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Sample records for peg interferon alpha

  1. [Interferon alpha-2b modified with polyethylene glycol].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingxin; Zhai, Yanqin; Lei, Jiandu; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2008-09-01

    In order to obtain a more stable PEGylated interferon alpha-2b, and prolong its half life, interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) was modified with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol propionaldehyde (mPEG-ALD) 20000. It was found that the optimized reaction condition for the maximum bioactivity and highest PEGylation degree of the mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was as follows: in 20 mmol/L, pH 6.5, citric acid and sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the concentration of IFN alpha-2b was 4 mg/mL, and the molar ratio of PEG/IFN alpha-2b was 8:1, and the reaction time was 20 h at 4 degrees C. Under the optimized reaction condition, the mono PEGylation degree reached to 55%. Ion exchange chromatography was used to separate and purify mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b from the reaction mixture. The purity of mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was higher than 97% characterized by HPLC. The bioactivity of the mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was 13.4% of the native IFN alpha-2b, while its half life in SD rat is much longer than the native IFN alpha-2b. The mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b is also stable in aqueous.

  2. Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... alpha-2b is a combination of interferon and polyethylene glycol, which helps the interferon stay active in ... 2b, other alpha interferons, any other medications, or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Ask your doctor if you are ...

  3. Pegylated protein encapsulated multivesicular liposomes: a novel approach for sustained release of interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    Vyas, S P; Rawat, M; Rawat, A; Mahor, S; Gupta, P N

    2006-07-01

    Hepatitis C viral chemotherapy suffers from a relatively short half-life of the interferon alpha-2a (IFN alpha). To address this issue, we investigated the effects of polyethylene glycol modification and their subsequent encapsulation in multivesicular liposomes (MVLs), on the release properties of IFN alpha. In the present study, interferon-alpha was conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG, MW 5000). Prepared IFN alpha-mPEG5000 conjugate (IFN alpha-mPEG5000) was purified with size exclusion chromatography. The relative in vitro anti-viral activity of pegylated interferon alpha-2a was found to 87.9% of the unmodified IFN alpha. Pegylated IFN alpha encapsulated multivesicular liposomes were prepared by double emulsification technique followed by evaporation of organic solvents from chloroform ether spherules suspended in water. Prepared MVLs were then characterized for shape, size, vesicle count, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release rate. In process stability studies of pegylated IFN alpha protein exhibited better stability when exposed to chloroform: diethyl ether (1:1 ratio) mixture as well as variable vortexing time as compared to native IFN alpha. Relatively high percentage of encapsulation of protein ( approximately 75%) was achieved. In vitro release profile of pegylated IFN alpha-mPEG5000 containing MVLs in the PBS showed lower initial burst release with sustained and incomplete release over a period of 1 week. In contrast, native IFN alpha entrapped MVLs were observed as higher initial burst release, i.e., nearly 35% followed by almost complete release. The results confirmed the possibility of multivesicular liposomes as a long-acting or sustained-release delivery system using a combination of pegylation and encapsulation technique for controlled delivery of interferon alpha.

  4. Cytokine therapeutics: lessons from interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gutterman, J U

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that allow for communication between cells and the external environment. Interferon (IFN) alpha, the first cytokine to be produced by recombinant DNA technology, has emerged as an important regulator of growth and differentiation, affecting cellular communication and signal transduction pathways as well as immunological control. This review focuses on the biological and clinical activities of the cytokine. Originally discovered as an antiviral substance, the efficacy of IFN-alpha in malignant, viral, immunological, angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrotic diseases suggests a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologies. The principles learned from in vivo studies will be discussed, particularly hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, certain angiogenic diseases, and hepatitis. After the surprising discovery of activity in a rare B-cell neoplasm, IFN-alpha emerged as a prototypic tumor suppressor protein that represses the clinical tumorigenic phenotype in some malignancies capable of differentiation. Regulatory agencies throughout the world have approved IFN-alpha for treatment of 13 malignant and viral disorders. The principles established with this cytokine serve as a paradigm for future development of natural proteins for human disease. PMID:8108387

  5. Hepatitis C virus therapy with peg-interferon and ribavirin in Myanmar: A resource-constrained country

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Naomi Khaing Than; Banerjee, Debolina; Mitrani, Robert; Arker, Soe Htet; Win, Kyaw San; Tun, Nyan Lin; Thant, Zaw; Win, Khin Maung; Reddy, K Rajender

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate peg-interferon (peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy in Myanmar and to predict sustained virologic response (SVR). METHODS This single-center, open-label, study was conducted in Myanmar between 2009 and 2014. A total of 288 patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 6 were treated with peg-IFN alpha-2a (180 μg/wk) or alpha-2b (50 to 100 μg as a weight-based dose) and RBV as a weight-based dose (15 mg/kg/d). Treatment duration was 48 wk for genotypes 1 and 6, 24 wk for genotype 2, and 24 or 48 wk for genotype 3 based on rapid virologic response (RVR). Those co-infected with hepatitis B received 48 wk of therapy. RESULTS Overall, SVR was achieved for 82% of patients and the therapy was well tolerated. All patients achieved SVR at equivalent rates regardless of HCV genotype (P = 0.314). Low fibrosis scores (P < 0.001), high baseline albumin levels (P = 0.028) and low baseline viral loads (P = 0.029) all independently predicted SVR. On the other hand, IL-28B TT and CC genotypes were not found to significantly predict SVR (P = 0.634; P = 0.618). Among those who completed treatment, the occurrence of RVR showed a > 96% positive predictive value for achieving SVR. Treatment duration did not significantly impact the likelihood of achieving SVR for patients infected with genotype 3 HCV (P = 0.371). The most common adverse events were fatigue (71%) and poor appetite (60%). Among patients with genotype 3 HCV, more patients in the 48-wk treatment group required erythropoietin than in the 24-wk treatment group (61.1% vs 49.2%). CONCLUSION SVR rates were high with peg-IFN and RBV therapy in Myanmar. Fibrosis scores, baseline albumin, HCV RNA levels and RVR independently predicted SVR. PMID:27920482

  6. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of pegylated interferon-alpha2b in patients with chronic renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir K; Pittenger, Amy L; Swan, Suzanne K; Marbury, Thomas C; Tobillo, Emlyn; Batra, Vijay; Sack, Marshall; Glue, Paul; Jacobs, Sheila; Affrime, Melton

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluates the pharmacokinetics and safety of pegylated interferon-alpha2b (PEG-Intron) following a single-dose subcutaneous injection into subjects with normal renal function, subjects with chronic renal impairment, and patients on hemodialysis. In this open-label, single-dose, parallel group study, subjects were divided into five groups according to their degree of renal function: four groups as defined by measured creatinine clearance and a fifth hemodialysis dependent group. They received 1 microg/kg PEG-Intron subcutaneously after a 10-hour fast. Pharmacokinetic and safety assessments were performed up to 168 hours postdose. Hemodialysis patients had a second PEG-Intron dose 12 hours prior to a hemodialysis session. PEG-Intron pharmacokinetic parameters (AUCtf, Cmax, and t1/2) increased progressively as CL(CR) declined. All subjects reported at least one adverse event, which were typical of those reported after alpha-interferon administration (e.g., flu-like symptoms, headache). Single-dose PEG-Intron administration to volunteers with normal renal function and chronic renal impairment was safe and well tolerated. In patients with CL(CR) < 30 ml/min, AUCand Cmax values were increased 90% compared with controls, while half-life was increased by up to 40% over controls. Based on the relationship between PEG-Intron apparent clearance and CL(CR), renal clearance accountsfor less than half of its total clearance. Hemodialysis did not affect PEG-Intron apparent clearance.

  7. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for IFNL3 (IL28B) genotype and PEG interferon-α-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Muir, A J; Gong, L; Johnson, S G; Lee, M T M; Williams, M S; Klein, T E; Caudle, K E; Nelson, D R

    2014-02-01

    Pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN-α or PEG-IFN 2a and 2b)- and ribavirin (RBV)-based regimens are the mainstay for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. IFNL3 (IL28B) genotype is the strongest baseline predictor of response to PEG-IFN-α and RBV therapy in previously untreated patients and can be used by patients and clinicians as part of the shared decision-making process for initiating treatment for HCV infection. We provide information regarding the clinical use of PEG-IFN-α- and RBV-containing regimens based on IFNL3 genotype.

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Makoto; Nakano, Hitoshi; Ura, Shigehisa; Yoshida, Kazuto; Niino, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), though widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, may be associated with the occurrence of autoimmune disorders. In this case report, a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) after the initiation of IFN-alpha therapy. The neurological symptoms of this patient continued to progress even though the treatment with IFN-alpha had been withdrawn; the symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. This case may therefore provide an important clue to understand the immune mechanism of CIDP and IFN-alpha.

  9. Evaluation of prognostic factors for Peg Interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin treatment on HCV infected patients in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Hafsa; Gil, Muzaffar Latif; Waheed, Yasir; Adeeb, Uzama; Raza, Abida; Bilal, Iram; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2011-04-01

    The effective standard therapeutic regimen for patients with chronic hepatitis C is pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. The efficacy of treatment in chronic hepatitis C is defined as absence of detectable virus at six months after treatment. Analysis of patient dependent and virus related factors that enable us to predict the response to antiviral treatment is very important. We prospectively studied 403 patients who received PEG-IFN alpha-2b 1.5 μg/kg/body weight plus ribavirin. Treatment was administrated for 24 weeks and 48 weeks for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 3 and 1, respectively. Out of 403 treated patients, 301 patients (74.7%) showed a sustained virologic response (SVR). Seven variables (age, sex, ethnic group, pretreatment viral load, HCV genotyping and pretreatment ALT) were chosen as possible predictors of SVR and were analysed by means of univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Five variables were statistically significant (p<0.005) on univariable analysis: age, ethnic group, pretreatment viral load, response rate at week 4, and HCV genotype. In multivariable analysis independent factors associated with SVR were low pretreatment viral load (1.97; 95%CI, 1.06-3.66; p=0.03) and attainment of rapid virological response (RVR) (7.19; 95%CI, 4.15-12.45; p<0.001). Our findings support the association between viral load and SVR to PEG-IFN-alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy. No achievement of RVR is an unfavorable marker for SVR. These findings suggest that all patients considered for treatment should have quantification of serum HCV RNA levels. The result can be used to counsel patients on the likelihood of achieving SVR and may influence the patient's decision on treatment. Future studies should confirm and explore this observation in other ethnic groups and in relation to HCV genotypes 1 and 3.

  10. Dual onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus and Graves' disease during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Kataoka, Yuko; Tachikawa, Kazushige; Koguchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Currently, a combination therapy of pegylated (PEG) interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and ribavirin are being widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We describe here a case of dual onset of type 1 DM accompanied by ketoacidosis, and Graves' disease during the combination therapy via the autoimmune process.

  11. Remission of liver fibrosis by interferon-alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M G; Muriel, P

    1995-08-08

    Fibrosis is a dynamic process associated with the continuous deposition and resorption of connective tissue, mainly collagen. Therapeutic strategies are emerging by which this dynamic process can be modulated. Since interferons are known to inhibit collagen production, the aim of this study was to investigate if the administration of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha) can restore the normal hepatic content of collagen in rats with established fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced by prolonged bile duct ligation. IFN-alpha (100,000 IU/rat/day; s.c.) was administered to fibrotic rats for 15 days. Bile duct ligation increased liver collagen content 6-fold. In addition, serum and liver markers of hepatic injury increased significantly; liver histology showed an increase in collagen deposition, and the normal architecture was lost, with large zones of necrosis being observed frequently. IFN-alpha administration reversed to normal the values of all the biochemical markers measured and restored the normal architecture of the liver. Our results demonstrated that IFN-alpha is useful in reversing fibrosis and liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in the rat. However, further investigations are required to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of interferons on non-viral fibrosis and cholestasis.

  12. Psoriasis exacerbated by interferon-alpha in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ladoyanni, E; Nambi, R

    2005-01-01

    Interferon-alpha can exacerbate existing psoriasis and induce de novo psoriasis and psoriatic arthritits. The exact underlying mechanism is not very well understood. It is not a contraindication to treat patients with pre-existing psoriasis with interferon-alpha. In these patients interferon-alpha should be used with care and only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk. Control of psoriasis prior to initiation of interferon-alpha and simultaneous antipsoriatic therapy while on interferon-alpha are essential. We would like to report a 61-year-old male patient with stable psoriasis for over 20 years, who experienced exacerbation of his psoriasis after receiving interferon-alpha for chronic myeloid leukemia. The association between the interferon-alpha therapy and the exacerbation of his psoriasis was only recognized on rechallenge at the stage he was referred to our department.

  13. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given – 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  14. PEG-Interferon-α ribavirin-induced HCV viral clearance: a pharmacogenetic multicenter Spanish study.

    PubMed

    Milara, Javier; Outeda-Macias, Maria; Aumente-Rubio, M Dolores; Más-Serrano, Patricio; Aldaz, Azucena; Calvo, M Victoria; García-Simón, M Sergia; Martin-Barbero, Marisa; Padullés-Zamora, Núria; Schoenenberger, Juan Antonio; Saavedra-Aldrich, Marianne; Tévar-Alfonso, Enrique; Saval, Ana; Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; García, Marta; Margusino-Framiñan, Luis; Montero-Alvarez, Jose Luis; Merino, Esperanza; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Beunza, Mónica; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Gimenez-Manzorro, Alvaro; Comas-Sugrañes, Dolors; Cano-Marron, Manuel; Jiménez-Mutiloa, Elena; Díaz-Ruíz, Pilar; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: El interferon-pegilado (IFN-PEG) junto a ribavirina ha sido el principal tratamiento de la infeccion por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) de la ultima decada. Los agentes antivirales de accion directa actuales han mejorado los resultados de la terapia, pero tambien han aumentado el costo y la gestion de la complejidad del tratamiento. El presente estudio analiza factores geneticos de los pacientes, asi como predictores virales y clinicos de respuesta sostenida viral (RSV) al tratamiento con IFN-PEG y ribavirina en poblacion Espanola. Métodos: Estudio farmacogenetico, multicentrico, prospectivo, observacional de cohortes realizado en 12 hospitales diferentes de 12 comunidades autonomas diferentes. Se incluyeron un total de 98 pacientes con RVS y 106 sin SVR al tratamiento con IFNPEG y ribavirina. Se seleccionaron 33 polimorfismos de nucleotido unico ubicados en 24 genes diferentes relacionados con la respuesta inflamatoria, inmunologica y viral. Los datos clinicos y virales tambien se analizaron como candidatos predictores de RVS. Resultados: Los genotipos IL-28B (rs12979860, rs7248668, rs8105790, rs8099917) y TNFRSF1B (rs1061622), asi como los haplotipos TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / TNF(-308) no-TTG y TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 no-TTC junto con la menor edad, menor carga de ARN-VHC basal, valores elevados de colesterol LDL en suero basal, genotipos VHC2 y 3 y bajo grado de fibrosis basal (0-2) se asociaron con una RVS en el analisis univariante. Los predictores independientes de RVS en el analisis multivariante fueron el genotipo IL-28B rs12979860 CC, el haplotipo TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 no-TTC junto con los bajos niveles basales de VHCARN y los genotipos virales VHC2 y 3. Conclusiones: El genotipo IL-28B rs12979860 CC, el haplotipo TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 haplotipos no-TTC, la carga viral basal baja y los genotipos del VHC2 y 3 pueden ayudar a predecir una buena respuesta a la terapia con IFN-PEG y ribavirina en poblacion espanola.

  15. Alpha interferon and not gamma interferon inhibits salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Guo, Tz-Chun; Mutoloki, Stephen; Haugland, Øyvind; Marjara, Inderjit S; Evensen, Øystein

    2010-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an emerging virus in salmonid aquaculture, with SAV-3 being the only subtype found in Norway. Until now, there has been little focus on the alpha interferon (IFN-alpha)-induced antiviral responses during virus infection in vivo or in vitro in fish. The possible involvement of IFN-gamma in the response to SAV-3 is also not known. In this study, the two IFNs were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins (recombinant IFN-alpha [rIFN-alpha] and rIFN-gamma) and used for in vitro studies. SAV-3 infection in a permissive salmon cell line (TO cells) results in IFN-alpha and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) mRNA upregulation. Preinfection treatment (4 to 24 h prior to infection) with salmon rIFN-alpha induces an antiviral state that inhibits the replication of SAV-3 and protects the cells against virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPE). The antiviral state coincides with a strong expression of Mx and ISG15 mRNA and Mx protein expression. When rIFN-alpha is administered at the time of infection and up to 24 h postinfection, virus replication is not inhibited, and cells are not protected against virus-induced CPE. By 40 h postinfection, the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) is phosphorylated concomitant with the expression of the E2 protein as assessed by Western blotting. Postinfection treatment with rIFN-alpha results in a moderate reduction in E2 expression levels in accordance with a moderate downregulation of cellular protein synthesis, an approximately 65% reduction by 60 h postinfection. rIFN-gamma has only a minor inhibitory effect on SAV-3 replication in vitro. SAV-3 is sensitive to the preinfection antiviral state induced by rIFN-alpha, while postinfection antiviral responses or postinfection treatment with rIFN-alpha is not able to limit viral replication.

  16. Plasmacytoid predendritic cells initiate psoriasis through interferon-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Nestle, Frank O; Conrad, Curdin; Tun-Kyi, Adrian; Homey, Bernhard; Gombert, Michael; Boyman, Onur; Burg, Günter; Liu, Yong-Jun; Gilliet, Michel

    2005-07-04

    Psoriasis is one of the most common T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases in humans. Although a role for the innate immune system in driving the autoimmune T cell cascade has been proposed, its nature remains elusive. We show that plasmacytoid predendritic cells (PDCs), the natural interferon (IFN)-alpha-producing cells, infiltrate the skin of psoriatic patients and become activated to produce IFN-alpha early during disease formation. In a xenograft model of human psoriasis, we demonstrate that blocking IFN-alpha signaling or inhibiting the ability of PDCs to produce IFN-alpha prevented the T cell-dependent development of psoriasis. Furthermore, IFN-alpha reconstitution experiments demonstrated that PDC-derived IFN-alpha is essential to drive the development of psoriasis in vivo. These findings uncover a novel innate immune pathway for triggering a common human autoimmune disease and suggest that PDCs and PDC-derived IFN-alpha represent potential early targets for the treatment of psoriasis.

  17. Cryoglobulinemia-related vasculitis during effective anti-HCV treatment with PEG-interferon alfa-2b.

    PubMed

    De Blasi, T; Aguilar Marucco, D; Cariti, G; Maiello, A; De Rosa, F G; Di Perri, G

    2008-06-01

    HCV infection may be related to many extrahepatic manifestations including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). Clinical manifestations commonly associated to MC include arthralgia, purpura, vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy and renal function abnormalities. Treatment with interferon often leads to remission, especially in virological responders, or to disappearance of MC-related clinical manifestations. We report on a patient with chronic hepatitis C, deficit of G6P-DH, type II MC, who developed a cryoglobulinemic vasculitis with purpura, renal impairment and arterial hypertension, during treatment with PEG-interferon a-2b plus amantadine. The occurrence of purpuric lesions and MC-related nephropathy with increased cryocrit despite negative viremia, in a patient previously asymptomatic, during interferon treatment, is unusual.

