patients were randomized for ribavirin plus Peg Intron (PEG-IFNα-2b), Pegasys (PEG-IFNα-2a) or Reiveron Retard (PEG-IFNα-2a). Serum interferon and antibody (Ab) levels were measured, and responses and costs were compared. Serum interferon levels were higher in Pegasys group (1625.1 ng/mL) followed by Reiveron Retard (1076.5 ng/mL), and Peg Intron group (857.72 ng/mL). Moreover, Ab levels were the lowest in Reiveron Retard group (318.4 ng/mL), followed by Peg Intron (439.93 ng/mL), and Pegasys cases (610.83 ng/mL). The best 24-week response rates were detected in the Pegasys group (73.3%), followed by Peg Intron (66.67%), and Reiveron Retard (40%). Treatment with both Pegasys and Peg Intron were most cost-effective. Furthermore, Pegasys was superior in both 6-month response and serum interferon, despite having higher Ab levels (more antigenicity). Our data have notable clinical implications and suggest that Pegasys may be a superior choice of interferon therapy for chronic HCV under low socioeconomic conditions. PMID:25904442

  12. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given – 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  13. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given - 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  14. Comparison of peg-interferon, ribavirin plus telaprevir vs simeprevir by propensity score matching

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hideki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Umemura, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Sumida, Yoshio; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yokomizo, Chihiro; Tanaka, Saiyu; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Nishioji, Kenichi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Takami, Shiro; Nagao, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Takayuki; Shima, Toshihide; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Minami, Masahito; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare efficacy of telaprevir (TVR) and simeprevir (SMV) combined with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) while treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: In all, 306 CHC patients were included in this study. There were 159 patients in the TVR combination therapy group and 147 patients in the SMV combination therapy group. To evaluate pretreatment factors contributing to sustained virological response at 12 wk (SVR12), univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in TVR and SMV groups. To adjust for patient background between TVR and SMV groups, propensity score matching was performed. Virological response during treatment and SVR12 were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall rates of SVR12 [undetectable serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels] were 79.2% and 69.4% in TVR and SMV groups, respectively. Patients in the SMV group were older, had higher serum HCV RNA levels, lower hemoglobin, higher prevalence of unfavorable interleukin-28B (IL28B) genotype (rs8099917), and poorer response to previous PEG-IFN and RBV treatment. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for backgrounds (n = 104) and demonstrated SVR12 rates of 74.0% and 73.1% in the TVR and SMV groups, respectively. In the TVR group, discontinuation rates were higher because of adverse events; however, breakthrough and nonresponse was more frequent in the in SMV group. Multivariate analysis revealed IL28B genotype (rs8099917) as the only independent predictive factor of SVR12 in both groups. CONCLUSION: SVR12 rates were almost identical following propensity score matching. PMID:26668696

  15. Resistance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to alpha/beta interferon and to gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Moskophidis, D; Battegay, M; Bruendler, M A; Laine, E; Gresser, I; Zinkernagel, R M

    1994-01-01

    The susceptibility to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) or to gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) of various lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) strains was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice and in various cell lines. Anti-IFN-gamma treatment in vivo revealed that the LCMV strains Armstrong, Aggressive, and WE were most susceptible to IFN-gamma whereas Traub, Cl 13-Armstrong, and Docile were resistant. The same pattern of susceptibility to recombinant IFN-gamma was observed in vitro. In vivo treatment with anti-IFN-alpha/beta showed a sizeable increase in replication of Aggressive, Armstrong, and WE; effects were less pronounced for Docile, Cl 13-Armstrong, or Traub. Correspondingly, WE, Armstrong, and Aggressive were all relatively sensitive to purified IFN-alpha/beta in vitro, and Cl 13-Armstrong, Docile, and Traub were more resistant. Overall, there was a good correlation between the capacity of LCMV strains to establish a persistent infection in adult immunocompetent mice and their relative resistance to IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha/beta. PMID:8107255

  16. Ribavirin dose reduction during telaprevir/ribavirin/peg-interferon therapy overcomes the effect of the ITPA gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, S; Hayes, C N; Tsuge, M; Murakami, E; Hiraga, N; Abe, H; Miki, D; Imamura, M; Ochi, H; Chayama, K

    2015-02-01

    Treatment success of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection has improved with the advent of telaprevir plus peg-interferon/ribavirin triple combination therapy. However, the effect of inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) polymorphism on dose reduction during triple therapy, especially during the postmarketing phase, has not been sufficiently evaluated. We analysed 273 patients with genotype 1 infection who were treated with triple therapy and assessed the effect of the ITPA polymorphism on dose reduction. ITPA and IFNL4 SNP genotypes were determined by the Invader assay. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with outcome of the therapy. The overall sustained viral response (SVR) rate 12 weeks after the end of therapy was 80.2% (219/273). Decline of haemoglobin was significantly faster, and ribavirin was more extensively reduced in patients with ITPA SNP rs1127354 genotype CC than CA/AA. Extensive reduction of ribavirin resulted in mild reduction of telaprevir and peg-interferon, but no significant increase in viral breakthrough. Although the amount of telaprevir given was slightly higher in CA/AA patients, the total dose of peg-interferon and the SVR rate did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that IFNL4 but not ITPA SNP genotype, platelet count and peg-interferon adherence were significantly associated with outcome of therapy. Postmarketing-phase triple therapy resulted in a high SVR rate in spite of extensive ribavirin dose reduction in a diverse patient population, indicating the importance of treatment continuation and appropriate management of adverse events. PMID:24930407

  17. Effect of interferon-alpha 2a on malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T I; Manning, L S; Garlepp, M J; Musk, A W; Robinson, B W

    1993-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a tumor that is resistant to conventional therapy. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been used in the treatment of some human tumors, and we have previously demonstrated an in vitro anti-proliferative effect of IFN against MM cell lines. Therefore, the effect of recombinant human IFN-alpha (IFN-alpha 2a) (Roferon-A, Hoffmann-La Roche) on previously untreated patients with MM has been studied. Twenty-five patients (24 male and 1 female), with a mean age of 59 +/- 9.9 years, were treated for 3 months with IFN-alpha 2a. The starting dose was 3 x 10(6) IU daily increasing to a maximum of 18 x 10(6) IU daily or as tolerated. All patients had measurable tumor on thoracic CT prior to commencement. CT scans were performed at 6 and 12 weeks to determine tumor response. Twenty patients completed 3 months of treatment. Five patients were withdrawn because of disease progression. Side effects were predictable and dose related. Dose reductions were necessary in 12 patients for grade 2 toxicity. One patient had a complete response (CR), 2 patients had partial responses (PR) (response rate = 12%), 13 (52%) patients remained stable, 1 of whom exhibited a delayed PR, and 9 (36%) had progressive disease. These data suggest that IFN-alpha 2a is well tolerated in patients with MM and is active against MM in a proportion of patients.

  18. Fibrinolytic response to interferon-alpha in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Corssmit, E P; Levi, M; Hack, C E; ten Cate, J W; Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A

    1996-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are used for a variety of disorders. It has been postulated that part of the effects of IFN may be mediated by IFN-induced modulation of endothelial cells. Since the principal activating and inhibiting factors of the fibrinolytic system are synthesized and stored in endothelial cells, we have studied the effects on fibrinolysis and coagulation of the administration of recombinant IFN-alpha (5 x 10(6) U/m2) to healthy human subjects (n = 8) in a randomized controlled cross-over study. IFN-alpha significantly increased plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Simultaneously, plasma levels of the inhibitor of plasminogen activation, PAI-1, sharply increased. The net effect on plasma plasminogen activator activity (PA-activity) was a modest increase to 116% of baseline, however without a significant effect on plasmin generation, as reflected by plasma levels of plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. IFN-alpha had no effect on the plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes. We conclude that despite considerable effects on endothelial cells, IFN-alpha does not significantly alter the coagulant-fibrinolytic balance, although the occurrence of such changes under pathological circumstances is not excluded.

  19. Interferon alpha-2a in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vegna, M L; Papa, G; Defazio, D; Pisani, F; Coppola, G; De Pità, O; Puddu, P; Ferranti, G; Simoni, R; Mandelli, F

    1990-01-01

    23 newly diagnosed patients affected by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma were treated with sub-cutaneous interferon alpha-2a to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of this agent. IFN was administered daily with dose escalation from 3 to 18 million units for 12 weeks; thereafter, patients induced into complete (CR) or partial (PR) remission were given IFN at maximal tolerated dose 3 times weekly for 6 or 9 months. The objective tumor response was observed in 17 patients (74%): 8 (35%) were CR and 9 (39%) were PR. A 74-yr-old patient died because of neutropenia and sepsis at the end of induction phase, while receiving IFN at dose of 18 million units. Disease stage is the initial feature predictive of response to IFN therapy. The dose schedule of this study was well tolerated: only 3 patients developed liver toxicity, while leukopenia was evident in 6 patients. Only 2 CR patients have relapsed, 18 and 24 months from response; the remaining 6 CR patients are in continuous complete remission with a median follow-up of 41.8 months. 6 PR patients have progressed from 8 to 17 months after response, and in the 3 PR patients not yet progressed the response duration ranges from 20 to 24 months. In conclusion, interferon alpha-2a is a very effective agent in therapy of untreated cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with an overall response rate of 74%.

  20. Polymorphism in the interferon-{alpha} gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Golovleva, I.; Lundgren, E.; Beckman, L.; Kandefer-Szerszen, M.

    1996-09-01

    A pronounced genetic polymorphism of the interferon type I gene family has been assumed on the basis of RFLP analysis of the genomic region as well as the large number of sequences published compared to the number of loci. However, IFNA2 is the only locus that has been carefully analyzed concerning gene frequency, and only naturally occurring rare alleles have been found. We have extended the studies on a variation of expressed sequences by studying the IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, and IFNA17 genes. Genomic white-blood-cell DNA from a population sample of blood donors and from a family material were screened by single-nucleotide primer extension (allele-specific primer extension) of PCR fragments. Because of sequence similarities, in some cases {open_quotes}nested{close_quotes} PCR was used, and, when applicable, restriction analysis or control sequencing was performed. All individuals carried the interferon-{alpha} 1 and interferon-{alpha} 13 variants but not the LeIF D variant. At the IFNA2 and IFNA14 loci only one sequence variant was found, while in the IFNA10 and IFNA17 groups two alleles were detected in each group. The IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles segregated in families and showed a close fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles. The fact that the extent of genetic polymorphism was lower than expected suggests that a majority of the previously described gene sequences represent nonpolymorphic rare mutants that may have arisen in tumor cell lines. 44 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The effects of interferon-alpha/beta in a model of rat heart transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, A. D.; Klein, J. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Ogden, L. L. 2nd; Gray, L. A. Jr

    1992-01-01

    Interferons have multiple immunologic effects. One such effect is the activation of expression of cell surface antigens. Interferon alpha/beta enhance expression of class I but not class II histocompatibility antigens. Contradictory information has been published regarding the effect of interferon-alpha/beta administration in patients with kidney transplantation. In a model of rat heart transplantation we demonstrated that administration of interferon-alpha/beta accelerated rejection in a dose-dependent fashion in the absence of maintenance cyclosporine. Animals treated with maintenance cyclosporine had evidence of increased rejection at 20 days that was resolved completely at 45 days with cyclosporine alone.

  2. Targeted Therapies: Bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-01

    Rini and colleagues provide additional data on bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney; a comparison of these results with the findings from contemporary trials suggests that bevacizumab and interferon-alpha is another clinically useful treatment option for patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

  3. Secretion of human interferon alpha 2b by Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, E; Fando, R; Sánchez, J C; Vallin, C

    2002-02-01

    Biologically active human interferon alpha 2b (HuIFNalpha-2b) was secreted into the culture medium by Streptomyces lividans transformed with recombinant plasmids coding for HuIFNalpha-2b fused to the Streptomyces exfoliatus M11 lipase A signal sequence. Levels were low, 15 or 100 ng/ml, depending on the plasmid used. Neither processed nor unprocessed HuIFNalpha-2b was detected in cell lysates of the transformants secreting the recombinant product. However, the secreted recombinant product was found to partially degrade when cultures reached the stationary phase by the action of an, as yet, unidentified mycelium-associated factor. Experimental evidence suggests that the degrading factor is related to mycelium-associated proteolytic activity.

  4. Interferon-. alpha. selectively activates the. beta. isoform of protein kinase C through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, L.M.; Saltiel, A.R. ); Strulovici, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The early events that occur after interferon binds to discrete cell surface receptors remain largely unknown. Human leukocyte interferon (interferon-{alpha}) rapidly increases the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol dibutyrate to intact HeLa cells a measure of protein kinase C activation, and induces the selective translocation of the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of HeLa cells. The subcellular distribution of the {alpha} and {epsilon} isoforms is unaffected by interferon-{alpha} treatment. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters mimics the inhibitory action of interferon-{alpha} on HeLa cell proliferation and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the induction of antiviral activity by interferon-{alpha} in HeLa cells. Increased phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and phosphorylcholine production is accompanied by diacylglycerol production in response to interferon. However, inositol phospholipid turnover and free intracellular calcium concentration are unaffected. These results suggest that the transient increase in diacylglycerol, resulting from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, may selectively activate the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C. Moreover, the activation of protein kinase C is a necessary element in interferon action on cells.

  5. Interferon-alpha: a therapeutic target in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Crow, Mary K

    2010-02-01

    The long history of elevated interferon (IFN)-alpha in association with disease activity in patients who have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has assumed high significance in the past decade, with accumulating data strongly supporting broad activation of the type I IFN pathway in cells of patients who have lupus, and association of IFN pathway activation with significant clinical manifestations of SLE and increased disease activity based on validated measures. In addition, a convincing association of IFN pathway activation with the presence of autoantibodies specific for RNA-binding proteins has contributed to delineation of an important role for Toll-like receptor activation by RNA-containing immune complexes in amplifying innate immune system activation and IFN pathway activation. Although the primary triggers of SLE and the IFN pathway remain undefined, rapid progress in lupus genetics is helping define lupus-associated genetic variants with a functional relationship to IFN production or response in patients. Together, the explosion of data and understanding related to the IFN pathway in SLE have readied the lupus community for translation of those insights to improved patient care. Patience will be needed to allow collection of clinical data and biologic specimens across multiple clinical centers required to support testing of IFN activity, IFN-inducible gene expression and chemokine gene products as candidate biomarkers. Meanwhile, promising clinical trials are moving forward to test the safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody inhibitors of IFN-alpha. Other therapeutic approaches to target the IFN pathway may follow close behind.

  6. Effect of human alpha A interferon on influenza virus replication in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, R M; Maroney, P A; Nayak, D P; Chambers, T M; Nilsen, T W

    1985-12-01

    To determine the molecular mechanism whereby interferon induces resistance to influenza virus, we began an investigation of influenza virus replication in MDBK cells treated with recombinant human alpha A interferon. Negative- and positive-strand virus-specific RNA accumulation was monitored by blot hybridization with cloned probes. Primary transcription (transcription of infecting viral negative strands by the virion-associated polymerase) was inhibited by interferon treatment of MDBK cells. At moderate levels of interferon treatment (10 U/ml), this inhibition was restricted to transcripts of polymerase genes, whereas at higher levels of interferon treatment (50 U/ml), accumulation of all primary transcripts was markedly inhibited. Secondary transcripts and viral negative strands did not accumulate to any significant extent in interferon-treated MDBK cells. These results suggest that interferon-induced mechanisms which inhibit influenza virus replication in MDBK cells act at the level of primary transcription.

  7. Interferon-alpha for the therapy of myeloproliferative neoplasms: targeting the malignant clone.

    PubMed

    Kiladjian, J-J; Giraudier, S; Cassinat, B

    2016-04-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α) has been used for over 30 years to treat myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). IFN-α was shown to induce clinical, hematological, molecular and histopathological responses in small clinical studies. Such combined efficacy has never been achieved with any other drug to date in such a significant proportion of patients. However, toxicity remains a limitation to its broader use despite the development of pegylated forms with better tolerance. Several on going phase 3 studies of peg- IFN-α versus hydroxyurea will help to define its exact place in MPN management. IFN-α efficacy is likely the consequence of a broad range of biological properties, including enhancement of immune response, direct effects on malignant cells and ability to cycle dormant malignant stem cells. However, comprehensive elucidation of its mechanism of action is still lacking. Sustained clinical, molecular and morphological responses after IFN-α discontinuation raised the hope that this drug could eradicate MPN. There is now consistent evidence showing that IFN-α is able to eliminate malignant clones harboring JAK2V617F or Calreticulin mutations. However, the molecular complexity of these diseases could hamper IFN-α efficacy, as the presence of additional non-driver mutations, like in the TET2 gene, could be associated with resistance to IFN-α. Therefore, combined therapy with another targeted agent could be required to eradicate MPN, and the best IFN-α companion for achieving this challenge remains to be determined.

  8. Interferon Alpha as a Primary Pathogenic Factor in Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is a critical mediator of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review will summarize evidence supporting the role for IFN-α in the initiation of human SLE. IFN-α functions in viral immunity at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity, a position well suited to setting thresholds for autoimmunity. Some individuals treated with IFN-α for chronic viral infections develop de novo SLE, which frequently resolves when IFN-α is withdrawn, supporting the idea that IFN-α was causal. Abnormally high IFN-α levels are clustered within SLE families, suggesting that high serum IFN-α is a heritable risk factor for SLE. Additionally, SLE-risk genetic variants in the IFN-α pathway are gain of function in nature, resulting in either higher circulating IFN-α levels or greater sensitivity to IFN-α signaling in SLE patients. A recent genome-wide association study has identified additional novel genetic loci associated with high serum IFN-α in SLE patients. These data support the idea that genetically determined endogenous elevations in IFN-α predispose to human SLE. It is possible that some of these gain-of-function polymorphisms in the IFN-α pathway are useful in viral defense, and that risk of SLE is a burden we have taken on in the fight to defend ourselves against viral infection. PMID:21923413

  9. Interferon alpha 2b as maintenance therapy improves outcome in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith; Pérez, Felipe; Sotelo, León

    2004-11-01

    The role of interferon alpha as maintenance therapy in follicular lymphoma (FL) remains unsolved. We started a controlled clinical trial to assess if interferon alpha 2b could improve outcome, measured with event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with FL in complete remission after chemotherapy based anthracyclines and adjuvant radiotherapy to sites of initial bulky disease. Three hundred and eighty four patients in complete response after 6 cycles of CEOP-Bleo (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone and bleomycin, at standard doses), and adjuvant radiotherapy when necessary, were randomized to received Interferon alpha 2b, three times a week for 1 year or no treatment (control group). Median follow up was 9.8 years (range 7.0-15 years); actuarial curves showed that EFS was 64% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56-71%) in patients treated with interferon that was statistically significant to patients in the control group: 35% (95% CI: 28-43%) (p<.01). OS was also statistically significant: 81% in patients treated with interferon (95% CI: 74-93%) and 57% (95% CI: 50-63%) in the control group (p<.001). Toxicity was mild, all patients received the planned dose of interferon on time. The use of aggressive chemotherapy and maintenance therapy with interferon alpha 2b in follicular lymphoma improved outcome; more than 60% of patients remain alive free of disease at longer follow-up. PMID:15512813

  10. Probable involvement of p11 with interferon alpha induced depression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Lili; Ding, Huaxia; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Chen; Zhang, Yanfei; Xia, Namei; Li, Mingfang; Liang, Yinming; Hu, Xianzhang; Luan, Haojiang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major side effects of interferon alpha (IFN-α) treatment, but the molecular mechanism underlying IFN-α-induced depression remains unclear. Several studies have shown that the serotonin receptors 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 play key roles in the anti-depression effects associated with p11 (S100A10). We investigated the effects of IFN-α on the regulation of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in mice and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-sy5y). We found that intraperitoneal injection with IFN-α in Balb/c mice resulted in an increased immobility in FST and TST, and potently lowered the protein levels of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in the hippocampus or cingulate gyrus. IFN-α significantly down-regulated the protein levels of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in SH-sy5y cells, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our study revealed that over-expression of p11 could prevent the IFN-α-induced down-regulation of 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4. The results indicated that IFN-α treatment resulted in p11 down-regulation, which subsequently decreased 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in vitro or in vivo. Our findings suggested that p11 might be a potential regulator on 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 as well as a predictor of or a therapeutic target for IFN-α-induced depression. PMID:26821757

  11. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and interferon-alpha on early healing of experimental intestinal anastomoses.

    PubMed Central

    de Waard, J. W.; Wobbes, T.; de Man, B. M.; van der Linden, C. J.; Hendriks, T.

    1996-01-01

    The continuing search for effective adjuvant therapy after resection of intestinal malignancies has prompted a growing interest in both immediate post-operative regional chemotherapy and the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and interferon-alpha as drugs of choice. We have compared the effects of both compounds, alone and together, on early healing of intestinal anastomoses. Four groups (n = 26 each) of rats underwent resection and anastomosis of both ileum and colon: a control group and three groups receiving intraperitoneal 5-FU, interferon-alpha or both on the day of surgery and the next 2 days. Animals were killed 3 or 7 days (n = 10 each) after operation in order to measure anastomotic strength and hydroxyproline content. The remaining six animals in each group were used to study anastomotic collagen synthetic capacity at day 3. Three days after operation, ileal anastomotic bursting pressure was lowered by 37% in the 5-FU/interferon-alpha group (P = 0.0104). At day 7, anastomotic breaking strength was reduced significantly in ileum (P = 0.0221) and colon (P = 0.0054) of the 5-FU/interferon-alpha group and in colon of the interferon-alpha group (P = 0.0221). Collagen synthetic capacity was strongly suppressed by 5-FU but not by interferon-alpha. However, no differences in anastomotic hydroxyproline content were observed between groups at both days 3 and 7. Thus, post-operative use of interferon-alpha, in particular in combination with 5-FU, may be detrimental to anastomotic repair in the intestine. PMID:8795572

  12. CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cells associate with pegylated interferon-alpha treatment nonresponse in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuang; Shen, Xiaokun; Fu, Binqing; Liu, Yanyan; Chen, Yongyan; Ni, Fang; Ye, Ying; Sun, Rui; Li, Jiabin; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a serious and prevalent health concern worldwide, and the development of effective drugs and strategies to combat this disease is urgently needed. Currently, pegylated interferon-alpha (peg-IFNα) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NA) are the most commonly prescribed treatments. However, sustained response rates in patients remain low, and the reasons are not well understood. Here, we observed that CHB patients preferentially harbored CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cells, a newly identified CD56(+) T cell population. Patients with this unique T cell population exhibited relatively poor responses to peg-IFNα treatment. CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cells expressed remarkably high levels of the inhibitory molecule NKG2A as well as low levels of CD8. Even if patients were systematically treated with peg-IFNα, CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cells remained in an inhibitory state throughout treatment and exhibited suppressed antiviral function. Furthermore, peg-IFNα treatment rapidly increased inhibitory TIM-3 expression on CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cells, which negatively correlated with IFNγ production and might have led to their dysfunction. This study identified a novel CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cell population preferentially shown in CHB patients, and indicated that the presence of CD3(bright)CD56(+) T cells in CHB patients may be useful as a new indicator associated with poor therapeutic responses to peg-IFNα treatment. PMID:27174425

  13. CD3brightCD56+ T cells associate with pegylated interferon-alpha treatment nonresponse in chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chuang; Shen, Xiaokun; Fu, Binqing; Liu, Yanyan; Chen, Yongyan; Ni, Fang; Ye, Ying; Sun, Rui; Li, Jiabin; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a serious and prevalent health concern worldwide, and the development of effective drugs and strategies to combat this disease is urgently needed. Currently, pegylated interferon-alpha (peg-IFNα) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NA) are the most commonly prescribed treatments. However, sustained response rates in patients remain low, and the reasons are not well understood. Here, we observed that CHB patients preferentially harbored CD3brightCD56+ T cells, a newly identified CD56+ T cell population. Patients with this unique T cell population exhibited relatively poor responses to peg-IFNα treatment. CD3brightCD56+ T cells expressed remarkably high levels of the inhibitory molecule NKG2A as well as low levels of CD8. Even if patients were systematically treated with peg-IFNα, CD3brightCD56+ T cells remained in an inhibitory state throughout treatment and exhibited suppressed antiviral function. Furthermore, peg-IFNα treatment rapidly increased inhibitory TIM-3 expression on CD3brightCD56+ T cells, which negatively correlated with IFNγ production and might have led to their dysfunction. This study identified a novel CD3brightCD56+ T cell population preferentially shown in CHB patients, and indicated that the presence of CD3brightCD56+ T cells in CHB patients may be useful as a new indicator associated with poor therapeutic responses to peg-IFNα treatment. PMID:27174425

  14. Stat2 binding to the interferon-alpha receptor 2 subunit is not required for interferon-alpha signaling.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh-Phúc; Saleh, Abu Z M; Arch, Allison E; Yan, Hai; Piazza, Flavia; Kim, John; Krolewski, John J

    2002-03-22

    The interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) receptor consists of two subunits, the IFNalpha receptor 1 (IFNaR1) and 2 (IFNaR2) chains. Following ligand binding, IFNaR1 is phosphorylated on tyrosine 466, and this site recruits Stat2 via its SH2 domain. In contrast, IFNaR2 binds Stat2 constitutively. In this study we have characterized the Stat2-IFNaR2 interaction and examined its role in IFNalpha signaling. Stat2 binds the major IFNaR2 protein but not a variant containing a shorter cytoplasmic domain. The interaction does not require a STAT SH2 domain. Both tyrosine-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Stat2 bind IFNaR2 in vitro; however, relatively little phosphorylated Stat2 associates with IFNaR2 in vivo. In vitro binding assays defined IFNaR2 residues 418-444 as the minimal interaction domain and site-specific mutation of conserved acidic residues within this domain disrupted in vitro and in vivo binding. An IFNaR2 construct carrying these mutations was either (i) overexpressed in 293T cells or (ii) used to complement IFNaR2-deficient U5A cells. Unexpectedly, the activity of an IFNalpha-dependent reporter gene was not reduced but, instead, was enhanced up to 2-fold. This suggests that this particular IFNaR2-Stat2 interaction is not required for IFNalpha signaling, but might act to negatively inhibit signaling. Finally, a doubly truncated recombinant fragment of Stat2, spanning residues 136-702, associated with IFNaR2 in vitro, indicating that the interaction with IFNaR2 is direct and occurs in a central region of Stat2 marked by a hydrophobic core.

  15. Topical and subcutaneous alpha-interferon fails to suppress corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N; Goldberg, M; Pico, J; Kim, W; Abbott, R L; Levy, B

    1995-03-01

    Corneal neovascularization is a potentially blinding complication of a variety of corneal disorders. alpha-Interferon has been shown to inhibit endothelial cell migration and proliferation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of pediatric pulmonary hemangioma and hairy cell leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of topical and subcutaneous (s.c.) alpha-interferon on corneal neovascularization. Corneal neovascularization was induced in 40 male New Zealand white rabbits by placing silk sutures (7.0) bilaterally in each rabbit eye at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions of the cornea, 3 mm from the limbus. Animals were randomized into two main treatment groups for topical (group 1) and s.c. (group 2) administration of interferon. Group 1 (n = 24) was then randomized into four subgroups and treated daily with topical doses of (a) rabbit specific alpha-interferon; (b) alpha-interferon plus 1% prednisolone acetate; (c) 1% prednisolone acetate; and (d) buffered phosphate control. Group 2 (n = 16) was randomized into two subgroups that received s.c. injections every other day of (a) alpha-interferon and (b) phosphate buffer. Rate of corneal neovascularization was documented photographically, with the end-point being the arrival of vessels at the suture for each group. The results of this study indicated that at the concentration and dosing regimens we used, neither topical nor s.c. alpha-interferon inhibits the rate of corneal vascular growth significantly when compared with our phosphate buffered solution control group (p = 0.88 and p = 0.84, respectively). Prednisolone acetate appeared to be the most effective in inhibiting corneal neovascularization (p = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effect of antiorthostatic suspension on interferon-alpha/beta production by the mouse (41939)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Andrea; Steffen, Joseph M.; Musacchia, X. J.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.

    1984-01-01

    Mice were suspended in a model that simulates the weightlessness that occurs during prolonged space flight. After one and two weeks of suspension in an antiorthostatic (head-down tilt) position, the mice were challenged with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid to induce interferon-alpha/beta. Interferon production was severely reduced in mice that had been suspended. When mice were allowed to recover in cages for a week following removal from suspension, they recovered their full interferon-production capacity. Mice suspended in an orthostatic (horizontal) position did not have their interferon production capabilities affected, which indicates that stress per se was not a major component in the effects of antiorthostatic suspension on interferon induction.

  17. Coinhibition of viral interferon induction by Benzo(. alpha. )pyrene in association with occupation-related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown ); Booth, J.A. ); Flowers, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Benzo({alpha})pyrene (B(a)P) in combination with coal, asbestos, silicate, or metal particles was studied for its inhibitory effects on interferon-{alpha}/{beta} induction by influenza virus in rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK{sub 2}) cell monolayers. B(a)P per se had no adverse effect on the induction process. However, when cell cultures were pretreated with B(a)P that was bioactivated by rat liver S9 homogenate, from 52 to 65% inhibition of interferon induction occurred. Significantly greater depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (>83%) resulted when bioactivated B(a)P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat). Coinhibition affected by bioactivated B(a)P was coal rank-independent but any interferon inhibitory activity affected by coal particles per se was coal rank-independent. When metals (aluminum, aluminum oxide, ferric oxide, nickel, or chromium) or asbestos fibers were individually mixed with bioactivated B(a)P, coinhibition of cellular interferon synthesis also resulted which was significantly greater than that manifested by bioactivated B(a)P or particles per se. Coinhibition of interferon induction by silicates and the bioactivated hydrocarbon was not in evidence although some silicates alone partially inhibited the induction process. Viral interferon induction was inhibited in a dose-response manner by B(a)P ({+-}S9) in combination with selected particles.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of leukocyte (alpha) interferon and its application to some clinical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, J.; Reuter, A.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y.; Franchimont, P.

    1984-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human leukocyte interferon alpha (alpha IFN) has been developed, using tracer produced by recombinant DNA (IFLrA) and polyclonal rabbit antiserum against partially purified leukocyte IFN (PP alpha IFN). Sensitivity was 4 units/ml using sequential saturation. Only lymphoblastoid IFN showed complete cross reactivity. Serum alpha IFN concentrations were measured in normal subjects and in patients with acute viral infection, bone and joint diseases, and malignancies. Some cases in the first two groups of patients had significantly elevated serum levels compared with controls. The pharmacokinetics of alpha IFN were studied in treated cancerous patients. Radioimmunoassay and biological assay gave similar and closely correlated results.

  19. Predictors of psychopathological outcome during peg-interferon and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic HCV-correlated hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Prati, Gianmaria; Palazzo, M Carlotta; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Cavallaro, Flaminia; Aghemo, Alessio; Colombo, Massimo; Altamura, A Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy is reported to induce psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in 20% of patients treated for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Present study was aimed to quantify the phenomenon and assess the influence of psychiatric counseling over antiviral completion rate and the use of psychometric tools, in terms of prediction of psychopathological outcome. Ninety-six HCV patients were assessed, before antiviral treatment, by means of the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), Symptom Checklist-90, and Internal State Scale (ISS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables and completion rate were collected. Binary logistic regression was performed to evaluate whether scores were predictive of psychiatric visit, development of psychiatric disorders, and need for treatment. Ninety-five patients (99%) completed antiviral treatment; 27 subjects (29%) needed psychiatric visit: among them, mood disorder was diagnosed in 15 (16%) and were pharmacologically treated. Baseline SDS and MDQ higher scores were found to be predictive of psychiatric visit [odds ratio (OR)=1.258, P<0.001 and OR=1.425, P=0.05, respectively]. Furthermore, higher MDQ score (P=0.017) and ISS hostility scores (OR=1.048, P=0.014) at baseline predicted the subsequent development of mood episodes, while ISS activation correlated negatively (OR=0.948, P=0.009). Finally, the need for treatment was predicted by higher scores at the MDQ and ISS activation items (OR=2.467, P=0.030; OR=0.970, P=0.038). Present findings suggest that psychiatric counseling may be needed in almost 30% of HCV patients on antiviral treatment, with positive influence over the completion rate. Baseline higher scores at psychometric questionnaires-MDQ-in particular, predictors of psychopathological outcome during Peg-IFN and RBV therapy in patients with chronic HCV-correlated hepatitis reflecting individual functioning before starting antiviral therapy and positive history

  20. [Alpha interferon induced hyperthyroidism: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Maiga, I; Valdes-Socin, H; Thiry, A; Delwaide, J; Sidibe, A T; Beckers, A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with alpha interferon in hepatitis C triggers a thyroid autoimmunity in a variable percentage of cases (2-8%). This complication raises some questions about its screening, the possibility to continue anti-viral therapy and thyroid treatment. Alpha interferon has an immunomodulatory effect on the thyroid, but also an inhibitory effect on thyroid hormone synthesis. This explains the occurrence of cases of thyroid dysfunction, which often remain undetected because of their latency. Factors predicting thyroid dysfunction with interferon use are: female sex, history of thyroid disease and previous autoimmunity. Several clinical aspects are encountered including hypothyroidism (the most frequent depending on the series) and hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease. For their detection, a cooperation between general practionners, gastroenterologists and endocrinologists is mandatory thyroid function tests are requested before, during and after treatment,with alpha interferon. Therapeutic aspects of thyroid disorders range from simple monitoring to symptomatic treatment, such as thyroxine prescription in the presence of hypothyroidism. Antithyroid drugs radioactive iodine or thyroid surgery are used in cases of severe or persistent Graves' disease induced by alpha interferon. PMID:26376567

  1. Aplastic anemia and severe pancytopenia during treatment with peg-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Sabela; Calleja, Jose L; Campillo, Ana; Carrión, Jose A; Broquetas, Teresa; Perello, Christie; de la Revilla, Juan; Mariño, Zoe; Londoño, María-Carlota; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose M; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Forns, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Telaprevir and Boceprevir are the first direct acting antivirals approved for chronic hepatitis C in combination with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin. Pancytopenia due to myelotoxicity caused by these drugs may occur, but severe hematological abnormalities or aplastic anemia (AA) have not been described. We collected all cases of severe pancytopenia observed during triple therapy with telaprevir in four Spanish centers since approval of the drug in 2011. Among 142 cirrhotic patients receiving treatment, 7 cases of severe pancytopenia (5%) were identified and three were consistent with the diagnosis of AA. Mean age was 59 years, five patients had compensated cirrhosis and two patients had severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Severe pancytopenia was diagnosed a median of 10 wk after the initiation of therapy. Three patients had pre-treatment hematological abnormalities related to splenomegaly. In six patients, antiviral treatment was interrupted at the onset of hematological abnormalities. Two patients died due to septic complications and one patient due to acute alveolar hemorrhage. The remaining patients recovered. Severe pancytopenia and especially AA, are not rare during triple therapy with telaprevir in patients with advanced liver disease. Close monitoring is imperative in this setting to promptly detect serious hematological disorders and to prevent further complications. PMID:25954117

  2. Aplastic anemia and severe pancytopenia during treatment with peg-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lens, Sabela; Calleja, Jose L; Campillo, Ana; Carrión, Jose A; Broquetas, Teresa; Perello, Christie; de la Revilla, Juan; Mariño, Zoe; Londoño, María-Carlota; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose M; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Forns, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Telaprevir and Boceprevir are the first direct acting antivirals approved for chronic hepatitis C in combination with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin. Pancytopenia due to myelotoxicity caused by these drugs may occur, but severe hematological abnormalities or aplastic anemia (AA) have not been described. We collected all cases of severe pancytopenia observed during triple therapy with telaprevir in four Spanish centers since approval of the drug in 2011. Among 142 cirrhotic patients receiving treatment, 7 cases of severe pancytopenia (5%) were identified and three were consistent with the diagnosis of AA. Mean age was 59 years, five patients had compensated cirrhosis and two patients had severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Severe pancytopenia was diagnosed a median of 10 wk after the initiation of therapy. Three patients had pre-treatment hematological abnormalities related to splenomegaly. In six patients, antiviral treatment was interrupted at the onset of hematological abnormalities. Two patients died due to septic complications and one patient due to acute alveolar hemorrhage. The remaining patients recovered. Severe pancytopenia and especially AA, are not rare during triple therapy with telaprevir in patients with advanced liver disease. Close monitoring is imperative in this setting to promptly detect serious hematological disorders and to prevent further complications. PMID:25954117

  3. Patient education improves adherence to peg-interferon and ribavirin in chronic genotype 2 or 3 hepatitis C virus infection: A prospective, real-life, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cacoub, Patrice; Ouzan, Denis; Melin, Pascal; Lang, Jean-Philippe; Rotily, Michel; Fontanges, Thierry; Varastet, Marina; Chousterman, Michel; Marcellin, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of therapeutic education on adherence to antiviral treatment and sustained virological response (SVR) in a real-life setting in genotype 2/3 hepatitis C, as there are few adherence data in genotype 2/3 infection, even from randomized trials. METHODS: This prospective survey included genotype 2/3 patients who received peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. There was no intervention. Adherence was self-reported over the past 4 wk (peg-interferon) or 7 d (ribavirin). Adherence to bitherapy was defined as adherence to the two drugs for ≥ 20 wk. SVR was defined as undetectable RNA ≥ 12wk after the end of treatment. RESULTS: 370/674 patients received education during the first 3 mo of treatment. After 6 mo, adherence to bitherapy was higher in educated patients (61% vs 47%, P = 0.01). Adherence to peg-interferon was 78% vs 69% (P = 0.06). Adherence to ribavirin was 70% vs 56% (P = 0.006). The SVR (77% vs 70%, P = 0.05) and relapse (10% vs 16%, P = 0.09) rates tended to be improved. After adjustment for baseline differences, education improved adherence [Odds ratio (OR) 1.58, P = 0.04] but not the SVR (OR 1.54, P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: In genotype 2/3 patients, therapeutic education helped maintain real-life adherence to bitherapy. PMID:18985810

  4. Creation of transgenic Brassica napus L. plants expressing human alpha 2b interferon gene.

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L O; Kvasko, O Y; Olevinska, Z M; Spivak, M Y; Kuchuk, M V

    2012-01-01

    Spring rapeseed transgenic lines expressing human interferon alpha 2b were created by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic plant leaf explants. The maximum antiviral activity of the leaf extracts reached 4500 IU/g fresh weight. It was determined that the antioxidant activity and the activity of an enzyme of plant antioxidant system--superoxide dismutase (SOD)--in the leaf tissues of transgenic plants increased compared to controls. There were no correlations between the interferon and antioxidant activities, as well as between SOD and interferon activities. Using the obtained transgenic rapeseed plants with high interferon and antioxidant activities as a feed additive for animals might have preventive effect on their body, increasing resistance to infections of various origins. PMID:23285745

  5. Effect of sidestream tobacco smoke components on alpha/beta interferon production.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfeld, G

    1983-01-01

    Mouse embryo fibroblast cell cultures were treated with chemicals that are major components of sidestream (passive) cigarette smoke. These components were 4-aminobiphenyl and aniline-HCl. The cultures produced severely reduced levels of alpha/beta interferon after challenge with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid when compared to control cultures. Treatment of additional cell cultures with 2-methylquinoline, and intermediate-level component of sidestream tobacco smoke, or hydrazine-sulfate, a minor component of sidestream tobacco smoke but a major component of mainstream (active) tobacco smoke, also resulted in inhibition of interferon induction with polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid. Therefore, treatment of the cell cultures with chemicals that are carcinogenic was equally effective in inhibiting alpha/beta interferon induction without regard to the sidestream or mainstream smoke origin of the chemical.

  6. In vitro phase II trial of recombinant interferon alpha-2 in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, W; Temsch, E M; Schieder, K; Funovics, H; Schiessel, R; Grabner, G

    1985-07-01

    The antitumor effects of recombinant interferon alpha-2 (rIF) on clonogenic tumor cells were investigated in 29 cases of gastrointestinal cancer. An in vitro response (greater than or equal to 50% inhibition of tumor colony-forming units) was observed in 17% of the tumors, including 2 of 8 pancreatic, 2 of 6 gastric, and 1 of 10 colon cancer specimens. The relative efficacy of rIF in tissue cultures of pancreatic and gastric tumors was further substantiated by the resistance against simultaneously tested single conventional cytostatic drugs. Preliminary results of comparative studies of cloned interferon alpha-2 and human purified leukocyte interferon (hlIF) in 2 human colon cancer cell lines and 11 fresh tumor specimens suggest similar trends in terms of colony inhibition in individual assays. However, the interpatient differences indicate an overall superiority of the natural preparation (P less than 0.02).

  7. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  8. Shrimp interferon is rather a portion of the mitochondrial F0-ATP synthase than a true alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2008-07-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is a multimember cytokine family commonly known by its involvement in antiviral defense. Recently (2005), an interferon-like protein (IntlP) homologue to mammalian IFN-alpha was identified for the first time in crustaceans, in the shrimp Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus. IntlP was expressed only in WSSV-resistant shrimps (but not in naïve shrimps) and was capable to induce an unspecific antiviral effect on infected fish cells. In the present paper we show that IntlP is in reality a portion of the mitochondrial F0-ATP synthase (60-73% identity with insect F0-ATP synthase beta-chain) and not a homologue of mammalian type I interferon. In our hands, sequences corresponding to IntlP/F0-ATP synthase beta-chain were equally amplified in naïve and WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei and also in two wild Brazilian shrimp species. From the obtained results we assumed that type I IFN homologues have not yet been demonstrated in any shrimp or crustacean.

  9. A species of human alpha interferon that lacks the ability to boost human natural killer activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ortaldo, J R; Herberman, R B; Harvey, C; Osheroff, P; Pan, Y C; Kelder, B; Pestka, S

    1984-01-01

    Most species of recombinant leukocyte interferons (IFN-alpha A, -alpha B, -alpha C, -alpha D, -alpha F, -alpha I, and -alpha K) were capable of boosting human natural killer (NK) activity after a 2-hr treatment of cells at a concentration of 1-80 units/ml. In contrast, recombinant human IFN-alpha J was found to be incapable of augmenting NK activity after exposure of cells for 2 hr to concentrations as high as 10,000 units/ml. This inability of IFN-alpha J to boost NK activity was not complete because, after exposure of cells to a high concentration of IFN-alpha J (10,000 units/ml) for 18 hr, boosting of cytolysis was observed. IFN-alpha J appeared to interact with receptors for IFN on NK cells since it was found to interfere with the boosting of NK activity by other species of IFN-alpha. In contrast to its deficient ability to augment NK activity, IFN-alpha J has potent antiviral and antiproliferative activities. Such extensive dissociation of these biological activities has not been observed previously with any other natural or recombinant IFN species. Thus, this IFN species may be useful for evaluating the relative importance of various biological activities on the therapeutic effects of IFN, for understanding structure-function relationships, and for determining the biochemical pathways related to the various biological effects of IFN. PMID:6589637

  10. Repression of the murine interferon alpha 11 gene: identification of negatively acting sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Civas, A; Dion, M; Vodjdani, G; Doly, J

    1991-01-01

    The uninducible murine interferon alpha 11 gene (Mu IFN-alpha 11) shows strong homology with the highly inducible Mu IFN-alpha 4 gene in the promoter region. Negative regulatory sequences located between positions -470 and -145 were characterized in the Mu IFN-alpha 11 promoter. The removal of these sequences leads to virus-inducibility of Mu IFN-alpha 11 while their insertion in Mu IFN-alpha 4 corresponding region significantly reduced the inducibility of Mu IFN-alpha 4 promoter. On the other hand, the virus-responsive element (VRE) of the Mu IFN-alpha 11 differs by a single nucleotide substitution at position -78 from the VRE alpha 4. Constructions carrying either VRE alpha 11 or VRE alpha 4 upstream a heterologous promoter displayed different virus inducibilities. The -78 A/G substitution affects the inducibility by decreasing the affinity of VRE-binding trans-regulators. Our results suggest that the combined effect of the negative regulatory sequences and of the mutation in the VRE alpha 11, completely silences the Mu IFN-alpha 11 gene. PMID:1886773

  11. Alpha interferon-induced antiviral response noncytolytically reduces replication defective adenovirus DNA in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Tianlun; Guo, Haitao; Block, Timothy M

    2007-12-01

    Although alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) is of benefit in the treatment of viral hepatitis B, HBV replication has been refractory to the cytokine in commonly used hepatocyte-derived cell lines. In search for a cell culture system to study the mechanism by which IFN-alpha inhibits HBV replication, we infected a variety of cell lines with an adenoviral vector containing a replication competent 1.3-fold genome length HBV DNA (AdHBV) and followed by incubation with IFN-alpha. We found that IFN-alpha efficiently decreased the level of HBV DNA replicative intermediates in AdHBV infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Further analysis revealed, surprisingly, that IFN-alpha did not directly inhibit HBV replication, rather the amount of adenovirus DNA in the nuclei of MDBK cells was reduced. As a consequence, HBV RNA transcription and DNA replication were inhibited. Experiments with adenoviral vector expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) further supported the notion that IFN-alpha treatment noncytolytically eliminated adenovirus DNA, but did not kill the vector infected MDBK cells. Our data suggest that IFN-alpha-induced antiviral program is able to discriminate host cellular DNA from episomal viral DNA and might represent a novel pathway of interferon mediate innate defense against DNA virus infections.

  12. Macroscale production and analysis of crystalline interferon alpha-2B in microgravity on STS-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Paul; Nagabhushan, Tattanahalli L.; Long, Marianna M.; Bugg, Charles E.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-03-01

    The development and production of a zinc-interferon alpha-2b crystalline suspension on STS-52 has accelerated our ability to prepare novel high quality pharmaceutical preparations. Crystalline suspensions of protein therapeutics have applications in drug delivery, formulation, and manufacturing. These applications require crystalline suspensions of relatively small particles (<100 microns) of uniform size and shape. Previously, a crystalline form of interferon alpha-2b was identified from microscale crystallization methods with utility in pharmaceutical applications from microscale crystallization methods. Conditions for macroscale crystallization were established by adapting a microscale vapor diffusion method to a macroscale temperature induction method. A series of earth based pilot experiments established conditions to reproducibly crystallize zinc interferon alpha-2b in high yield and under ``cleanroom'' conditions. These conditions were maintained in microgravity. Greater than 95% of the available protein crystallized in both the ground and flight experiments. The samples were analyzed using a battery of physical, biochemical, and biological characterization methods. The results demonstrated that sample processing, polysulfone bottle confinement, and the conditions used for crystallization did not have a negative effect on protein integrity. Redissolved crystals from the flight and ground experiments showed full biological activity in a cytopathic effect inhibition assay as compared to an interferon control standard. Morphometric analysis comparing the overall length and width of the derived crystals showed a 2.4 fold increase in the length and width of the space grown crystals as compared to earth grown crystals. Subcutaneous injections of space grown crystalline preparation was compared to a non-crystalline interferon preparation in a primate pharmacokinetic study. The crystalline interferon preparation had a measured serum half-life of 12 hours as compared

  13. Homology model of human interferon-alpha 8 and its receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Seto, M. H.; Harkins, R. N.; Adler, M.; Whitlow, M.; Church, W. B.; Croze, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human interferon-alpha 8 (HuIFN alpha 8), a type I interferon (IFN), is a cytokine belonging to the hematopoietic super-family that includes human growth hormone (HGH). Recent data identified two human type I IFN receptor components. One component (p40) was purified from human urine by its ability to bind to immobilized type I IFN. A second receptor component (IFNAR), consisting of two cytokine receptor-like domains (D200 and D200'), was identified by expression cloning. Murine cells transfected with a gene encoding this protein were able to produce an antiviral response to human IFN alpha 8. Both of these receptor proteins have been identified as members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of which HGH receptor is a member. The cytokine receptor-like structural motifs present in p40 and IFNAR were modeled based on the HGH receptor X-ray structure. Models of the complexes of HuIFN alpha 8 with the receptor subunits were built by superpositioning the conserved C alpha backbone of the HuIFN alpha 8 and receptor subunit models with HGH and its receptor complex. The HuIFN alpha 8 model was constructed from the C alpha coordinates of murine interferon-beta crystal structure. Electrostatic potentials and hydrophobic interactions appear to favor the model of HuIFN alpha 8 interacting with p40 at site 1 and the D200' domain of IFNAR at site 2 because there are regions of complementary electrostatic potential and hydrophobic interactions at both of the proposed binding interfaces. Some of the predicted receptor binding residues within HuIFN alpha 8 correspond to functionally important residues determined previously for human IFN alpha 1, IFN alpha 2, and IFN alpha 4 subtypes by site-directed mutagenesis studies. The models predict regions of interaction between HuIFN alpha 8 and each of the receptor proteins, and provide insights into interactions between other type I IFNs (IFN-alpha subtypes and IFN-beta) and their respective receptor components. PMID:7613464

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of alpha interferon and thymostimulin in patients with neoplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Gesario, A; Cannuscio, B; Michel, Y; Paulling, E

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we have evaluated the immunological effects following administration of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in combination with thymostimulin (TP-1), as well as of IFN-alpha and TP-1 alone in patients with neoplasias who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with conventional chemotherapy. Data suggest that the combination of IFN-alpha and TP-1 is the most effective in the up-regulation of some immune parameters such as the CD4(+)-CD8+ cell-dependent antibacterial activity. Since this immune function plays an important role in the host protection against different targets such as invading microorganisms and/or neoplastic cells, the administration of TP-1-IFN-alpha is advisable for patients with neoplasias under chemotherapy. PMID:7583935

  15. Rapid response to 2'-deoxycoformycin in advanced hairy cell leukemia after failure of interferons alpha and gamma.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Ratain, M J; Westbrook, C; Golomb, H M

    1988-01-01

    A patient with advanced hairy cell leukemia initially had a short-lived minor response to interferon alpha therapy and failed to respond to interferon gamma. Subsequent treatment with 2'-deoxycoformycin (dCF) administered biweekly for 12 wk resulted in a complete hematological remission which has continued for 16 months without additional therapy. PMID:3128105

  16. Neutralising antibodies in patients with multiple myeloma receiving maintenance therapy with interferon alpha 2b.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J. B.; Barfoot, R.; Iveson, T.; Powles, R. L.; Millar, B. C.

    1994-01-01

    In a study of 29 patients who were receiving or had received interferon alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) as maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma, antibodies were detected in 58% (17/29) of patients measured by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only 7/17 patients who were positive for antibody in the ELISA had neutralising antibody to IFN-alpha 2b, measured by virus growth inhibition. These patients comprised six who were receiving IFN-alpha 2b at the time of assessment and one who had finished treatment. Among patients who were receiving the cytokine, four had progressive disease, one was in complete remission and one in partial remission. Neutralising activity was also detected to natural human leucocyte IFN-alpha in the same patients. Two patients who were positive for neutralising antibody remain in remission and are continuing to receive IFN-alpha 2b. These two patients have since lost their neutralising titre. No neutralising antibody to IFN-alpha 2b or natural human leucocyte IFN-alpha was detected in serum from six normal donors. The data suggest that neutralising antibody formation in patients with multiple myeloma is not responsible for relapse in patients receiving IFN-alpha 2b. The transient nature of neutralising antibody production in patients who remain in remission suggests that this response to IFN-alpha 2b is not associated with memory B cells. PMID:7917911

  17. [Hyper-IgE syndrome treated with interferon alpha 2 beta. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Segura Mendez, N H; del Rivero Hernández, L; Mejía Ortega, J; Ubaldo Ortiz Vázquez, J; Varela Delgado, A L; Espínola Reyna, G; Rico, G

    2000-01-01

    The hyper IgE syndrome is characterized by recurrent abscess on the skin, and airways and itching dermatitis. The data acquired in the lab is hypergammaglobulinemy, eosinophil in blood, tissue, sputum, with fagocitos, and quimiotaxis defect. Since 1972 it has been reported 150 cases in the world without no geographic difference and 2:1 relation with the masculine gender. The therapeutic ways are even controversial. The therapy with interferon alpha 2 beta is the alternative treatment so diminish the dermis inflammation as the seric IgE reduction. This case shows a patient with the classic clinic data and seric IgE levels who didn't present response to the habitual therapy, because of this. He was the switch to the interferon alpha 2 beta. Later on the therapy it wasesented clinical changes over the symptomatology with reduction in the over seric IgE. PMID:11558395

  18. Interferon-alpha induces transient upregulation of c-FLIP through NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Kanetaka, Yuki; Hayashida, Miho; Hoshika, Akinori; Yanase, Noriko; Mizuguchi, Junichiro

    2008-01-15

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induces apoptosis in some cell types and promotes cell survival in other cell types, but the molecular mechanisms underlying distinct IFN-alpha-induced cell behaviours remain poorly understood. In the present study, we show that IFN-alpha induced the cellular FLICE (FADD-like interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme) inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which serves as a promoter of cell survival in human B lymphoma cells. IFN-alpha induction of transient upregulation of c-FLIP was partially abrogated by the NF-kappaB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (BAY). Pretreatment with BAY sensitized both Daudi and U266 cells to the IFN-alpha-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). IFN-alpha phosphorylated the PKC isoform PKCalpha at a threonine residue, and the PKCalpha/betaI inhibitor Go6976 abrogated upregulation of IFN-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity, leading to sensitization of cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis. To analyze the role of PKCalpha in the IFN-alpha-induced signaling, Daudi cells overexpressing a constitutively active mutant of PKCalpha (caPKCalpha) were used. The caPKCalpha-expressing Daudi cells were partially resistant to the IFN-alpha-induced loss of DeltaPsi(m), concomitant with elevated levels of c-FLIP protein. Together, these results demonstrate that IFN-alpha causes a transient upregulation of c-FLIP expression, at least through PKCalpha-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. The balance between IFN-alpha-induced pro-apoptotic and survival signals determines the cell fate. Thus, therapeutic intervention in this balance may be effective for treatment of patients with IFN-alpha-refractory tumours.

  19. Treatment of childhood cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with alpha-interferon plus PUVA.

    PubMed

    Tay, Y K; Weston, W L; Aeling, J L

    1996-01-01

    All forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are rare in childhood. We describe an 8-year-old boy with plaque-stage mycosis fungoides stage IIA whose cutaneous eruption had been present for 5 years. Histologic examination revealed the presence of a granulomatous infiltrate together with atypical lymphocytes within the dermis. The child had an excellent response to combination psoralen-UVA (PUVA) with interferon-alpha 2a treatment and is currently in remission.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison of two "pegylated" interferon alpha-2 formulations in healthy male volunteers: a randomized, crossover, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Interferon (IFN) alpha conjugation to polyethylene glycol (PEG) results in a better pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety properties of a new, locally developed, 40-kDa PEG-IFN alpha-2b preparation with a reference, commercially available PEG-IFN alpha-2a in healthy male volunteers. Methods A randomized, crossover, double-blind study with a 3-weeks washout period, was done. A single 180 micrograms PEG-IFN alpha-2 dose was administered subcutaneously in both groups. Sixteen apparently healthy male subjects were included. Serum PEG-IFN concentration was measured during 336 hours by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Other clinical and laboratory variables were used as pharmacodynamic and safety criteria. Results The pharmacokinetic comparison by EIA yielded a high similitude between the formulations. In spite of a high subject variability, the parameters' mean were very close (in all cases p > 0.05): AUC: 53623 vs. 44311 pg.h/mL; Cmax: 333 vs. 271 pg/mL; Tmax: 54 vs. 55 h; half-life (t1/2): 72.4 vs. 64.8 h; terminal elimination rate (lambda): 0.011 vs. 0.014 h-1; mean residence time (MRT): 135 vs. 123 h for reference and study preparations, respectively. There were no significant differences with respect to the pharmacodynamic variables either: serum neopterin and beta-2 microglobulin levels, stimulation of 2'5' oligoadenylate synthetase expression, and serum IFN antiviral activity. A strong Spearman's rank order correlation (p < 0.01) between the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concentration-time curves was observed. Both products caused similar leukocyte counts diminution and had similar safety profiles. The most frequent adverse reactions were leukopenia, fever, thrombocytopenia, transaminases increase and asthenia, mostly mild. Conclusions Both formulations are fully comparable from the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Efficacy trials can be carried

  1. Endocrine-mediated mechanisms of fatigue during treatment with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Wadler, S; Hupart, K H

    1998-02-01

    Fatigue occurs in more than 70% of patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and is the most problematic toxicity associated with IFN-based immunotherapy. Abundant evidence suggests that immune-mediated endocrine disease occurs during IFN-alpha therapy, which may contribute to the etiology of fatigue. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a well-recognized consequence of IFN-alpha therapy and may be mediated by the induction of IFN-gamma production by lymphocytes. Administration of exogenous IFN-gamma has been associated with upregulation of class II major histocompatibility antigens in the thyroid and the development of thyroiditis. Interferon-alpha also stimulates the production of interleukin-6; both interleukin-6 and IFN-gamma have specific effects on thyrocyte function. There also is evidence suggesting that IFN-alpha initiates a cytokine cascade that effects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, thus affecting regulation of glucocorticoid and sex steroid hormone secretion, but the clinical significance of these observations has not been established. Although endocrine disease will not explain the occurrence of fatigue symptoms in all patients, there is clear evidence that hormonal deficiency syndromes occur in a relatively large portion of patients receiving systemic IFN-alpha therapy. Most importantly, the possibility of hypothyroidism must be considered; however, diagnosis of hypothyroidism in cancer patients is complicated by the occurrence of the "sick euthyroid syndrome." Clinical recommendations for assessment and treatment of IFN-alpha-induced fatigue are offered. Most importantly, measurements of thyroid-stimulating hormone and antithyroid autoantibodies should be used to evaluate thyroid status. Acknowledging the limitations of current clinical data, adrenal- and gonadal-axis dysfunction also must be considered in patients with IFN-alpha-induced fatigue.

  2. Interferon-alpha genes from Bos and Bubalus bubalus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiju; Xia, Chun; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Ming

    2006-01-01

    Interferon-a genes were cloned from six breeds of three species of two genera (three Chinese native cattle breeds of yellow cattle, wild yak and HuanHu domestic yak, one European breed of Holstein cow, and two water buffalo breeds of FuAn water buffalo and FuZhong water buffalo) by direct PCR. The PCR products were directly inserted into the expression vector to be sequenced and expressed. Sequence analysis showed that IFN-a genes of six clones were composed of 498 nucleotides, encoding a mature polypeptide with 166 amino acids. Compared with the published BoIFN-a subtypes, the IFN-a gene of Holstein cow had only one point mutation with the BoIFN-aA subtype. The IFN-a gene of yellow cattle was similar to the BoIFN-aD subtype with amino acid identity of 97.0% and may be considered as a new subtype, namely, BoIFN-aD1. The other four IFN-a genes, cloned from wild yak and HuanHu domestic yak, FuAn water buffalo, and FuZhong water buffalo, represented four new subtypes, namely, BoIFN-aI, BoIFN-aJ, BuIFN-a1, and BuIFN-a2, respectively. Each of the six clones was expressed in E. coli with molecular weight of approximately 20 kDa by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses. Antiviral activity assays showed that the six recombinant IFN-a (rIFN-a) all exhibited 1,000 times higher antiviral activity in the MDBK/VSV cell line than in the CEF/VSV one. Moreover, the rIFN-as could inhibit infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus replication in the MDBK cell line using CPE inhibition method. The results suggested that rIFN-as a potential agent for clinical application against virus diseases in cattle industry.

  3. Continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil with alpha 2b interferon for advanced colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, J. E.; Hulse, P.; Lorigan, P.; Jayson, G.; Scarffe, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Thirty patients with symptomatic colorectal carcinoma were commenced on treatment with 5-fluorouracil (2.5 g week-1) administered by continuous intravenous infusion and alpha 2b interferon (3 x 10(6) U s.c. three times a week). Six out of 30 patients (20%) achieved a partial response. Three patients (10%) had stable disease and 21 patients (70%) progressed on treatment. Twenty patients (67%) completed ten or more weeks of treatment. In nine patients, treatment was withdrawn after 2-9 weeks because of disease progression or death. One patient's treatment was interrupted by emergency surgery. The median survival for all patients was 210 days (7 months). The principal side-effects were oral mucositis (12/30 patients), nausea (8/30 patients) and transient diarrhoea (4/30 patients), and initial constitutional symptoms due to alpha 2b interferon. The combination of low-dose continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil and low-dose alpha 2b interferon is well tolerated but has no obvious advantage over alternative infusional regimens using 5-fluorouracil as a single agent. PMID:7599051

  4. Sensitive radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to recombinant human interferon-alpha A

    SciTech Connect

    Palleroni, A.V.; Trown, P.W.

    1986-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of antibodies to recombinant human leukocyte interferon A (rHuIFN-alpha A) in human serum has been developed and validated against the standard antiviral neutralization bioassay (ANB). The assay measures the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled rHuIFN-alpha A to immunoglobulins in serum. Aliquots of patients' sera are incubated with /sup 125/I-rHuIFN-alpha A and the complexes formed between antibodies in the sera and the /sup 125/I-rHuIFN-alpha A are precipitated with goat anti-human IgG serum. The radioactivity in the immune precipitate is a measure of the quantity of antibody (if present) in the serum. The sensitivity of this RIA is 5 ng of IgG/ml of serum.

  5. Experimental study of transplacental passage of alpha interferon by two assay techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Waysbort, A; Giroux, M; Mansat, V; Teixeira, M; Dumas, J C; Puel, J

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of assaying alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared during an experiment aimed at determining whether IFN-alpha crosses the human placenta. Human placentas, collected after delivery following a normal pregnancy to term, were catheterized on both sides: fetal and maternal. The IFN-alpha was introduced in known amounts in the maternal circulation and was assayed in the efferent fetal fluid. The following two detection methods were used: radioimmunoassay by competition with [125I]IFN-alpha and assay with a biological system in which IFN-alpha protected Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells from destruction by vesicular stomatitis virus. The results obtained by the two methods were in perfect agreement for the efferent fetal fluid samples. They showed the absence of placental transfer of IFN-alpha. The biological method was found to be more sensitive than radioimmunoassay for low IFN-alpha titers (< 10 IU/ml) but was less reproducible, probably owing to the use of twofold dilutions. The specificities of the two methods were similar and their practicalities were equivalent; the biological method, however, was less costly. The study illustrates the complementarity of the two methods, which were based on different principles. The agreement obtained between the two methods provides a clear confirmation of the experimental results. PMID:8328774

  6. Effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) administration on leucocytes in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Corssmit, E P; Heijligenberg, R; Hack, C E; Endert, E; Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A

    1997-02-01

    Plasma concentrations of IFN-alpha are increased in several inflammatory conditions. Several lines of evidence indicate that IFN-alpha has anti-inflammatory properties. To study the effects of IFN-alpha on leucocyte subsets and activation and on cytokines, we administered IFN-alpha (rhIFN-alpha2b; 5 x 10(6) U/m2) to eight healthy human subjects in a randomized controlled cross-over study and analysed changes in circulating leucocytes and parameters for neutrophil and monocyte activation. After administration of IFN-alpha, neutrophil counts increased, monocyte counts decreased transiently, whereas the number of lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils showed a sustained decrease. IFN-alpha administration was also associated with neutrophil activation, reflected in an increase in the plasma concentrations of elastase-alpha1-antitrypsin complexes and lactoferrin. Serum neopterin, a marker for monocyte activation, was significantly increased 10 h after administration of IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha significantly increased plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Although IL-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) remained undetectable, plasma concentrations of soluble TNF receptors p55 and p75 increased after IFN-alpha administration. We conclude that IFN-alpha induces multiple alterations in the distribution and functional properties of leucocytes. IFN-alpha exerts pro- as well as anti-inflammatory effects within the cytokine network.