  18. Monitoring the antiviral effect of alpha interferon on individual cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chon Saeng; Jung, Jong Ha; Wakita, Takaji; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Sung Key

    2007-08-01

    An infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone (JFH1) was generated recently. However, quantitative analysis of HCV infection and observation of infected cells have proved to be difficult because the yield of HCV in cell cultures is fairly low. We generated infectious HCV clones containing the convenient reporters green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase in the NS5a-coding sequence. The new viruses responded to antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. Responses of individual cells containing HCV to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were monitored using GFP-tagged HCV and time-lapse confocal microscopy. Marked variations in the response to IFN-alpha were observed among HCV-containing cells.

  19. The antiviral effect of human interferon alpha is dependent on phosphoinositide-derived messengers.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M

    1988-01-01

    Neomycin the putative blocker of membrane polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, inhibited the antiviral activity of human interferon alpha, when tested on human quiescent fibroblasts challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus. The anti-interferon effect of neomycin could be correlated in terms of dose dependence for both neomycin (0.05-1 mM) and interferon (100-5,000 IU/ml). The results suggest that the antiviral activity of interferon alpha depends on diacylglycerol formation. Indeed, the synthetic diacylglycerol (50 microM) was as effective as 100 IU/ml interferon in inducing the antiviral state.

  20. The effects of interferon-alpha/beta in a model of rat heart transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, A. D.; Klein, J. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Ogden, L. L. 2nd; Gray, L. A. Jr

    1992-01-01

    Interferons have multiple immunologic effects. One such effect is the activation of expression of cell surface antigens. Interferon alpha/beta enhance expression of class I but not class II histocompatibility antigens. Contradictory information has been published regarding the effect of interferon-alpha/beta administration in patients with kidney transplantation. In a model of rat heart transplantation we demonstrated that administration of interferon-alpha/beta accelerated rejection in a dose-dependent fashion in the absence of maintenance cyclosporine. Animals treated with maintenance cyclosporine had evidence of increased rejection at 20 days that was resolved completely at 45 days with cyclosporine alone.

  1. Targeted Therapies: Bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-01

    Rini and colleagues provide additional data on bevacizumab and interferon-alpha in clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney; a comparison of these results with the findings from contemporary trials suggests that bevacizumab and interferon-alpha is another clinically useful treatment option for patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma.

  2. Secretion of human interferon alpha 2b by Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, E; Fando, R; Sánchez, J C; Vallin, C

    2002-02-01

    Biologically active human interferon alpha 2b (HuIFNalpha-2b) was secreted into the culture medium by Streptomyces lividans transformed with recombinant plasmids coding for HuIFNalpha-2b fused to the Streptomyces exfoliatus M11 lipase A signal sequence. Levels were low, 15 or 100 ng/ml, depending on the plasmid used. Neither processed nor unprocessed HuIFNalpha-2b was detected in cell lysates of the transformants secreting the recombinant product. However, the secreted recombinant product was found to partially degrade when cultures reached the stationary phase by the action of an, as yet, unidentified mycelium-associated factor. Experimental evidence suggests that the degrading factor is related to mycelium-associated proteolytic activity.

  3. Internal duplication in human alpha 1 and beta 1 interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, B W; May, L T; Sehgal, P B

    1984-01-01

    Metric analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the intron-free human interferon beta 1 (IFN-beta 1) gene by using the Sellers TT algorithm revealed that this gene contains two major repeated segments, which span the entire coding region. These repeats are each approximately 300 nucleotides in length and have 45% identical aligned nucleotides (common bases). When these metrically aligned DNA repeats were translated into amino acids, 9 (19%) of the 47 in-phase amino acid residues were identical (common acids). This internal duplication was also apparent on visual inspection of the amino acid sequence of IFN-beta 1. In addition, metric analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the intron-free IFN-alpha 1 gene showed that this gene also contains two repeats, each approximately 300 nucleotides long, having 47% common bases and 19% common acids. Since the IFN-alpha 1 and -beta 1 genes are known to be related (by the present metric analysis they contain 53% common bases and 45% common acids), a consensus DNA sequence was derived from all four of these repeats. Manual alignment of the separate metric alignments corresponding to the two halves of the IFN-alpha 1 and -beta 1 genes provided a composite alignment with 58% of the alignment positions having the same nucleotide in at least three of the four repeats. When this composite nucleotide alignment was translated to define a composite alignment of the four protein segments, 10 (31%) of the 32 in-phase amino acid residues contained the same amino acid in at least three of the four segments. These sequences relationships provide insight into the origin of the IFN-alpha 1 and -beta 1 genes and furnish an additional basis for comparing them with other related genes. PMID:6594689

  4. Interferon-. alpha. selectively activates the. beta. isoform of protein kinase C through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, L.M.; Saltiel, A.R. ); Strulovici, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The early events that occur after interferon binds to discrete cell surface receptors remain largely unknown. Human leukocyte interferon (interferon-{alpha}) rapidly increases the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol dibutyrate to intact HeLa cells a measure of protein kinase C activation, and induces the selective translocation of the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of HeLa cells. The subcellular distribution of the {alpha} and {epsilon} isoforms is unaffected by interferon-{alpha} treatment. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters mimics the inhibitory action of interferon-{alpha} on HeLa cell proliferation and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the induction of antiviral activity by interferon-{alpha} in HeLa cells. Increased phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and phosphorylcholine production is accompanied by diacylglycerol production in response to interferon. However, inositol phospholipid turnover and free intracellular calcium concentration are unaffected. These results suggest that the transient increase in diacylglycerol, resulting from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, may selectively activate the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C. Moreover, the activation of protein kinase C is a necessary element in interferon action on cells.

  5. Interferon-alpha-induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with chronic hepatitis C: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Choi, Young Sik; Park, Yo Han; Lee, Sang Uk

    2011-12-01

    Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) is a major clinical problem for patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. But, destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease associated with IFN-α therapy is very rarely reported. Herein, we report a rare case of pegylated IFN-α (pegIFN-α) induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with HCV infection. A 31-yr-old woman suffered from chronic active hepatitis C and was treated with pegIFN-α and ribavirin for 12 months. Results of a thyroid function test and autoantibody levels were normal before IFN-α therapy was initiated. Destructive thyrotoxicosis appeared seven months after the initiation of IFN-α therapy, followed by Graves' thyrotoxicosis two months after the cessation of therapy. The diagnoses of destructive thyroiditis and Graves' disease were confirmed by the presence of TSH receptor antibodies in addition to Tc-99m scintigraphy findings. The patient's antithyroglobulin antibody titer increased gradually during IFN-α therapy and remained weakly positive after IFN-α therapy was discontinued.

  6. The interferon lambda 4 rs368234815 predicts treatment response to pegylated-interferon alpha and ribavirin in hemophilic patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Behnava, Bita; Pouryasin, Ali; Sharafi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    Background: A dinucleotide variant rs368234815 in interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene was recently found to be associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment response. This study aimed to assess the impact of IFNL4 rs368234815 polymorphism on treatment response to pegylated-IFN alpha (Peg-IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) in hemophilic patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 92 hemophilic patients with CHC who were treated with Peg-IFN-α/RBV were investigated. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFNL genomic region including rs368234815, rs12979860, and rs8099917 were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Results: Of the 92 patients, 63 (68.5%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Of the 43 patients with rs368234815 TT/TT genotype, 36 (83.7%) achieved SVR, while in 49 patients with non-TT/TT genotypes, 27 (55.1%) achieved SVR. Other pretreatment parameters predicted SVR were patients’ body mass index, HCV genotype, rs12979860, and rs8099917 SNPs. In multivariate analysis, all above-mentioned parameters except rs8099917 remained as predictors of SVR. IFNL4 rs368234815 was a strong predictor of SVR; however, the prediction power of this SNP was the same as that of rs12979860 SNP in the patients of the current study. Conclusion: IFNL4 rs368234815 SNP can be considered for decision-making in the treatment of HCV-infected patients. PMID:27904617

  7. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  8. [Formulation of an oral solid dosage form containing human interferon-alpha].

    PubMed

    Kristo, Katalin; Bajdik, János; Márki, Arpád; Eros, István; Falkay, György; Hödi, Klára

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to process the human alpha-interferon for the solid dosage form. The first step was the preparation of the intermediate product for the tablet making. Fluid bed apparatus with top spray method was applied for the layering of powdered cellulose with human alpha-interferon solutions. The intermediate product was compressed into tablet and an enteric solvent coating of the tablets was made in a fluid bed apparatus with Wurster method. The physical parameters were detected. These fitted the Ph. Eur. and the mechanical properties of the tablets were appropriate for coating in fluid bed apparatus. The tablets agree with the requirements of Ph. Eur. and the active agent was not dissolved in gastric juice. An animal test was also performed. The human alpha-interferon in the blood of the animals was detected with ELISA method. The human alpha-interferon specific kit was used. The active ingredient dissolved from the tablets was absorbed from the ileum. The solid dosage form containing human alpha-interferon was prepared; this can make oral application of human alpha-interferon possible.

  9. Probable involvement of p11 with interferon alpha induced depression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Lili; Ding, Huaxia; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Chen; Zhang, Yanfei; Xia, Namei; Li, Mingfang; Liang, Yinming; Hu, Xianzhang; Luan, Haojiang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major side effects of interferon alpha (IFN-α) treatment, but the molecular mechanism underlying IFN-α-induced depression remains unclear. Several studies have shown that the serotonin receptors 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 play key roles in the anti-depression effects associated with p11 (S100A10). We investigated the effects of IFN-α on the regulation of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in mice and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-sy5y). We found that intraperitoneal injection with IFN-α in Balb/c mice resulted in an increased immobility in FST and TST, and potently lowered the protein levels of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in the hippocampus or cingulate gyrus. IFN-α significantly down-regulated the protein levels of p11, 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in SH-sy5y cells, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our study revealed that over-expression of p11 could prevent the IFN-α-induced down-regulation of 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4. The results indicated that IFN-α treatment resulted in p11 down-regulation, which subsequently decreased 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 in vitro or in vivo. Our findings suggested that p11 might be a potential regulator on 5-HTR1b and 5-HTR4 as well as a predictor of or a therapeutic target for IFN-α-induced depression. PMID:26821757

  10. NKp30+ NK cells are associated with HBV control during pegylated-interferon-alpha-2b therapy of chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaokun; Fu, Binqing; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Chuang; Ye, Ying; Sun, Rui; Li, Jiabin; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    A pressing need exists for improved therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Pegylated-interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) achieves sustained off-treatment responses in many cases because of its direct anti-viral effects and regulation of the immune response. However, non-responsiveness to Peg-IFN-α is frequent, and the mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we found that the frequency and absolute number of NKp30+ natural killer (NK) cells increased markedly, accompanied by enhanced CD107a and IFN-γ production, during Peg-IFN-α-2b monotherapy or combination therapy with adefovir dipivoxil in patients with CHB, especially in responders. The responders and non-responders differed in the frequency of polyfunctional IFN-γ+ CD107+ NK cells. In addition, the increase in NKp30+ NK cells was negatively correlated with the HBV viral load and plasma HBeAg. Moreover, it was found that IL-15 may contribute to the up-regulation of NKp30 on the NK cells, and this up-regulation was not induced in vitro by Peg-IFN-α-2b alone. However, in the non-responders, these NKp30+ NK cells were dysfunctional because of increased NKG2A expression, which partly explains the inactivation of NKp30+ NK cells and the reduced capacity of these cells to produce antiviral cytokines. These findings may provide a new mechanism to explain the variable efficacy of Peg-IFN-α-2b therapy. PMID:27941937

  11. Solid-phase PEGylation of recombinant interferon alpha-2a for site-specific modification: process performance, characterization, and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Kook; Kwon, Jin Sook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Lee, E K

    2007-01-01

    'Solid-phase' PEGylation, in which a conjugation reaction attaches proteins to a solid matrix, has distinct advantages over the conventional, solution-phase process. We report a case study in which recombinant interferon (rhIFN) alpha-2a was adsorbed to a cation-exchange resin and PEGylated at the N-terminus by 5, 10, and 20 kDa mPEG aldehydes through reductive alkylation. After PEGylation, a salt gradient elution efficiently purified the mono-PEGylate of unwanted species such as unmodified IFN and unreacted PEG. Mono-PEGylation and purification were integrated into a single, chromatographic step. Depending on the molecular weight of the mPEG aldehyde, the mono-PEGylation yield ranged from 50 to 65%. Major problems associated with the solution-phase process such as random or uncontrollable multi-PEGylation and post-PEGylation purification difficulties were overcome. N-terminus sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrophometry confirmed that the PEG molecule was conjugated only to the N-terminus. A cell proliferation study indicated reduced antiviral activity of the mono-PEGylate compared to that of the unmodified IFN. As higher molecular weight PEG was conjugated, in vitro bioactivity and antibody binding activity, as measured by a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, decreased. Nevertheless, trypsin resistance and thermal stability were considerably improved .

  12. Inhibition of alpha interferon but not gamma interferon signal transduction by phorbol esters is mediated by a tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Petricoin, E; David, M; Igarashi, K; Benjamin, C; Ling, L; Goelz, S; Finbloom, D S; Larner, A C

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the expression of viral oncoproteins, cell transformation, or phorbol ester treatment of cells can inhibit alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta)-induced gene expression. The mechanisms by which these promoters of cell growth exert their inhibitory effects vary, but in most instances they involve a disruption of the IFN-alpha/beta-induced transcription complex ISGF3 such that the DNA-binding component of this complex (the 48-kDa ISGF3gamma protein) does not bind to the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). In this report, we demonstrated that phorbol ester treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes dramatically inhibits activation of IFN-alpha/B-stimulated early response genes but by a mechanism which does not involve abrogation of the ISRE binding of ISGF3gamma. Phorbol ester treatment of monocytes inhibited IFN alpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factors Stat1alpha, Stat2, and Stat3 and of the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 but had no effect on IFN-gamma activation of Stat1alpha. IFNalpha-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and the alpha subunit of the IFN-alpha receptor were unaffected by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Moreover, PMA caused the dephosphorylation of Tyk2 but not of Jak1, which was activated by IFN. Pretreatment of cells with vanadate prevented the effects of PMA with regard to PMA-induced Tyk2 dephosphorylation. These observations suggest that PMA exerts its inhibitory effects by activation of a tyrosine phosphatase which selectively regulates Tyk2 but not Jak1 activity. PMID:8657115

  13. Oropharyngeal pemphigus in a patient with chronic hepatitis C during interferon alpha-2a therapy.

    PubMed

    Marinho, R T; Johnson, N W; Fatela, N M; Serejo, F S; Glória, H; Raimundo, M O; Velosa, J F; Ramalho, F J; Moura, M C

    2001-07-01

    There are a few reports in the literature concerning pemphigus induced by interferon given for hepatitis C. We present the case of a 28-year-old woman with post-transfusional chronic hepatitis C who developed ulcers and vesicles on her tongue, cheeks, posterior oropharynx and vocal cords 5 months after beginning treatment with recombinant interferon alpha-2a. The direct and indirect immunofluorescence was diagnostic of pemphigus vulgaris. The drug was promptly withdrawn; the patient was medicated with prednisolone and azathioprine and recovered only 3 months later. Although there are several publications describing the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in patients receiving interferon alpha therapy, this is the first report of a pemphigus induced by interferon in hepatitis C patients involving oropharyngeal and laryngeal mucosae without cutaneous involvement.

  14. Effect of antiorthostatic suspension on interferon-alpha/beta production by the mouse (41939)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Andrea; Steffen, Joseph M.; Musacchia, X. J.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.

    1984-01-01

    Mice were suspended in a model that simulates the weightlessness that occurs during prolonged space flight. After one and two weeks of suspension in an antiorthostatic (head-down tilt) position, the mice were challenged with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid to induce interferon-alpha/beta. Interferon production was severely reduced in mice that had been suspended. When mice were allowed to recover in cages for a week following removal from suspension, they recovered their full interferon-production capacity. Mice suspended in an orthostatic (horizontal) position did not have their interferon production capabilities affected, which indicates that stress per se was not a major component in the effects of antiorthostatic suspension on interferon induction.

  15. Aplastic anemia and severe pancytopenia during treatment with peg-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Sabela; Calleja, Jose L; Campillo, Ana; Carrión, Jose A; Broquetas, Teresa; Perello, Christie; de la Revilla, Juan; Mariño, Zoe; Londoño, María-Carlota; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose M; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Forns, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Telaprevir and Boceprevir are the first direct acting antivirals approved for chronic hepatitis C in combination with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin. Pancytopenia due to myelotoxicity caused by these drugs may occur, but severe hematological abnormalities or aplastic anemia (AA) have not been described. We collected all cases of severe pancytopenia observed during triple therapy with telaprevir in four Spanish centers since approval of the drug in 2011. Among 142 cirrhotic patients receiving treatment, 7 cases of severe pancytopenia (5%) were identified and three were consistent with the diagnosis of AA. Mean age was 59 years, five patients had compensated cirrhosis and two patients had severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Severe pancytopenia was diagnosed a median of 10 wk after the initiation of therapy. Three patients had pre-treatment hematological abnormalities related to splenomegaly. In six patients, antiviral treatment was interrupted at the onset of hematological abnormalities. Two patients died due to septic complications and one patient due to acute alveolar hemorrhage. The remaining patients recovered. Severe pancytopenia and especially AA, are not rare during triple therapy with telaprevir in patients with advanced liver disease. Close monitoring is imperative in this setting to promptly detect serious hematological disorders and to prevent further complications. PMID:25954117

  16. Aplastic anemia and severe pancytopenia during treatment with peg-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lens, Sabela; Calleja, Jose L; Campillo, Ana; Carrión, Jose A; Broquetas, Teresa; Perello, Christie; de la Revilla, Juan; Mariño, Zoe; Londoño, María-Carlota; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose M; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Forns, Xavier

    2015-05-07

    Telaprevir and Boceprevir are the first direct acting antivirals approved for chronic hepatitis C in combination with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin. Pancytopenia due to myelotoxicity caused by these drugs may occur, but severe hematological abnormalities or aplastic anemia (AA) have not been described. We collected all cases of severe pancytopenia observed during triple therapy with telaprevir in four Spanish centers since approval of the drug in 2011. Among 142 cirrhotic patients receiving treatment, 7 cases of severe pancytopenia (5%) were identified and three were consistent with the diagnosis of AA. Mean age was 59 years, five patients had compensated cirrhosis and two patients had severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Severe pancytopenia was diagnosed a median of 10 wk after the initiation of therapy. Three patients had pre-treatment hematological abnormalities related to splenomegaly. In six patients, antiviral treatment was interrupted at the onset of hematological abnormalities. Two patients died due to septic complications and one patient due to acute alveolar hemorrhage. The remaining patients recovered. Severe pancytopenia and especially AA, are not rare during triple therapy with telaprevir in patients with advanced liver disease. Close monitoring is imperative in this setting to promptly detect serious hematological disorders and to prevent further complications.