  7. Combination therapy of cutaneous T cell lymphoma with interferon alpha-2a and photochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Otte, H G

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of a combination treatment with interferon alpha-2a and photochemotherapy was investigated in 16 patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma. During the initial treatment, interferon alpha-2a was given subcutaneously at maximum dose of 9 million IU. Simultaneously, photo-chemotherapy with a maximum single dose of 3.0 J/cm2 was applied. After a complete or partial remission had been achieved, the dose of interferon was continued as permanent treatment at 3-9 million IU a week. Photochemotherapy was maintained twice a week for a minimum of 2 months and then stopped depending on the course of the disease. The combination treatment was well tolerated and all patients responded to the initial therapy. Three patients were withdrawn at an early stage of therapy, as they developed erythrodermia after photochemotherapy. The permanent treatment led to a complete remission in ten out of 13 patients and to a partial remission in three patients. During the follow-up period (now 10-40 months), therapy was stopped in four patients because of progression and in one patient because of newly diagnosed Hodgkin's disease. In another three patients, who developed local recurrences, a repetition of the initial treatment schedule was necessary to keep them in remission.

  8. Interferon-alpha stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gisslinger, H; Svoboda, T; Clodi, M; Gilly, B; Ludwig, H; Havelec, L; Luger, A

    1993-03-01

    The successful therapeutic use of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in myeloproliferative disorders offered the possibility to test its acute and long-term effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in humans. ACTH and cortisol plasma concentrations were measured in 8 patients hourly starting from 4 p.m. through 12 p.m. on three occasions. The first time all patients were studied before initiation of therapy, when the vehicle was injected alone. The patients were studied again on day 1 of IFN-alpha therapy (5 million units) and once more after 3 weeks of therapy. On the control day, plasma concentrations of ACTH and cortisol were in the range expected for this time of day. In contrast, after the first administration of IFN-alpha a significant stimulation of the HPA axis was observed. After 3 weeks of IFN-alpha therapy, no significant stimulation of the HPA axis occurred after administration of IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha-induced adaptive changes in the HPA axis were also indicated by a significantly enhanced ACTH and cortisol response to exogenously administered supramaximal doses of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) when the patients had been on IFN-alpha treatment for 3 weeks. To determine the exact locus of the IFN-alpha action, in vitro experiments were performed using rat hypothalamic organ and primary pituitary and adrenal cell culture systems. Thereby a significant stimulation of hypothalamic CRH secretion and rat adrenal corticosterone production was observed after INF-alpha at concentrations of 5 x 10(-8) M or 10(-7) M respectively. In contrast, no direct IFN-alpha effect on pituitary ACTH secretion could be observed in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The Role of Polymorphisms Near the IL28B Gene on Response to Peg-Interferon and Ribavirin in Thalassemic Patients With Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Behnava, Bita; Sharafi, Heidar; Keshvari, Maryam; Pouryasin, Ali; Mehrnoush, Leila; Salimi, Shima; Karimi Elizee, Pegah; Ghazimoghaddam, Mehran; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the major cause of liver failure in thalassemic patients. In these patients, iron overload and their comorbidities make difficulties during Pegylated-Interferon (PEG-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Objectives We aimed to assess the impact of polymorphisms near the IL28B gene on virological response in HCV - infected thalassemic patients, who were treated with PEG-IFN and RBV. Patients and Methods This cross - sectional study was conducted on 143 thalassemic patients with chronic hepatitis C, who were treated with a combination of PEG-IFN and RBV regimen. The rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms were assessed as the most common polymorphisms near the IL28B gene by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) was significantly lower in thalassemic patients with HCV genotype-1 infection compared to patients with HCV genotype-3 infection. Among baseline predictors, rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms were found to be the only parameters associated with achievement of SVR in thalassemic patients with HCV genotype-1 infection however, there was no association between these polymorphisms and the rate of SVR in thalassemic patients with HCV genotype-3 infection. Conclusions In HCV genotype-1- infected thalassemic patients with rs12979860 CC genotype and without severe comorbidities, PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy can be tried yet in those with rs12979860 CT/TT it may be reasonable to treat cases with new direct-acting antivirals. PMID:27110259

  10. Anti-viral effect of interferon-alpha on bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Sentsui, H; Takami, R; Nishimori, T; Murakami, K; Yokoyama, T; Yokomizo, Y

    1998-12-01

    To get basic information to control persistent virus infection among domestic animals by cytokines, the antiviral activity of four natural human cytokines against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was evaluated. Normal bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) and fetal bovine muscular cells (FBMC) were treated with varying doses of human interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta. The antiviral activity in treated cells was measured by the titration of virus infectivity in comparison with non-treated controls. IFN-alpha significantly suppressed virus growth in both PBML and FBMC. The growth of two cytopathogenic and two noncytopathogenic strains was suppressed in the presence of more than 10(3) u/ml of IFN-alpha. Addition of either TNF-alpha or TNF-beta to IFN-alpha did not potentiate the suppressive effect. IFN-alpha also suppressed the replication of BVDV in PBML from cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  11. Interferon-γ Protects from Staphylococcal Alpha Toxin-Induced Keratinocyte Death through Apolipoprotein L1.

    PubMed

    Brauweiler, Anne M; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that frequently infects the skin, causing lesions and cell destruction through its primary virulence factor, alpha toxin. Here we show that interferon gamma (IFN-?) protects human keratinocytes from cell death induced by staphylococcal alpha toxin. We find that IFN-? prevents alpha toxin binding and reduces expression of the alpha toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). We determine that the mechanism for IFN-?-mediated resistance to alpha toxin involves the induction of autophagy, a process of cellular adaptation to sublethal damage. We find that IFN-? potently stimulates activation of the primary autophagy effector, light chain 3 (LC3). This process is dependent on upregulation of apolipoprotein L1. Depletion of apolipoprotein L1 by small interfering RNA significantly increases alpha toxin-induced lethality and inhibits activation of light chain 3. We conclude that IFN-? plays a significant role in protecting human keratinocytes from the lethal effects of staphylococcal alpha toxin through apolipoprotein L1-induced autophagy.

  12. Three open-label studies of oral interferon alpha in the treatment of HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Jordan, W C

    1994-04-01

    Three open-label studies were conducted in which natural human interferon-alpha (nHuIFN-alpha) was given orally to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients at a daily dosage of 150 IU for 12 months in an attempt to assess the effects of this treatment on their CD4+ cell counts. In the first study, 110 patients received nHuIFN-alpha, and 142 patients received nHuIFN-alpha and azidothymidine (AZT). At 12 months, patients given nHuIFN-alpha alone had a mean increase of 14% in their CD4+ counts, although the mean increase in absolute CD4+ count was similar between the groups. Blacks in this study were more likely to experience an increase in CD4+ count than other ethnic groups (P < 0.001). In the second study, 40 black, male homosexuals with CD4+ count between 350 and 500/mm3 were enrolled in groups of 10 to receive either nHuIFN-alpha or AZT, or both nHuIFN-alpha and AZT, or nothing (untreated controls). At 12 months, the mean CD4+ counts of the patients in the group given nHuIFN-alpha alone were significantly higher than the mean CD4+ counts in both the group given AZT alone and the untreated controls (P < 0.01). In the third study, 38 patients with CD4+ cell counts > 700/mm3 were enrolled in groups of 19, matched by gender and ethnic group, to receive nHuIFN-alpha or nothing (untreated controls). Patients given nHuIFN-alpha experienced a mean increase of 12% in their CD4+ counts by the end of the 12-month study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary axis remains intact after interferon-alpha treatment in hematologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, M; Koskinen, P; Remes, K; Viikari, J; Irjala, K

    1997-09-01

    Many endocrinologic disturbances have been reported during and after interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment. These disturbances have often been caused by autoantibodies. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether IFN-alpha causes hormonal changes and if it is necessary to search for such disturbances routinely. Ten patients with hematologic malignancies were examined before and after 4 months of IFN-alpha treatment. Pituitary function was tested by hypothalamic releasing hormones (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, growth hormone-releasing hormone, GHRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH). The adrenal glands were tested with the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) test. The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test was performed on the men (n = 4). The IFN treatment was well tolerated, and no long-term hormonal side effects were found. The testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) index tended to improve. There were no significant differences between the hormone responses before and after IFN-alpha treatment. We conclude that the hypothalamic-pituitary axis remains intact after IFN-alpha treatment. There is no need to follow patients endocrinologically if the patients are not predisposed by autoantibodies.

  14. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  15. Cytokine Response Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Clearance in HIV Coinfected Patients Initiating Peg Interferon-α Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Truong Tam; Niloofar, Reihani; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Nils, Kuster; Bollore, Karine; Ducos, Jacques; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Reynes, Jacques; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on peginterferon-α (pegIFNα) and ribavirin induces important changes in cytokine release and T cell activation. Objective Immune response to pegIFNα-ribavirin therapy was explored in patients coinfected by HCV and HIV. Methods Concentrations of 25 cytokines and CD8+ T cell activation were monitored in HCV/HIV coinfected patients classified as sustained virological responders (SVR, n=19) and non-responders (NR, n=11). Results High pretreatment concentrations of IP-10 (CXCL-10) and MCP-1 (CCL-2) were associated with a poor anti-HCV response. PegIFNα-ribavirin therapy increased CD8+ T cell activation and induced significant changes in levels of eleven cytokines related to both Th1 and Th2 responses in SVR (IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12p40/70, IL-13, IP-10, eotaxin, MCP-1) but of only six cytokines in NR (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-12p40/70, IL-13, eotaxin). The highest rise in MIP-1β and MCP-1 levels was observed four weeks after anti-HCV treatment initiation in SVR compared to NR (p=0.002 and p=0.03, respectively), whereas a decrease in IL-8 concentration was associated with treatment failure (p= 0.052). Conclusions Higher and broader cytokine responses to pegIFNα-ribavirin therapy were observed in SVR patients compared to NR. Changes in IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 serum concentrations may be associated with efficacy of pegIFNα- and ribavirin-based therapies in patients coinfected by HCV and HIV. PMID:26740864

  16. Emerging therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus--focus on targeting interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Eben I; Helfgott, Simon M; Kriegel, Martin A

    2012-06-01

    Current therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a debilitating, potentially lethal, multifactorial systemic autoimmune disease, are limited to suppressing disease activity and are associated with multiple adverse effects. Recent advances in basic and translational sciences have elucidated a crucial role for the interferon-alpha (IFNα) pathway in the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disease. The so-called "type I interferon signature" has emerged as a major risk factor for disease activity of SLE. Multiple genes encoding for molecules within the type I interferon pathway have been associated with SLE in genome wide association studies. In addition, innate immune receptors are thought to be triggered by either endogenous and/or exogenous stimuli that lead to hypersecretion of IFNα. We review the multiple emerging treatment strategies targeting IFNα-related pathways. These include monoclonal antibodies against IFNα, anti-IFNα antibody-inducing vaccines, and inhibitors of Toll-like receptors. We also summarize the current status of these pharmaceutical agents in early clinical trials.

  17. Alpha interferon inhibits early stages of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Y; Pitha, P M

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the effect of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) on a single replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the lymphocytic cell line CEM-174, which is highly sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN. Pretreatment of cells with 50 to 500 U of recombinant human IFN-alpha per ml resulted in a marked reduction in viral RNA and protein synthesis. The effect of IFN-alpha was dose dependent and was amplified in multiple infection cycles. IFN-induced inhibition of viral protein synthesis could be detected only when cells were treated with IFN-alpha prior to infection or when IFN-alpha was added up to 10 h postinfection, but not if IFN-alpha was added at the later stages of HIV-1 replication cycle or after the HIV-1 infection was already established. Analysis of the integrated HIV-1 provirus showed a marked decrease in the levels of proviral DNA in IFN-treated cells. Thus, in contrast to the previous studies on established HIV-1 infection in T cells, in which the IFN block appeared to be at the posttranslational level, during de novo infection, IFN-alpha interferes with an early step of HIV-1 replication cycle that occurs prior to the integration of the proviral DNA. These results indicate that the early IFN block of HIV-1 replication, which has been previously observed only in primary marcophages, can also be detected in the IFN-sensitive T cells, indicating that the early IFN block is not limited to macrophages. Images PMID:1738192

  18. Effect of interferon-alpha on experimental septal fibrosis of the liver - study with a new model.

    PubMed

    Souza, M M; Paraná, R; Trepo, C; Barbosa, A A; Oliveira, I; Andrade, Z A

    2001-04-01

    Interferon-alpha is used in antiviral therapy in humans, mainly for viral hepatitis B and C. An anti-fibrotic effect of interferon has been postulated even in the absence of anti-viral response, which suggests that interferon directly inhibits fibrogenesis. Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica regularly develop diffuse septal fibrosis of the liver, which terminates in cirrhosis 40 days after inoculation. The aim of this study was to test the anti-fibrotic effect of interferon in this experimental model. Evaluation of fibrosis was made by three separate methods: semi-quantitative histology, computerized morphometry and hydroxyproline measurements. Treatment with interferon-alpha proved to inhibit the development of fibrosis in this model, especially when doses of 500,000 and 800,000 IU were used for 60 days. Besides confirming the anti-fibrotic potential of interferon-alpha on a non-viral new experimental model of hepatic fibrosis, a clear-cut dose-dependent effect was observed.

  19. Effects of human alpha, beta and gamma interferons on varicella zoster virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, K; Thawaranantha, D; Ayuthaya, P I; Bhumisawasdi, J; Shiraki, K; Yamanishi, K

    1994-06-01

    The antiviral effects of interferon (IFN) on varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro were examined. The values for the 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) of IFN-alpha, beta and gamma determined by plaque reduction assay, were 0.813, 0.650 and 13.750 IU/ml, respectively, against VZV and 18.00, 10.38 and 115.0 IU/ml, respectively, against HSV. Thus IFN-alpha and beta were more effective than IFN-gamma against both VZV and HSV and VZV was more sensitive than HSV to the IFNs. Five mutants of VZV which were resistant to acyclovir (ACV), phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) or bromodeoxyuridine (BUDR) were also sensitive to IFN beta, their average ID50 being 1.31 IU/ml. Analysis of virus-specific proteins by the immunofluorescent technique with various antisera showed that IFN had a significant effect before early protein synthesis.

  20. Alpha interferon and hepatitis B and C. An integrated approach using practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, J; Flynn, K; Katz, L; Mahl, T; Corasanti, J

    1993-09-01

    Utilizing the techniques of total quality management, a team designed a clinical guideline for the use of alpha interferon as a treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis. The team included TEMINEX staff, a primary care physician, the plan's internal gastroenterologist, and its university-based consultant gastroenterologists. A synopsis of the available published research data and clinical opinion (a draft TEMINEX report) was used to focus discussions. The final TEMINEX report represented consensus on patient selection criteria and treatment regimens. All members of the team agreed to a review and approval process. Although quantitative data concerning the effects of guideline implementation are not yet available, it appears that the concerns of all members of the team have been satisfied. Patient selection criteria supported by the results of well-designed research are in place. Appropriate candidates for alpha-interferon therapy receive expedited treatment and the plan's internal monitoring processes are more efficient. Primary care physicians and consultant gastroenterologists feel that they made positive contributions both to the quality of care and to the consensus development process.

  1. Thyroiditis after treatment with interleukin-2 and interferon alpha-2a.

    PubMed Central

    Pichert, G.; Jost, L. M.; Zöbeli, L.; Odermatt, B.; Pedia, G.; Stahel, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Serial thyroid functions studies were carried out in patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma treated with interleukin-2 (3 MU m-2 by continuous infusion days 1-4) and interferon alpha-2a (6 MU m-2 subcutaneously on days 1 and 4), both given on alternate weeks. The results on eight patients who completed at least three cycles of treatment are described. Four patients developed thyroid dysfunction with a hyperthyroid phase of 2 weeks followed by a hypothyroid phase ranging from 12 to 24 weeks. Two patients became clinically symptomatic and required treatment. Fine-needle aspirates of the thyroid were obtained in three patients with thyroid dysfunction. The cytology revealed a mixed cellular infiltrate with lymphocytes and histiocytes, and immunocytochemical staining showed strong HLA-DR expression of all thyrocytes, both suggestive of an autoimmune thyroiditis. One patient with thyroiditis developed anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, the serology of all other patients was normal. Patients with thyroid dysfunction tended to have higher in vivo stimulated lytic activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells and had significantly higher levels of CD16 positive blood cells as compared to euthyroid patients. The possibility of autoimmune thyroiditis should be anticipated in future trails combining interleukin-2 and interferon alpha-2a. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2390468

  2. Expression profiles of human interferon-alpha and interferon-lambda subtypes are ligand- and cell-dependent.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Philippa; Mane, Viraj P; Schramm, Lynnsie M; Puig, Montserrat; Verthelyi, Daniela; Chen, Aaron; Zhao, Zeng; Navarro, Maria B; Kirschman, Kevin D; Bykadi, Srikant; Jubin, Ronald G; Rabin, Ronald L

    2012-09-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies suggest distinct roles for 12 human interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and 3 IFN-λ subtypes that may be elucidated by defining the expression patterns of these sets of genes. To overcome the impediment of high homology among each of the sets, we designed a quantitative real-time PCR assay that incorporates the use of molecular beacon and locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, and in some instances, LNA oligonucleotide inhibitors. We then measured IFN subtype expression by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by purified monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and -dendritic cells (MDDC) in response to poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), imiquimod and CpG oligonucleotides. We found that in response to poly I:C and LPS, monocytes, MDM and MDDC express a subtype pattern restricted primarily to IFN-β and IFN-λ1. In addition, while CpG elicited expression of all type I IFN subtypes by pDC, imiquimod did not. Furthermore, MDM and mDC highly express IFN-λ, and the subtypes of IFN-λ are expressed hierarchically in the order IFN-λ1 followed by IFN-λ2, and then IFN-λ3. These data support a model of coordinated cell- and ligand-specific expression of types I and III IFN. Defining IFN subtype expression profiles in a variety of contexts may elucidate specific roles for IFN subtypes as protective, therapeutic or pathogenic mediators.

  3. Interferon-alpha gene therapy prevents aflatoxin and carbon tetrachloride promoted hepatic carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Talaat Abdel; Aziz, Mohammed Abdel; Fouad, Hanan Hassan; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Salama, Hosny; Abd-Alla, Samira; Wehab, Mosaad Attia Abdel; Ahmed, Tauseef

    2005-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) gene transfer was evaluated with regard to its possible protective effects against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-initiated and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-promoted hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time an experimental in vivo gene therapy trial was conducted in Egypt. Two genes were examined in liver tissue by RT-PCR: the first was glutathione-S-transferase placental (GST-P) isoenzyme, as an early marker to detect hepatic malignancy; the second was IFN-alpha gene expression to detect the efficiency of gene uptake and its persistence after transduction. Forty male rats, divided equally into 4 groups, were included in the study: the first group was the control; the second group received CCl4 0.2 ml subcutaneously twice weekly for 12 weeks and AFB1 0.25 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally twice weekly for 6 weeks; the third group received IFN-alpha (10(8) pfu) intravenously in the tail vein prior to the start of CCl4 and AFB1 injections; and the fourth group received IFN-alpha (10(8) pfu) by intrahepatic injection under ultrasonography guide after termination of the CCl4 and AFB1 injection schedule. The results showed that IFN-alpha has a marked and significant protective effect against hepatic fibrogenesis as well as hepatic carcinogenesis. Pathological examination of liver tissue proved that IFN-alpha minimized both fibrotic and cirrhotic processes. The amount of fibrosis was less in both groups receiving IFN-alpha, with more protection in the group that received IFN-alpha intravenously prior to CCl4 and AFB1. The results of RT-PCR showed that the IFN-alpha gene was significantly expressed in both groups receiving IFN-alpha, with a more intense expression in the group that received IFN-alpha by intrahepatic injection after termination of CCl4 and AFB1 injections. The IFN-alpha gene was detected after three months of gene transduction in rats receiving IFN-alpha intravenously prior to CCl4 and AFB1

  4. Receptor density is key to the alpha2/beta interferon differential activities.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Ignacio; Harari, Daniel; Schreiber, Gideon; Uzé, Gilles; Pellegrini, Sandra

    2009-09-01

    Multiple type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) elicit Jak/Stat activation, rapid gene induction, and pleiotropic effects, such as differentiation, antiviral protection, and blocks in proliferation, which are dependent on the IFN subtype and the cellular context. To date, ligand- and receptor-specific molecular determinants underlying IFN-alpha/beta differential activities or potencies have been well characterized. To analyze cellular determinants that impact subtype-specific potency, human fibrosarcoma U5A-derived clones, exhibiting a gradient of IFN sensitivity by virtue of increasing receptor levels, were monitored for Jak/Stat signaling, gene induction, cell cycle lengthening, and apoptosis. In cells with scarce receptors, IFN-beta was more potent than IFN-alpha2 in antiproliferative activity, while the two subtypes were equipotent in all other readouts. Conversely, in cells with abundant receptors, IFN-alpha2 matched or even surpassed IFN-beta in all readouts tested. Our results suggest that the differential activities of the IFN subtypes are dictated not only by the intrinsic ligand/receptor binding kinetics but also by the density of cell surface receptor components.

  5. Efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon-alpha2b plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Santin, Miguel; Shaw, Evelyn; Garcia, M Jose; Delejido, Antonio; de Castro, Eduardo Rodriguez; Rota, Rosa; Altés, Jordi; Baguena, Francisco; Valero, Silvia; Sala, Montserrat; Casanova, Aurora

    2006-04-01

    Low response rates and concerns about safety have limited the implementation of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in patients with HIV infection. The efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin in HIV-infected patients with CHC were evaluated in a prospective, open-label, multicenter study. Sixty patients with persistently high transaminases, positive HCV-RNA, CD4 count > or = 300 cells/microl, and HIVRNA <10,000 copies/ml were included. Patients were given peg-IFN 80-150 microg/week plus ribavirin 800-1200 mg/day. Treatment was scheduled for 24 weeks for genotypes 2/3 and 48 weeks for genotypes 1/4. In an intent- to-treat analysis, 16 (26.7%) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). Twenty patients (33.3%) discontinued treatment prematurely, but only in 10 (16.6%) was discontinuation due to adverse events. Negative predictive values for SVR on the basis of HCV-RNA decline between baseline and week 4 were 100% for 1- and 2-log10 fall, and positive predictive values were 40% and 58.3% for 1- and 2-log10 fall, respectively. CD4 fell by a median of 216 cells during treatment, but no HIV-associated complications occurred. In conclusion, treatment with peg-IFN alpha-2b plus ribavirin is safe and clears RNA-HCV in about one-quarter of HIV-infected patients with CHC. Efforts should be focused on optimizing management of side effects and counseling to improve adherence and to keep patients on treatment. Assessment of HCV-RNA at week 4 may help guide early therapeutic decision making. PMID:16623633

  6. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys)

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type. We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a. In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs. PMID:27057828

  7. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys): TRACES Study.

    PubMed

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type.We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated.In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a.In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs.

  8. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys): TRACES Study.

    PubMed

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type.We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated.In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a.In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs. PMID:27057828

  9. Combined therapy trial with interferon alpha-2a and ablative therapy in the treatment of anogenital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D K; Maw, R D; Dinsmore, W W; Blaakaer, J; Correa, M A; Falk, L; Ferenczy, A S; Fortier, M; Frazer, I; Law, C; Moller, B M; Oyakawa, N

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the combination of systemically administered interferon alpha-2a and ablative surgery for the treatment of genital and/or perianal warts produces a 30% or greater improvement in lasting response rate compared with a control group receiving a combination of placebo and ablative therapy. DESIGN: Randomised, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial using 1 or 3 MIU of interferon alpha-2a or placebo administered subcutaneously three times weekly for 10 weeks in combination with ablative surgery. SETTING: International, multicentre study in 10 genitourinary medicine clinics. PATIENTS: Two hundred and fifty patients with anogenital warts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lasting response at week 38. RESULTS: Standard efficacy analysis at week 38 showed a lasting response in 51% (35/68) of 3 MIU interferon-treated patients, 48% (30/63) of 1 MIU interferon-treated patients and 43% (29/67) of placebo-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: With the doses and regime described, treatment with interferon alpha-2a in combination with ablative therapy is not significantly superior in the treatment of anogenital warts than placebo and ablative therapy. PMID:8698355

  10. Human macrophage activation. Modulation of mannosyl, fucosyl receptor activity in vitro by lymphokines, gamma and alpha interferons, and dexamethasone.

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, T; Gordon, S

    1985-01-01

    We describe a sensitive assay to measure immune activation of human macrophages in cell culture. Freshly isolated blood monocytes from normal subjects lack the ability to endocytose and degrade mannosyl-terminated glycoconjugates via specific receptors, but acquired this activity after cultivation in autologous serum for approximately 3 d. Addition of specific antigen, purified protein derivative, or T cell mitogens to mononuclear cells prevented the appearance of macrophage mannosyl receptor activity and lymphokine, gamma-, and alpha-interferons selectively down-regulated receptor activity in monocyte-macrophage targets. The effects of antigen challenge and gamma-interferon on mannosyl receptors can be prevented by 10(-8) M dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also inhibited release of another macrophage activation marker, plasminogen activator, which was increased by both gamma- and alpha-interferons. These studies show that activation of human macrophages is regulated by opposing actions of lymphokines and glucocorticoids. PMID:2579101

  11. The interferon-alpha gene family of Marmota himalayana, a Chinese marmot species with susceptibility to woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinping; Wang, Baoju; Huang, Hongping; Tian, Yongjun; Bao, Junjie; Dong, Jihua; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2008-01-01

    The interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) gene family is an important part of the immune system. Recombinant interferon-alpha is widely used to treat viral hepatitis and malignant diseases. Marmota himalayana has been found to be susceptible to woodchuck hepatitis virus, a virus genetically related to hepatitis B virus (HBV), and is suitable as an animal model for studies on HBV infection. Here, the IFN-alpha gene family of M. himalayana (cwIFN-alpha) was characterized. Sequence data indicate that the cwIFN-alpha family consists of at least 8 functional sequences and 6 pseudogenes with high homology within the family and to IFN-alpha of Marmota monax, a related species and well-established animal model. The recombinant cwIFN-alpha subtypes were expressed and tested to be active in viral protection assay and to induce expression of MxA in a species-specific manner. This work provides essential information for future work on testing new therapeutic approaches of HBV infection based on IFN-alpha in M. himalayana.

  12. Dexamethasone, all trans retinoic acid and interferon alpha 2a in patients with refractory multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Rosas, A; Huerta-Guzmán, J; Talavera, A; Cleto, S

    1999-02-01

    Few effective regimen are available for patients with refractory multiple myeloma (RMM). Generally, responses are scarce and disease free survival is very short. We developed a new therapeutic option in these patients using dexamethasone (40 mg/m2, i.v., daily, days 1 to 4), all-trans retinoic acid (45 mg/m2, po, daily, days 5 to 14) and interferon alpha 2a (9.0 MU, daily, subcutaneously, days 5 to 14). The treatment was administered every 21 days for 6 cycles. In a pilot study, 12 patients, heavily treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in some cases with interferon, were allocated to receive the afore mentioned treatment. Response was observed in 10 patients (83%). With a median follow-up of 36.1 months (range 27 to 41), seven patients remain alive and disease-free without any treatment. Two patients were failures and have died due to tumor progression. Toxicity was mild and all patients received treatment according to the planned doses of drugs. The use of biological modifiers in combination with dexamethasone offer a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. More studies are warranted to define the role of this type of treatment.

  13. Liver-targeting of interferon-alpha with tissue-specific domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Coulstock, Edward; Sosabowski, Jane; Ovečka, Milan; Prince, Rob; Goodall, Laura; Mudd, Clare; Sepp, Armin; Davies, Marie; Foster, Julie; Burnet, Jerome; Dunlevy, Gráinne; Walker, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNα) is used for the treatment of hepatitis C infection and whilst efficacious it is associated with multiple adverse events including reduced leukocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts, fatigue, and depression. These events are most likely caused by systemic exposure to interferon. We therefore hypothesise that targeting the therapeutic directly to the intended site of action in the liver would reduce exposure in blood and peripheral tissue and hence improve the safety and tolerability of IFNα therapy. We genetically fused IFN to a domain antibody (dAb) specific to a hepatocyte restricted antigen, asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Our results show that the murine IFNα2 homolog (mIFNα2) fused to an ASGPR specific dAb, termed DOM26h-196-61, could be expressed in mammalian tissue culture systems and retains the desirable biophysical properties and activity of both fusion partners when measured in vitro. Furthermore a clear increase in in vivo targeting of the liver by mIFNα2-ASGPR dAb fusion protein, compared to that observed with either unfused mIFNα2 or mIFNα2 fused to an isotype control dAb VHD2 (which does not bind ASGPR) was demonstrated using microSPECT imaging. We suggest that these findings may be applicable in the development of a liver-targeted human IFN molecule with improved safety and patient compliance in comparison to the current standard of care, which could ultimately be used as a treatment for human hepatitis virus infections.

  14. A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Browne, Edward P; Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, combined with a saturating rate of conversion to these states, was able to successfully fit the experimental dataset. Sensitivity analysis showed that the potency of inhibition by IFNα was particularly dependent on specific network parameters and rate constants. This model will be useful for designing new therapies targeting the IFNα network in HIV-1-infected individuals, as well as potentially serving as a template for understanding the interaction of IFNα with other viruses. PMID:27010978

  15. Dexamethasone, all trans retinoic acid and interferon alpha 2a in patients with refractory multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Rosas, A; Huerta-Guzmán, J; Talavera, A; Cleto, S

    1999-02-01

    Few effective regimen are available for patients with refractory multiple myeloma (RMM). Generally, responses are scarce and disease free survival is very short. We developed a new therapeutic option in these patients using dexamethasone (40 mg/m2, i.v., daily, days 1 to 4), all-trans retinoic acid (45 mg/m2, po, daily, days 5 to 14) and interferon alpha 2a (9.0 MU, daily, subcutaneously, days 5 to 14). The treatment was administered every 21 days for 6 cycles. In a pilot study, 12 patients, heavily treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in some cases with interferon, were allocated to receive the afore mentioned treatment. Response was observed in 10 patients (83%). With a median follow-up of 36.1 months (range 27 to 41), seven patients remain alive and disease-free without any treatment. Two patients were failures and have died due to tumor progression. Toxicity was mild and all patients received treatment according to the planned doses of drugs. The use of biological modifiers in combination with dexamethasone offer a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. More studies are warranted to define the role of this type of treatment. PMID:10850283

  16. A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Edward P.; Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, combined with a saturating rate of conversion to these states, was able to successfully fit the experimental dataset. Sensitivity analysis showed that the potency of inhibition by IFNα was particularly dependent on specific network parameters and rate constants. This model will be useful for designing new therapies targeting the IFNα network in HIV-1-infected individuals, as well as potentially serving as a template for understanding the interaction of IFNα with other viruses. PMID:27010978

  17. Lack of effect of interferon alpha 2a upon fluorouracil pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, M. T.; Patel, N.; Johnston, A.; Joel, S. P.; Slevin, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of 5-fluorouracil (FUra) was studied in 19 colorectal cancer patients during treatment with FUra and high-dose leucovorin (LV) with or without interferon alpha 2a (IFN-alpha). All received LV 200 mg m-2 over 2 h, then FUra 400 mg m-2 over 5 min then FUra 400 mg m-2 over 22 h, repeated on day 2, on a 14 day cycle. Nine patients also received IFN-alpha 6 MU every 48 h, starting at least 2 weeks before the study. Series of 14 blood samples were assayed for FUra by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Minimum Akaike information criterion estimation was used to determine the simplest effective pharmacokinetic model. This consisted of a single compartment with first-order (linear) and Michaelis-Menten (non-linear) components to drug elimination. This model gave r2 > 0.98 in 19/20 data sets. With the Michaelis constant (KM) set at 15 microM, values were derived for the volume of distribution (Vd), the maximum rate of non-linear elimination (Vmax) and the first-order elimination rate constant (K1.e). Mean (+/- s.d.) values in control (no IFN-alpha) patients were: Vd 10.4 (+/- 1.9) l m-2, Vmax 182 (+/- 59) mumol l-1 h-1 and k1.e 4.35 (+/- 0.58) h-1. No significant differences were detected in patients receiving IFN-alpha, in whom the equivalent mean values were Vd 10.0 (+/- 0.9) l m-2, Vmax 141 (+/- 27) mumol l-1 h-1 and k1.e 3.96 (+/- 0.5) h-1. Mean trapezoidal AUC0-22 h was similar in the two groups (control patients 116 microM h, IFN-alpha patients 125 microM h). No significant correlations with renal or hepatic function were detected. These results, while not inconsistent with previous reports of a reduced rate of FUra elimination at higher IFN-alpha doses, suggest that any clinical effect of this moderate dose of IFN-alpha on FUra toxicity or activity is due to modulation at target cells, not to pharmacokinetic interaction. PMID:7917928

  18. Psychosocial assessment and monitoring in the new era of non-interferon-alpha hepatitis C virus treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Paul J; Bhulani, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global concern. With the 2014 Food and Drug Administration approvals of two direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimen and the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir regimen, we may now be in the era of all-pill regimens for HCV. Until this development, interferon-alpha along with Ribavirin has remained part of the standard of care for HCV patients. That regimen necessitates psychosocial assessment of factors affecting treatment eligibility, including interferon-alpha-related depressive symptoms, confounding psychiatric conditions, and social aspects such as homelessness affecting treatment eligibility. These factors have delayed as much as 70% of otherwise eligible candidates from interferon-based treatment, and have required treating physicians to monitor psychiatric as well as medical side effects throughout treatment. All-pill DAA regimens with the efficaciousness that would preclude reliance upon interferon-alpha or ribavirin have been anticipated for years. Efficacy studies for these recently approved DAA regimens provide evidence to assess the degree that psychosocial assessment and monitoring will be required. With shorter treatment timelines, greatly reduced side effect profiles, and easier regimens, psychosocial contraindications are greatly reduced. However, current or recent psychiatric comorbidity, and drug-drug interactions with psychiatric drugs, will require some level of clinical attention. Evidence from these efficacy studies tentatively demonstrate that the era of needing significant psychosocial assessment and monitoring may be at an end, as long as a manageable handful of clinical issues are managed. PMID:26380046

  19. Low dose alpha interferon therapy can be effective in chronic active hepatitis C. Results of a multicentre, randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tapias, J M; Forns, X; Ampurdanés, S; Titó, L; Planas, R; Viver, J M; Acero, D; Torres, M; Mas, P; Morillas, R; Forné, M; Espinós, J; Llovet, J M; Costa, J; Olmedo, E; López-Labrador, F X; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Rodés, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is some controversy concerning the efficacy of low dose alpha interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. AIMS--To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with low doses of alpha interferon in chronic hepatitis C. PATIENTS--One hundred and forty one patients with anti-HCV positive chronic active hepatitis C from six hospitals were enrolled in the study. METHODS--Patients were randomised to treatment with 5 MU (group A) or 1.5 MU (group B) injections. The dose was reduced in responders from group A or increased in non-responders from group B to maintain treatment with the minimal effective dose. Patients were treated for 48 weeks and followed up for 24 additional weeks with no treatment. Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to evaluate response. RESULTS--A sustained response was seen in eight patients from group A (12%) and in 15 (21%) from group B. This difference was not statistically significant. Increasing the dose of interferon led to sustained response in only five of 58 patients (9%) from group B who did not respond to 1.5 MU injections. In contrast, 15 of 21 patients (71%) in whom ALT remained normal with 1.5 MU injections developed a sustained response. By multivariate analysis sustained response seemed associated with young age and was more frequent in patients with genotype 3 HCV infection. Sustained response was preceded by a rapid normalisation of ALT and was inversely related to the amount of alpha interferon necessary to maintain ALT at low values during treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Some patients with chronic hepatitis C are very sensitive to alpha interferon and can be successfully treated with low doses. Treatment with higher doses may be effective in a minority of patients who do not respond to low doses. PMID:8707096

  20. Antiviral defense in mice lacking both alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptors.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, M F; Müller, U; Huang, S; Aguet, M; Zinkernagel, R M

    1995-01-01

    Alpha/beta interferon (IFN) and gamma IFN exert widely overlapping biological effects. Still, mice with individually inactivated alpha/beta or gamma receptors exhibit variably severely reduced resistance to infection and altered immune responses. To investigate to what extent the two IFN systems are functionally redundant, we generated mice with a combined receptor defect (AG129 mice). Like mice with individual mutations, AG129 mice had no apparent anomalies, confirming that in the mouse the IFN system is not essential for normal development. These mice showed an additive phenotype with respect to antiviral defense and exhibited an increased susceptibility to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and notably vaccinia virus infection. Because of unlimited replication and subsequent rapid exhaustion of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors, these mice were unable to mount a CTL response to LCMV. CD8(+)-mediated immunopathology was absent in LCMV-infected mice, and virus persisted. Vaccinia virus replicated much faster in AG129 mice, and a 10(4)-fold lower dose of vaccinia virus was sufficient to prime these mice. With the normal priming dose of 10(6) PFU, cytopathic effects and overwhelming infection possibly causing partial exhaustion of CTL interfered with the anti-vaccinia virus response. Even though global antiviral immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were within normal ranges, the IgG subclass distribution was heavily biased toward IgG1. PMID:7609046

  1. Cloning and biologic activities of a bovine interferon-alpha isolated from the epithelium of a rotavirus-infected calf.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, P J; Entrican, G; Gelder, K I; Collins, R A

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a distinct bovine (Bo) interferon (IFN) alpha, designated BoIFN-alpha E, was generated from gut epithelial cells isolated from a rotavirus-infected calf. The BoIFN-alpha E cDNA sequence shared a greater than 90% identity with the other BoIFN-alpha subtypes. The cDNA encoding BoIFN-alpha E has been expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) as a vector. Insect cells infected with recombinant virus secreted a protein with a relative molecular mass of 19,500 into the culture medium not observed in cells infected with wild-type AcMNPV. Supernatants harvested from cultures of insect cells infected with the recombinant AcMNPV encoding IFN-alpha E inhibited the replication of Semliki Forest virus in a bovine cell line and typically showed 10(6) dilution units/ml of antiviral activity. However, differences were observed between the activities of recombinant BoIFN-alpha E and BoIFN-alpha 1 1 on the proliferation of WC1+ gamma/delta T cells. Purified ( > 99%) WC1+ gamma/delta T cells failed to proliferate to IFN-alpha 1 1 or concanavalin A and IFN-alpha E acted as a weak proliferative signal to these cells, demonstrating a functional difference between two closely related BoIFN-alpha subtypes. PMID:8640447

  2. Pharmacokinetic characteristics, pharmacodynamic effect and in vivo antiviral efficacy of liver-targeted interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    Rycroft, Daniel; Sosabowski, Jane; Coulstock, Edward; Davies, Marie; Morrey, John; Friel, Sarah; Kelly, Fiona; Hamatake, Robert; Ovečka, Milan; Prince, Rob; Goodall, Laura; Sepp, Armin; Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNα) is used for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection, and whilst efficacious, it is associated with multiple adverse events caused by systemic exposure to interferon. We therefore hypothesise that targeting IFN directly to the intended site of action in the liver would reduce exposure in blood and peripheral tissue and hence improve the safety and tolerability of IFNα therapy. Furthermore we investigated whether directing IFN to the reservoir of infection in the liver may improve antiviral efficacy by increasing local concentration in target organs and tissues. Our previous results show that the mIFNα2 fused to an ASGPR specific liver targeting antibody, DOM26h-196-61, results in a fusion protein which retains the activity of both fusion partners when measured in vitro. In vivo targeting of the liver by mIFNα2-DOM26h-196-61, hereafter referred to as targeted mIFNα2, was observed in microSPECT imaging studies in mice. In this study we show by pharmacokinetic analysis that antibody mediated liver-targeting results in increased uptake and exposure of targeted mIFNα2 in target tissues, and correspondingly reduced uptake and exposure in systemic circulation, clearance organs and non-target tissues. We also show that cytokine activity and antiviral activity of liver-targeted IFN is observed in vivo, but that, contrary to expectations, liver-targeting of mIFNα2 using ASGPR specific dAbs actually leads to a reduced pharmacodynamic effect in target organs and lower antiviral activity in vivo when compared to non-targeted mIFNα2-dAb fusions.

  3. Pharmacokinetic Characteristics, Pharmacodynamic Effect and In Vivo Antiviral Efficacy of Liver-Targeted Interferon Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Rycroft, Daniel; Sosabowski, Jane; Coulstock, Edward; Davies, Marie; Morrey, John; Friel, Sarah; Kelly, Fiona; Hamatake, Robert; Ovečka, Milan; Prince, Rob; Goodall, Laura; Sepp, Armin; Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNα) is used for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection, and whilst efficacious, it is associated with multiple adverse events caused by systemic exposure to interferon. We therefore hypothesise that targeting IFN directly to the intended site of action in the liver would reduce exposure in blood and peripheral tissue and hence improve the safety and tolerability of IFNα therapy. Furthermore we investigated whether directing IFN to the reservoir of infection in the liver may improve antiviral efficacy by increasing local concentration in target organs and tissues. Our previous results show that the mIFNα2 fused to an ASGPR specific liver targeting antibody, DOM26h-196-61, results in a fusion protein which retains the activity of both fusion partners when measured in vitro. In vivo targeting of the liver by mIFNα2-DOM26h-196-61, hereafter referred to as targeted mIFNα2, was observed in microSPECT imaging studies in mice. In this study we show by pharmacokinetic analysis that antibody mediated liver-targeting results in increased uptake and exposure of targeted mIFNα2 in target tissues, and correspondingly reduced uptake and exposure in systemic circulation, clearance organs and non-target tissues. We also show that cytokine activity and antiviral activity of liver-targeted IFN is observed in vivo, but that, contrary to expectations, liver-targeting of mIFNα2 using ASGPR specific dAbs actually leads to a reduced pharmacodynamic effect in target organs and lower antiviral activity in vivo when compared to non-targeted mIFNα2-dAb fusions. PMID:25689509

  4. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D S; Scott, F W; Schiff, E I

    1985-12-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and were statistically analyzed by the Spearman-Kärber method. An increase in the concentration of Bo IFN-alpha I1 enhanced its protective effect against every test virus strain. Bo IFN-alpha I1 had a marked in vitro effect on the bovine diarrhea viral strains. It demonstrated less protection against the pseudorabies and parainfluenza 3 viruses. Its effectiveness against the two infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral strains was lesser and of a low order.

  5. Role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in inhibition of growth of interferon-sensitive and interferon-resistant Rickettsia prowazekii strains in L929 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Turco, J; Winkler, H H

    1993-01-01

    The ability of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) alone and in combination with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) to inhibit the growth of interferon-sensitive and -resistant Rickettsia prowazekii strains in mouse L929 cells was examined, and the possible role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the suppression of rickettsial growth induced by TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or both cytokines was evaluated. TNF-alpha inhibited the growth of strains Madrid E (IFN-gamma sensitive and alpha/beta interferon [IFN-alpha/beta] sensitive) and Breinl (IFN-gamma sensitive and IFN-alpha/beta resistant), but not that of strain 83-2P (IFN-gamma resistant and IFN-alpha/beta resistant), in L929 cells. Inhibition of the growth of the Madrid E strain in L929 cells treated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in combination was greater than that observed with either TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma alone. Similarly, inhibition of the growth of the Breinl strain in L929 cells treated with both cytokines was greater than that observed with TNF-alpha alone; however, it did not differ significantly from the inhibition observed with IFN-gamma alone. Although strain 83-2P was resistant to TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma alone, its growth was inhibited in L929 cells treated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in combination. Nitrite production was measured in mock-infected and infected L929 cell cultures, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors NG-methyl-L-arginine (NGMA) and aminoguanidine were used to evaluate the role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in cytokine-induced inhibition of rickettsial growth. Nitrite production was induced in mock-infected or R. prowazekii-infected L929 cell cultures treated with IFN-gamma plus TNF-alpha, but not in mock-infected cultures that were untreated or treated with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha alone. Nitrite production was also not induced in untreated, R. prowazekii-infected cultures; however, in some instances, it was induced in infected cultures treated with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha alone

  6. [Long-term complete response of multiple lung metastases from renal cell carcinoma induced by combination therapy with interferon alpha and UFT: a case report].

    PubMed

    Terachi, T; Okada, Y; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1993-04-01

    We report a case of long-term complete response of multiple lung metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the combination therapy with interferon alpha (IFN alpha) and UFT. A 38 year-old man having left RCC with lung metastases underwent radical left nephrectomy and extended lymph node dissection, the pathological stage being pT2N2. Although metastatic lung tumors increased in size and number against intravenously admitted interferon gamma (IFN gamma) therapy after the surgery, they completely disappeared following the subsequent combination therapy with intramuscularly admitted interferon alpha (IFN alpha) and oral intake of UFT in about 2 years. The patient has been disease-free for 5 years after cessation of the treatment. Combination therapy with IFN alpha and UFT might be more effective on metastases of RCC than single use of IFN alpha or IFN gamma.

  7. Rotational dynamics of bases in the gene coding interferon alpha 17 (IFNA17).

    PubMed

    Krasnobaeva, L A; Yakushevich, L V

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, rotational oscillations of nitrogenous bases in the DNA with the sequence of the gene coding interferon alpha 17 (IFNA17), are investigated. As a mathematical model simulating oscillations of the bases, we use a system of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations that takes into account effects of dissipation, action of external fields and dependence of the equation coefficients on the sequence of bases. We apply the methods of the theory of oscillations to solve the equations in the linear approach and to construct the dispersive curves determining the dependence of the frequency of the plane waves (ω) on the wave vector (q). In the nonlinear case, the solutions in the form of kink are considered, and the main characteristics of the kink: the rest energy (E0), the rest mass (m0), the size (d) and sound velocity (C0), are calculated. With the help of the energetic method, the kink velocity (υ), the path (S), and the lifetime (τ) are also obtained.

  8. Percutaneous absorption of interferon-alpha by self-dissolving micropiles.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukako; Saeki, Atsushi; Shiroyama, Keiji; Sugioka, Nobuyuki; Takada, Kanji

    2008-04-01

    To ascertain the pharmaceutical usefulness of self-dissolving micropiles (SDMPs) containing interferon (IFN), two types of SDMPs were prepared using chondroitin sulfate and dextran as the base. After percutaneous administration of 5000 IU/kg IFN-alpha2b SDMP to rats, serum IFN levels were measured for 6 h. The peak serum IFN level, maximum drug concentration (Cmax), and the time when serum IFN level reaches to Cmax, time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax), were 8.2+/-0.5 IU/ml and 1.2+/-0.1 h, respectively, for chondroitin SDMP. For dextran SDMP, Cmax and Tmax were 3.1+/-0.4 IU/ml and 3.3+/-0.3 h, respectively. AUC of chondroitin SDMP was 1.5 times greater than that of dextran SDMP. Bioavailabilities (BAs) of IFN were 378.3% for chondroitin SDMP and 255.9% for dextran SDMP that were larger than 100%. The BA of IFN from subcutaneous (s.c.) injection solution was 320.9%. The relative BAs of IFN SDMPs against s.c. injection solution were 117.8% for chondroitin SDMP and 79.9% dextran SDMP. An in vitro release experiment suggested the faster release rate of IFN from chondroitin SDMP, 57.3% at 5 min, than dextran SDMP, 32.6% at 5 min. Chondroitin SDMP containing IFN showed good stability for 3 months and no damage to the administered rat skin.

  9. Interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 regulates NRASQ61K-induced melanomagenesis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Romi; Forloni, Matteo; Bisserier, Malik; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Yang, Qiaohong; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the NRAS oncogene are present in up to 20% of melanoma. Here, we show that interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 (IFI6) is necessary for NRASQ61K-induced transformation and melanoma growth. IFI6 was transcriptionally upregulated by NRASQ61K, and knockdown of IFI6 resulted in DNA replication stress due to dysregulated DNA replication via E2F2. This stress consequentially inhibited cellular transformation and melanoma growth via senescence or apoptosis induction depending on the RB and p53 pathway status of the cells. NRAS-mutant melanoma were significantly more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of DNA replication stress-inducing drugs, and knockdown of IFI6 increased sensitivity to these drugs. Pharmacological inhibition of IFI6 expression by the MEK inhibitor trametinib, when combined with DNA replication stress-inducing drugs, blocked NRAS-mutant melanoma growth. Collectively, we demonstrate that IFI6, via E2F2 regulates DNA replication and melanoma development and growth, and this pathway can be pharmacologically targeted to inhibit NRAS-mutant melanoma. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16432.001 PMID:27608486

  10. Total chemical synthesis of human interferon alpha-2b via native chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lehmann, Clara; Chen, Xishan; Romerio, Fabio; Lu, Wuyuan

    2015-07-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNα) is a cytokine that orchestrates innate and adaptive immune responses and potently inhibits proliferation of normal and tumor cells. These properties have warranted the use of IFNα in clinical practice for the treatment of several viral infections and malignancies. However, overexpression of IFNα leads to immunopathology observed in the context of chronic viral infections and autoimmune conditions. Thus, it is desirable to develop therapeutic approaches that aim at suppressing excessive IFNα production. To that end, artificial evolution of peptides from phage display libraries represents a strategy that seeks to disrupt the interaction between IFNα and its cell surface receptor and thus inhibit the ensuing biological effects. Mirror-image phage display that screens peptide libraries against the D-enantiomer is particularly attractive because it allows for identification of proteolysis-resistant D-peptide inhibitors. This approach, however, relies on the availability of chemically synthesized D-IFNα composed entirely of D-amino acids. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological properties of IFNα2b of 165 amino acid residues produced by native chemical ligation, which represents an important first step toward the discovery of D-peptide antagonists with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25810135

  11. Interferon-alpha therapy for refractory kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai Wei; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Hai Guang; Wang, Yan An; Su, Li Xin; Fan, Xin Dong; Zheng, Jia Wei

    2016-01-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a relatively rare vascular tumor with an aggressive and infiltrating nature. Previous studies have revealed an exclusive relationship between KHE and Kasabach-Merritt Phenomenon (KMP), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. No universally accepted treatment modality exists for refractory KHE with or without KMP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy for treatment of refractory KHE. Twelve consecutive patients with KHE were treated with subcutaneous injections of IFN-α after other treatments had failed. Eleven patients exhibited a reduction in tumor size of more than 50%, and the platelet count for all five patients with KMP returned to normal level after IFN-α therapy. The duration of IFN-α treatment ranged from 3 months to 9 months (mean: 6.3 months). The response time for IFN-α treatment ranged from 10 days to 5 weeks (mean: 3.6 weeks). Additionally, no severe complications, such as neurological damage or spastic diplegia, were observed in these patients. In conclusion, our study suggested that IFN-α therapy is effective and safe for refractory KHE, and IFN-α may be used as an alternative after other treatments have failed. PMID:27796340

  12. Ligand-stimulated downregulation of the alpha interferon receptor: role of protein kinase D2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Varghese, Bentley; Baker, Darren P; Fuchs, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) controls homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells, regulates antiviral resistance, inhibits angiogenesis, and suppresses tumor growth. This cytokine is often used to treat cancers and chronic viral infections. The extent of cellular responses to IFN-α is limited by the IFN-induced ubiquitination and degradation of the IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) chain of the cognate receptor. IFNAR1 ubiquitination is facilitated by the βTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase that is recruited to IFNAR1 upon its degron phosphorylation, which is induced by the ligand. Here we report identification of protein kinase D2 (PKD2) as a kinase that mediates the ligand-inducible phosphorylation of IFNAR1 degron and enables binding of βTrcp to the receptor. Treatment of cells with IFN-α induces catalytic activity of PKD2 and stimulates its interaction with IFNAR1. Expression and kinase activity of PKD2 are required for the ligand-inducible stimulation of IFNAR1 ubiquitination and endocytosis and for accelerated proteolytic turnover of IFNAR1. Furthermore, inhibition or knockdown of PKD2 robustly augments intracellular signaling induced by IFN-α and increases the efficacy of its antiviral effects. The mechanisms of the ligand-inducible elimination of IFNAR1 are discussed, along with the potential medical significance of this regulation. PMID:21173164

  13. Photodegradation mechanism and reaction kinetics of recombinant human interferon-alpha2a.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyong-Ha; Lee, Yun Mi; Suh, Jung-Keun; Song, Nam Woong

    2007-02-01

    The photodegradation mechanism of recombinant human interferon-alpha2a (IFNalpha2a) has been investigated using absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and fluorescence photobleaching kinetics measurements under various conditions. After photobleaching, the absorption profile of aromatic amino acid residues in IFNalpha2a was almost absent, and an absorption profile showing a monotonic increase toward short wavelengths was observed. According to the CD spectrum analysis, partial unfolding of IFNalpha2a was accompanied by a complete loss of fluorescence. This unfolding was attributed to tryptophan-mediated photoinduced disulfide bond cleavage. Photooxygenation and photoionization of tryptophan (Trp) residues followed by subsequent radical reactions were the main photodegradation pathways of IFNalpha2a. Photobleaching kinetics was faster in acidic solution (pH 2.5) than in neutral solution (pH 7.4). The variation of photobleaching kinetics seemed to be caused by the structural differences in IFNalpha2a according to the solution pH. The relationship between the protein conformation and photobleaching rate could be explained based on the competition between excited state energy transfer and the photoionization process in Trp residues. PMID:17277841

  14. Total chemical synthesis of human interferon alpha-2b via native chemical ligation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Lehmann, Clara; Chen, Xishan; Romerio, Fabio; Lu, Wuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNα) is a cytokine that orchestrates innate and adaptive immune responses, and potently inhibits proliferation of normal and tumor cells. These properties have warranted the use of IFNα in clinical practice for the treatment of several viral infections and malignancies. However, over-expression of IFNα leads to immunopathology observed in the context of chronic viral infections and autoimmune conditions. Thus, it is desirable to develop therapeutic approaches that aim at suppressing excessive IFNα production. To that end, artificial evolution of peptides from phage display libraries represents a strategy that seeks to disrupt the interaction between IFNα and its cell surface receptor, and thus inhibit the ensuing biological effects. Mirror-image phage display that screens peptide libraries against the D-enantiomer is particularly attractive because it allows for identification of proteolysis-resistant D-peptide inhibitors. This approach, however, relies on the availability of chemically synthesized D-IFNα composed entirely of D-amino acids. Here we describe the synthesis and biological properties of IFNα2b of 165 amino acid residues produced by native chemical ligation, which represents an important first step toward the discovery of D-peptide antagonists with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25810135

  15. Liver-Specific Alpha 2 Interferon Gene Expression Results in Protection from Induced Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Delmastro, Paola; Salucci, Valentina; Paz, Odalys Gonzalez; Rovere, Patrizia; Ciliberto, Gennaro; La Monica, Nicola; Palombo, Fabio

    2000-01-01

    The current therapy for hepatitis B and C is based on systemic administration of recombinant human alpha interferon (r-hIFN-α). However, systemic delivery of r-hIFN-α is associated with severe side effects, but more importantly, it is effective in only a small percentage of patients. In an effort to maximize IFN-α antiviral efficacy, we have explored the therapeutic potential of murine IFN-α2 (mIFNα2) selectively expressed in the liver. To this end, we have developed a helper-dependent adenovirus vector (HD) containing the mIFN-α2 gene under the control of the liver-specific transthyretin promoter (HD-IFN). Comparison with a first-generation adenovirus carrying the same mIFN-α2 expression cassette indicates that at certain HD-IFN doses, induction of antiviral genes can be achieved in the absence of detectable circulating mIFN-α2. Challenge of injected mice with mouse hepatitis virus type 3 showed that HD-IFN provides high liver protection. Moreover, liver protection was also observed in acute nonviral liver inflammation hepatitis induced by concanavalin A at 1 month postinfection. These results hold promise for the development of a gene therapy treatment for chronic viral hepatitis based on liver-restricted expression of IFN-α2. PMID:10775620

  16. [Effect of small doses of interferon-alpha on food conditioning in young and ageing rats].

    PubMed

    Loseva, E V; Loginova, N A; Biriukovan, L M; Mats, V N; Pasikova, N V

    2007-04-01

    Low doses (10 or 350 ME) of human interferon-alpha (HIA) were intranasally applied to young (3-4 months) and ageing (12-15 months) Wistar rats during food conditioning. In control groups, development of the conditioned reflex to acoustic stimulus (tone) did not differ significantly in young and ageing rats in the course of chronic applications of the HIA. However, the control ageing rats were better than young rats in time-interval conditioning. Small doses of HIA do not cause anorexia in rats whereas large doses do so. Tone-conditioning did not change in rats of both ages when they were treated with 10 ME of the HIA; moreover, 350 ME increased food motivation, especially in young rats. Time-interval conditioning in aging rats was descended by both doses to the level of young rats, whereas in young rats it did not change at all. We suggest that these differences between ages may by accounted for be different affinity and concentration of micro-opiod receptors (which are the targets for the HIA) in the brain structures responsible for food behaviour, and for counting time intervals.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Clearance after Discontinuation of Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Monotherapy in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takeshi; Ito, Koichi; Sugiura, Tokio; Goto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    The present patient was a 4-year-old boy. His hepatitis C virus genotype was 2a, and his viral load was high (1400,000 U/mL). The pretreatment liver biopsy revealed no fibrosis or malignancy and mild chronic hepatitis; his Knodell's histological activity (HAI) score was 4. Single nucleotide polymorphism of IL28B (rs8099917) was major type. The patient began antiviral treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a (90 μg/week). At week 9, serum HCV RNA became undetectable, with a sensitivity of 50 copies/mL. Antiviral treatment was discontinued at week 11 because the ALT level increased to 610 U/L. After discontinuation of therapy, the patient's serum HCV RNA status became positive again. The serum viral load increased to 100,000 U/mL. During this period, he had been observed without medication. Sixteen months after stopping treatment, serum HCV became undetectable. Over a 4-year period, HCV RNA became negative and his anti-HCV antibody titer gradually decreased. In conclusion, though antiviral therapy resulted in failure or incomplete therapy, a reduced viral load resulted in viral clearance in the present patient. Interleukin 28B genotype might have association with the clearance of hepatitis C virus after discontinuation of antiviral therapy. PMID:23118765

  18. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN-α2b) gene in occupationally protracted low dose radiation exposed personnel.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Sheikh, Shaharyar; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiations impact human tissues by affecting the DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha 2b gene synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral protein. This study was aimed to identify interferon alpha-2b mutations as a consequence of the use of occupational chronic low dose radiation by hospital radiation exposed workers. A molecular analysis was done in which DNAs were extracted from blood samples from radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine workers. The gene was amplified through polymerase chain reaction and further genetic data from sequencing results analyzed by bioinformatics tools in order to determine as to how mutations in interferon alpha 2b sequences will lead to changes in human interferon alpha-2b protein. A total of 41% gene mutations was detected among all radiation exposed workers in which higher percentage (5.4%) of base insertion mutations and 14% frameshift mutations were found in radiology workers. The chronic use of low dose of radiations by occupational workers has a significant correlation with mutational effects on interferon alpha 2b gene, further evident by depressed interferon alpha levels in serum. This can lead to depressed immunity in radiation exposed workers. Hematological profiling of this group also showed hyperimmune response in the form of lymphocytosis.

  19. Proliferative and antiproliferative effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell lines derived from cervical and ovarian malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, D.G.; Massad, L.S.; Kao, M.S.; Collins, J.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Four human cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas (ME-180, SiHa, HT-3, and MS751) and three human cell lines derived from ovarian carcinomas (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, and NIH:OVCAR-3) were analyzed in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant interferon-gamma and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth and survival. The effects of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth were measured after 24 and 72 hours of incubation by the incorporation of chromium 51. The results of this analysis showed that all seven cell lines were resistant to the antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that the growth of most cell lines was inhibited by interferon-gamma by 72 hours of incubation, and that after 72 hours of incubation all cell lines demonstrated a synergistic antiproliferative response to the combination of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the effects of these cytokines on cell growth were found to differ among cell lines and varied with the concentration and the duration of incubation. The growth of one cell line (Caov-3) was stimulated by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that the clinical effects of these cytokines on the growth of gynecologic cancers may be more complex than previously supposed.

  20. Factors associated with the initiation of alpha-interferon treatment in Medicaid patients diagnosed with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, J S; Gutterman, E M; Hodes, D; Klaskala, W

    2005-03-01

    We aimed to determine rates of treatment with alpha-interferon medication in patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV), to ascertain the prevalence of selected conditions that could influence initiation of interferon treatment, and to examine the association between the presence of these conditions and interferon treatment. A nested case-control design was used in California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) claims data covering the period from 1 January 1996 to 30 June 2002. Interferon-treated cases and non-treated controls were selected in a 1 : 2 ratio that matched the length of the observation period and year of index HCV diagnosis. Predictor variables examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses included demographics, substance abuse and dependence, psychotropic drug use, selected chronic conditions and medical utilization. The proportion of eligible subjects diagnosed with HCV and treated with interferon ranged from 10.7 to 13.9%. There were 529 treated cases that met the eligibility criteria and 1058 non-treated HCV patients selected as controls. Multivariate factors that increased the likelihood of treatment were a liver biopsy, a diagnosis of mild liver disease, a diagnosis of psoriasis, antidepressant use and classification of race/ethnicity as 'other'. A decreased likelihood of treatment was linked to age > or =65 years, a diagnosis of kidney disease, one to four emergency visits and five or more emergency visits. The proportion of patients receiving interferon treatment in the Medi-Cal-insured population was low compared with published rates in HCV patients in other general medical settings. The diverse factors linked to initiation of HCV therapy raise compelling questions for further research.

  1. Effect of alpha 2b interferon on inducement of mIL-2R and treatment of HCV in PBMC from patients with chronic viral hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Gui-Ju; Liu, Bing-Xiang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the level of membrane interleukin-2 receptor (mIL-2R) on surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the therapeutic efficacy of alpha 2b interferon on the treatment of HCV-RNA in PBMC of patients with chronic hepatitis C and to compare the negative rates of HCV-RNA in PBMC, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV in serum. METHODS: Before and after treatment of alpha 2b interferon, the level of mIL-2R of patients with chronic hepatitis C was detected by biotin-streptavidin (BSA). The therapeutic group (26 cases) was treated with alpha 2b interferon (3 MU/d) and control therapeutic group (22 cases) was treated with routine drugs (VitC, aspartic acid). The total course of treatment with alpha 2b interferon and routine drug was six months and per course of the treatment was three months. The levels of HCV-RNA in PBMC, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV in serum were detected before and after a course of the treatment. RESULTS: Before and after treatment of alpha 2b interferon and routine drugs, the levels of mIL-2R in silence stage were (3.44 ± 0.77)% and (2.95 ± 0.72)%, the levels of mIL-2R in inducement stage were (33.62 ± 3.95)% and (30.04 ± 3.73)%. There was a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.01-P < 0.05). After treatment of alpha 2b interferon with 3 MU/d for two courses of the treatment, the total negative rates of HCV-RNA in the PBMC and HCV-RNA, anti-HCV in serum were 42.31% (11/26), 57.69% (15/26), 65.38%(17/26) respectively. After the treatment of routine drug, the negative rates of HCV-RNA in PBMC and HCV-RNA, anti-HCV in serum were 13.64% (3/22), 22.73% (5/22), 27.27% (6/22) respectively. There was high significant difference in the group treated with alpha 2b interferon and the group treated with routine drugs (P < 0.01-P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The mIL-2R can be induced by alpha 2b interferon during the treatment. The alpha 2b interferon has a definite effect on the treatment of HCV-RNA in PBMC. The curative effect of alpha 2b interferon is

  2. Combined therapy with danazol, pegilated interferon, and ribavirin improves thrombocytopenia and liver injury in rats with fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Guillermo Cabrera; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Jimenez-Mendez, Ricardo; Buitimea, Angel Leon; Román, Margarita Bahena; Cortez-Gomez, Rudyard; Esparza, Jorge Reyes; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combinations of pegilated-interferon (PEG-IFN), ribavirin, and danazol on thrombocytopenia and liver injury in rats with fibrosis. Male adult Wistar rats were treated with either mineral oil, danazol (0.83 mg/kg per day), PEG-interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN, 0.3 microg/ week) + ribavirin (12 mg/kg per day), PEG-IFN + ribavirin + danazol, CCl(4) (4 g/kg for eight weeks), CCl(4) + PEG-IFN + ribavirin, or CCl(4) + PEG-IFN + ribavirin+ danazol. The following assays were conducted: hematology, clinical chemistry, liver function, liver fibrosis, lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression, and bone-marrow DNA content. Platelet counts were low in sham-treated animals and animals treated with PEG- IFN + ribavirin (30% and 25% respectively; P < 0.05). PEG-IFN + ribavirin + danazol reduced platelet counts of fibrotic animals by only 9% (P < 0.05). PEG- IFN + ribavirin reduced hepatic collagen content by 50%, whereas danazol + PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced hepatic collagen content by 60% (P < 0.05). PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced the total bilirubin concentration by 27%, alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity by 75% and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) activity by 74% (P < 0.05). In contrast, danazol + PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced total bilirubin levels by 61%, alkaline phosphatase activity by 45%, ALT activity by 76%, and gamma-GTP activity by 74% (P < 0.05). The only treatment that increased interleukin 10 (IL-10) mRNA in fibrotic rats was PEG-IFN + ribavirin. However, danazol + PEG-IFN + ribavirin reduced the expression of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor ss. Bone-marrow DNA content was not altered by any treatment. In conclusion, PEG-IFN + ribavirin + danazol could be a new therapeutic option for patients with liver injury, fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. PMID:18007553

  3. Antitumor potential of a synthetic interferon-alpha/PLGF-2 positive charge peptide hybrid molecule in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Naifei; Guo, Rui; Wang, Hong; Li, Wei; Wang, Guanjun; Cui, Jiuwei; Jin, Haofan; Hu, Ji-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. Interferon alpha (IFNα) has been used to treat pancreatic cancer, but its clinical application has been significantly hindered due to the low antitumor activity. We used a “cDNA in-frame fragment library” screening approach to identify short peptides that potentiate the antitumor activity of interferons. A short positively charged peptide derived from the C-terminus of placental growth factor-2 (PLGF-2) was selected to enhance the activity of IFNα. For this, we constructed a synthetic interferon hybrid molecule (SIFα) by fusing the positively charged PLGF-2 peptide to the C-terminus of the human IFNα. Using human pancreatic cell lines (ASPC and CFPAC1) as a model system, we found that SIFα exhibited a significantly higher activity than did the wild-type IFNα in inhibiting the tumor cell growth. The enhanced activity of the synthetic SIFα was associated with the activation of interferon pathway target genes and the increased binding of cell membrane receptor. This study demonstrates the potential of a synthetic SIFα as a novel antitumor agent. PMID:26584517

  4. Disturbance of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Mediated Beta Interferon Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Hanke, Brigitte; Zawatzky, Rainer; Soto, Ubaldo; van Riggelen, Jan; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we show that malignant human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells lost their ability to synthesize endogenous beta interferon (IFN-β) upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatment. IFN-β transcription, however, was reinducible in nonmalignant HPV-positive cells, which was confirmed in functional protection assays against encephalomyocarditis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus infections. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-β blocked the antiviral effect, excluding the possibility that other IFN types were involved. Conversely, both malignant and immortalized cells could be protected against viral cytolysis when either IFN-β, IFN-α, or IFN-γ was added exogenously. This indicates that only the cross talk between TNF-α and the IFN-β pathways, and not IFN-α/β and IFN-γ signaling in general, is perturbed in cervical carcinoma cells. Notably, full virus protection was restricted exclusively to nonmalignant cells, indicating that the antiviral effect correlates with the growth-inhibitory and virus-suppressive properties of TNF-α. The IFN-regulatory factors IRF-1 and p48 (ISGF3γ) emerged as key regulatory molecules in the differential IFN-β response, since their transcription was either absent or only inefficiently enhanced in tumorigenic cells upon treatment with TNF-α. Inducibility of both genes, however, became reestablished in cervical carcinoma cells, which were complemented to nontumorigenicity after somatic cell hybridization. Complementation was paralleled by the entire reconstitution of cytokine-mediated IFN-β expression and the ability of TNF-α to exert an antiviral state. In contrast, under conditions where tumor suppression was not accomplished upon somatic cell hybridization, neither expression of IRF-1, p48, and IFN-β nor antiviral activity could be restored. PMID:11739693

  5. Recombinant alpha 2 interferon is superior to doxorubicin for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C. L.; Wu, P. C.; Lok, A. S.; Lin, H. J.; Ngan, H.; Lau, J. Y.; Chung, H. T.; Ng, M. M.; Yeoh, E. K.; Arnold, M.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective trial of 75 Chinese patients with histologically proven inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 25 patients were randomised to receive doxorubicin 60-75 mg m-2 intravenously once every 3 weeks, 25 to receive recombinant alpha 2 interferon (rIFN) (Roferon) 9-18 x 10(6) IU m-2 intramuscularly (i.m.) daily and 25 to receive rIFN 25-50 x 10(6) IU m-2 i.m. three times weekly. Patients were switched to the other drug if: (a) there was progressive disease after 12 weeks, (b) unacceptable toxicity developed and (c) they had received a total of 500 mg m-2 of doxorubicin. Six patients had switching over of therapy, three on doxorubicin and three on rIFN. In the remaining 69 patients on single drug therapy, the median survival rate of patients on doxorubicin and rIFN was 4.8 and 8.3 weeks respectively (P = ns.). rIFN induced tumour regression of 25-50% in 12% of patients and of over 50% in 10% of patients. When compared with doxorubicin, rIFN was associated with more tumour regression (P = 0.00199) and less progressive tumours (P = 0.00017). It caused less prolonged and less severe marrow suppression (P = 0.01217), and had significantly less fatal complications than doxorubicin (P = 0.01383). Doxorubicin caused fatal complications due to cardiotoxicity and neutropenia in 25% of patients. rIFN was associated with fatal complications due to dementia and renal failure in 3.8% of patients. In the treatment of inoperable HCC, rIFN is superior to doxorubicin in causing more tumour regression, less serious marrow suppression and less fatal complications. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2557881

  6. Acute Changes in Striatal Microstructure Predict the Development of Interferon-Alpha Induced Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Nicholas G.; Cooper, Ella A.; Tibble, Jeremy; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D.; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used clinically for hepatitis C treatment. Though effective, IFN-α induces marked behavioral changes that, when severe, can appear indistinguishable from major depression. Curiously, fatigue and motivational impairment evolve rapidly, suggesting acute engagement of immune-brain communicatory pathways, yet mood impairments typically emerge later, after weeks of treatment. Whether this reflects prolonged modulation of motivational processes underpinning fatigue or separate neurobiological mechanisms is currently unclear. Methods Here, we used quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging, an advanced microstructural neuroimaging technique sensitive to effects of inflammation, in a prospective study design to measure acute brain changes to IFN-α and relate these to later development of discrete behavioral changes. Twenty-three patients initiating IFN-α treatment for hepatitis C underwent qMT imaging and blood sampling at baseline and 4 hours after their first IFN-α injection. Comprehensive behavioral and psychological assessments were completed at both scanning sessions and at treatment weeks 4, 8, 12, and 24. Results IFN-α injection stimulated an acute inflammatory cytokine response and evoked fatigue that peaked between 4 and 12 weeks, preceding mood change by 4 weeks. In the brain, IFN-α induced an acute change in striatal microstructure that additionally predicted development of fatigue but not mood symptoms. Conclusions Our findings highlight qMT as an in vivo biomarker of central effects of peripheral inflammation. We demonstrate exquisite sensitivity of the striatum to IFN-α, implicate striatal perturbation in IFN-α-induced fatigue, and dissociate this from mechanisms underlying IFN-α-induced mood symptoms, providing empirical support for distinct neural substrates mediating actions on motivation and mood. PMID:26169252

  7. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-01

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  8. Interactions of interferon-alpha 2a with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine in colorectal cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tevaearai, H T; Laurent, P L; Suardet, L; Eliason, J F; Givel, J C; Odartchenko, N

    1992-01-01

    The biological activity of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) depends upon intracellular enzymatic cleavage by pyrimidine phosphorylase to form 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Interferon-alpha 2a (IFN-alpha) effect was analysed alone and combined with 5-FU or 5'-dFUrd, on proliferation inhibition of eight human colorectal cancer cell lines. The toxicity of 5-FU was enhanced by IFN-alpha in only one line (SW-480). In contrast, interactive enhancement of IFN-alpha was observed with 5'-dFUrd in five lines (WiDr, HT-29, 513, SW-480 and Co-115). In each of the lines showing potentiation by IFN/5'dFUrd but not by IFN/5-FU, cytoplasmic pyrimidine phosphorylase activity was increased after 5 days' incubation with IFN-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Two lines (LISP-1 and SW-620) showed no potentiation of either 5-FU or 5'-dFUrd toxicity by IFN-alpha, and no change in pyrimidine phosphorylase activity. Potentiation of 5'-dFUrd effect by IFN-alpha may thus be explained by an enhancement of its conversion to 5-FU through stimulation of pyrimidine phosphorylase activity. PMID:1534247

  9. Early activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase is associated with interferon-alpha-induced depression and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Alagbe, Oyetunde; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Hu, Fang; Raison, Charles L.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokine-induced stimulation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been shown to influence behaviorally-relevant pathophysiologic pathways including monoamine neurotransmission and neuroendocrine function and thus may contribute to behavioral changes that occur during chronic administration of the innate immune cytokine, interferon (IFN)-alpha. Accordingly, in the current study, phosphorylation (activation) of intracellular p38 MAPK in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry every 2 hours for 12 hours following the initial injection of IFN-alpha in eleven patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hourly assessments of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 were also obtained. Symptoms of depression and fatigue were measured at baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment. Acute administration of IFN-alpha significantly increased the percentage of lymphocytes staining positive for intracellular phosphorylated p38 (p-p38). IFN-alpha-induced increases in p-p38 were significantly greater in patients that developed clinically significant depressive symptoms [Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score ≥15] during the first 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment. Increases in the percentage of p-p38-positive lymphocytes following the first IFN-alpha injection also highly correlated with depression severity at weeks 4 (r=0.85, p=0.001) and 12 (r=0.70, p=0.018). Similar relationships were observed for fatigue. Examination of relationships between p-p38 induction and factors previously reported to predict IFN-alpha-induced depressive symptoms revealed strong associations of p-p38 with baseline MADRS (r=0.82, p=0.002) and cortisol responses to the initial injection of IFN-alpha (r=0.91, p=0.000). Taken together, these findings indicate that sensitivity of p38 MAPK signaling pathways to immune stimulation is associated with depressive symptoms during chronic IFN-alpha treatment. PMID

  10. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  11. Effect of alpha-interferon, 17 beta-estradiol, and tamoxifen on estrogen receptor concentration and cell cycle kinetics of MCF 7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bezwoda, W R; Meyer, K

    1990-09-01

    The interaction of alpha-interferon, 17 beta-estradiol, and tamoxifen on estrogen receptor content, growth fraction, proliferative rate, and total protein synthesis of MCF 7 cells was investigated under culture conditions (minus phenol red and at low concentrations of "stripped" fetal calf serum) allowing for direct stimulation of proliferation by estrogens. Exposure to estradiol alone resulted in a decrease of estrogen receptor content as measured by immunoassay, an increase of the proportion of cells in S phase, and increases in cell proliferation as well as total protein synthesis. alpha-Interferon treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest with reduced proliferation, an increase of estrogen receptor content, but a decrease in the rate of total protein synthesis. Pretreatment with alpha-interferon inhibited the estrogen induced stimulation of cell growth as well as the associated decrease of estrogen receptor content. Tamoxifen treatment resulted in decreased cell proliferation and decrease of estrogen receptor content and of total protein synthesis. These results suggest that the estrogen receptor concentration of MCF 7 cells is growth fraction related. Pretreatment with alpha-interferon enhanced the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on cell proliferation while preventing the tamoxifen induced reduction of estrogen receptor content. The synergistic effect of alpha-interferon and tamoxifen are most marked following 72 h pretreatment with interferon, when the maximum interferon induced increase of estrogen receptor concentration is evident. The mechanism is thus due probably to an increase of cellular receptor as a ligand for tamoxifen binding and suggests a possible role for the clinical use of interferons combined with tamoxifen.

  12. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

    1986-05-20

    Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

  13. Differential effects of human interferon alpha and interferon gamma on xenografted human thyroid tissue in severe combined immunodeficient mice and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Enomoto, T; Fornasier, V; Resetkova, E; Volpé, R

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the in vivo effects of human interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) administration on human thyroid tissue xenografted into two mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and nude mice. Human lymphocytes survive in SCID mice but are lysed in nude mice. Thyroid tissues from Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or paranodular [normal, (N)] tissue was xenografted into SCID mice (0.8 g/mouse) pretreated with anti-asialo GM-1 antiserum and radiation and also into nude mice. One week after xenografting, SCID and nude mice were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with IFN-alpha intraperitoneally (2,000 units/mouse) three times weekly; group B was treated with IFN-gamma similarly; group C was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only (control). Autologous human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were added to mice receiving N xenografts. Blood was taken every 2 weeks for levels of IgG and thyroid antibodies (TAb). After 6 weeks of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and xenograft thyrocyte histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression were measured. In addition, thyrocyte cultures were stimulated in vitro with 200 units/ml of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma or PBS (control). SCID mice xenografted with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in group A showed a significantly higher TAb production than group C, whereas in group B, TAb production was not statistically increased compared to control (group C). SCID mice xenografted with N did not produce TAb in any group, nor did nude mice xenografted with AITD. Thyrocyte HLA-DR expression was markedly increased in group A and B in SCID mice xenografted with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and N tissue compared to group C. In contrast, only group B (IFN-gamma) showed an increase in thyrocyte HLA-DR in nude mice. In the in vitro studies, only IFN-gamma (not IFN-alpha) stimulated

  14. Dose-response studies of interferon-alpha 2b on liver fibrosis and cholestasis induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Muriel, P; Castro, V

    1997-04-01

    Interferons have been utilized widely in chronic liver diseases for their antiviral properties. In addition, there is evidence for their antifibrogenic actions. In this work we studied effects of various doses of interferon-alpha 2b on experimental liver fibrosis and cholestasis induced in the rat by biliary obstruction. Collagen was measured as hepatic hydroxyproline content. Cholestasis was determined by serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activities and by bilirubin content. Glycogen was measured in the liver. Interestingly, the best effects (antifibrotic and anticholestatic) were observed in the group receiving the lowest dose of interferon. These results suggest that interferon-alpha 2b may be used at low doses, thereby decreasing side effects and costs. PMID:9211563

  15. Interferon-alpha 2b increases fibrolysis in fibrotic livers from bile duct ligated rats: possible participation of the plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, L; González, M P; Muriel, P

    1995-12-01

    Interferons are known to prevent liver collagen by an antifibrogenic mechanism that involves mRNA procollagen regulation. The aim of the present work was to determine whether interferon could also decrease collagen by increasing its degradation. Fibrosis was induced in male Wistar rats by double ligation and section of the common bile duct. Interferon-alpha 2b (100,000 IU/rat s.c.) was administered to bile duct ligated rats daily after surgery for 4 weeks. Interferon increased the capacity of the liver to degrade type I and III collagens and matrigel. In addition, the plasminogen activator activity also increased. Since plasminogens are thought to be key participants in the balance of proteolytic activities that regulate extracellular matrix degradation, their elevation may also provide another antifibrotic (proteolytic) mechanism of action of interferon. PMID:8966190

  16. Research in simple blind with natural interferon alpha at low dosage on subjects affected by labialis and genitalis herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Scalvenzi, M; Ceddia, C

    2000-01-01

    According to the studies (1,2) on the stimulating activity of the immune defense of animals (mice, cats) treated with low doses by oral route of natural Interferon alpha, the activity of the product in human for labialis and genitalis herpetic infection in a simple blind study has been evaluated. The study has been performed on 40 patients (21 F and 19 M) aged between 18 and 62 years old, with dosage of 150 I.U. twice/thrice a day for 10 days. In the subjects treated we had a fast resolution, with statistical significativity of herpetic manifestations and associated symptoms.

  17. Complementary Effects of Interleukin-15 and Alpha Interferon Induce Immunity in Hepatitis B Virus Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Scala, Marianna; Otano, Itziar; Gil-Fariña, Irene; Vanrell, Lucia; Hommel, Mirja; Olagüe, Cristina; Vales, Africa; Galarraga, Miguel; Guembe, Laura; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Ghosh, Indrajit; Maini, Mala K.; Prieto, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), failure to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with T cell dysfunction. HBV transgenic mice mirror many features of the human disease, including T cell unresponsiveness, and thus represent an appropriate model in which to test novel therapeutic strategies. To date, the tolerant state of CD8+ T cells in these animals could be altered only by strong immunogens or by immunization with HBV antigen-pulsed dendritic cells; however, the effectors induced were unable to suppress viral gene expression or replication. Because of the known stimulatory properties of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and interleukin-15 (IL-15), this study explored the therapeutic potential of liver-directed gene transfer of these cytokines in a murine model of CHB using adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery. This combination not only resulted in a reduction in the viral load in the liver and the induction of an antibody response but also gave rise to functional and specific CD8+ immunity. Furthermore, when splenic and intrahepatic lymphocytes from IFN-α- and IL-15-treated animals were transferred to new HBV carriers, partial antiviral immunity was achieved. In contrast to previous observations made using either cytokine alone, markedly attenuated PD-L1 induction in hepatic tissue was observed upon coadministration. An initial study with CHB patient samples also gave promising results. Hence, we demonstrated synergy between two stimulating cytokines, IL-15 and IFN-α, which, given together, constitute a potent approach to significantly enhance the CD8+ T cell response in a state of immune hyporesponsiveness. Such an approach may be useful for treating chronic viral infections and neoplastic conditions. IMPORTANCE With 350 million people affected worldwide and 600,000 annual deaths due to HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major health problem. However, current treatment options are costly and not

  18. Preliminary results of individual therapy of chronic hepatitis C by Ukrain and interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Voltchek, I; Sologub, T; Nowicky, J W; Grigoryeva, T; Belozyorova, L; Belopolskaya, M; Semenyako, N; Lamanova, E

    2000-01-01

    The effects of Ukrain and recombinant human interferon-alpha 2b (IFN) on the state of the thiol-disulfide ratio (SH/SS) of the blood (Russian Federation patent no. 2150700) were studied in vitro using the amperometric titration method. The blood of 73 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA-positive patients was examined. Ukrain was tested in doses of 0.05-2.0 micrograms/ml and IFN in 20-1000 U/ml of blood. After in vitro examination, 59 patients were treated: 28 with Ukrain and 31 with IFN. The first group of 16 patients (including eight with HCV genotype 1b) was treated with individually selected optimal doses of Ukrain (0.5-2.5 mg every second day). The second group of 12 patients was treated with doses of 2.5 mg Ukrain independent of in vitro test results. The third group of 31 patients was treated with individually selected optimal doses of IFN (0.5-2 MU 3 times a week). It was found that 79.4% of CHC patients were sensitive to Ukrain in vitro and 65.1% were sensitive to IFN. CHC patients with genotype 1b were sensitive to IFN only in 16.7% of cases while the figure for Ukrain was 92.3%. CHC patients with other HCV genotypes (3, 1a, 2) were sensitive to Ukrain in 86.7% of cases and to IFN in 70.6%. After 1 month of individual therapy with Ukrain, 87.5% of CHC patients, including six of eight cases with HCV genotype 1b, became PCR-HCV negative. In the group receiving the standard dose of Ukrain, virological response was only 33.3%. After 1 month, 74.2% of CHC patients treated with individual doses of IFN became PCR-HCV negative and after 3 months 90.3% were PCR-HCV negative. The prognostic significance of the method for screening preparations for the treatment of CHC patients was 89.8%. Treatment with Ukrain was without serious negative effects and the number of side effects of IFN in individual therapy was significantly reduced. Ukrain can be used in the treatment of CHC patients, alone or in combination with IFN preparations; in the cases with

  19. Opening the flood gates: interferon-alpha treatment for Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, S; Cummins, J M; Fox, P C

    2000-05-01

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha is the main IFN produced in response to viral infection. Low levels of IFNalpha can be detected in nasal secretions after exposure to viruses in vivo. Radioimmunoassay has shown that endogenous IFNalpha is low in children, reaches a peak in young adults, and gradually declines with aging. Importantly, this endogenous IFNalpha is significantly decreased in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). IFNalpha has been tested as a therapeutic agent in patients with SS. Intramuscular human leucocyte IFNalpha increases saliva production significantly in patients with SS. Improvements have been noted in lacrimal function and in dryness symptoms. Since IFNalpha infrequently induces autoimmune phenomena and high dose IFNalpha treatment sometimes has a serious adverse event profile, treatment focus has shifted to use of low dose orally-administered IFNalpha. In a single-masked controlled trial, 60 patients with SS randomly received natural human IFNalpha 150IU 3 times a day in an oral lozenge formulation or sucralfate as control for 6 months. At study end, 15 (50%) of the 30 IFNalpha-treated patients had saliva production increases at least 100% above baseline. IFNalpha treatment was well tolerated and no patients withdrew. Labial minor salivary gland biopsies indicated significant decreases in lymphocytic infiltration accompanied by a significant increase in intact salivary gland tissue after 6 months of treatment. In another 12-week double-masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, stimulated saliva production in patients with SS receiving IFNalpha lozenges 150IU 3 times daily was significantly increased. This dosage was also suggestive of benefit for 5 of 7 subjective measures of oral and ocular comfort. The tolerability profile of these low dose oral IFNalpha lozenges is excellent; no serious adverse events have been recorded. Adverse effects were generally mild and there were no clinically significant changes in laboratory or clinical safety

  20. Effective targeting of chronic myeloid leukemia initiating activity with the combination of arsenic trioxide and interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    El Eit, Rabab M; Iskandarani, Ahmad N; Saliba, Jessica L; Jabbour, Mark N; Mahfouz, Rami A; Bitar, Nizar M A; Ayoubi, Hanadi R El; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; De Thé, Hugues B; Bazarbachi, Ali A; Nasr, Rihab R

    2014-02-15

    Imatinib is the standard of care in chronic meloid leukemia (CML) therapy. However, imatinib is not curative since most patients who discontinue therapy relapse indicating that leukemia initiating cells (LIC) are resistant. Interferon alpha (IFN) induces hematologic and cytogenetic remissions and interestingly, improved outcome was reported with the combination of interferon and imatinib. Arsenic trioxide was suggested to decrease CML LIC. We investigated the effects of arsenic and IFN on human CML cell lines or primary cells and the bone marrow retroviral transduction/transplantation murine CML model. In vitro, the combination of arsenic and IFN inhibited proliferation and activated apoptosis. Importantly, arsenic and IFN synergistically reduced the clonogenic activity of primary bone marrow cells derived from CML patients. Finally, in vivo, combined interferon and arsenic treatment, but not single agents, prolonged the survival of primary CML mice. Importantly, the combination severely impaired engraftment into untreated secondary recipients, with some recipients never developing the disease, demonstrating a dramatic decrease in CML LIC activity. Arsenic/IFN effect on CML LIC activity was significantly superior to that of imatinib. These results support further exploration of this combination, alone or with imatinib aiming at achieving CML eradication rather than long-term disease control. PMID:23934954

  1. Effective targeting of chronic myeloid leukemia initiating activity with the combination of arsenic trioxide and interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    El Eit, Rabab M; Iskandarani, Ahmad N; Saliba, Jessica L; Jabbour, Mark N; Mahfouz, Rami A; Bitar, Nizar M A; Ayoubi, Hanadi R El; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; De Thé, Hugues B; Bazarbachi, Ali A; Nasr, Rihab R

    2014-02-15

    Imatinib is the standard of care in chronic meloid leukemia (CML) therapy. However, imatinib is not curative since most patients who discontinue therapy relapse indicating that leukemia initiating cells (LIC) are resistant. Interferon alpha (IFN) induces hematologic and cytogenetic remissions and interestingly, improved outcome was reported with the combination of interferon and imatinib. Arsenic trioxide was suggested to decrease CML LIC. We investigated the effects of arsenic and IFN on human CML cell lines or primary cells and the bone marrow retroviral transduction/transplantation murine CML model. In vitro, the combination of arsenic and IFN inhibited proliferation and activated apoptosis. Importantly, arsenic and IFN synergistically reduced the clonogenic activity of primary bone marrow cells derived from CML patients. Finally, in vivo, combined interferon and arsenic treatment, but not single agents, prolonged the survival of primary CML mice. Importantly, the combination severely impaired engraftment into untreated secondary recipients, with some recipients never developing the disease, demonstrating a dramatic decrease in CML LIC activity. Arsenic/IFN effect on CML LIC activity was significantly superior to that of imatinib. These results support further exploration of this combination, alone or with imatinib aiming at achieving CML eradication rather than long-term disease control.

  2. Presence of lichen planus during a course of interferon alpha-2a therapy for a viral chronic C hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Guijarro Guijarro, B; López Sánchez, A F; Hernández Vallejo, G

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with a diagnosis of chronic active viral C hepatitis, for whom a course of interferon alpha-2A was prescribed at a dose of 4.5 MU per day for a 2 month period, followed by the same dose on alternate days for 4 months. After completion of a month of therapy, the patient presented with painful oral lesions that made normal oral food intake impossible. These lesions persisted, in spite of withdrawal of interferon therapy. Intraoral examination revealed erosive intraoral lesions in both yugal mucosae, the upper vestibular gum, the floor of the mouth, the ventral region of the tongue, and the lower lip. A diagnosis of erosive lichen planus induced by interferon therapy was established. The prescribed treatment was 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in orabase applied 3 times a day for 4 weeks. Following the therapeutical course, the erosive lesions disappeared, and the symptoms stopped, although the reticular lesions remained visible.

  3. Original Research: Analysis of hepatic microRNA alterations in response to hepatitis B virus infection and pegylated interferon alpha-2a treatment.

    PubMed

    Jinato, Thananya; Chuaypen, Natthaya; Poomipak, Witthaya; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Makkoch, Jarika; Kiatbumrung, Rattanaporn; Jampoka, Kanisa; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Payungporn, Sunchai

    2016-10-01

    Interferons play important roles in defense mechanisms against viral infection, and thus interferon therapy has been a standard treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients. Interferons signaling pathways promote interferon-inducible genes including microRNAs. In this research, we aimed to determine microRNAs expression profiles in vitro and in vivo For in vitro model, Huh7 cells were transfected with or without hepatitis B virus plasmid for 6 h, and then treated with 100 ng of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a for 24 h. In vivo, we defined microRNAs expression profiles in pair-liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B patients in comparison between before and after treatment of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a for 48 weeks. Cellular small RNAs were extracted followed by library preparation. To determine microRNAs expression profiles, the next-generation sequencing was carried out on MiSeq platform (Illumina®). In vitro analysis demonstrated that microRNAs can be classified into up-regulated and down-regulated microRNAs in response to hepatitis B virus, interferon, and combination of hepatitis B virus and interferon. Moreover, in vivo analysis revealed microRNAs profiles in non-responders, responders without hepatitis B surface antigen clearance, and responders with hepatitis B surface antigen clearance. The target genes of the candidate microRNAs were determined in terms of roles in cellular pathways and immune response, which might be related to treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients. Results revealed that two down-regulated microRNAs including miR-185-5p and miR-186-5p were correlated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. These two microRNAs might be represented as specific hepatic microRNAs responding to hepatitis B virus and pegylated-interferon alpha-2a treatment, which may remarkable and attractive for further study involving in the association of their target genes and prediction of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a response. Interestingly, micro

  4. [Enhanced porcine interferon-alpha production by Pichia pastoris by methanol/sorbitol co-feeding and energy metabolism shift].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihui; Jin, Hu; Gao, Minjie; Dai, Keke; Dong, Shijuan; Yu, Ruisong; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2012-02-01

    Porcine interferon-alpha (pIFN-alpha) fermentative production by recombinant Pichia pastoris was carried out in a 10-L bioreactor to study its metabolism changes and effects on fermentation under different inducing strategies, by analyzing the change patterns of the corresponding metabolism and energy regeneration. The results show that the specific activities of alcohol oxidase (AOX), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) largely increased when reducing temperature from 30 degrees C to 20 degrees C under pure methanol induction, leading significant enhancements in methanol metabolism, formaldehyde dissimilatory energy metabolism and pIFN-alpha antiviral activity. The highest pIFN-alpha antiviral activity reached 1.4 x 10(6) IU/mL, which was about 10-folds of that obtained under 30 degrees C induction. Using methanol/sorbitol co-feeding strategy at 30 degrees C, the major energy metabolism energizing pIFN-alpha synthesis shifted from formaldehyde dissimilatory energy metabolism pathway to TCA cycle, formaldehyde dissimilatory pathway was weakened and accumulation of toxic intermediate metabolite-formaldehyde was relieved, and methanol flux distribution towards to pIFN-alpha synthesis was enhanced. Under this condition, the highest pIFN-alpha antiviral activity reached 1.8 x 10(7) IU/mL which was about 100-folds of that obtained under pure methanol induction at 30 degrees C. More important, enhanced pIFN-alpha production with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding strategy could be implemented under mild conditions, which greatly reduced the fermentation costs and improved the entire fermentation performance.

  5. Differential transcriptional expresión of the polymorphic myxovirus resistance protein A in response to interferon-alpha treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Arcás, Nieves; Blanco, Asunción; Gaitán, M Jesús; Nyqvist, Maria; Alonso, Antonio; Reyes-Engel, Armando

    2004-03-01

    Levels of myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) mRNA were studied for a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region at nucleotide position -88 of the gene to identify individual-specific responses to interferon (IFN)-alpha2 that might predict responsiveness to IFN-alpha therapy. We quantified MxA expression by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, induced by IFN-alpha2, from 22 healthy donors, in relation with G/T polymorphism located in the promoter of the MxA. MxA mRNA was significantly upregulated in all subjects (mean of 53-fold) in response to IFN-alpha2 in vitro (P < 0.01). Comparison of the inducibility of MxA mRNA expression in relation with G/T polymorphism showed a 4.26-fold higher induction of MxA mRNA levels in PBMC from carriers of the mutant allele (GT or TT) than homozygotes with the wild-type allele (GG) (P < 0.001). We propose that expression of the IFN-inducible MxA is affected by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the MxA promoter which can identify an individual response to IFN-alpha2.

  6. Maintenance therapy with interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone in aggressive diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Nambo, M Jesús; Castañeda, Claudia; Talavera, Alejandra; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith; Murillo, Edgar

    2004-04-01

    Maintenance therapy in patients with aggressive malignant lymphoma using biological modifiers remains uncertain. We conducted a controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone as maintenance therapy in patients with aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphomas in complete remission after aggressive chemotherapy. In an intent-to-treat analysis, 169 patients were eligible for this study; the end points were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). With a median follow-up of 49.3 months, no statistical differences were observed and actuarial curves at 5 years showed that EFS was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63-79%) for patients who received maintenance compared to 63% (95% CI, 59-71%) for patients in control group (p = 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in OS between maintenance arm: 84% (95% CI, 78-89%) and control group 83% (95% CI, 77-88%) in control group (p = 0.2). All patients received the maintenance therapy as planned and in time, thus dose intensity was considered 1.0 in all cases. Acute toxicity was mild, and no delay or suspension of treatment was necessary. Late toxicity was not evident until now. We conclude that use of maintenance therapy combining interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone is not useful in patients with aggressive lymphoma if they had been treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy. PMID:15186737

  7. The treatment of 45 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with low doses of interferon-alpha 2a and etretinate.

    PubMed

    Dréno, B; Claudy, A; Meynadier, J; Verret, J L; Souteyrand, P; Ortonne, J P; Kalis, B; Godefroy, W Y; Beerblock, K; Thill, L

    1991-11-01

    Forty-five patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL), 32 with mycosis fungoides (MF) and 13 with Sézary syndrome (SS), were treated with interferon-alpha 2a (IFN-alpha 2a) (6-9 x 10(6) IU daily) for 3 months. Those responding to treatment were then treated with interferon-alpha alone (6-9 x 10(6) IU three times weekly), and non-responders received a combination of etretinate (0.5 mg/kg/day) and IFN-alpha 2a in similar concentrations. After 12 months of treatment, 28/45 patients (62.2%) were in complete or partial (greater than 50%) remission. Of these, 17 (60.7%) were receiving IFN-alpha alone and 11 the combined interferon-retinoid therapy. Of the patients with MF stage I and II, 20/25 were responders (12 receiving IFN-alpha alone and eight on combined therapy), whereas only 8/20 with stage IV or SS responded to treatment (five receiving IFN-alpha 2a alone and three combined therapy). These results suggest that the association of etretinate with low-dose recombinant IFN-alpha 2a is an effective means of treating epidermotropic CTCL, particularly in the early stages.

  8. [Differential growth inhibition of mycobacteria by interferon-gamma-or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-treated murine peritoneal macrophages].

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Tomioka, H; Saito, H

    1996-11-01

    Growth inhibition of the intracellular mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. kansasii, M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. fortuitum, and M. chelonae subsp. abscessus by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-treated murine peritoneal macrophages elicited by proteose peptone was studied in vitro. Macrophages were infected with slowly growing mycobacteria and the extracellular mycobacteria were washed out. Then, macrophages were treated with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha at a concentration of 10 to 1000 U/ml for 2 days. In another experiment, macrophages were pretreated with these cytokines for 1 day then infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria as before. Macrophages were cultured with or without IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha for additional day. Mycobacterial growth was assessed by determination of colony-forming units on 7H11 agar plates after destruction of the macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages with IFN-gamma reduced the growth of mycobacteria. However, except for M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, growth was not inhibited by macrophages treated with TNF-alpha. IFN-gamma seems to be an important cytokine for the activation of mycobactericidal mechanisms in murine macrophages. Stimulation with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha and subsequent phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis or M. intracellulare increased O2- production, which was assayed by the method of cytochrome C reduction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Phorbol myristate acetate-triggered-O2- production was also elevated by the cytokine pretreatment of the macrophages, suggesting that mycobacterial growth inhibition did not parallel the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in TNF alpha-activated murine peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that bactericidal mechanisms of murine macrophages against nontuberculous mycobacteria may not depend on reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:8958673

  9. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  10. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  11. Interferon-alpha 2b quantification in inclusion bodies using reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC).

    PubMed

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Pérez, N O; Pérez-Sánchez, G; Ocampo-Juárez, I; Medina-Rivero, E

    2010-04-15

    Interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) is a recombinant therapeutic cytokine produced as inclusion bodies using a strain of Escherichia coli as expression system. After fermentation and recovery, it is necessary to know the amount of recombinant IFN-alpha 2b, in order to determine the yield and the load for solubilization, and chromatographic protein purification steps. The present work details the validation of a new short run-time and fast sample-preparation method to quantify IFN-alpha 2b in inclusion bodies using Reversed Phase-Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC). The developed method demonstrated an accuracy of 100.28%; the relative standard deviations for method precision, repeatability and inter-day precision tests were found to be 0.57%, 1.54% and 1.83%, respectively. Linearity of the method was assessed in the range of concentrations from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL, the curve obtained had a determination coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9989. Detection and quantification limits were found to be 0.008 mg/mL and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively. The method also demonstrated robustness for changes in column temperature, and specificity against host proteins and other recombinant protein expressed in the same E. coli strain. PMID:20299292

  12. Expressions of VEGF and its receptors in rat corpus luteum during interferon alpha administration in early and pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Korgun, Emin Turkay; Savas, Burhan; Demir, Ramazan

    2004-04-01

    It is accepted that angiogenesis plays an important role in the development of the corpus luteum (CL) and is probably necessary for normal lutein cell function. A number of drugs currently being tested in clinical trials as possible angiogenesis inhibitors were not originally developed with the intention of suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is one of the notable examples of such 'accidental angiogenesis inhibitors' and daily administration of IFN-alpha is known to suppress tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and down-regulation of various growth factors. We investigated the effects of IFN-alpha treatment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and its receptors KDR and Flt-1, and CD34 in CL during the first week of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in hormonally induced rat ovaries by immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Basal body temperatures of the drug-treated rats, as an indicator of treatment effect, were determined daily and were increased significantly when compared to controls (38.03 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C), respectively. The effect of IFN-alpha treatment was minimal when the entire week was evaluated, however, the expression of VEGF decreased at 3rd, 5th, and 7th days of both pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, when compared to the 1st day, whereas there was not a such alteration in the untreated rats regarding these days. The daily subcutaneous administrations of 672.500 U IFN-alpha2b had minimal effects on the expressions of VEGF, and its two receptors KDR and Flt-1 in either pregnant or pseudopregnant corpora lutea utilizing HSCORE.

  13. Topical Delivery of Interferon Alpha by Biphasic Vesicles: Evidence for a Novel Nanopathway across the Stratum Corneum

    SciTech Connect

    Foldvari, M.; Badea, B; Wettig, S; Baboolal, D; Kumar, P; Creagh, A; Haynes, C

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive delivery of macromolecules across intact skin is challenging but would allow for needle-free administration of many pharmaceuticals. Biphasic vesicles, a novel lipid-based topical delivery system, have been shown to deliver macromolecules into the skin. Investigation of the delivery mechanism of interferon alpha (IFN {alpha}), as a model protein, by biphasic vesicles could improve understanding of molecular transport through the stratum corneum and allow for the design of more effective delivery systems. The interaction of biphasic vesicles with human skin and isolated stratum corneum membrane was investigated by confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS). Confocal microscopy revealed that biphasic vesicles delivered IFN {alpha} intercellularly, to a depth of 70 {micro}m, well below the stratum corneum and into the viable epidermis. DSC and SAXS/WAXS data suggest that the interaction of biphasic vesicles with SC lipids resulted in the formation of a three-dimensional cubic Pn3m polymorphic phase by the molecular rearrangement of intercellular lipids. This cubic phase could be an intercellular permeation nanopathway that may explain the increased delivery of IFN {alpha} by biphasic vesicles. Liposomes and submicrometer emulsion (the individual building blocks of biphasic vesicles) separately and methylcellulose gel, an alternative topical vehicle, did not induce a cubic phase and delivered low amounts of IFN {alpha} below the stratum corneum. Molecular modeling of the cubic Pn3m phase and lamellar-to-cubic phase transitions provides a plausible mechanism for transport of IFN {alpha}. It is hypothesized that induction of a Pn3m cubic phase in stratum corneum lipids could make dermal and transdermal delivery of other macromolecules also possible.

  14. Continuous extraction of alpha- and beta-amylases from Zea mays malt in a PEG4000/CaCl2 ATPS.

    PubMed

    Biazus, J P M; Santana, J C C; Souza, R R; Jordão, E; Tambourgi, E B

    2007-10-15

    In the present work, alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes from Zea mays malt were recovered by continuous extraction in a PEG/CaCl2 aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The influences of the flux rate (RQ), free area of vane (A(free)) and vane rotation (RV) on enzyme recovery were studied by optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The protein content and enzyme activity were measured from time to time in the extract and refined fluxes. RSM curves showed a squared dependence of recovery index with the RQ, A(free) and RV. The best system for recovering the maize malt enzymes was with low vane rotation and flux rate and high free area of vane. Alpha- and beta-amylases were purified 130-fold in the salt-rich phase.

  15. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  16. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  17. Association between genetic mutations and the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with interferon alpha

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable progress was made by the introduction of interferon to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This treatment, however, is associated with the risk of developing or exacerbating autoimmune diseases, with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis being one of them. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus during IFN-alpha therapy, depending on the presence of polymorphisms in the promoter region of CTLA-4C (−318)T gene and in exon 1 of A49G gene as well as C1858T transition of PTPN22 gene. Methods The study was conducted in 149 patients aged between 18 and 70 years (mean of 43.9 years), including 82 men and 67 women. Control group for the assessment of the distribution of analyzed polymorphism of genotypes consisted of 200 neonates, from whom umbilical blood was drawn for the tests. The patients were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of 114 patients without thyroid impairment before and during IFN-alpha therapy, group 2 contained 9 patients with AT with the onset prior to IFN-alpha treatment, and group 3 comprised 26 patients with AT starting after the beginning of IFN-alpha therapy. Results The frequency of C1858Tand C(−318)T genotypes observed in the study group did not differ significantly from control group. A significant difference, however, was found for A49G polymorphism. Conclusions No association was demonstrated between the occurrence of autoimmune thyroiditis with the onset during IFN-alpha therapy and the presence of polymorphisms within CTLA-4 C(−318)T gene in the promoter region and A49G in exon 1, as well as C1858T transition of PTPN22 gene. PMID:23072316

  18. Resistance to alpha/beta interferon is a determinant of West Nile virus replication fitness and virulence.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian C; Fredericksen, Brenda L; Samuel, Melanie A; Mock, Richard E; Mason, Peter W; Diamond, Michael S; Gale, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere is marked by the spread of pathogenic lineage I strains, which differ from typically avirulent lineage II strains. To begin to understand the virus-host interactions that may influence the phenotypic properties of divergent lineage I and II viruses, we compared the genetic, pathogenic, and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta)-regulatory properties of a lineage II isolate from Madagascar (MAD78) with those of a new lineage I isolate from Texas (TX02). Full genome sequence analysis revealed that MAD78 clustered, albeit distantly, with other lineage II strains, while TX02 clustered with emergent North American isolates, more specifically with other Texas strains. Compared to TX02, MAD78 replicated at low levels in cultured human cells, was highly sensitive to the antiviral actions of IFN in vitro, and demonstrated a completely avirulent phenotype in wild-type mice. In contrast to TX02 and other pathogenic forms of WNV, MAD78 was defective in its ability to disrupt IFN-induced JAK-STAT signaling, including the activation of Tyk2 and downstream phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2. However, replication of MAD78 was rescued in cells with a nonfunctional IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR). Consistent with this finding, the virulence of MAD78 was unmasked upon infection of mice lacking IFNAR. Thus, control of the innate host response and IFN actions is a key feature of WNV pathogenesis and replication fitness.

  19. Lack of effect of recombinant bovine interferon alpha I1 in the treatment of experimentally-induced bovine warts.

    PubMed Central

    Lassauzet, M L; Salamin, P A

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen four-month old calves were inoculated, on five scarified sites on each side of the neck, with a suspension of ground wart tissue from a steer naturally infected with bovine papilloma virus 1. Warts started to appear about one month postinfection and were measurable in ten calves two months postinfection, when the trial started. After stratification on the size of the warts, all fifteen calves were allocated randomly to one of the following treatment groups: twice weekly intramuscular injections of 5 mg recombinant bovine interferon alpha I1 (rBoIFN alpha I1), weekly injection of 5 mg of rBoIFN alpha I1 or placebo, for three weeks. The biggest wart on each calf at the beginning of the trial was measured and photographs of all warts were taken weekly for five weeks. An analysis of covariance on the log of the volumes of warts during the five weeks of the trial showed a significant difference between groups (p = 0.026). Warts in treated groups tended to grow faster than in the placebo group. PMID:8358676

  20. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Low-Dose Oral Interferon-Alpha in Preventing Hepatitis C Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chuan-Mo; Chen, Chi-Yi; Chien, Rong-Nan; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Tung, Shui-Yi; Fang, Yi-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Hung, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Tsung-Jang; Fang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Low-dose oral interferon could exert immune-modulating effects in human. We conducted a clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of oral interferon-alpha in preventing hepatitis C relapse. Totally 169 genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients having achieved end-of-therapy virological clearance were randomized to receive interferon-alpha lozenge 500 IU/day (n=59), 1,500 IU/day (n=53), or placebo (n=57) for 24 weeks. Overall, no significant differences were found for the relapse rates in the 3 groups (P>0.05). However, in patients with fibroindex 1.4–1.7, relapse occurred in 1/12 (8.3%) 500 IU-group patients versus 9/21 (42.9%) patients of the other groups (P=0.05). In 158 patients receiving at least 4 weeks of oral interferon, significantly higher platelet count was found at the end of trial in the 500 IU group (P=0.003). In thrombocytopenic patients, a significantly expedited recovery of platelet count was found in the 500 IU group (P=0.002). No drug-related severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, at 500 IU/day, oral interferon exerted a borderline suppression effect of virological relapse in chronic hepatitis C patients with mild liver fibrosis. Additionally, it significantly expedited platelet count recovery after the end of peginterferon therapy. PMID:24237300

  1. Genetically determined difference in the antiviral action of alpha/beta interferon in cells from mice resistant or susceptible to herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Justesen, J; Mogensen, S C

    1986-09-01

    Resistance of mice to infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is genetically determined. Embryonic cells from susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice were equally sensitive to infection with HSV-2 as judged by plaque area, plaquing efficiency, endpoint titration and virus yield. Cells from C57BL/6 mice showed a higher sensitivity than cells from BALB/c mice to the protective action of two preparations of alpha/beta interferon against challenge with HSV-2. This was evident both from c.p.e. inhibition and yield reduction experiments. The difference in sensitivity was dependent on virus dose and was greatest (up to 50-fold) with low virus doses. An analysis of the genetics of the alpha/beta interferon sensitivity in cells from embryos of parental mice and embryos derived from reciprocal matings between HSV-2-resistant and -susceptible mice suggested that interferon sensitivity is inherited as a co-dominant autosomal trait. The induction of the interferon-induced enzyme 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase was also different in cells from the two mouse strains, since significant levels were only detected in cells from C57BL/6 mice. It is suggested that differential interferon sensitivity of cells from HSV-2-resistant and -susceptible mice might be a factor of importance for the course of the infection.

  2. A double-blind randomized controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose oral interferon-alpha in preventing hepatitis C relapse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chuan-Mo; Chen, Chi-Yi; Chien, Rong-Nan; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Tung, Shui-Yi; Fang, Yi-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Hung, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Tsung-Jang; Fang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chao-Wei; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2014-03-01

    Low-dose oral interferon could exert immune-modulating effects in human. We conducted a clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of oral interferon-alpha in preventing hepatitis C relapse. Totally 169 genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients having achieved end-of-therapy virological clearance were randomized to receive interferon-alpha lozenge 500 IU/day (n=59), 1,500 IU/day (n=53), or placebo (n=57) for 24 weeks. Overall, no significant differences were found for the relapse rates in the 3 groups (P>0.05). However, in patients with fibroindex 1.4-1.7, relapse occurred in 1/12 (8.3%) 500 IU-group patients versus 9/21 (42.9%) patients of the other groups (P=0.05). In 158 patients receiving at least 4 weeks of oral interferon, significantly higher platelet count was found at the end of trial in the 500 IU group (P=0.003). In thrombocytopenic patients, a significantly expedited recovery of platelet count was found in the 500 IU group (P=0.002). No drug-related severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, at 500 IU/day, oral interferon exerted a borderline suppression effect of virological relapse in chronic hepatitis C patients with mild liver fibrosis. Additionally, it significantly expedited platelet count recovery after the end of peginterferon therapy. PMID:24237300

  3. Two distinct alpha-interferon-dependent signal transduction pathways may contribute to activation of transcription of the guanylate-binding protein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, T.; Lew, D.J.; Darnell, J.E. Jr. )

    1991-10-01

    The promoter of the gene encoding a cytoplasmic guanylate-binding (GBP) contains two overlapping elements: the interferon stimulation response element (ISRE), which mediates alpha interferon (IFN-{alpha})-dependent transcription, and the IFN-{gamma} activation site (GAS), which is required for INF-{gamma}-mediated stimulation. The ISRE binds a factor called ISGF-3 that is activated by IFN-{alpha} but not by IFN-{gamma}. The GAS binds a protein that is activated by IFN-{gamma}, which the authors have termed GAF. The authors now find that the GAS is also an IFN-{alpha}-responsive element in vivo and that IFN-{alpha} (in addition to activating ISGF-3) rapidly activates a GAS-binding factor, the IFN-{alpha} activation factor (AAF). The AAF has characteristics very similar to those of the previously described GAF. Through the use of inhibitors of protein synthesis and inhibitors of protein kinases, the activation conditions of AAF, GAF, and ISGF-3 could be distinguished. Therefore, not only do IFN-{alpha} and IFN-{gamma} stimulate transcription of GBP through different receptors linked to different signaling molecules, but occupation of the IFN-{alpha} receptor apparently leads to the rapid activation of two different DNA-binding proteins through the use of different intracellular pathways.

  4. Ocular avirulence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 strain is associated with heightened sensitivity to alpha/beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Y H; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N

    1990-01-01

    BALB/c mice infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 35 [HSV-1(35)] rarely developed ocular disease even at challenge doses as high as 10(7) PFU per eye. In contrast, HSV-1(RE) consistently induced stromal keratitis at an inoculum of 2 x 10(4) PFU. The goal of this study was to determine the reason for the difference in virulence between the two HSV strains. Both HSV-1 strains replicated to similar titers in excised corneal "buttons." However, after in vivo infection of the cornea, the growth of strain 35 was evident only during the first 24 h postinfection, whereas the replication of strain RE persisted for at least 4 days. In vitro tests revealed that HSV-1(35) was greater than 10 times more sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) than HSV-1(RE). Both strains induced comparable serum levels of IFN after intraperitoneal inoculation. The kinetics of HSV-1(35) clearance from the eye was markedly altered by treatment with rabbit anti-IFN-alpha/beta. Virus titers exceeding 10(4) PFU per eye could be demonstrated 4 to 5 days postinfection in mice given a single inoculation of antiserum 1 h after infection. Furthermore, anti-IFN treatment in 3-week-old mice infected with HSV-1(35) led to the development of clinically apparent corneal disease which subsequently progressed to stromal keratitis in the majority of recipients. These results indicate that the striking difference in the capacity of HSV-1(35) and HSV-1(RE) to induce corneal disease was related to the inherently greater sensitivity of strain 35 to IFN-alpha/beta produced by the host in response to infection. PMID:2157880

  5. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  6. IgE plasma cell leukemia successfully treated with combination VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) and MP (melphalan, prednisolone) followed by interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, N; Shimazaki, C; Goto, H; Hirata, T; Ashihara, E; Oku, N; Inaba, T; Fujita, N; Nakagawa, M

    1994-03-01

    A 69-year-old woman with IgE/kappa plasma cell leukemia (PCL) was treated with a sequential combination of VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) and MP (melphalan, prednisolone) followed by interferon-alpha (IFN alpha). A complete remission was achieved for 14 months. Maintenance therapy with IFN alpha has continued for an additional 10 months. IgE PCL is extremely rare. The biological characteristics of the myeloma cells, including surface marker, adhesion molecule, karyotype, DNA analysis, and the response to various cytokines, are presented.

  7. Site-specific in situ growth of an interferon-polymer conjugate that outperforms PEGASYS in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; Wang, Guilin; Zhao, Wenguo; Liu, Xinyu; Zhang, Libin; Gao, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    Conjugating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), PEGylation, to therapeutic proteins is widely used as a means to improve their pharmacokinetics and therapeutic potential. One prime example is PEGylated interferon-alpha (PEGASYS). However, PEGylation usually leads to a heterogeneous mixture of positional isomers with reduced bioactivity and low yield. Herein, we report site-specific in situ growth (SIG) of a PEG-like polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA), from the C-terminus of interferon-alpha to form a site-specific (C-terminal) and stoichiometric (1:1) POEGMA conjugate of interferon-alpha in high yield. The POEGMA conjugate showed significantly improved pharmacokinetics, tumor accumulation and anticancer efficacy as compared to interferon-alpha. Notably, the POEGMA conjugate possessed a 7.2-fold higher in vitro antiproliferative bioactivity than PEGASYS. More importantly, in a murine cancer model, the POEGMA conjugate completely inhibited tumor growth and eradicated tumors of 75% mice without appreciable systemic toxicity, whereas at the same dose, no mice treated with PEGASYS survived for over 58 days. The outperformance of a site-specific POEGMA conjugate prepared by SIG over PEGASYS that is the current gold standard for interferon-alpha delivery suggests that SIG is of interest for the development of next-generation protein therapeutics. PMID:27152679

  8. Bupropion for interferon-alpha-induced depression in patients with hepatitis C viral infection: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Wen-Pang; Palani, Mahalakshmi; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-α therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with major depressive episodes. Bupropion, a commonly used antidepressant agent, has recently found to have strong anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. Despite of the theoretical relevancy, the antidepressant effect of bupropion in IFN-alpha-induced depression has never been studied. Ten HCV patients with IFN-α-induced depression were recruited to receive 8-week bupropion treatment and were assessed every 2 weeks for depressive symptoms by the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and somatic symptoms by the Neurotoxicity Rating Scale (NRS). Four of the 10 patients met the criteria for remission (total HAMD scores≤7), and 5 patients met the criteria for response (at least 50% reduction in total HAMD scores). In addition, 5 patients had 50% decreases in NRS for neuropsychiatric symptoms. This preliminary open-label study suggests that bupropion is effective in treating IFN-alpha-induced depressive and somatic symptoms.

  9. Activity and tolerance of a continuous subcutaneous infusion of interferon-alpha2b in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Schenker, S; Cutler, D; Finch, J; Tamburro, C H; Affrime, M; Sabo, R; Bay, M

    1997-11-01

    We administered interferon-alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) by continuous subcutaneous infusion (60,000 IU/h, or 10 million IU/week) over 3 months to 7 patients with chronic hepatitis C. All had previously responded, as assessed by normalization of transaminases to the same dose of IFN administered by intermittent injection over 6 months, but had relapsed after cessation of therapy. The continuous infusion was tolerated well at the site of infusion, and the systemic side effects were similar in type but were lesser in intensity than with intermittent dosage. Four of 7 subjects had normalization of transaminase at the end of week 12 of therapy. Serum HCV RNA and HCV by PCR decreased with treatment, and there was a prompt and sustained increase in serum beta2-microglobulin and of 2', 5' OAS activity. The level of the latter appeared to correlate with response of the transaminase. Serum IFN concentrations were low but detectable throughout therapy. After stopping IFN administration, the transaminases in responders increased again to pretreatment levels.

  10. Interferon-gamma but not TNF alpha promotes neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of murine adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Galaxy; Goldshmit, Yona; Turnley, Ann M

    2004-05-01

    Neural trauma, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke, results in a vigorous inflammatory response at and near the site of injury, with cytokine production by endogenous glial cells and invading immune cells. Little is known of the effect that these cytokines have on neural stem cell function. Here we examine the effects of two inflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), on adult neural stem cells. Neural stem cells grown in the presence of either cytokine failed to generate neurospheres. Cytotoxicity assays showed that TNF alpha but not IFN gamma was toxic to the neural stem cells under proliferative conditions. Under differentiating conditions, neither cytokine was toxic; however, IFN gamma enhanced neuronal differentiation, rapidly increasing beta III-tubulin positive cell numbers 3-4 fold and inhibiting astrocyte generation. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth and the number of neurites per neuron was enhanced in cells differentiated in the presence of IFN gamma. Therefore, both inflammatory cytokines examined have substantial, but different effects on neural stem cell function and suggests that regulation of the inflammatory environment following brain injury may influence the ability of neural stem cells to repair the damage. PMID:15081598

  11. Predictors of Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Efficacy and Long-Term Assessment of Relapse in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C: A One-Center Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qin; Zhan, Feng Yu; Chen, En Qiang; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhen Zhen; Lei, Xue Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sustained virological response (SVR) and virological relapse maintain pivotal roles in the management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, there is little data regarding the long-term outcomes of patients with CHC in China. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the predictive factors of therapeutic effect and viral relapse in patients who achieved end-of-treatment response (ETR). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical and virological data of 169 adult patients with CHC from China who were not treated with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG IFN-α) and ribavirin, of which 142 achieved ETR and with a follow-up period ranging from six months to six years. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 20.0. Results: Of the 169 patients, 124 (73.4%) achieved SVR and 23 (16.2%) experienced relapses post-therapy in cases of ETR patients. We considered sex, age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, baseline hepatitis C virus RNA level, HCV genotypes, IL28B rs12979860 genotype, rapid virological response (RVR), and early virological response (EVR). For antiviral effect in patients with CHC, HCV genotypes (2, 3) (χ2 = 11.285, P = 0.001), IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CC) (χ2 = 16.552, P < 0.001), RVR (χ2 = 37.339, P < 0.001), and EVR (χ2 = 70.265, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with achieving SVR. For ETR patients with long-term follow-up, the relapse rate within six months was significantly higher than within other periods during six-year follow-up (χ2 = 7.792, P = 0.005). Relapse was virtually not observed after therapy ceased for 48 weeks. The IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CT/TT) (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.031-0.339; P < 0.001), lower RVR (OR = 0.239; 95% CI, 0.078-0.738; P = 0.013), and EVR (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.016-0.661; P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for relapse. Conclusions: Our study comprehensively explored the predictive factors of therapeutic effect of administered drugs and analyzed viral

  12. Sustained response to combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C and thrombocytopenia secondary to alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sáenz, M; Rojas, M; Piñar, A; Salas, E; Rebollo, J; Carmona, I; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2000-05-01

    Recent data suggest that hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection may induce a significant autoimmune reaction to platelets, but the mechanism is unknown. Many patients with chronic hepatitis C, in fact, have high levels of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG) and HCV-RNA is present in the platelets of 100% of those patients with thrombocytopenia and high PAIgG levels. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with the development of thrombocytopenic purpura, sometimes triggered during interferon (IFN) therapy. In such cases, the treatment of the underlying disease is a difficult problem to solve. We report the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis C, who developed life-threatening thrombocytopenic purpura after a prolonged course of IFN-alpha2b over a 4-year period. Treatment with anti-immunoglobulin gammaglobulin (Polyglobin; Química Farmaceutica Bayer, Barcelona, Spain) had a transient effect on the platelet count, but prolonged therapy with prednisone was necessary for definitive relief of the haematological complication. Two years later, the patient was treated with combined therapy, including ribavirin (1200 mg/day) and IFN-alpha2b (5 mU, t.i.w.) for 12 months. This therapy induced a sustained response, both biochemical and virological, without haematological complications. This observation suggests that ribavirin may be of benefit in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C, preventing the harmful effect of IFN-alpha but also allowing both drugs to be combined so as to increase the probability of sustained remission of the liver disease.

  13. Alpha interferon combined with ribavirin potentiates proliferative suppression but not cytokine production in mitogenically stimulated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, M L; Verbeke, S B; Kimball, P M

    2000-11-01

    The improved clinical outcome observed among patients with hepatitis C treated with the combination of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) is presumed to result from immunomodulation and viral inhibition. However, the impact of the drug combination upon lymphocyte activity is unknown. The present study evaluated the effects of IFN and RBV, singly and in combination, upon proliferation, cell cycle sensitivity and cytokine elaboration following PHA stimulation of lymphocytes. Two formulations of IFN, interferon-a-2b (IFN-2b) and interferon-a-con-1 (CIFN), were included. Titration of each drug over a wide range of concentrations showed dose dependent proliferative suppression without cytotoxicity. Proliferation was suppressed 57-99% (P<0.001) by IFN-2b (10(5)-10(7) IU/ml), 41-74% (P<0.001) by CIFN (1.5-150 ng/ml), and 10-94% (P<0.001) by RBV (0.5-50 microg/ml). Isobologram analysis showed that the interaction between IFN-2b and RBV on proliferative suppression was additive. In contrast, the interaction between CIFN and RBV was weakly antagonistic. Proliferative suppression by both the IFNs was cell cycle restricted. IFN-2b and CIFN added at the onset of PHA stimulation (G0/G1) versus 24 h later (S phase) inhibited proliferation by 50 versus 5%, respectively (P<0.05). The onset of IFN resistance correlated with a 50% reduction (P<0.05) in IFN receptors on the cell surface. In contrast, RBV caused equivalent proliferative suppression (P=NS) when added at any time during PHA activation. Cytokine secretion after 24 h of PHA stimulation showed that IFN-2b versus CIFN increased the secretion of IL2, TNF and gamma IFN by 4.5-, 4.1- and 8.3-fold (P<0.005) versus 1-, 1.9- and 1.9-fold (P<0.05), respectively, above control levels. Neither IFN affected IL10 secretion. RBV, singly and in combination with IFN, had no impact on cytokine expression (P=NS). This study identifies several potential mechanisms by which the combination of IFN and RBV may exert a more potent effect

  14. Pronunciation Pegs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    An ESL instructor describes her experience of using pronunciation pegs, a method to foster the self-monitoring and self-correction of pronunciation mistakes with a view to helping university-level students deal with the ongoing challenge of producing target-like pronunciation. The appeal of pegs to students led the instructor to reflect on what…

  15. Interferon alpha inhibits spinal cord synaptic and nociceptive transmission via neuronal-glial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Cheng; Gao, Yong-Jing; Luo, Hao; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP. In the spinal cord IFN-α was primarily expressed by astrocytes. Perfusion of spinal cord slices with IFN-α suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission by reducing the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs). IFN-α also inhibited nociceptive transmission by reducing capsaicin-induced internalization of NK-1 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Finally, spinal (intrathecal) administration of IFN-α reduced inflammatory pain and increased pain threshold in naïve rats, whereas removal of endogenous IFN-α by a neutralizing antibody induced hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest a new form of neuronal-glial interaction by which IFN-α, produced by astrocytes, inhibits nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. PMID:27670299

  16. 17β-Estradiol Protects Primary Macrophages Against HIV Infection Through Induction of Interferon-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Carley; Ding, Jian; Schmolke, Mirco; Rivera-Medina, Amariliz; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen has been shown to increase resistance to HIV/SIV transmission by increasing the thickness of the genital epithelium. The immunological role of estrogen in HIV infection of primary target cells is less well characterized. We have found that primary macrophages are a target for anti-HIV activity of 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 did not affect surface expression of CD4 and HIV co-receptors nor HIV attachment to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). In addition, E2 treatment blocked infection by a co-receptor-independent HIV-1VSV-G pseudotyped virus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of HIV reverse transcribed DNA products indicated that E2 blocked HIV reverse transcription. E2 upregulated gene expression of interferons (IFNs) in MDMs from multiple donors. However, induction of host restriction factors APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, or SAMHD1 was not consistent, with exception of APOBEC3A. Anti-HIV activity of E2 was abolished in the presence of IFN-α neutralizing antibody, and was absent in bone marrow–derived macrophages from IFN-α receptor deficient mice. Interestingly, HIV overcame E2-mediated HIV inhibition by suppressing induction of IFNs when MDMs were exposed to HIV before E2 treatment. These results offer a new mechanism of E2 on HIV inhibition. Future studies on the interplay between HIV and E2-mediated innate immune responses will likely provide insights relevant for development of effective strategies for HIV prevention. PMID:24801776

  17. Interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2b therapy for chronic hepatitis C: case report.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; González-Avila, Daniela; Uribe-Ríos, Marittza; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, pegylated interferon (P-IFN) in combination with ribavirin has become the optimal choice of therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. IFN a-2b suppresses HCV replication and restores elevated serum aminotransferase levels, leading to improvements in the histological changes in the livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Unfortunately, P-IFN has several adverse effects, including pneumonitis. This complication has been reported in the treatment of malignant diseases and CHC. We report a patient with interstitial pneumonitis thought to be caused by an IFN-based treatment in an unusual scenario of a patient with HCV-related Child-Pugh stage A cirrhosis, who experienced dyspnea, fever, and cough after 12 months of treatment with P-IFN a-2b. Her lung injury and pulmonary symptoms did not disappear despite discontinuation of IFN and the administration of corticosteroid. We concluded that the patient developed a fatal interstitial pneumonitis associated with P-INF a-2b therapy. PMID:18376374

  18. Inhibition of intracellular hepatitis C virus replication by nelfinavir and synergistic effect with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Toma, S; Yamashiro, T; Arakaki, S; Shiroma, J; Maeshiro, T; Hibiya, K; Sakamoto, N; Kinjo, F; Tateyama, M; Fujita, J

    2009-07-01

    Liver diseases associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have become the major cause of mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. HCV-related liver disease is more severe in HIV-infected patients than in non-HIV-infected patients, but the standard therapies used to treat chronic hepatitis C in HCV/HIV coinfected patients are the same as those for patients infected with HCV alone. HIV protease inhibitors might have potential to down-regulate HCV load of HCV/HIV coinfected patients. In this study, we evaluated the effects of nelfinavir on intracellular HCV replication using the HCV replicon system. We constructed an HCV replicon expressing a neomycin-selectable chimeric firefly luciferase reporter protein. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by nelfinavir were assessed and synergism between nelfinavir and interferon (IFN) was calculated using CalcuSyn analysis. Nelfinavir dose-dependently repressed HCV replication at low concentrations (IC(50), 9.88 micromol/L). Nelfinavir failed to induce cytotoxicity or apoptosis at concentrations that inhibited HCV replication. Clinical concentrations of nelfinavir (5 micromol/L) combined with IFN showed synergistic inhibition of HCV replication in our replicon model. Our results suggest that the direct effects of nelfinavir on the HCV subgenome and its synergism with IFN could improve clinical responses to IFN therapy in HCV/HIV coinfected patients.