  17. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  18. Patient education improves adherence to peg-interferon and ribavirin in chronic genotype 2 or 3 hepatitis C virus infection: A prospective, real-life, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cacoub, Patrice; Ouzan, Denis; Melin, Pascal; Lang, Jean-Philippe; Rotily, Michel; Fontanges, Thierry; Varastet, Marina; Chousterman, Michel; Marcellin, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of therapeutic education on adherence to antiviral treatment and sustained virological response (SVR) in a real-life setting in genotype 2/3 hepatitis C, as there are few adherence data in genotype 2/3 infection, even from randomized trials. METHODS: This prospective survey included genotype 2/3 patients who received peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. There was no intervention. Adherence was self-reported over the past 4 wk (peg-interferon) or 7 d (ribavirin). Adherence to bitherapy was defined as adherence to the two drugs for ≥ 20 wk. SVR was defined as undetectable RNA ≥ 12wk after the end of treatment. RESULTS: 370/674 patients received education during the first 3 mo of treatment. After 6 mo, adherence to bitherapy was higher in educated patients (61% vs 47%, P = 0.01). Adherence to peg-interferon was 78% vs 69% (P = 0.06). Adherence to ribavirin was 70% vs 56% (P = 0.006). The SVR (77% vs 70%, P = 0.05) and relapse (10% vs 16%, P = 0.09) rates tended to be improved. After adjustment for baseline differences, education improved adherence [Odds ratio (OR) 1.58, P = 0.04] but not the SVR (OR 1.54, P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: In genotype 2/3 patients, therapeutic education helped maintain real-life adherence to bitherapy. PMID:18985810

  19. Application of four anti-human interferon-alpha monoclonal antibodies for immunoassay and comparative analysis of natural interferon-alpha mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, G.; Lundgren, E.; Ekre, H.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Four different mouse monoclonal antibodies to human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) were evaluated for application in quantitative and comparative analysis of natural IFN-alpha mixtures. Binding to IFN-alpha subtypes in solution revealed individual reactivity patterns. These patterns changed if the IFN-alpha molecules were immobilized either passively to a surface or bound by another antibody. Also, substitution of a single amino acid in IFN-alpha 2 affected the binding, apparently by altering the conformation. Isoelectric focusing of three natural IFN-alpha preparations from different sources, followed by immunoblotting, resulted in individual patterns with each of the four mAbs and also demonstrated variation in the composition of the IFN-alpha preparations. None of the mAbs was subtype specific, but by combining the different mAbs, and also applying polyclonal anti-human IFN-alpha antibodies, it was possible to design sensitive sandwich ELISAs with broad or more limited IFN-alpha subtype specificity.

  20. 78 FR 46593 - Prospective Grant of Start-up Exclusive License: Kits for the Detection of Human Interferon-Alpha...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...-2008/0), titled ``Compositions for Detecting Human Interferon- Alpha Subtypes and Methods of Use'', to... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Start-up Exclusive License: Kits for the Detection of Human Interferon-Alpha Subtypes and Allotypes AGENCY: National Institutes of...

  1. Synthesis, secretion and processing of alpha-factor-interferon fusion proteins in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A; Lugovoy, J M; Kohr, W J; Perry, L J

    1984-01-01

    A gene fusion consisting of 960 base pairs of 5'-flanking region of the yeast MF alpha 1 gene, 257 base pairs coding for alpha-factor prepro sequence, and a modified human IFN-alpha 1 gene was constructed. MAT alpha cells containing the chimeric gene synthesized and secreted active IFN-alpha 1 into the growth medium. The secreted interferon molecules contained the last 4 amino acids of alpha-factor prepro sequence and the amino acids encoded by the DNA modifications introduced at the beginning of IFN-alpha 1 gene. DNA sequences coding for these amino acids were removed by oligonucleotide-directed in vitro mutagenesis. Yeast cells transformed with expression plasmids containing the altered junction synthesized and secreted human IFN-alpha 1 with the natural NH2-terminus. Images PMID:6083547

  2. Chronic hepatitis B with type I diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis development during interferon alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Kose, Sukran; Gozaydin, Ayhan; Akkoclu, Gulgun; Ece, Gulfem

    2012-04-13

    Interferon alpha is a molecule frequently used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, C, and D, with immunomodulatory and antiviral activity. It is also used in some cancer types. It has been widely claimed that interferon alpha triggers autoimmunity, with its broad adverse effect profile. Here we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B diagnosis who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis during treatment with interferon alfa-2b. Within four months of initiation of treatment with interferon alfa-2b, the patient presented to our clinic with dry mouth, urinary frequency (8 to 10 times per day), drinking plenty of water, night time urination, and tiredness. He was admitted to the clinic when his fasting blood glucose level was detected to be high. After examinations, the patient was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis and began to receive treatment with insulin and propranolol. Fasting blood glucose levels were controlled and thyroid hormones decreased to normal levels within one month after the treatments began. For patients who will receive treatment with interferon alpha, especially those individuals with chronic hepatitis, pancreatic autoantibodies should be checked and close monitoring should be performed as there may be glucose tolerance impairment in patients with high titers. In addition, follow-up with thyroid function tests should be performed prior to and during the treatment.

  3. Complete remission of multiple myeloma after autoimmune hemolytic anemia: possible association with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zelig, Orly; Shapira, Michael Y; Ackerstein, Aliza; Avgil, Meytal; Or, Reuven

    2007-06-01

    A patient with multiple myeloma (MM) was being maintained on human recombinant interferon-alpha (INF-alpha) after VAD and autologous bone marrow transplantation (pretreated with melphalan). An episode of immune thrombocytopenia and (Coombs positive) autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) was noted while on maintenance INF-alpha, which remitted when it was withdrawn. Following this event, he achieved a state of stable disease that persists (more than 3 years) with no specific myeloma treatment. This sequence of events suggests a relationship between an immunological reaction induced by INF-alpha and the prolonged phase of stable disease.

  4. Priming of human monocytes for enhanced lipopolysaccharide responses: expression of alpha interferon, interferon regulatory factors, and tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, M P; Zoon, K C

    1993-01-01

    Culture of human monocytes with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) results in a primed state, during which these cells express heightened responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of IFN-alpha in response to LPS by human monocytes has an absolute requirement for priming. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression is also greatly enhanced in primed monocytes after LPS stimulation, but unlike IFN-alpha, TNF is readily expressed in unprimed monocytes as well. In an effort to determine the molecular events associated with IFN-alpha induction in this system, freshly isolated human monocytes were primed by culture with either IFN-gamma or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then treated with LPS; expression of IFN-alpha subtype 2 (IFN-alpha 2), IFN regulatory factors (IRFs), and TNF was assessed by Northern (RNA blot) analysis. IRF-1 mRNA is expressed at high levels in monocytes and is regulated by both LPS and priming cytokines, but its expression alone does not correlate with the induction of IFN-alpha 2 expression. IRF-2 mRNA is expressed in a more gradual manner following LPS stimulation, implying a possible feedback mechanism for inhibiting IFN-alpha expression. However, nuclear run-on analysis indicates that IFN-alpha 2 is not transcriptionally modulated in this system, in striking contrast to TNF, which is clearly regulated at the transcriptional level. In addition, IFN-alpha 2 mRNA accumulation is superinduced when primed monocytes are treated with LPS plus cycloheximide, while TNF mRNA is relatively unaffected. The results demonstrate that priming can affect subsequent LPS-induced gene expression at different levels in human monocytes. Images PMID:8335353

  5. Thyroid dysfunction in hepatitis C individuals treated with interferon-alpha and ribavirin--a review.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luis Jesuíno de Oliveira; Atta, Ajax Mercês; D'Almeida Junior, Argemiro; Paraná, Raymundo

    2008-04-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal risk factor for developing thyroid disease in the course of antiviral therapy is the previous positivity for anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase) especially in older women. Screening for autoantibodies and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended before, during and after interferon-alpha treatment, and patients should be informed of the risk of thyroid dysfunction. This review includes a summary of thyroid disease associated with chronic HCV infection, interferon-alpha and ribavirin for treatment of HCV and potential to induce thyroid dysfunction.

  6. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  7. Extended Interferon-Alpha Therapy Accelerates Telomere Length Loss in Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    O'Bryan, Joel M.; Potts, James A.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Mathew, Anuja; Rothman, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Methods/Principal Findings Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment and were subsequently randomized to either a no additional therapy group or a maintenance dose pegylated-IFNα group for an additional 3.5 years. Significant telomere loss in naïve T cells occurred in the first 21 months in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere losses were similar in both groups during the final two years. Expansion of CD8+CD45RA+CD57+ memory T cells and an inverse correlation of alanine aminotransferase levels with naïve CD8+ T cell telomere loss were observed in the control group but not in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere length at screening inversely correlated with Hepatitis-C viral load and body mass index. Conclusions/Significance Sustained interferon-alpha treatment increased telomere loss in naïve T cells, and inhibited the accumulation of T cell memory expansions. The durability of this effect and consequences for immune senescence need to be defined. PMID:21829595

  8. Synthesis and noncovalent protein conjugation of linear-hyperbranched PEG-poly(glycerol) alpha,omega(n)-telechelics.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Frederik; Klos, Johannes; Räder, Hans Joachim; Frey, Holger

    2009-06-17

    Linear-hyperbranched, heterobifunctional alpha,omega(n) telechelic block copolymers consisting of a linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) block have been prepared in five steps, using a protected amino-functional initiator. The polyfunctionality omega(n) (OH groups) can be adjusted by the degree of polymerization (DP(n)) of the polyglycerol block. Subsequent introduction of a single biotin unit by amidation in alpha-position permitted noncovalent bioconjugation with avidin.

  9. [Interferon-alpha and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic damage due to hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Huezo, María Sarai; Gallegos-Orozco, Juan Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the published information published regarding the effects of interferon alpha therapy on liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver damage secondary to hepatitis C infection. Data reviewed included results of the in vitro effects of interferon on hepatic cell line cultures with regards to indirect markers of fibrosis, activation of hepatic stellate cells and oxidative stress response. In the clinical arena, there is current clear evidence of a favorable histological outcome in patients with sustained viral response to interferon therapy. For this reason, the current review focuses more on the histological outcomes regarding liver fibrosis in patients who have not attained viral response to therapy (non-responders) or who already have biopsy defined cirrhosis. Data in these patients were analyzed according to the results of objective testing of fibrosis through the assessment of liver biopsy and its change during time, specially because the morbidity and mortality of this disease is directly related to the complications of liver cirrhosis and not necessarily to the persistence of the hepatitis C virus. Lastly, it is concluded that the process of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis is a dynamic one and that there is some evidence to support the usefulness of interferon alpha therapy as a means to halt or retard the progression of hepatic fibrosis. The result of current clinical trials in which interferon therapy is being used to modify the progression of fibrosis in non-responders or cirrhotic patients is eagerly awaited.

  10. Increased depressive ratings in patients with hepatitis C receiving interferon-alpha-based immunotherapy are related to interferon-alpha-induced changes in the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Stefania; Marino, Valentina; Puzella, Antonella; Pasquini, Massimo; Biondi, Massimo; Artini, Marco; Almerighi, Cristiana; Verkerk, Robert; Meltzer, Herbert; Maes, Michael

    2002-02-01

    There is now evidence that repeated administration of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to patients with chronic active hepatitis and cancers induces depressive symptoms. There is also evidence that induction of the cytokine network modulates the serotonergic system and that major depression is related to activation of the cytokine network and disturbances in the serotonergic metabolism. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of IFN-alpha-based immunotherapy on the development of depressive symptoms in relation to its effects on plasma tryptophan and kynurenine and serum serotonin (5-HT). Eighteen patients affected by chronic active hepatitis C were treated with IFN-alpha (3-6 million units subcutaneously three to six times a week for 6 months) and had measurements of the previous parameters before starting immunotherapy and 2, 4, 16, and 24 weeks later. Severity of depression and anxiety were measured with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) scale, respectively. Immunochemotherapy with IFN-alpha (1) significantly increased the MADRS and HAM-A scores and serum kynurenine concentrations and (2) significantly reduced plasma tryptophan and serum 5-HT concentrations. IFN-alpha-based immunotherapy significantly increased the kynurenine per tryptophan quotient, which estimates the activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, the major tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, which is induced by IFNs. There are significant relationships between the IFN-alpha-induced changes in the MADRS score and serum kynurenine (positive) and 5-HT (negative) concentrations. Immunotherapy with IFN-alpha significantly increases the severity of depressive symptoms. The latter is related to changes in the serotonergic system, such as depletion of serum 5-HT and induction of the catabolism of tryptophan to kynurenine. It is suggested that the IFN-alpha-induced changes in the serotonergic turnover could play a role in the

  11. Analysis of menstrual calendars and serum alpha 2-PEG in women on hormone replacement therapy for 12 months.

    PubMed

    Habiba, M; al-Azzawi, F

    1994-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess endometrial protection in women on a cyclical combined hormone replacement regimen with 1 mg norethisterone BP, and to evaluate the use of the bleeding pattern and serum alpha 2-PEG in monitoring the endometrial response to exogenous hormone therapy. Fifty-one postmenopausal women attending the Menopause Research Unit at Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK, completed the study. All patients were at least 1 year after the menopause, with an average of 26 months since the last menstrual period. All women were prescribed a regimen of two tablets of Hormonin (oestriol 0.27 mg, oestrone 1.4 mg, and oestradiol 0.6 mg) continuously, with 1 mg of norethisterone added for 12 days out of each 28-day treatment cycle. Menstrual diaries were collected and analysed. The secretory changes were assessed by histology, menstrual bleeding pattern and a biological marker of secretory activity (alpha 2-PEG). Withdrawal bleeding occurred on average on days 11, 12, 11, 12 and 13 on months 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively. There was a poor degree of consistency in the bleeding pattern. The level of alpha 2-PEG increased from the average baseline measurement of 2.7 ng/ml (S.D., 4.12) to 8.5 ng/ml (S.D., 4.16) after progestogen treatment. This rise, although significant, did not correlate with the uterine bleeding pattern. There was no statistically significant correlation between the level of alpha 2-PEG and endometrial histology. The findings highlight the fact that cycle predictability on HRT, as exemplified in this regimen, is poor. The level of alpha 2-PEG is a poor predictor of the endometrial histology and has a poor correlation with the day of onset of bleeding.

  12. Definition of the interferon-alpha receptor-binding domain on the TYK2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Yan, H; Piazza, F; Krishnan, K; Pine, R; Krolewski, J J

    1998-02-13

    Interferons and cytokines modulate gene expression via a simple, direct signaling pathway containing receptors, JAK tyrosine kinases, and STAT transcription factors. The interferon-alpha pathway is a model for these cascades. Two receptors, IFNaR1 and IFNaR2, associate exclusively in a constitutive manner with two JAK proteins, TYK2 and JAK1, respectively. Defining the molecular interface between JAK proteins and their receptors is critical to understanding the signaling pathway and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutics. This report defines the IFNaR1 interaction domain on TYK2. In vitro binding studies demonstrate that the amino-terminal half of TYK2, which is approximately 600 amino acids long and contains JAK homology (JH) domains 3-7, comprises the maximal binding domain for IFNaR1. A fragment containing amino acids 171-601 (JH3-6) also binds IFNaR1, but with reduced affinity. Glutathione S-transferase-TYK2 fusion proteins approximating either the JH6 or JH3 domain affinity-precipitate IFNaR1, suggesting that these are major sites of interaction within the larger binding domain. TYK2 amino acids 1-601 act in a dominant manner to inhibit the transcription of an interferon-alpha-dependent reporter gene, presumably by displacing endogenous TYK2 from the receptor. This same fragment inhibits interferon-alpha-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of TYK2, STAT1, and STAT2.

  13. Multiplex pcr assay for detection of human interferon alpha2b gene in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Sakhno, L O; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade interferons are regarded as potent candidates for generation of plant-based edible vaccines because of broad spectrum of antiviral activities and adjuvant properties. Establishment and certification of numerous interferon producing plant systems requests development of fast and efficient multiplex PCR protocol for the transgene detection in GM plants. Here we represent a protocol for simultaneous amplification in one assay of fragments of hIFN alpha 2b gene and two control genes, namely virD1 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and conservative region of plant actin gene.

  14. Homology model of human interferon-alpha 8 and its receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Seto, M. H.; Harkins, R. N.; Adler, M.; Whitlow, M.; Church, W. B.; Croze, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human interferon-alpha 8 (HuIFN alpha 8), a type I interferon (IFN), is a cytokine belonging to the hematopoietic super-family that includes human growth hormone (HGH). Recent data identified two human type I IFN receptor components. One component (p40) was purified from human urine by its ability to bind to immobilized type I IFN. A second receptor component (IFNAR), consisting of two cytokine receptor-like domains (D200 and D200'), was identified by expression cloning. Murine cells transfected with a gene encoding this protein were able to produce an antiviral response to human IFN alpha 8. Both of these receptor proteins have been identified as members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of which HGH receptor is a member. The cytokine receptor-like structural motifs present in p40 and IFNAR were modeled based on the HGH receptor X-ray structure. Models of the complexes of HuIFN alpha 8 with the receptor subunits were built by superpositioning the conserved C alpha backbone of the HuIFN alpha 8 and receptor subunit models with HGH and its receptor complex. The HuIFN alpha 8 model was constructed from the C alpha coordinates of murine interferon-beta crystal structure. Electrostatic potentials and hydrophobic interactions appear to favor the model of HuIFN alpha 8 interacting with p40 at site 1 and the D200' domain of IFNAR at site 2 because there are regions of complementary electrostatic potential and hydrophobic interactions at both of the proposed binding interfaces. Some of the predicted receptor binding residues within HuIFN alpha 8 correspond to functionally important residues determined previously for human IFN alpha 1, IFN alpha 2, and IFN alpha 4 subtypes by site-directed mutagenesis studies. The models predict regions of interaction between HuIFN alpha 8 and each of the receptor proteins, and provide insights into interactions between other type I IFNs (IFN-alpha subtypes and IFN-beta) and their respective receptor components. PMID:7613464

  15. Assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma risk based on peg-interferon plus ribavirin treatment experience in this new era of highly effective oral antiviral drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ho; Jin, Young-Joo; Shin, Jun Young; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this new era of highly effective oral antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), indications for antiviral treatment may be extendable. This study undertaken to identify suitable candidates for peg-interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) treatment by evaluating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in patients with chronic HCV treated or not with PEG-IFN/RBV. This large-scale retrospective study was conducted on 1176 patients with chronic HCV without a history of HCC (treatment group [n = 489] and no-treatment group [n = 687]). In the treatment group, patients treated with PEG-IFN/RBV were dichotomized based on the achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR) into SVR (+) and SVR (−) groups. Median follow-up for all study subjects was 31 months (range 6–144 months). Three-year cumulative HCC development rates in the SVR (+) (1.1%) and SVR (−) (8.6%) subgroups were significantly lower than in the no-treatment group (13.5%) (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). In all study subjects, presence of cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR], 9.92, P < 0.01), age (HR 1.03, P < 0.01), SVR (−) (HR 7.02, P < 0.01), and no-treatment (HR 6.76, P < 0.01) were found to be independent risk factors of HCC development. In the treatment group, age, the presence of cirrhosis, and SVR (−) were predictors of HCC development. In the no-treatment group, age, male, and the presence of cirrhosis were independent predictors for HCC development. HCC risk increased in patients with chronic HCV with older age, cirrhosis, SVR (−) after PEG-IFN/RBV treatment, and no PEG-IFN/RBV treatment. Active antiviral therapy based on highly effective oral drugs needs to be considered in these patients. PMID:28072684

  16. KIR2DS2 as predictor of thrombocytopenia secondary to pegylated interferon-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Juarez, A; Gonzalez, R; Frias, M; Manzanares-Martín, B; Rodriguez-Cano, D; Perez-Camacho, I; Gordon, A; Cuenca, F; Camacho, A; Pineda, J A; Peña, J; Rivero, A

    2016-03-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) as a marker for the development of thrombocytopenia secondary to Peg-interferon (IFN) therapy in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Patients were naive to HCV treatment, receiving a first course of Peg-IFN/Ribavirin combination therapy. Total platelet count (cells ml(-1)) was determined at each visit, determining platelet decline from baseline to weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 after starting therapy. The end point of the study was development of thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count of <1 50 000 cells ml(-1). Fifty-eight HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included in the study, of whom 20 (34.4%) developed thrombocytopenia. The absence of KIR2DS2 was associated with higher and faster rate of thrombocytopenia (54.2% vs 22.5%; P=0.012; 6.6 vs 10.3 weeks; P=0.008). The absence of KIR2DS2 was associated with a greater decline in platelet count and development of thrombocytopenia during Peg-IFN treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 15 March 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.19.