  19. Intrinsic Viral Factors Are the Dominant Determinants of the Hepatitis C Virus Response to Interferon Alpha Treatment in Chimeric Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Kobewka, Michelle; Addison, William; Lachance, Gerald; Tyrrell, D. Lorne

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem. New direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently approved. However, due to their high cost and some genotypes remaining difficult to treat, interferon-based therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin likely may remain a component of hepatitis C virus treatment for some patients. Unfortunately, pegylated interferon / ribavirin treatment achieved favorable outcomes in less than 50% of patients. Factors determining the outcome to pegylated interferon / ribavirin include both host and viral factors. It has been a major challenge to separate the host and viral factors in most in vivo systems. Aims & Methods We used two hepatitis C virus strains from patients with different interferon-sensitivities and three hepatocyte donors, each with distinct interleukin 28B and interferon lambda 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate the contributions of viral and host factors to the response of hepatitis C virus to interferon treatment in chimeric mice. Results and Conclusions We found that viral factors were the dominant factors in determining the interferon treatment outcomes in chimeric mice. Host factors, such as pre-treatment liver interferon-stimulated gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms near interleukin 28B and interferon lambda 4 coding regions, were less important determinants of the response to interferon in the chimeric mice than they were in patients. Our results also suggest that a complete immune system as seen in patients may be required for host factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms near interleukin 28B / interferon lambda 4 and pre-treatment liver interferon-stimulated gene upregulation to have an effect on the interferon response. PMID:26765841

  20. Complex Interplay between HIV-1 Capsid and MX2-Independent Alpha Interferon-Induced Antiviral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Lorenzo; Apolonia, Luis; Kutzner, Juliane; Pollpeter, Darja; Goujon, Caroline; Herold, Nikolas; Schwarz, Sarah-Marie; Giernat, Yannick; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs), including IFN-α, upregulate an array of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and potently suppress Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells. Recently, we and others identified ISG myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an inhibitor of HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, additional antiviral blocks exist upstream of nuclear import, but the ISGs that suppress infection, e.g., prior to (or during) reverse transcription, remain to be defined. We show here that the HIV-1 CA mutations N74D and A105T, both of which allow escape from inhibition by MX2 and the truncated version of cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6), as well as the cyclophilin A (CypA)-binding loop mutation P90A, all increase sensitivity to IFN-α-mediated inhibition. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology, we demonstrate that the IFN-α hypersensitivity of these mutants in THP-1 cells is independent of MX2 or CPSF6. As expected, CypA depletion had no additional effect on the behavior of the P90A mutant but modestly increased the IFN-α sensitivity of wild-type virus. Interestingly, the infectivity of wild-type or P90A virus could be rescued from the MX2-independent IFN-α-induced blocks in THP-1 cells by treatment with cyclosporine (Cs) or its nonimmunosuppressive analogue SDZ-NIM811, indicating that Cs-sensitive host cell cyclophilins other than CypA contribute to the activity of IFN-α-induced blocks. We propose that cellular interactions with incoming HIV-1 capsids help shield the virus from recognition by antiviral effector mechanisms. Thus, the CA protein is a fulcrum for the dynamic interplay between cell-encoded functions that inhibit or promote HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS. During acute HIV-1 infection, numerous proinflammatory cytokines are produced, including type I interferons (IFNs). IFNs can

  1. Anger induced by interferon-alpha is moderated by ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Lotrich, Francis E.; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anger worsens in some patients during interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. Elevated anger has also been associated with lower long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acid levels. We examined whether fatty acids could influence vulnerability to anger during IFN-α exposure. Methods Plasma arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were determined prior to IFN-α therapy by mass spectroscopy. Repeated-measure analyses examined the relationship between AA/EPA+DHA and the subsequent development of labile anger and irritability in 82 subjects who prospectively completed the Anger, Irritability, and Assault Questionnaire (AIAQ) during the first eight weeks of IFN-α therapy. Results Prior to IFN-α therapy, AA/EPA+DHA did not correlate with either labile anger or irritability. Pre-treatment AA/EPA+DHA did correlate with the subsequent maximal increase in labile anger during IFN-α therapy (r=0.33; p=0.005). Over time, labile anger increased more in subjects with above median AA/EPA+DHA ratios (p<0.05). Of the 17 subjects ultimately requiring psychiatric intervention for anger, 14/17 had above-median AA/EPA+DHA ratios (p=0.009). There was also an interaction with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) promoter polymorphism (A-308G), such that only those with both elevated AA/EPA+DHA and the A allele had increased labile anger (p=0.001). In an additional 18 subjects, we conversely observed that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment was associated with increased irritability during IFN-α therapy. Conclusion LCn-3 fatty acid status may influence anger development during exposure to elevated inflammatory cytokines, and may interact with genetic risk for increased brain TNF-α. LCn-3 supplements may be one strategy for minimizing this adverse side effect of IFN-α. PMID:24182638

  2. Chemotherapy plus interferon-alpha2b versus chemotherapy in the treatment of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Neri, N; Avilés, A; Cleto, S; Díaz, N; Talavera, A; García, E L; Díaz-Maqueo, J C

    2001-10-01

    The best treatment of follicular lymphoma remains to be determined because the long natural history of follicular lymphoma requires mature data for accurate analysis. Although the goal of primary treatment remains durable remission, the sequential application of effective treatments may also result in a prolongation of median survival time. The use of interferon (IFN) with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy has demonstrated an increase of event-free survival but not in overall survival; however, its acute and late cardiac toxicity limits its use. For this reason, we began a controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy: COPP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and procarbazine) + IFN alternating every month for six cycles compared to six cycles of chemotherapy. In an intent-to treat analysis, 55 patients were enrolled (median age 61 years). Most cases (91%) with advanced disease were randomly assigned to chemotherapy + IFN (28 cases) or chemotherapy (27 cases). Complete remission was observed in 16 patients: 59% (95% CI, 53-70%) in the chemotherapy arm compared to 20 patients 71% (95% CI, 58-79%) in the chemotherapy + IFN arm; total responses were 74% and 86%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 60 months, event-free survival was 100% for patients treated with chemotherapy + IFN, which was statistically different from patients treated with chemotherapy 70%. At 7 years, median survival has not yet been reached; 72% of patients chemotherapy + IFN remain alive without disease (95% CI, 59-81%), which is not statistically different from 72% (95%CI, 50-73%) in the chemotherapy arm. Non-hematological toxicity was most frequent and severe in the chemotherapy arm; hematological toxicity was similar in both groups. Thus, it appears that chemotherapy + IFN, as described herein, improves event-free survival but the overall survival rates remain unchanged. The use of COPP appears to be better that anthracycline-based chemotherapy because

  3. A phase II trial of concomitant human interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha-2a in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, R P; Figlin, R; Citron, M L; Pfile, J; Moldawer, N; Patel, D; Jones, G; Levitt, D; Zeffren, J

    1993-02-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and alpha-interferon have each shown antitumor activity in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma. Because animal studies suggest enhanced activity for the combination over each agent used alone, this trial using a relatively low-dose outpatient regimen was undertaken. IL-2 at a dose of 2 x 10(6) U/m2/day (Roche units) was given by continuous intravenous infusion for 4 days a week with interferon-alpha-2a at a dose of 6 x 10(6) U/m2/day given by s.c. or i.m. injection on days 1 and 4 of each treatment week. One cycle consisted of 4 consecutive weeks of treatment followed by a 2-week rest period. Fourteen patients were entered in this study. No complete or partial responses were seen. One patient required dose reduction because of grade 3 diarrhea and two patients had interruption of treatment because of central-line-related sepsis. Fatigue was common in all patients. This low-dose combination regimen of IL-2 and alpha-interferon does not appear to be better than the single agents used alone in optimal dosage. PMID:8318496

  4. Chemokine gene expression in the murine renal cell carcinoma, RENCA, following treatment in vivo with interferon-alpha and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Sonouchi, K.; Hamilton, T. A.; Tannenbaum, C. S.; Tubbs, R. R.; Bukowski, R.; Finke, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of three chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) messenger (m)RNAs in the murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) from mice treated with a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin-2 was examined and related to tumor infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes. Using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, mRNAs encoding the KC, JE, and IP-10 genes were all elevated in tumor tissue from mice treated systemically with IFN-alpha/interleukin-2 for 4 days. Similarly, the mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also increased in tumors from treated as compared to control animals. The same tumors showed a significant increase in Mac-1+ leukocytes, which correlated well with the increase in chemokine and TNF-alpha gene expression. The renal cell carcinoma tumor itself may be responsible for the expression of chemokine genes in the tumor bed following cytokine therapy. Cultures of freshly explanted RENCA cells expressed significant levels of chemokine mRNAs when stimulated in vitro with IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and/or interleukin-2, demonstrating that this tumor cell has potential for expression of these genes in vivo. In contrast, TNF-alpha expression was not detected in cultured tumor cells. Thus TNF-alpha may be expressed by infiltrating monocytes following exposure to recombinant cytokine therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8160774

  5. A recombinant DNA vaccine protects mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor against lethal challenge with Usutu virus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Cañas-Arranz, Rodrigo; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-04-19

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus whose circulation had been confined to Africa since it was first detected in 1959. However, in the last decade USUV has emerged in Europe causing episodes of avian mortality and sporadic severe neuroinvasive infections in humans. Remarkably, adult laboratory mice exhibit limited susceptibility to USUV infection, which has impaired the analysis of the immune responses, thus complicating the evaluation of virus-host interactions and of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. In this work, we showed that mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor (IFNAR (-/-) mice) were highly susceptible to USUV infection and provided a lethal challenge model for vaccine testing. To validate this infection model, a plasmid DNA vaccine candidate encoding the precursor of membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins of USUV was engineered. Transfection of cultured cells with this plasmid resulted in expression of USUV antigens and the assembly and secretion of small virus-like particles also known as recombinant subviral particles (RSPs). A single intramuscular immunization with this plasmid was sufficient to elicit a significant level of protection against challenge with USUV in IFNAR (-/-) mice. The characterization of the humoral response induced revealed that DNA vaccination primed anti-USUV antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. Overall, these results probe the suitability of IFNAR (-/-) mice as an amenable small animal model for the study of USUV host virus interactions and vaccine testing, as well as the feasibility of DNA-based vaccine strategies for the control of this pathogen.

  6. Development of a drug-coated microneedle array and its application for transdermal delivery of interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakai, Ryota; Hayashi, Rie; Hirai, Yuka; Tanaka, Yutaro; Hitomi, Kaori; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Yamada, Keigo; Sumida, Shun-ichiro; Kishi, Kazumasa; Hashiba, Katsunori; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-03-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNα) is one of the most famous drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and various types of human malignancy. Protein drugs, including IFNα, are generally administered by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection due to their poor permeability and low stability in the bloodstream or gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in the present study, novel IFNα-coated polyvinyl alcohol-based microneedle arrays (IFNα-MNs) were fabricated for the transdermal delivery of IFNα without the painful injection. IFNα was rapidly released from MNs in phosphate buffered solution and these MNs presented piercing ability in the rat skin. Slight erythema and irritation were observed when MNs were applied to the rat skin, but these skin damages completely disappeared within 24 h after removing the IFNα-MNs. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of IFNα-MNs were similar to those of IFNα subcutaneous administration. Finally, IFNα-MNs showed a significant antitumor effect in tumor bearing mice similar to that of IFNα subcutaneous administration. These results indicate that IFNα-MNs are a useful biomaterial tool for protein drug therapy and can improve the quality of life in patients by avoidance of painful injections. PMID:26756832

  7. Protein crystal growth in microgravity review of large scale temperature induction method: bovine insulin, human insulin and human alpha interferon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Marianna M.; Bishop, John Bradford; Nagabhushan, Tattanahalli L.; Reichert, Paul; Smith, G. David; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-10-01

    The protein crystal growth facility (PCF) is space-flight hardware that accommodates large scale protein crystal growth experiments using temperature change as the inductive step. Recent modifications include specialized instrumentation for monitoring crystal nucleation with laser light scattering. This paper reviews results from the PCF's first seven flights on the Space Shuttle, the last with laser light scattering instrumentation. The PCF's objective is twofold: (1) production of high quality protein crystals for X-ray analysis and subsequent structure based drug design and (2) preparation of a large quantity of relatively contaminant free crystals for use as time-release protein pharmaceuticals. The first three Shuttle flights with bovine insulin constituted the PCF's proof of concept, demonstrating that the space-grown crystals were larger and diffracted to higher resolution than their earth-grown counterparts. The later four PCF missions were used to grow recombinant human insulin crystals for X-ray analysis and to continue productions trials aimed at the development of a processing facility for crystalline recombinant alpha interferon.

  8. Interferon alpha 2b as maintenance therapy in low grade malignant lymphoma improves duration of remission and survival.

    PubMed

    Aviles, A; Duque, G; Talavera, A; Guzman, R

    1996-02-01

    We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of interferon alpha 2b (IFN) as maintenance therapy in patients with low grade malignant lymphoma. Between March 1986 and December 1989, 98 patients with low-grade malignant lymphoma in complete remission after conventional chemotherapy were randomly assigned to received IFN, 5.0 MU three times a week for one year, as maintenance therapy (n = 48), or to receive no treatment (control group, n = 50). In March 1994, the median duration of response had not yet been reached in the patients treated with IFN compared to 46 months in the control group. At 9-years 62% of the patients in the IFN arm remain in first complete remission compared to only 25% in the control group (p <.001). In addition, the median duration of survival has not yet been reached in either the IFN arm compared to 74 months in the control group (p <.001). Quality of life was excellent in both groups and severe side effects secondary to IFN treatment were not observed. All patients completed the planned dose of IFN. We conclude that IFN as maintenance therapy in low-grade malignant lymphoma is an excellent therapeutic option because it improves the duration of remission and survival without producing severe side effects or reducing the quality of life. PMID:8833409

  9. Analysis of sequences of hepatitis C virus NS5A genotype 1 in HIV-coinfected patients with a null response to nitazoxanide or peg-interferon plus ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Sede, M; Laufer, N; Ojeda, D; Gun, A; Cahn, P; Quarleri, J

    2013-09-01

    Even though new drugs have been approved for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the risk of drug-drug interactions and concern about overlapping toxicities has hindered the development of studies in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Traditional treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (peg-IFN + RBV) is very expensive and has a low rate of sustained virological response in coinfected patients, especially if they are infected with HCV genotype 1. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a drug that is being evaluated for the treatment of chronic HCV infection, both in HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Understanding the NTZ resistance mechanism could allow the development of resistance to be minimized and would expand the treatment options, mainly in special populations such as HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Similarly to IFN, NTZ increases the activity of the cellular protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA (PKR), a key kinase in the innate antiviral response. In order to elucidate whether sequence heterogeneity in the PKR-binding domain of HCV NS5A genotype 1 could influence the antiviral activity of either NTZ monotherapy or peg-IFN + RBV, baseline and end-of-therapy plasma samples from two groups of eleven non-responder HIV/HCV-coinfected patients that had received NTZ or peg-IFN + RBV were studied. Most of the HCV NS5A sequences examined at the end of therapy did not change from the baseline, even after 30 days course of antiviral therapy. An extensive comparison of HCV NS5A genotype 1 and 4 sequences from the database with reported IFN therapy outcome was performed in order to infer their phylogenetic relationships. The HCV genotype 1 NS5A nucleotide sequences from therapy-non-responder patients were intermingled amongst those from the database, irrespective of their IFN-therapy outcome. When comparing NS5A-PKRBD amino acid sequences, significant differences were observed in genotype 4, but not in genotype 1 (p < 0.0001 and p

  10. Peculiarities of production technology and properties of natural animal alpha-interferon preparations.

    PubMed

    Kishko, Ia H

    1999-01-01

    Principally new biotechnology of production of natural animal alpha-IFNs was created. Normative technical documentation on industrial production of these preparations was transmitted to the plants of Ukraine for their industrial obtaining. The peculiarity of proposed technology consists in usage of non-traditional raw-material--lymphoid organs and tissues (perhaps spleen), and also in introduction of coinduction into industrial cycle with the help of camizole (compound of phenilimidazothiazole family) which increased the output of final product by 3-8 times. Obtained preparations were tested in vitro and in vivo experiments. As it was shown in both cases bactericidal and absorbed activity of monocytes and neutrophils increased by 2-5 times, antibody genesis sharply increased after immunization of pigs and calves by colibacteriosis vaccine: titers were higher by 3-8 times (comparatively with control), especially two month after revaccination, but they were more stable too. Fractions of 12 and 18 kDa responsible for antibacterial and antitoxic activity respectively were found in non-purified preparations of alpha-IFNs. PMID:10441967

  11. Interferon-alpha inhibits murine macrophage transforming growth factor-beta mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, S; Huang, M; Wang, J; Dubinett, S M

    1994-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional polypeptide is produced by a wide variety of cells and regulates a broad array of physiological and pathological functions. TGF-beta appears to play a central role in pulmonary fibrosis and may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. Alveolar macrophages are a rich source of TGF-beta and are intimately involved in lung inflammation. We therefore chose to study TGF-beta regulation in murine alveolar macrophages as well as an immortalized peritoneal macrophage cell line (IC-21). Murine macrophages were incubated with cytokines to evaluate their role in regulating TGF-beta mRNA expression. We conclude that IFN-alpha downregulates TGF-beta mRNA expression in murine macrophages. PMID:8088926

  12. Enhanced immunogenicity of multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with porcine interferon alpha in mice and protective efficacy in guinea pigs and swine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yijun; Li, Yufeng; He, Hairong; Qi, Jing; Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Xinglong; Tang, Bo; Cao, Jun; Wang, Xianwei; Jiang, Ping

    2008-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In this study, three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 from VP1 protein of FMDV were selected as multiple-epitopes (VPe), and a recombinant adenovirus expressing the multiple-epitopes fused with porcine interferon alpha (rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe) was constructed. Six groups of female BALB/c mice (18 mice per group) were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice at 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses and the immune responses were examined. Following this the protective efficacy of rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe was examined in guinea pigs and swine. The results showed that both FMDV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses could be induced by rAd-VPe and increased when rAd-pIFN alpha is included in this regime in mice model. Moreover, the levels of the immune responses in the group inoculated with rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe were significantly higher than the group inoculated with rAd-VPe plus rAd-pIFN alpha. All guinea pigs and swine vaccinated with rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe were completely protected from viral challenge. It demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe might be an attractive candidate vaccine for preventing FMDV infection. PMID:18294705

  13. Incidence and severity of infections according to the development of neutropenia during combined therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Juarez-Navarro, A; Vera-de-León, L; Navarro, J M; Chirino-Sprung, R; Díaz-Hernandez, M; Casillas-Davila, L; Dehesa-Violante, M

    2005-06-01

    The evolution of treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection has led to improved therapeutic efficacy. However, a major problem is the presence of side effects that require modification or withdrawal of drug therapy in 15-20% of cases. This could potentially influence the lack of sustained viral response in 50% of the cases. Side effects are common, even with pegylated interferon. This study aimed to assess the incidence and severity of infections based on the development of neutropenia associated with combined therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin in 209 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. All patients were administered pegylated interferon-alpha2a (180 microg/week) plus ribavirin (800 mg/day for 24 weeks in cases of nongenotype 1, or 1000-1200 mg/day for 48 weeks for genotype 1, according to whether patients weighed more or less than 75 kg). Patients with preexisting neutropenia of any cause or cirrhosis were excluded. Neutropenia was defined as a neutrophil count (NC) of <1500 cells/microl. Neutropenia was classified into three levels during treatment: 750interferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin did not show a higher infection rate or increased severity of the disease. PMID:16082419

  14. Infectious salmon anaemia virus replication and induction of alpha interferon in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Workenhe, Samuel T; Kibenge, Molly JT; Wright, Glenda M; Wadowska, Dorota W; Groman, David B; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and it is generally accepted that the ISAV receptor destroying enzyme dissolves this haemagglutination except for Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Recent work indicates that ISAV isolates that are able to elute from Atlantic salmon erythrocytes cause low mortality in challenge experiments using Atlantic salmon. Previous work on ISAV-induced haemagglutination using the highly pathogenic ISAV strain NBISA01 and the low pathogenic ISAV strain RPC/NB-04-0851, showed endocytosis of NBISA01 but not RPC/NB-04-0851. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess the viral RNA levels in the ISAV-induced haemagglutination reaction samples, and we observed a slight increase in viral RNA transcripts by 36 hours in the haemagglutination reaction with NBISA01 virus when the experiment was terminated. However, a longer sampling interval was considered necessary to confirm ISAV replication in fish erythrocytes and to determine if the infected cells mounted any innate immune response. This study examined the possible ISAV replication and Type I interferon (IFN) system gene induction in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes following ISAV haemagglutination. Results Haemagglutination assays were performed using Atlantic salmon erythrocytes and one haemagglutination unit of the two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-0851, of differing genotypes and pathogenicities. Haemagglutination induced by the highly pathogenic NBISA01 but not the low pathogenic RPC/NB-04-0851 resulted in productive infection as evidenced by increased ISAV segment 8 transcripts and increase in the median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) by 5 days of incubation. Moreover, reverse transcription (RT) quantitative PCR used to compare mRNA levels of key Type I IFN system genes in erythrocyte

  15. [Interferon alpha 2b in pain caused by herpes zoster. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Montero Mora, P; Colín, D; González Espinosa, A; Almeida Arvizu, V

    1996-01-01

    We studied forty patients with Zoster Herpes, twenty two of them, with this acute disease, eighteen with postherpetic neuralgia, to those that were considered chronic. The evaluation of the effect of INF alpha 2b, in the secondary pain of Zoster Herpes acute disease, in the patients with chronic severe secondary neuralgia they shared; the evolution with the treatment for half for visual pain analog scale in both groups the patients with acute pain, entered for visual pain analog scale between 10 and two points, with medium of 8.2 SD 2.1. They did not find any significance difference with this values p < 0.6. Most of the patients with acute pain was of 6 a 0 points with the medium a 0.27 y SD: 1,2 in the chronics went from. 6 to 0 points with a medium of 1.27 (SD:2.4), with a significative difference for t Student for comparation the initial scale in final in both groups of (p < 0.0001). The comparation of the best days, the disease bettered in acute quicker than the chronics with significance difference: (p < 0.001). PMID:9053126

  16. [Interferon alpha 2b in pain caused by herpes zoster. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Montero Mora, P; Colín, D; González Espinosa, A; Almeida Arvizu, V

    1996-01-01

    We studied forty patients with Zoster Herpes, twenty two of them, with this acute disease, eighteen with postherpetic neuralgia, to those that were considered chronic. The evaluation of the effect of INF alpha 2b, in the secondary pain of Zoster Herpes acute disease, in the patients with chronic severe secondary neuralgia they shared; the evolution with the treatment for half for visual pain analog scale in both groups the patients with acute pain, entered for visual pain analog scale between 10 and two points, with medium of 8.2 SD 2.1. They did not find any significance difference with this values p < 0.6. Most of the patients with acute pain was of 6 a 0 points with the medium a 0.27 y SD: 1,2 in the chronics went from. 6 to 0 points with a medium of 1.27 (SD:2.4), with a significative difference for t Student for comparation the initial scale in final in both groups of (p < 0.0001). The comparation of the best days, the disease bettered in acute quicker than the chronics with significance difference: (p < 0.001).

  17. Ribavirin and alpha interferon enhance death receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Stephan F; Schuler, Markus; Berg, Christoph P; Lauber, Kirsten; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Schmahl, Friedrich Wilhelm; Wesselborg, Sebastian

    2003-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are not understood. Elimination of infected cells occurs in part by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing CD95 ligand and thereby attacking target cells which are positive for the death receptor CD95. Since many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis, the opposite, namely, promotion of apoptosis, could be a strategy to strengthen the host antiviral response. In the present study, we have asked whether the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin could support CD95-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspases, a family of proteases known for their essential role in apoptosis. HepG2 cells, stimulated with the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody, served as a minimal model to mimic the CD95 stimulation occurring during a CTL attack of target cells in vivo. Apoptosis was quantitated by flow cytometric detection of hypodiploid nuclei. Caspase activity was measured by cytofluorometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. IFN and ribavirin sensitized HepG2 cells for CD95-mediated apoptosis. This effect was correlated with an increase in CD95-mediated caspase activation and enhanced cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the positive effect on CD95-mediated caspase activation by IFN and ribavirin was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for activated caspase-3 and by immunoblot detection of activated caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8. Our data demonstrate that the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin are able to sensitize for CD95-mediated apoptosis. IFN and ribavirin also enhance CD95-mediated caspase activation, which might in part be responsible for the apoptosis-promoting effect of these antiviral compounds. PMID:12760867

  18. Alpha/Beta Interferon Protects against Lethal West Nile Virus Infection by Restricting Cellular Tropism and Enhancing Neuronal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Melanie A.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals. While adaptive immunity plays an important role in preventing WNV spread to the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about how alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) protects against peripheral and CNS infection. In this study, we examine the virulence and tropism of WNV in IFN-α/β receptor-deficient (IFN- α/βR−/−) mice and primary neuronal cultures. IFN-α/βR−/− mice were acutely susceptible to WNV infection through subcutaneous inoculation, with 100% mortality and a mean time to death (MTD) of 4.6 ± 0.7 and 3.8± 0.5 days after infection with 100 and 102 PFU, respectively. In contrast, congenic wild-type 129Sv/Ev mice infected with 102 PFU showed 62% mortality and a MTD of 11.9 ± 1.9 days. IFN-α/βR−/− mice developed high viral loads by day 3 after infection in nearly all tissues assayed, including many that were not infected in wild-type mice. IFN-α/βR−/− mice also demonstrated altered cellular tropism, with increased infection in macrophages, B cells, and T cells in the spleen. Additionally, treatment of primary wild-type neurons in vitro with IFN-β either before or after infection increased neuronal survival independent of its effect on WNV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that IFN-α/β controls WNV infection by restricting tropism and viral burden and by preventing death of infected neurons. PMID:16227257

  19. Augmentation of the human monocyte/macrophage chemiluminescence response during short-term exposure to interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Bates, E J; Kowanko, I C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of short-term (30 min) pre-incubation of human monocytes and macrophages (3-day cultured monocytes) with leucocyte-derived human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-alpha) were examined. Pre-incubation of either monocytes or macrophages with rTNF-alpha or IFN-gamma (100 U/5 x 10(5) cells) augmented their respiratory burst to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP), measured by the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In addition, both cell types showed a burst of respiratory activity in the presence of rTNF-alpha or IFN-gamma only. The effects of IFN-gamma were removed by adsorption with an anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody and those of rTNF-alpha were abolished by heating at 100 degrees C, or by the addition of anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. The results demonstrate that both IFN-gamma and rTNF-alpha are stimulators of monocytes and macrophages, and rapidly alter the capacity of the cells to respond to fMLP, which binds to cell surface receptors. PMID:2113442

  20. Treatment of murine macrophages with murine interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha enhances uptake and intracellular killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, S S; Sonnenfeld, G

    1993-01-01

    Murine interferon-gamma (MuIFN-gamma) and murine tumour necrosis-alpha (MuTNF-alpha) are known to be potent immunomodulators of several aspects of the immune response, and they have been shown to exert profound effects on macrophages and monocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of MuIFN-gamma and MuTNF-alpha on the phagocytosis (uptake and intracellular killing) of opsonized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unstimulated peritoneal macrophages obtained from CBA/c mice were exposed to different concentrations of recombinant forms of the cytokines (rMuIFN-gamma and rMuTNF-alpha) for different periods of time. Phagocytosis was assayed using different concentrations of opsonized Ps. aeruginosa. In all cases the pretreatment of the cells with the cytokines increased significantly the uptake and the intracellular killing of bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. rMuTNF-alpha was effective only at 1000 U/ml. Combined treatment with the cytokines showed a less than additive effect with rMuIFN-gamma and rMuTNF-alpha at concentrations of 10 U/ml and 100 U/ml. In the in vivo experiments, peritoneal macrophages obtained from rMuIFN-gamma- or rMuTNF-alpha-treated mice showed enhancement of the intracellular killing of opsonized bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:8348741

  1. A phase II randomised trial of 5-fluorouracil with or without interferon alpha-2a in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Piga, A.; Cascinu, S.; Latini, L.; Marcellini, M.; Bavosi, M.; Acito, L.; Bascioni, R.; Giustini, L.; Francini, G.; Pancotti, A.; Rossi, G.; Del Papa, M.; Carle, F.; Cellerino, R.

    1996-01-01

    With the association of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and alpha-interferon (IFN), objective responses as high as 26 63% have been reported in untreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer. However, grade 3-4 toxicity has also been reported. We have conducted a prospective phase II randomised study comparing 5-FU to 5-FU + IFN, to investigate whether the addition of IFN to a weekly 5-FU regimen devoid of significant toxicity used at our institutions could improve the effectiveness of 5-FU while maintaining acceptable toxicity. Patients with histologically proven advanced colorectal carcinoma were randomised to receive 5-FU 500 mg m-2 intravenous (i.v.) bolus on days 1-5 followed by 5-FU 500 mg m-2 i.v. bolus weekly from day 15, with or without IFN alpha-2a intramuscularly (i.m.) 1.5 mU daily on days 6-12 and 3 mU i.m. daily thereafter. The treatment was administered on an outpatient basis. Response was evaluated every 3 months, and treatment continued until progression or after two consecutive judgements of stable disease. Response rate was the main end point of the study. Of 141 patients eligible, 72 were randomised to 5-FU alone (arm A) and 69 to 5-FU + IFN (arm B). Responses were 9/72 (12.5%) in arm A and 6/69 (8.7%) in arm B; complete responses were three in arm A and two in arm B. Progression-free survival (median 4 months) and survival (median 12 months) were identical in the two arms. Toxicity was almost absent in arm A and moderate in arm B, represented mainly by haematological toxicity (usually leucopenia). In conclusion, overall survival was good in both arms of treatment and toxicity was moderate. While the response rate with 5-FU alone was in accord with the literature data, response to 5-FU + IFN was lower than expected. At least at this dosage and schedule, the association of 5-FU and IFN is no better than 5-FU alone and is of no clinical interest. PMID:8826868

  2. OBTAINING OF THE TRANSGENIC HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. PLANTS, CALLUS AND "HAIRY" ROOT CULTURES ABLE TO EXPRESS THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA-2b GENE.

    PubMed

    Maistrenko, O M; Luchakivska, Yu S; Zholobak, N M; Spivak, M Ya; Kuchuk, M V

    2015-01-01

    This work is the first to our knowledge to describe the successful attempt of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of topinambour in order to obtain the transgenic H. tuberosus plants, callus and "hairy" root cultures. The plasmid vectors contained the sequence of interferon gene fused with Nicotiana plumbagenifolia L. calreticulin apoplast targeting signal driven by 35S CaMV promoter or root-specific Mll promoter. Nearly 75% isolated Ri-root lines and callus cultures were proved (by PCR analysis) to contain HuINFa-2b transgene. We also managed to obtain H. tuberosus transgenic plants through somatic embryogenesis on the transgenic "hairy" root culture. The obtained transgenic H. tuberosus cultures exhibited high-level antiviral activity that ranged from 2000 to 54500 IU/g FW that makes this crop considered a promising source of recombinant interferon alpha 2b protein. PMID:26638495

  3. OBTAINING OF THE TRANSGENIC HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. PLANTS, CALLUS AND "HAIRY" ROOT CULTURES ABLE TO EXPRESS THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA-2b GENE.

    PubMed

    Maistrenko, O M; Luchakivska, Yu S; Zholobak, N M; Spivak, M Ya; Kuchuk, M V

    2015-01-01

    This work is the first to our knowledge to describe the successful attempt of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of topinambour in order to obtain the transgenic H. tuberosus plants, callus and "hairy" root cultures. The plasmid vectors contained the sequence of interferon gene fused with Nicotiana plumbagenifolia L. calreticulin apoplast targeting signal driven by 35S CaMV promoter or root-specific Mll promoter. Nearly 75% isolated Ri-root lines and callus cultures were proved (by PCR analysis) to contain HuINFa-2b transgene. We also managed to obtain H. tuberosus transgenic plants through somatic embryogenesis on the transgenic "hairy" root culture. The obtained transgenic H. tuberosus cultures exhibited high-level antiviral activity that ranged from 2000 to 54500 IU/g FW that makes this crop considered a promising source of recombinant interferon alpha 2b protein.

  4. Treatment of putative non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis with alpha interferon: a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Van Thiel, D H; Gavaler, J S; Baddour, N; Friedlander, L; Wright, H I

    1994-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis due to putative non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis occurring in an individual who is negative for HBV and HCV markers has been identifiable only recently. Little or nothing is known about its natural history or response to interferon therapy. In the present study, 13 subjects with chronic non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis were treated with interferon for 6 months (5 million units, three times per week). Prior to and after 6 months of therapy and again 6 weeks after discontinuing interferon therapy, each subject underwent a liver biopsy. These tissues were used to define the histopathology, the character of the cellular infiltrate within the liver, and the changes in histopathology and inflammatory infiltrate achieved in response to interferon therapy and withdrawal. No differences for age, gender, initial AST, bilirubin, histopathology, or Knodell score were evident between responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 6). Only the number of NK cells was altered significantly as a result of IFN treatment and distinguished responders from non-responders. These data demonstrate that: (1) chronic non-A, non-B, non-hepatitis can be treated with interferon; (2) interferon activates NK cells and enhances hepatocyte expression of Class II MHC antigens; and (3) interferon also increases the number of CD3, CD4, and CD8 cells found within the liver but these changes do not distinguish between responders and non-responders. PMID:7931774

  5. Nanomedicines in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C co-infected with HIV--focus on pegylated interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Heinz; Vogel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In immuno-competent individuals, the natural course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly variable and 5%-30% of patients develop cirrhosis over 20 years. Co-infection with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an important prognostic factor and associated with more frequent and accelerated progression to cirrhosis. Until recently HIV/AIDS-related complications were life limiting in patients co-infected with HCV; the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and the better prognosis of HIV infection has made HCV-related complications an emerging health problem in HCV/HIV coinfected individuals. Treatment of chronic HCV infection has also evolved since the introduction of interferon-alpha. Recently, introduction of pegylated interferon-alpha (peginterferon-alpha) has resulted in an increase in sustained virus clearance rates of up to 80% in selected genotypes and patient populations. The safety and efficacy of modern anti HCV treatment regimens - based on peginterferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin - was evaluated in 4 controlled trials. Sustained clearance of hepatitis C virus can be achieved in up to 35% of patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, and novel HCV treatment regimens based on peginterferon-alpha have no negative effect on the control of HIV disease. In conclusion, if HIV infection is well controlled and CD4+ cell counts >100/mm3, treatment of chronic hepatitis C with peginterferon in combination with ribavirin is safe and should be given for 48 weeks regardless of the HCV genotype. Introduction of peginterferon-alpha has significantly improved adherence to treatment and treatment efficacy; in particular sustained virologic response in patients with HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection improved, but sustained viral clearance in only 7%-38% of patients infected with genotype I and 4 cannot be the final step in development of effective treatments in patients with HCV/HIV co-infection.

  6. Internalization and degradation of human alpha-A interferon bound to bovine MDBK cells: regulation of the decay and resynthesis of receptors.

    PubMed

    Branca, A A; D'Alessandro, S B; Baglioni, C

    1983-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled human interferon alpha-A (HuIFN-alpha A) to receptors of bovine MDBK cells was investigated. About 4-fold more 125I-interferon was bound at 37 degrees C than at 0 degrees C. To establish whether the cell-bound IFN was internalized, the cells were treated with diluted acetic acid, a procedure known to remove polypeptides bound to the cell surface. About 80% of the IFN bound at 0 degrees C was dissociated from the cells by this treatment, whereas only 45% of that bound after a 2 h incubation at 37 degrees C was dissociated. Release of cell-bound 125I-interferon by cells washed and incubated in fresh medium was next examined at the two temperatures. At 0 degrees C, up to 50% of cell-bound IFN was released into the medium over a 2 h period, whereas at 37 degrees C the cell-bound radioactivity was slowly released over several hours as acid-soluble degradation products. Interferon was therefore internalized and degraded by MDBK cells incubated at 37 degrees C, but not by cells incubated at 0 degrees C. The increased binding at 37 degrees C could possibly be explained by the internalization of IFN/receptor complexes and by the recycling of the receptors to the cell surface. This recycling was limited, however, since incubation of MDBK cells with unlabeled IFN led to a rapid decrease or down regulation of available receptors. Recovery of binding activity was prevented by the addition of inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, suggesting that de novo synthesis of receptors was required. The half-life of the IFN receptor in the presence of cycloheximide was about 3 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy complicating interferon alpha and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitisC.

    PubMed

    Kabbaj, N; Sentissi, S; Mohammadi, M; Benaïssa, A; Amrani, N

    2009-02-01

    Ophthalmological complications with interferon therapy are rare, usually mild and reversible, and do not require the withdrawal of antiviral treatment. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is an uncommon complication of interferon treatment. From January 1998 to December 2007, three patients developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy during antiviral treatment, with a favourable course after interferon was discontinued. Periodic Ophthalmological examinations, including visual acuity and fundus examinations should be performed before starting and during treatment, particularly in patients with vascular risk factors. Antiviral therapy should be stopped immediately if severe ophthalmologic complications occur. PMID:19201118

  8. Adverse skin reactions due to pegylated interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Kanto, Hiromi; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2007-08-01

    Pegylated interferon (IFN)-alpha-2b with ribavirin has recently replaced "standard" IFN-alpha for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The most common side-effect of pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy is localized inflammatory skin lesions at the site of injection. A 66-year-old female treated with once-weekly pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin for active chronic hepatitis C developed inflammatory skin lesions 2 months after starting antiviral treatment. The type of skin reactions observed were vesicle erythematous eruptions at the injection sites, and pruritic papular erythematous eruptions located on the face, neck, distal limbs, dorsa of the hands, trunk and buttocks away from the injection sites. Histological examination was performed on the pruritic papular erythematous eruption located on the left forearm, away from the injection sites. It showed epidermal spongiosis, a spongiotic microvesicle, and perivascular infiltration of the upper dermis with lymphocytes. The treatment was interrupted subsequently and the patient was rechallenged with pegylated IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy, oral prednisolone with olopatadine hydrochloride and topical 0.1% diflucortolone valerate, which led to a significant improvement of skin lesions. Erythema with infiltration can occur at the injection sites of pegylated IFN-alpha-2b. However, the occurrence of vesicle erythematous eruptions away from the injection sites and autosensitization dermatitis apart from injection sites have not yet been frequently reported. PMID:17683392

  9. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  10. Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Song Cheng; Krell, Peter; Yoo, Dongwan

    2010-11-25

    Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

  11. Improved scar in postburn patients following interferon-alpha2b treatment is associated with decreased angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfei; Chen, Hong; Shankowsky, Heather A; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2008-07-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HTS) after thermal injury is a dermal fibroproliferative disorder, which leads to considerable morbidity. Previous clinical studies from our laboratory have suggested that interferon-alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) improves scar quality as a result of the suppression of fibroblast function. More recently, our work has demonstrated that the improvement of scar in patients with HTS after IFN-alpha2b treatment may be associated with a decreased number of fibrocytes and/or altered fibrocyte function. In this study, we report that the improvement of HTS after IFNalpha-2b treatment may be associated with a decrease in angiogenesis. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate an increase in angiogenesis in HTS compared to normal skin, and also show an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in HTS. Subsequently, we demonstrate a significant reduction in angiogenesis in HTS tissue from patients after treatment with systemic IFN-alpha2b. By using a [3H] thymidine incorporation assay, we demonstrate that IFN-alpha2b suppresses the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, IFN-alpha2b inhibits VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation by using HUVECs. All these effects may be a result of the blocking of VEGF receptor expression on endothelial cells by IFN-alpha2b. Taken together with previous results, the present study suggests that the improvement of scar quality in HTS patients after IFN-alpha2b treatment may also be associated with decreased angiogenesis in HTS. The current in vitro results may provide some insights into the scar improvement that is seen with systemic IFN-alpha2b treatment.

  12. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    PubMed

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  13. MxB Is Not Responsible for the Blocking of HIV-1 Infection Observed in Alpha Interferon-Treated Cells

    PubMed Central

    Opp, Silvana; Vieira, Daniel A. S. A.; Schulte, Bianca; Chanda, Sumit K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MxB restricts HIV-1 infection by directly interacting with the HIV-1 core, which is made of viral capsid; however, the contribution of MxB to the HIV-1 restriction observed in alpha interferon (IFN-α)-treated human cells is unknown. To understand this contribution, we used HIV-1 bearing the G208R capsid mutant (HIV-1-G208R), which overcomes the restriction imposed by cells expressing MxB. Here we showed that the reason why MxB does not block HIV-1-G208R is that MxB does not interact with HIV-1 cores bearing the mutation G208R. To understand whether MxB contributes to the HIV-1 restriction imposed by IFN-α-treated human cells, we challenged IFN-α-treated cells with HIV-G208R and found that MxB does not contribute to the restriction imposed by IFN-α-treated cells. To more directly test the contribution of MxB, we challenged IFN-α-treated human cells that are knocked out for the expression of MxB with HIV-1. These experiments suggested that MxB does not contribute to the HIV-1 restriction observed in IFN-α-treated human cells. IMPORTANCE MxB is a restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 infection in human cells. Although it has been postulated that MxB is the factor that blocks HIV-1 infection in IFN-α-treated cells, this is a hard concept to grasp due to the great number of genes that are induced by IFN-α in cells from the immune system. The work presented here elegantly demonstrates that MxB has minimal or no contribution to the ability of IFN-α-treated human cells to block HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, this work suggests the presence of novel restriction factors in IFN-α-treated human cells that block HIV-1 infection. PMID:26719253

  14. Two cases of interferon-alpha-induced sarcoidosis Koebnerized along venous drainage lines: new pathogenic insights and review of the literature of interferon-induced sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Buss, G; Cattin, V; Spring, P; Malinverni, R; Gilliet, M

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown origin commonly affecting the lung, the lymphoid system and the skin. We report here two cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in two former intravenous drug users following interferon (IFN)-α and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Both patients developed skin sarcoidosis along venous drainage lines of both forearms, coinciding with the areas of prior drug injections. The unique distribution of the skin lesions suggests that tissue damage induced by repeated percutaneous drug injections represents a trigger for the local skin manifestation of sarcoidosis. Interestingly, skin damage was recently found to induce the local expression IFN-α, a well-known trigger of sarcoidosis in predisposed individuals. Here we review the literature on sarcoidosis elicited in the context of IFN-α therapy and propose a new link between the endogenous expression of IFN-α and the induction of disease manifestations in injured skin.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of interferon alpha/beta response element binding factors of the murine (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase ME-12 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, C; Tamm, I

    1991-01-01

    Seven clones encoding interferon response element binding factors have been isolated from a mouse fibroblast lambda gt11 cDNA library by using a 32P end-labeled tandem trimer of the mouse (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase gene interferon response element as a probe. Clone 16 shares strong similarity (95%) at both DNA and amino acid level with YB-1, a human major histocompatibility complex class II Y-box DNA-binding protein, and with dbpB, a human epidermal growth factor receptor gene enhancer region binding protein. The product of the gene represented by clone 16 may represent a factor that regulates multiple genes by binding to a variety of 5' regulatory elements. Clone 25 is a 2407-base-pair-long cDNA and contains a putative 311-amino acid open reading frame corresponding to an estimated mass of 35.5 kDa. This putative protein, designated as interferon response element binding factor 1 (IREBF-1), contains an acidic domain, three heptad repeat leucine arrays, and a region that shares similarity with the yeast transcriptional factor GAL4 DNA-binding domain. Furthermore, the C terminus of IREBF-1 shows an unusual amphipathic property: within a 79-amino acid range, one side of the alpha-helical region contains a preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and the other side contains hydrophilic amino acids. This type of structure provides a strong hydrophobic force for protein-protein interaction. Images PMID:1986360

  16. Behavioral and physiological effects of a single injection of rat interferon-alpha on male Sprague-Dawley rats: a long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kentner, A C; Miguelez, M; James, J S; Bielajew, C

    2006-06-20

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a cytokine used as a first line of defense against diseases such as cancer and hepatitis C. However, reports indicate that its effectiveness as a treatment is countered by central nervous system (CNS) disruptions in patients. Our work explored the possibility that it may also cause long-term behavioral disruptions by chronicling the behavioral and physiological disturbances associated with a single injection of vehicle, 10, 100, or 1,000 units of IFN-alpha in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5/dose). Following 1 day of locomotor baseline collection, we monitored sickness behaviors (ptosis, piloerection, lethargy, and sleep), food and water intake, body weight, temperature, and motor activity. Observations were recorded 4 days prior to and 4 days following the IFN-alpha injection. Temperature and sickness behaviors were recorded three times daily at 9:00, 15:00, and 21:00 h, and all other indices, once daily. On the injection day, temperature values were highest in the animals receiving the 10-unit IFN-alpha dose 15 min and 13 h post-injection. In the case of sickness behaviors, a significant increase was observed in piloerection in all IFN-alpha groups at each time point measured, while the scores of the rats in the vehicle condition remained unchanged between pre- and post-injection days. Analyses of overall sickness behaviors during morning and night observation periods indicated increased scores in all IFN-alpha groups following injection. Cumulatively, these data suggest that a single IFN-alpha exposure may elicit long-term behavioral disruptions and that its consequences should be thoroughly investigated for its use in clinical populations.

  17. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-12-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells.

  18. Interferon-alpha and transfer factor in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. AUSTIMS Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and transfer factor (TF) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis was investigated in a prospective, multi-centric, three year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred and eighty two patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were randomised into three treatment groups whose compositions were found to be similar for demographic and prognostic variables including HLA status. Subcutaneous injections of IFN-alpha (3 x 10(6) units), TF (0.5 units) manufactured from leucocytes of cohabiting donors, or placebo were given twice weekly for two months, once weekly for 10 months then fortnightly for 24 months. One hundred and fifty three patients completed the injection regimen. There was no significant difference in the progression of disability for multiple sclerosis patients in either the IFN-alpha or TF-treated groups compared with the placebo group. Similarly, change in visual evoked responses (VER), and in number of oligoclonal bands (OCB) and the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) over the trial period did not differ significantly between the three groups. However, the IFN-alpha-treated group had significantly more reported adverse drug reactions and patient withdrawals than either of the other two groups. PMID:2659737

  19. Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and interferon alpha-2A: results of a phase II trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, H.; Jäger-Arand, E.; Bernhard, G.; Heike, M.; Klein, O.; Riemann, J. F.; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K. H.; Dippold, W.; Knuth, A.

    1995-01-01

    Interferon alpha-2a (IFN-alpha) and folinic acid (FA) have been shown to modulate the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of cancer. A phase II study was initiated to evaluate the effect of a combination of 5-FU/FA/IFN-alpha in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Sixty previously untreated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were treated with 500 mg m-2 FU via an intravenous bolus 1 h after the initiation of a 2 h infusion of 500 mg m-2 FA. Before starting the FA infusion, 6 million units (MU) of IFN-alpha was administered subcutaneously. The treatment was repeated once a week. Of 57 evaluable patients, eight (14%) had a partial response (PR), eight (14%) a minor response (MR) and 28 (49%) no change of disease (NC). Thirteen patients (23%) had progressive disease (PD). The median survival time was 10 months for all patients, 22 months for patients with partial remission and 5 months for patients with progressive disease. Many patients with tumour-related pain whose tumours were affected in terms of PR, MR, NC were free of pain during treatment with this regimen (22/36 patients). The common toxicities observed were fever (56%), nausea (37%) and diarrhoea (33%). These data suggest that biochemical modulation of 5-FU with FA and IFN-alpha has some positive effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer of moderate toxicity. PMID:7819023

  20. Phase 2 study of the efficacy and safety of the combination of arsenic trioxide, interferon alpha, and zidovudine in newly diagnosed chronic adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL).

    PubMed

    Kchour, Ghada; Tarhini, Mahdi; Kooshyar, Mohamad-Mehdi; El Hajj, Hiba; Wattel, Eric; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Hatoum, Hassan; Rahimi, Hossein; Maleki, Masoud; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Rezaee, S A Rahim; Yazdi, Mojtaba Tabatabaei; Shirdel, Abbas; de Thé, Hugues; Hermine, Olivier; Farid, Reza; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2009-06-25

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is resistant to chemotherapy and carries a dismal prognosis particularly for the acute and lymphoma subtypes. Promising results were obtained with the combination of zidovudine and interferon-alpha. Chronic ATL has a relatively better outcome, but poor long-term survival is noted when patients are managed with a watchful-waiting policy or with chemotherapy. In ATL cell lines, arsenic trioxide shuts off constitutive NF-kappaB activation and potentiates interferon-alpha apoptotic effects through proteasomal degradation of Tax. Clinically, arsenic/interferon therapy exhibits some efficacy in refractory aggressive ATL patients. These results prompted us to investigate the efficacy and safety of the combination of arsenic, interferon-alpha, and zidovudine in 10 newly diagnosed chronic ATL patients. An impressive 100% response rate was observed including 7 complete remissions, 2 complete remissions but with more than 5% circulating atypical lymphocytes, and 1 partial response. Responses were rapid and no relapse was noted. Side effects were moderate and mostly hematologic. In conclusion, treatment of chronic ATL with arsenic, interferon-alpha, and zidovudine is feasible and exhibits an impressive response rate with moderate toxicity. Long-term follow up will clarify whether this will translate to disease cure. Overall, these clinical results strengthen the concept of oncogene-targeted cancer therapy.

  1. Removing a Cystein Group On Interferon Alpha 2b at Position 2 and 99 does Not Diminish Antitumor Activity of the Protein, Even Better

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Jessica, Adhitya; Sumirtaputra, Yeyet Cahyati; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Adlia, Amirah; Ningrum, Ratih Asmana

    2016-01-01

    Interferon alpha 2b is the only standard therapeutic protein for hepatitis virus infections. Further study demonstrated that this protein also posseses antitumor activity in several cancerous organs. One main pathway of this antitumor activity is mediated through antiproliferation as well as proapoptotic effects. Previously, we have successfully developed recombinant human interferon alpha 2b (rhIFNα2b) by using a synthetic gene. In addition, two mutein forms of rhIFNα2b were generated to improve the characteristics of this protein. Two point mutations showed better pharmacokinetic profiles than one point mutation as well as the native form. In the present study, this mutein form was studied for ist antitumor effect in vitro using HepG2 cells. As a comparison, the native form as well as a commercial rIFNα2b were used. Several parameters were investigated including the MTT assay, cell viability test, cell cycle using flow cytometric analysis, and the genes and protein expressions involved in cell growth. The latest was observed to study the mechanism of rhIFNα2b. There was no significant difference in the MTT assay and cell viability after cells were treated with both forms of rhIFNα2b. However, the mutein rhIFNα2b tended to show better proapoptotic activity reflected by flow cytometric data, protein expression of pSTAT1, and DNA expression of caspase 3. PMID:27110503

  2. Lymphadenopathy in a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced cat scratch disease results from lymphocyte immigration and proliferation and is regulated by interferon-alpha/beta.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefanie; Oberle, Karin; Sander, Anna; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

    2008-04-01

    In immunocompetent humans, cat scratch disease (CSD) is elicited by the Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella henselae and is characterized by a benign regional lymphadenopathy, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of Bartonella-induced CSD-like disease that allowed us to investigate the mechanisms leading to lymphadenopathy in vivo. In wild-type mice, a subcutaneous inoculation of either viable or inactivated B. henselae led to a strong swelling of the draining lymph node, which was long-lasting despite the rapid elimination of the bacteria. Carboxyfluorescein- and bromodesoxyuridine-labeling experiments showed that lymph node enlargement resulted from modified immigration and enhanced proliferation of lymphocytes, preferentially of B cells. A comparative analysis of B. henselae and the rodent pathogen B. grahamii in wild-type versus interferon-alpha/beta-receptor I chain-deficient mice revealed that interferon-alpha/beta is not only differentially induced by these two Bartonella species but also exerts an inhibitory effect on the development of lymphadenopathy both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that the lymphadenopathy of human CSD can be reproduced and studied in a mouse model and provide the first insights into the underlying immunological mechanisms.

  3. The effect of interferon-alpha on the ecto 5'-nucleotidase of human lymphoblastoid B-cell lines depends on the class of immunoglobulin secreted.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S M

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen immunoglobulin-secreting mycoplasma-free human cell lines were treated with increasing concentrations of lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in order to study the activity of their CD73 ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'N), their rate of growth and their immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Although IFN-alpha did not immediately affect the activity of the 5'N on the cell plasma membranes, the class of Ig secreted by the cell lines determined whether culturing the cells in the presence of IFN-alpha gave a small increase in the 5'N enzyme activity (IgM), or had no effect (IgE), or showed a marked decrease in activity (IgG). The 5'N activity of two IgG4-secreting clones was more suppressed by IFN-alpha than that of the four IgG1-secreting clones. The clone with the highest 5'N was killed by IFN-alpha. A high 5'N activity inhibited the growth rate of the cells, since the rate of growth of the three IgG-producing lines with high 5'N was increased when their 5'N was inhibited by increasing concentrations of IFN-alpha. The growth rate of three other Ig-producing lines was uninhibited by up to 10(5) U/ml IFN-alpha, whereas the rest were partially or strongly inhibited. Excluding the clone which died, 10/11 lines or cultures increased their Ig/cell by a mean of 25% at 100 U/ml IFN-alpha; their total Ig production also increased despite any growth inhibition. One IgG-secreting clone decreased its Ig production at 100 U/ml IFN-alpha by 11%. The Ig/cell of 4/5 of the cell lines increased with IFN-alpha concentrations up to at least 10(4) U/ml. The increase in Ig/cell was not related to the class of Ig, the growth rate of the cells or the amount of 5'N. PMID:1937572

  4. Interferon Alpha Induces Sustained Changes in NK Cell Responsiveness to Hepatitis B Viral Load Suppression In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Upkar S.; Peppa, Dimitra; Micco, Lorenzo; Singh, Harsimran D.; Carey, Ivana; Foster, Graham R.; Maini, Mala K.; Kennedy, Patrick T. F.

    2016-01-01

    NK cells are important antiviral effectors, highly enriched in the liver, with the potential to regulate immunopathogenesis in persistent viral infections. Here we examined whether changes in the NK pool are induced when patients with eAg-positive CHB are ‘primed’ with PegIFNα and importantly, whether these changes are sustained or further modulated long-term after switching to nucleos(t)ides (sequential NUC therapy), an approach currently tested in the clinic. Longitudinal sampling of a prospectively recruited cohort of patients with eAg+CHB showed that the cumulative expansion of CD56bright NK cells driven by 48-weeks of PegIFNα was maintained at higher than baseline levels throughout the subsequent 9 months of sequential NUCs. Unexpectedly, PegIFNα-expanded NK cells showed further augmentation in their expression of the activating NK cell receptors NKp30 and NKp46 during sequential NUCs. The expansion in proliferating, functional NK cells was more pronounced following sequential NUCs than in comparison cohorts of patients treated with de novo NUCs or PegIFNα only. Reduction in circulating HBsAg concentrations, a key goal in the path towards functional cure of CHB, was only achieved in those patients with enhancement of NK cell IFNγ and cytotoxicity but decrease in their expression of the death ligand TRAIL. In summary, we conclude that PegIFNα priming can expand a population of functional NK cells with an altered responsiveness to subsequent antiviral suppression by NUCs. Patients on sequential NUCs with a distinct NK cell profile show a decline in HBsAg, providing mechanistic insights for the further optimisation of treatment strategies to achieve sustained responses in CHB. PMID:27487232

  5. Recombinant alpha-2a interferon treatment in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC): clinical and immunological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mezzaroma, I; Avella, A; Paganelli, R; Ensoli, B; d'Offizi, G; Sirianni, M C; Luzi, G; Valdarchi, C; Aiuti, F

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated clinical efficacy and tolerability of recombinant alpha 2a interferon (IFN), in a group of 16 patients with AIDS and ARC, including 3 children. All patients were followed up monthly for clinical and immunological studies. The frequency of oportunistic infections (OI) in AIDS, and the following symptoms in all patients were studied: fever, night sweats, fatigue, diarrhoea, weight loss. Immunological parameters (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes, skin tests to recall antigens, NK activity, lymphoproliferative response to PHA) were also evaluated. Adult patients were treated with 3-6 million IU of r-alpha 2a IFN daily im for 3 months and the 3 times weekly up to 12 months. Pediatric cases were treated with lower doses of 0.5-1.5 million IU using the same time schedule. We observed clinical improvement and reduction of severe infections in 10/15 evaluable patients (4/4 ARC and 6/11 AIDS). Immunological parameters were transiently improved in one third of cases. We observed only mild side effects in r-alpha IFN treatment. We suggest therapy with r-alpha 2a IFN at low dosage should be tried in patients with AIDS for its beneficial effects on OI development.

  6. [Increase of interleukin-1 beta, gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in serum and brain of mice infected with the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus].

    PubMed

    Valerol, Nereida; Bonilla, Ernesto; Espina, Luz Marina; Maldonado, Mery; Montero, Elsa; Añez, Florencio; Levy, Alegría; Bermudez, John; Meleán, Eddy; Nery, Anais

    2008-12-01

    Considerable efforts have been directed to clarify the main protective and recovery mechanisms in acute viral infections and, the possible role of the cytokines involved in the primary immune response induced by an epizootic strain of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus. This study examined the levels of TH1 cytokines Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), TH2 cytokines Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) in serum and brain of mice infected with the VEE virus during different post infection periods. NMRI albino male mice infected with a suspension (10 DL50) of the Guajira strain of the VEE virus, and a control group (without infection) were used. At one, 3 and 5 days post-infection, whole blood and brains were extracted to obtain sera and brain homogenates, respectively. IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-beta and TNF-alpha were determined by ELISA. A significant increment in the levels of IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was observed (p<0.01) in serum and brain homogenates at 1, 3 and 5 day post-infection, when compared with the control group. The levels of IL-2 and IL-4 did not show any significant statistical difference when compared to the controls. These results suggest that IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, could be involved in the early immunitary response to VEE virus during the primary infection.

  7. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  8. Evaluation of recombinant human interferon alpha-2b structure and stability by in-gel tryptic digestion, H/D exchange and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cindrić, Mario; Galić, Nives; Vuletić, Marko; Klarić, Mia; Drevenkar, Vlasta

    2006-02-24

    Stability and structure of recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rHuINF alpha-2b) was studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and Q-TOF MS), chromatography (LC-UV-FLD-DAD, LC-MS) and CD spectroscopy. Besides analysis of the substance according to Ph. Eur. methods, two additional mass spectrometric methods were developed. The aim of both methods was to estimate structure-stability relationship connected to methionine oxidation or protein degradation. Preservation or degradation of protein structure was confirmed by H/D exchange in four separate experiments. Kinetics of deuterium incorporation into macromolecule was monitored over 2670 min. Isoforms of rHuINF alpha-2b were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. In-gel digestion with trypsin and mass spectrometric analysis, performed on four separated isoforms at the mass corresponding to the mass of rHuINF alpha-2b with oxidized methionines, confirmed oxidation of all methionines to a different extent. Another four isoforms observed in 2D gel are most likely dimers of the same macromolecules with scrambled disulphide bridges. Oxidation and dimerisation are consequences of protein interaction with oxidizing reagents in polyacrilamide gel.

  9. Treatment of human papillomavirus infection with interferon alpha and ribavirin in a patient with acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Clara; Trizzino, Antonino; Trizzino, Angela; Di Marco, Floriana; D'Angelo, Paolo; Farruggia, Piero

    2014-06-01

    Genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequent sexually transmitted infection. We describe a case of severe perianal and genital HPV infection in a patient with acquired aplastic anemia, unresponsive to traditional therapies and treated effectively with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. PMID:24661930

  10. Treatment of naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin in a real world setting: relevance for the new era of DAA.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Benjamin; Wiegand, Steffen B; Buggisch, Peter; Hinrichsen, Holger; Link, Ralph; Möller, Bernd; Böker, Klaus H W; Teuber, Gerlinde; Klinker, Hartwig; Zehnter, Elmar; Naumann, Uwe; Busch, Heiner W; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Baum, Undine; Hardtke, Svenja; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Petersen, Jörg; Cornberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Evidence based clinical guidelines are implemented to treat patients efficiently that include efficacy, tolerability but also health economic considerations. This is of particular relevance to the new direct acting antiviral agents that have revolutionized treatment of chronic hepatitis C. For hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 interferon free treatment is already available with sofosbuvir plus ribavirin. However, treatment with sofosbuvir-based regimens is 10-20 times more expensive compared to pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV). It has to be discussed if PegIFN/RBV is still an option for easy to treat patients. We assessed the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 with PegIFN/RBV in a real world setting according to the latest German guidelines. Overall, 1006 patients were recruited into a prospective patient registry with 959 having started treatment. The intention-to-treat analysis showed poor SVR (GT2 61%, GT3 47%) while patients with adherence had excellent SVR in the per protocol analysis (GT2 96%, GT3 90%). According to guidelines, 283 patients were candidates for shorter treatment duration, namely a treatment of 16 weeks (baseline HCV-RNA <800.000 IU/mL, no cirrhosis and RVR). However, 65% of these easy to treat patients have been treated longer than recommended that resulted in higher costs but not higher SVR rates. In conclusion, treatment with PegIFN/RBV in a real world setting can be highly effective yet similar effective than PegIFN± sofosbuvir/RBV in well-selected naïve G2/3 patients. Full adherence to guidelines could be further improved, because it would be important in the new era with DAA, especially to safe resources. PMID:25302676

  11. Treatment of Naïve Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotypes 2 and 3 with Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin in a Real World Setting: Relevance for the New Era of DAA

    PubMed Central

    Buggisch, Peter; Hinrichsen, Holger; Link, Ralph; Möller, Bernd; Böker, Klaus H. W.; Teuber, Gerlinde; Klinker, Hartwig; Zehnter, Elmar; Naumann, Uwe; Busch, Heiner W.; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Baum, Undine; Hardtke, Svenja; Manns, Michael P.; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Petersen, Jörg; Cornberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Evidence based clinical guidelines are implemented to treat patients efficiently that include efficacy, tolerability but also health economic considerations. This is of particular relevance to the new direct acting antiviral agents that have revolutionized treatment of chronic hepatitis C. For hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 interferon free treatment is already available with sofosbuvir plus ribavirin. However, treatment with sofosbuvir-based regimens is 10–20 times more expensive compared to pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV). It has to be discussed if PegIFN/RBV is still an option for easy to treat patients. We assessed the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 with PegIFN/RBV in a real world setting according to the latest German guidelines. Overall, 1006 patients were recruited into a prospective patient registry with 959 having started treatment. The intention-to-treat analysis showed poor SVR (GT2 61%, GT3 47%) while patients with adherence had excellent SVR in the per protocol analysis (GT2 96%, GT3 90%). According to guidelines, 283 patients were candidates for shorter treatment duration, namely a treatment of 16 weeks (baseline HCV-RNA <800.000 IU/mL, no cirrhosis and RVR). However, 65% of these easy to treat patients have been treated longer than recommended that resulted in higher costs but not higher SVR rates. In conclusion, treatment with PegIFN/RBV in a real world setting can be highly effective yet similar effective than PegIFN± sofosbuvir/RBV in well-selected naïve G2/3 patients. Full adherence to guidelines could be further improved, because it would be important in the new era with DAA, especially to safe resources. PMID:25302676

  12. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  13. Differential involvement of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in human interferon-alpha-induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Luyong

    2010-01-01

    Although Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha, CAS 9008-11-1) is a powerful drug in treating several viral infections and certain tumors, a considerable amount of neuropsychiatric side-effects such as depression and anxiety are an unavoidable consequence. Combination with the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (CAS 56296-78-7) significantly improved the situation. However, the potential 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor-signals involved in the antidepressant effects are still unclear. The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor signals were analyzed by using the mouse forced swimming test (FST), a predictive test of antidepressant-like action. The present results indicated that (1) fluoxetine (administrated intragastrically, 30 mg/kg; not subactive dose: 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the forced swimming test; (2) 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands alone or in combination had no effects on IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the FST; (3) surprisingly, WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 634908-75-1) and 8-OH-DPAT(5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, CAS 78950-78-4) markedly enhanced the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine at the subactive dose (15 mg/kg, i. g.) on the IFN-alpha-treated mice in the FST. Further investigations showed that fluoxetine combined with WAY 100635 and 8-OH-DPAT failed to produce antidepressant effects in the FST. (4) Co-application of CGS 12066A (5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CAS 109028-09-3) or GR 127935 (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, CAS 148642-42-6) with fluoxetine had no synergistic effects on the IFN-alpha-induced increase of immobility time in FST. (5) Interestingly, co-administration of GR 127935, WAY 100635 and fluoxetine significantly reduced the IFN-alpha-induced increase in immobility time of FST, being more effective than co-administration of WAY 100635 and fluoxetine. All results suggest that (1) compared to

  14. Induction of thymidine phosphorylase as a pharmacodynamic end-point in patients with advanced carcinoma treated with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and interferon alpha

    PubMed Central

    Braybrooke, J P; Propper, D J; O’Byrne, K J; Koukourakis, M I; Patterson, A V; Houlbrook, S; Love, S D; Varcoe, S; Taylor, M; Ganesan, T S; Talbot, D C; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an essential enzyme for the biochemical activation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Interferon upregulates TP in vivo, although the dose and schedule of interferon for optimal biomodulation of 5-FU is not known. In this study, TP activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from patients with advanced carcinoma receiving treatment with 5-FU and folinic acid. Cohorts of patients were treated with interferon alpha (IFNα), immediately prior to 5-FU/folinic acid, at doses of 3 MIU m–2, 9 MIU m–2and 18 MIUm–2. IFNα was administered on day 0 cycle two, day –1 and day 0 cycle three and day –2, day –1 and day 0 cycle four. A fourth cohort was treated with IFNα 9 MIU m–2three times per week from cycle 2 onwards. Twenty-one patients were entered into the study with 19 evaluable for response. Six patients (32%) had stable disease and 13 (68%) progressive disease. There were no grade-IV toxicities. TP activity was detected in PBLs from all patients with wide interpatient variability in constitutive TP activity prior to chemotherapy, and in response to IFNα. 5-FU/folinic acid alone did not induce TP activity but a single dose of IFNα led to upregulation of TP within 2 h of administration with a further increase by 24 h (signed rank test, P = 0.006). TP activity remained elevated for at least 13 days (signed rank test, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in TP activity between schedules or with additional doses of IFNα. A single dose of IFNα as low as 3 MIU m–2can cause sustained elevation of PBL TP activity in vivo indicating that biochemical markers are important pharmacodynamic endpoints for developing optimal schedules of IFNα for biomodulation of 5-FU. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901374

  15. [Obtaining of hairy-root, callus and suspension carrot culture (Daucus carota L.) able to accumulate human interferon alpha-2b].