  17. [Hyper-IgE syndrome treated with interferon alpha 2 beta. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Segura Mendez, N H; del Rivero Hernández, L; Mejía Ortega, J; Ubaldo Ortiz Vázquez, J; Varela Delgado, A L; Espínola Reyna, G; Rico, G

    2000-01-01

    The hyper IgE syndrome is characterized by recurrent abscess on the skin, and airways and itching dermatitis. The data acquired in the lab is hypergammaglobulinemy, eosinophil in blood, tissue, sputum, with fagocitos, and quimiotaxis defect. Since 1972 it has been reported 150 cases in the world without no geographic difference and 2:1 relation with the masculine gender. The therapeutic ways are even controversial. The therapy with interferon alpha 2 beta is the alternative treatment so diminish the dermis inflammation as the seric IgE reduction. This case shows a patient with the classic clinic data and seric IgE levels who didn't present response to the habitual therapy, because of this. He was the switch to the interferon alpha 2 beta. Later on the therapy it wasesented clinical changes over the symptomatology with reduction in the over seric IgE.

  18. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis induced by interferon-alpha 2a.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, P; Akay, B N; Karaosmanoglu, N

    2009-07-01

    Linear Ig A bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an acquired autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder with linear deposits of IgA along the basement membrane zone. Its cause is unclear, although it appears to have an immune-mediated basis. Idiopathic, systemic disorder-related, and rarely drug-induced forms of LABD have been described. We describe a case of LABD associated with interferon-alpha 2A used for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison of two "pegylated" interferon alpha-2 formulations in healthy male volunteers: a randomized, crossover, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Interferon (IFN) alpha conjugation to polyethylene glycol (PEG) results in a better pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety properties of a new, locally developed, 40-kDa PEG-IFN alpha-2b preparation with a reference, commercially available PEG-IFN alpha-2a in healthy male volunteers. Methods A randomized, crossover, double-blind study with a 3-weeks washout period, was done. A single 180 micrograms PEG-IFN alpha-2 dose was administered subcutaneously in both groups. Sixteen apparently healthy male subjects were included. Serum PEG-IFN concentration was measured during 336 hours by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Other clinical and laboratory variables were used as pharmacodynamic and safety criteria. Results The pharmacokinetic comparison by EIA yielded a high similitude between the formulations. In spite of a high subject variability, the parameters' mean were very close (in all cases p > 0.05): AUC: 53623 vs. 44311 pg.h/mL; Cmax: 333 vs. 271 pg/mL; Tmax: 54 vs. 55 h; half-life (t1/2): 72.4 vs. 64.8 h; terminal elimination rate (lambda): 0.011 vs. 0.014 h-1; mean residence time (MRT): 135 vs. 123 h for reference and study preparations, respectively. There were no significant differences with respect to the pharmacodynamic variables either: serum neopterin and beta-2 microglobulin levels, stimulation of 2'5' oligoadenylate synthetase expression, and serum IFN antiviral activity. A strong Spearman's rank order correlation (p < 0.01) between the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concentration-time curves was observed. Both products caused similar leukocyte counts diminution and had similar safety profiles. The most frequent adverse reactions were leukopenia, fever, thrombocytopenia, transaminases increase and asthenia, mostly mild. Conclusions Both formulations are fully comparable from the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Efficacy trials can be carried

  20. HCV-specific CD8+ cell detection at week 12 of chronic hepatitis C treatment with PEG-interferon-α2b/ribavirin correlates with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Larrubia, Juan-Ramón; Lokhande, Megha-Uttam; Moreno-Cubero, Elia; García-Garzón, Silvia; Miquel, Joaquín; Parra-Cid, Trinidad; González-Praetorious, Alejandro; Perna, Cristian; Lázaro, Alicia; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Lower than 2-log viral-load (VL) decrease at week 12 (w12) of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment with Peg-interferon/ribavirin has 100% negative predictive value (PV) of sustained virologic response (SVR), and this could be related with absence of HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In this study, percentage of cases with SVR, according to peripheral HCV-specific cytotoxic response at w12, was analysed (Group-1: detection(+), Group-2: detection(-)). SVR was higher in group-1 (93%) than in group-2 (47%) (p=0.003). An increase on HCV-specific CTL frequency between baseline and w12 and higher specific reactivity were observed in group-1 (p=0.011 and p=0.025). HCV-specific CTL detection at w12 correlated with level of VL decrease (p=0.016, r=0.389), and among HCV genotype-1 patients with either early or delayed virologic response (EDVR), 100% positive PV of SVR was observed. In summary, HCV-specific CTL detection at w12 of Peg-interferon/ribavirin treatment correlates with SVR and in EDVR genotype-1 cases predicts SVR.

  1. The effects of pegylated interferon--alpha2B on mumps orchitis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Goutam

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of pegylated Interferon--alpha2B on mumps orchitis, 80 patients suffering from mumps orchitis, were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 40 patients each. In the first group patients received pegylated interferon--alpha2B and the other group did not, acting as controls. All were confirmed by mumps IgM (ELISA) and evaluated by testis size, semen analysis and hormone level. In the first group, the symptoms resolved within average 2.2 days and testicular size returned to normal within average 5.3 days but in 2nd group, those returned to normal within average 5.7 days and 10.2 days respectively. In the 1st group, oligospermia was detected in 11 patients and subsequently returned to normal in all patients and there was no testicular atrophy. In the 2nd group oligospermia was detected in 13 patients and were persistently low in 3 patients and testicular atrophy detected in 2 patients. The results indicated the beneficial role of pegylated interferon--alpha2B in preventing infertility from mumps orchitis.

  2. Use of recombinant human interferon alpha-2a in the management of a dog with epitheliotropic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tzannes, Sophia; Ibarrola, Patricia; Batchelor, Daniel J; Burrow, Rachel D; Blackwood, Laura

    2008-01-01

    An 8-year-old, mixed-breed dog with preputial epitheliotropic lymphoma was initially treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone. A short-term partial response was followed by disease progression after 4 weeks. Recombinant human interferon alpha-2a was administered starting at week 7. The interferon therapy resulted in rapid resolution of clinical signs and a 10-week disease-free interval. The lymphoma recurred at 17 weeks and did not respond to rescue chemotherapy. Additional oral lesions were treated with localized radiotherapy followed by increased dosages of interferon. This additional interferon treatment resulted in another 12 weeks of stable disease.

  3. Morphine inhibits intrahepatic interferon- alpha expression and enhances complete hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ye, Li; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Luo, Guang-Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Wan, Qi; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2007-09-01

    Heroin addicts are a high-risk group for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of chronic HCV disease. We thus examined whether morphine, the active metabolite of heroin, has the ability to inhibit intrahepatic interferon (IFN)- alpha expression, facilitating HCV replication in human hepatocytes. Morphine inhibited intrahepatic IFN- alpha expression, which was associated with an increase in HCV replication in hepatocytes. Moreover, morphine compromised the anti-HCV effect of recombinant IFN- alpha . Investigation of the mechanism responsible for the morphine action revealed that morphine inhibited expression of IFN regulatory factor 5 in the hepatocytes. In addition, morphine suppressed the expression of p38, an important signal-transducing molecule involved in IFN- alpha -mediated anti-HCV activity. These findings indicate that morphine plays a cofactor role in facilitating HCV persistence in human hepatocytes.

  4. Alpha-interferon suppresses food intake and neuronal activity of the lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Vázquez, C; Prieto-Gómez, B; Dafny, N

    1994-12-01

    Alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) treatment in humans induces anorexic effects. However, the mechanisms and sites of action are unknown. Rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula for local injection, and semi-microelectrodes in the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area for neuronal recording were used. The animals were kept in metabolic cages, and food and water intake was measured daily at 7:00 and 19:00 hr for 35 days, including: 5 days before the experiment; 10 days during daily alpha-IFN application (either i.p. 1500 I.U./gbw, or i.c.v. 1500 and 150 I.U./animal) and/or a vehicle control group; and 20 days post drug treatment. The unitary activity recording from the LH area was made before (30 min), during (10 min) and after (200 min) the alpha-IFN applications. alpha-IFN elicited a reversible dose-related decrease of both food intake and body weight. This decrease in food intake following alpha-IFN injections was correlated with a depression of LH neuronal electrical activity. Since direct brain application (i.c.v.) and systemic (i.p.) alpha-IFN treatment elicited identical responses, it is possible to assume that alpha-IFN suppresses food intake by a direct action on CNS sites including the LH neurons.

  5. EORTC (30885) randomised phase III study with recombinant interferon alpha and recombinant interferon alpha and gamma in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. The EORTC Genitourinary Group.

    PubMed Central

    De Mulder, P. H.; Oosterhof, G.; Bouffioux, C.; van Oosterom, A. T.; Vermeylen, K.; Sylvester, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the treatment of renal cell carcinoma both complete (CRs) and partial remissions (PRs) have been obtained using recombinant (r) interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), with response rates ranging from 0 to 31% (mean 16%). rIFN-gamma is a potent immunostimulating agent, but the clinical experience of its use is limited and results are conflicting. In a phase II study with the combination of rIFN-alpha 2c (Boehringer Ingelheim) and rIFN-gamma (Genentech, supplied by Boehringer Ingelheim) in 31 eligible patients, a response rate of 25% was recorded. Based on this observation a randomised phase III study was initiated to investigate the possible advantage of the addition rIFN-gamma to rIFN-alpha 2c treatment. Treatment consisted of rIFN-alpha 2c 30 micrograms m-2 = 10 x 10(6) IU m-2 s.c. twice weekly in arm A and the same dose of rIFN-alpha combined with rIFN-gamma 100 micrograms m-2 = 2 x 10(6) IU m-2 in arm B. Eligibility criteria included documented progression of disease; patients with bone lesions only and overt central nervous system metastases were excluded. Between November 1988 and September 1990, 102 patients were entered into the study. An interim analysis showed a response in 7/53 (13%) patients (two CRs and five PRs) in the rIFN-alpha 2c monotherapy arm and in 2/45 (4%) (one CR and one PR) patients in the combination arm. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The probability of missing an eventual 10% advantage for the combination is 0.001. The numbers are insufficient to rule out a negative effect of the addition of rIFN-gamma. The dose intensity of IFN-alpha 2c for the two treatment arms was the same. The addition of rIFN-gamma does not improve the response rate of rIFN-alpha 2c monotherapy. A possible detrimental effect cannot be excluded. PMID:7841054

  6. Anti-viral effect of interferon-alpha on bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Sentsui, H; Takami, R; Nishimori, T; Murakami, K; Yokoyama, T; Yokomizo, Y

    1998-12-01

    To get basic information to control persistent virus infection among domestic animals by cytokines, the antiviral activity of four natural human cytokines against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was evaluated. Normal bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) and fetal bovine muscular cells (FBMC) were treated with varying doses of human interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta. The antiviral activity in treated cells was measured by the titration of virus infectivity in comparison with non-treated controls. IFN-alpha significantly suppressed virus growth in both PBML and FBMC. The growth of two cytopathogenic and two noncytopathogenic strains was suppressed in the presence of more than 10(3) u/ml of IFN-alpha. Addition of either TNF-alpha or TNF-beta to IFN-alpha did not potentiate the suppressive effect. IFN-alpha also suppressed the replication of BVDV in PBML from cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  7. Interferon-γ Protects from Staphylococcal Alpha Toxin-Induced Keratinocyte Death through Apolipoprotein L1.

    PubMed

    Brauweiler, Anne M; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that frequently infects the skin, causing lesions and cell destruction through its primary virulence factor, alpha toxin. Here we show that interferon gamma (IFN-?) protects human keratinocytes from cell death induced by staphylococcal alpha toxin. We find that IFN-? prevents alpha toxin binding and reduces expression of the alpha toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). We determine that the mechanism for IFN-?-mediated resistance to alpha toxin involves the induction of autophagy, a process of cellular adaptation to sublethal damage. We find that IFN-? potently stimulates activation of the primary autophagy effector, light chain 3 (LC3). This process is dependent on upregulation of apolipoprotein L1. Depletion of apolipoprotein L1 by small interfering RNA significantly increases alpha toxin-induced lethality and inhibits activation of light chain 3. We conclude that IFN-? plays a significant role in protecting human keratinocytes from the lethal effects of staphylococcal alpha toxin through apolipoprotein L1-induced autophagy.

  8. Prospective randomized comparison of dacarbazine (DTIC) versus DTIC plus interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Young, A M; Marsden, J; Goodman, A; Burton, A; Dunn, J A

    2001-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been the mainstay of chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma for over two decades, but only 15%-20% of patients respond and benefit is usually transient. Randomized studies combining DTIC with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in advanced disease have so far been inconclusive in terms of response and survival. We report a randomized prospective pilot Phase III trial of DTIC +IFN-alpha in patients with metastatic melanoma. The primary endpoint was death. A total of 61 patients were randomized between April 1995 and April 1998. Differences in survival between groups were assessed using log-rank analysis. Quality of life was measured using the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer QLQ C30 (+3) questionnaire. Fifty-seven patients died during the study. The median survival for patients receiving DTIC was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.4-9.0); it was 4.8 months for DTIC + IFN-alpha (95% CI 2.0-8.0). There was no significant difference in survival between the two treatment arms (chi2 unadjusted = 0.15, P = 0.70; chi2 adjusted = 0.01, P = 0.91). The 6-month survival of those patients randomized to DTIC alone was 58% compared with 40% for those patients randomized to DTIC + IFN-alpha. There were no differences in quality of life between treatment groups. This study failed to demonstrate a survival benefit for patients receiving IFN-alpha in combination with DTIC. These results are inconclusive primarily owing to the small size of the trial. A meta-analysis is required to determine whether there is a role for the addition of IFN-alpha to DTIC in the treatment of this disease.

  9. Control of islet intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interferon-alpha and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D; Huang, X; Beck, J; Henrich, J; McFarland, N; James, R F; Stewart, T A

    1996-10-01

    The ability of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce the adhesion molecules that characterize the islets of patients with type I diabetes has been investigated. We have found that all tested recombinant IFN-as will induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on arterial endothelial cells. Some but not all IFN-as will induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, there is only a transient and modest increase in VCAM on arterial endothelial cells. IFN-alpha has very little effect on endothelial MHC class II expression but will induce these proteins on monocytes. Thus, there is a close concordance between the biological actions of IFN-alpha and the appearance of those adhesion molecules induced in the islets of patients with type I diabetes. IFN-alpha is also produced in normal human islets during short-term cultures, probably as a result of the ischemia present at the center of the islet. This induction of IFN-alpha by hypoxia may explain the previously reported spontaneous induction of ICAM-1 in human islets and may also be a contributing factor to the failure of islet grafts.

  10. Rapid progression to cardiac tamponade in Erdheim-Chester disease despite treatment with interferon alpha.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, Afif; Slobodin, Gleb; Elias, Nizar; Bejar, Jacob; Odeh, Majed

    2016-07-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. The most common presentation is bone pains typically involving the long bones. Approximately 75% of the patients develop extraskeletal involvement. Cardiac involvement is seen in up to 45% of the patients, and although, pericardial involvement is the most common cardiac pathology of this rare disease, cardiac tamponade due to ECD has been very rarely reported. We describe a case of a patient found to have ECD with multi-organ involvement and small pericardial effusion, which progressed to cardiac tamponade despite treatment with interferon alpha.

  11. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  12. Emerging Therapies for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Focus on Targeting Interferon-alpha

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Eben I.; Helfgott, Simon M.; Kriegel, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a debilitating, potentially lethal, multifactorial systemic autoimmune disease, are limited to suppressing disease activity and are associated with multiple adverse effects. Recent advances in basic and translational sciences have elucidated a crucial role for the interferon-alpha (IFNα) pathway in the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disease. The so-called “type I interferon signature” has emerged as a major risk factor for disease activity of SLE. Multiple genes encoding for molecules within the type I interferon pathway have been associated with SLE in genome wide association studies. In addition, innate immune receptors are thought to be triggered by either endogenous and/or exogenous stimuli that lead to hypersecretion of IFNα. We review the multiple emerging treatment strategies targeting IFNα-related pathways. These include monoclonal antibodies against IFNα, anti-IFNα antibody-inducing vaccines, and inhibitors of toll-like receptors. We also summarize the current status of these pharmaceutical agents in early clinical trials. PMID:22525889

  13. In situ precipitation and vacuum drying of interferon alpha-2a: development of a single-step process for obtaining dry, stable protein formulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Sharma, Vikas K; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2009-01-21

    Feasibility studies were performed to develop a process for obtaining stable dry protein formulations based on in situ polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced precipitation and vacuum drying of interferon alpha-2a (IFNalpha2a) solution in a vial. Using a laboratory scale freeze dryer, the process was carried out in two phases: first, protein solution containing PEG was concentrated to achieve protein precipitation, and second, remaining water was removed by further reducing the chamber pressure. Drying conditions, i.e. temperature and pressure, and solution composition were selected to ensure maximal precipitation (solubility of IFNalpha2a), to achieve precipitation without boiling, and to ensure stability. Dried formulations were subjected to stability studies (40 degrees C). Concentration and precipitation could be achieved at a fast rate by utilizing pressures slightly above the vapor pressure of water. Fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that precipitated IFNalpha2a maintained its native structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed that IFNalpha2a when dried in the presence of trehalose, maintained its secondary structure. Trehalose also prevented formation of aggregates during drying. Moisture contents of 1% (w/w) were achieved within 48 h of drying. Dry formulation containing 1:20:100 (w/w) IFNalpha2a:trehalose:mannitol was stable against aggregation and oxidation (6% oxidized at 40 degrees C, 6 months). Stability profile was comparable to a similar lyophilized formulation.