    PubMed

    Luchakivskaia, Iu S; Olevinskaia, Z M; Kishchenko, E M; Spivak, N Ia; Kuchuk, N V

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the obtaining of suspension, callus and hairy root culture initiated from carrot plants of Nantskaya and Perfektzya variety with the highest level of recombinant human interferon alpha-2b accumulation exhibited the highest level of plant protein extract antiviral activity (up to 12.8 x 10(3) IU/mg TSP). The antiviral activity of callus extracts was significantly lower comparing to the activity of plant extracts from parent organisms. However, the antiviral activity level of suspension culture extracts (up to 4.42 x 10(3) IU/mg TSP) and Ri-root ones (up to 4.42 x 10(3) IU/mg TSP) appeared to be comparable to analogical data of antiviral activity of transgenic carrot leaf extracts, this way the described cultures could be possibly used for comparatively speedy obtaining of recombinant therapeutic protein for curing and preventing of virus diseases.

  16. Effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and interferon-alpha2b on liver damage induced by bile duct ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Muriel, P; Castro, V

    1998-01-01

    Interferon-alpha2b (IFN) is known to prevent and to reverse experimental liver fibrosis and damage. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a well-known hepatoprotective substance. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of the administration of both drugs simultaneously to bile duct-ligated rats. Administration of IFN (50000 IU s.c.) and/or SAM (10 mg kg[-1] i.m.) began 15 days after biliary obstruction and continued for a further 15 days. The liver was used for glycogen and collagen quantification. Bilirubins and enzyme activities were measured in serum. Either SAM or IFN ameliorated all markers of liver damage studied. However, when administered together their beneficial effects were markedly reduced. It is not possible to explain the antagonistic effect of these compounds on liver damage with the present data. More studies are needed to determine SAM-IFN interactions. PMID:9570697

  17. Quasispecies heterogeneity and constraints on the evolution of the 5' noncoding region of hepatitis C virus (HCV): relationship with HCV resistance to interferon-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Soler, Muriel; Pellerin, Muriel; Malnou, Cécile E; Dhumeaux, Daniel; Kean, Katherine M; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2002-06-20

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein translation depends on direct internal entry of the 40S ribosomal subunit mediated by an internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) located in the 5' noncoding (5'NC) region of the viral genome. HCV is genetically heterogeneous and is characterized by the existence of a quasispecies distribution of the virus population within a single infected individual. Cloning and sequencing strategies were used to characterize 5'NC quasispecies genetically. Similar to coding regions, the HCV 5'NC region was distributed as a quasispecies, but it appeared to be subjected to stronger conservatory constraints than other regions of the HCV genome, probably due to the need for structural (and functional) conservation of the IRES. Indeed, most of the quasispecies substitutions were in unpaired regions of the IRES or clustered such that base-pairing was maintained, whereas only 21% were expected to result in a loss of base-pairing. Quasispecies-related structural changes could be predicted in the core cruciform of IRES domain III composed of the RNA helices which extend from the four-way junction JIIIabc, mostly in minor variants, but sometimes in major ones. The results presented here suggest the simultaneous presence in infected patients of a mixture of genetically distinct but closely related IRES sequences that may have different structures. No significant genetic changes of 5'NC quasispecies were observed after interferon-alpha treatment, except in patients with mixed genotype infection who cleared one of the infecting strains during therapy, suggesting that the quasispecies distribution of IRES sequences does not play a role in HCV resistance to interferon-alpha therapy. In contrast, the overall quasispecies distribution of HCV genomes (including IRES sequences) might participate in regulation of hepatic and extrahepatic HCV replication.

  18. Vaccination of renal cell cancer patients with modified vaccinia Ankara delivering the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax) alone or administered in combination with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha): a phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Amato, Robert J; Shingler, William; Goonewardena, Madusha; de Belin, Jackie; Naylor, Stuart; Jac, Jaroslaw; Willis, James; Saxena, Somyata; Hernandez-McClain, Joan; Harrop, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Attenuated vaccinia virus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been engineered to deliver the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax). MVA-5T4 has been evaluated in an open-label phase 2 trial in metastatic renal cell cancer patients in which the vaccine was administered alone or in combination with interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-alpha). The safety, immunologic, and clinical efficacy of MVA-5T4 with or without IFN-alpha was determined. Twenty-eight patients with metastatic renal cell cancer were treated with MVA-5T4 alone (13) or plus IFN-alpha (15). The 5T4-specific cellular and humoral responses were monitored throughout the study. Clinical responses were assessed by measuring changes in tumor burden by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan. MVA-5T4 was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to vaccination. Of 23 intent-to-treat patients tested for immune responses postvaccination, 22 (96%) mounted 5T4-specific antibody and/or cellular responses. One patient treated with MVA-5T4 plus IFN-alpha showed a partial response for >7 months, whereas an additional 14 patients (7 receiving MVA-5T4 plus IFN and 7 receiving MVA-5T4 alone) showed periods of disease stabilization ranging from 1.73 to 9.60 months. Median progression free survival and overall survival for all intent-to-treat patients was 3.8 months (range: 1 to 11.47 mo) and 12.1 months (range: 1 to 27 mo), respectively. MVA-5T4 administered alone or in combination with IFN-alpha was well tolerated in all patients. Despite the high frequency of 5T4-specific immune responses, it is not possible to conclude that patients are receiving clinical benefit. The results are encouraging and warrant further investigation.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibit Interferon Signaling in Hepatocytes by Increasing Ubiquitin-Like Protease 18 (USP18) Expression

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Chen, Limin; Khattar, Ramzi; Cherepanov, Vera; Selzner, Markus; Feld, Jordan J.; Selzner, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation may be maladaptive to the control of viral infection when it impairs interferon (IFN) responses, enhancing viral replication and spread. Dysregulated immunity as a result of inappropriate innate inflammatory responses is a hallmark of chronic viral infections such as, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that expression of an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG), ubiquitin-like protease (USP)18 is upregulated in chronic HCV infection, leading to impaired hepatocyte responses to IFN-α. We examined the ability of inflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 to upregulate hepatocyte USP18 expression and blunt the IFN-α response. Human hepatoma cells and primary murine hepatocytes were treated with TNF-α/LPS/IL-6/IL-10 and USP18, phosphorylated (p)-STAT1 and myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (Mx1) expression was determined. Treatment of Huh7.5 cells and primary murine hepatocytes with LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 or IL-10, led to upregulated USP18 expression and induced an IFN-α refractory state, which was reversed by USP18 knockdown. Liver inflammation was induced in vivo using a murine model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury led to an induction of USP18 expression in liver tissue and promotion of lymphocytic choriomeningitis replication. These data demonstrate that certain inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α and LPS) but not others (IL-6 and IL-10) target USP18 expression and thus inhibit IFN signaling. These findings represent a new paradigm for how inflammation alters hepatic innate immune responses, with USP18 representing a potential target for intervention in various inflammatory states. IMPORTANCE Inflammation may prevent the control of viral infection when it impairs the innate immune response, enhancing viral replication and spread. Blunted immunity as a result of

  20. Interferon-alpha reduces insulin resistance and beta-cell secretion in responders among patients with chronic hepatitis B and C.

    PubMed

    Tai, T-Y; Lu, J-Y; Chen, C-L; Lai, M-Y; Chen, P-J; Kao, J-H; Lee, C-Z; Lee, H-S; Chuang, L-M; Jeng, Y-M

    2003-09-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha on glucose metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infections. Twenty-eight biopsy-proven patients with chronic hepatitis B (ten cases) and hepatitis C (18 cases) were given IFN-alpha for a total of 24 weeks. The patients received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucagon stimulation test, tests for type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies and an insulin suppression test before and after IFN-alpha therapy. Ten of the 28 patients responded to IFN-alpha therapy. Steady-state plasma glucose of the insulin suppression test decreased significantly in responders (13.32+/-1.48 (S.E.M.) vs 11.33+/-1.19 mmol/l, P=0.0501) but not in non-responders (12.29+/-1.24 vs 11.11+/-0.99 mmol/l, P=0.2110) immediately after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. In the oral glucose tolerance test, no significant difference was observed in plasma glucose in either responders (10.17+/-0.23 vs 10.03+/-0.22 mmol/l) or non-responders (10.11+/-0.22 vs 9.97+/-0.21 mmol/l) 3 Months after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. However, significant differences were noted in C-peptide in both responders (2.90+/-0.13 vs 2.20+/-0.09 nmol/l, P=0.0040) and non-responders (2.45+/-0.11 vs 2.22+/-0.08 nmol/l, P=0.0287) before vs after treatment. The changes of C-peptide in an OGTT between responders and non-responders were also significantly different (P=0.0028), with responders reporting a greater reduction in C-peptide. No case developed autoantibodies during the treatment. In patients who were successfully treated with IFN-alpha, insulin sensitivity improved and their plasma glucose stayed at the same level without secreting as much insulin from islet beta-cells.

  1. Chronic hepatitis C virus infections in brazilian patients: association with genotypes, clinical parameters and response to long term alpha interferon therapy

    PubMed

    Bassit; Da Silva LC; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos; Maertens; Carrilho; Fonseca; Alves; Gayotto; Pereira; Takei; Chamone; Saez-Alquezar

    1999-05-01

    The present study assessed the clinical significance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and their influence on response to long term recombinant-interferon-alpha (r-IFN-alpha) therapy in Brazilian patients. One hundred and thirty samples from patients previously genotyped for the HCV and with histologically confirmed chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) were evaluated for clinical and epidemiological parameters (sex, age, time of HCV infection and transmission routes). No difference in disease activity, sex, age or mode and time of transmission were seen among patients infected with HCV types 1, 2 or 3. One hundred and thirteen of them were treated with 3 million units of r-IFN-alpha, 3 times a week for 12 months. Initial response (IR) was significantly better in patients with genotype 2 (100%) and 3 (46%) infections than in patients with genotype 1 (29%) (p < 0. 005). Among subtypes, difference in IR was observed between 1b and 2 (p < 0.005), and between 1b and 3a (p < 0.05). Sustained response (SR) was observed in 12% for (sub)type 1a, 13% for 1b, 19% for 3a, and 40% for type 2; significant differences were found between 1b and 2 (p < 0.001), and between 1b and 3a (p < 0.05). Moreover, presence of cirrhosis was significantly associated with non response and response with relapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, non-1 HCV genotype and lack of histological diagnosis of cirrhosis were the only baseline features associated with sustained response to treatment. These data indicate that HCV genotyping may have prognostic relevance in the responsiveness to r-IFN-alpha therapy in Brazilian patients with chronic HCV infection, as seen in other reports worldwide. PMID:10529839

  2. Glycyrrhizin in patients who failed previous interferon alpha-based therapies: biochemical and histological effects after 52 weeks.

    PubMed

    Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Singer, A; Khomutjanskaja, N; Dienes, H P; Roskams, T; Goldin, R; Hehnke, U; Inoue, H

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis C patients often fail to respond to interferon-based therapies. This phase III study aimed at confirming the efficacy and safety of glycyrrhizin in interferon + ribavirin-based therapy non-responders. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparison of glycyrrhizin, administered intravenously 5×/or 3×/week, and 5×/week placebo for 12 weeks to 379 patients, was followed by a randomised, open comparison of glycyrrhizin i.v. 5×/versus 3×/week for 40 weeks. Primary endpoints were: (1) the proportion of patients with ≥50% ALT (alanine aminotransferase) reduction after 12 weeks double-blind phase, and (2) the proportion of patients with improvement of necro-inflammation after 52 weeks as compared with baseline. The proportion of patients with ALT reduction ≥50% after 12 weeks was significantly higher with 5×/week glycyrrhizin (28.7%, P < 0.0001) and 3×/week glycyrrhizin (29.0%, P < 0.0001) compared with placebo (7.0%). The proportion of patients with improvement in necro-inflammation after 52 weeks was 44.9% with 5×/week and 46.0% with 3×/week, respectively. Glycyrrhizin exhibited a significantly higher ALT reduction compared to placebo after 12 weeks of therapy and an improvement of necro-inflammation and fibrosis after 52-weeks treatment. Generally, glycyrrhizin treatment was well tolerated.

  3. Loss of infectivity by progeny virus from alpha interferon-treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells is associated with defective assembly of envelope gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B D; Nara, P L; Maheshwari, R K; Sidhu, G S; Bernbaum, J G; Hoekzema, D; Meltzer, M S; Gendelman, H E

    1992-01-01

    Levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA, RNA, or p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase activity in T-cell cultures treated with 500 IU of recombinant alpha interferon (rIFN alpha) per ml were comparable to those in control cultures. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis of proteins in lysates of IFN-treated T cells documented a marked accumulation of HIV proteins. Localization of gp120 by immunofluorescence showed a diffuse pattern in IFN-treated cells quite distinct from the ring pattern in untreated control cells. That large quantities of gp120 in aberrant cell compartments might affect HIV morphogenesis was confirmed in infectivity studies: virions from IFN-treated cells were 100- to 1,000-fold less infectious than an equal number of virions from control cells. Direct examination of IFN-treated and control HIV-infected cells by transmission electron microscopy showed little difference in the number or distribution of viral particles. However, quantitation of gp120 by immunogold particle analysis revealed a marked depletion of envelope glycoprotein in virions released from IFN-treated cells. This defect in gp120 assembly onto mature viral particles provides a molecular basis for this loss of infectivity. Images PMID:1279206

  4. How the Study of Children with Rheumatic Diseases Identified Interferon alpha and Interleukin 1 as Novel Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Virginia; Allantaz, Florence; Patel, Pinakeen; Palucka, Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Our studies in children with rheumatic diseases have led to the identification of two of the oldest cytokines, type I Interferon (IFN) and Interleukin 1 (IL-1), as important pathogenic players in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Systemic onset Juvenile Arthritis (SoJIA) respectively. These findings were obtained by studying the transcriptional profiles of patient blood cells and by assessing the biological and transcriptional effect(s) of active patient sera on healthy blood cells. We also identified a signature which can be used to promptly diagnose SoJIA from other febrile conditions. Finally, our pilot clinical trials using IL-1 blockers have shown remarkable clinical benefits in SoJIA patients refractory to other medications. PMID:18613829

  5. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group study to compare subcutaneous interferon alpha-2a plus podophyllin with placebo plus podophyllin in the treatment of primary condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, D K; Maw, R D; Dinsmore, W W; Morrison, G D; Pattman, R S; Watson, P G; Nathan, P M; Moss, T; Nayagam, A; Wade, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The primary objective was to determine if six weeks treatment with subcutaneous interferon alpha-2a (IFN) and podophyllin 25% W/V administered twice per week, preceded by IFN alpha-2a three times weekly for one week showed a greater complete response rate in patients with primary condylomata acuminata when assessed at week 10 than treatment with podophyllin and placebo injections in the same schedule. The secondary objective was to compare recurrence rates in complete responders at six months in the two treatment groups. DESIGN--Randomised, double-blind parallel group study. SETTING--Multicentre study in six genitourinary clinics within the U.K. PATIENTS--One hundred and twenty-four patients with primary anogenital warts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Complete response rate at week 10, and recurrence rate at week 26 in complete responders. RESULTS--At week 10 analysis of the efficacy population showed complete response in 36% (15/42 patients) of IFN-treated group and 26% (11/43 patients) in the placebo group (no significant difference). Analysis of the safety population at week 26 showed persistence of the complete response in 57% (8/14 patients) of the IFN-treated group and 80% (12/15 patients) of the placebo group (no significant difference). Adverse effects were more common in IFN-treated patients, involved particularly application site reaction and malaise but were generally mild. CONCLUSIONS--At the dose and with the regime described treatment with IFN alpha-2a in combination with podophyllin is no more effective in the treatment of primary anogenital warts than podophyllin alone and is associated with more adverse events. PMID:7705855

  6. Ebola virus VP35 protein binds double-stranded RNA and inhibits alpha/beta interferon production induced by RIG-I signaling.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Washington B; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael; Hartman, Amy L; Kimberlin, Christopher R; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Basler, Christopher F

    2006-06-01

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) VP35 protein blocks the virus-induced phosphorylation and activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a transcription factor critical for the induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) expression. However, the mechanism(s) by which this blockage occurs remains incompletely defined. We now provide evidence that VP35 possesses double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity. Specifically, VP35 bound to poly(rI) . poly(rC)-coated Sepharose beads but not control beads. In contrast, two VP35 point mutants, R312A and K309A, were found to be greatly impaired in their dsRNA-binding activity. Competition assays showed that VP35 interacted specifically with poly(rI) . poly(rC), poly(rA) . poly(rU), or in vitro-transcribed dsRNAs derived from EBOV sequences, and not with single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) or double-stranded DNA. We then screened wild-type and mutant VP35s for their ability to target different components of the signaling pathways that activate IRF-3. These experiments indicate that VP35 blocks activation of IRF-3 induced by overexpression of RIG-I, a cellular helicase recently implicated in the activation of IRF-3 by either virus or dsRNA. Interestingly, the VP35 mutants impaired for dsRNA binding have a decreased but measurable IFN antagonist activity in these assays. Additionally, wild-type and dsRNA-binding-mutant VP35s were found to have equivalent abilities to inhibit activation of the IFN-beta promoter induced by overexpression of IPS-1, a recently identified signaling molecule downstream of RIG-I, or by overexpression of the IRF-3 kinases IKKepsilon and TBK-1. These data support the hypothesis that dsRNA binding may contribute to VP35 IFN antagonist function. However, additional mechanisms of inhibition, at a point proximal to the IRF-3 kinases, most likely also exist.

  7. Mutant U5A cells are complemented by an interferon-alpha beta receptor subunit generated by alternative processing of a new member of a cytokine receptor gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Lutfalla, G; Holland, S J; Cinato, E; Monneron, D; Reboul, J; Rogers, N C; Smith, J M; Stark, G R; Gardiner, K; Mogensen, K E

    1995-10-16

    The cellular receptor for the alpha/beta interferons contains at least two components that interact with interferon. The ifnar1 component is well characterized and a putative ifnar2 cDNA has recently been identified. We have cloned the gene for ifnar2 and show that it produces four different transcripts encoding three different polypeptides that are generated by exon skipping, alternative splicing and differential use of polyadenylation sites. One polypeptide is likely to be secreted and two are transmembrane proteins with identical extracellular and transmembrane domains but divergent cytoplasmic tails of 67 and 251 amino acids. A mutant cell line U5A, completely defective in IFN-alpha beta binding and response, has been isolated and characterized. Expression in U5A cells of the polypeptide with the long cytoplasmic domain reconstitutes a functional receptor that restores normal interferon binding, activation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway, interferon-inducible gene expression and antiviral response. The IFNAR2 gene maps at 0.5 kb from the CRFB4 gene, establishing that together IFNAR2, CRFB4, IFNAR1 and AF1 form a cluster of class II cytokine receptor genes on human chromosome 21.

  8. Discontinuation of alpha-interferon treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in long-lasting complete molecular response.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Roberto; Romano, Angela; Mancini, Marco; Breccia, Massimo; Carmosino, Ida; Vozella, Federico; Montagna, Chiara; Volpicelli, Paola; De Angelis, Federico; Petrucci, Luigi; Serrao, Alessandra; Molica, Matteo; Salaroli, Adriano; Diverio, Daniela; Alimena, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate follow-up after α-interferon (IFN) discontinuation, 23 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in stable complete molecular response (CMolR) with IFN were revisited. After a median IFN treatment of 105.8 months (IR 56.1 - 127.3), all patients discontinued IFN for prolonged CMolR (12), intolerance (8) or planned ABMT (3). After 12.5 months, one patient developed an extramedullar blast crisis. Four patients needed to start imatinib, all achieving again molecular response. Eighteen patients are still off-therapy (median time from IFN discontinuation 125.5 months, IR 86.9-205.3); among these, five are BCR-ABL negative, six present with a sporadic positivity (BCR-ABL ratio < 0.1) and seven show a stable and long-lasting mild positivity (BCR-ABL ratio < 0.5). Patients in prolonged CMolR with IFN have low risk of recurrence after discontinuation; the reappearance of a BCR-ABL positivity < 0.5 did not always precede a relapse, suggesting mechanisms of immunological control induced by IFN.

  9. The natural history model of hepatitis C virus infection and the economic evaluation of alpha interferon treatment.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenshi; Nagasue, Ichiro; Fukuda, Takashi; Gunji, Atsuaki

    2002-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy is used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease, but is so expensive that it creates controversy as to whether or not it is effective use of limited health care resources. In order to make this judgement possible, it must be necessary to build a comprehensive disease model of HCV infection from social perspective. A Markov chain model of the natural history of HCV infection in male patients was developed. Parameters on the clinical phase of the disease were adopted from published reports, but those of the non-clinical phase were estimated from the data on blood donation and mortality rates from the disease. Then, adding in the modeling of treatment outcome from IFN therapy and cost-benefit analysis, IFN therapy was economically evaluated. Using this model, it was shown that (1) IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) would be economically beneficial at least in the Japanese situation, (2) the complete response rate to therapy would be the most sensitive factor affecting outcome, and (3) the younger the person cured by IFN therapy, the greater the benefit seen. These results demonstrate that IFN therapy would be beneficial in the case of the CHC patients (male). PMID:11848181

  10. LAMBDA AND ALPHA INTERFERONS INHIBIT HEPATITIS B VIRUS REPLICATION THROUGH A COMMON MOLECULAR MECHANISM BUT WITH DIFFERENT IN VIVO ACTIVITIES

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaccetti, Nicole E.; Chu, Esther N.; Bolen, Christopher R.; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Robek, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The type III interferons (IFN-λ1, 2, 3) induce an antiviral response similar to IFN-α/β, but mediate their activity through a unique receptor. We found that like IFN-α/β, IFN-λ prevents the assembly of HBV capsids, demonstrating convergence of the two signaling pathways through a single antiviral mechanism. In contrast to IFN-λ, the structurally related cytokine interleukin (IL)-22 only minimally reduced HBV replication. The transcriptional program activated by IL-22 displayed little similarity to that induced by IFN-λ, but instead resembled the response elicited by IL-6. We also found that murine IFN-λ2 had only weak antiviral activity against HBV in the liver of transgenic mice, and that human IFN-λ2 activity in serum correlated with the sensitivity of the cytokine to proteases. These results demonstrate that the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ anti-HBV responses operate through a single molecular mechanism, and support the notion that IFN-λ plays a local, rather than systemic, role in antiviral immunity. PMID:20303135

  11. Interferon alpha-armed nanoparticles trigger rapid and sustained STAT1-dependent anti-viral cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Pollok, Sibyll; Ginter, Torsten; Günzel, Katharina; Pieper, Jana; Henke, Andreas; Stauber, Roland H; Reichardt, Werner; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-04-01

    Interferon-α (IFNα) has enormous potential for anti-proliferative and anti-viral treatments. However, clinical success is still hampered due to its limited bioavailability and thus, lack of sustained modulation of disease-relevant protective programs. Consequently, we here examined whether IFNα immobilized on nanoscale ferromagnetic R-Chitosan carriers is capable of inducing rapid and sustained activation of STAT1 signaling. We report the spontaneous formation of a stable nanoparticle-IFNα protein corona, which was exploited to generate IFNα-loaded spheres, obviating the need to specifically couple the cytokine to the nanoparticles (NPs). Notably, comprehensive experimental approaches ensure that formation of the IFNα NP-corona does not affect the biological activity of the cytokine, as STAT1 signaling was efficiently activated. Employing human prostate cancer and melanoma cell models, we found that the intensity and duration of STAT1 phosphorylation as well as the downstream activation of pathobiologically relevant genes were dose and particle dependent. In comparison with free IFNα, IFNα-loaded spheres resulted in a more sustained biologically relevant STAT1 activation, demonstrated also by conferring innate cellular immunity against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. For one, our study demonstrates the advantages of biodegradable IFNα-coated R-Chitosan NPs for controlled cytokine release, and thereby improved therapy. Second, we reveal that the permanent presence of IFNα and not just the initial STAT1 phosphorylation ensures sustained IFNα-dependent signaling. PMID:23333460

  12. Discontinuation of alpha-interferon treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in long-lasting complete molecular response.

    PubMed

    Latagliata, Roberto; Romano, Angela; Mancini, Marco; Breccia, Massimo; Carmosino, Ida; Vozella, Federico; Montagna, Chiara; Volpicelli, Paola; De Angelis, Federico; Petrucci, Luigi; Serrao, Alessandra; Molica, Matteo; Salaroli, Adriano; Diverio, Daniela; Alimena, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate follow-up after α-interferon (IFN) discontinuation, 23 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in stable complete molecular response (CMolR) with IFN were revisited. After a median IFN treatment of 105.8 months (IR 56.1 - 127.3), all patients discontinued IFN for prolonged CMolR (12), intolerance (8) or planned ABMT (3). After 12.5 months, one patient developed an extramedullar blast crisis. Four patients needed to start imatinib, all achieving again molecular response. Eighteen patients are still off-therapy (median time from IFN discontinuation 125.5 months, IR 86.9-205.3); among these, five are BCR-ABL negative, six present with a sporadic positivity (BCR-ABL ratio < 0.1) and seven show a stable and long-lasting mild positivity (BCR-ABL ratio < 0.5). Patients in prolonged CMolR with IFN have low risk of recurrence after discontinuation; the reappearance of a BCR-ABL positivity < 0.5 did not always precede a relapse, suggesting mechanisms of immunological control induced by IFN. PMID:25997497

  13. Effects of all-trans retinoic acid and interferon alpha in peripheral neuroectodermal tumor cell cultures and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Rosolen, A; Favaretto, G; Masarotto, G; Cavazzana, A; Zanesco, L; Frascella, E

    1998-11-01

    Peripheral neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) have an unsatisfactory outcome when treated with standard approaches. Among novel treatments, the use of biological response modifiers has rarely been reported in this group of malignancies. We have previously demonstrated that both all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and interferon á (IFNá) can inhibit proliferation of human PNET cells and that ATRA can up-regulate IFNá receptor expression in vitro. In this study we evaluated the anti-tumor effects of ATRA and IFNá in PNET cells in vitro and in a human PNET xenograft model, using CHP100 cells. A synergistic inhibitory effect of ATRA and IFNá was observed on CHP100 cells in vitro. On the contrary, a significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in mice treated with ATRA alone, whereas neither IFNá nor the combination of ATRA and IFNá, reached a statistically significant anti-tumor effect. Histologic examination of tumors revealed the presence of necrosis upon treatment with IFNá, whereas almost no necrosis, but a more differentiated morphology, confirmed by electron microscopy analysis, was associated with the ATRA containing treatments. Taken together these data show an in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of ATRA in human PNET cells, although no synergism of ATRA and IFNá was observed in our xenograft model.

  14. ICSBP is essential for the development of mouse type I interferon-producing cells and for the generation and activation of CD8alpha(+) dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schiavoni, Giovanna; Mattei, Fabrizio; Sestili, Paola; Borghi, Paola; Venditti, Massimo; Morse, Herbert C; Belardelli, Filippo; Gabriele, Lucia

    2002-12-01

    Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor playing a critical role in the regulation of lineage commitment, especially in myeloid cell differentiation. In this study, we have characterized the phenotype and activation pattern of subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) in ICSBP(-/-) mice. Remarkably, the recently identified mouse IFN-producing cells (mIPCs) were absent in all lymphoid organs from ICSBP(-/-) mice, as revealed by lack of CD11c(low)B220(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) cells. In parallel, CD11c(+) cells isolated from ICSBP(-/-) spleens were unable to produce type I IFNs in response to viral stimulation. ICSBP(-/-) mice also displayed a marked reduction of the DC subset expressing the CD8alpha marker (CD8alpha(+) DCs) in spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus. Moreover, ICSBP(-/-) CD8alpha(+) DCs exhibited a markedly impaired phenotype when compared with WT DCs. They expressed very low levels of costimulatory molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, CD40, CD80, CD86) and of the T cell area-homing chemokine receptor CCR7, whereas they showed higher levels of CCR2 and CCR6, as revealed by reverse transcription PCR. In addition, these cells were unable to undergo full phenotypic activation upon in vitro culture in presence of maturation stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide or poly (I:C), which paralleled with lack of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 mRNA expression. Finally, cytokine expression pattern was also altered in ICSBP(-/-) DCs, as they did not express interleukin (IL)-12p40 or IL-15, but they displayed detectable IL-4 mRNA levels. On the whole, these results indicate that ICSBP is a crucial factor in the regulation of two possibly linked processes: (a) the development and activity of mIPCs, whose lack in ICSBP(-/-) mice may explain their high susceptibility to virus infections; (b) the generation and activation of CD8alpha(+) DCs, whose impairment in ICSBP(-/-) mice can be responsible for the defective generation of a Th1 type of

  15. Interferon-alpha therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus infection increases plasma phenylalanine and the phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Heinz; Schloegl, Anna; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Vogel, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-05-01

    Higher blood levels of the essential amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) together with impaired conversion of Phe to tyrosine (Tyr) have been observed in patients suffering from inflammatory conditions. Data suggest that inflammatory responses may interfere with Phe metabolism. This study aimed to investigate whether treatment with cytokine interferon-α (IFN-α) influences Phe concentrations and the Phe to Tyr ratios (Phe/Tyr) measured by HPLC. Twenty-five patients (9 females, 16 males, aged mean ± SD: 44.5 ± 11.0 years) with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were examined before and after 1 month of effective antiviral therapy with pegylated IFN-α and weight-based ribavirin. Results were compared to HCV-RNA titers and concentrations of neopterin. IFN-α treatment was associated with a drop of HCV load (from median 6.3 to 3.2 log10 copies/μL; P<0.001) and an increase of neopterin concentrations (from median 4.83 to 12.1 nM; P=0.001) which confirms effectiveness of therapy. Before therapy, median Phe concentration were 123.9 μM, Tyr was 98.8 μM, and Phe/Tyr was 1.23 μmol/μmol, and under therapy median Phe concentrations increased to 132.6 μM and Phe/Tyr to 1.33 (both P<0.05; paired rank test), Tyr levels remained unchanged. The increase of Phe concentrations and of Phe/Tyr in HCV infected individuals is caused by IFN-α therapy. Data indicate that activity of enzyme phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase becomes impaired. Future studies should show whether side effects of IFN-α treatment such as mood changes and depression will be associated with the alterations of Phe metabolism.

  16. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23626671

  17. Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-03-03

    We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

  18. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and substance P are novel modulators of extrapituitary prolactin expression in human skin.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Vidali, Silvia; Pigat, Natascha; Funk, Wolfgang; Lisztes, Erika; Bíró, Tamás; Goffin, Vincent; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human scalp skin and hair follicles (HFs) are extra-pituitary sources of prolactin (PRL). However, the intracutaneous regulation of PRL remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated whether well-recognized regulators of pituitary PRL expression, which also impact on human skin physiology and pathology, regulate expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) in situ. This was studied in serum-free organ cultures of microdissected human scalp HFs and skin, i.e. excluding pituitary, neural and vascular inputs. Prolactin expression was confirmed at the gene and protein level in human truncal skin, where its expression significantly increased (p = 0.049) during organ culture. There was, however, no evidence of PRL secretion into the culture medium as measured by ELISA. PRL immunoreactivity (IR) in female human epidermis was decreased by substance P (p = 0.009), while neither the classical pituitary PRL inhibitor, dopamine, nor corticotropin-releasing hormone significantly modulated PRL IR in HFs or skin respectively. Interferon (IFN) γ increased PRL IR in the epithelium of human HFs (p = 0.044) while tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α decreased both PRL and PRLR IR. This study identifies substance P, TNFα and IFNγ as novel modulators of PRL and PRLR expression in human skin, and suggests that intracutaneous PRL expression is not under dopaminergic control. Given the importance of PRL in human hair growth regulation and its possible role in the pathogenesis of several common skin diseases, targeting intracutaneous PRL production via these newly identified regulatory pathways may point towards novel therapeutic options for inflammatory dermatoses.

  19. Synergistic induction of CXCL10 by interferon-gamma and lymphotoxin-alpha in astrocytes: Possible role in cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bakmiwewa, Supun M; Weiser, Silvia; Grey, Meredith; Heng, Benjamin; Guillemin, Gilles J; Ball, Helen J; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) has a high mortality rate and incidence of neurological sequelae in survivors. Hypoxia and cytokine expression in the brain are two mechanisms thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of CM. The cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and lymphotoxin (LT)-α and the chemokine CXCL10 are essential for the development of CM in a mouse model. Furthermore, serum IFN-γ protein levels are higher in human CM than in controls, and CXCL10 is elevated in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid in Ghanaian paediatric CM cases. Astrocytes actively participate in CNS pathologies, becoming activated in response to various stimuli including cytokines. Astrocyte activation also occurs in murine and human CM. We here determined the responsiveness of mouse and human astrocytes to IFN-γ and LT-α, with the aim of further elucidating the role of astrocytes in CM pathogenesis. Initially we confirmed that Ifn-γ and Cxcl10 are expressed in the brain in murine CM, and that the increased Cxcl10 expression is IFN-γ-dependant. IFN-γ induced CXCL10 production in human and murine astrocytes in vitro. The degree of induction was increased synergistically in the presence of LT-α. IFN-γ induced the expression of receptors for LT-α, while LT-α increased the expression of the receptor for IFN-γ, in the astrocytes. This cross-induction may explain the synergistic effect of the two cytokines on CXCL10 production. Expression of these receptors also was upregulated in the brain in murine CM. The results suggest that astrocytes contribute to CM pathogenesis by producing CXCL10 in response to IFN-γ and LT-α.

  20. Interleukin-1 beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Enayati, Samaneh; Seifirad, Soroush; Amiri, Parvin; Abolhalaj, Milad; Mohammad -Amoli, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several inflammatory mediators have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in un-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene expression were evaluated in angiography confirmed patients with and without CAD in a case-control study using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS A significant increase (P = 0.030) in IL-1β gene expression was found in patients with CAD [median interquartile range (IQR) = 4.890 (6.084)] compared to patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 1.792 (3.172)]. Despite the increase in IFN-γ gene expression in patients with CAD [median (IQR) = 1.298 (3.896)] versus patients without CAD [median (IQR) = 0.841 (2.79)], there was not statistically significant difference (P = 0.990). CONCLUSION Our results provide evidence for possible association between IL-1β and development of atherosclerosis as a crucial cytokine that induce a network of signaling pathways. This finding if proved in future would suggest IL-1β as a potent therapeutic target in CAD. PMID:26715931

  1. Interferon-alpha and bortezomib overcome Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 over-expression in melanoma cells by stimulating the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Raig, Ene T.; Guenterberg, Kristan; Brown, Lloyd; Go, Michael R.; Shah, Nisha N.; Lewis, Adrian; Quimper, Megan; Hade, Erinn; Young, Gregory; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Ladner, Katherine J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Bouchard, Page

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that interferon-alpha (IFN-α) would enhance the apoptotic activity of bortezomib on melanoma cells. Combined treatment with bortezomib and IFN-α induced synergistic apoptosis in melanoma and other solid tumor cell lines. Apoptosis was associated with processing of procaspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and with cleavage of Bid and PARP. Bortezomib plus IFN-α was effective at inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells that over-expressed Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, suggesting that this treatment combination can overcome mitochondrial pathways of cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effects of this treatment combination were abrogated by a caspase-8 inhibitor, led to increased association of Fas and FADD prior to the onset of cell death, and were significantly reduced in cells transfected with a dominant-negative FADD construct or siRNA targeting Fas. These data suggest that bortezomib and IFN-α act through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis via FADD-induced caspase-8 activation to initiate cell death. Finally, bortezomib and IFN-α displayed statistically significant anti-tumor activity as compared to either agent alone in both the B16 murine model of melanoma and in athymic mice bearing human A375 xenografts. These data support the future clinical development of bortezomib and IFN-α for malignant melanoma. PMID:18922907

  2. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFNα-2b) gene in low-dose natural terrestrial ionizing radiation exposed dwellers.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-12-01

    Natural terrestrial ionizing radiations emerge from uranium deposits and can impact human tissues by affecting DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha-2b (hIFNα-2b) gene synthesizes a protein which exhibits anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral properties. This research aimed to find out hIFNα-2b gene mutations for those residents who were chronically exposed to low-dose natural terrestrial ionizing radiations. The gene amplifications was done through PCR technique and gene mutations were identified by bioinformatics in order to conclude as to how mutations identified in hIFNα-2b gene sequences will lead to alterations in the hIFNα-2b protein in radiation exposed residents. The range of radiation dose exposure was 0.4383-4.55832 (mSv/y) for the selected radiation exposed locations which were having uranium mineralization. Mutations (24%) in hIFNα-2b gene shows that some of the radiation exposed inhabitants were having a modulated immune response. The CBC (Complete Blood Count) parameters: WBC (White Blood Cells), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin), MCHC (MCH Concentration) and PLT (Platelets) on average were below the normal range in 24% radiation exposed subjects who were having hIFNα-2b gene mutations. Immunomodulation is observed by the mixed trend of either lymphocytosis or lymphopenia and neutropenia or neutrophilia in the exposed population. Thus, a radioactive exposure from uranium can affect the immune system and can induce mutations.

  3. Vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cancer with modified vaccinia Ankara encoding the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax) given alongside interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Robert E; Macdermott, Catriona; Shablak, Alaaeldin; Hamer, Caroline; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Drury, Noel L; Chikoti, Priscilla; Shingler, William; Naylor, Stuart; Harrop, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Approximately 90% of renal cell tumors overexpress the tumor antigen 5T4. The attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, modified vaccinia Ankara, has been engineered to express 5T4 (TroVax). We conducted an open-label phase 1/2 trial in which TroVax was administered alongside interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) to 11 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses were monitored throughout the study, and clinical responses were assessed by measuring the changes in tumor burden by computed tomography scan (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors). The primary objective was to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of TroVax when given alongside IFNalpha. Treatment with TroVax plus IFNalpha was well tolerated with no serious adverse events attributed to TroVax. All 11 patients mounted 5T4-specific antibody responses and 5 (45%) mounted cellular responses. No objective tumor responses were seen, but the overall median time to progression (TTP) of 9 months (range: 2.1 to 26+ mo) was longer than expected for IFNalpha alone. For the 10 clear cell patients the TTP ranged from 3.9 to 26+ months, with a median TTP of 10.4 months. The high frequency of 5T4-specific immune responses and prolonged median TTP for clear cell patients compared with that expected for IFNalpha alone is encouraging and warrants further investigation.

  4. The Effect of Interferon-γ and Zoledronate Treatment on Alpha-Tricalcium Phosphate/Collagen Sponge-Mediated Bone-Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqi; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Honda, Yoshitomo; Arima, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-10-26

    Inflammatory responses are frequently associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and severe osteoclastogenesis, which significantly affect the efficacy of biomaterials. Recent findings have suggested that interferon (IFN)-γ and zoledronate (Zol) are effective inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis. However, little is known regarding the utility of IFN-γ and Zol in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we generated rat models by generating critically sized defects in calvarias implanted with an alpha-tricalcium phosphate/collagen sponge (α-TCP/CS). At four weeks post-implantation, the rats were divided into IFN-γ, Zol, and control (no treatment) groups. Compared with the control group, the IFN-γ and Zol groups showed remarkable attenuation of severe osteoclastogenesis, leading to a significant enhancement in bone mass. Histomorphometric data and mRNA expression patterns in IFN-γ and Zol-injected rats reflected high bone-turnover with increased bone formation, a reduction in osteoclast numbers, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Our results demonstrated that the administration of IFN-γ and Zol enhanced bone regeneration of α-TCP/CS implants by enhancing bone formation, while hampering excess bone resorption.

  5. The Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Gene Product, B18R, Neutralizes Interferon Alpha and Alleviates Histopathological Complications in an HIV Encephalitis Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fritz-French, Cari; Shawahna, Ramzi; Ward, Jennifer E.; Maroun, Leonard E.

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has been identified as a neurotoxin that plays a prominent role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) pathology. IFN-α is associated with cognitive dysfunction in other inflammatory diseases where IFN-α is upregulated. Trials of monoclonal anti-IFN-α antibodies have been generally disappointing possibly due to high specificity to limited IFN-α subtypes and low affinity. We investigated a novel IFN-α inhibitor, B18R, in an HIVE/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model. Immunostaining for B18R in systemically treated HIVE/SCID mice suggested the ability of B18R to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Real-time PCR indicated that B18R treatment resulted in a decrease in gene expression associated with IFN-α signaling in the brain. Mice treated with B18R were found to have decreased mouse mononuclear phagocytes and significant retention of neuronal arborization compared to untreated HIVE/SCID mice. Increased mononuclear phagocytes and decreased neuronal arborization are key features of HIVE. These results suggest that B18R crosses the BBB, blocks IFN-α signaling, and it prevents key features of HIVE pathology. These data suggest that the high affinity and broad IFN-α subtype specificity of B18R make it a viable alternative to monoclonal antibodies for the inhibition of IFN-α in the immune-suppressed environment. PMID:24564363

  6. The Effect of Interferon-γ and Zoledronate Treatment on Alpha-Tricalcium Phosphate/Collagen Sponge-Mediated Bone-Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiqi; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Honda, Yoshitomo; Arima, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses are frequently associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and severe osteoclastogenesis, which significantly affect the efficacy of biomaterials. Recent findings have suggested that interferon (IFN)-γ and zoledronate (Zol) are effective inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis. However, little is known regarding the utility of IFN-γ and Zol in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we generated rat models by generating critically sized defects in calvarias implanted with an alpha-tricalcium phosphate/collagen sponge (α-TCP/CS). At four weeks post-implantation, the rats were divided into IFN-γ, Zol, and control (no treatment) groups. Compared with the control group, the IFN-γ and Zol groups showed remarkable attenuation of severe osteoclastogenesis, leading to a significant enhancement in bone mass. Histomorphometric data and mRNA expression patterns in IFN-γ and Zol-injected rats reflected high bone-turnover with increased bone formation, a reduction in osteoclast numbers, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Our results demonstrated that the administration of IFN-γ and Zol enhanced bone regeneration of α-TCP/CS implants by enhancing bone formation, while hampering excess bone resorption. PMID:26516841

  7. Extracellular expression and antiviral activity of a bovine interferon-alpha through codon optimization in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yabin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yanqun; Chen, Weiye; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Chenggang; Wang, Shujie; Bu, Zhigao; Cai, Xuehui

    2016-10-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are the primary line of defense against infectious agents. In particular, IFN-α is an important antiviral cytokine and has a wide range of immune-modulating functions. Porcine and human IFN-α have been successfully prepared and play important roles in the prevention and therapy of viral diseases. To date, there has been limited applied research on bovine IFN-α. To achieve high-level expression of recombinant bovine IFN-α (bIFN-α) in Pichia pastoris for large-scale application, the bIFN-α gene was optimized and synthesized on the basis of codon bias of P. pastoris. Optimized bIFN-α (opti-bIFN-α) was successfully expressed in P. pastoris and directly secreted into the culture supernatant. The amount of extracellular soluble opti-bIFN-α was observed to be 200μg/mL in a shake flask. Expression efficiency of opti-bIFN-α was found to be about three times that of wild-type bIFN-α when the expression yield was compared at the same copies of the targeted gene. In addition, both the original cultural supernatant and purified opti-bIFN-α showed strong antiviral activity in MDBK cells (2×10(6)AU/mL and 1×10(7)AU/mg, respectively) and IBRS-2 cells (3×10(5)AU/mL and 1.5×10(6)AU/mg, respectively) against a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the green fluorescence protein. In this study, we demonstrated high-level extracellular expression of opti-bIFN-α by P. pastoris. To the best of our knowledge, the opti-bIFN-α yield observed in this study is the highest to be reported to date. Our results demonstrated that the extracellular opti-bIFN-α with strong antiviral activity could be easily prepared and purified at a low cost and that it may be a potential biological therapeutic drug against bovine viral infections. PMID:27524649

  8. Regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly in two patients with hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis after interferon and ribavirin combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Jae; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Na, Soo-Young; Choi, Eun Kwang; Boo, Sun Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk; Song, Hyung Joo; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Bong Soo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Some recent studies have found regression of liver cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, but there have been no reports of complete regression of esophageal varices after interferon/peg-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We describe two cases of complete regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly after interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Esophageal varices and splenomegaly regressed after 3 and 8 years of sustained virologic responses in cases 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that complications of liver cirrhosis, such as esophageal varices and splenomegaly, can regress after antiviral therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. PMID:27572075

  9. The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Padalko, Elizaveta; Nuyens, Dieter; De Palma, Armando; Verbeken, Erik; Aerts, Joeri L; De Clercq, Erik; Carmeliet, Peter; Neyts, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Viral replication, as well as an immunopathological component, is assumed to be involved in coxsackie B virus-induced myocarditis. We evaluated the efficacy of the interferon inducer Ampligen on coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis in C3H/HeNHsd mice. The efficacy of Ampligen was compared with that of the interferon inducer poly(inosinic acid)-poly(cytidylic acid) [poly(IC)], alpha interferon 2b (INTRON A), and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (PEG-INTRON-alpha-2b). Ampligen at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day was able to reduce the severity of virus-induced myocarditis, as assessed by morphometric analysis, by 98% (P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). When poly(IC) was administered at 15 mg/kg/day, it reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 93% (P = 5.6 x 10(-5)). Alpha interferon 2b (1 x 10(5) U/day) and pegylated alpha interferon 2b (5 x 10(5) U/day) were less effective and reduced the severity of virus-induced myocarditis by 66% (P = 0.0009) and 78% (P = 0.0002), respectively. The observed efficacies of Ampligen and poly(IC) were corroborated by the observation that the drugs also markedly reduced the virus titers in the heart, as detected by (i) quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and (ii) titration for infectious virus content. Whereas the electrocardiograms for untreated mice with myocarditis were severely disturbed, the electrocardiographic parameters were normalized in Ampligen- and poly(IC)-treated mice. Even when start of treatment with Ampligen was delayed until day 2 postinfection, a time at which lesions had already appeared in untreated control animals, a marked protective effect on the development of viral myocarditis (as assessed at day 6 postinfection) was still noted.

  10. The partial characterization of tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] resistance, and differential interferon-[alpha] and -[gamma] regulation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene in a human cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbro, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF) on human tumor cells, the author has analyzed a TNF-resistant (TNFr) cell variant of ME180. Studies of the resistant clone showed an increase in in vitro generated free radical resistance, superoxide dismutase, and catalase mRNAs. The analysis of a TNFr clone and its karyotype compared to the parental line, suggest that TNFr could be due to an increase in free radical scavenger proteins and/or chromosomal aberrations. The second component of the thesis involves the analysis of another cytotoxic cytokine, interferon-[gamma], and its ability to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO is the rate limiting enzyme in the catabolism of tryptophan in most cell types. It is predominantly induced following treatment with IFN-[gamma], at a low level or not at all by IFN-[alpha] or-[beta]. The author has determined that the differential regulation of the IDO gene by IFNs may be the result of different interactions of proteins with the regulatory sequences of the IDO gene. The IDO gene has been mapped to chromosome 8.

  11. Low Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin plus Nitazoxanide for HCV Genotype 4 and HIV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Juan; López-Cortés, Luis F.; Téllez, Francisco; Recio, Eva; Ojeda-Burgos, Guillermo; Ríos, MªJosé; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Delgado, Marcial; Jeremías, Rivas-; Pineda, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nitazoxanide (NTZ) plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) improved the sustained virological response (SVR) achieved with Peg-IFN/RBV in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4)-monoinfected patients. There are no data currently on the efficacy of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-4 coinfection. Therefore, the objectives of this clinical trial were to assess the efficacy and to evaluate the safety of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ in HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients. Patients and Methods This was an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II pilot clinical trial (NCT01529073) enrolling HIV-infected individuals with HCV-4 chronic infection, naïve to HCV therapy. Patients were treated with NTZ 500 mg bid for 4 weeks, followed by NTZ 500 mg bid plus Peg-IFN alpha-2b 1.5 μg/kg/week plus weight-adjusted RBV during 48 weeks. Analyses were done by intention-to-treat (ITT, missing = failure). A historical cohort of HIV/HCV-4-infected patients treated with Peg-IFN alpha-2b and RBV at the same area was used as control. Results Two (9.5%) of 21 patients included in the trial compared with 5 (21.7%) of 23 patients included in the historical cohort achieved SVR (SVR risk difference, -12.2%; 95% confidence interval, -33.2% to 8.8%; p = 0.416). Virological failure was due to lack of response in 13 (62%) individuals recruited in the trial. Two (9.5%) patients included in the trial and two (9.5%) individuals from the historical cohort discontinued permanently due to adverse events. Conclusions No increase in SVR was observed among HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients receiving Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ compared with a historical cohort treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Interruptions due to adverse events of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ were similar to those of dual therapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01529073 PMID:26640956

  12. Analysis of human blood monocyte activation at the level of gene expression. Expression of alpha interferon genes during activation of human monocytes by poly IC/LC and muramyl dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Human monocytes were activated to secrete alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) by poly IC/LC but not by other monocyte activators, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP). In contrast, monocytes were activated to secrete fibroblast growth factor (FGF) release by MDP but not by poly IC/LC. The amount of total RNA present in unactivated and activated human monocytes was similar. Using two 32P-labeled cDNA probes (pLM001 and HuIFN-alpha 2) for human IFN-alpha genes in hybridization studies, we analyzed messenger RNA species from this gene family in activated human monocytes. After activation with poly IC/LC, two other mRNA species (2.8 and 5.5 kb) were detected in addition to the 1.0 kb mRNA normally associated with IFN-alpha secretion. Unexpectedly, monocytes activated with MDP also contained 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA. There was associated with this 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA, found in MDP-activated monocytes, appreciable levels of intracellular IFN-alpha activity in the absence of detectable secreted IFN-alpha. Thus the secretion of IFN-alpha in activated human monocytes can be correlated with the appearance of a 1.0 kb mRNA species after poly IC/LC exposure. Secretion appears to be defective in MDP-stimulated monocytes even though they contain active intracellular IFN-alpha apparently translated from the 2.8 kb mRNA. PMID:3838335

  13. Molecular characterization of an alpha interferon receptor 1 subunit (IFNaR1) domain required for TYK2 binding and signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, H; Krishnan, K; Lim, J T; Contillo, L G; Krolewski, J J

    1996-01-01

    Binding of alpha interferon (IFNalpha) to its receptors induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor subunits IFNaR1 and IFNaR2, the TYK2 and JAK1 tyrosine kinases, and the Stat1 and Stat2 transcription factors. Previous studies have demonstrated that TYK2 directly and specifically binds to and tyrosine phosphorylates IFNaR1 in vitro. We now report a detailed analysis of the TYK2 binding domain on the IFNaR1 subunit. First, we used an in vitro binding assay to identify the TYK2 binding motif in IFNaR1 as well as the critical residues within this region. The most striking feature is the importance of a number of hydrophobic and acidic residues. A minor role is also ascribed to a region resembling the proline-rich "box 1" sequence. In addition, mutations which disrupt in vitro binding also disrupt the coimmunoprecipitation of the receptor and TYK2. We also provide direct evidence that the binding region is both necessary and sufficient to activate TYK2 in vivo. Specifically, mutations in the binding domain act in a dominant-negative fashion to inhibit the IFNalpha-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TYK2 and Stat2. Further, introduction of dimerized glutathione S-transferase-IFNaR1 fusion proteins into permeabilized cells is sufficient to induce phosphorylation of TYK2 and the receptor, confirming the role of the binding domain in IFNalpha signal transduction. These studies provide clues to the sequences determining the specificity of the association between JAK family tyrosine kinases and cytokine receptors as well as the functional role of these kinases in cytokine signal transduction. PMID:8628273

  14. Immune responses of recombinant adenovirus co-expressing VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus and porcine interferon alpha in mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Du, Yijun; Dai, Jianjun; Li, Yufeng; Li, Congzhi; Qi, Jing; Duan, Shuyi; Jiang, Ping

    2008-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In this study, we constructed and characterized the immune responses and vaccine efficacy conferred by the recombinant adenovirus co-expressing VP1 of FMDV and porcine interferon alpha as fusion protein (rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1). Six groups of female BALB/c mice each with 18 were inoculated subcutaneously twice 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses. The results showed that the levels of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in the group inoculated with rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1 were significantly higher than those in the group inoculated with rAd-VP1+rAd-pIFNalpha (P<0.05). Then four groups of guinea pigs each with six were inoculated two times at 2-week intervals intramuscularly with rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1, commercial inactivated FMD vaccine, wild-type adenovirus (wtAd) or PBS, and the protective efficacy of rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1 was determined. The results indicated that all the guinea pigs vaccinated with rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1 as well as inactivated FMD vaccine were protected from FMDV challenge, even though the levels of neutralizing antibodies (1:32-1:40) of the animals vaccinated with rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1 was lower than that in the group inoculated with inactivated FMD vaccine (1:64-1:128). It demonstrated that the newly recombinant adenovirus rAd-pIFNalpha-VP1 might further be an attractive candidate vaccine for preventing FMDV infection in swine. PMID:18511133

  15. Lysis of HIV-1 Infected Autologous CD4+ Primary T cells by Interferon-alpha Activated NK cells Requires NKp46 and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Tomescu, Costin; Mavilio, Domenico; Montaner, Luis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Autologous HIV-1 infected CD4+ primary T cells (aHIV+CD4) have been shown to be largely resistant to Natural Killer (NK) cell mediated lysis due to viral strategies of immune evasion. We have previously shown that a pre-activation of NK cells with Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells can significantly augment lysis of aHIV+CD4 through a mechanism dependent on Interferon-alpha (IFN-α). Design The goal of the present study is to identify the specific NK activating receptors involved in NK lysis of aHIV+CD4 following IFN-α activation. Methods PBMC were incubated with aHIV+CD4 to induce the secretion of endogenous levels of IFN-α and drive NK activation. We then utilized a standard chromium lysis assay to assess the degree of IFN-α activated lysis of aHIV+CD4 in the presence or absence of masking antibodies to a panel of NK activating receptors and co-receptors. Results Direct recognition of HIV-1 infected, but not uninfected, autologous CD4+ primary T cells by PBMC induced the secretion IFN-α (Median 2280 pg/ml, p<0.001, n=9) that, in turn, activated NK cells (p<0.001, n=12) and significantly increased their cytolytic potential against aHIV+CD4 (p<0.01, n=12). The masking of NKp46 (p<0.01, n=8) and NKG2D (p<0.05, n=8), but not 2B4, NTBA, NKp30 or NKp44, significantly reduced IFN-α activated lysis of aHIV+CD4. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that endogenous levels of IFN-α secreted by pDCs induce NK cells to lyse aHIV+CD4 via the engagement of NKp46 and NKG2D. PMID:26372382

  16. Pathogenesis of 1918 Pandemic and H5N1 Influenza Virus Infections in a Guinea Pig Model: Antiviral Potential of Exogenous Alpha Interferon To Reduce Virus Shedding▿

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoeven, Neal; Belser, Jessica A.; Szretter, Kristy J.; Zeng, Hui; Staeheli, Peter; Swayne, David E.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Although highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses have yet to acquire the ability to transmit efficiently among humans, the increasing genetic diversity among these viruses and continued outbreaks in avian species underscore the need for more effective measures for the control and prevention of human H5N1 virus infection. Additional small animal models with which therapeutic approaches against virulent influenza viruses can be evaluated are needed. In this study, we used the guinea pig model to evaluate the relative virulence of selected avian and human influenza A viruses. We demonstrate that guinea pigs can be infected with avian and human influenza viruses, resulting in high titers of virus shedding in nasal washes for up to 5 days postinoculation (p.i.) and in lung tissue of inoculated animals. However, other physiologic indicators typically associated with virulent influenza virus strains were absent in this species. We evaluated the ability of intranasal treatment with human alpha interferon (α-IFN) to reduce lung and nasal wash titers in guinea pigs challenged with the reconstructed 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus or a contemporary H5N1 virus. IFN treatment initiated 1 day prior to challenge significantly reduced or prevented infection of guinea pigs by both viruses, as measured by virus titer determination and seroconversion. The expression of the antiviral Mx protein in lung tissue correlated with the reduction of virus titers. We propose that the guinea pig may serve as a useful small animal model for testing the efficacy of antiviral compounds and that α-IFN treatment may be a useful antiviral strategy against highly virulent strains with pandemic potential. PMID:19144714

  17. Loss of serum HCV RNA at week 4 of interferon-alpha therapy is associated with more favorable long-term response in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Orito, E; Mizokami, M; Suzuki, K; Ohba, K; Ohno, T; Mori, M; Hayashi, K; Kato, K; Iino, S; Lau, J Y

    1995-06-01

    To determine the virological factors associated with a favorable long-term response to interferon-alpha (IFN) therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 61 Japanese patients with chronic HCV infection were treated with IFN for 24 weeks (780 million units in total) and followed for 8 to 16 months after cessation of therapy. Ten patients dropped out because of severe side effects. Of the 51 patients who completed IFN therapy, 23 showed complete and sustained response (CR --> SR), 13 complete response with early relapse (CR --> Rel), and 15 no response to IFN (NR). For the pretreatment serum HCV RNA level, 20/23 who had CR --> SR had < 10(6) eq/ml compared to 3/13 CR --> Rel and 1/15 NR (P < 0.01). Serologically defined HCV type 2 infection was also associated with a better opportunity to develop CR --> SR compared to CR --> Rel of NR (P < 0.01). Loss of serum HCV RNA at week 4 of IFN therapy was also associated with a more favorable long-term response [17/19 CR --> SR were HCV RNA negative compared to 3/11 CR --> Rel (P < 0.01) and 2/13 NR (P < 0.01)]. In contrast, normalization of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at week 4 was found in 9/19 CR --> SR compared to 8/11 CR --> Rel (P = NS), and 0/13 in NR (P < 0.01). Six months after cessation of IFN therapy, 3/25 CR --> SR patients were HCV RNA positive despite normalization of serum ALT levels. These data indicated that in addition to pretreatment serum HCV RNA levels and HCV type, the kinetics of response to IFN (at week 4) were also predictive of subsequent long-term response to IFN in patients with chronic HCV infection.