  14. A new mass-spectrometric C-terminal sequencing technique finds a similarity between gamma-interferon and alpha 2-interferon and identifies a proteolytically clipped gamma-interferon that retains full antiviral activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, K; Simona, M G; Offord, R E; Prior, C P; Otto, B; Thatcher, D R

    1983-01-01

    A novel mass-spectrometric technique is described that permits the identification of the C-terminal peptide of a protein. The technique involves the incorporation of 18O into all alpha-carboxy groups liberated during enzyme-catalysed partial hydrolysis of the protein, followed by mass spectrometry to identify as the C-terminal peptide the only peptide that did not incorporate any 18O. The technique has been used to identify the true C-terminal tryptic peptide of a bacterially produced gamma-interferon and to distinguish it from a peptide produced by anomalous tryptic cleavage. It was found that a closely similar sequence segment of bacterially produced alpha 2-interferon undergoes an analogous cleavage. The technique was also used to identify the C-terminus of a clipped gamma-interferon that retains full antiviral activity. PMID:6418141

  15. Regulation by interferon alpha of immunoglobulin isotype selection and lymphokine production in mice

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Antigens and infectious agents that stimulate interferon alpha(IFN- alpha) production in mice induce antibody responses that are predominantly of the immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a isotype and contain little or no IgE. This suggested the possibility that IFN-alpha might have a role in directing Ig isotype selection. Consistent with this possibility, we have found that injection of mice with recombinant mouse IFN-alpha suppresses IgE secretion, enhances IgG2a secretion, and has no independent effect on IgG1 secretion in mice stimulated with a foreign anti-IgD antibody. Injection of mice with polyinosinic acid.polycytidylic acid (poly I.C), an inducer of macrophage IFN-alpha production, also suppresses the anti-IgD antibody-induced IgE response and stimulates the IgG2a response; these effects are blocked by a sheep antibody that neutralizes mouse IFN-alpha/beta. Both recombinant IFN- alpha and poly I.C have maximum IgE suppressive and IgG2a stimulatory effects when injected early in the anti-IgD antibody-induced immune response. Addition of IFN-alpha to mouse B cells cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + interleukin 4 (IL-4) suppresses both IgG1 and IgE production, but much less potently than IFN-gamma. IFN-alpha suppresses anti-IgD antibody-induced increases in the level of splenic IL-4 mRNA, but enhances the anti-IgD antibody-induced increase in the splenic level of IFN-gamma mRNA. These results are consistent with the effect of IFN-alpha on Ig isotype expression in mice, as IL-4 stimulates IgE and suppresses IgG2a secretion while IFN-gamma exerts opposite effects. These observations suggest that antigen presenting cells, by secreting IFN-alpha early in the course of an immune response, can influence the nature of that response both through direct effects on B cells and by influencing the differentiation of T cells. PMID:1940796

  16. [Effects of human and rat interferons-alpha on the behavior of rats of different ages. Comparative study of the homology of amino acid sequences].

    PubMed

    Loseva, E V; Loginova, N A; Nekliudov, V V; Mats, V N; Kurskaia, O V; Pasikova, N V

    2009-01-01

    Effects of chronic intranasal administration of human and rat interferons alpha on feeding and defensive behavior of rats were studied. Natural leukocyte human interferon "Lokferon" (a mixture of alpha interferon subtypes) and recombinant rat interferon alpha of the first subtype were used in the dose of 350 ME per rat daily. In addition, using the databases NCBI and EBI, we quantitatively estimated homology of amino-acid sequences between different subtypes of human and rat interferons. Both human (mostly in young rats) and rat interferons (mostly in old rats) increased rat feeding behavior after food conditioning to an audio tone. In old (but not in young) rats, both human and rat interferons worsened the ability of time interval assessment. In young (but not old) rats, both interferon kinds improved avoidance conditioning. The degree of homology between different human and rat interferons varied from 72% to 77%. Thus, generally, the effects of rat and human alpha interferons (350 ME) on rat conditioning were similar. This may be due to high degree of homology of amino-acid sequences between the two interferons.

  17. Preparation of bioactive interferon alpha-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles using a new approach of temperature-induced water phase/water-phase emulsion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Xu, Dong; Jiang, Mier; Yuan, Weien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a temperature-induced polyethylene glycol (PEG) water phase/polysaccharide water-phase emulsion approach for preparing interferon alpha-2b (IFNα-2b)-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles. IFNα-2b was first added to a mixture of an aqueous solution of PEG and polysaccharide. The mixture solution was stirred in a magnetic stirrer at a rate of 2000 rpm for 45 seconds at 0°C ± 0.5°C. The solution was then prefrozen at different temperatures. The polysaccharide and IFNα-2b partitioned in the polysaccharide phase were preferentially separated out as the dispersed phase from the mixture solution during the prefreezing process. Then the prefrozen sample was freeze-dried to powder form. In order to remove the PEG, the powder was washed with dichloromethane. Once IFNα-2b was loaded into the polysaccharide nanoparticles, these nanoparticles could gain resistance to vapor-water and water-oil interfaces to protect IFNα-2b. The antiviral activity of the polysaccharide nanoparticles in vitro was highly preserved (above 97%), while the antiviral activity of IFNα-2b-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles using the control water-in-oil-in-water method was only 71%. The antiviral activity of the IFNα-2b from blood samples was also determined on the basis of the activity to inhibit the cytopathic effects of the Sindbis virus on Follicular Lymphoma cells (FL). The antiviral activity in vivo was also highly preserved (above 97%). These polysaccharide nanoparticles could be processed to different formulations according to clinical requirements.

  18. Phorbol esters potentiate the induction of class I HLA expression by interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Erusalimsky, J D; Kefford, R F; Gilmore, D J; Milstein, C

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the effect of phorbol esters on the induction of class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) expression by interferons (IFNs) in the T-cell line MOLT-4 and in the MOLT-4 mutant YHHH. Addition of IFN-alpha to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-pretreated MOLT-4 cells causes a greater than 20-fold increase in the expression of class I HLA, as compared to a 4- to 7-fold IFN-alpha-induced increase in control cells. Pretreatment with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate does not alter the class I HLA response to IFN-gamma or the responses of other IFN-induced genes. This effect of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate reproduces in MOLT-4 cells the phenotype of the mutant YHHH, which also displays a selective enhanced class I HLA response to IFN-alpha. Pretreatment of YHHH with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate does not affect any of the responses induced by IFN. These findings suggest the existence of a phorbol ester-sensitive factor, inducible in MOLT-4 and constitutively expressed or modified in YHHH, which operates in the pathway of induction of class I HLA by IFN-alpha but not in the pathway used by IFN-gamma. Images PMID:2494657

  19. Phorbol esters potentiate the induction of class I HLA expression by interferon. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Erusalimsky, J.D.; Kefford, R.F.; Gilmore, D.J.; Milstein, C. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors have studied the effect of phorbol esters on the induction of class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) expression by interferons (IFNs) in the T-cell line MOLT-4 and in the MOLT-4 mutant YHHH. Addition of IFN-{alpha} to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-pretreated MOLT-4 cells causes a >20-fold increase in the expression of class I HLA, as compared to a 4- to 7-fold IFN-{alpha}-induced increase in control cells. Pretreatment with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate does not alter the class I HLA response to IFN-{gamma} or the responses of other IFN-induced genes. This effect of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate reproduces in MOLT-4 cells the phenotype of the mutant YHHH, which also displays a selective enhanced class I HLA response to IFN-{alpha}. Pretreatment of YHHH with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate does not affect any of the responses induced by IFN. These findings suggest the existence of a phorbol ester-sensitive factor, inducible in MOLT-4 and constitutively expressed or modified in YHHH, which operates in the pathway of induction of class I HLA by IFN-{alpha} but not in the pathway used by IFN-{gamma}.

  20. Interleukin-6 enhances whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferons inhibit integrin expression and adhesion of human mast cells to extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Dagmar; Grützkau, Andreas; Henz, Beate M; Küchler, Jens; Krüger-Krasagakis, Sabine

    2003-05-01

    Integrins are expressed on mast cells and constitute an essential prerequisite for the accumulation of the cells at sites of inflammation. In order to clarify a potential contribution of inflammatory cytokines to this process, we have studied the modulation of integrin expression and adhesion of immature human mast cells (HMC-1) to extracellular matrix proteins by interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma. Corticosteroids were used for comparison. On fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, preincubation of cells for 48 h with different concentrations of interleukin-6 induced a significant, up to 40%, increase of alpha v alpha 5, CD49b (alpha 2), CD49e (alpha 5), CD49f (alpha 6), and CD51 (alpha v). In contrast, different concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma, and dexamethasone (10-8-10-10 M) inhibited expression of adhesion receptors by up to 60%, reaching significance for some but not all integrins. On semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, interleukin-6, the other cytokines, and corticosteroids significantly modulated expression of alpha1, alpha v and alpha 5 integrin chains at mRNA level. Functional significance of these findings was proven in adhesion assays using fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin, with interleukin-6 causing significant enhancement of adhesion in all cases, tumor necrosis factor alpha and dexamethasone inducing significant reduction of adhesion to fibronectin and laminin, and interferon-gamma significantly inhibiting adhesion to fibronectin only. Specificity of interleukin-6-induced changes was demonstrated using antibodies against alpha1 and alpha 5 integrins in unstimulated and interleukin-6-prestimulated cells. These data show that interleukin-6 stimulates mast cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and thus allows for the accumulation of the cells at tissue sites by enhancing integrin expression, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha

  1. An Observational, Multicenter, Cohort Study Evaluating the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety in Korean Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Pegylated Interferon-alpha 2a (Pegasys)

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, In Hee; Bae, Si Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Heo, Jeong; Jang, Jeong Won; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Kang Mo; Chung, Woo Jin; Choi, Moon Seok; Jang, Jae Young; Yim, Hyung Joon; Tak, Won Young; Yoon, Ki Tae; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Suk, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Woong; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, limited data are available regarding the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-IFN α-2a) in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), in whom hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is the most common type. We collected data from 439 patients (HBeAg positive, n = 349; HBeAg negative, n = 90) with CHB who were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a as a first-line therapy from 18 institutions. Treatment responses at the end of treatment (ET) and at 6 months posttreatment (PT6) were compared between the patients who were treated for 24 weeks versus 48 weeks, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. In HBeAg-positive patients, those who received PEG-IFN α-2a for 48 weeks showed significantly higher HBV DNA suppression (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) than those who were treated for 24 weeks (48 weeks vs 24 weeks; at ET, 44.4% vs 36.7%, P = 0.035; at PT6, 35.9% vs 13.3%, P = 0.035). The HBeAg seroconversion rate at ET was 18.1% in 48-week treatment group, which is significantly higher than the 2.2% (P < 0.001) that was seen in 24-week treatment group. This finding also continued at PT6 (29.0% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Following 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-negative patients, HBV DNA suppression at ET was higher than in HBeAg-positive patients (87.8% vs 44.4%). AEs were typical of those associated with PEG-IFN α-2a. In naïve Korean HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN α-2a, higher rates of HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion were achieved in the 48-week treatment group than in the 24-week treatment group without additional risk of AEs. PMID:27057828

  2. Combination of interferon alpha with either Ara-C or ATRA in vitro reduces the selective action of interferon against CML CFU-GM.

    PubMed

    Marley, S B; Davidson, R J; Goldman, J M; Gordon, M Y

    2000-08-01

    Although interferon (IFN)-alpha has no specific inhibitory effect on the plating efficiency of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), it does selectively inhibit the replating ability (secondary colony formation) of CML CFU-GM. Thus, amplification of CFU-GM may be a target for IFN-alpha and other agents used in the treatment of CML. Here we examined whether cytarabine (Ara-C) or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exert similar effects and whether they might in combination with IFN-alpha enhance its efficacy. We found that Ara-C preferentially inhibits the formation of CML CFU-GM compared to normal CFU-GM, but this inhibition was not increased by addition of IFN-alpha. When Ara-C was added to cultures containing IFN-alpha, the inhibition of replating by CML progenitors was abrogated. ATRA increased significantly the plating efficiency of normal CFU-GM. The addition of IFN-alpha to ATRA had no effect on CML or normal colony numbers. However, addition of ATRA to cultures containing IFN-alpha reversed the selective inhibition of CML CFU-GM replating seen in cultures containing IFN-alpha alone. In four IFN-alpha/Ara-C experiments, secondary CML patient-derived colonies were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). All of them were Ph chromosome positive. No significant effects on CFU-GM production were observed when CML primitive haemopoietic progenitor cells were investigated in a delta (delta) assay. Thus we conclude that combining IFN-alpha with Ara-C or ATRA neutralises the effect of IFN-alpha on CML CFU-GM. This observation provides a rationale for treating patients with alternating courses of IFN-alpha and Ara-C or ATRA, rather than giving either of these two agents in combination with IFN-alpha.

  3. Interferon-alpha and dexamethasone inhibit adhesion of T cells to endothelial cells and synovial cells

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, K.; Kawakami, A.; Nakashima, M.; Ida, H.; Sakito, S.; Matsuoka, N.; Terada, K.; Sakai, M.; Kawabe, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Ishimaru, T.; Kurouji, K.; Fujita, N.; Aoyagi, T.; Maeda, K.; Nagataki, S.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated whether interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and glucocorticoids affected the adhesion of T cells to human umbilical endothelial cells or human synovial cells. About 30% of peripheral blood T cells could bind to unstimulated endothelial cells, but only a few T cells could bind to unstimulated synovial cells. When both endothelial cells and synovial cells were cultured with recombinant IFN-γ (rIFN-γ), the percentage of T cell binding to both types of cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. rIFN-α and dexamethasone blocked the T cell binding to unstimulated endothelial cells. Furthermore, rIFN-α and dexamethasone suppressed T cell binding to both endothelial cells and synovial cells stimulated by IFN-γ, and also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on both endothelial cells and synovial cells stimulated by IFN-γ. These results suggest that IFN-α and glucocorticoids may inhibit T cell binding to endothelial cells or synovial cells by modulating adhesion molecule expression on these cells. PMID:1606729

  4. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lowther, William; Lorick, Kevin; Lawrence, Susan D; Yeow, Wen-Shuz

    2012-12-01

    Methods necessary for the successful transformation and regeneration of Aloe vera were developed and used to express the human protein, interferon alpha 2 (IFNα2). IFNα2 is a secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the cellular response to viral infection. Transgenic plants were regenerated from callus cultures initiated from zygotic embryos. Expression of the IFNA2 transgene in transformed plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and IFNα2 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human A549 cells treated with transgenic aloe extracts for 6 h induced expression of the interferon stimulated gene 54, indicating activation of the IFN signaling pathway. The biological activity of the aloe produced IFNα2 was assessed using an antiviral assay with A549 cells treated with extracts from both the rind and pulp fractions of the shoot and subsequently infected with the lytic encephalomyocarditis virus. The highest level of activity attributable to recombinant IFNα2 was determined to be 625 IU/mg of total soluble protein (TSP) in the rind and 2,108 IU/mg TSP in the pulp. Two daughter plants that vegetatively budded during the course of this study were also confirmed to express IFNα2. These results confirm that Aloe vera is capable of expressing a human protein with biological activity, and that a secreted protein targeting the apoplast can be detected in the pulp fraction of the plant.

  5. A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Edward P.; Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, combined with a saturating rate of conversion to these states, was able to successfully fit the experimental dataset. Sensitivity analysis showed that the potency of inhibition by IFNα was particularly dependent on specific network parameters and rate constants. This model will be useful for designing new therapies targeting the IFNα network in HIV-1-infected individuals, as well as potentially serving as a template for understanding the interaction of IFNα with other viruses. PMID:27010978

  6. A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Browne, Edward P; Letham, Benjamin; Rudin, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, combined with a saturating rate of conversion to these states, was able to successfully fit the experimental dataset. Sensitivity analysis showed that the potency of inhibition by IFNα was particularly dependent on specific network parameters and rate constants. This model will be useful for designing new therapies targeting the IFNα network in HIV-1-infected individuals, as well as potentially serving as a template for understanding the interaction of IFNα with other viruses.

  7. The interferon-alpha gene family of Marmota himalayana, a Chinese marmot species with susceptibility to woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinping; Wang, Baoju; Huang, Hongping; Tian, Yongjun; Bao, Junjie; Dong, Jihua; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2008-01-01

    The interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) gene family is an important part of the immune system. Recombinant interferon-alpha is widely used to treat viral hepatitis and malignant diseases. Marmota himalayana has been found to be susceptible to woodchuck hepatitis virus, a virus genetically related to hepatitis B virus (HBV), and is suitable as an animal model for studies on HBV infection. Here, the IFN-alpha gene family of M. himalayana (cwIFN-alpha) was characterized. Sequence data indicate that the cwIFN-alpha family consists of at least 8 functional sequences and 6 pseudogenes with high homology within the family and to IFN-alpha of Marmota monax, a related species and well-established animal model. The recombinant cwIFN-alpha subtypes were expressed and tested to be active in viral protection assay and to induce expression of MxA in a species-specific manner. This work provides essential information for future work on testing new therapeutic approaches of HBV infection based on IFN-alpha in M. himalayana.

  8. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Sainz, I; Ramanathan, P; O'Donnell, V; Diaz-San Segundo, F; Velazquez-Salinas, L; Sturza, D F; Zhu, J; de los Santos, T; Borca, M V

    2015-09-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNα) can effectively inhibit or abort a viral infection within the host. It has been reported that IFN induction and production is hindered during classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. Most of those studies have been performed in vitro, making it difficult to elucidate the actual role of IFNs during CSFV infection in swine. Here, we report the effect of IFNα treatment (delivered by a replication defective recombinant human adenovirus type 5, Ad5) in swine experimentally infected with highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia. Treatment with two different subtypes of IFNα delayed the appearance of CSF-related clinical signs and virus replication although it did not prevent lethal disease. This is the first report describing the effect of IFNα treatment during CSFV infection in swine.

  9. Effective treatment with interferon-alpha in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, R

    1995-10-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by multiple osteomyelitic changes in the predominantly metaphysial regions of long bones. It was first described by Giedon et al. in 1972. Cultures for all known microorganisms are negative. Pain is the most common symptom, and sometimes soft tissue swelling is present. Patients are usually treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroids and respond, at least partly, to these treatments. CRMO is most commonly seen in children and is in the majority of cases self-limiting but has a protracted course of several years. Some patients have a more prolonged disease period, as in the patient reported here. Treatment with corticosteroids in children has the risk of causing growth retardation as a potential adverse effect, and alternative treatments are of great interest. In the actual paper, a successful treatment with interferon-alpha 2b in a 34-year-old man with CRMO is presented.

  10. Combination of OK432 and human interferon-alpha for treating viral-induced diabetes mellitus in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanda, T; Kogure, S; Nara, M; Tsukui, S; Utsugi, T; Tomono, S; Kawazu, S; Nagai, R; Kobayashi, I

    1998-01-26

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of OK432 (picibanil; CAS39325-1-4), an immunomodulator that is derived from the Su strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. This agent was administered alone or combined with human interferon-alpha in a murine model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Interferon-alpha inhibits viral replication, reducing the incidence of virus-induced IDDM. Groups of DBA/2 mice (N = 25 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of OK432 and interferon-alpha daily for 16 d beginning 1 d after inoculation with 500 plaque-forming units of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The dose of OK432 was one clinical unit (corresponding to 0.1 mg dried cells) per mouse, and that of interferon-alpha was 1 x 10(4) u/g. The animals were killed at random at 3 or 7 d after inoculation with EMCV. The survival rate of mice treated with the combination of OK432 and with interferon-alpha was significantly greater than that of the non-treated infected control animals (P < 0.01). Fasting levels of blood glucose were significantly lower in the mice administered the combination, than in the controls, both on day 3 (68 +/- 21 mg/dl vs. 270 +/- 135 mg/dl, P < 0.01) and on day 7 (101 +/- 29 mg/dl vs. 219 +/- 112 mg/dl, P < 0.01). Serum levels of insulin were significantly higher in the treated mice than in the controls (65 +/- 5 vs. 55 +/- 1 microU/ml, P < 0.05). However, in the mice treated with OK432 or interferon-alpha alone, the survival rate and the blood level of glucose and insulin did not differ from those of infected controls. Natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly higher in the mice treated with the drug combination than in the controls on both days evaluated: day 3, 65 +/- 5 vs. 55 +/- 1%, n = 3, P < 0.05; day 7, 44 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 8%, n = 3, P < 0.05). Serum levels of murine interferon in the treated mice exceeded those in controls on both days evaluated (day 3, 671 U/ml vs. 442 U/ml; day 7, 57 U/ml vs. 43 U/ml). There were no significant

  11. Early prediction of major depression in chronic hepatitis C patients during peg-interferon α-2b treatment by assessment of vegetative-depressive symptoms after four weeks

    PubMed Central

    Robaeys, Geert; De Bie, Jozef; Wichers, Marieke C; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nevens, Frederik; Michielsen, Peter; Van Ranst, Marc; Buntinx, Frank

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the predictive value of the vegetative-depressive symptoms of the Zung Depression Rating Scale for the occurrence of depression during treatment with peg-interferon α-2b of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: The predictive value of vegetative-depressive symptoms at 4 wk of treatment for the occurrence of a subsequent diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was studied in CHC patients infected after substance use in a prospective, multi-center treatment trial in Belgium. The presence of vegetative-depressive symptoms was assessed using the Zung Scale before and 4 wk after the start of antiviral treatment. RESULTS: Out of 49 eligible patients, 19 (39%) developed MDD. The area under the ROC curve of the vegetative Zung subscale was 0.73, P = 0.004. The sensitivity at a cut-point of > 15/35 was 95% (95% CI: 74-100). The positive predictive value equalled 44% (95% CI: 29-60). CONCLUSION: In this group of Belgian CHC patients infected after substance use, antiviral treatment caused a considerable risk of depression. Seven vegetative-depressive symptoms of the Zung scale at wk 4 of treatment predicted 95% of all emerging depressions, at a price of 56% false positive test results. PMID:17963300

  12. Influence of carbohydrates on the stability and structure of a hyperglycosylated human interferon alpha mutein.

    PubMed

    Ceaglio, Natalia; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Oggero, Marcos

    2010-08-01

    Protein physical and chemical instability is one of the major challenges in the development of biopharmaceuticals during every step of the process, ranging from production to final delivery. This is particularly applicable to human recombinant interferon alpha-2b (rhIFN-alpha2b), a pleiotropic cytokine currently used worldwide for the treatment of various cancer and chronic viral diseases, which presents a poor stability in solution. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the introduction of four N-glycosylation sites in order to construct a heavily glycosylated IFN variant (4N-IFN) resulted in a markedly prolonged plasma half-life which was reflected in an enhanced therapeutic activity in mice in comparison with the commercial non-glycosylated rhIFN-alpha2b (NG-IFN). Herein, we evaluated the influence of glycosylation on the in vitro stability of 4N-IFN towards different environmental conditions. Interestingly, the hyperglycosylated cytokine showed enhanced stability against thermal stress, acid pH and repetitive freeze-thawing cycles in comparison with NG-IFN. Besides, microcalorimetric analysis indicated a much higher melting temperature of 4N-IFN, also demonstrating a higher solubility of this variant as denoted by the absence of precipitation at the end of the experiment, in contrast with the NG-IFN behaviour. Furthermore, far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of 4N-IFN was virtually superimposed with that of NG-IFN, indicating that the IFN structure was not altered by the addition of carbohydrate moieties. The same conclusion could be inferred from limited proteolysis studies. Our results suggest that glycoengineering could be a useful strategy for protecting rhIFN-alpha2b from inactivation by various external factors and for overcoming aggregation problems during the production process and storage.

  13. Role of the interferon-inducible IFI16 gene in the induction of ICAM-1 by TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Simone; De Andrea, Marco; Mondini, Michele; Gugliesi, Francesca; Gariglio, Marisa; Landolfo, Santo

    2009-01-01

    The Interferon-inducible gene IFI16, a member of the HIN200 family, is activated by oxidative stress and cell density, in addition to Interferons, and it is implicated in the regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and vessel formation in vitro. We have previously shown that IFI16 is required for proinflammatory gene stimulation by IFN-gamma through the NF-kappaB complex. To examine whether IFI16 induction might be extended to other proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, we used the strategy of the RNA interference to knock down IFI16 expression, and analyze the capability of TNF-alpha to stimulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 or CD54) expression in the absence of functional IFI16. Our studies demonstrate that IFI16 mediates ICAM-1 stimulation by TNF-alpha through the NF-kappaB pathway, thus reinforcing the role of the IFI16 molecule in the inflammation process.

  14. alpha-Interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a controlled, multicentre, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Angelini, G; Sgarbi, D; Colombari, R; Bezzi, A; Castagnini, A; de Berardinis, F; Conti, A; di Piramo, D; Dolci, L; Falezza, G

    1995-01-01

    This prospective, controlled study was designed in order to evaluate the response rate to alpha-interferon (IFN) versus no treatment in 63 patients affected by chronic hepatitis C. Fifty-two patients were randomly chosen to receive no treatment of IFN alfa-2b (6 MU 3 times weekly for the first month and 3 MU for the next 11 months). Eleven additional patients were crossed to active treatment after a 1-year control period without any change of serum pattern and were therefore enrolled both as controls and cases. Four patients had to be withdrawn from the active treatment for adverse effects. Sixteen out of the remaining 23 had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values at the end of the treatment, and 14 were still normal 12 months later. A liver biopsy, taken 6 months after the end of the treatment, showed improvement in 12 patients and normalization in 1. Only 1 out of the 25 controls had transaminase normalization and 5 a decrease. One of them showed also a histological improvement. Eight of the 11 case/control patients showed ALT normalization after IFN administration, 5 of them histological improvement and 2 liver normalization. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA became negative in 13 of 17 cases in whom the assay was carried out. Therefore this study confirms that the longterm administration of alpha-IFN induced a prolonged remission of disease activity in over 50% of the patients and the clearance of HCV RNA in the majority of the responders.

  15. Weight-based dosing of pegylated interferon-alpha in chronic hepatitis C: just a marketing 'gag'?

    PubMed

    Ferenci, P

    2003-09-01

    Today medical-scientific data are diluted by the marketing strategies of the biomedical industry making it difficult for practising physicians to decide what is correct or wrong. One typical example is the use of pegylated interferons for treatment of chronic hepatititis C. In this report the arguments pro and contra weight-based dosing are critically discussed. The factors contributing to success or failure to eradicate the virus are manifold, and include the sensitivity of the virus to interferon, viral genotype, age, gender stage of fibrosis, presence or absense of steatosis. Weight by itself plays just a minor role. The impact of weight-based dosing in general is overestimated and certainly not needed when 40 kD branched PEG-IFNalpha2a with a restricted volume of distribution is used. Whether weight-based dosing of 12 kD linear PEG-IFNalpha2b provides any benefit over a flat dose of the drug remains to be studied.

  16. The Alpha/Beta Interferon Response Controls Tissue Tropism and Pathogenicity of Poliovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ida-Hosonuma, Miki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Nagata, Noriyo; Sato, Yuko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Fujita, Takashi; Taya, Choji; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Koike, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Poliovirus selectively replicates in neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, although poliovirus receptor (PVR) expression is observed in both the target and nontarget tissues in humans and transgenic mice expressing human PVR (PVR-transgenic mice). We assessed the role of alpha/beta interferon (IFN) in determining tissue tropism by comparing the pathogenesis of the virulent Mahoney strain in PVR-transgenic mice and PVR-transgenic mice deficient in the alpha/beta IFN receptor gene (PVR-transgenic/Ifnar knockout mice). PVR-transgenic/Ifnar knockout mice showed increased susceptibility to poliovirus. After intravenous inoculation, severe lesions positive for the poliovirus antigen were detected in the liver, spleen, and pancreas in addition to the central nervous system. These results suggest that the alpha/beta IFN system plays an important role in determining tissue tropism by protecting nontarget tissues that are potentially susceptible to infection. We subsequently examined the expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the PVR-transgenic mice. In the nontarget tissues, ISGs were expressed even in the noninfected state, and the expression level increased soon after poliovirus infection. On the contrary, in the target tissues, ISG expression was low in the noninfected state and sufficient response after poliovirus infection was not observed. The results suggest that the unequal IFN response is one of the important determinants for the differential susceptibility of tissues to poliovirus. We consider that poliovirus replication was observed in the nontarget tissues of PVR-transgenic/Ifnar knockout mice because the IFN response was null in all tissues. PMID:15767446

  17. Role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in inhibition of growth of interferon-sensitive and interferon-resistant Rickettsia prowazekii strains in L929 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Turco, J; Winkler, H H

    1993-01-01

    The ability of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) alone and in combination with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) to inhibit the growth of interferon-sensitive and -resistant Rickettsia prowazekii strains in mouse L929 cells was examined, and the possible role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the suppression of rickettsial growth induced by TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or both cytokines was evaluated. TNF-alpha inhibited the growth of strains Madrid E (IFN-gamma sensitive and alpha/beta interferon [IFN-alpha/beta] sensitive) and Breinl (IFN-gamma sensitive and IFN-alpha/beta resistant), but not that of strain 83-2P (IFN-gamma resistant and IFN-alpha/beta resistant), in L929 cells. Inhibition of the growth of the Madrid E strain in L929 cells treated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in combination was greater than that observed with either TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma alone. Similarly, inhibition of the growth of the Breinl strain in L929 cells treated with both cytokines was greater than that observed with TNF-alpha alone; however, it did not differ significantly from the inhibition observed with IFN-gamma alone. Although strain 83-2P was resistant to TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma alone, its growth was inhibited in L929 cells treated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in combination. Nitrite production was measured in mock-infected and infected L929 cell cultures, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors NG-methyl-L-arginine (NGMA) and aminoguanidine were used to evaluate the role of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in cytokine-induced inhibition of rickettsial growth. Nitrite production was induced in mock-infected or R. prowazekii-infected L929 cell cultures treated with IFN-gamma plus TNF-alpha, but not in mock-infected cultures that were untreated or treated with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha alone. Nitrite production was also not induced in untreated, R. prowazekii-infected cultures; however, in some instances, it was induced in infected cultures treated with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha alone

  18. Use of interferon-alpha in laryngeal papillomatosis: eight years of the Cuban national programme.

    PubMed

    Deuñas, L; Alcantud, V; Alvarez, F; Arteaga, J; Benítez, A; Bopuza, M; Carniege, L; Cartaya, B; Comas, C; Cotayo, R; Escobar, H; Fernández, H; Fernández, M; Fernández, R; García, M; Iznaga, N; la O, F; Márquez, J; Nordet, D; Pérez, J; Quintero, J; Redonavich, A; Robeleco, M; Rodríguez, H; Strander, H

    1997-02-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis is one of the first diseases where interferon (IFN) was found to be effective. In 1983, a programme for the treatment of all such cases started in Cuba. Up to December 1991, 125 patients (92 children, 33 adults) have been treated: 102 with leucocyte IFN-alpha, 12 with recombinant IFN-alpha-2b, and 11 have received both preparations. Case management consisted of surgical removal of the lesions followed by an IFN schedule starting with 10(5) IU/kg of weight in children or 6 x 10(6) IU in adults, i.m. daily. The dose was progressively reduced, as long as no relapses occurred. At the end of the one-year schedule the doses were reduced to 5 x 10(4) IU/kg in children or 3 x 10(6) IU in adults, weekly. If there was a relapse, it was removed surgically and the patient returned to a higher dose level. Most cases (89; 71 per cent) have not relapsed after the treatment; 60 of them have been followed for more than three years. In those with relapses, the frequency of recurrence decreased in all but four patients. The treatment seemed to be more effective if initiated less than three months after the disease onset. The tracheostomy could be removed in five out of seven patients who needed it before the IFN treatment and was necessary in only three new cases during IFN treatment. In two of these, decannulation was possible later on. In a total of 14 patients relapses persisted after several cycles of IFN treatment. They were considered resistant to such treatment. No severe side effects were reported. The most frequent ones were fever, drowsiness, increased bronchial secretion, chills and headache. The establishment of this programme has maintained the disease under control in Cuba.

  19. Effects of pegylated interferon alpha-2a on hepatitis-C-virus-associated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Yamada, Takuji; Kimpara, Yuri; Fujita, Naoya; Goto, Kenji; Koyama, Norihisa

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic liver disease, but it has also been associated with extrahepatic manifestations. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is the most common renal disease associated with HCV. Although renal disease related to HCV in adults has been well studied, it has not been well studied in children because it is rare. A recent study found that antiviral therapy was effective for adult patients with HCV-associated MPGN. We report a 9-year-old girl with HCV-associated MPGN. Her HCV genotype was 1b, and her virus load was high. The first renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and partial double contours of the basement membrane on light microscopy and immunofluorescence staining with immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and C3. The patient was successfully treated with pegylated interferon (IFN) alpha-2a monotherapy. The antiviral therapy was generally well tolerated. After antiviral therapy, a sustained virological response-defined as negative HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) at least 24 weeks after antiviral treatment-was achieved, the proteinuria disappeared, and the second renal biopsy showed improvement.

  20. Interferon-alpha therapy for refractory kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai Wei; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Hai Guang; Wang, Yan An; Su, Li Xin; Fan, Xin Dong; Zheng, Jia Wei

    2016-01-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a relatively rare vascular tumor with an aggressive and infiltrating nature. Previous studies have revealed an exclusive relationship between KHE and Kasabach-Merritt Phenomenon (KMP), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. No universally accepted treatment modality exists for refractory KHE with or without KMP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy for treatment of refractory KHE. Twelve consecutive patients with KHE were treated with subcutaneous injections of IFN-α after other treatments had failed. Eleven patients exhibited a reduction in tumor size of more than 50%, and the platelet count for all five patients with KMP returned to normal level after IFN-α therapy. The duration of IFN-α treatment ranged from 3 months to 9 months (mean: 6.3 months). The response time for IFN-α treatment ranged from 10 days to 5 weeks (mean: 3.6 weeks). Additionally, no severe complications, such as neurological damage or spastic diplegia, were observed in these patients. In conclusion, our study suggested that IFN-α therapy is effective and safe for refractory KHE, and IFN-α may be used as an alternative after other treatments have failed. PMID:27796340

  1. Interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 regulates NRASQ61K-induced melanomagenesis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Romi; Forloni, Matteo; Bisserier, Malik; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Yang, Qiaohong; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the NRAS oncogene are present in up to 20% of melanoma. Here, we show that interferon alpha-inducible protein 6 (IFI6) is necessary for NRASQ61K-induced transformation and melanoma growth. IFI6 was transcriptionally upregulated by NRASQ61K, and knockdown of IFI6 resulted in DNA replication stress due to dysregulated DNA replication via E2F2. This stress consequentially inhibited cellular transformation and melanoma growth via senescence or apoptosis induction depending on the RB and p53 pathway status of the cells. NRAS-mutant melanoma were significantly more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of DNA replication stress-inducing drugs, and knockdown of IFI6 increased sensitivity to these drugs. Pharmacological inhibition of IFI6 expression by the MEK inhibitor trametinib, when combined with DNA replication stress-inducing drugs, blocked NRAS-mutant melanoma growth. Collectively, we demonstrate that IFI6, via E2F2 regulates DNA replication and melanoma development and growth, and this pathway can be pharmacologically targeted to inhibit NRAS-mutant melanoma. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16432.001 PMID:27608486

  2. Ubiquitination of tissue transglutaminase is modulated by interferon alpha in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Carla; Marra, Monica; Giuberti, Gaia; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria; Porta, Raffaele; Cozzolino, Anna; Caraglia, Michele; Abbruzzese, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    The addition of 2500 i.u./ml interferon alpha (IFNalpha) for 48 h induced apoptosis, and caused an approx. 4-fold increase in the activity and expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG), in human lung cancer H1355 cells. However, the increase in mRNA levels for tTG was just 1.6-fold. On the basis of these data, we investigated whether tTG levels may be regulated through regulation of its degradation via ubiquitination. It was found that 2500 i.u./ml IFNalpha induced a time-dependent decrease in tTG ubiquitination. On the other hand, addition of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin led to accumulation of the ubiquitinated form of the enzyme and to a consequent increase in its expression. Treatment of the cells with the two agents combined antagonized the accumulation of the ubiquitinated isoforms of tTG induced by lactacystin and caused a potentiation of tTG expression. Moreover, the tTG inducer retinoic acid was also able to cause increased expression and ubiquitination of tTG in H1355 cells. The addition of monodansylcadaverine (a tTG inhibitor) to IFNalpha-treated H1355 cells completely antagonized growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by the cytokine. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that tTG is ubiquitinated and degraded by a proteasome-dependent pathway. Moreover, IFNalpha can, at least in part, induce apoptosis through the modulation of this pathway. PMID:12401132

  3. Interferon alpha (IFNα)-induced TRIM22 interrupts HCV replication by ubiquitinating NS5A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhao, Xinhao; Sun, Dakang; Yang, Leilei; Chong, Chang; Pan, Yu; Chi, Xiumei; Gao, Yanhang; Wang, Moli; Shi, Xiaodong; Sun, Haibo; Lv, Juan; Gao, Yuanda; Zhong, Jin; Niu, Junqi; Sun, Bing

    2016-01-01

    TRIM22, a tripartite-motif (TRIM) protein, is upregulated upon interferon alpha (IFNα) administration to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, the physiological role of TRIM22 upregulation remains unclear. Here, we describe a potential antiviral function of TRIM22's targeting of the HCV NS5A protein. NS5A is important for HCV replication and for resistance to IFNα therapy. During the first 24 h following the initiation of IFNα treatment, upregulation of TRIM22 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCV patients correlated with a decrease in viral titer. This phenomenon was confirmed in the hepatocyte-derived cell line Huh-7, which is highly permissive for HCV infection. TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HCV replication, and Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIM22 diminished IFNα-induced anti-HCV function. Furthermore, we determined that TRIM22 ubiquitinates NS5A in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, our results suggest that TRIM22 upregulation is associated with HCV decline during IFNα treatment and plays an important role in controlling HCV replication in vitro.

  4. In-vitro antiviral efficacy of ribavirin and interferon-alpha against canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Otávio V; Saraiva, Giuliana L; Ferreira, Caroline G T; Felix, Daniele M; Fietto, Juliana L R; Bressan, Gustavo C; Almeida, Márcia R; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2014-10-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious disease with high incidence and lethality in the canine population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral action with ribavirin (RBV), interferon-alpha (IFNα), and combinations of RBV and IFNα against canine distemper virus (CDV). Vero cells inoculated with CDV were treated with RBV, IFNα, and combinations of these drugs. The efficacy to inhibit viral replication was evaluated by adding the compounds at different times to determine which step of the viral replicative process was affected. Both drugs were effective against CDV in vitro. The IFNα was the most active compound, with an average IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value lower than the IC50 of the RBV. Ribavirin (RBV) was more selective than IFNα, however, and neither drug showed extracellular antiviral activity. The combination of RBV and IFNα exhibited antiviral activity for the intra- and extracellular stages of the replicative cycle of CDV, although the intracellular viral inhibition was higher. Both RBV and IFNα showed high antiviral efficacy against CDV, and furthermore, RBV + IFNα combinations have shown greater interference range in viral infectivity. These compounds could potentially be used to treat clinical disease associated with CDV infection.

  5. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN-α2b) gene in occupationally protracted low dose radiation exposed personnel.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Sheikh, Shaharyar; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiations impact human tissues by affecting the DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha 2b gene synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral protein. This study was aimed to identify interferon alpha-2b mutations as a consequence of the use of occupational chronic low dose radiation by hospital radiation exposed workers. A molecular analysis was done in which DNAs were extracted from blood samples from radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine workers. The gene was amplified through polymerase chain reaction and further genetic data from sequencing results analyzed by bioinformatics tools in order to determine as to how mutations in interferon alpha 2b sequences will lead to changes in human interferon alpha-2b protein. A total of 41% gene mutations was detected among all radiation exposed workers in which higher percentage (5.4%) of base insertion mutations and 14% frameshift mutations were found in radiology workers. The chronic use of low dose of radiations by occupational workers has a significant correlation with mutational effects on interferon alpha 2b gene, further evident by depressed interferon alpha levels in serum. This can lead to depressed immunity in radiation exposed workers. Hematological profiling of this group also showed hyperimmune response in the form of lymphocytosis.