  18. Alpha/Beta Interferon Protects Adult Mice from Fatal Sindbis Virus Infection and Is an Important Determinant of Cell and Tissue Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Nguyen, Khuong B.; Biron, Christine A.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Infection of adult 129 Sv/Ev mice with consensus Sindbis virus strain TR339 is subclinical due to an inherent restriction in early virus replication and viremic dissemination. By comparing the pathogenesis of TR339 in 129 Sv/Ev mice and alpha/beta interferon receptor null (IFN-α/βR−/−) mice, we have assessed the contribution of IFN-α/β in restricting virus replication and spread and in determining cell and tissue tropism. In adult 129 Sv/Ev mice, subcutaneous inoculation with 100 PFU of TR339 led to extremely low-level virus replication and viremia, with clearance under way by 96 h postinoculation (p.i.). In striking contrast, adult IFN-α/βR−/− mice inoculated subcutaneously with 100 PFU of TR339 succumbed to the infection within 84 h. By 24 h p.i. a high-titer serum viremia had seeded infectious virus systemically, coincident with the systemic induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6. Replicating virus was located in macrophage-dendritic cell (DC)-like cells at 24 h p.i. in the draining lymph node and in the splenic marginal zone. By 72 h p.i. virus replication was widespread in macrophage-DC-like cells in the spleen, liver, lung, thymus, and kidney and in fibroblast-connective tissue and periosteum, with sporadic neuroinvasion. IFN-α/β-mediated restriction of TR339 infection was mimicked in vitro in peritoneal exudate cells from 129 Sv/Ev versus IFN-α/βR−/− mice. Thus, IFN-α/β protects the normal adult host from viral infection by rapidly conferring an antiviral state on otherwise permissive cell types, both locally and systemically. Ablation of the IFN-α/β system alters the apparent cell and tissue tropism of the virus and renders macrophage-DC-lineage cells permissive to infection. PMID:10708454

  19. Gene expression and production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and gamma interferon in C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in acute Mycoplasma pulmonis disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, C B; Simecka, J W; Davidson, M K; Davis, J K; Schoeb, T R; Lindsey, J R; Everson, M P

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether the production of various cytokines is associated with Mycoplasma pulmonis disease expression. Susceptible C3H/HeN and resistant C57BL/6N mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) CFU of virulent M. pulmonis UAB CT or avirulent M. pulmonis UAB T. Expression of genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, IL-6, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in whole lung tissue and TNF-alpha gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells was determined by reverse transcription-PCR using specific cytokine primers at various times postinoculation. In addition, concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IFN-gamma were determined in BAL fluid and serum samples at various times postinoculation. Our results showed that there was a sequential appearance of cytokines in the lungs of infected mice: TNF-alpha, produced primarily by BAL cells, appeared first, followed by IL-1 and IL-6, which were followed by IFN-gamma. Susceptible C3H/HeN mice had higher and more persistent concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in BAL fluid than did resistant C57BL/6N mice, indicating that TNF-alpha and possibly IL-6 are important factors in pathogenesis of acute M. pulmonis disease in mice. Serum concentrations of IL-6 were elevated in C3H/HeN mice, but not C57BL/6N mice, following infection with M. pulmonis, suggesting that IL-6 has both local and systemic effects in M. pulmonis disease. PMID:7558323

  20. The role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in combination with interferon-gamma or interleukin-1 in the induction of immunosuppressive macrophages because of Mycobacterium avium complex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, H; Maw, W W; Sato, K; Saito, H

    1996-01-01

    The role of some cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the generation of immunosuppressive macrophages (M phi s) in host spleen cells of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-infected mice was studied. M phi populations with potent suppressor activity against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced mitogenesis of splenocytes (SPCs) were elicited not only in euthymic but also in athymic nude mice during MAC infection. The suppressor M phi s are, therefore, inducible not only through a T-cell-dependent mechanism but also through T-cell-independent mechanism. However, MAC-induced M phi s of athymic mice displayed about four times lower suppressor activity than those of euthymic mice, indicating that mature T cells are important for M phi activation to the highly immunosuppressive state. Anti-TNF, anti-IFN-gamma, and anti-TGF-beta antibodies (Abs) but not anti-IL-6 Ab inhibited in vivo generation of MAC-induced immunosuppressive M phi s, and the neutralizing efficacy was in the order of anti-IFN-gamma Ab > anti-TNF Ab > anti-TGF-beta Ab. The effects of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and IFN-gamma alone or combinations of them upon the acquisition of the suppressor activity by cultured splenic M phi s were studied. When normal splenic M phi s were treated with each cytokine for 3 days, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-1 alpha alone caused a slight elevation of their suppressive activity. Treatment of the normal M phi s with the combination of either TNF-alpha+IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha+IFN-gamma yielded a marked increase in the suppressor activity, followed by IL-1 alpha+IFN-gamma. These findings indicate the important roles of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-1 alpha in the generation of MAC-induced suppressor M phi s. PMID:8707352

  1. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) in Patients with Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ensslen, Silke; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Joussen, Sylvia; Beer, Daniel; Abele, Rupert; Plewnia, Gabriele; Tampé, Robert; Merk, Hans F.; Hermanns, Heike M.; Baron, Jens M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interferon alpha (IFNα) is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1) is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling. Results We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment. Conclusion We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in ‘silent’ metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and

  2. Alpha Interferon Inhibits Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Reactivation in Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells and Reduces HHV-8 Load in Cultured Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monini, Paolo; Carlini, Francesca; Stürzl, Michael; Rimessi, Paola; Superti, Fabiana; Franco, Marina; Melucci-Vigo, Gianna; Cafaro, Aurelio; Goletti, Delia; Sgadari, Cecilia; Butto’, Stefano; Leone, Patrizia; Leone, Pasqualina; Chiozzini, Chiara; Barresi, Caterina; Tinari, Antonella; Bonaccorsi, Angela; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Giuliani, Massimo; di Carlo, Aldo; Andreoni, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni; Ensoli, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Infection by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). Since regression of KS can be achieved by treatment of the patients with alpha interferon (IFN-α), we analyzed the effects of IFN-α or anti-IFN-α antibodies (Ab) on HHV-8 latently infected primary effusion lymphoma-derived cell lines (BCBL-1 and BC-1) and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with all forms of KS and from at-risk subjects. IFN-α inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the amplification of HHV-8 DNA in BCBL-1 cells induced to lytic infection with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). This effect was associated with the inhibition of the expression of HHV-8 nut-1 and kaposin genes that are induced early and several hours, respectively, after TPA treatment. In addition, IFN-α inhibited virus production and/or release from BCBL-1 cells. Inhibition of nut-1 and kaposin genes by IFN-α was also observed in BC-1 cells induced with n-butyrate. Conversely, the addition of anti-IFN-α Ab to TPA-induced BCBL-1 cells resulted in a larger number of mature enveloped particles and in a more extensive cytopathic effect due to the neutralization of the endogenous IFN produced by these cells. IFN was also produced by cultured PBMC from HHV-8-infected individuals, and this was associated with a loss of viral DNA during culture. However, the addition of anti-IFN-α Ab or anti-type I IFN receptor Ab promoted the maintenance of HHV-8 DNA in these cells that was associated with the detection of the latency-associated kaposin RNA. Finally, the addition of IFN-α reduced the HHV-8 load in PBMC. Thus, IFN-α appears to have inhibitory effects on HHV-8 persistent infection of PBMC. These results suggest that, in addition to inhibiting the expression of angiogenic factors that are key to KS development, IFN-α may induce KS regression by reducing the HHV-8 load and/or inhibiting virus reactivation. PMID:10196299

  3. Modulation of in vitro monocyte cytokine responses to Leishmania donovani. Interferon-gamma prevents parasite-induced inhibition of interleukin 1 production and primes monocytes to respond to Leishmania by producing both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, N E; Ng, W; Wilson, C B; McMaster, W R; Burchett, S K

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines produced by mononuclear cells are important regulatory and effector molecules and evidence has been presented to support a role at least for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in host defense against Leishmania. In the present study, we examined the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin 1 (IL-1) by resting and IFN-gamma-primed peripheral blood monocytes infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani. Monocytes produced neither IL-1 nor TNF-alpha during challenge with Leishmania. Cells preinfected with Leishmania synthesized normal amounts of TNF-alpha, but had diminished production of IL-1 in response to stimulation with either S. aureus or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The induction by S. aureus or LPS of IL-1 beta mRNA accumulation in infected cells was normal despite diminished intracellular or supernatant IL-1 protein and bioactivity. Thus, inhibition of IL-1 production by Leishmania most probably reflected diminished translation of IL-1 beta mRNA. Pretreatment of cells with IFN-gamma abrogated infection-induced inhibition of IL-1 production and primed cells for the production of both IL-1 and TNF-alpha upon subsequent exposure to Leishmania. These results indicate that L. donovani has evolved the capacity to infect mononuclear phagocytes, without stimulating the production of two potentially host-protective monokines. The ability of IFN-gamma to prime monocytes to produce TNF-alpha and IL-1 in response to infection with Leishmania and to prevent inhibition of IL-1 production may have implications for immunotherapy with this lymphokine. Images PMID:2112157

  4. In vivo expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma in the fetal murine thymus.

    PubMed Central

    Deman, J; Van Meurs, M; Claassen, E; Humblet, C; Boniver, J; Defresne, M P

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines are known to play a role in T-cell lymphopoiesis as potent growth or differentiation factors, but many experiments focusing on their role in the thymus have been conducted only in vitro. We have thus used frozen sections obtained from fetal thymuses of normal C57BL 6 mice to investigate by immunohistochemistry the presence of interleukin-1 beta (I4-1 beta), IL-2. IL-4. IL-6. interferon-7 (IFN-7) and tumour necrosis facor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The results reveal that apart from IL-2, which was not detected, all these cytokines display a time-dependent expression pattern in the normal fetal thymus. First, production of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-alpha is detected around days 13 14; this is followed by a second wave on days 16 17, with a production of IL-1 beta, IL-4 and IL-6, and finally, just before birth (day 19), by a third wave of IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-7 and TNF-alpha production. This supports the hypothesis that cytokines play a rote in T-cell lymphopoiesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8911153

  5. Differences in HCV Viral Decline between Low and Standard-Dose Pegylated-Interferon-Alpha-2a with Ribavirin in HIV/HCV Genotype 3 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Lopez-Cortes, Luis F.; Camacho, Angela; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; Pineda, Juan A.; Marquez-Solero, Manuel; Caruz, Antonio; Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Gutierrez-Valencia, Alicia; Rivero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyze the different impact of standard and low-dose Peg-IFN-α2a/RBV therapies on HCV viral decline in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients during the first weeks of treatment. Methods Plasma HCV viral decline was analyzed between baseline and weeks 1, 2 and 4 in two groups of treatment-naïve HCV genotype 3 patients with HIV co-infection. The Standard Dose Group (SDG) included patients who received Peg-IFN at 180 µg/per week with a weight-adjusted dose of ribavirin; Low-Dose Group (LDG) patients received Peg-IFN at 135 µg/per week with 800 mg/day ribavirin. The effect of IL28B genotype on HCV viral decline was evaluated in both groups. HCV viral decline was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model. Results One hundred and six patients were included: 48 patients in the SDG and 58 in the LDG. HCV viral decline for patients in the LDG was less than for those in the SDG (week 1∶1.72±0.74 log10 IU/mL versus 1.78±0.67 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.827; week 2∶2.3±0.89 log10 IU/mL versus 3.01±1.02 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.013; week 4∶3.52±1.2 log10 IU/mL versus 4.09±1.1 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.005). The linear regression model identified the Peg-IFN/RBV dose as an independent factor for HCV viral decline at week 4. Conclusions Our results showed that HCV viral decline was less for patients in the low-dose group compared to those receiving the standard dose. Until a randomized clinical trial is conducted, clinicians should be cautious about using lower doses of Peg-IFN/RBV in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients. PMID:23145040

  6. Neutralization of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha blocks in vivo synthesis of nitrogen oxides from L-arginine and protection against Francisella tularensis infection in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Green, S J; Nacy, C A; Schreiber, R D; Granger, D L; Crawford, R M; Meltzer, M S; Fortier, A H

    1993-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected C3H/HeN mice produced nitrite (NO2-, an oxidative end product of nitric oxide [NO] synthesis) and inhibited the growth of Francisella tularensis, a facultative intracellular bacterium. Both NO2- production and inhibition of bacterial growth were suppressed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a substrate inhibitor of nitrogen oxidation of L-arginine, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Intraperitoneal injection of mice with BCG increased urinary nitrate (NO3-) excretion coincident with development of activated macrophages capable of secreting nitrogen oxides and inhibiting F. tularensis growth in vitro. Eight days after BCG inoculation, mice survived a normally lethal intraperitoneal challenge with F. tularensis. Treatment of these BCG-infected mice with MAbs to IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha at the time of BCG inoculation reduced urinary NO3- levels to those found in normal uninfected mice for up to 14 days. The same anticytokine antibody treatment abolished BCG-mediated protection against F. tularensis: mice died within 4 to 6 days. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-IFN-gamma or anti-TNF-alpha antibody 8 days after BCG infection also reduced urinary NO3- and abolished protection against F. tularensis. Isotype control (immunoglobulin G) or anti-interleukin 4 MAbs had little effect on these parameters at any time of treatment. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were clearly involved in the regulation of macrophage activation by BCG in vivo. Protection against F. tularensis challenge by BCG depended upon the physiological generation of reactive nitrogen oxides induced by these cytokines. PMID:8423095

  7. Treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome with low-dose natural human interferon-alpha administered by the oral mucosal route: a phase II clinical trial. IFN Protocol Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ship, J A; Fox, P C; Michalek, J E; Cummins, M J; Richards, A B

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the safety and efficacy of four dosages of natural human interferon-alpha (nHuIFN-alpha) delivered over a 12-week period orally in lozenges (150 IU and 450 IU, once [QD] or three times [TID] daily) compared to placebo in subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome. This randomized, double-blinded clinical trial demonstrated that nHuIFN-alpha at a dose of 150 IU administered TID by oral lozenge significantly improved stimulated whole saliva output compared to placebo after 12 weeks of treatment. The 150 IU TID dose also was suggestive of benefit for 5 of 7 subjective measures of oral and ocular comfort. IFN lozenges demonstrated a good safety profile, with no serious adverse events found in any treatment group. There were no significant differences between the placebo and the four doses of IFN for adverse events by total number, organ system, severity, dropouts, and number judged to be related to treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the use of 150 IU IFN lozenges TID for 12 weeks in subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome improved salivary output and decreased complaints of xerostomia without causing significant adverse medical events. PMID:10476942

  8. INTERFERON INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases that develop as a result of interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic and environmental triggers contributing to AITD. The major environmental triggers of AITD include iodine, smoking, medications, pregnancy, and possibly stress. In this review we will focus on two well-documented environmental triggers of AITD, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon alpha (IFNa) therapy. Chronic HCV infection has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (i.e. the presence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid subjects). Moreover, IFNa therapy of chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical or clinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of cases which can be autoimmune, or non-autoimmune thyroiditis. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) in chronic HCV patients may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HCV and interferon induced thyroiditis have been well characterized, the mechanisms causing these conditions are still poorly understood. PMID:20022216

  9. Disruption by interferon-alpha of an autocrine interleukin-6 growth loop in IL-6-dependent U266 myeloma cells by homologous and heterologous down-regulation of the IL-6 receptor alpha- and beta-chains.

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, M; Brini, A T; Bosco, M C; Rubboli, F; Egawa, M; Zhao, J; Princler, G L; Kung, H F

    1994-01-01

    IL-6 is an autocrine growth factor for U266 myeloma cells and their growth is inhibited by IFN-alpha or IL-6 mAb. We asked, therefore, whether IFN-alpha-induced growth inhibition involved IL-6. IFN-alpha and mAb against IL-6, the IL-6R alpha-(gp80) or beta-chain (gp130) potently inhibited U266 cells. Remarkably, this effect occurred despite IFN-alpha-augmented secretion of endogenous IL-6. However, examining the IL-6R revealed that IFN-alpha drastically curtailed expression of the IL-6R alpha- and beta-chain. This effect occurred on two different levels (protein and mRNA) and by two different mechanisms (directly and indirectly through IL-6). First, IFN-alpha, but not IL-6, greatly decreased gp80 and, to a lesser extent, gp130 mRNA levels which resulted in a loss of IL-6 binding sites. Second, IFN-alpha-induced IL-6 predominantly down-regulated membrane-bound gp130. IFN-alpha-mediated decrease of gp80 levels was not detected on IL-6-independent myeloma (RPMI 8226) or myeloid cells (U937). We conclude that IFN-alpha inhibited IL-6-dependent myeloma cell growth by depriving U266 cells of an essential component of their autocrine growth loop, a functional IL-6R. Images PMID:7989587

  10. Predictors of Virological Response in 3,235 Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients Treated with Peginterferon Alpha-2a Compared with Peginterferon Alpha-2b Using Statistical Methods and Data Mining Techniques.

    PubMed

    El Raziky, Maissa; Fathalah, Waleed Fouad; Zakaria, Zeinab; Eldeen, Hadeel Gamal; Abul-Fotouh, Amr; Salama, Ahmed; Awad, Abubakr; Esmat, Gamal; Mabrouk, Mahasen

    2016-05-01

    Despite the appearance of new oral antiviral drugs, pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)/RBV may remain the standard of care therapy for some time, and several viral and host factors are reported to be correlated with therapeutic effects. This study aimed to reveal the independent variables associated with failure of sustained virological response (SVR) to PEG-IFN alpha-2a versus PEG-IFN alpha-2b in treatment of naive chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Egyptian patients using both statistical methods and data mining techniques. This retrospective cohort study included 3,235 chronic hepatitis C patients enrolled in a large Egyptian medical center: 1,728 patients had been treated with PEG-IFN alpha-2a plus ribavirin (RBV) and 1,507 patients with PEG-IFN alpha-2b plus RBV between 2007 and 2011. Both multivariate analysis and Reduced Error Pruning Tree (REPTree)-based model were used to reveal the independent variables associated with treatment response. In both treatment types, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >10 ng/mL and HCV viremia >600 × 10(3) IU/mL were the independent baseline variables associated with failure of SVR, while male gender, decreased hemoglobin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were the independent variables associated with good response (P < 0.05). Using REPTree-based model showed that low AFP was the factor of initial split (best predictor) of response for either PEG-IFN alpha-2a or PEG-IFN alpha-2b (cutoff value 8.53, 4.89 ng/mL, AUROC = 0.68 and 0.61, P = 0.05). Serum AFP >10 ng/mL and viral load >600 × 10(3) IU/mL are variables associated with failure of response in both treatment types. REPTree-based model could be used to assess predictors of response. PMID:26859168

  11. A case of chronic hepatitis C patient of myocardial ischemia accompanied with interstitial pneumonia induced by pegylated interferon alpha-2a

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Caihong; Zheng, Zhenda; Liu, Weimin; Jiao, Ju; Zhu, Jieming

    2014-01-01

    After 3 months of combination treatment using interferon α-2a and Ribavirin, a case of 59-year-old female patient with chronic viral hepatitis C demonstrated symptoms such as headache, dizziness accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dry cough, breathing difficulty, and shortness of breath. Dynamic electrocardiogram showed occasional atrial premature beats, paroxysmal tachycardia, and abnormal ST-T (T wave inversion and prolongation of the QT interval). Ambulatory blood pressure indicated that mean blood pressure was elevated than before. Myocardial radionuclide scan showed focal myocardial ischemia in left ventricular inferior wall. Pulmonary function tests showed that pulmonary diffusion function was decreased, indicating the possibility of interstitial pneumonia. The patient had no history of coronary heart disease or chest X-ray abnormalities before medication, but had hypertensive medical history for 8 years with good blood pressure control. After withdrawal of antiviral drugs, symptoms such as dry cough, breathing difficulty and T wave inversion were gradually relieved. This case indicated that myocardial ischemia and pulmonary lesions were associated with the application of pegylated interferon α-2a. PMID:25197402

  12. Suppression of USP18 Potentiates the Anti-HBV Activity of Interferon Alpha in HepG2.2.15 Cells via JAK/STAT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Lei, Qing-song; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Kong, Ling-na; Qin, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18, also known as UBP43) has both interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) dependent and ISG15-independent functions. By silencing the expression of USP18 in HepG2.2.15 cells, we studied the effect of USP18 on the anti-HBV activity of IFN-α and demonstrated that knockdown of USP18 significantly Inhibited the HBV expression and increased the expression of ISGs. Levels of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA and intracellular hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) were dramatically decreased with or without treatment of indicated dose of IFN-α. Suppression of USP18 activated the JAK/STAT signaling pathway as shown by the increased and prolonged expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (p-STAT1) in combination with enhanced expression of several interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). Our results indicated that USP18 modulates the anti-HBV activity of IFN-α via activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in Hepg2.2.15 cells. PMID:27227879

  13. Inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro by xanthohumol: comparisons with ribavirin and interferon-alpha and implications for the development of anti-hepatitis C virus agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Zhengwen; Han, Qunying; Chen, Jinghong; Lou, Sai; Qiu, Jianming; Zhang, Guoyu

    2009-11-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a natural compound with potential antiviral activity. In this study, the ability of XN to inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a surrogate model of hepatitis C virus (HCV), was investigated. The antiviral activity of XN was compared with that of ribavirin (RBV) and interferon (IFN)-alpha. The results showed that XN could inhibit BVDV induced cytopathic effects (CPE). At 1000 TCID(50) and 100 TCID(50), the values of 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) were 3.24+/-0.02 mg/l and 2.77+/-0.19 mg/l, respectively, and the therapeutic indices were >7.72 and >9.03, respectively. XN inhibited BVDV E2 expression and viral RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. At 6.25mg/l, XN decreased the viral RNA from released virus by 3.83 log 10 at 1000 TCID(50) and to an undetectable level at 100 TCID(50), and decreased the viral RNA level in whole cell culture by 3.36 log 10 and 2.88 log 10 at 1000 TCID(50) and 100 TCID(50), respectively. The inhibitory activity of XN on CPE, BVDV E2 expression and viral RNA levels was stronger than that of RBV and weaker than that of IFN-alpha. These results indicate the need to investigate the anti-HCV potential of XN. PMID:19720145

  14. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein elicits protection in the interferon alpha/beta receptor knock-out mouse.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lyn M; Stokes, Margaret G; Lonsdale, Stephen G; Maslowski, David R; Smither, Sophie J; Lever, Mark S; Laws, Thomas R; Perkins, Stuart D

    2014-03-01

    The resistance of adult immunocompetent mice to infection with ebolaviruses has led to the development of alternative small animal models that utilise immunodeficient mice, for example the interferon α/β receptor knock-out mouse (IFNR(-/-)). IFNR(-/-) mice have been shown to be susceptible to infection with ebolaviruses by multiple routes but it is not known if this murine model is suitable for testing therapeutics that rely on the generation of an immune response for efficacy. We have tested recombinant adenovirus vectors for their ability to protect IFNR(-/-) mice from challenge with Ebola virus and have analysed the humoral response generated after immunisation. The recombinant vaccines elicited good levels of protection in the knock-out mouse and the antibody response in IFNR(-/-) mice was similar to that observed in vaccinated wild-type mice. These results indicate that the IFNR(-/-) mouse is a relevant small animal model for studying ebolavirus-specific therapeutics.

  15. High-Throughput Profiling of Alpha Interferon- and Interleukin-28B-Regulated MicroRNAs and Identification of let-7s with Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Activity by Targeting IGF2BP1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Min; Si, Youhui; Niu, Yuqiang; Liu, Xiuying; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of severe liver disease. Interferon (IFN)/ribavirin treatment remains the standard therapeutic regimen for HCV infection in most countries. IFN-stimulated genes are believed to contribute to antiviral effects. However, emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding small RNAs, are involved in the control of viral infection. Here, we systematically profiled the hepatocyte expression of a set of 750 miRNAs in response to alpha interferon (IFN-α) and interleukin-28B (IL-28B) treatments. The anti-HCV activity of differentially expressed miRNAs was evaluated using cell culture-derived HCV in vitro. The results demonstrate that let-7b had a significant anti-HCV effect by inhibiting HCV replication and viral protein translation in human hepatoma cells. In particular, we show that the inhibition of let-7b attenuated the anti-HCV effects of IFN-α and IL-28B. Furthermore, we show that the host factor insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) is a target of let-7b. IGF2BP1 was required for HCV replication, and its expression was downregulated by IFN-α and IL-28B. Deletion of the wild-type seed region of let-7b abolished its antiviral activity. Finally, we demonstrate that other let-7 family miRNAs were able to inhibit HCV and to suppress IGF2BP1 expression. In conclusion, we provide an example of a host miRNA regulated by type I and type III IFNs that inhibits HCV replication and infectivity by targeting host targets. These results highlight the important role of miRNAs in the host antiviral immune response and provide a novel candidate for anti-HCV therapy. PMID:23824794

  16. Molecular Complexation and Phase Diagrams of Urea/PEG Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guoepeng; Kyu, Thein

    2014-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and urea complexation has been known to form a stable crystal due to molecular complexation. The effect of molecular weight of PEG on the phase diagrams of its blends with urea has been explored. In the case of high molecular weight PEG8k/urea, the observed phase diagram is azeotrope, accompanied by eutectoid reactions in the submerged phases such as induced stable ``alpha'' phase crystals and metastable ``beta'' phase crystals. The metastable crystal can transform to stable crystal under a certain thermal annealing condition. However, the phase diagram of PEG1k/urea is of coexistence loop, whereas PEG400/urea exhibits eutectic character. Subsequently, the change of azeotrope to eutectic behavior with PEG molecular weight is analyzed in the context of the combined Flory-Huggins theory of liquid-liquid demixing and phase field theory of crystal solidification. Of particular interest is that only a very small urea amount (2 wt%) is needed to form a stable inclusion crystal via complexation with PEG. Potential application in lithium battery is discussed based on AC impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070.

  17. [Interferons and autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2013-11-01

    Interferons are widely expressed cytokines that have potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. Type I interferons show complex biology; in some cases, they promote autoimmunity and inflammation, and in other cases, exhibit homeostatic functions by controlling inflammation and tissue destruction. This complexity is exemplified in the 2 major autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, in which type I interferons play an important role in the pathogenesis, and multiple sclerosis, in which interferon beta, a type I interferon, exhibits protective and therapeutic roles. This article reviews the basic clinical data on type I interferons in autoimmune diseases and type I interferons as potential targets for therapies in autoimmune diseases.

  18. Long-term stabilization of a new freeze-dried and albumin-free formulation of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Llamil; Reyes, Nuria; Sotolongo, Jorge; Aroche, Kethia; Aldana, Raymersy; Báez, Reynier; Hardy, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the stability of a new freeze-dried and albumin-free formulation of recombinant human IFN alpha 2b (rhIFN-alpha2b) to be used in humans. The freeze-dried, albumin-free formulation was stored at the recommended temperature of 4 degrees C, and under accelerated storage conditions (28 degrees C). The stability of this product was also compared with the stability of a liquid albumin-free formulation of this cytokine. Finally, the stability of the freeze-dried albumin-free formulation was examined after reconstitution and storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature (28 degrees C) for 30 days. Samples were periodically subjected to biological activity assay (antiviral titration), reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), pyrogens, sterility and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, abnormal toxicity screening, organoleptic evaluation, and measurement of residual moisture and pH. Accelerated storage (28 degrees C) data for the freeze-dried albumin-free formulation showed biochemical stability of the active ingredient throughout the 6-month study, showing activity between 85 and 125% of its nominal value. RP-HPLC-determined purity showed that rhIFN-alpha2b remained above 95%. Additionally, the formulation was non-pyrogenic, non-toxic, sterile, and organoleptically acceptable. The real-time storage data confirmed the good biochemical long-term (30 months) stability of the freeze-dried formulation of this cytokine. Comparison with the liquid rhIFN-alpha2b albumin-free preparation showed that the freeze-dried albumin-free formulation maintained the stability of the active ingredient better than the liquid preparation. The formulation was also stable after reconstitution and storage at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C, for 30 days.

  19. Identification of Alpha Interferon-Induced Genes Associated with Antiviral Activity in Daudi Cells and Characterization of IFIT3 as a Novel Antiviral Gene ▿

    PubMed Central

    Schmeisser, H.; Mejido, J.; Balinsky, C. A.; Morrow, A. N.; Clark, C. R.; Zhao, T.; Zoon, K. C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel assay was developed for Daudi cells in which the antiviral (AV) and antiproliferative (AP) activities of interferon (IFN) can be measured simultaneously. Using this novel assay, conditions allowing IFN AV protection but no growth inhibition were identified and selected. Daudi cells were treated under these conditions, and gene expression microarray analyses were performed. The results of the analysis identified 25 genes associated with IFN-α AV activity. Upregulation of 23 IFN-induced genes was confirmed by using reverse transcription-PCR. Of 25 gene products, 17 were detected by Western blotting at 24 h. Of the 25 genes, 10 have not been previously linked to AV activity of IFN-α. The most upregulated gene was IFIT3 (for IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3). The results from antibody neutralizing experiments suggested an association of the identified genes with IFN-α AV activity. This association was strengthened by results from IFIT3-small interfering RNA transfection experiments showing decreased expression of IFIT3 and a reduction in the AV activity induced by IFN-α. Overexpression of IFIT3 resulted in a decrease of virus titer. Transcription of AV genes after the treatment of cells with higher concentrations of IFN having an AP effect on Daudi cells suggested pleiotropic functions of identified gene products. PMID:20686046

  20. Ways to manage hepatitis C without cirrhosis: Treatment by comparison of coded eastern medicine hepcinal with interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Allah; Nazar, Halima; Usmanghani, Khan; Sheikh, Zeeshan Ahmed; Chishti, Muhammad Amjad; Ahmad, Irshad

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious and significant global health problem in the Pakistan and elsewhere. In majority of cases HCV infection remains asymptomatic but in advance cases it may progress to fibrosis of liver, shrinkage of liver cells or failure of liver. The hepatitis C may progress to cause liver cirrhosis that mostly develop in 20% of the affected patients in 20 years with an increased risk in male, alcoholic drink, immune-compromised and who acquire HCV infection after the age of 40 years. This was an open-label prospective study conducted on 66 clinically and immunologically diagnosed cases of HCV infection. In Hepcinal treated group, there were significant improvement in HCV associated symptoms compared to control group (p<0.05). While Interferon therapy resulted in significant improvement in serological response (55.88%) compared to Hepcinal treated patients (46.88%). It was concluded that Hepcinal has shown better clinical response but no significant serological response (p=0.3244) and it might be an alternative therapy to treat hepatitis C infection and to prevent its progression into chronic ailment.

  1. Arsenic trioxide and interferon-alpha synergize to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Bazarbachi, A; El-Sabban, M E; Nasr, R; Quignon, F; Awaraji, C; Kersual, J; Dianoux, L; Zermati, Y; Haidar, J H; Hermine, O; de Thé, H

    1999-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). ATL is an aggressive proliferation of mature activated T cells associated with a poor prognosis. The combination of the antiviral agents, zidovudine (AZT) and interferon (IFN), is a potent treatment of ATL. Recently, arsenic trioxide (As) was shown to be an effective treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We have tested the effects of the combination of As and IFN on cell proliferation, cell cycle phases distribution, and apoptosis in ATL-derived or control T-cell lines. A high synergistic effect between IFN and As was observed in ATL-derived cell lines in comparison to the control cell lines, with a dramatic inhibition of cell proliferation, G1 arrest, and induction of apoptosis. Similar results were obtained with fresh leukemia cells derived from an ATL patient. Although the mechanisms involved are unclear, these results could provide a rational basis for combined As and IFN treatments in ATL. PMID:9864171

  2. Antimicrobial preservatives induce aggregation of interferon alpha-2a: the order in which preservatives induce protein aggregation is independent of the protein.

    PubMed

    Bis, Regina L; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2014-09-10

    Antimicrobial preservatives (APs) are included in liquid multi-dose protein formulations to combat the growth of microbes and bacteria. These compounds have been shown to cause protein aggregation, which leads to serious immunogenic and toxic side-effects in patients. Our earlier work on a model protein cytochrome c (Cyt c) demonstrated that APs cause protein aggregation in a specific manner. The aim of this study is to validate the conclusions obtained from our model protein studies on a pharmaceutical protein. Interferon α-2a (IFNA2) is available as a therapeutic treatment for numerous immune-compromised disorders including leukemia and hepatitis C, and APs have been used in its multi-dose formulation. Similar to Cyt c, APs induced IFNA2 aggregation, demonstrated by the loss of soluble monomer and increase in solution turbidity. The extent of IFNA2 aggregation increased with the increase in AP concentration. IFNA2 aggregation also depended on the nature of AP, and followed the order m-cresol>phenol>benzyl alcohol>phenoxyethanol. This specific order exactly matched with that observed for the model protein Cyt c. These and previously published results on antibodies and other recombinant proteins suggest that the general mechanism by which APs induce protein aggregation may be independent of the protein.

  3. Ways to manage hepatitis C without cirrhosis: Treatment by comparison of coded eastern medicine hepcinal with interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Allah; Nazar, Halima; Usmanghani, Khan; Sheikh, Zeeshan Ahmed; Chishti, Muhammad Amjad; Ahmad, Irshad

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious and significant global health problem in the Pakistan and elsewhere. In majority of cases HCV infection remains asymptomatic but in advance cases it may progress to fibrosis of liver, shrinkage of liver cells or failure of liver. The hepatitis C may progress to cause liver cirrhosis that mostly develop in 20% of the affected patients in 20 years with an increased risk in male, alcoholic drink, immune-compromised and who acquire HCV infection after the age of 40 years. This was an open-label prospective study conducted on 66 clinically and immunologically diagnosed cases of HCV infection. In Hepcinal treated group, there were significant improvement in HCV associated symptoms compared to control group (p<0.05). While Interferon therapy resulted in significant improvement in serological response (55.88%) compared to Hepcinal treated patients (46.88%). It was concluded that Hepcinal has shown better clinical response but no significant serological response (p=0.3244) and it might be an alternative therapy to treat hepatitis C infection and to prevent its progression into chronic ailment. PMID:27166535

  4. MONOCYTE CHEMOTACTIC PROTEIN AND RESPONSE TO PEGYLATED INTERFERON-ALPHA-2A TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C (CHC) GENOTYPE 4.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal A; Sayed, Ola; Ali, Omnia E; Sayed, Ghadir A; Moustfa, Zainab; Elagawy, Waleed Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies across the world, with the highest number of infections reported in Egypt. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine, and its hepatic expression is up-regulated during chronic HCV infection. Fifty naive patients with chronic hepatitis C in National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute and 20 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in a prospective study designed with strict inclusion criteria to nullify the effect of confounding variables and further minimize selection bias. Fifty naive patients were treated with PEG-IFN-a2b, at a dose of 1801 g/kg subcutaneously every week plus ribavirin at a dose of 1000- 1200 mg/day, according to the patient's body weight, for 48 weeks. Quantification of HCV-RNA by real-time PCR and MCP-1 by ELISA were performed for every patient and controls. There was a sta- tistically significant difference between patients and control group as regards the quantity of MCP-1 (P < 0.05) (Mann-Whitney test) (P = 0.004). There was a significant difference between responders and nonresponses regarding MCP-1 (P < 0.05), responders showed a higher percentage of cases with initial MCP-1 < 306 (P < 0.05). We conclude the importance of the detection of MCP-1 expression at the start of therapy as a factor for assessing the likelihood of HCV genotype 4 patients to achieving a sustained virological response to treatment with IFN-a2 in combination with ribavirin. PMID:27363047

  5. Detection of anti-Ro, La, Smith and RNP autoantibodies by autoantigen microarray analysis and interferon-alpha induction in juvenile dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Balboni, Imelda; Niewold, Timothy B.; Morgan, Gabrielle; Limb, Cindy; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Rönnblom, Lars; Utz, Paul J.; Pachman, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity in the context of autoantibody profiles in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Methods Sera from 36 JDM patients were analyzed. Autoantibody profiles were determined by probing microarrays, fabricated with ~80 distinct autoantigens, with serum and a Cy3-conjugated secondary antibody. Arrays were scanned and analyzed to determine antigen reactivity. Serum IFNα activity was measured using a functional reporter cell assay. Sera were assayed alone or in combination with cellular material released from necrotic U937 cells to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors in vitro, and IFNα production in culture was measured by a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA). Results Reactivity against at least 1 of 41 autoantigens on the microarray, including Ro 52, Ro 60, La, Sm, and RNP, was observed in 75% of the serum samples from patients with JDM. IFNα activity was detected in 7 samples by reporter cell assay. The reporter cell assay showed a significant association of reactivity against Ro, La, Sm, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen with serum IFNα activity (P = 0.005). Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) identified increased reactivity against Sm, RNP, Ro 52, U1-C, and Mi-2 in these sera. Sixteen samples induced IFNα production as measured by DELFIA, and there was a significant association of reactivity against Ro, La, Sm, and RNP with the induction of IFNα by serum and necrotic cell material (P = 0.034). SAM identified increased reactivity against Ro 60 in these sera. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that nucleic acid–associated autoantibodies, including the Ro/La and Sm/RNP complexes, may stimulate the production of active IFNα in children with JDM. PMID:23740815

  6. Innate Immune Responses and Rapid Control of Inflammation in African Green Monkeys Treated or Not with Interferon-Alpha during Primary SIVagm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jacquelin, Béatrice; Petitjean, Gaël; Kunkel, Désirée; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Jochems, Simon P.; Rogers, Kenneth A.; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Madec, Yoann; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Lebon, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Villinger, François; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic immune activation (IA) is considered as the driving force of CD4+ T cell depletion and AIDS. Fundamental clues in the mechanisms that regulate IA could lie in natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys (AGMs). Here we investigated the role of innate immune cells and IFN-α in the control of IA in AGMs. AGMs displayed significant NK cell activation upon SIVagm infection, which was correlated with the levels of IFN-α. Moreover, we detected cytotoxic NK cells in lymph nodes during the early acute phase of SIVagm infection. Both plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell (pDC and mDC) homing receptors were increased, but the maturation of mDCs, in particular of CD16+ mDCs, was more important than that of pDCs. Monitoring of 15 cytokines showed that those, which are known to be increased early in HIV-1/SIVmac pathogenic infections, such as IL-15, IFN-α, MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10, were significantly increased in AGMs as well. In contrast, cytokines generally induced in the later stage of acute pathogenic infection, such as IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α, were less or not increased, suggesting an early control of IA. We then treated AGMs daily with high doses of IFN-α from day 9 to 24 post-infection. No impact was observed on the activation or maturation profiles of mDCs, pDCs and NK cells. There was also no major difference in T cell activation or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression profiles and no sign of disease progression. Thus, even after administration of high levels of IFN-α during acute infection, AGMs were still able to control IA, showing that IA control is independent of IFN-α levels. This suggests that the sustained ISG expression and IA in HIV/SIVmac infections involves non-IFN-α products. PMID:24991927

  7. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus by D-fraction from Grifola frondosa: synergistic effect of combination with interferon-alpha in HepG2 2.2.15.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chang-Qing; Li, JunWen; Li, Jun-Wen; Chao, Fu-Huan

    2006-11-01

    In this study, D-fraction extracted from Grifola frondosa (GF-D) and its combination with human interferon alpha-2b (IFN) were investigated for the inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HepG2 2.2.15 cells (2.2.15 cells). HBV DNA and viral antigens were analyzed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and end-point titration in radioimmunoassays, respectively. The results showed that GF-D or IFN alone could inhibit HBV DNA in 2.2.15 cells with the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.59 mg/ml and 1399 IU/ml, respectively. We further investigated the combination of GF-D and IFN for anti-HBV activity and found that they synergistically inhibited HBV replication in 2.2.15 cells. In combination with 0.45 mg/ml GF-D, the apparent IC50 value for IFN was 154 IU/ml. This 9-fold increase in antiviral activity of IFN suggested that GF-D could synergize with IFN. These results indicate that GF-D, in combination with IFN, might provide a potentially effective therapy against chronic HBV infections.

  8. Quantitative analysis of interferon alpha receptor subunit 1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 gene transcription in blood cells of patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Interferon (IFN)-α receptor 1 (ifnar1) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (socs1) transcription levels were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 59 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 17 non-infected individuals. Samples were obtained from patients infected with HCV that were either untreated or treated with IFN-α2 plus ribavirin for 1 year and divided into responders and non-responders based on viral load reduction 6 months after treatment. Ifnar1 and socs1 transcription was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and the fold difference (2-ΔΔCT) with respect to hprt housekeeping gene was calculated. Results Ifnar1 transcription increased significantly in HCV-infected patients either untreated (3.26 ± 0.31), responders (3.1 ± 0.23) and non-responders (2.18 ± 0.23) with respect to non-infected individuals (1 ± 0.34; P = 0.005). Ifnar1 transcription increased significantly (P = 0.003) in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1a (4.74 ± 0.25) and 1b (2.81 ± 0.25) but not in 1a1b (1.58 ± 0.21). No association was found of Ifnar1 transcription with disease progress, initial viral load or other clinical factors. With respect to socs1 transcription, values were similar for non-infected individuals (1 ± 0.28) and untreated patients (0.99 ± 0.41) but increased in responders (2.81 ± 0.17) and non-responder patients (1.67 ± 0.41). Difference between responder and non-responder patients was not statistically significant. Socs1 transcription increased in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1a and 1b (2.87 ± 0.45 and 2.22 ± 0.17, respectively) but not in 1a1b (1.28 ± 0.40). Socs1 transcript was absent in three patients infected with HCV genotype 1b. A weak correlation between ifnar1 and socs1 transcription was found, when Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated. Conclusion Our results suggest that HCV infection may up-regulate ifnar1 transcription. HCV genotypes differ in their capacity to affect ifnar1 and

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of a new formulation containing synergistic proportions of interferons alpha-2b and gamma (HeberPAG®) in patients with mycosis fungoides: an open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The synergistic combination of interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and IFN gamma results in more potent in vitro biological effects mediated by both IFNs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate by first time the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this combination in patients with mycosis fungoides. Methods An exploratory, prospective, open-label clinical trial was conducted. Twelve patients, both genders, 18 to 75 years-old, with mycosis fungoides at stages IB to III, were eligible for the study. All of them received intramuscularly a single high dose (23 × 106 IU) of a novel synergistic IFN mixture (HeberPAG®) for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Serum IFN alpha-2b and IFN gamma concentrations were measured during 96 hours by commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA) specific for each IFN. Other blood IFN-inducible markers and laboratory variables were used as pharmacodynamics and safety criteria. Results The pharmacokinetic evaluation by EIA yielded a similar pattern for both IFNs that are also in agreement with the well-known described profiles for these molecules when these are administered separately. The average values for main parameters were: Cmax: 263 and 9.3 pg/mL; Tmax: 9.5 and 6.9 h; AUC: 4483 and 87.5 pg.h/mL, half-life (t1/2): 4.9 and 13.4 h; mean residence time (MRT): 13.9 and 13.5 h, for serum IFN alpha-2b and IFN gamma, respectively. The pharmacodynamic variables were strongly stimulated by simultaneous administration of both IFNs: serum neopterin and beta-2 microglobulin levels (β2M), and stimulation of 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1) mRNA expression. The most encouraging data was the high increment of serum neopterin, 8.0 ng/mL at 48 h, not been described before for any unmodified or pegylated IFN. Additionally, β2M concentration doubled the pre-dose value at 24–48 hours. For both variables the values remained clearly upper baseline levels at 96 hours. Conclusions HeberPAG®possesses improved

  10. Reversible myopathy during successful treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for acute hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Golstein, P E; Delforge, M L; Deviere, J; Marcellin, P

    2004-03-01

    There is no standard approved treatment for acute hepatitis C and the combination of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin, currently recognized as the standard of care for chronic hepatitis C, has not been evaluated for acute hepatitis C. Adverse events induced by interferon therapy are numerous but myopathy is rare and has not been described with the use of pegylated interferon-alpha. We report the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian man who was successfully treated for acute hepatitis C with the combination of pegylated interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin, and who during treatment developed myopathy which proved reversible.

  11. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  12. Immunizing and curative potential of replicating and nonreplicating murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells engineered with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma-interferon gene or admixed with conventional adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Allione, A; Consalvo, M; Nanni, P; Lollini, P L; Cavallo, F; Giovarelli, M; Forni, M; Gulino, A; Colombo, M P; Dellabona, P

    1994-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of vaccinations with cytokine-gene-transduced tumor cells, BALB/c mice were challenged with 1 x 10(5) parental cells of a syngeneic adenocarcinoma cell line (TSA-pc). No protection was observed in mice immunized 30 days earlier with 1 x 10(5) nonreplicating mitomycin-C-treated TSA-pc alone, or with Corynebacterium parvum or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA). Ten to 30% of mice immunized with nonreplicating cells engineered to produce interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma-interferon gene were protected. Fifty % of mice immunized with replicating TSA-pc admixed with C. parvum and 80-100% of mice immunized with replicating tumor cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10, or gamma-interferon gene were protected. No cure was afforded by TSA cells admixed with C. parvum or CFA, nor by TSA cells engineered with IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene injected starting 1 day after TSA-pc challenge. Complete tumor regression, however, was obtained in 10-20% of mice treated with TSA cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, or IL-10 and in 30% of those treated with TSA cells transduced with gamma-interferon gene. PMID:7954438

  13. Gamma Interferon Augments Macrophage Activation by Lipopolysaccharide by Two Distinct Mechanisms, at the Signal Transduction Level and via an Autocrine Mechanism Involving Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Held, Thomas K.; Weihua, Xiao; Yuan, Liang; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.; Cross, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    When given in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), otherwise nontoxic doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin) become highly lethal for mice. The mechanisms of this synergistic toxicity are not known. We considered the possibility that an interaction between the LPS-induced NF-κB and IFN-γ-induced JAK-STAT pathways at the pretranscriptional level may enhance the LPS-induced signals. To test this hypothesis, we incubated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with IFN-γ for 2 h before addition of different doses of LPS. Consistent with the synergistic induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and nitric oxide production by a combination of LPS and IFN-γ, IFN-γ strongly augmented LPS-induced NF-κB activation and accelerated the binding of NF-κB to DNA to as early as 5 min. In agreement with this, IFN-γ pretreatment promoted rapid degradation of IκB-α but not that of IκB-β. Inhibition of protein synthesis during IFN-γ treatment suppressed LPS-initiated NF-κB binding. A rapidly induced protein appeared to be involved in IFN-γ priming. Preincubation of cells with antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha or the interleukin-1 receptor partially reduced the priming effect of IFN-γ. In a complementary manner, LPS enhanced the activation of signal-transducing activator of transcription 1 by IFN-γ. These data suggest novel mechanisms for the synergy between IFN-γ and LPS by which they cross-regulate the signal-transducing molecules. Through this mechanism, IFN-γ may transform a given dose of LPS into a lethal stimulus capable of causing sepsis. It may also serve a beneficial purpose by enabling the host to respond quickly to relatively low doses of LPS and thereby activating antibacterial defenses. PMID:9864217

  14. Adjuvant treatment with interleukin-2- and interferon-alpha2a-based chemoimmunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma post tumour nephrectomy: Results of a prospectively randomised Trial of the German Cooperative Renal Carcinoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (DGCIN)

    PubMed Central

    Atzpodien, J; Schmitt, E; Gertenbach, U; Fornara, P; Heynemann, H; Maskow, A; Ecke, M; Wöltjen, H H; Jentsch, H; Wieland, W; Wandert, T; Reitz, M

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a prospectively randomised clinical trial to investigate the role of adjuvant outpatient immunochemotherapy administered postoperatively in high-risk patients with renal cell carcinoma. In total, 203 renal carcinoma patients' status post radical tumour nephrectomy were stratified into three risk groups: patients with tumour extending into renal vein/vena cava or invading beyond Gerota's fascia (pT3b/c pN0 or pT4pN0), patients with locoregional lymph node infiltration (pN+), and patients after complete resection of tumour relapse or solitary metastasis (R0). Patients were randomised to undergo either (A) 8 weeks of outpatient subcutaneous interleukin-2 (sc-rIL-2), subcutaneous interferon-alpha2a (sc-rIFN-α2a), and intravenous 5-fluorouracil (iv-5-FU) according to the standard Atzpodien regimen (Atzpodien et al, 2004) or (B) observation. Two-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 81, 58, and 58% in the treatment arm, and 91, 76, and 66% in the observation arm (log rank P=0.0278), with a median follow-up of 4.3 years. Two, 5-, and 8-year relapse-free survival rates were calculated at 54, 42, and 39% in the treatment arm, and at 62, 49, and 49% in the observation arm (log rank P=0.2398). Stage-adapted subanalyses revealed no survival advantages of treatment over observation, as well. Our results established that there was no relapse-free survival benefit and the overall survival was inferior with an adjuvant 8-week-outpatient sc-rIL-2/sc-rIFN-α2a/iv-5-FU-based immunochemotherapy compared to observation in high-risk renal cell carcinoma patients following radical tumour nephrectomy. PMID:15756254

  15. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediate the upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and the induction of depressive-like behavior in mice in response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jason C; André, Caroline; Wang, Yunxia; Lawson, Marcus A; Szegedi, Sandra S; Lestage, Jacques; Castanon, Nathalie; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Although the tryptophan-degrading enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is a pivotal mediator of inflammation-induced depression, its mechanism of regulation has not yet been investigated in this context. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for interferon (IFN)gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in the induction of IDO and depressive-like behaviors in response to chronic immune activation. Wild-type (WT) control mice and IFNgammaR(-/-) mice were inoculated with an attenuated form of Mycobacterium bovis, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Infection with BCG induced an acute episode of sickness that was similar in WT and IFNgammaR(-/-) mice. Increased immobility during the forced swim and tail suspension tests occurred in WT mice 7 d after BCG inoculation but was entirely absent in IFNgammaR(-/-) mice. In WT mice, these indices of depressive-like behavior were associated with chronic upregulation of IFNgamma, interleukin(IL)-1beta, TNFalpha, and IDO. Proinflammatory cytokine expression was elevated in BCG-infected IFNgammaR(-/-) mice as well, but upregulation of lung and brain IDO mRNA was completely abolished. This was accompanied by an attenuation of BCG-induced TNFalpha mRNA and the lack of an increase in plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in the BCG-inoculated IFNgammaR(-/-) mice compared with WT controls. Pretreatment of mice with the TNFalpha antagonist, etanercept, partially blunted BCG-induced IDO activation and depressive-like behavior. In accordance with these in vivo data, IFNgamma and TNFalpha synergized to induce IDO in primary microglia. Together, these data demonstrate that IFNgamma, with TNFalpha, is necessary for induction of IDO and depressive-like behavior in mice after BCG infection. PMID:19339614

  16. Inhibited interferon production after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.

  17. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  18. Neovascularization within porous PEG hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yu-Chieh

    The goal of this work described was to develop techniques that can be used to enhance vascularized tissue formation in PEG-based hydrogels. In the first part of the study a technique was developed to generate porous PEG hydrogels using a salt leaching technique. This technique was then used to examine the role of pore size on vascularization and tissue remodeling in porous PEG hydrogel in vitro and in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that vessel invasion was pore size dependent. In addition, a thin layer of inflammatory tissue was observed between PEG hydrogel and blood vessels that formed within the gels. The porous PEG hydrogels were very stable in vitro and in vivo and did not exhibit any signs of degradation. Hydrogels used in tissue engineering need to exhibit controlled degradation. In order to address the stability of PEG hydrogels, porous hydrogels were rendered using degradable PEG-co-(L-Lactic acid) diacrylate PEG-PLLA-DA. This polymer is degraded via hydrolysis of the PLLA chains. The hydrogels were found to exhibit autofluorescence that allowed for the unique ability to nondestructively image hydrogel structure under fully swelled conditions using confocal microscopy. Interestingly, pore size remained stable though out the study, and was not a function of degradation. In addition, degradation time of porous PEG-LLA-DA hydrogels was influenced by polymer concentration. Compressive modulus was a function of polymer concentration and pore size and decreased during hydrogel degradation. The incorporation of cell adhesion sequences into the hydrogel showed that they can support cell adhesion with morphology varying with pore size. This technique could be used to tailor porous biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In the final portion of this thesis a poly-lysine (PLL) molecule was synthesized in order to allow clustering of adhesion sequences in PEG hydrogels. Clusters of peptide sequences have been shown to enhance cell

  19. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent.

  20. [Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukins 2, 4 and 6 (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6) in cervical-uterine cells of intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Pardo-Govea, Tatiana; Callejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Costa, Luciana; Pons, Héctor; Delgado, Mariela; Monsalve, Francisca

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the expression of type Th1 cytokines: IL-2 and IFNgamma, and Th2: IL-4 and IL-6, as well as TNF-alpha in patients with precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with the human papiloma virus (HPV). 30 patients with precancerous lesions (NIC 1: 70%, NIC 2: 16.7% and NIC 3: 1.3%) and 9 normal controls were studied. A clinical history, gynecological evaluation, cytology and an uterine biopsy were carried out in each patient and control. PCR was used for the diagnosis of HPV. IFN-gamma expression (positive cells/field) was increased in patients with NIC (5.06 +/- 4.7 vs 0 in the control group; p < 0.05). TNFa was a little higher in pathologycal tissues than in the controls (5.23 +/- 3.63 vs 1.55 +/- 2.65; p < 0.05). IL-2 was higher in pathologycal cases than in the controls (8.73 +/- 5.23 vs 0.33 +/- 1, p < 0.05). IL-4 were expressed in both, patients and controls (6.53 +/- 5.23 vs 5.77 +/- 7.32). IL-6 was also higher in patients (4.63 +/- 3.34 vs 0.77 +/- 2.33; p < 0.05). When the HPV status was considered, only IFN-gamma (p < 0.05) and IL-2 (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in HPV positive patients (n = 4) compared to controls. When HPV+ patients were compared with HPV- patients, only IFNgamma was significant (11.5 +/- 5 vs 4.07 +/- 3.8; p < 0.05). In conclusion, Type Th1 immune response prevails in patients with precancerous lesions, whether they are HPV positive or not.

  1. Relaxations of light scattering in mixture of PEG-PDMS-PEG triblock polymer with water in oil nano-droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Soheil

    2015-05-01

    The effect of a triblock oil soluble polymer (PEG-PDMS-PEG) on the properties of water-in-oil (W/O) droplet microemulsion ( R ˜ 7.5 nm) has been studied as a function of the amount of added polymer. Macroscopically one observes a substantial increase of viscosity with increase of polymer concentration that it is surpassed and effective cross-linking of the droplets takes place. SAXS measurements show that the size of the droplets is not changed by the polymer addition but it induces repulsive interactions ones at high polymer content. One fast (alpha relaxation) and two slow relaxations (beta and gamma relaxations) were observed in mixture system by Quasielastic light scattering (QLS). At high polymer content the network formation leads to slowdown of beta and gamma relaxations in QLS and increase in the motion of alpha. Moreover, the increasing of midblock length of polymer in mixture systems can increasing the different between slow and fast relaxation.

  2. Treatment Extension of Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Does Not Improve SVR in Patients with Genotypes 2/3 without Rapid Virological Response (OPTEX Trial): A Prospective, Randomized, Two-Arm, Multicentre Phase IV Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Benjamin; Cordes, Hans-Jörg; Klinker, Hartwig; Möller, Bernd; Naumann, Uwe; Rössle, Martin; Kraus, Michael R.; Böker, Klaus H.; Roggel, Christoph; Schuchmann, Marcus; Stoehr, Albrecht; Trein, Andreas; Hardtke, Svenja; Gonnermann, Andrea; Koch, Armin; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P.; Cornberg, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Although sofosbuvir has been approved for patients with genotypes 2/3 (G2/3), many parts of the world still consider pegylated Interferon alpha (P) and ribavirin (R) as standard of care for G2/3. Patients with rapid virological response (RVR) show response rates >80%. However, SVR (sustained virological response) in non-RVR patients is not satisfactory. Longer treatment duration may be required but evidence from prospective trials are lacking. A total of 1006 chronic HCV genotype 2/3 patients treated with P/R were recruited into a German HepNet multicenter screening registry. Of those, only 226 patients were still HCV RNA positive at week 4 (non-RVR). Non-RVR patients with ongoing response after 24 weeks P-2b/R qualified for OPTEX, a randomized trial investigating treatment extension of additional 24 weeks (total 48 weeks, Group A) or additional 12 weeks (total 36 weeks, group B) of 1.5 μg/kg P-2b and 800-1400 mg R. Due to the low number of patients without RVR, the number of 150 anticipated study patients was not met and only 99 non-RVR patients (n=50 Group A, n=49 Group B) could be enrolled into the OPTEX trial. Baseline factors did not differ between groups. Sixteen patients had G2 and 83 patients G3. Based on the ITT (intention-to-treat) analysis, 68% [55%; 81%] in Group A and 57% [43%; 71%] in Group B achieved SVR (p= 0.31). The primary endpoint of better SVR rates in Group A compared to a historical control group (SVR 70%) was not met. In conclusion, approximately 23% of G2/3 patients did not achieve RVR in a real world setting. However, subsequent recruitment in a treatment-extension study was difficult. Prolonged therapy beyond 24 weeks did not result in higher SVR compared to a historical control group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803309 PMID:26057627

  3. Recombinant DNA products: Insulin, interferon and growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Bollon, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides the discussion of products of biotechnology of recombinant DNA. The contents include: Recombinant DNA techniques; isolation, cloning, and expression of genes; from somatostatin to human insulin; yeast; an alternative organism for foreign protein production; background in human interferon; preclinical assessment of biological properties of recombinant DNA derived human interferons; human clinical trials of bacteria-derived human ..cap alpha.. interferon.f large scale production of human alpha interferon from bacteria; direct expression of human growth hormone in escherichia coli with the lipoprotein promoter; biological actions in humans of recombinant DNA synthesized human growth hormone; NIH guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA molecules; appendix; viral vectors and the NHY guidelines; FDA's role in approval and regulation of recombinant DNA drugs; and index.

  4. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  5. Links between innate and adaptive immunity via type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Tough, David F

    2002-08-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) is expressed rapidly following exposure to a wide variety of infectious agents and plays a key role in innate control of virus replication. Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells both produce IFN-alpha/beta and undergo maturation in response to IFN-alpha/beta. Moreover, IFN-alpha/beta has been shown to potently enhance immune responses in vivo through the stimulation of dendritic cells. These findings indicate that IFN-alpha/beta serves as a signal linking innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:12088676

  6. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  7. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  8. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  9. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  10. Radiosensitization of human bronchogenic carcinoma cells by interferon beta

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, M.N.; Kakria, R.C.; Olson, S.; Borden, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of interferons on the radiosensitivity of in vitro human bronchogenic carcinoma cells was investigated. Human fibroblast-derived interferon (IFN-beta) was found to sensitize cells to gamma irradiation while either HuIFN-alpha or mouse IFN-alpha/beta did not. The observed radiosensitization was supra-additive and resulted in a decrease in the shoulder width of the radiation dose-cell survival curve but did not affect the slope. The degree of radiosensitization of the various IFNs tested paralleled the antiproliferative effects of these IFNs on this cell line.

  11. The Role of Consensus Interferon in the Current Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Eleanor N.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Hassanein, Tarek

    2008-01-01

    The current standard-of-care for chronic hepatitis C viral infection is treatment with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) plus ribavirin for 24 to 48 weeks. Approximately 50% of HCV-infected patients achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) to this treatment. However, the remaining patients either respond during treatment but relapse upon treatment cessation, respond minimally, or do not respond at all. Much research effort has been expended in attempting to predict those patients who will achieve viral eradication with PegIFN/ribavirin treatment, and it is now clear that those who have either a rapid virologic response (RVR) by week 4 of treatment or a complete early virologic response (cEVR, HCV RNA qualitative negative) by week 12 will go on to achieve SVR at very high rates (70%–90%). Several trials have been completed in patients that fail to achieve RVR or cEVR. These trials include strategies of extending duration of therapy, induction regimens, or retreatment with similar and dissimilar alfa interferons. A recent study of 696 genotype 1 patients treated with both PegIFN and weight-based ribavirin revealed that only 1.6% (4/246) of patients without RVR or cEVR achieved SVR. Consensus interferon, a wholly synthetic interferonalfa, is one of the agents that has been utilized in patients that fail treatment with PegIFN/ribavirin. This molecule has been demonstrated to have a very high affinity for the interferon-alfa receptor, and laboratory studies have demonstrated that it has high levels of antiviral activity. In order to optimally utilize consensus interferon, it is important to understand its unique mechanism of action. In addition, the latest research showing the importance of achieving RVR or cEVR should be reviewed, along with strategies for utilizing consensus interferon in re-treatment, or more specifically upon identification of on-treatment failure in historically difficult-to-treat patients. PMID:23329909

  12. The role of consensus interferon in the current treatment of chronic hepatitis C viral infection.

    PubMed

    Fish, Eleanor N; Harrison, Stephen A; Hassanein, Tarek

    2008-09-01

    The current standard-of-care for chronic hepatitis C viral infection is treatment with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) plus ribavirin for 24 to 48 weeks. Approximately 50% of HCV-infected patients achieve a sustained viral response (SVR) to this treatment. However, the remaining patients either respond during treatment but relapse upon treatment cessation, respond minimally, or do not respond at all. Much research effort has been expended in attempting to predict those patients who will achieve viral eradication with PegIFN/ribavirin treatment, and it is now clear that those who have either a rapid virologic response (RVR) by week 4 of treatment or a complete early virologic response (cEVR, HCV RNA qualitative negative) by week 12 will go on to achieve SVR at very high rates (70%-90%). Several trials have been completed in patients that fail to achieve RVR or cEVR. These trials include strategies of extending duration of therapy, induction regimens, or retreatment with similar and dissimilar alfa interferons. A recent study of 696 genotype 1 patients treated with both PegIFN and weight-based ribavirin revealed that only 1.6% (4/246) of patients without RVR or cEVR achieved SVR. Consensus interferon, a wholly synthetic interferonalfa, is one of the agents that has been utilized in patients that fail treatment with PegIFN/ribavirin. This molecule has been demonstrated to have a very high affinity for the interferon-alfa receptor, and laboratory studies have demonstrated that it has high levels of antiviral activity. In order to optimally utilize consensus interferon, it is important to understand its unique mechanism of action. In addition, the latest research showing the importance of achieving RVR or cEVR should be reviewed, along with strategies for utilizing consensus interferon in re-treatment, or more specifically upon identification of on-treatment failure in historically difficult-to-treat patients. PMID:23329909

  13. Inhibition of feline leukemia virus replication by human leukocyte interferon.

    PubMed

    Jameson, P; Essex, M

    1983-08-01

    The replication of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is inhibited by treatment of cat cell cultures with crude human leukocyte interferon (HuIFN-alpha) as evidenced by titration of the infectious progeny. The inhibition can be demonstrated in three different cell lines in which the production of hemagglutinin by encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus, and plaque formation by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are also inhibited by the HuIFN-alpha. The dose dependency of the inhibition of EMC virus by the HuIFN-alpha is similar to that obtained with feline interferon in each of the three cell lines. VSV and EMC virus are less than 10 times more sensitive than FeLV to the inhibitory action of HuIFN-alpha if responses to a single interferon treatment are compared for each of the viruses tested in the most sensitive cell line, FEA. The interferon effect on FeLV is more pronounced when it is added within one day after the inoculation of the cells rather than applied before cell infection. The induction of focus formation by FeLV can also be inhibited by HuIFN-alpha in cat cells (CCC-81) which contain the murine sarcoma virus genome.

  14. Treatment of trypanosome-infected mice with exogenous interferon, interferon inducers, or antibody to interferon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that mice resistant to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (the B10.BR/SgSnJ strain) produces, upon infection by this parasite, two peaks of serum interferon (IFN), while the susceptible mice (C3HeB/FeJ) produces no IFN. In the present study, survival times were compared for B10.BR/SgSnJ, C3HeB/FeJ, and CBA/J (an intermediately resistant strain) mice that were injected, prior to infection with the parasite, with either of the following three preparations (1) IFN-gamma, (2) an antibody to IFN-gamma and (3) polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (to induce IFN-alpha/beta). No effect on the survival times of mice by any of these preparations could be demonstrated, contrary to some previous reports.

  15. Interferon-induced sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cláudia; Freire, Ricardo; Alves, Ana; Oliveira, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a rare side effect of interferon therapy that has been reported over the last years. We present the case of a 43-year-old man presenting with systemic sarcoidosis during treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Skin lesions, which were found to be associated with asymptomatic bilateral hilar lymph nodes and pulmonary nodules, were the sole clinical manifestation of the disease. Stopping therapy resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:22696628

  16. N-acetylcysteine and 15 deoxy-{delta}12,14-prostaglandin J2 exert a protective effect against autoimmune thyroid destruction in vivo but not against interleukin-1{alpha}/interferon {gamma}-induced inhibitory effects in thyrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Sylvie; Colin, Ides M; Decallonne, Brigitte; Clinckspooor, Isabelle; Many, Marie-Christine; Denef, Jean-François; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial for thyroid hormonogenesis, and their production is kept under tight control. Oxidative stress (OS) is toxic for thyrocytes in an inflammatory context. In vitro, Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines have already been shown to decrease thyroid-specific protein expression. In the present study, OS level and its impact on thyroid function were analyzed in vitro in Th1 cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1alpha/interferon [IFN] gamma)-incubated thyrocytes (rat and human), as well as in vivo in thyroids from nonobese diabetic mice, a model of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and prostaglandin, 15 deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandinJ2 (15dPGJ2), were used for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, respectively. ROS production and OS were increased in IL-1alpha/IFNgamma-incubated thyrocytes and in destructive thyroiditis. In vitro, NAC not only reduced ROS production below control levels, but further decreased the expression of thyroid-specific proteins in addition to IL-1alpha/IFNgamma-inhibitory effects. Thus, besides ROS, other intracellular intermediaries likely mediate Th1 cytokine effects. In vivo, NAC and 15dPGJ2 reduced OS and the immune infiltration, thereby leading to a restoration of thyroid morphology. It is therefore likely that NAC and 15dPGJ2 mainly exert their protective effects by acting on infiltrating inflammatory cells rather than directly on thyrocytes.

  17. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  18. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Manfred W.; Cummins, Martin J.; Bennett, Alayne L.; Cummins, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα) must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNα therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.

  19. Parkinsonism in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Treated With Interferons: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Kirk J; Krawitt, Edward L; Hamill, Robert W; Boyd, James T

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a set of cytokines that activate antiviral responses by the body's immune cells and have been a mainstay of treatment of hepatitis C. Well-known neuropsychiatric effects of interferons include depression, irritability, and impaired concentration. A condition reported rarely in association with this treatment is parkinsonism. We report 2 patients who developed parkinsonism in conjunction with treatment of hepatitis C with alpha interferons. The first is a 51-year-old man who developed intermittent rest and postural tremor during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha ribavirin, and amantadine, with resolution of the symptoms after completing a 36-week course. Similar tremor recurred 3 years later with progressive parkinsonism, compatible with Parkinson disease (PD). The second patient is a 71-year-old man who developed postural tremor 8 weeks into a regimen of consensus interferon. Tremor resolved at completion of 48 weeks of interferon. Pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin were started 2 years later because of lack of sustained virologic response. At 24 weeks of treatment, postural tremor returned along with features and a progressive course compatible with PD. Thus, both patients presented here developed (rest and/or postural) tremor during interferon therapy followed by delayed onset of parkinsonism. We identified 10 other cases in the literature of parkinsonism/PD associated with interferon administration. This report reviews the clinical presentation and potential pathophysiological mechanisms and recommends that physicians who prescribe interferon be vigilant for symptoms of PD in their patients.

  20. Interferons and interferon regulatory factors in malaria.

    PubMed

    Gun, Sin Yee; Claser, Carla; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and responsible for approximately 500 million clinical cases and 500 thousand deaths annually. Acquired adaptive immune responses control parasite replication and infection-induced pathologies. Most infections are clinically silent which reflects on the ability of adaptive immune mechanisms to prevent the disease. However, a minority of these can become severe and life-threatening, manifesting a range of overlapping syndromes of complex origins which could be induced by uncontrolled immune responses. Major players of the innate and adaptive responses are interferons. Here, we review their roles and the signaling pathways involved in their production and protection against infection and induced immunopathologies.

  1. Contradictory results in interferon research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several reports on immunologically related interferon research, both in the areas of basic science and clinical research, are briefly reviewed, and it is noted that in many cases the results obtained are contradictory. It is argued, however, that the contradictory results are not surprising since interferon is a biological response modifier and has been known to produce opposite results even when the same interferon prepartion is used. It is emphasized that dosage, timing, route, and other experimental conditions are essential factors in planning immunological studies with interferon. Careful planning of future experiments with interferon should be required to prevent the possible generation of effects that are opposite to those expected.

  2. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. V. Mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on HLA-DR expression, proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Gracia, J M; Zvaifler, N J; Firestein, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a broad array of cytokines, individually and in combination, were determined on separate functions (proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] production) and phenotype (expression of class II MHC antigens) of cultured fibroblast-like RA synoviocytes. The following recombinant cytokines were used: IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, GM-CSF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Only IFN-gamma induced HLA-DR (but not HLA-DQ) expression. TNF-alpha inhibited IFN-gamma-mediated HLA-DR expression (46.7 +/- 4.1% inhibition) and HLA-DR mRNA accumulation. This inhibitory effect was also observed in osteoarthritis synoviocytes. Only TNF-alpha and IL-1 increased synoviocyte proliferation (stimulation index 3.60 +/- 1.03 and 2.31 +/- 0.46, respectively). IFN-gamma (but none of the other cytokines) inhibited TNF-alpha-induced proliferation (70 +/- 14% inhibition) without affecting the activity of IL-1. Only IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced collagenase production (from less than 0.10 U/ml to 1.10 +/- 0.15 and 0.72 +/- 0.24, respectively). IFN-gamma decreased TNF-alpha-mediated collagenase production (69 +/- 19% inhibition) and GM-CSF production but had no effect on the action of IL-1. These data demonstrate mutual antagonism between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on fibroblast-like synoviocytes and suggest a novel homeostatic control mechanism that might be defective in RA where very little IFN-gamma is produced. Images PMID:2174906

  3. Raynaud's phenomenon and bilateral olecranon bursitis co-existing in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D treated with pegylated interferon.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shafique Rehman; Umer, Tahira Perveen

    2016-06-01

    Pegylated interferon remains the first line treatment for patients with hepatitis D virus and more than one year therapy may be necessary. Interferon a has the most extensive clinical application and is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D virus as well as HCV infections. The attachment of polyethylene glycol to interferon increases its half-life. Treatment with peg interferon is associated with many troublesome and occasionally with serious or even life-threatening side effects. In this case report, we have described a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D, who developed Raynaud's phenomenon, ischaemic digital necrosis and bilateral olecranon bursitis during Pegylated interferon therapy. The patient underwent a very extensive workup in order to determine the underlying cause of his digital ischaemia and olecranon bursitis, which was finally determined to be secondary to the use of Pegylated interferon.

  4. Design of the PEDS-C trial: pegylated interferon +/− ribavirin for children with chronic hepatitis C viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Karen F; Rodrigue, James R; González-Peralta, Regino P; Shepherd, John; Barton, Bruce A; Robuck, Patricia R; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2013-01-01

    Background PEDS-C is the first multicenter placebo-controlled trial for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in childhood that has ever been conducted in the United States (USA). Establishment of the research team, protocol, administrative infrastructure, and ancillary contributors for the pediatric trial took years of planning. Purpose To study the safety and efficacy of pegylated-interferon alpha (PEG-2a) plus ribavirin (RV) with PEG-2a monotherapy in children aged 5 years through 18 years. To assess the health-related quality of life and growth and body composition in children with chronic hepatitis C infection, before, during, and after treatment. Methods Eleven centers of pediatric hepatobiliary clinical research were united in a National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) funded grant with financial support from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a corporate sponsor to conduct the treatment trial. Limitations The most important initial limitation in the design of this complex study was securing the financial support and infrastructural organization, a process that took several years. Challenges faced by the study group included identifying the optimal study design given the limited study population, and determining what ancillary studies could be incorporated into the treatment trial. Conclusions In this article the process taken to design the study and administrative infrastructure, the lessons learned, and the controversial issues deliberated during the planning process are discussed. The evolution of the study and the considerations taken in the development of the protocol are valuable tools which can be applied to pediatric clinical trials in general. PMID:18042575

  5. PEGylation of interferon α2 improves lymphatic exposure after subcutaneous and intravenous administration and improves antitumour efficacy against lymphatic breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; Ascher, David B; McLeod, Victoria M; Herold, Marco J; Le, Caroline P; Sloan, Erica K; Porter, Christopher JH

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of protein-based therapeutics with indications in the treatment of lymphatic diseases is expected to be improved by enhancing lymphatic disposition. This study was therefore aimed at examining whether PEGylation can usefully be applied to improve the lymphatic uptake of interferon α2 and whether this ultimately translates into improved therapeutic efficacy against lymph-resident cancer. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics of interferon α2b (IFN, 19 kDa) and PEGylated interferon α2b (IFN-PEG12, 31 kDa) or α2a (IFN-PEG40, 60 kDa) was examined in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. IFN was poorly absorbed from the SC injection site (Fabs 36%) and showed little uptake into lymph after SC or IV administration (≤1%). In contrast, IFN-PEG12 was efficiently absorbed from the SC injection site (Fabs 82%) and approximately 20% and 8% of the injected dose was recovered in thoracic lymph over 30 hours after SC or IV administration respectively. IFN-PEG40, however, was incompletely absorbed from the SC injection site (Fabs 23%) and showed similar lymphatic access after SC administration to IFN-PEG12 (21%). The recovery of IFN-PEG40 in thoracic lymph after IV administration, however, was significantly greater (29%) when compared to IV IFN-PEG12. The anti-tumour efficacy of interferon against axillary metastases of a highly lymph-metastatic variant of human breast MDA-MB-231 carcinoma was significantly increased by SC administration of lymph-targeted IFN-PEG12 when compared to the administration of IFN on the ipsilateral side to the axillary metastasis. Optimal PEGylation may therefore represent a viable approach to improving the lymphatic disposition and efficacy of therapeutic proteins against lymphatic diseases. PMID:23499718

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W

    2001-01-01

    The ingredients considered in this safety assessment are polyethylene glycol ethers of either propylene glycol itself, propylene glycol stearate, propylene glycol oleate, or propylene glycol cocoate. They function in cosmetic formulations as surfactant--cleansing agents; surfactant-solubilizing agents; surfactant--emulsifying agents; skin conditioning agents--humectant; skin-conditioning agents--emollient; and solvents. Those in current use are used in only a small number of cosmetic formulations. Some are not currently used. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Propylene Glycol Cocoates and PEG Propylene Glycol Oleates are produced by the esterification of polyoxyalkyl alcohols with lauric acid and oleic acid, respectively. Although there is no information available on the method of manufacture of the other polymers, information was available describing impurities, including ethylene oxide (maximum 1 ppm), 1,4-dioxane (maximum 5 ppm), polycyclic aromatic compounds (maximum 1 ppm), and heavy metals-lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic included (maximum 10 ppm combined). In an acute oral toxicity study, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was not toxic. An antiperspirant product containing 2.0% PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was nonirritating to mildly irritating to the eyes of rabbits. This product was also practically nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in single-insult occlusive patch tests. In a guinea pig sensitization test, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was classified as nonallergenic at challenge concentrations of 25% and 50% in petrolatum. PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate and PEG-55 Propylene Glycol Oleate were negative in clinical patch tests. Based on the available data, it was concluded that these ingredients are safe as used (concentrations no greater than 10%) in cosmetic formulations. Based on evidence of sensitization and nephrotoxicity in burn patients treated with a PEG-based antimicrobial preparation, the ingredients included in this review

  7. Interferon, a growing cytokine family: 50 years of interferon research.

    PubMed

    Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K; Wietzerbin, Juana

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of an antiviral state in cells is the defining activity of interferons (IFNs) as well as the property that permitted their discovery in 1957 by Isaacs and Lindenmann. In addition, interferons have other cellular functions that have potential clinical applications. Today, interferons are used for the treatment of a variety of malignancies and viral diseases. The publication of this special issue of Biochimie gives us a great opportunity to review the state of the art in knowledge about interferons and to explore possible future directions. This commentary text will introduce the reviews written by colleagues who are experts in different aspects of interferon research, to mark the 50th anniversary of the discovery of interferon.

  8. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T

    1996-12-01

    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  9. Chicken interferons, their receptors and interferon-stimulated genes.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Kate E; Ward, Alister C; Lowenthal, John W; Bean, Andrew G D

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of pathogenic viruses is a serious issue as they pose a constant threat to both the poultry industry and to human health. To prevent these viral infections an understanding of the host-virus response is critical, especially for the development of novel therapeutics. One approach in the control of viral infections would be to boost the immune response through administration of cytokines, such as interferons. However, the innate immune response in chickens is poorly characterised, particularly concerning the interferon pathway. This review will provide an overview of our current understanding of the interferon system of chickens, including their cognate receptors and known interferon-stimulated gene products.

  10. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  11. Complications of motility peg placement for porous hydroxyapatite orbital implants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C-J; Liao, S-L; Jou, J-R; Kao, S C S; Hou, P-K; Chen, M-S

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the complications associated with pegging of porous hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Methods: Complications associated with pegging were retrospectively reviewed from the charts of 100 of 133 patients with hydroxyapatite implantation from 1993 to 2000. Results: 48 (48%) of the 100 hydroxyapatite implanted patients who had undergone pegging were found to have problems with their pegs, including discharge (45.8%), peg falling out (20.8%), pyogenic granulomas (16.7%), popping peg (14.6%), hydroxyapatite visible around peg hole (8.3%), part of peg shaft visible (6.2%), peg drilled off centre (6.2%), peg drilled at an angle (4.2%), and excess movement of peg (4.2%). The standard peg fell out statistically more often than the peg and sleeve system (Yates's corrected χ2, p=0.038). There was a trend towards complications of the peg with use of a standard peg (versus sleeved peg) (p=0.226). Conclusions: There are several potential complications of pegging. Most complications are minor and can be managed successfully. PMID:11914206

  12. Radiographic comparison of mobile-bearing partial knee single-peg versus twin-peg design.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jason M; Berend, Keith R; Adams, Joanne B; Lombardi, Adolph V

    2015-03-01

    The femoral component and proprietary instrumentation of a mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) was redesigned with an additional peg for enhanced fixation, 15° of extra femoral surface for contact in deep flexion, more rounded profile, better fit into the milled surface, and redesigned intramedullary based instrumentation. To assess the benefit of these changes, we compared postoperative radiographs of 219 single-peg and 186 twin-peg UKAs done in 2008-2011. All surviving knees demonstrated satisfactory position and alignment with no radiolucencies observed. Radiographic analysis showed improved and consistent component positioning with the twin-peg design implanted with updated instrumentation compared with the single-peg. The radiographic benefits of improved implant positioning using the twin-peg component and updated instrumentation are clear and carry tremendous potential. More robust follow-up is imperative. PMID:25453627

  13. Interferon-induced 2'-5' adenylate synthetase in vivo and interferon production in vitro by lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without circulating interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Preble, O.T.; Rothko, K.; Klippel, J.H.; Friedman, R.M.; Johnston, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    The interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme 2-5A synthetase was elevated in mononuclear cells from both serum IFN-positive and -negative systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This suggests that a much higher percentage of patients than previously thought produce endogenous IFN. These results may partly explain findings that mononuclear cells from SLE patients are deficient in IFN production in vitro in response to certain IFN inducers. Although normal lymphocytes can produce an acid-labile alpha IFN after stimulation with C. parvum in vitro, the reason for endogenous production of this unusual alpha IFN by SLE patients remains unknown.

  14. Interferon-alpha/beta deficiency greatly exacerbates arthritogenic disease in mice infected with wild-type chikungunya virus but not with the cell culture-adapted live-attenuated 181/25 vaccine candidate

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Burke, Crystal W.; Higgs, Stephen T.; Klimstra, William B.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes fever, rash, and acute and persisting polyarthalgia/arthritis associated with joint swelling. We report a new CHIKV disease model in adult mice that distinguishes the wild-type CHIKV-LR strain from the live-attenuated vaccine strain (CHIKV-181/25). Although eight-week old normal mice inoculated in the hind footpad developed no hind limb swelling with either virus, CHIKV-LR replicated in musculoskeletal tissues and caused detectable inflammation. In mice deficient in STAT1-dependent interferon (IFN) responses, CHIKV-LR caused significant swelling of the inoculated and contralateral limbs and dramatic inflammatory lesions, while CHIKV-181/25 vaccine and another arthritogenic alphavirus, Sindbis, failed to induce swelling. IFN responses suppressed CHIKV-LR and CHIKV-181/25 replication equally in dendritic cells in vitro whereas macrophages were refractory to infection independently of STAT1-mediated IFN responses. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding may be a CHIKV vaccine attenuation mechanism as CHIKV-LR infectivity was not dependent upon GAG, while CHIKV-181/25 was highly dependent. PMID:22305131

  15. Competition of PEG coverage density and con-A recognition in mannose/PEG bearing nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ichiki; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Cell specific ligand molecules are attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified nanoparticles to enhance the drug delivery efficiency. The tethered PEG would interfere in ligand recognition as well as providing biocompatibility to the nanoparticles. The denser PEG can give the greater biocompatibility, while should more hamper the ligand recognition. Therefor it is important to tune PEG density at an appropriate amount to compensate these two factors. In this study, we prepared a series of nanoparticles composed of α-mannose-bearing lipid, dioleoyltrimethyl ammoniumpropane (DOTAP) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero -3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000). The nanoparticles were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS), field flow fractionation (FFF), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). Based on the structural parameter obtained from DLS, SAXS, and FFF, we determined the PEG crowding parameter (σ) quantitatively; when σ=1.0, the PEG chain occupies the same value on the surface as when the chain is present in the unperturbed state, and at σ=1.0, the PEG chains start to contact each other. We found that the recognition ability had the maximum around σ∼0.75 and there was the critical composition at σ=1.0 for which the recognition was drastically reduced. The present results demonstrated that quantitative characterization and controlling the PEG density are key to designing effective targeting delivery system.

  16. Competition of PEG coverage density and con-A recognition in mannose/PEG bearing nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ichiki; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Cell specific ligand molecules are attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified nanoparticles to enhance the drug delivery efficiency. The tethered PEG would interfere in ligand recognition as well as providing biocompatibility to the nanoparticles. The denser PEG can give the greater biocompatibility, while should more hamper the ligand recognition. Therefor it is important to tune PEG density at an appropriate amount to compensate these two factors. In this study, we prepared a series of nanoparticles composed of α-mannose-bearing lipid, dioleoyltrimethyl ammoniumpropane (DOTAP) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero -3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000). The nanoparticles were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS), field flow fractionation (FFF), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). Based on the structural parameter obtained from DLS, SAXS, and FFF, we determined the PEG crowding parameter (σ) quantitatively; when σ=1.0, the PEG chain occupies the same value on the surface as when the chain is present in the unperturbed state, and at σ=1.0, the PEG chains start to contact each other. We found that the recognition ability had the maximum around σ∼0.75 and there was the critical composition at σ=1.0 for which the recognition was drastically reduced. The present results demonstrated that quantitative characterization and controlling the PEG density are key to designing effective targeting delivery system. PMID:27429298

  17. Pegylated Interferon α-2a Triggers NK-Cell Functionality and Specific T-Cell Responses in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection without HBsAg Seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Bruder Costa, Juliana; Dufeu-Duchesne, Tania; Leroy, Vincent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Pouget, Noelle; Brevot-Lutton, Ophelie; Bourliere, Marc; Zoulim, Fabien; Plumas, Joel; Aspord, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN-α) represents a therapeutic alternative to the prolonged use of nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The mechanisms leading to a positive clinical outcome remain unclear. As immune responses are critical for virus control, we investigated the effects of Peg-IFN-α on both innate and adaptive immunity, and related it to the clinical evolution. The phenotypic and functional features of the dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells and HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells were analyzed in HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated for 48-weeks with NA alone or together with Peg-IFN-α, before, during and up to 2-years after therapy. Peg-IFN-α induced an early activation of DCs, a potent expansion of the CD56bright NK subset, and enhanced the activation and functionality of the CD56dim NK subset. Peg-IFN-α triggered an increase in the frequencies of Th1- and Th17-oriented HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells. Peg-IFN-α reversed the unresponsiveness of patients to a specific stimulation. Most of the parameters returned to baseline after the stop of Peg-IFN-α therapy. Peg-IFN-α impacts both innate and adaptive immunity, overcoming dysfunctional immune responses in CHB patients. These modulations were not associated with seroconversion, which questioned the benefit of the add-on Peg-IFN-α treatment. PMID:27348813

  18. Pegylated Interferon α-2a Triggers NK-Cell Functionality and Specific T-Cell Responses in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection without HBsAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Bruder Costa, Juliana; Dufeu-Duchesne, Tania; Leroy, Vincent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Pouget, Noelle; Brevot-Lutton, Ophelie; Bourliere, Marc; Zoulim, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN-α) represents a therapeutic alternative to the prolonged use of nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The mechanisms leading to a positive clinical outcome remain unclear. As immune responses are critical for virus control, we investigated the effects of Peg-IFN-α on both innate and adaptive immunity, and related it to the clinical evolution. The phenotypic and functional features of the dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells and HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells were analyzed in HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated for 48-weeks with NA alone or together with Peg-IFN-α, before, during and up to 2-years after therapy. Peg-IFN-α induced an early activation of DCs, a potent expansion of the CD56bright NK subset, and enhanced the activation and functionality of the CD56dim NK subset. Peg-IFN-α triggered an increase in the frequencies of Th1- and Th17-oriented HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells. Peg-IFN-α reversed the unresponsiveness of patients to a specific stimulation. Most of the parameters returned to baseline after the stop of Peg-IFN-α therapy. Peg-IFN-α impacts both innate and adaptive immunity, overcoming dysfunctional immune responses in CHB patients. These modulations were not associated with seroconversion, which questioned the benefit of the add-on Peg-IFN-α treatment. PMID:27348813

  19. Natural interferon-beta treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Haga, Yuki; Nakamura, Masato; Yasui, Shin; Jiang, Xia; Wu, Shuang; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-05-18

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several studies have demonstrated that the eradication of HCV reduces the occurrence of HCC. In Japan, as many people live to an advanced age, HCV-infected patients are also getting older, and the age at HCC diagnosis has also increased. Although older HCV-infected patients have a risk of developing HCC, the treatment response to peginterferon-alpha plus ribavirin therapy is relatively poor in these patients because of drop-out or discontinuation of this treatment due to adverse events. It is established that the mechanism of action between interferon-alpha and interferon-beta is slightly different. Short-term natural interferon-beta monotherapy is effective for patients with acute hepatitis C and patients infected with HCV genotype 2 and low viral loads. Natural interferon-beta plus ribavirin for 48 wk or for 24 wk are also effective for some patients with HCV genotype 1 or HCV genotype 2. Natural interferon-beta plus ribavirin has been used for certain "difficult-to-treat" HCV-infected patients. In the era of direct-acting anti-virals, natural interferon-beta plus ribavirin may be one of the therapeutic options for special groups of HCV-infected patients. In the near future, signal transduction pathways of interferon-beta will inform further directions. PMID:26052401

  20. Repairing the hole in hydroxyapatite orbital implants following peg removal.

    PubMed

    Jordan, D R

    2000-01-01

    Pegging hydroxyapatite implants may lead to improved prosthetic eye movement but may also be associated with complications that may occasionally require peg removal. Removing the peg and leaving the peg hole to spontaneously granulate in, is one technique to deal with the remaining implant hole. The author describes a simple technique to fill the peg hole that provides a smooth implant-conjunctival-prosthesis interface and may potentially allow repegging.

  1. High affinity binding of /sup 125/I-labeled mouse interferon to a specific cell surface receptor. II. Analysis of binding properties

    SciTech Connect

    Aguet, M.; Blanchard, B.

    1981-12-01

    Direct ligand-binding studies with highly purified /sup 125/I-labeled virus-induced mouse interferon on mouse lymphoma L 1210 cells revealed a direct correlation of specific high-affinity binding with the biologic response to interferon. Neutralization of the antiviral effect by anti-interferon gamma globulin occurred at the same antibody concentration as the inhibition of specific binding. These results suggest that specific high-affinity binding of /sup 125/I-interferon occurred at a biologically functional interferon receptor. Competitive inhibition experiments using /sup 125/I- and /sup 127/I-labeled interferon provided strong evidence that the fraction of /sup 125/I-interferon inactivated upon labeling did not bind specifically. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yielded linear plots and thus suggested that interferon binds to homogeneous noncooperative receptor sites. In contrast to a characteristic property of several peptide hormone systems, binding of /sup 125/I-interferon to its specific receptor did not induce subsequent ligand degradation. At 37/sup o/ bound interferon was rapidly released in a biologically active form without evidence for molecular degradation. The expression of interferon receptors was not modified by treatment with interferon. Trypsin treatment of target cells and inhibition of protein synthesis abolished the specific binding of /sup 125/I-interferon. Three major molecular weight species of Newcastle disease virus-induced mouse C 243 cell interferon were isolated, separated, and identified as mouse ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. interferons. These interferons were shown to inhibit competitively the specific binding of the highly purified labeled starting material thus providing evidence for a common receptor site for mouse interferon.

  2. Pegylated Interferon-α Modulates Liver Concentrations of Activin-A and Its Related Proteins in Normal Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Bassem; El-Shemi, Adel Galal; Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; Mahamid, Elaf Wael; Al-Qadi, Noha Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To measure the expression of activin βA-subunit, activin IIA and IIB receptors, Smad4, Smad7, and follistatin in the liver and the liver and serum concentrations of mature activin-A and follistatin in normal rat following treatment with pegylated interferon-α (Peg-INF-α) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and Methods. 40 male Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups: “control,” “Peg-only” receiving 4 injections of Peg-INF-α (6 µg/rat/week), “RBV-only” receiving ribavirin (4 mg/rat/day) orally, and “Peg & RBV” group receiving both drugs. The expression of candidate molecules in liver was measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. The concentrations of mature proteins in serum and liver homogenate samples were measured using ELISA. Results. Peg-INF-α  ± RBV altered the expression of all candidate molecules in the liver at the gene and protein levels (P < 0.05) and decreased activin-A and increased follistatin in serum and liver homogenates compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). There were also significant correlations between serum and liver activin-A and follistatin. Conclusion. Peg-INF-α modulates the hepatic production of activin-A and follistatin, which can be detected in serum. Further studies are needed to explore the role of Peg-INF-α on the production of activins and follistatin by the liver and immune cells. PMID:26236109

  3. Resident bone marrow macrophages produce type 1 interferons that can selectively inhibit interleukin-7-driven growth of B lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Lin, Q; Langston, H; Cooper, M D

    1995-10-01

    Type 1 interferons alpha and beta are found to be potent inhibitors of IL-7-induced growth of early B lineage cells, while having no effect on cell growth induced by IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, or autogenous factors. The combination of IL-7 and interferons alpha/beta induces bcl-2 down-regulation and cell death by apoptosis. These conclusions were derived initially from experiments employing exogenous cytokines, but functional type 1 interferons are also shown to be produced by resident bone marrow macrophages. As physiological modulators of IL-7-driven proliferation and cell survival, interferons alpha/beta may cooperate with other homeostatic factors to maintain the balanced production of normal B lineage cells. PMID:7584138

  4. Component(s) of Sendai virus that can induce interferon in mouse spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Hosaka, Y

    1983-01-01

    To identify the active component of Sendai virus that induces interferon in mouse spleen cells, infectious and noninfectious viruses, envelope particles derived from them, and isolated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins were examined for interferon induction. The interaction between membranous structures containing Sendai virus HN glycoprotein and the receptors on the cell surface was shown to be sufficient for interferon induction in mouse spleen cells, suggesting that the actual inducer of interferon in mouse spleen cells is the HN glycoprotein of Sendai virus. When mouse spleen cells were stimulated in vitro with Sendai virus grown in eggs or LLC-MK2 cells or with membranous structures containing glycoproteins obtained from these viruses, interferon could be detected in the culture fluid. Furthermore, isolated HN glycoprotein per se could induce interferon in the cells. A linear correlation was found between the titer of interferon induced and the hemagglutinating activity of the membranous structure containing the HN glycoprotein. It was concluded from these findings that HN glycoprotein was the active component of Sendai virus responsible for interferon induction in mouse spleen cells and that viral RNA and F glycoprotein were not required. The results also showed that the interaction between HN glycoprotein and receptors on the cell surface triggered production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Although when Sendai virus was incubated at 56 degrees C for 5 min it lost its hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities, it induced a considerable amount of interferon in the culture fluid of mouse spleen cells. The interferon-inducing ability of heat-inactivated virus could be absorbed with mouse spleen cells but not with sheep erythrocytes or mouse erythrocytes, indicating that the inactivated virus retained ability to bind to mouse lymphoid cells. PMID:6301988

  5. The antiviral response to gamma interferon.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, Ana P; Williams, Timothy M; Strobl, Birgit; Watling, Diane; Briscoe, James; Kerr, Ian M

    2002-09-01

    A role for alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) in the IFN-gamma antiviral response has long been suggested. Accordingly, possible roles for autocrine or double-stranded-RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-alpha/beta in the IFN-gamma response were investigated. Use was made of wild-type and a variety of mutant human fibrosarcoma cell lines, including mutant U5A cells, which lack a functional IFN-alpha/beta receptor and hence an IFN-alpha/beta response. IFN-gamma did not induce detectable levels of IFN-alpha/beta in any of the cell lines, nor was the IFN-gamma response per se dependent on autocrine IFN-alpha/beta. On the other hand, a number of responses to dsRNA [poly(I). poly(C)] and encephalomyocarditis virus were greatly enhanced by IFN-gamma pretreatment (priming) of wild-type cells or of mutant cells lacking an IFN-alpha/beta response; these include the primary induction of dsRNA-inducible mRNAs, including IFN-beta mRNA, and, to a lesser extent, the dsRNA-mediated activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase(s). IFN-gamma priming of mRNA induction by dsRNA is dependent on JAK1 and shows biphasic kinetics, with an initial rapid (<30-min) response being followed by a more substantial effect on overnight incubation. The IFN-gamma-primed dsRNA responses appear to be subject to modulation through the p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and ERK1/ERK2 MAP kinase pathways. It can be concluded that despite efficient priming of IFN-beta production, the IFN-alpha/beta pathways play no significant role in the primary IFN-gamma antiviral response in these cell-virus systems. The observed IFN-gamma priming of dsRNA responses, on the other hand, will likely play a significant role in combating virus infection in vivo.

  6. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Wagner, E. R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar outgrowth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. The development of the peg is thought to be gravity-dependent and has become a model system for plant-gravity response. Peg development requires rapid cell expansion, a process thought to be catalyzed by alpha-expansins, and thus was a good system to identify expansins that were regulated by gravity. This study identified 7 new alpha-expansin cDNAs from cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) and examined their expression patterns. Two alpha-expansins (CsExp3 and CsExp4) were more highly expressed in the peg and the root. Earlier reports stated that pegs tend not to form in the absence of gravity, so the expression levels were compared in the pegs of seedlings grown in space (STS-95), on a clinostat, and on earth (1 g). Pegs were observed to form at high frequency on clinostat and space-grown seedlings, yet on clinostats there was more than a 4-fold reduction in the expression of CsExp3 in the pegs of seedlings grown on clinostats vs. those grown at 1 g, while the CsExp4 gene appeared to be turned off (below detection limits). There were no detectable differences in expansin gene expression levels for the pegs of seedlings grown in space or in the orbiter environmental simulator (OES) (1 g) at NASA. The microgravity environment did not affect the expression of CsExp3 or CsExp4, and the clinostat did not simulate the microgravity environment well.

  7. Anti-PEG immunity: emergence, characteristics, and unaddressed questions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    The modification of protein and nanoparticle therapeutics with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a flexible, uncharged, and highly hydrophilic polymer, is a widely adopted approach to reduce RES clearance, extend circulation time, and improve drug efficacy. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature, generated by numerous research groups, demonstrates that the immune system can produce antibodies that specifically bind PEG, which can lead to the 'accelerated blood clearance' of PEGylated therapeutics. In animals, anti-PEG immunity is typically robust but short-lived and consists of a predominantly anti-PEG IgM response. Rodent studies suggest that the induction of anti-PEG antibodies (α-PEG Abs) primarily occurs through a type 2 T-cell independent mechanism. Although anti-PEG immunity is less well-studied in humans, the presence of α-PEG Abs has been correlated with reduced efficacy of PEGylated therapeutics in clinical trials. The prevalence of anti-PEG IgG and reports of memory immune responses, as well as the existence of α-PEG Abs in healthy untreated individuals, suggests that the mechanism(s) and features of human anti-PEG immune responses may differ from those of animal models. Many questions, including the incidence rate of pre-existing α-PEG Abs and immunological mechanism(s) of α-PEG Ab formation in humans, must be answered in order to fully address the potential complications of anti-PEG immunity.

  8. Development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Following Interferon-α Therapy for Hepatitis C Infection.

    PubMed

    Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Khokhar, Nasir

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy has been associated with de novo development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report a 48-year woman with chronic hepatitis C, who developed low grade fever, joint aches and pains, painful mouth ulcers, shortness of breath, dry cough and pleuritic chest pain after 2 months of completion of treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha. These clinical manifestations and the relevant immunologic investigations were in favour of SLE. She responded well to corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine treatment. PMID:26975957

  9. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kima, Peter E.; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed. PMID:23801993

  10. Interferon gamma in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kima, Peter E; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed.

  11. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  12. [Interferons: between structure and function].

    PubMed

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Król, Izabela; Myga-Nowak, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Interferons are a family of proteins that are released by a variety of cells in response to infections caused by viruses. Currently, we distinguish three types of interferons. They are classified based on the nucleotide sequence, interaction with specific receptors, chromosomal location, structure and physicochemical properties. The following interferons are classified as type I: α, β, ω, κ, ε, ζ, τ, δ, ν. They are recognized and bound by a receptor formed by two peptides, IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2. Representative of type II interferons is interferon-γ. It binds to a receptor composed of chains IFNGR-1 and IFNGR-2. The recently classified type III interferons comprise IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, and IFN-λ3. They act on receptors formed by λR1 IFN-and IL-10R2 subunits. A high level of antiviral protection is achieved by IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ. Antiviral activity of interferons is based on the induction and regulation of innate and acquired immune mechanisms. By binding to transmembrane receptors, IFN interacts with target cells mainly by activating the JAK/STAT, but also other signaling pathways. This leads to induction and activation of many antiviral agents, such as protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR), ribonuclease 2-5A pathway, and Mx proteins, as well as numerous apoptotic pathways. As a result of the protective effect of interferons, the virus binding to cells and viral particles penetration into cells is stopped, and the release of the nucleocapsid from an envelope is suppressed. Disruption of transcription and translation processes of the structural proteins prevents the formation of virions or budding of viruses, and as a result degradation of the viral mRNA; the started processes inhibit the chain synthesis of viral proteins and therefore further stimulate the immune system cells.

  13. Effect of carcinogenic components of cigarette smoke on in vivo production of murine interferon.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfeld, G; Hudgens, R W

    1983-10-01

    Mice were treated with several different potentially carcinogenic components of tobacco smoke. The chemicals used were: 4-aminobiphenyl and aniline-HCl, which are found in high concentrations in sidestream tobacco smoke; hydrazine sulfate, which is found in high concentrations in mainstream tobacco smoke; and 2-methylquinoline, which is found in intermediate concentrations in both sidestream and mainstream smoke. The chemicals were injected i.p. into mice, and then alpha/beta interferon was induced in the mice by i.v. injection of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid. The interferon was induced either 2, 24, or 48 hr after treatment with the tobacco smoke components. Mice treated with 4-aminobiphenyl showed some depression of interferon production 2 hr after treatment, maximum inhibition of interferon induction 24 hr after treatment, and a return to control levels of interferon 48 hr after treatment. Mice treated with hydrazine sulfate showed maximum inhibition of interferon induction 24 hr after treatment but no effects at any other treatment time. These components were the most carcinogenic chemicals of those utilized in this study. Treatment of mice with aniline-HCl, a chemical whose carcinogenic potential is still debated, resulted in marginal depression of interferon induction 24 hr after treatment. 2-Methylquinoline, the chemical with the lowest carcinogenic potential in this study, had no effect on interferon induction after administration to mice. In vivo interferon induction was, therefore, inhibited by treatment of mice with chemical carcinogens found in tobacco smoke. The efficacy of the chemical in inhibiting interferon induction was not influenced by the mainstream or sidestream smoke predominance of the chemical.

  14. Onion phases of PEG-8 distearate.

    PubMed

    Redkar, Milind; Hassan, P A; Aswal, Vinod; Devarajan, Padma

    2007-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to formulate stable onion phases of the biodegradable surfactant PEG-8 Distearate (PEG8DS) and evaluate application of the onion phases in encapsulating sumatriptan succinate, a BCS class III potent antimigraine drug. Drug loaded and placebo onion phases were prepared by shearing lyotropic lamellar phases of the surfactant. Effect of drug/surfactant ratio, shear rate and shear time on particle size, and encapsulation efficiency were studied. The onion phases were characterized by polarized microscopy, small angle neutron scattering (SANS), NMR, rheology, and FTIR. Formation of onion phases of PEG8DS was confirmed by the presence of maltese crosses under a crosspolarized microscope and further by SANS studies. The onion phases revealed an increase of inter-bilayer spacing by 7 A after drug incorporation. NMR studies revealed location of drug in the aqueous phases of the multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). FTIR study revealed no interaction between drug and surfactant. Drug loaded onion phases exhibited high encapsulation efficiency ( approximately 90%) and rapid in vitro drug release (>90% in 10 min). Onion phases stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C revealed no significant drug leakage at the end of 3 months suggesting adequate stability. Sumatriptan succinate loaded stable onion phases of PEG8DS with high entrapment efficiency and rapid drug release suggests potential application of the onion phases in drug delivery.

  15. Polymorphisms of HLA-DM on Treatment Response to Interferon/Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongbo; Yao, Yinan; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Tianxiang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Guocheng; Zhang, Yongfeng; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Qingwei; Huang, Peng; Yu, Rongbin

    2016-01-01

    Background: HLA-DM gene, which is related to antigen processing and presentation and located in the non-classical class-II region of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, may play a crucial role in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment outcomes. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the variant of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-DM gene in HCV treatment outcomes. Methods: We genotyped four SNPs from the candidate genes (HLA-DMA and DMB) in 336 patients who were treated with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV). Multivariate analysis of factors predicting sustained virological response (SVR) was conducted. Results: HLA-DMA rs1063478 and DMB rs23544 were independent factors of HCV treatment outcomes in Chinese Han population. Individuals who carried favorable genotypes of rs1063478TT and rs23544GG were more likely to achieve SVR {Dominant model: odds ratio (OR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24–3.41; OR = 2.04, 95% CI =1.23–3.35, respectively}. Rs23544, rs1063478, baseline glucose, baseline platelet and T4 level were independent predictors of SVR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.740. Conclusions: The genetic variation of rs1063478 and rs23544 are associated with the treatment outcomes in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27775635

  16. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    MedlinePlus

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in interferon signaling pathway genes and interferon stimulated genes with the response to interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaowen; Yee, Leland J.; Im, KyungAh; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Tang, YongMing; Tong, Xiaomei; Howell, Charles; Ramcharran, Darmendra; Rosen, Hugo R.; Taylor, Milton W.; Liang, T. Jake; Yang, Huiying

    2008-01-01

    Background/aim Interferon signaling pathway genes (IPGs) and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) are associated with the host response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IPGs and ISGs for their associations with response to pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN-α) plus ribavirin therapy in HCV genotype-1 infected patients. Methods A two-stage study design was used. First, 91 SNPs from 12 IPGs and 9 ISGs were genotyped in a cohort of 374 treatment-naïve HCV patients and assessed for association with sustained viralogic response (SVR). Next, 14 potentially functional SNPs from the OASL gene were studied in this cohort. Results Three OASL SNPs (rs3213545 and rs1169279 from stage I, and rs2859398 from stage II), were significantly associated with SVR [rs3213545: p=0.03, RR=1.27 (1.03–1.58); rs1169279: p=0.02, RR=1.32 (1.05–1.65); rs2859398: p=0.02, RR=1.29 (1.04–1.61)] after adjusting for other covariates. Further analysis showed these 3 SNPs independently associated with SVR. Additionally, a similar trend towards the associations of these 3 SNPs with SVR was observed in a smaller, independent HCV cohort consisting of subjects from a number of clinical practice settings. Conclusions Our study suggests that OASL variants are involved in the host response to IFN-based therapy in HCV patients. PMID:18571276

  18. Inhibition of growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured fibroblasts by human recombinant gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, E R; Guyre, P M

    1984-01-01

    The growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts was inhibited by recombinant human gamma interferon at concentrations of 8 to 16 U/ml. The interferon was titrated by observing a total inhibition of parasite plaque formation 7 days after infection. Inhibition of the growth of T. gondii in the early days after infection was measured by marked reductions in the incorporation of radioactive uracil, a precursor that can only be used by the parasites. This assay showed that when cells were pretreated with gamma interferon for 1 day and then infected, inhibition of T. gondii growth could be readily detected 1 or 2 days after infection. When the pretreatment was omitted and parasites and gamma interferon were added at the same time, no inhibition of parasite growth could be detected 1 day later, although it was apparent after 2 days. Cultures from which the gamma interferon had been removed by washing after a 1-day treatment showed inhibition of T. gondii growth. Gamma interferon had no effect on the viability of extracellular parasites, but it did inhibit the synthesis of host cell RNA and protein by ca. 50% 3 days after treatment. This degree of inhibition is unlikely, of itself, to compromise the growth of T. gondii. Recombinant alpha and beta interferons had no effect on the growth of T. gondii. Images PMID:6425215

  19. [Busulfan versus busulfan-interferon as maintenance therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    López Hernández, M A; Flores-Chapa, J D; Trueba Christy, E; Borbolla Escoboza, J R; Carrillo Rosales, T

    1996-01-01

    We studied 30 patients in order to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of alfa interferon associated with busulfan as maintenance treatment in de novo chronic granulocytic leukemia. Patients received 0.2 mg/kg of busulfan and reached complete hematological remission (CHR). Patients were then randomized in two groups: one to receive busulfan to be administered when the leukocyte count was above 15 x 10(9)/L, and another to receive subcutaneously 5 million IU of alpha-interferon three times per week (plus busulfan if the leukocyte count went above 15 x 10(9)/L). The duration of CHR was longer in the alfa-interferon group: 31 vs 16 months (p = 0.03) but no cytogenetic remissions were observed. Alfa interferon was well tolerated: no patient was excluded from the study due to toxicity. PMID:8966391

  20. Comparative efficacy, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic activity, and interferon stimulated gene expression of different interferon formulations in HIV/HCV genotype-1 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Osinusi, Anu; Bon, Dimitra; Nelson, Amy; Lee, Yu-Jin; Poonia, Seerat; Shivakumar, Bhavana; Cai, Shu Yi; Wood, Brad; Haagmans, Bart; Lempicki, Richard; Herrmann, Eva; Sneller, Michael; Polis, Michael; Masur, Henry; Kottilil, Shyam

    2014-02-01

    The effect of different formulations of interferon on therapeutic response in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV is unclear. In this study, the safety, tolerability, viral kinetics (VK) modeling and host responses among HIV/HCV coinfected patients treated with pegylated-IFN or albinterferon alfa-2b (AlbIFN) with weight-based ribavirin were compared. Three trials treated 57 HIV/HCV coinfected genotype-1 patients with PegIFN alfa-2b (1.5 µg/kg/week) (n = 30), PegIFN alfa-2a (180 µg/week) (n = 10), and AlbIFN (900 µg/q2week) (n = 17) in combination with weight-based ribavirin (RBV). HCV RNA, safety labs, and interferon stimulated gene expression (ISG) was evaluated. Adverse events were documented at all study visits. HCV viral kinetics using a full pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was also evaluated. Baseline patient characteristics were similar across the three studies. All three formulations exhibited comparable safety and tolerability profiles and efficacy. VK/PK/PD parameters for all three studies as measured by mean efficiency and rate of infected cell loss were similar between the three groups. Host responses (ISG expression and immune activation markers) were similar among the three groups. All three regimens induced significant ISG at week 4 (P < 0.05) and ISG expression strongly correlated with therapeutic response (r = 0.65; P < 0.01). In summary, a comprehensive analysis of responses to three different interferon formulations in HIV/HCV coinfected patients demonstrated similar effects. Notably, interferon-based therapy results in a blunted host response followed by modest antiviral effect in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. This suggests that future treatment options that do not rely on host immune responses such as direct antiviral agents would be particularly beneficial in these difficult to treat patients. PMID:24166150

  1. Impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with elements of retinal vein occlusion in a patient on interferon for polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Rue, Kelly S; Hirsch, Louis K; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2012-01-01

    We describe the course and likely pathophysiology of impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and retinal vein occlusion in a 56-year-old man with polycythemia vera managed with interferon alpha for 2 years. Our patient presented with decreased vision, scintillating scotomata, and floaters. Fundus examination findings and results of a fluorescein angiogram led to the diagnosis of impending AION and retinal vein occlusion. Considering that both polycythemia vera and interferon have possible influences on vascular occlusion and optic disc edema, we stopped interferon treatment and immediately attempted to treat the polycythemia vera empirically with pentoxifylline and any interferon-associated inflammation with prednisone. Our patient experienced complete resolution of fundus abnormalities and return of normal vision within 3 weeks, which may be attributed to our successful treatment of both etiologies. Thus, further study is warranted to elucidate the treatment of both polycythemia vera and interferon-induced impending AION.

  2. The labeling of stem cells by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with PEG/PVP or PEG/PEI.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gao; Ma, Weiqiong; Zhang, Baolin; Xie, Qi

    2016-05-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) co-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) (PEG/PVP-SPIONs), and PEG and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) co-modified SPIONs (PEG/PEI-SPIONs) synthesized by thermal decomposition have been used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents to label adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with PEG/PVP-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs for 12h, and the MRI of labeled cells was evaluated. The cell viability tests showed the low cytotoxicity of PEG/PVP-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs. The cellular iron content incubated with PEG/PVP-SPIONs at a concentration of 25 μg/ml was 6.96 pg/cell, the cellular iron contents incubated with PEG/PEI-SPIONs at concentrations of 12 and 25 μg/ml were 20.16, 35.4 pg/cell, respectively. The SPIONs were located predominantly in the intracellular vesicles. The cellular iron oxide uptake was significantly high after incubation with PEG/PEI-SPIONs as compared with the commercial iron oxide agents (Feridex, Feridex@PLL, Resovist and Resovist@PLL) reported. This work demonstrates that PEG/PEI-SPIONs are the competent agents for the labeling of ADSCs. PMID:26952437

  3. PEG closure in the second attempt

    PubMed Central

    Schiffmann, Leif; Roth, Marin; Kuehn, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: This case report demonstrates successful endoscopic treatment of a persistent gastrocutaneous fistula after removal of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a 21-year-old patient with mucoviscidosis after lung transplantation. Because the initial OTSC clip (gastric) did not close the fistula sufficiently, we had to remove it and replace it with a larger OTSC clip (colon) in a second intervention. That clip finally sufficiently closed the fistula. PMID:27556092

  4. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  5. Improved Efficacy of a pegylated interferon-α-2a stepwise optimization treatment strategy in the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pu; Yang, Feifei; Wang, Jinyu; Mao, Richeng; Qi, Xun; Huang, Yuxian; Zhang, Jiming

    2015-05-01

    Current pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients are suboptimal, and effective ways of improving PEG-IFN treatment efficacy are needed.This retrospective cohort study compared the efficacy of a PEG-IFN stepwise optimization treatment (PEG-IFN SOT) strategy with that of a 48-week PEG-IFN standard therapy (PEG-IFN ST) in HBeAg-positive CHB patients.A total of 110 patients were included in our study. Of these, 70 received the PEG-IFN SOT and 40 received the PEG-IFN ST (control group). We based the decision whether to add adefovir and/or extend the PEG-IFN-based treatment to 96 weeks on the patients' 12-week or 24-week early virological response (12W EVR, at least a 2 log10 reduction in HBV DNA copies/mL at week 12; 24W EVR, at least 1 log10 reduction in HBsAg IU/mL or HBsAg <1500 IU/mL at week 24) and their 48-week partial response (48W PR, 1.0 ≤HBeAg ≤10.0 S/CO or HBeAg >10.0 S/CO but HBsAg <1000 IU/mL).The HBeAg seroconversion rate 24 weeks post-PEG-IFN treatment was significantly higher in the PEG-IFN SOT than the PEG-IFN ST group (50% vs 22.5%, P = 0.005). The HBsAg clearance rates in the PEG-IFN SOT and ST groups were 10% and 0% (P = 0.04), respectively. Receiving PEG-IFN SOT (OR = 0.26, P = 0.01), ALT × ULN at baseline (OR = 0.74, P = 0.003), and achieving 12 and 24W EVR (OR = 0.29, P = 0.03) were independent factors associated with HBeAg seroconversion.PEG-IFN SOT is a promising strategy for achieving high rates of serological response in HBeAg-positive CHB patients.

  6. Ticks Take Cues from Mammalian Interferon.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Aravinda M

    2016-07-13

    Interferons are considered a first line of immune defense restricted to vertebrates. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Smith et al. (2016) demonstrate that mammalian interferon γ activates an antimicrobial response within ticks feeding on blood. The study suggests that arthropods have a parallel interferon-like defense system. PMID:27414493

  7. Treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes with prednisone, hydroxyurea, and interferon.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The hypereosinophilic syndromes continue to challenge our clinical acumen and skills. Prednisone, hydroxyurea, and interferon alpha 2b are three of the oldest agents that allow control of eosinophilia and its devastating clinical consequences. They still work. As our experience with them has grown, it has become evident that use of these agents in combination will control eosinophilia in most patients. Moreover, with time, the doses can frequently be reduced. Even with the advent of newer agents for treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes, these three medications still afford an excellent, cost-effective avenue for disease management.

  8. Effects of interferon on antibody formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the effects of interferon on primary and secondary antibody responses and of the relationship of interferon to other cytokines, or cell products, are presented. Dosage- and timing-dependent immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive activities of interferon are documented for mouse spleen cell cultures and for mice infected with murine hepatitis virus (MHV-3). A possibility that altered interferon production might lead to immunopathological disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, AIDS, arthritis, etc., is discussed. Latest technological developments are presented that indicate that interferon does apparently play a major role in the regulation of antibody responses.

  9. Development of CD8 alpha/beta + TCR alpha beta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in athymic nu/nu mice and participation in regional immune responses.

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, M; Emoto, Y; Kaufmann, S H

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of the CD8 coreceptor expression, T-cell receptor (TCR)alpha beta-bearing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) segregate into two populations. The CD8 alpha alpha + TCR alpha beta i-IEL develop thymus independently, whereas the CD8 alpha beta + TCR alpha beta i-IEL are generally considered to be thymus dependent. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a distinct population of CD8 alpha beta + TCR alpha beta i-IEL in individual athymic nu/nu mice. The i-IEL encompassing CD8 alpha beta + TCR alpha beta cells expressed potent cytolytic and interferon-gamma-producing activities. These findings demonstrate that CD8 alpha beta + TCR alpha beta i-IEL can develop in nu/nu mice independently from a functional thymus and suggest that these cells, directly or indirectly, perform biological functions in the gut. PMID:8881753

  10. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    PubMed

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent. PMID:26958928

  11. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. PMID:27472900

  12. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  13. Results of space experiment program "interferon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tálas, Margarita; Bátkai, László; Stöger, Ivana; Nagy, Károly; Hiros, László; Konstantinova, Irina; Rykova, Marina; Mozgovaya, Irina; Guseva, Olga; Kozharinov, Valerii

    The results of the biological space experiment "Interferon" performed by two international cosmonaut teams (26 May 1980, and 16 May 1981) aboard space laboratory Solyut-6 are reported: (1) Human lymphocytes separated from blood of healthy donors and placed into "Interferon I" equipment could be kept for 7 days in suspension culture under spaceflight conditons. Interferon production could be induced in human lymphocytes by preparations of different origin: virus, synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial protein and plant pigment. An increased lymphocyte interferon production in space laboratory compared to ground control was observed. (2) Human interferon preparations and interferon inducers placed in space laboratory at room temperature for 7 days maintained their biological activity. (3) A decrease of induced interferon production and natural killer activity of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of cosmonauts was observed on the 1st day on Earth after 7-days spaceflight.

  14. Type I interferon as a link between innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tough, David F

    2004-02-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) is expressed rapidly after infection and plays a key role in innate defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown that a connection exists between IFN-alpha/beta and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) at two levels. Firstly, a specific DC precursor, the plasmacytoid pre-DC (p-preDC), was identified as a cell type able to secrete very high amounts of IFN-alpha/beta following stimulation with infectious agents. Secondly, IFN-alpha/beta has been shown to act as a differentiation/maturation factor for DCs. These findings will be discussed in association with evidence indicating that IFN-alpha/beta can enhance and modulate immune responses in vivo. Taken together, the available data suggest that IFN-alpha/beta serves as a link between the innate response to infection and the adaptive immune response. PMID:15101709

  15. Activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 is inhibited by the influenza A virus NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Talon, J; Horvath, C M; Polley, R; Basler, C F; Muster, T; Palese, P; García-Sastre, A

    2000-09-01

    We present a novel mechanism by which viruses may inhibit the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) cascade. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein NS1 of influenza virus is shown to prevent the potent antiviral interferon response by inhibiting the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a key regulator of IFN-alpha/beta gene expression. IRF-3 activation and, as a consequence, IFN-beta mRNA induction are inhibited in wild-type (PR8) influenza virus-infected cells but not in cells infected with an isogenic virus lacking the NS1 gene (delNS1 virus). Furthermore, NS1 is shown to be a general inhibitor of the interferon signaling pathway. Inhibition of IRF-3 activation can be achieved by the expression of wild-type NS1 in trans, not only in delNS1 virus-infected cells but also in cells infected with a heterologous RNA virus (Newcastle disease virus). We propose that inhibition of IRF-3 activation by a dsRNA binding protein significantly contributes to the virulence of influenza A viruses and possibly to that of other viruses.

  16. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.

    1987-06-01

    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes.

  17. Bioreducible BPEI-SS-PEG-cNGR polymer as a tumor targeted nonviral gene carrier.

    PubMed

    Son, Sejin; Singha, Kaushik; Kim, Won Jong

    2010-08-01

    The work demonstrated development of multifunctional gene carrier which has incorporated reducible moiety, tumor targeting ligands as well as PEG to achieve efficient release of pDNA, enhanced tumor-specificity and long circulation, respectively. In our successful one-pot synthesis of multifunctional polymer, low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) was thiolated with propylene sulfide, and mixed with alpha-Maleimide-omega-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester polyethylene glycol (MAL-PEG-NHS, MW: 5000), and cyclic NGR peptide. The structural elucidation of the cNGR conjugated reducible BPEI containing disulfide bond (BPEI-SS-PEG-cNGR), was done by NMR and GPC study. Complex formation as well as reducible property of the polymer was confirmed by gel retardation assay. In order to achieve efficient tumor targeting, we have used cNGR peptide which is known to bind to CD13 overexpressed in neovasculature endothelial cells. Tumor target-specificity of polymer was established by carrying out competitive inhibition assay with free cNGR peptide. Cellular uptake of polymers was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Finally, addition of free cNGR and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) reduced transfection efficiency synergistically, which implied that multifunctional polymer-mediated gene transfection took place tumor-specifically and via GSH-dependent pathway.

  18. Interferon gamma blocks the growth of Toxoplasma gondii in human fibroblasts by inducing the host cells to degrade tryptophan.

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, E R

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of human fibroblasts with human recombinant gamma interferon blocked the growth of Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. Growth of the parasite was measured by a plaque assay 7 days after infection or by the incorporation of [3H]uracil 1 or 2 days after infection. The antitoxoplasma activity induced in the host cells by gamma interferon was strongly dependent upon the tryptophan concentration of the medium. Progressively higher minimal inhibitory concentrations of gamma interferon were observed as the tryptophan concentration in the culture medium was increased. Treatment with gamma interferon did not make the cells impermeable to tryptophan. The kinetics of [3H]tryptophan uptake into the acid-soluble pools of control and gamma interferon-treated cultures were identical during the first 48 sec. Thereafter uptake of [3H]tryptophan into the acid-soluble pool of control fibroblasts reached the expected plateau after 96 sec. In contrast, uptake of [3H]tryptophan continued for at least 12 min in the gamma interferon-treated cultures. At that time, the acid-soluble pool of the gamma interferon-treated cultures contained 8 times the radioactivity of the control cultures. This continued accumulation was the result of rapid intracellular degradation of [3H]tryptophan into kynurenine and N-formylkynurenine that leaked slowly from the cells. These two metabolites were also recovered from the medium of cultures treated for 1 or 2 days with gamma interferon. Human recombinant alpha and beta interferons, which have no antitoxoplasma activity, did not induce any detectable degradation of tryptophan. Several hypotheses are presented to explain how the intracellular degradation of tryptophan induced by gamma interferon could restrict the growth of an obligate intracellular parasite. Images PMID:6422465

  19. Transmembrane-mediated changes in [Ca2+] are involved in the signaling pathway leading to macrophage cytocidal differentiation: implications of localized changes in intracellular [Ca2+] and of interferon priming on Ca2+ utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, G A; Riches, D W

    1992-01-01

    Macrophage cytocidal activation requires the sequential impingement on the macrophage of a priming stimulus (interferon [IFN] alpha, beta, or gamma) and a triggering stimulus (such as polyinosinic acid:polycytidylic acid [poly [I:C

  20. Modeling and self-assembly behavior of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohan; Li, Suming; Coumes, Fanny; Darcos, Vincent; Lai Kee Him, Joséphine; Bron, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PLA-PEG) triblock copolymers with symmetric or asymmetric chain structures were synthesized by combination of ring-opening polymerization and copper-catalyzed click chemistry. The resulting copolymers were used to prepare self-assembled aggregates by dialysis. Various architectures such as nanotubes, polymersomes and spherical micelles were observed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryo-TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The formation of diverse aggregates is explained by modeling from the angle of both geometry and thermodynamics. From the angle of geometry, a ``blob'' model based on the Daoud-Cotton model for star polymers is proposed to describe the aggregate structures and structural changes with copolymer composition and molar mass. In fact, the copolymer chains extend in aqueous medium to form single layer polymersomes to minimize the system's free energy if one of the two PEG blocks is short enough. The curvature of polymersomes is dependent on the chain structure of copolymers, especially on the length of PLA blocks. A constant branch number of aggregates (f) is thus required to preserve the morphology of polymersomes. Meanwhile, the aggregation number (Nagg) determined from the thermodynamics of self-assembly is roughly proportional to the total length of polymer chains. Comparing f to Nagg, the aggregates take the form of polymersomes if Nagg ~ f, and change to nanotubes if Nagg > f to conform to the limits from both curvature and aggregation number. The length of nanotubes is mainly determined by the difference between Nagg and f. However, the hollow structure becomes unstable when both PEG segments are too long, and the aggregates eventually collapse to yield spherical micelles. Therefore, this work gives new insights into the self-assembly behavior of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers in aqueous solution which present great interest for biomedical and

  1. SnapShot: Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kwan T; Gale, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Interferons (IFNs) are crucial cytokines of antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The three types of IFN (I, II, and III) are classified by their receptor specificity and sequence homology. IFNs are produced and secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the subsequent IFN signaling events occurring through unique receptors leading to regulation of gene expression for modulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  2. Alternative promoters of Peg3 with maternal specificity

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Bambarendage P. U.; Kim, Joomyeong

    2016-01-01

    Peg3 (paternally expressed gene 3) is an imprinted gene localized within an evolutionarily conserved 500-kb domain in human chromosome 19q13.4 and mouse proximal chromosome 7. In the current study, we have identified three alternative promoters for mouse Peg3 and one alternative promoter for human PEG3. These alternative promoters are localized within the 200-kb upstream region of human and mouse PEG3, which is well conserved and thus predicted to harbor several cis-regulatory elements for the PEG3 domain. In the mouse, two of these alternative promoters drive maternal-specific expression of Peg3 specifically in the hypothalamus of the adult brain, while the remaining third promoter drives bi-allelic expression of Peg3 with a paternal bias only in the neonatal-stage brain. In human, an alternative transcript is also detected at relatively very low levels in adult brain and placenta. Overall, the identification of alternative promoters in both mouse and human models suggests that these alternative promoters may be functionally selected features for the PEG3 imprinted domain during mammalian evolution. PMID:27075691

  3. Regulation of interferon receptor expression in human blood lymphocytes in vitro and during interferon therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A.S.; Hannigan, G.E.; Freedman, M.H.; Williams, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with /sup 125/I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus, the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy.

  4. Effect of PEG pairing on the efficiency of cancer-targeting liposomes.

    PubMed

    Saw, Phei Er; Park, Jinho; Lee, Eunbeol; Ahn, Sukyung; Lee, Jinju; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jinjoo; Choi, Minsuk; Farokhzad, Omid C; Jon, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    Standardized poly(ethylene glycol)-modified (PEGylated) liposomes, which have been widely used in research as well as in pre-clinical and clinical studies, are typically constructed using PEG with a molecular weight of 2000 Da (PEG(2000)). Targeting ligands are also generally conjugated using various functionalized PEG(2000)). However, although standardized protocols have routinely used PEG(2000), it is not because this molecular weight PEG has been optimized to enhance tumor uptake of nanoparticles. Herein, we investigated the effect of various PEG lipid pairings--that is, PEG lipids for targeting-ligand conjugation and PEG lipids for achieving 'stealth' function--on in vitro cancer cell- and in vivo tumor-targeting efficacy. A class of high-affinity peptides (aptides) specific to extra domain B of fibronectin (APT(EDB)) was used as a representative model for a cancer-targeting ligand. We synthesized a set of aptide-conjugated PEGylated phospholipids (APT(EDB)‑PEG(2000))‑DSPE and APT(EDB)‑PEG(2000))‑DSPE) and then paired them with methoxy-capped PEGylated phospholipids with diverse molecular weights (PEG(2000)), PEG(2000)), PEG(2000)), and PEG(2000))) to construct various aptide-conjugated PEGylated liposomes. The liposomes with APT(EDB)‑PEG(2000))/PEG(2000)) and APT(EDB)‑PEG(2000))/PEG(2000)) pairings had the highest uptake in EDB-positive cancer cells. Furthermore, in a U87MG xenograft model, APT(EDB)‑PEG(2000))/PEG(2000)) liposomes retarded tumor growth to the greatest extent, followed closely by APT(EDB)‑PEG(2000))/PEG(2000)) liposomes. Among the PEGylated liposomes tested, pairs in which the methoxy-capped PEG length was about half that of the targeting ligand-displaying PEG exhibited the best performance, suggesting that PEG pairing is a key consideration in the design of drug-delivery vehicles. PMID:25897339

  5. Silicate minerals and the interferon system

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N.; Booth, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    Natural-occurring minerals representative of six silicate classes were examined for their influence on interferon induction by influenza virus in Rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK/sub 2/) cell monolayers. Minerals within the classes nesosilicate, sorosilicate, cyclosilicate, and inosilicate exhibited either little or marked (50% or greater) inhibition of interferon induction. Within the inosilicate class, however, minerals of the pyroxenoid group (wollastonite, pectolite, and rhodonite) all significantly showed a two- to threefold increase in interferon production. Silicate materials in the phyllosilicate and tectosilicate classes all showed inhibitory activity for the induction process. When silicate minerals were coated with the polymer poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), the inhibitory activity of silicates on viral interferon induction was counteracted. Of nine randomly selected silicate minerals, which inhibited viral interferon induction, none adversely affected the ability of exogenous interferon to confer antiviral cellular resistance. Increased levels of influenza virus multiplication concomitant with decreased levels of interferon occurred in cell monolayers pretreated with silicates. The findings of this study demonstrate the diverse effects of minerals representative of different silicate classes on the interferon system and indicate that certain silicates in comprising the viral interferon induction process may increase susceptibility to viral infection.

  6. Inhibition of Rev-mediated HIV-1 expression by an RNA binding protein encoded by the interferon-inducible 9-27 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Constantoulakis, P.; Campbell, M.; Felber, B.K.; Nasioulas, G.; Afonina, E.; Pavlakis, G.N. )

    1993-02-26

    Interferon inhibits expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) through unknown mechanisms. A gene inducible by interferon-[alpha] (IFN-[alpha]) and interferon-[gamma] (IFN-[gamma]) was isolated by screening of a human complementary DNA library for proteins binding to the Rev-responsive element (RRE) of HIV-1. The product of this gene, RBP9-27, was shown to bind RNA in vitro and to inhibit HIV-1 expression after transfection into human cells. RBP9-27 primarily inhibited Rev-dependent posttransscriptional steps of viral gene expression. Thus, RBP9-27 is a cellular factor that antagonizes Rev function. These results suggest an inteferon-induced antiviral mechanism operating through the induction of RNA binding proteins such as RBP9-27. Elucidation of RBP9-27 function may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of interferon action during HIV-1 infection. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Nasal absorption of interferon: Enhancement by surfactant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, C.; Phipps, R.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of spraying the nasal mucosa with an aerosol of recombinant human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha 2a) was studied in an animal model, the sheep, because cultures of sheep cells were found to be responsive to the antiviral activity of this IFN. Binding assays with {sup 125}I-labeled IFN-alpha 2a detected very few receptors in sheep nasal mucosa, but a membrane fraction prepared from this mucosa had abundant high-affinity receptors. Nasal mucosa homogenates were prepared from the turbinates of sheep that had been sprayed with IFN-alpha 2a aerosols, and the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) activity induced in response was measured. To try to enhance the permeability of the mucosa, surfactant agents were added to the IFN and aerosols generated. There were measurable levels of 2-5A synthetase after aerosols with added sodium deoxycholate or, better, polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether. This latter surfactant was well tolerated in previous studies with intranasally administered insulin. The level of 2-5A synthetase induced was related to the dose of IFN, and the increased activity persisted up to 72 h after an IFN aerosol. These studies suggest that surfactant agents may make IFN aerosols much more effective for the prophylaxis of respiratory virus infections.