  6. The impact of interferon-alpha2 on HLA genes in patients with polycythemia vera and related neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads; Kjær, Lasse; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Kruse, Torben A; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-08-01

    Gene expression profiling in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have unraveled significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes of potential importance for clonal evolution. Other mechanisms might be downregulation of major histocompatibility class I and II genes used by tumor cells to escape antitumor T-cell-mediated immune responses. Several genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules have been shown to be significantly downregulated. Upregulation of HLA genes is considered one of the mechanisms of action of interferon (IFN)-alpha2, but regulation of these genes during IFN-alpha2 treatment in MPNs has never been studied. Our findings show a significant upregulation of several HLA genes of importance for tumor immune surveillance by IFN-alpha2 treatment in MPNs. This mechanism might enhance the cytotoxic potential of immune cells against MPNs and explain the induction of minimal residual disease by IFN-alpha2 treatment in these patients.

  7. The biological properties, assay, and standardization of interferon-alpha: a need for a WHO collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mire-Sluis, A R; Gaines Das, R; Zoon, K; Padilla, A; Thorpe, R; Meager, A

    1996-08-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) exists as a range of closely related, biologically active proteins and has been the subject of extensive research and clinical investigation. Standardization of IFN-alpha and the uniform reporting of IFN-alpha activity in International Units (IU) is critical to preclinical research and the clinical development of IFN-alpha products as therapeutic agents. Currently, several different IFN-alpha-containing reference preparations, established as World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards (IS) for particular IFN-alpha proteins (mixtures or single molecular species) are available for assay calibration. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous nature of IFN-alpha has raised standardization issues relating to the activity of individual IFN-alpha proteins, hence-forth termed subtypes, in the various biologic assays used for determining IFN-alpha levels. These issues include the question of parallelism of dose-response curves among particular IFN-alpha subtypes and different, naturally produced IFN-alpha subtype mixtures, for example, leukocyte IFN-alpha, and the applicability of IU of IFN-alpha activity defined by antiviral assays to alternative biologic assays, for example, antiproliferative assays. To address such issues, a WHO Consultative Group on Cytokine Standardization requested that the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) and the Centre for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) organize an international collaborative study to compare the activities and relative potencies of the several available IFN-alpha preparations, including those derived from human cells containing mixtures of IFN-alpha subtypes and those derived by rDNA methods containing single IFN-alpha subtypes, in different assays. To date, 111 participants in 32 countries have been recruited to the study and have agreed to assay a total of 17 different natural and recombinant IFN-alpha preparations or a defined subset thereof in specific in

  8. Homozygous deletion of the. alpha. - and. beta. sub 1 -interferon genes in human leukemia and derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, M.O.; Ziemin, S.; Le Beau, M.M.; Pitha, P.; Smith, S.D.; Chilcote, R.R.; Rowley, J.D. )

    1988-07-01

    The loss of bands p21-22 from one chromosome 9 homologue as a consequence of a deletion of the short arm (del(9p)), unbalanced translocation, or monosomy 9 is frequently observed in the malignant cells of patients with lymphoid neoplasias, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The {alpha}- and {beta}{sub 1}-interferon genes have been assigned to this chromosome region (9p21-22). The authors now present evidence of the homozygous deletion of the interferon genes in neoplastic hematopoietic cell lines and primary leukemia cells in the presence or absence of chromosomal deletions that are detectable at the level of the light microscope. In these cell lines, the deletion of the interferon genes is accompanied by a deficiency of 5{prime}-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, an enzyme of purine metabolism. These homozygous deletions may be associated with the loss of a tumor-suppressor gene that is involved in the development of these neoplasias. The relevant genes may be either the interferon genes themselves or a gene that has a tumor-suppressor function and is closely linked to them.

  9. Interferon-alpha in viral and bacterial gastroenteritis: a comparison with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, P; Moulin, F; Palmer, P; Ravilly, S; Raymond, J; Gendrel, D

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the study was to identify serum markers able to differentiate bacterial and viral origin in acute diarrhoea. Interferon-alpha (INF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 were determined on admission in the sera of 119 children aged between 1 mo and 14 y who were hospitalized for rotavirus (n = 60) or bacterial diarrhoea (Salmonella spp. 39 cases, Shigella spp. 15 cases, Campylobacter jejuni 5 cases). CRP concentration was >10 mg/l in 48.3% of children with viral gastroenteritis and 86.4% of children with bacterial gastroenteritis. IL6 concentration was >100 pg/ml in 11.7% and 26.3% of cases, respectively. INF-alpha was detected in 79.1% of children with rotavirus (sens 79%) and in 3.5% (spec 93%) with bacterial gastroenteritis. However the INF-alpha assay takes 48 h and pathogens are often identified from stools before interferon results are available. We found that serum markers are not discriminating enough to differentiate between viral and bacterial gastroenteritis in emergency cases.

  10. Prevention of transmission of hepatitis C virus in bone marrow transplantation by treating the donor with alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Vance, E A; Soiffer, R J; McDonald, G B; Myerson, D; Fingeroth, J; Ritz, J

    1996-11-15

    Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the setting of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation can occur through an infected marrow donor. Prevention of transmission may reduce the risks of peritransplant complications. We describe a 43-year-old patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia whose HLA-identical donor was found to be HCV antibody positive and HCV RNA positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient was HCV antibody negative and HCV RNA negative by PCR of the serum. For 6 months before bone marrow transplantation, the donor was treated with alpha-interferon at a standard dose. After 3 months, HCV RNA was no longer detectable by PCR. Interferon was discontinued 1 week before harvest. Bone marrow cellularity was normal. Engraftment was prompt. The recipient's serum remained negative for HCV RNA at 1, 3, 5, and 10 months after transplantation. Hepatitis C transmission from a viremic donor to an HCV-seronegative recipient may be preventable by treating the donor with alpha-interferon.

  11. Lower Viral Response to Pegylated Interferon Alpha 2a Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B in Roma People in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Drazilova, Sylvia; Janicko, Martin; Kristian, Pavol; Schreter, Ivan; Kucinsky, Branislav; Kozlej, Marek; Hockickova, Ivana; Jarcuska, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the compliance and virological response to pegylated interferon alpha 2a treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Roma population compared to majority Caucasian population in Slovakia. Methods. Retrospective evaluation of a cohort of all Roma patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a from 2007 to 2013 in 3 centers for treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B. The Study included 43 Roma patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and randomly selected control group. Treatment duration was 48 weeks. Viral response was evaluated after 24 weeks, at the end of treatment, and 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. Complete treatment course was finished by 79.1% of Roma patients compared to all patients from the control group (p = 0.0009). There was a tendency toward lower viral response rate in Roma at all time points; however significant difference was only at end of treatment viral response (51.2% Roma versus 81.4% majority, p = 0.003). We also did not find significant difference at the rate of HBsAg loss. Conclusion. Roma patients with chronic hepatitis B have significantly worse compliance to treatment with pegylated interferon and they have significantly lower rate of end of treatment viral response. PMID:26858755

  12. Interferon alpha impairs insulin production in human beta cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Angela; Tomer, Yaron

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial advances in the research exploring the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unknown. We hypothesized in this study that interferon alpha (IFNα) participates in the early stages of T1D development by triggering endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To verify our hypothesis, human islets and human EndoC-βH1 cells were exposed to IFNα and tested for ER stress markers, glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin content. IFNα treatment induced upregulation of ER stress markers including Binding immunoglobulin Protein, phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, spliced- X-box binding protein-1, C/EBP homologous protein and activating transcription factor 4. Intriguingly, IFNα treatment did not impair GSIS but significantly decreased insulin production in both human islets and EndoC-βH1 cells. Furthermore, IFNα decreased the expression of both proinsulin convertase 1 and proinsulin convertase 2, suggesting an altered functional state of the beta cells characterized by a slower proinsulin-insulin conversion. Pretreatment of both human islets and EndoC-βH1 cells with chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid completely prevented IFNα effects, indicating an ER stress-mediated impairment of insulin production. We demonstrated for the first time that IFNα elicits ER stress in human beta cells providing a novel mechanistic role for this virus-induced cytokine in the development of T1D. Compounds targeting molecular processes altered in ER-stressed beta cells could represent a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent IFNα-induced beta cell dysfunction in the early onset of T1D.

  13. Interferons alpha and beta down-regulate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in human carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Bucana, C D; Sanchez, R; Llansa, N; Fidler, I J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the influence of interferons alpha, beta, and gamma (IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma) on the production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by human renal carcinoma cells. The human renal carcinoma cell metastatic line SN12PM6 was established in culture from a lung metastasis and SN12PM6-resistant cells were selected in vitro for resistance to the antiproliferative effects of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but not IFN-gamma, down-regulated the expression of bFGF at the mRNA and protein levels by a mechanism independent of their antiproliferative effects. Down-regulation of bFGF required a long exposure (> 4 days) of cells to low concentrations (> 10 units/ml) of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. The withdrawal of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta from the medium permitted SN12PM6-resistant cells to resume production of bFGF. The incubation of human bladder, prostate, colon, and breast carcinoma cells with noncytostatic concentrations of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta also produced down-regulation of bFGF production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7753843

  14. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  15. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

    1986-05-20

    Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

  16. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of {sup 14}C-D-glucose and {sup 14}C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC{sub 50}, of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M, and 5.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K{sub i}, 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC{sub 50}s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins.

  17. Interferon-alpha preserves erythrocyte and hepatocyte ATPase activities from liver damage induced by prolonged bile duct ligation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Muriel, P

    1995-01-01

    Interferons have been used to treat chronic hepatitis owing to their antiviral properties. However, now interferons are recognized to inhibit collagen production. Because fibrosis has been associated with liver damage and dysfunction, the effects of interferon-alpha 2b on biliary obstruction-induced cirrhosis were investigated. Obstructive jaundice was induced in male Wistar rats (ca. 200 g) by double ligation and division of the common bile duct. Control rats were sham operated. Interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha; 1000 000 IU per rat) was administered subcutaneously daily after surgery. The animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham operation. Bilirubins and serum enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (determined as markers of liver damage) increased several-fold after BDL. Erythrocyte and hepatocyte plasma membrane Na+/K+- and Ca2+-ATPase activities decreased significantly in the BDL group. Administration of IFN-alpha to BDL rats resulted in a partial normalization of serum markers of liver damage. The normal activity of both ATPases on erythrocyte and hepatocyte plasma membranes was completely preserved by IFN-alpha. It is concluded that interferons possess interesting hepatoprotective effects not related to their antiviral properties but probably associated with their antifibrogenic effect.

  18. Clinical improvement and normalized Th1 cytokine profile in early and long-term interferon-alpha treatment in a suspected case of hyper-IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Ulrike; Cattaneo, Federica; Aiuti, Alessandro; Flores-D'Arcais, Alberto; Gelmetti, Carlo; Viscardi, Matteo; Callegaro, Luciano; Mirolo, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2008-09-01

    We are reporting on a 7-months-old boy with suspected hyper-IgE syndrome, presenting with a therapy resistant severe eczema and an overall reduction of in vitro cytokine production. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment resulted in a marked and stable clinical improvement and normalization of in vitro T-cell cytokine production, indicating a valid therapeutic potential of IFN-alpha as immunomodulating drug.

  19. Assessment of the effects of pH, formulation and deformulation on the conformation of interferon alpha-2 by NMR.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Naim; Hodgson, Derek J; Sauvé, Simon; Aubin, Yves

    2010-08-01

    This article reports the results of our investigation of the effects of pH and various formulations on the conformation of interferon (IFN) alpha-2a and IFN alpha-2b using the NMR fingerprinting assay. Samples of (15)N-IFN alpha-2 were produced and their activity was inferred by comparing their NMR spectra with those recorded for the corresponding European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) reference standards. The proteins were then mixed with appropriate excipients to reproduce formulations used in innovator products of Roferon-A and Intron-A and deformulated via cation-exchange chromatography. The conformation of IFN alpha-2 was monitored by two-dimensional (2D)-NMR spectroscopy at various pHs, after formulation and deformulation procedures. Our results show that the process does not alter the conformation of IFN alpha-2 and that the optimal pH for deformulation is 4.0 +/- 0.5. Variation in pH below 3.0 causes the protein to unfold, whereas above pH 4.5, the three-dimensional (3D) fold is maintained, but the NMR spectra indicate a propensity to oligomerize. This behaviour is reversible upon readjusting the pH to 3.5-4.5. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of NMR to assess the structure of protein therapeutics. The proposed method can assist in validating analytical methods that require deformulation of IFN-based products.

  20. Characteristics of alpha/beta interferon induction after infection of murine fibroblasts with wild-type and mutant alphaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Crystal W.; Gardner, Christina L.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.

    2009-12-05

    We examined the characteristics of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) induction after alphavirus or control Sendai virus (SeV) infection of murine fibroblasts (MEFs). As expected, SeV infection of wild-type (wt) MEFs resulted in strong dimerization of IRF3 and the production of high levels of IFN-alpha/beta. In contrast, infection of MEFs with multiple alphaviruses failed to elicit detectable IFN-alpha/beta. In more detailed studies, Sindbis virus (SINV) infection caused dimerization and nuclear migration of IRF3, but minimal IFN-beta promoter activity, although surprisingly, the infected cells were competent for IFN production by other stimuli early after infection. A SINV mutant defective in host macromolecular synthesis shutoff induced IFN-alpha/beta in the MEF cultures dependent upon the activities of the TBK1 IRF3 activating kinase and host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) PKR and MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that wild-type alphaviruses antagonize IFN induction after IRF3 activation but also may avoid detection by host PRRs early after infection.

  1. Increased antiviral activity of microscale-purified HuIFN alpha 8 (human interferon alpha 8) over HuIFN alpha 2b in Hep-2 cells challenged with Mengo virus.

    PubMed

    García, Julio César Sánchez; Ariza, Alejandro Miranda; Lasa, Alexis Musacchio; González, Luis Javier; Perez, Vladimir Besada

    2007-11-01

    Human proteins are not routinely expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli for, among other reasons, different codon usage. Several purification procedures have been applied to recover recombinant proteins for further biological characterization. However, the vast majority involve costly chromatography procedures. In the present study, both (Hu)IFN(alpha 2b) (human interferon alpha 2b) and (Hu)IFN(alpha 8) were expressed efficiently in E. coli BL21-codonplus-RIL. Subsequently, both recombinant proteins were purified to homogeneity by passive elution from reverse-stained SDS/PAGE gels, a cost-effective purification procedure. After purification, both recovered proteins were biologically active. The (Hu)IFN(alpha 8) subtype induced 1.46-fold more antiviral activity than (Hu)IFN(alpha 2b) using Hep-2 human laryngeal carcinoma cell challenged with Mengo virus.

  2. Use of intralesional interferon-alpha for the treatment of recalcitrant oral warts in patients with AIDS: a report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Lozada-Nur, F; Glick, M; Schubert, M; Silverberg, I

    2001-12-01

    Four human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men with 2- to 4.5-year histories of recurrent oral warts that had failed to respond to conventional surgical and other treatment modalities were offered treatment with interferon-alpha. All had multiple or large oral warts, 3 had skin warts, 2 had a history of anal warts, and 1 had penile lesions. All 4 patients were treated with a combination of intralesional and subcutaneous interferon-alpha. Adverse side effects were dose-related, mild, and transient; they included flulike symptoms (3 patients), hair loss and tachycardia (1 patient), and transient changes in the white blood cell count. All patients responded to therapy and remained free of disease up to 42 months. Intralesional injection with interferon-alpha appears to provide excellent clinical control for recurrent, multiple, and extensive oral warts in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive population, and is a useful adjunct to initial surgical removal of oral warts.

  3. Interferon-alpha2a and 13-cis-retinoic acid with radiation treatment for high-grade glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, R. O.; Shea, W. M.; Tai, D. F.; Mahdavi, K.; Barth, N. M.; Kharkar, B. R.; Poor, M. M.; Church, C. K.; DePriest, C.

    2001-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been safely given concurrently with radiation therapy (RT) in treating gliomas. As single agents, both IFN-alpha and cis-retinoic acid (CRA) have produced objective tumor regressions in patients with recurrent gliomas. In vitro, IFN-alpha2a and CRA enhance radiation therapy effects on glioblastoma cells more than either agent alone. This trial was conducted to determine the clinical effects of IFN-alpha2a and CRA when given concurrently with radiation therapy to patients with high-grade glioma. Newly diagnosed patients with high-grade glioma received IFN-alpha2a at a dosage of 3 to 6 million IU s.c. 4 times a day for 3 days per week and 1 mg/kg CRA by mouth 4 times a day for 5 days per week during the delivery of partial brain radiation therapy at 180 cGy x 33 fractions for 5 days per week for a total of 59.4 Gy during the 7-week period. Use of the antiepileptic phenytoin was prohibited after observing that the combination of IFN-alpha2a, CRA, and phenytoin was associated with a high rate of dermatologic toxicity not seen in a previous study with concurrent IFN-alpha2a and radiation therapy. Forty patients (26 men and 14 women) with a median age of 60 (range, 19 to 81 years) were enrolled between August 1996 and October 1998. Histopathologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme or grade 4 anaplastic astrocytoma in 36 patients, and grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma in 4 patients. Only 4 patients (10%) underwent a gross total resection of tumor prior to this therapy; 50% were asymptomatic when treatment was initiated. The planned 7-week course of concurrent therapy was completed by 75% of patients; 30% completed the 16-week course of IFN-alpha and CRA alone. At a median follow-up of 36 months, there were 37 deaths, with a median overall survival of 9.3 months and a 1-year survival rate of 42%. There was no improvement in survival compared with a similar group of 19 patients treated with concurrent IFN-alpha2a and radiation therapy in a

  4. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a patient with HIV/HCV coinfection: case report].

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Bil Randerson; Trés, Eduardo Sturzeneker; Ciríaco, Jovana Gobbi Marchesi; Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira Silva

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has a strong association with HIV and HCV infection. A rare association between chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon alpha was described recently. We described the first case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a white man infected with HIV and HCV. The patient recovered completely with the use of intravenous hyperimmune immunoglobulin. Infectologists and hepatologists should be alert regarding this rare and serious association, which requires immediately drug discontinuation and early treatment.

  5. [Interferon-alpha toxicity and reversible bilateral optical neuropathy: a timely withdrawal of the drug].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carro, G; Fernández-Alonso, R; González-Diéguez, M L; Rodríguez-García, M; Junceda-Moreno, J

    2014-04-01

    Clinical case A patient with chronic, painless, bilateral loss of vision, after significant intake of interferon (IFNα) and ribavirina due to liver transplant. Ocular fundus is normal. A suspected retrobulbar optic neuropathy is confirmed by a prolongation of the latency of the patient's visual evoked potential. There being no prior record of risk factors and with the patient's systemic analysis giving normal results, the clinical improvement and the electro-physiological tests conducted after the drug was withdrawn point to interferon as negatively affecting the bilateral optic nerve. Discussion Interferon-α is used in the treatment of viral and neoplastic illnesses. Currently the drug is formulated as Interferon alfa pegilado (IFNα-p) in order to reduce toxicity and increase tolerance. The most common secondary effects are flu symptoms, asthenia and weigh loss. Affected ocular tissue is rare and optic neuropathy is also an infrequent complication: retinopathy at the beginning of treatment is, however, more frequent. The most widely accepted hypothesis as to the cause of toxicity is the presence of circulating immune complexes. It is, therefore, essential for ophthalmologists to be aware of the toxicity of this drug in order to be able to withdraw it in good time, thus preventing potentially irreversible sight loss.