  8. A type I interferon signature characterizes chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rascio, Federica; Pontrelli, Paola; Accetturo, Matteo; Oranger, Annarita; Gigante, Margherita; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gigante, Maddalena; Zito, Anna; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Ranieri, Elena; Stallone, Giovanni; Gesualdo, Loreto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) represents the main cause of kidney graft loss. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition, we characterized the molecular signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and, separately, of CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from CAMR patients, compared to kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology. We enrolled 29 patients with biopsy-proven CAMR, 29 stable transplant recipients (controls), and 8 transplant recipients with clinical and histological evidence of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. Messenger RNA and microRNA profiling of PBMCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was performed using Agilent microarrays in eight randomly selected patients per group from CAMR and control subjects. Results were evaluated statistically and by functional pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and validated in the remaining subjects. In PBMCs, 45 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups, most of which were up-regulated in CAMR and were involved in type I interferon signalling. In the same patients, 16 microRNAs were down-regulated in CAMR subjects compared to controls: four were predicted modulators of six mRNAs identified in the transcriptional analysis. In silico functional analysis supported the involvement of type I interferon signalling. To further confirm this result, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in an independent group of patients, observing that the activation of type I interferon signalling was a specific hallmark of CAMR. In addition, in CAMR patients, we detected a reduction of circulating BDCA2(+) dendritic cells, the natural type I interferon-producing cells, and their recruitment into the graft along with increased expression of MXA, a type I interferon-induced protein, at the tubulointerstitial and vascular level. Finally, interferon alpha mRNA expression was significantly increased in CAMR compared to control

  9. Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Treated with the Combined Pegylated Interferon-Ribavirin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Iman; Eid, Yara; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Marzaban, Raghda; Abdul-Kareem, Shaimaa

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an Egyptian serious national health problem. The combination of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) with ribavirin (RIB) was considered the established therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and it was associated with several adverse effects, including thyroid dysfunction (TD). The aim of this work was to study TD in CHC patients receiving PEG-IFN+ RIB therapy. This retrospective study included 100 adult patients attending the outpatient clinics at AL-Kahera Al-Fatemya hospital and were eligible candidates for PEG-IFN+ RIB therapy. Thyroid hormonal profile (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine) was done before initiation of treatment (week 0) and at weeks 12, 24, 48, and 72. The incidence of TD was more evident by the end of treatment (week 48); it was found to be 35%, mostly in the form of hypothyroidism, while the least incidence was detected by week 12 (2%), all in the form of hyperthyroidism. Generally, hypothyroidism was higher than hyperthyroidism in multiple folds. Thyroid profile was not significantly related to viral load. PMID:27333271

  10. Recessive genetic deregulation abrogates c-myc suppression by interferon and is implicated in oncogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kimchi, A.; Resnitzky, D.; Ber, R.; Gat, G.

    1988-07-01

    Previously the authors demonstrated that many hematopoietic tumor cells are resistant to the inhibitory effects that interferon exerts on c-myc mRNA expression without losing other receptor-mediated intracellular responses. They report here that this partial resistance was overridden in two independent stable somatic cell hybrids prepared by fusion between sensitive and resistant cells. The c-myc mRNA transcribed from the active allele of the resistant parent cell was reduced by interferon within the context of the cell hybrid. It was therefore concluded that changes in the cis-acting sequences of c-myc were not involved in this type of relaxed regulation and that resistance resulted rather from inactivation or loss of postreceptor elements which operate in trans. The growth-stimulating effect that this genetic deregulation might have on cells was tested in experimental systems of cell differentiation in which an autocrine interferon is produced. For that purpose the authors isolated variant clones of M1 myeloid cells which were partially resistant to alpha and beta interferons and tested their growth behaviour during in vitro-induced differentiation. The resistant clones displayed higher proliferative activity on days 2 and 3 of differentiation than did the sensitive clones, which stopped proliferating. The loss of c-myc responses to the self-produced interferon disrupted the normal cessation of growth during differentiation and therefore might lead cells along the pathway of neoplasia.

  11. Isolation of human beta-interferon receptor by wheat germ lectin affinity and immunosorbent column chromatographies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Fournier, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    1986-06-15

    Radioiodinated human beta-interferon-Ser 17 (Betaseron) was reversibly cross-linked to Daudi cells by dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate). The radioactive ligand was cross-linked to three macromolecules forming labeled complexes of apparent Mr values of 130,000, 220,000, and 320,000. Betaseron, human alpha-interferon, human interleukin 2 but not recombinant human gamma-interferon competed with the labeled ligand for binding to these putative receptor(s). Human leukocyte-produced gamma-interferon competed weakly with /sup 125/I-Betaseron for binding to Daudi cells. The Betaseron-receptor complex(es) was purified by passage through a wheat germ lectin column followed by chromatography on an anti-interferon immunosorbent column and semipreparative gel electrophoresis. The cross-linked ligand-receptor complex was shown to be highly purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate and acetic acid:urea:Triton X-100 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It can be dissociated into the labeled Betaseron (Mr = 17,000) ligand and a receptor moiety which has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000. The chromatographic behavior of the ligand-receptor complex on wheat germ lectin column suggests that the receptor is a glycoprotein. The described procedure yielded about 1 microgram of Betaseron receptor from 10(10) Daudi cells, estimated to contain a maximum of about 15 micrograms of the receptor.

  12. Sarcoidosis and multiple sclerosis: systemic toxicity associated with the use of interferon-beta therapy.

    PubMed

    Carbonelli, C; Montepietra, S; Caruso, A; Cavazza, A; Feo, C; Menzella, F; Motti, L; Zucchi, L

    2012-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by the presence of noncaseating epitheloid cell granulomas in multiple organs. Diagnosis is made on the basis of a compatible clinical-radiological scenario and the histological demonstration of the typical granulomas in the affected tissues. Interferons are immuno-modulators that have been used in a wide range of diseases, including hepatitis C virus infection, multiple sclerosis, and multiple myeloma and other types of tumours, including leukemia, lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and melanoma. Interferon-alpha-induced sarcoidosis has been reported repeatedly and there are two reports in the literature of cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis treated with interferon-1b therapy: one for advanced renal cell carcinoma and the other for multiple myeloma. A 35-year-old man on chronic immune-modulant Interferon-1b-based therapy for multiple sclerosis presented to the Neurology Unit with mild dyspnoea, dry cough, and transient pain to right upper abdomen. Lungs, spleen, liver, and almost all lymphnode stations of abdomen and mediastinum were clearly involved on ultrasound examination, chest X-ray, and computed tomography. A transbronchial biopsy showed non-caseating granuloma on histopathologic evaluation of the lungs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis that was associated with interferon-beta treatment.

  13. Reduced synthesis of pp60src and expression of the transformation-related phenotype in interferon-treated Rous sarcoma virus-transformed rat cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, S L; Garber, E A; Wang, E; Caliguiri, L A; Schellekens, H; Goldberg, A R; Tamm, I

    1983-09-01

    Treatment of Rous sarcoma virus-transformed rat cells with rat interferon-alpha (specific activity, 10(6) U/mg of protein) for 24 h caused a 50% reduction in intracellular pp60src-associated protein kinase activity. Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion of pp60src, derived from 32P-labeled monolayer cultures incubated with or without interferon, revealed no differences either in the phosphopeptide pattern or in the phosphoserine-phosphotyrosine ratio. However, [3H]leucine pulse-labeling experiments showed that the synthesis of pp60src was reduced by 42 to 48%, relative to the level of bulk protein synthesis, in the interferon-treated cultures. Rat interferon-alpha also reduced the growth rate of Rous sarcoma virus-transformed rat cells in a dose-dependent manner over a 72-h period. The decrease in growth rate was accompanied by increases in the thickness and number of actin fibers per cell and by a decline in intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation by pp60src. The results suggest that interferon can inhibit the expression of the transformation-related phenotype by selectively reducing the synthesis of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming gene product. However, the interferon effects on the cytoskeletal organization and proliferation of Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells may be due at least in part to the predominance of interferon-induced phenotypic changes over those caused by pp60src. PMID:6314124

  14. Beyond interferon: rationale and prospects for newer treatment paradigms for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in a chronic carrier state in 80% of individuals infected with the virus and presently affects over 170 million people worldwide. Approximately 20% of those chronically infected will ultimately progress to develop cirrhosis and death due to end-stage liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unlike many other chronic viral infections, effective treatments for HCV are available. Cure from the infection is known as a sustained virologic response (SVR). SVR is associated with reversal of the long-term outcomes of chronic liver disease, decrease in incidence of HCC, and decrease HCV attributable mortality. The current FDA approved therapies for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (GT-1) include pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) in combination with a directly acting antiviral agent (DAA). New therapeutic advances are being made aiming to simplify management, improve the tolerability of treatment, and shorten the duration of therapy. Moreover, treatment regimens that will effectively eradicate hepatitis C without the use of interferon formulations (IFN) are being developed. In this review, we report the transition of HCV therapeutics from an interferon-α based combination therapy to an all-oral, directly acting antiviral therapy. PMID:25553238

  15. Co-treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and entecavir for hepatitis D: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Memon, Mohammad Sadik; Umer, Muhammad Amir; Abbas, Minaam; Shazi, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFNα) therapy with and without entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis D. METHODS: Forty hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA positive patients were randomized to receive either PEG-IFNα-2a 180 μg weekly in combination with entecavir 0.5 mg daily (n = 21) or PEG-IFNα alone (n =19). Patients who failed to show 2 log reduction in HDV RNA level at 24 wk of treatment, or had detectable HDV RNA at 48 wk of therapy were considered as treatment failure. Treatment was continued for 72 wk in the rest of the patients. All the patients were followed for 24 wk post treatment. Intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 6.8 years, 31 were male. Two log reduction in HDV RNA levels at 24 wk of therapy was achieved in 9 (43%) patients receiving combination therapy and 12 (63%) patients receiving PEG-IFNα alone (P = 0.199). Decline in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels was insignificant. At the end of treatment, HDV RNA was negative in 8 patients (38%) receiving combination therapy and 10 patients (53%) receiving PEG-IFNα-2a alone. Virological response persisted in 7 (33%) and 8 (42%) patients, respectively at the end of the 24 wk follow-up period. One responder patient in the combination arm lost HBsAg and became hepatitis B surface antibody positive. Six out of 14 baseline hepatitis B e antigen reactive patients seroconverted and four of these seroconverted patients had persistent HDV RNA clearance. CONCLUSION: Administration of PEG-IFNα-2a with or without entecavir, resulted in persistent HDV RNA clearance in 37% of patients. The addition of entecavir did not improve the overall response. PMID:27190579

  16. Pegylated interferon for the treatment of early myelofibrosis: correlation of serial laboratory studies with response to therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Caitlin; Siddiqi, Imran; Brynes, Russell K; Vergara-Lluri, Maria; Moschiano, Elizabeth; O'Connell, Casey

    2016-04-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN) has been shown to induce hematologic and molecular responses in patients with the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). We describe a series of patients with long-standing MPNs among whom Peg-IFN was initiated when they developed anemia and increased bone marrow reticulin fibrosis suggestive of early transformation to post-ET (PET) or post-PV (PPV) myelofibrosis (MF). Six patients were treated with Peg-IFN for a mean duration of 33.8 months (range 2-63 months). Five patients had long-standing ET (three were calreticulin (CALR)-positive, one janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-positive, and one JAK2-negative and CALR-negative), and one had long-standing JAK2-positive PV prior to starting Peg-IFN. This is the first study to report that, concurrent with the improvement in anemia, serial laboratory studies demonstrate an increase in serum LDH and left-shifted myeloid cells in the peripheral circulation over approximately 6 months, followed by a gradual normalization of these findings. Splenomegaly also increased and then resolved among responding patients. Serial bone marrow biopsies were available, which showed little change except for improvement in the grade of reticulin fibrosis in two patients. Among patients with early transformation to PET or PPV MF, our data support the efficacy of Peg-IFN in improving hemoglobin levels and reducing splenomegaly. These peripheral blood findings should not, therefore, be considered evidence of treatment failure within the first year of Peg-IFN therapy. PMID:26961933

  17. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  18. PEGylation of αα-Hb using succinimidyl propionic acid PEG 5K: Conjugation chemistry and PEG shell structure dictate respectively the oxygen affinity and resuscitation fluid like properties of PEG αα-Hbs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fantao; Tsai, Amy G; Intaglietta, Marcos; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2015-01-01

    PEGylation of intramolecularly crosslinked Hb has been studied here to overcome the limitation of dissociation of Hb tetramers. New hexa and deca PEGylated low oxygen affinity PEG-ααHbs have been generated. Influence of PEG conjugation chemistry and the PEG shell structure on the functional properties as well as PEGylation induced plasma expander like properties of the protein has been delineated. The results have established that in the design of PEG-Hbs as oxygen therapeutics, the influence of conjugation chemistry and the PEG shell structure on the oxygen affinity of Hb needs to be optimized independently besides optimizing the PEG shell structure for inducing resuscitation fluid like properties.

  19. Synthesis and processing in Escherichia coli of human leucocyte interferon fused with the signal sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a-amylase

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, A.V.; Avakov, A.S.; Bogush, V.G.; Kostrov, S.V.; Gaiga, G.Z.; Iomantas, Yu.V.; Abalakina, E.G.; Stepanov, A.I.; Strongin, A.Ya.; Kozlov, Yu.I.; Debabov, V.G.

    1985-11-01

    Earlier, the authors reported cloning of the alpha-amylase gene of B. amyloliquefaciens in B. subtilis and E. coli. Currently, the authors report results on the expression of the hybrid gene consisting of the DNA fragment coding for the leader part of B. amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase and the structural part of the human interferon alpha-2 in E. coli cells. This gene contains an additional methionine codon at the 5'-terminal, which codes for the interferon structure (without its own signal peptide). The interferon gene was inserted into plasmid /sub p/TG 278 at the cleavage site of EcoRI. The structure of the plasmid thus obtained the signal peptide of amylase, five amino acids (Val-Gly-Glu-Phe-Met), and the structural part of the interferon. The E. coli C600 cells carrying plasmid pTGA6 were used to study interferon secretions. The interferon activity was determined radioimmunologically with the use of monoclonal anti-bodies NK2.

  20. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Bethany A.; Powers, Linda S.; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks. PMID:26562011

  1. Spinal cord fusion with PEG-GNRs (TexasPEG): Neurophysiological recovery in 24 hours in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Sikkema, William K. A.; Hwang, In-Kyu; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Un Jeng; Lee, Bae Hwan; Tour, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, for the first time, we report the effects of locally applied water-soluble, conductive PEG(polyethylene glycol)ylated graphene nanoribbons (PEG-GNRs) on neurophysiologic conduction after sharp cervical cord transection in rats. PEG-GNRs were produced by the polymerization of ethylene oxide from anion-edged graphene nanoribbons. These combine the fusogenic potential of PEG with the electrical conducting properties of the graphene nanoribbons. Methods: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After applying PEG-GNR on the severed part, electrophysiological recovery of the reconstructed cervical spinal cord was confirmed by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) at 24 h after surgery. Results: While no SSEPs were detected in the control group, PEG-GNR treated group showed fast recovery of SSEPs at 24 h after the surgery. Conclusion: In this preliminary dataset, for the first time, we report the effect of a novel form of PEG with the goal of rapid reconstruction of a sharply severed spinal cord. PMID:27656326

  2. Spinal cord fusion with PEG-GNRs (TexasPEG): Neurophysiological recovery in 24 hours in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Sikkema, William K. A.; Hwang, In-Kyu; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Un Jeng; Lee, Bae Hwan; Tour, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, for the first time, we report the effects of locally applied water-soluble, conductive PEG(polyethylene glycol)ylated graphene nanoribbons (PEG-GNRs) on neurophysiologic conduction after sharp cervical cord transection in rats. PEG-GNRs were produced by the polymerization of ethylene oxide from anion-edged graphene nanoribbons. These combine the fusogenic potential of PEG with the electrical conducting properties of the graphene nanoribbons. Methods: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After applying PEG-GNR on the severed part, electrophysiological recovery of the reconstructed cervical spinal cord was confirmed by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) at 24 h after surgery. Results: While no SSEPs were detected in the control group, PEG-GNR treated group showed fast recovery of SSEPs at 24 h after the surgery. Conclusion: In this preliminary dataset, for the first time, we report the effect of a novel form of PEG with the goal of rapid reconstruction of a sharply severed spinal cord.

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  4. The heterogeneous expression of CD80, CD86 and other adhesion molecules on leukemia and lymphoma cells and their induction by interferon.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, N; Aoki, S; Maruyama, S; Kishi, K; Takahashi, M; Aizawa, Y

    1997-06-01

    CD80 (B7/BB-1, B7-1) and CD86 (B70, B7-2) take an important role in the interaction between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APCs) as co-stimulatory molecules. We analyzed the manifestation of adhesion molecules, including CD80 and CD86, on some leukemia and lymphoma cells. Constitutive expression of CD80 and/or CD86 was frequently observed on B cell leukemia/lymphoma cells, while it is rare on myeloid leukemia cells. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) amplified the manifestation of MHC class I and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) did both class I and class II. We also showed CD80 could be induced by IFN-alpha on K562 cells, which were originally negative for CD80. Our data implies the immunotherapy via CD80 and CD86 for patients with hematological malignancies and the possibility to enhance it using interferons.

  5. The evolving role of interferons in viral eradication strategies.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines that are released when viral infection is sensed by pattern recognition receptors. They induce an antiviral state in target cells through influencing the expression of hundreds of genes termed IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which interfere with the replication of viruses in wide-ranging ways, and they have stimulatory effects on antiviral cell-mediated immunity. Although the role of therapeutic IFNs in the management of infectious diseases has predominantly been restricted to the treatment of chronic hepatotropic viruses, IFNs have effects on the replication of diverse families of viruses in cell culture models, and the potential to harness our endogenous defence system through therapeutic modulation of IFN pathways remains a tantalising prospect for both the broad-spectrum and tailored treatment of viral infections. Additionally, the study of the IFN system has become crucial to our understanding of host/pathogen molecular interactions, which provides plentiful targets for small molecule inhibitors of infection. Although the emergence of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) has resulted in the displacement of pegylated IFNα (pegIFNα) for the treatment of HCV, recent findings have suggested potential roles for IFNs and IFN-related therapies in HIV and HBV eradication strategies, opening up a new avenue of research for this important family of cytokines. PMID:27482449

  6. LOTUS NUV-Optical Spectroscopy of AG Peg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Jermak, H. E.; Marchant, J. M.; Bates, S. D.

    2015-07-01

    We were alerted by Atel#7741to the ongoing outburst of the symbiotic nova AG Peg. This formed an ideal first science target for the new LOTUS NUV-optical spectrograph being commissioned at the Liverpool Telescope on La Palma.

  7. 17. INTERIOR OF STORAGE ROOM, ATTIC ACCESS, AND PEG BOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF STORAGE ROOM, ATTIC ACCESS, AND PEG BOARD ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Hydrographer's Office, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  9. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  10. [Improvement of sensitivity in the second generation HCV core antigen assay by a novel concentration method using polyethylene glycol (PEG)].

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Syundou, Hiromi; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2007-11-01

    A HCV core antigen (Ag) detection assay system, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag has been developed and is commercially available in Japan with a lower detection level limit of 50 fmol/l, which is equivalent to 20 KIU/ml in PCR quantitative assay. HCV core Ag assay has an advantage of broader dynamic range compared with PCR assay, however the sensitivity is lower than PCR. We developed a novel HCV core Ag concentration method using polyethylene glycol (PEG), which can improve the sensitivity five times better than the original assay. The reproducibility was examined by consecutive five-time measurement of HCV patients serum, in which the results of HCV core Ag original and concentrated method were 56.8 +/- 8.1 fmol/l (mean +/- SD), CV 14.2% and 322.9 +/- 45.5 fmol/l CV 14.0%, respectively. The assay results of HCV negative samples in original HCV core Ag were all 0.1 fmol/l and the results were same even in the concentration method. The results of concentration method were 5.7 times higher than original assay, which was almost equal to theoretical rate as expected. The assay results of serially diluted samples were also as same as expected data in both original and concentration assay. We confirmed that the sensitivity of HCV core Ag concentration method had almost as same sensitivity as PCR high range assay in the competitive assay study using the serially monitored samples of five HCV patients during interferon therapy. A novel concentration method using PEG in HCV core Ag assay system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring interferon treatment for HCV.

  11. New Low Volume Resuscitation Solutions Containing PEG-20k

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Dan; Plant, Valerie; Lindell, Susanne L.; Limkemann, Ashley; Reichstetter, Heather; Aboutanos, Michel; Mangino, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypovolemic shock reduces oxygen delivery and compromises energy dependent cell volume control. Consequent cell swelling compromises microcirculatory flow, which reducing oxygen exchange further. The importance of this mechanism is highlighted by the effectiveness of cell impermeants in low volume resuscitation (LVR) solutions in acute studies. The objective of this study was to assess impermeants in survival models and compare them to commonly used crystalloid solutions. Methods Adult rats were hemorrhaged to a pressure of 30–35 mm Hg, held there until the plasma lactate reached 10 mM, and given an LVR solution (5–10% blood volume) with saline alone (control), saline with various concentrations of Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k), hextend or albumin. When lactate again reached 10 mM following LVR, full resuscitation was started with crystalloid and red cells. Rats were either euthanized (acute) or allowed to recover (survival). The LVR time, which is the time from the start of the LVR solution until the start of full resuscitation was measured as was survival and diagnostic labs. In some studies, the capillary oncotic reflection coefficient was determined for PEG-20k to determine its relative impermeant and oncotic effects. Results PEG-20k (10%) significantly increased LVR times relative to saline (8 fold), hextend, and albumin. Lower amounts of PEG-20k (5%) were also effective but less so than 10% doses. PEG-20k maintained normal arterial pressure during the low volume state. Survival of a 180 minute LVR time challenge was 0% in saline controls and 100% in rats given PEG-20k as the LVR solution. Surviving rats had normal labs 24 hours later. PEG-20k had an oncotic reflection coefficient of 0.65, which indicates that the molecule is a hybrid cell impermeant with significant oncotic properties. Conclusions PEG-20k based LVR solutions are highly effective for inducing tolerance to the low volume state and for improving survival. PMID:26091310

  12. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  13. Structure of Cationic Liposome DNA Complexes Incorporating PEG Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kathrin; Subramanian, G.; Safinya, C. R.

    1998-03-01

    DNA cationic liposome complexes with PEG lipids are promising candidates for efficient transfection of DNA in vivo. The presence of PEG confers (a) colloidal stability and (b) increased circulation time of the complexes in the blood stream leading to long term transfection activity. However, there has been no elucidation of the structure of these complexes which is crucial for correlating the structure and transfection efficiency. We have carried out a systematic structural investigation of complexes incorporating PEG lipids using X-ray scattering. We have studied the structure of complexes made from DOTAP (a cationic lipid), DOPC (a neutral lipid), PEG-DMPE and λ-DNA both as a function of the PEG-DMPE and neutral lipid concentrations. We have produced stable complexes which form a multilamellar structure with alternating lipid bilayers and DNA molecules. The DNA molecules are ordered in a 2-D smectic array whose spacing is controlled by the concentrations of PEG-DMPE and the neutral lipid. Supported by NSF-DMR-9624091, PRF-31352-AC7, and Los Alamos-STB/UC:96-108.

  14. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  15. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique.

  16. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  17. Interferon effects on protozoan infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Wirth, J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of interferon (IFN) on mice infected with two different parasitic protozoans, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the cell cultures, IFN and assays, antibody, and the experimental procedures are described. It is observed that in cells treated with IFN-gamma there is an increased association of T. cruzi with murine macrophages and an increase in the killing of T. cruzi by IFN-gamma-treated murine macrophages. For spleen cells infected with T.b. rhodesiense in vitro, it is detected that live trypanosomes cannot induce IFN in cells from normal mice, but can in cells from immunized mice; and that trypanosome-lysates induce IFN in vitro in cells from normal mice. The data suggest that there is a two-step mechanism for mice against T. cruzi and T.b. rhodesiense.

  18. pH-sensitive poly(histidine)-PEG/DSPE-PEG co-polymer micelles for cytosolic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Zhu, Lin; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    To introduce pH sensitivity into the DSPE-PEG-based micellar system and achieve the quick intracellular drug release in response to the acidity in endosomes, a mixed polymeric micelle was developed based on three grafted copolymers, including 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol-2000(DSPE-PEG2000), antinucleosome antibody (mAb 2C5)-modified DSPE-PEG3400 (DSPE-PEG3400-2C5), and poly(ethylene glycol)-coupled poly(l-histidine) (PHIS-PEG2000). The structure of PHIS-PEG2000 was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The mixed micelles with the diameter ranging from 110 to 135nm were prepared using a dialysis method against pH 7.6 PBS. Paclitaxel (PCT) was used as a model drug, the encapsulation efficiency and loading content of PCT were 88% and 5%, respectively. The mixed micelles composed with 50wt% of PHIS-PEG2000 showed the desired pH-dependent drug release property with much faster drug release than micelles without PHIS-PEG2000. At pH around 5.5, about 75–95% of the loaded drug was released within 2 h. The MTT assay showed PCT-loaded mixed micelles had higher cytotoxicity at pH 5.8 than that at pH 7.4. Further modification of the mixed micelles with anti-cancer nucleosome- specific monoclonal antibody 2C5 significantly increased their cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity. Thus, the low pH in endosomes could trigger the PCT release from the pH-sensitive mixed micelles after 2C5-mediated endocytosis. The results of this study suggest that the mixed micelles (DSPE-PEG2000/DSPE-PEG3400-2C5/PHIS-PEG2000) could enhance the tumor cell-specific internalization and trigger the quick drug release, resulting in the improved anti-cancer efficacy. PMID:23102622

  19. pH-sensitive poly(histidine)-PEG/DSPE-PEG co-polymer micelles for cytosolic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Zhu, Lin; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    To introduce pH sensitivity into the DSPE-PEG-based micellar system and achieve the quick intracellular drug release in response to the acidity in endosomes, a mixed polymeric micelle was developed based on three grafted copolymers, including 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol-2000(DSPE-PEG(2000)), antinucleosome antibody (mAb 2C5)-modified DSPE-PEG(3400) (DSPE-PEG(3400)-2C5), and poly(ethylene glycol)-coupled poly(L-histidine) (PHIS-PEG(2000)). The structure of PHIS-PEG(2000) was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The mixed micelles with the diameter ranging from 110 to 135 nm were prepared using a dialysis method against pH 7.6 PBS. Paclitaxel (PCT) was used as a model drug, the encapsulation efficiency and loading content of PCT were 88% and 5%, respectively. The mixed micelles composed with 50 wt% of PHIS-PEG(2000) showed the desired pH-dependent drug release property with much faster drug release than micelles without PHIS-PEG(2000). At pH around 5.5, about 75-95% of the loaded drug was released within 2 h. The MTT assay showed PCT-loaded mixed micelles had higher cytotoxicity at pH 5.8 than that at pH 7.4. Further modification of the mixed micelles with anti-cancer nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody 2C5 significantly increased their cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity. Thus, the low pH in endosomes could trigger the PCT release from the pH-sensitive mixed micelles after 2C5-mediated endocytosis. The results of this study suggest that the mixed micelles (DSPE-PEG(2000)/DSPE-PEG(3400)-2C5/PHIS-PEG(2000)) could enhance the tumor cell-specific internalization and trigger the quick drug release, resulting in the improved anti-cancer efficacy. PMID:23102622

  20. A highly sensitive biosensor for tumor maker alpha fetoprotein based on poly(ethylene glycol) doped conducting polymer PEDOT.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Song, Zhiling; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Bing; Fan, Xiaojian; Luo, Xiliang

    2016-05-15

    Biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are of great significance in the development of bio-interfaces and biosensors, as they possess excellent biocompatibility and are easy for modification. A novel highly biocompatible polymer composite was synthesized herein through electrochemical polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a PEG derivative, 4-arm PEG terminated with thiol groups. The electrodeposited conducting polymer composite of PEG doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PEG) exhibited flake-like nanostructure, large surface area and outstanding stability. In order to further immobilize antibodies, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced to the PEDOT/PEG composite surface through their unique interaction with the thiol groups. AuNPs modified PEDOT/PEG provided a desirable support for the immobilization of various biomolecules such as antibodies for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a vital tumor biomarker for liver cancer. The fabricated AFP biosensor demonstrated favorable selectivity, high sensitivity, and ultralow detection limit. Furthermore, owing to the presence of PEG polymers that are highly hydrophilic, such AuNPs/PEDOT/PEG based AFP biosensor also exhibited good anti-fouling ability, and it was capable of assaying target AFP in 10% (V/V) human serum samples, indicating highly feasible potential for clinical diagnosis.

  1. Effects of Pegylated Interferon/Ribavirin on Bone Turnover Markers in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minhee; Tebas, Pablo; Overton, Edgar T.; Hollabaugh, Kimberly; McComsey, Grace; Bhattacharya, Debika; Evans, Christopher; Brown, Todd T.; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients have a 3-fold increased fracture incidence compared to uninfected patients. The impact of HCV therapy on bone health is unclear. We evaluated bone turnover markers (BTM) in well-controlled (HIV RNA <50 copies/ml) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who received pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in ACTG trial A5178. Early virologic responders (EVR: ≥2 log HCV RNA drop at week 12) continued PEG-IFN/RBV and non-EVRs were randomized to continuation of PEG-IFN alone or observation. We assessed changes in C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX; bone resorption marker) and procollagen type I intact N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; bone formation marker), and whether BTM changes were associated with EVR, complete early virologic response (cEVR: HCV RNA <600 IU/ml at week 12), or PEG-IFN treatment. A total of 192 subjects were included. After 12 weeks of PEG-IFN/RBV, CTX and P1NP decreased: −120 pg/ml and −8.48 μg/liter, respectively (both p < 0.0001). CTX declines were greater in cEVR (N = 91; vs. non-cEVR (N = 101; p = 0.003). From week 12 to 24, CTX declines were sustained among EVR patients who continued PEG-IFN/RBV (p = 0.027 vs. non-EVR) and among non-EVR patients who continued PEG-IFN alone (p = 0.022 vs. Observation). Median decreases of P1NP in EVR vs. non-EVR were similar at weeks 12 and 24. PEG-IFN-based therapy for chronic HCV markedly reduces bone turnover. It is unclear whether this is a direct IFN effect or a result of HCV viral clearance, or whether they will result in improved bone mineral density. Further studies with IFN-free regimens should explore these questions. PMID:26499270

  2. Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X.; Guan, X.; Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A.; Fang, Y.

    2010-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1alpha and nsp1beta subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1alpha and nsp1beta. Cleavage sites between nsp1alpha/nsp1beta and nsp1beta/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1alpha and nsp1beta mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-beta expression. The nsp1beta was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1beta has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1alpha alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

  3. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  4. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan induces nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in a macrophage cell line: down regulation by taurine chloramine.

    PubMed Central

    Schuller-Levis, G B; Levis, W R; Ammazzalorso, M; Nosrati, A; Park, E

    1994-01-01

    Avirulent mycobacterium H37Ra lipoarabinomannan (LAM) elicited nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha in a dose-dependent manner in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. H37Ra LAM and recombinant gamma interferon were highly synergistic for NO production. The production of NO and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated by H37Ra LAM plus recombinant gamma interferon in RAW 264.7 cells are inhibited by taurine chloramine. PMID:7927739

  5. Rod-to-Globule Transition of pDNA/PEG-Poly(l-Lysine) Polyplex Micelles Induced by a Collapsed Balance Between DNA Rigidity and PEG Crowdedness.

    PubMed

    Tockary, Theofilus A; Osada, Kensuke; Motoda, Yusuke; Hiki, Shigehiro; Chen, Qixian; Takeda, Kaori M; Dirisala, Anjaneyulu; Osawa, Shigehito; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    The role of poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) in rod-shaped polyplex micelle structures, having a characteristic core of folded plasmid DNA (pDNA) and a shell of tethered PEG chains, is investigated using PEG-detachable polyplex micelles. Rod shapes undergo change to compacted globule shapes by removal of PEG from polyplex micelles prepared from block copolymer with acid-labile linkage between PEG and poly(l-lysine) (PLys) through exposure to acidic milieu. This structural change supports the previous investigation on the rod shapes that PEG shell prevents the DNA structure from being globule shaped as the most favored structure in minimizing surface area. Noteworthy, despite the PEG is continuously depleted, the structural change does not occur in gradual shortening manner but the rod shapes keep their length unchanged and abruptly transform into globule shapes. Analysis of PEG density reveals the transition occurred when tethered PEG of rod shapes has decreased to a critical crowdedness, i.e., discontacted with neighboring PEG, which eventually illuminates another contribution, rigidity of DNA packaged as bundle in the rod shapes, in addition to the steric repulsion of PEG, in sustaining rod shapes. This investigation affirms significant role of PEG and also DNA rigidity as bundle in the formation of rod-shaped structures enduring the quest of compaction of charge-neutralized DNA in the polyplex micelles.

  6. Type I interferon dysregulation and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    McGlasson, Sarah; Jury, Alexa; Jackson, Andrew; Hunt, David

    2015-09-01

    Type I interferon is an essential component of the brain's innate immune defence, conferring protection against viral infection. Recently, dysregulation of the type I interferon pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of neuroinfectious and neuroinflammatory disorders. Underactivity of the type I interferon response is associated with a predisposition to herpes simplex encephalitis. Conversely, a group of 'interferonopathic' disorders, characterized by severe neuroinflammation and overactivity of type I interferon, has been described. Elucidation of the genetic basis of these Mendelian neuroinflammatory diseases has uncovered important links between nucleic acid sensors, innate immune activation and neuroinflammatory disease. These mechanisms have an important role in the pathogenesis of more common polygenic diseases that can affect the brain, such as lupus and cerebral small vessel disease. In this article, we review the spectrum of neurological disease associated with type I interferon dysregulation, as well as advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of these conditions. We highlight the potential utility of type I interferon as both a biomarker and a therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:26303851

  7. Interstitial pneumonia associated to peginterferon alpha-2a: A focus on lung function

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a during treatment of hepatitis C infections is rare; nonetheless, some cases with fatal outcomes have been reported. Evaluating patients’ pulmonary function is a key to diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of several respiratory diseases, but case reports of respiratory manifestations related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a have limited their findings to only baseline measurements. This paper examines the case of a 65-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Initial lung function evaluation revealed a marked reduction compared to an earlier assessment; the results were consistent with a moderate restricted pattern. Fortunately, over the ensuing 8 weeks of follow-up after discontinuing the drug, the patient recovered her lung function and experienced an overall improvement in her respiratory symptoms. PMID:27051119

  8. Structural basis of the broadly neutralizing anti-interferon-α antibody rontalizumab.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Brigitte; Bosanac, Ivan; Shia, Steven; Kwong, Mandy; Corpuz, Racquel; Vandlen, Richard; Schmidt, Kerstin; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Interferons-alpha (IFN-α) are the expressed gene products comprising thirteen type I interferons with protein pairwise sequence similarities in the 77-96% range. Three other widely expressed human type I interferons, IFN-β, IFN-κ and IFN-ω have sequences 29-33%, 29-32% and 56-60% similar to the IFN-αs, respectively. Type I interferons act on immune cells by producing subtly different immune-modulatory effects upon binding to the extracellular domains of a heterodimeric cell-surface receptor composed of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, most notably anti-viral effects. IFN-α has been used to treat infection by hepatitis-virus type C (HCV) and a correlation between hyperactivity of IFN-α-induced signaling and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), or lupus, has been noted. Anti-IFN-α antibodies including rontalizumab have been under clinical study for the treatment of lupus. To better understand the rontalizumab mechanism of action and specificity, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Fab fragment of rontalizumab bound to human IFN-α2 at 3Å resolution and find substantial overlap of the antibody and IFNA2 epitopes on IFN-α2.

  9. A PEG-Fmoc conjugate as a nanocarrier for paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Yixian; Liu, Hao; Marquez, Rebecca; Lu, Jianqin; Zhao, Wenchen; Zhang, Xiaolan; Gao, Xiang; Li, Jiang; Venkataramanan, Raman; Xu, Liang; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    We report here that a simple, well-defined, and easy-to-scale up nanocarrier, PEG5000-lysyl-(α-Fmoc-ε-t-Boc-lysine)2 conjugate (PEG-Fmoc), provides high loading capacity, excellent formulation stability and low systemic toxicity for paclitaxel (PTX), a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for various types of cancers. 9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) was incorporated into the nanocarrier as a functional building block to interact with drug molecules. PEG-Fmoc was synthesized via a three-step synthetic route, and it readily interacted with PTX to form mixed nanomicelles of small particle size (25–30 nm). The PTX loading capacity was about 36%, which stands well among the reported micellar systems. PTX entrapment in this micellar system is achieved largely via an Fmoc/PTX π-π stacking interaction, which was demonstrated by fluorescence quenching studies and 13C-NMR. PTX formulated in PEG-Fmoc micelles demonstrated sustained release kinetics, and in vivo distribution study via near infrared fluorescence imaging demonstrated an effective delivery of Cy5.5-labled PTX to tumor sites. The maximal tolerated dose for PTX/PEG-Fmoc (MTD > 120 mg PTX/kg) is higher than those for most reported PTX formulations, and in vivo therapeutic study exhibited a significantly improved antitumor activity than Taxol, a clinically used formulation of PTX. Our system may hold promise as a simple, safe, and effective delivery system for PTX with a potential for rapid translation into clinical study. PMID:24856103

  10. Characterization of the oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced major histocompatibility complex class I and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, M; Lantz, M; MacGregor, R D; Garovoy, M R; Hunt, C A

    1994-10-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II genes and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are regulated by interferon-gamma in a variety of cell types. We have previously shown that the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-GGG GTT GGT TGT GTT GGG TGT TGT GT-RNH2 (oligo I) inhibits the interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 proteins in the K562 cell line. We have now investigated the mechanism of action of oligo I and report that it acts by inhibiting the binding of interferon-gamma to cells. We also show that the dose-response curves, the selectivity profile, and the kinetics of oligo I are consistent with this novel mechanism of action. The dose-response curves for oligo I, obtained using antibodies against the MHC Class I heavy chain, beta 2-microglobulin, or ICAM-1, are almost superimposable at each observation time. MHC Class I induction by 6400 units/ml interferon-alpha or interferon-beta or ICAM-1 enhancement by 800 units/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha is not inhibited by oligo I. However, the synergistic induction of MHC Class I by mixtures of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma is inhibited. Oligo I belongs to a class of active oligodeoxynucleotides that inhibits interferon-gamma-induced MHC Class I and ICAM-1 in K562 cells. The activity and potency is sequence-dependent, but remarkably different sequences can have comparable effects. The activity of oligo I in the HeLa S3 cell line inhibits the interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of both ICAM-1 and MHC Class II DR and the interferon-gamma-mediated reduction in transferrin receptor expression. Thus, oligo I appears to specifically inhibit interferon-gamma-induced changes in protein expression, which is consistent with oligo I acting at an early step(s) in the induction process. Taken together, our results show that oligo I exerts its effects by inhibiting the association of interferon-gamma with the cell surface, which is a novel mechanism of action for

  11. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  12. Biodegradation of various molecular weights of linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) in activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmann, M.A.; Bookland, E.A.; Keough, T.W.; Larson, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Linear polyethylene glycols (PEG) of various average molecular weights (PEG 1000, PEG 3400, PEG 8000, PEG 20000) were tested in a semi-continuous activated sludge test (SCAS), followed by a CO{sub 2} production test to determine which MWs are inherently biodegradable. Complete biodegradation was confirmed analytically using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). The SCAS test estimates the removal of the test substance during wastewater treatment in activated sludge. SCAS removal, as measured by soluble organic carbon (SOC) was > 90% for the PEG 1000, PEG 3400, and PEG 8000, while PEG 20000 showed a SCAS removal of 28%. These results indicate that SCAS removal was largely due to degradation. The CO{sub 2} production test measures the mineralization of the test substance using activated sludge from the SCAS units as the inoculum. The CO{sub 2} test results show that PEG 1000, PEG 3400, and PEG 8000 are inherently biodegradable, with an average %TC02 > 80% by day 50 and remaining SOC < 10% as measured at day 50. Complete loss of material was confirmed by MALDI TOF MS. The PEG 20000 showed 40% TCO2 by day 50, with 50% SOC remaining. MALDI TOF MS confirmed the presence of parent material. Based on these results, PEGs of MW 8000 and less appear to be biodegradable.

  13. Hyperbranched PEG by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Daniel; Schömer, Martina; Wurm, Frederik; Hermanns, M Iris; Kirkpatrick, C James; Frey, Holger

    2010-10-18

    The synthesis of hyperbranched poly(ethylene glycol) (hbPEG) in one step was realized by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol, leading to a biocompatible, amorphous material with multiple hydroxyl functionalities. A series of copolymers with moderate polydispersity ($\\overline {M} _{{\\rm w}} /\\overline {M} _{{\\rm n}} $ < 1.8) was obtained with varying glycidol content (3-40 mol-%) and molecular weights up to 49 800 g mol(-1) . The randomly branched structure of the copolymers was confirmed by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry). MTS assay demonstrated low cell toxicity of the hyperbranched PEG, comparable to the highly established linear PEG.

  14. Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of Alkyl PEG Ethers as used in cosmetics. These ingredients primarily function in cosmetics as surfactants, and some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, and emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed available relevant animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports; when data were not available for individual ingredients, the Panel extrapolated from the existing data to support safety. The Panel concluded that the Alkyl PEG ethers are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating, and the same applies to future alkyl PEG ether cosmetic ingredients that vary from those ingredients recited herein only by the number of ethylene glycol repeat units.

  15. PEG-Like Nanoprobes: Multimodal, Pharmacokinetically and Optically Tunable Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Claudio, Natalie M.; Kura, Sreekanth; Shakerdge, Naomi; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Josephson, Lee

    2014-01-01

    PEG-like Nanoprobes” (PN’s) are pharmacokinetically and optically tunable nanomaterials whose disposition in biological systems can be determined by fluorescence or radioactivity. PN’s feature a unique design where a single PEG polymer surrounds a short fluorochrome and radiometal bearing peptide, and endows the resulting nanoprobe with pharmacokinetic control (based on molecular weight of the PEG selected) and optical tunability (based on the fluorochrome selected), while the chelate provides a radiolabeling option. PN’s were used to image brain capillary angiography (intravital 2-photon microscopy), tumor capillary permeability (intravital fluorescent microscopy), and the tumor enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect (111In-PN and SPECT). Clinical applications of PN’s include use as long blood half-life fluorochromes for intraoperative angiography, for measurements of capillary permeability in breast cancer lesions, and to image EPR by SPECT, for stratifying patient candidates for long-circulating nanomedicines that may utilize the EPR mechanism. PMID:24781778

  16. Antiviral effect of interferon covalently bound to sepharose.

    PubMed

    Ankel, H; Chany, C; Galliot, B; Chevalier, M J; Robert, M

    1973-08-01

    Interferon, covalently bound to Sepharose 4B activated by cyanogen bromide, induces the antiviral state in sensitive cells. The antiviral effect is neutralized by antiserum specific to interferon and is recovered thereafter when the antibody is detached from the interferon by treatment at low pH. Binding interferon to Sepharose increases the stability of the molecule. It is likely that the interferon molecule acts on the cell receptor without being detached from the beads. However, the data do not exclude the possibility of a small loss of interferon, or fragments of it, after contact with the cell.

  17. PEG functionalized luminescent lipid particles for cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Suman; Barick, K. C.; Shetake, Neena G.; Verma, Gunjan; Aswal, V. K.; Panicker, Lata; Pandey, B. N.; Hassan, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report here the synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake of luminescent micelle-like particles with phospholipid core and non-ionic PEG based surfactant polysorbate 80 shell. The adsorption of polysorbate 80 at the interface of lipid containing microemulsion droplets and its solidification upon removal of solvent leads to anchoring of PEG chain to the lipid particles. Hydrophobic partitioning of luminescent molecules, sodium 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid to the phospholipid core offers additional functionality to these particles. Thus, the cooperative assembly of lipid, non-ionic amphiphile and organic luminescent probe leads to the formation of multifunctional biocompatible particles which are useful for simultaneous imaging and therapy.

  18. Novel powder formulations for controlled delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drug: application and investigation of TPGS and PEG in spray-dried particulate system.

    PubMed

    Mu, Li; Teo, More-Ming; Ning, Hui-Zhong; Tan, Chou-Song; Feng, Si-Shen

    2005-04-18

    Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) were combined as pharmaceutical excipient to fabricate microparticles containing sparingly soluble drug paclitaxel by spray-drying technique with successful achievement. The effect of formulation variety on particle morphology, surface composition, thermal property, drug entrapped capability, and drug release profile was investigated. The result indicated that the use of the appropriate mixtures of PLGA, TPGS and/or PEG produced paclitaxel-loaded microparticles characterised by acceptable pharmaceutical properties. Atomic force microcopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the produced microparticles were spherical in shape with dimples or pores. The particle size ranged from 0.88 to 2.44 microm with narrow distribution. The combination of TPGS and PEG in the formulation resulted in a narrow particle size distribution in general although the influence of the formulation on the particle size was not significant. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study implied that all those components in consideration were compatible well in the blend formulation systems. The paclitaxel entrapped in the particles existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the matrices and was independent of the PLGA/TPGS/PEG ratio. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis revealed that after incorporation the particle's surface was dominated with PLGA due to its hydrophobic property. The formulation variety had an important impact on the drug release that was reduced with the presence of large fraction of TPGS resulting from a strong hydrophobic interaction between various matrix materials and the drug inside the particle. A zero order release could be yielded by optimising the ratio of PLGA/TPGS/PEG. The combination of PLGA/TPGS/PEG as safe pharmaceutical excipient to formulate particulate delivery

  19. Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells stimulated by virus-induced type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Etchart, Nathalie; Rossmann, Cornelia; Ashton, Miranda; Hou, Sam; Gewert, Dirk; Borrow, Persephone; Tough, David F

    2003-10-01

    CD8+ T cell responses can be generated against antigens that are not expressed directly within antigen-presenting cells (APCs), through a process known as cross-priming. To initiate cross-priming, APCs must both capture extracellular antigen and receive specific activation signals. We have investigated the nature of APC activation signals associated with virus infection that stimulate cross-priming. We show that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus induces cross-priming by a mechanism dependent on type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). Activation of cross-priming by IFN-alpha/beta was independent of CD4+ T cell help or interaction of CD40 and CD40 ligand, and involved direct stimulation of dendritic cells. These data identify expression of IFN-alpha/beta as a mechanism for the induction of cross-priming during virus infections. PMID:14502286

  20. Variation in interferon sensitivity and induction between Usutu and West Nile (lineages 1 and 2) viruses.

    PubMed

    Cacciotti, Giulia; Caputo, Beniamino; Selvaggi, Carla; la Sala, Andrea; Vitiello, Laura; Diallo, Diawo; Ceianu, Cornelia; Antonelli, Guido; Nowotny, Norbert; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    Given the pivotal role of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in determining the magnitude of the antiviral innate immune response, we sought to determine whether Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) lineages (L)1 and L2 can infect DCs and affect the rate of type I interferon (IFN) activation. The sensitivity of these viruses to types I and III IFNs was also compared. We found that USUV can infect DCs, induce higher antiviral activities, IFN alpha subtypes and the IFN stimulated gene (ISG)15 pathway, and is more sensitive to types I and III IFNs than WNVs. In contrast, we confirmed that IFN alpha/beta subtypes were more effective against WNV L2 than WNV L1. However, the replication kinetics, induction of IFN alpha subtypes and ISGs in DCs and the sensitivity to IFN lambda 1-3 did not differ between WNV L1 and L2.

  1. Interactions of the interferon system with cellular metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies concerning the interaction of the interferon (Inf) system with the activities of carcinogens, tumor promoters, and cytochrome P-450 are presented. The results show that the addition of a tumor promoter (TPA or 4-O-methyl-TPA) to a tissue culture enhances virus-induced Inf-gamma production, suggesting a potential value of tumor promoters in the biosynthesis of commercial Inf. On the other hand, the carcinogens were reported to inhibit the induction of Inf-alpha/beta in cultured cells and in intact animals (with no effect on the administered or preformed Inf). The demonstration of a correlation between the carcinogenic potential of a compound and its inhibitive effect on Inf production suggests a possible use of the Inf production assay in the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of chemicals. In addition, it was shown that the induction of Inf-alpha/beta as well as the administration of this Inf depresses the levels of rat liver cytochrome P-450 which is responsible for binding lipophilic drugs, steroids, and carcinogens, thus increasing the toxicity of the respective chemical.

  2. Interferon Stimulated Gene Expression in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Nitazoxanide/Peginterferon-Alfa-2a and Ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tess; Lee, Yu-Jin; Osinusi, Anu; Amorosa, Valerianna K; Wang, Crystal; Kang, Minhee; Matining, Roy; Zhang, Xiao; Dou, Diana; Umbleja, Triin; Kottilil, Shyam; Peters, Marion G

    2016-07-01

    A combination of nitazoxanide (NTZ), peginterferon (PegIFN), and ribavirin (RBV) may result in higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected patients. This study evaluated the effect of NTZ on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in vitro and in vivo among HIV/HCV genotype-1 (GT-1) treatment-naive patients. The ability of NTZ to enhance host response to interferon (IFN) signaling using the HCV cell culture system was initially evaluated. Second, ISG expression in 53 patients with treatment outcomes [21 SVR and 32 nonresponders (NR)] in the ACTG A5269 trial, a phase-II study (4-week lead in of NTZ 500 mg daily followed by 48 weeks of NTZ, PegIFN, and weight-based RBV), was assessed. The relative expression of 48 ISGs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured at baseline, week 4, and week 8 of treatment in a blinded manner. In vitro NTZ produced a direct and additive antiviral effect with IFN-alfa, with pretreatment of NTZ resulting in maximal HCV suppression. NTZ augmented IFN-mediated ISG induction in PBMCs from relapsers and SVRs (p < 0.05), but not NR. In ACTG A5269, baseline expression of most ISGs was similar between NR and SVR. NTZ minimally induced 17 genes in NR and 13 genes in SVR after 4 weeks of therapy. However, after initiation of PegIFN and RBV, ISG induction was predominantly observed in the SVR group and not NR group. NTZ treatment facilitates IFN-induced suppression of HCV replication. Inability to achieve SVR with IFN-based therapy in this clinical trial is associated with diminished ISG response to therapy that is refractory to NTZ. PMID:26974581

  3. Temperature-responsive in situ nanoparticle hydrogels based on hydrophilic pendant cyclic ether modified PEG-PCL-PEG.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zujian; Zhao, Junqiang; Li, Yin; Xu, Shuxin; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2016-10-20

    Thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels based on poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) block copolymers have attracted considerable attention for sustained drug release and tissue engineering applications. Previously, we have reported a thermo-sensitive hydrogel of P(CL-co-TOSUO)-PEG-P(CL-co-TOSUO) (PECT) triblock copolymers modified by hydrophilic cyclic ether pendant groups 1,4,8-trioxa-[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone (TOSUO). Unfortunately, the low gel modulus of PECT (only 50-70 Pa) may limit its applications. Herein, another kind of thermogelling triblock copolymer of a pendant cyclic ether-modified caprolactonic poloxamer analog, PEG-P(CL-co-TOSUO)-PEG (PECTE), was successfully prepared by control of the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity balance and chemical compositions of the copolymers. PECTE powder could directly disperse in water to form a stable nanoparticle (NP) aqueous dispersion and underwent sol-gel-sol transition behavior at a higher concentration with the temperature increasing from ambient or lower temperatures. Significantly, the microstructure parameters (e.g., different chemical compositions of the hydrophobic block and topology) played a critical role in the phase transition behavior. Furthermore, comparison studies on PECTE and PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE) showed that the introduction of pendant cyclic ether groups into PCL blocks could avoid unexpected ahead-of-time gelling of the PECE aqueous solution. In addition, the rheological analysis of PECTE and PECT indicated that the storage modulus of the PECTE hydrogel could be 100 times greater than that of the PECT hydrogel under the same mole ratios of TOSUO/CL and lower molecular weight. Consequently, PECTE thermal hydrogel systems are believed to be promising as in situ gel-forming biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:27546028

  4. Neutrophil function and apoptosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon α and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Wójcik, Kamila; Kur, Barbara; Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Nocuń, Marek

    2012-02-01

    The role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C as well as the effect of pegylated interferon α (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin treatment on neutrophil function is not precisely known. The study included 32 patients with CCH aged between 19 and 58 years (mean 33.5 years). Before and after 12 weeks of treatment with Peg-IFN-α and ribavirin, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, expression of adhesion molecules CD11b/MAC-1, CD16, CD18 and CD62L on neutrophils, as well as apoptosis and necrosis of these cells were analyzed with the use of flow cytometry. During antiviral therapy, a statistically significant decrease of mean fluorescence intensity for CD16 high and CD62 and increase for CD11b/MAC-1 along with the increased apoptosis and decreased necrosis of neutrophils were observed. After 12 weeks of treatment, intracellular ROS production by unstimulated neutrophils did not change, but after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, statistically significant increase of ROS level was observed. During PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin treatment, activation of neutrophil function and increased ROS production were reported, which possibly resulted in accelerated apoptosis of these cells.

  5. Synthesis of Acid-Labile PEG and PEG-Doxorubicin-Conjugate Nanoparticles via Brush-First ROMP

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A panel of acid-labile bis-norbornene cross-linkers was synthesized and evaluated for the formation of acid-degradable brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) via the brush-first ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) method. An acetal-based cross-linker was identified that, when employed in conjunction with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromonomer, provided highly controlled BASP formation reactions. A combination of this new cross-linker with a novel doxorubicin (DOX)-branch-PEG macromonomer provided BASPs that simultaneously degrade and release cytotoxic DOX in vitro. PMID:25243099

  6. Linking the foreign body response and protein adsorption to PEG-based hydrogels using proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Swartzlander, Mark D.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Blakney, Anna K.; Kaar, Joel L.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Bryant, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with their highly tunable properties are promising implantable materials, but as with all non-biological materials, they elicit a foreign body response (FBR). Recent studies, however, have shown that incorporating the oligopeptide RGD into PEG hydrogels reduces the FBR. To better understand the mechanisms involved and the role of RGD in mediating the FBR, PEG, PEG-RGD and PEG-RDG hydrogels were investigated. After a 28-day subcutaneous implantation in mice, a thinner and less dense fibrous capsule formed around PEG-RGD hydrogels, while PEG and PEG-RDG hydrogels exhibited stronger, but similar FBRs. Protein adsorption to the hydrogels, which is considered the first step in the FBR, was also characterized. In vitro experiments confirmed that serum proteins adsorbed to PEG-based hydrogels and were necessary to promote macrophage adhesion to PEG and PEG-RDG, but not PEG-RGD hydrogels. Proteins adsorbed to the hydrogels in vivo were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The majority (245) of the total proteins (≥300) that were identified was present on all hydrogels with many proteins being associated with wounding and acute inflammation. These findings suggest that the FBR to PEG hydrogels may be mediated by the presence of inflammatory-related proteins adsorbed to the surface, but that macrophages appear to sense the underlying chemistry, which for RGD improves the FBR. PMID:25522962

  7. The effects and underlying mechanism of interferon therapy on body weight and body composition.

    PubMed

    Alam, Ibrar; Ullah, Niamat; Alam, Iftikhar; Ali, Ijaz

    2013-11-01

    Body weight changes in HCV patients on interferon therapy are well documented. However, the underlying mechanism involved in these changes is poorly understood and rarely reported. The main objectives of this review are to 1) discuss changes in body weight and other compartments of body composition, particularly, body fat, and 2) to discuss the underlying mechanism for these changes. The literature review suggests weight loss (12-29%) as a function of interferon therapy is common, affecting up to 90% of HCV patients. Whilst, loss in weight means proportionate loss in other body compartments (lean body mass and body fat, in particular) data on changes in segmented body composition are fragmentary. The possible mechanisms underlying weight loss or changes in other body composition have been reported and these include suppressed appetite due to induction of TNF by IFN, a decrease in serum leptin level, and importantly mitochondrial damage induced by the therapy. It is, therefore, suggested that close monitoring of chronic HCV patients receiving PEG-IFN and/or ribavirin for side effects of these drugs, particularly those related to weight loss, is vitally important from clinical point of view.

  8. [Process Optimization of PEGylating Fused Protein of LL-37 and Interferon-α2a].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjie

    2015-12-01

    PEGylating is an effective way for prolonging the half-time period and decreasing the immunogenicity of protein drugs. With experiments of single factor, it was proved that the optimal processes for PEGylating the fused protein of LL-37 and interferon (IFN)-α2a were: PEG molecular weight was 5,000, fused protein concentration was 0.6 mg/mL, the mole ratio of protein to mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS was 1:10, the reaction temperature was 4 °C, and the pH was 9.0, respectively. With orthogonal experiments, we proved that the influential order of 3 main factors is: the fused protein concentration > the mole ratio of protein and mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS > pH and the optimal conditions were the fused protein concentration as 0.6 mg/mL, the mole ratio of protein and mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS as 1:10, pH as 8.8. Under these optimal conditions, the average rate of PEGylated protein with 3 times parallel experiments was 86.98%. After PEGylated, the interferon activity and antimicrobial activity of fused protein could be remained higher than 58% and 97%, respectively. PMID:27079098

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) do not modulate interferon effects in infected lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, S; Huneycutt, B S; Reiss, C S; Kieff, E

    1992-01-01

    The recent derivation of otherwise isogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) recombinants carrying or lacking the EBV small RNA (EBER) genes enabled us to test whether EBERs are similar to adenovirus VA RNAs in modulating interferon (IFN) effects on virus infection. EBER-positive and -negative EBV recombinants did not differ in their sensitivity to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha)- or IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte growth transformation. In addition, EBERs did not decrease the inhibitory effects of IFN on vesicular stomatitis virus replication in EBV-transformed lymphocytes. EBER deletion also did not render EBV-transformed B lymphocytes susceptible to an IFN effect on cell proliferation or EBV replication. Images PMID:1321292

  10. Project Execution Game (PEG): Training towards Managing Unexpected Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwikael, Ofer; Gonen, Amnon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Games are an effective teaching and classroom training tool, since they allow students to practise real-life events. In the area of project management, most games focus on the planning phase of a project. The current paper aims to describe a new game, called PEG--Project Execution Game. The uniqueness of this game is its focus on real…

  11. Morphology of PEG-Stabilized Carbon Nanofibers in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jian; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-09-02

    Small-angle light scattering is used to assess the dispersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized carbon nanofibers suspended in water. Analysis of these data elucidates the mechanism by which the functionalized nanofibers are solubilized in water. Linear, tube-like morphology is observed for the PEG-functionalized nanofibers dispersed in water. However, dispersion is not down to the individual tube level as determined by analysis of the light scattering data in conjunction with transmission electron micrographs. Rather, scattering entities are polydisperse side-by-side fiber aggregates (bundles). Because of the presence of water-soluble PEG oligomers on the surfaces of the nanofibers these small-scale aggregates do not agglomerate to form the large-scale clusters that are observed for untreated and acid-treated nanofibers. Acid-treated nanofibers, by contrast, do agglomerate, but in an unusual fashion, showing a 10-h induction period of followed by linear growth of large-scale agglomerates. PEG-functionalization of the acid-treated fibers leads to stabilization by inhibiting formation of the large-scale agglomerates, not by disrupting the side-by-side bundles.

  12. Development practices and lessons learned in developing SimPEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Kang, S.; Rosenkjaer, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modelling provides a mathematical framework for constructing a model of physical property distributions in the subsurface that are consistent with the data collected in geophysical surveys. The geosciences are increasingly moving towards the integration of geological, geophysical, and hydrological information to better characterize the subsurface. This integration must span disciplines and is not only challenging scientifically, but additionally the inconsistencies between conventions often makes implementations complicated, non­ reproducible, or inefficient. SimPEG is an open-source, multi-university effort aimed at providing a generalized framework for solving forward and inverse problems. SimPEG includes finite volume discretizations on structured and unstructured meshes, interfaces to standard numerical solver packages, convex optimization algorithms, model parameterizations, and visualization routines. The SimPEG package (http://simpeg.xyz) supports an ecosystem of forward and inverse modelling applications, including electromagnetics, vadose zone flow, seismic, and potential­ fields, that are all written with a common interface and toolbox. The goal of SimPEG is to support a community of researchers with well-tested, extensible tools, and encourage transparency and reproducibility both of the SimPEG software and the geoscientific research it is applied to. In this presentation, we will share some of the lessons we have learned in designing the modular infrastructure, testing and development practices of SimPEG. We will discuss our use of version control, extensive unit-testing, continuous integration, documentation, issue tracking, and resources that facilitate communication between existing team members and allows new researchers to get involved. These practices have enabled the use of SimPEG in research, industry, and education as well as the ability to support a growing number of dependent repositories and applications. We hope that sharing our

  13. Monitoring of RU Peg requested for Swift observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-06-01

    Dr. Koji Mukai (Universities Space Research Association/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) has requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring the SS Cyg-type dwarf nova RU Peg in support of target-of-opportunity observations with the NASA Swift satellite during an outburst. His observations will be targeted during the rise to outburst and during late decline from outburst. Thus, your prompt notification to AAVSO Headquarters of activity in RU Peg will be crucial to the success of this campaign. Dr. Mukai writes: "In the famous AAVSO/EUVE/RXTE campaign on SS Cyg (Mattei et al. 2000JAVSO..28..160M), the hard X-ray flux went up (with a delay) during the rise, then suddenly dropped; there was a corresponding flux enhancement episode during the decline. We know that, during the peak of the outburst, many dwarf novae are hard X-ray fainter than in quiescence (with a few exceptions, like U Gem). However, the hard X-ray enhancement episodes seen in SS Cyg have never been obs! erved in other dwarf novae. We have proposed a hypothesis that this is related to the mass of the accreting white dwarf; only dwarf novae with a relatively massive white dwarf show the hard X-ray enhancement. If that's true, we may well see similar enhancement in RU Peg, which is thought to have a massive white dwarf. Even if this hypothesis is completely wrong, RU Peg is a good target for an SS Cyg-like campaign, since it's X-ray bright during quiescence." Visual and CCD observations (filtered preferred to unfiltered) are appropriate for this campaign. Observers are requested to monitor RU Peg duning minimum, throughout the next outburst, and after return to minimym, and report their observations in a timely manner. If RU Peg appears to be brightening from minimum, please report your observations immediately to the AAVSO. If it is brighter than magnitude 12.3, please also send an email report to Elizabeth Waagen (eowaagen@aavso.org) and Matthew Templeton (matthewt@aavso.org). Please be aware that

  14. Production of interferon in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, D

    1989-01-01

    Production of interferon alfa in vitro was significantly reduced during acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis but subsequently returned to normal. Nasopharyngeal and endotracheal interferon alfa were detected intermittently and in low concentrations. The degree of impairment of in vitro production and poor in vivo production of interferon alfa suggest the need for a therapeutic trial of nebulised or systemic interferon in acute bronchiolitis. PMID:2923479

  15. Preparation of anti-CD40 antibody modified magnetic PCL-PEG-PCL microspheres.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Kan, Bing; Gou, MaLing; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Gang; Huang, Ning; Zhao, Xia; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-04-01

    Antibody modified magnetic polymeric microspheres have potential biomedical application. In this paper, anti-CD40 antibody modified magnetic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) microspheres were prepared. First, PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization, followed by reaction with succinic anhydride, creating carboxylated PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. Then, magnetite nanoparticles were encapsulated into carboxylated PCL-PEG-PCL microspheres, forming magnetic PCL-PEG-PCL microspheres with carboxyl group on their surface. Catalyzed by EDC/NHS, the anti-CD40 antibody was linked to these magnetic PCL-PEG-PCL microspheres, thus forming anti-CD40 modified PCL-PEG-PCL microspheres. These anti-CD40 antibody modified magnetic PCL-PEG-PCL microspheres may have potential application in cell separation. PMID:21702366

  16. Influenza virus activation of the interferon system

    PubMed Central

    Killip, Marian J.; Fodor, Ervin; Randall, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The host interferon (IFN) response represents one of the first barriers that influenza viruses must surmount in order to establish an infection. Many advances have been made in recent years in understanding the interactions between influenza viruses and the interferon system. In this review, we summarise recent work regarding activation of the type I IFN response