  6. Activity of interferon alpha, interleukin 6 and insulin in the regulation of differentiation in A549 alveolar carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    McCormick, C; Freshney, R I; Speirs, V

    1995-02-01

    The differentiation of A549, a human tumour cell line from type II pneumocytes, can be induced by a crude fibroblast-derived factor (FDF) isolated from the conditioned medium of glucocorticoid-treated lung fibroblasts. In the present report, we have used alkaline phosphatase as a differentiation marker to investigate the activity of a number of growth factors as potential candidates for this paracrine activity. This showed that insulin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) could simulate the activity of conditioned medium. Their effects were dexamethasone (DX) dependent, additive and reversible with a half-life of 1 week. Transforming growth factor alpha and beta, IL-1 alpha and epidermal growth factor, were all inhibitory, and inhibition was opposed, partially or completely, by DX. The most potent inducer was IL-6, but as DX was shown to decrease the concentration of IL-6 in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium it seems an unlikely candidate for FDF. Unlike FDF, all of the positive-acting factors were shown to induce plasminogen activator. FDF has also been shown to be active in the absence of DX. This suggests that differentiation-inducing activity may be present in several paracrine factors, but that so far a candidate for FDF has not been identified.

  7. Activity of interferon alpha, interleukin 6 and insulin in the regulation of differentiation in A549 alveolar carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C.; Freshney, R. I.; Speirs, V.

    1995-01-01

    The differentiation of A549, a human tumour cell line from type II pneumocytes, can be induced by a crude fibroblast-derived factor (FDF) isolated from the conditioned medium of glucocorticoid-treated lung fibroblasts. In the present report, we have used alkaline phosphatase as a differentiation marker to investigate the activity of a number of growth factors as potential candidates for this paracrine activity. This showed that insulin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) could simulate the activity of conditioned medium. Their effects were dexamethasone (DX) dependent, additive and reversible with a half-life of 1 week. Transforming growth factor alpha and beta, IL-1 alpha and epidermal growth factor, were all inhibitory, and inhibition was opposed, partially or completely, by DX. The most potent inducer was IL-6, but as DX was shown to decrease the concentration of IL-6 in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium it seems an unlikely candidate for FDF. Unlike FDF, all of the positive-acting factors were shown to induce plasminogen activator. FDF has also been shown to be active in the absence of DX. This suggests that differentiation-inducing activity may be present in several paracrine factors, but that so far a candidate for FDF has not been identified. PMID:7841035

  8. Interferon-alpha 2b quantification in inclusion bodies using reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC).

    PubMed

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Pérez, N O; Pérez-Sánchez, G; Ocampo-Juárez, I; Medina-Rivero, E

    2010-04-15

    Interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) is a recombinant therapeutic cytokine produced as inclusion bodies using a strain of Escherichia coli as expression system. After fermentation and recovery, it is necessary to know the amount of recombinant IFN-alpha 2b, in order to determine the yield and the load for solubilization, and chromatographic protein purification steps. The present work details the validation of a new short run-time and fast sample-preparation method to quantify IFN-alpha 2b in inclusion bodies using Reversed Phase-Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC). The developed method demonstrated an accuracy of 100.28%; the relative standard deviations for method precision, repeatability and inter-day precision tests were found to be 0.57%, 1.54% and 1.83%, respectively. Linearity of the method was assessed in the range of concentrations from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL, the curve obtained had a determination coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9989. Detection and quantification limits were found to be 0.008 mg/mL and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively. The method also demonstrated robustness for changes in column temperature, and specificity against host proteins and other recombinant protein expressed in the same E. coli strain.

  9. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  10. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  11. Interferon-alpha production by swine dendritic cells is inhibited during acute infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Charles K; Ferman, Geoffrey S; Toka, Felix N; Gregg, Douglas A; Golde, William T

    2008-03-01

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFNs). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong type I IFN (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) response, indicating that DCs may play a critical role in the innate response to the virus. In vivo, FMDV induces lymphopenia and reduced T-cell proliferative responses to mitogen, viral effects that may contribute to evasion of early immune responses. In this study we analyzed the in vivo effects of FMDV infection on the IFN-alpha response of two populations of dendritic cells. During the acute phase of infection of swine, production of IFN-alpha from monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and skin-derived DCs (skin DCs) is inhibited. This effect occurs concurrently with rising viral titers in the blood; however, these cells are not productively infected. Interestingly, there are no changes in the capability of these DCs to take up particles and process antigens, indicating that antigen-presenting cell function is normal. These data indicate that inhibition of the IFN-alpha response of dendritic cell populations from blood and skin by FMDV enhances viral pathogenesis in infected animals.

  12. Interferon Alpha Subtype-Specific Suppression of HIV-1 Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Kerry J.; Gibbert, Kathrin; Peterson, Karin E.; Van Dis, Erik; Francois, Sandra; Woods, Tyson; Messer, Ronald J.; Gawanbacht, Ali; Müller, Janis A.; Münch, Jan; Phillips, Katie; Race, Brent; Harper, Michael S.; Guo, Kejun; Lee, Eric J.; Trilling, Mirko; Hengel, Hartmut; Piehler, Jacob; Verheyen, Jens; Wilson, Cara C.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although all 12 subtypes of human interferon alpha (IFN-α) bind the same receptor, recent results have demonstrated that they elicit unique host responses and display distinct efficacies in the control of different viral infections. The IFN-α2 subtype is currently in HIV-1 clinical trials, but it has not consistently reduced viral loads in HIV-1 patients and is not the most effective subtype against HIV-1 in vitro. We now demonstrate in humanized mice that, when delivered at the same high clinical dose, the human IFN-α14 subtype has very potent anti-HIV-1 activity whereas IFN-α2 does not. In both postexposure prophylaxis and treatment of acute infections, IFN-α14, but not IFN-α2, significantly suppressed HIV-1 replication and proviral loads. Furthermore, HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation, which is a prognosticator of disease progression, was reduced by IFN-α14 but not IFN-α2. Whereas ineffective IFN-α2 therapy was associated with CD8+ T cell activation, successful IFN-α14 therapy was associated with increased intrinsic and innate immunity, including significantly higher induction of tetherin and MX2, increased APOBEC3G signature mutations in HIV-1 proviral DNA, and higher frequencies of TRAIL+ NK cells. These results identify IFN-α14 as a potent new therapeutic that operates via mechanisms distinct from those of antiretroviral drugs. The ability of IFN-α14 to reduce both viremia and proviral loads in vivo suggests that it has strong potential as a component of a cure strategy for HIV-1 infections. The broad implication of these results is that the antiviral efficacy of each individual IFN-α subtype should be evaluated against the specific virus being treated. IMPORTANCE The naturally occurring antiviral protein IFN-α2 is used to treat hepatitis viruses but has proven rather ineffective against HIV in comparison to triple therapy with the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Although ARVs suppress the replication of HIV, they fail to completely

  13. Long-term efficacy and safety of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis.

    PubMed

    Yapanoglu, Turgut; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yilmaz; Alper, Fatih; Ozbey, Isa

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine long-term efficacy and safety subcutaneous injection of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis in terms of testicular volume and other testicular functions. Mumps orchitis was evaluated in 37 patients. Patients were hospitalized and administered 1 × 3,000,000 IU subcutaneous injection of interferon-alpha-2B daily for 7 days. The testicular volumes of all the patients were measured by ultrasonography in the 18th month following treatment termination. The testes volumes were evaluated by descriptive statistics as percentages. Patients were divided into three groups according to testes volumes and differences between the involved and non-involved testicles. Group I included patients with normal testes volume (> 12 ml) and a difference between testes of less than 2 ml or 20%; Group II (atrophic groups) included patients with testes volume of less than 12 ml; and Group III (hypotrophic groups) included patients with testes volume of greater than 12 ml and a difference between testes of more than 2 ml or 20%. Groups were compared in terms of results of semen analysis and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Patients' ages ranged between 17 and 41 years (mean: 28.3 years). A total of nine atrophy cases were identified. Sixteen patients were determined to have hypotrophic testes with a difference of 2-10 ml or 20% between the involved and non-involved testicles, despite the absence of testicular atrophy. A comparison of groups revealed that sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and motility percentage were significantly higher in Group I than in the other groups, while serum FSH and LH levels were lower in Group I than in the other groups. Although the use of interferon-alpha-2B appears to prevent testicular atrophy and protect testicular function, it leads to a considerable difference in the volume between testicles and a significant loss of testicular

  14. Continuous extraction of alpha- and beta-amylases from Zea mays malt in a PEG4000/CaCl2 ATPS.

    PubMed

    Biazus, J P M; Santana, J C C; Souza, R R; Jordão, E; Tambourgi, E B

    2007-10-15

    In the present work, alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes from Zea mays malt were recovered by continuous extraction in a PEG/CaCl2 aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The influences of the flux rate (RQ), free area of vane (A(free)) and vane rotation (RV) on enzyme recovery were studied by optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The protein content and enzyme activity were measured from time to time in the extract and refined fluxes. RSM curves showed a squared dependence of recovery index with the RQ, A(free) and RV. The best system for recovering the maize malt enzymes was with low vane rotation and flux rate and high free area of vane. Alpha- and beta-amylases were purified 130-fold in the salt-rich phase.

  15. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  16. Tolerability and activity of a new recombinant interferon-alpha B/D hybrid in patients with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Frissen, P H; Brinkman, K; Ten Napel, C H; van der Ende, I M; van Buuren, I A; Boucher, C A; Reiss, P; Lange, J M

    1996-04-01

    The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity profile of a new recombinant interferon-alpha B/D hybrid (IFN-alpha B/D) in HlV-1-infected patients were determined in an outpatient, dose-escalating study with dose groups of three patients: 16, 32, 48, 64, 96 and 112 million international units (MIU) three times weekly subcutaneously during 12 weeks. The MTD was the last dose level just below the dose level at which more than one patient experienced > or = grade 3 toxicity. The study also searched for preliminary evidence of efficacy of IFN-alpha B/D. Sixteen HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 cell counts > or = 200/mm3 were enrolled: eight were asymptomatic and eight had symptomatic disease. Two patients were excluded as a result of protocol violations. Five patients (36 per cent; one at each tested dose level) discontinued prematurely due to side effects. One patient was lost to follow-up. Twelve patients (87 per cent) experienced > or = grade 2 toxicity. Toxicity > or = grade 3 occurred in none of three patients assigned to 16 MIU, one of five assigned to 32 MIU (fatigue), one of three assigned to 48 MIU (haemorrhagic colitis) and two of three assigned to 64 MIU (fatigue). One patient (48 MIU) had reversible cardiomegaly. Progressive weight loss was experienced by 12 of 14 participants. Serum HIV-1 p24 antigen declined in nine of 11 antigenaemic patients (seven persistently > 50 per cent) without a clear dose-response relationship. CD4 percentages showed no consistent pattern and T cell reactivity diminished. The tolerability and toxicity profile of IFN-alpha B/D appear to be fairly similar to that of other types of IFN-alpha.

  17. Inhibitory effects on HAV IRES-mediated translation and replication by a combination of amantadine and interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingli; Kiyohara, Tomoko; Kanda, Tatsuo; Imazeki, Fumio; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Gauss-Müller, Verena; Ishii, Koji; Wakita, Takaji; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-09-03

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes acute hepatitis and sometimes leads to fulminant hepatitis. Amantadine is a tricyclic symmetric amine that inhibits the replication of many DNA and RNA viruses. Amantadine was reported to suppress HAV replication, and the efficacy of amantadine was exhibited in its inhibition of the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) activities of HAV. Interferon (IFN) also has an antiviral effect through the induction of IFN stimulated genes (ISG) and the degradation of viral RNA. To explore the mechanism of the suppression of HAV replication, we examined the effects of the combination of amantadine and IFN-alpha on HAV IRES-mediated translation, HAV replicon replication in human hepatoma cell lines, and HAV KRM003 genotype IIIB strain replication in African green monkey kidney cell GL37. IFN-alpha seems to have no additive effect on HAV IRES-mediated translation inhibition by amantadine. However, suppressions of HAV replicon and HAV replication were stronger with the combination than with amantadine alone. In conclusion, amantadine, in combination of IFN-alpha, might have a beneficial effect in some patients with acute hepatitis A.

  18. Lack of effect of recombinant bovine interferon alpha I1 in the treatment of experimentally-induced bovine warts.

    PubMed Central

    Lassauzet, M L; Salamin, P A

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen four-month old calves were inoculated, on five scarified sites on each side of the neck, with a suspension of ground wart tissue from a steer naturally infected with bovine papilloma virus 1. Warts started to appear about one month postinfection and were measurable in ten calves two months postinfection, when the trial started. After stratification on the size of the warts, all fifteen calves were allocated randomly to one of the following treatment groups: twice weekly intramuscular injections of 5 mg recombinant bovine interferon alpha I1 (rBoIFN alpha I1), weekly injection of 5 mg of rBoIFN alpha I1 or placebo, for three weeks. The biggest wart on each calf at the beginning of the trial was measured and photographs of all warts were taken weekly for five weeks. An analysis of covariance on the log of the volumes of warts during the five weeks of the trial showed a significant difference between groups (p = 0.026). Warts in treated groups tended to grow faster than in the placebo group. PMID:8358676

  19. Interferon alpha in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children: a meta-analysis [correction of metanalysis].

    PubMed

    Di Ciommo, V; Russo, P; Ravà, L; Caprino, L

    2003-05-01

    Children with chronic hepatitis C may be ideal candidates for treatment with interferon alpha (IFNalpha) as they have liver disease at an early stage. However, adverse drug reactions need to be considered. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of literature on interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C in children, and to perform a meta-analysis of pooled data. A computerized search gave 18 articles on IFNalpha therapy in children with chronic hepatitis C; after exclusion of uncontrolled trials and of trials including patients with comorbidities, data from two studies could be pooled (48 patients). The outcomes assessed were biochemical, defined as normalization of alanine transaminase, and virologic, defined as HCV-RNA loss, both sustained at 24 months after enrollment. Results of the studies were homogenous. Risk difference was 37% (95%CI: 12.9-61) in favour of IFNalpha treated children for sustained biochemical response, and 36.8% (95%CI: 14.3-59.3) in favour of treated children for sustained HCV clearance, respectively. The differences were highly significant (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively). The histological end-point, as well as side-effects, could not be analysed, due to lack of data. This review identifies the poor methodology of the majority of the published trials. The study provides support for the efficacy of IFNalpha in improving both biochemical and virologic outcomes in chronic hepatitis C in children, but evidence is confined to these surrogate end-points.

  20. A direct comparison of immunological and clinical effects of interleukin 2 with and without interferon-alpha in humans.

    PubMed

    Schiller, J H; Hank, J; Storer, B; Borchert, A A; Moore, K H; Albertini, M; Bechhofer, R; Wesley, O; Brown, R R; Bastin, A M

    1993-03-15

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) are cytokines with synergistic antitumor effects in mouse models. The biological effects of this combination, however, have not been directly compared to each agent alone in humans. We conducted a Phase 1B trial of IL-2 plus or minus IFN-alpha in 38 cancer patients. The objectives of this trial were to determine which doses of IFN-alpha and IL-2 maximally enhanced biological responses, and to determine whether the combined administration of IFN-alpha and IL-2 would result in a potentiation of biological responses over IL-2 alone. Patients received 4 days of IL-2 (1.5 x 10(6) units/m2/day or 3.0 x 10(6) units/m2/day) as a continuous infusion followed by a 3-day rest period, weekly for 3 weeks, with a 3-week rest period between 2 treatment courses. IFN-alpha (0.5 x 10(6) or 5 x 10(6) units/m2/day) was administered s.c. on days 1-4 weekly for 3 weeks with one of the 3-week courses. Patients were randomized to receive either IL-2 alone for course 1, followed by IL-2/IFN-alpha for course 2, or IL-2/IFN-alpha in course 1, followed by IL-2 alone. Immunological parameters were evaluated before treatment, and 24 h after completion of the third week of IL-2. A statistically significant increase in the percentage of circulating natural killer cells (CD56), natural killer cells bearing the Fc receptor (CD16), and activated T cells (CD25) was observed following IL-2 alone, and following IL-2 plus IFN-alpha. Significant increases in lymphocyte-activated killer cell cytotoxicity, antibody cellular cytotoxicity, and serum IL-2 receptor were also observed following both IL-2 and IL-2 plus IFN-alpha. However, no significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the increase in the IL-2-alone group when compared to the IL-2 plus IFN-alpha group. The mean fluorescent intensity of monocytes positive for HLA-DR and Fc receptor expression also increased significantly in both groups, as did serum beta 2-microglobulin expression

  1. MULTIPLEX PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN SOMATOTROPIN AND INTERFERON ALPHA2b GENES IN PLANT MATERIAL.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V; Kuchuk, N V

    2015-01-01

    Using transgenic plants as factories for production of physiologically active human proteins arouses special concern because occasional escape of such transgenes into environment may cause health problems. Creation of plant varieties producing pharmaceutically valuable proteins should be accompanied by development of detection methods suitable for controlling the transgene behavior. Here we describe a multiplex PCR protocol for revealing of two human genes (encoding growth hormone and interferon alpha2b) that have been successfully introduced into plant genomes. The primer pair designed for detection of human growth hormone coding sequence amplifies fragments of different size from the full-length gene in the human genome and the intronless coding sequence usually used for plant transformation. Application of this primer pair may be recommended for ruling out false positive results due to sample contamination with human DNA. Such a control may be useful also in PCR analysis during establishing of transgenic plants carrying genes of human origin.

  2. Alpha-interferon does not increase the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thirion, P; Piedbois, P; Buyse, M; O'Dwyer, P J; Cunningham, D; Man, A; Greco, F A; Colucci, G; Köhne, C H; Di Constanzo, F; Piga, A; Palmeri, S; Dufour, P; Cassano, A; Pajkos, G; Pensel, R A; Aykan, N F; Marsh, J; Seymour, M T

    2001-03-02

    Two meta-analyses were conducted to quantify the benefit of combining alpha-IFN to 5FU in advanced colorectal cancer in terms of tumour response and survival. Analyses were based on a total of 3254 individual patient data provided by principal investigators of each trial. The meta-analysis of 5FU +/- LV vs. 5FU +/- LV + alpha-IFN combined 12 trials and 1766 patients. The meta-analysis failed to show any statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in terms of tumour response or survival. Overall tumour response rates were 25% for patients receiving no alpha-IFN vs. 24% for patients receiving alpha-IFN (relative risk, RR = 1.02), and median survivals were 11.4 months for patients receiving no alpha-IFN vs. 11.5 months for patients receiving alpha-IFN (hazard ratio, HR = 0.95). The meta-analysis of 5FU + LV vs. 5FU + alpha-IFN combined 7 trials, and 1488 patients. This meta-analysis showed an advantage for 5FU + LV over 5FU + alpha-IFN which was statistically significant in terms of tumour response (23% vs. 18%; RR = 1.26;P = 0.042), and of a borderline significance for overall survival (HR = 1.11;P = 0.066). Metastases confined to the liver and primary rectal tumours were independent favourable prognostic factors for tumour response, whereas good performance status, metastases confined to the liver or confined to the lung, and primary tumour in the rectum were independent favourable prognostic factors for survival. We conclude that alpha-IFN does not increase the efficacy of 5FU or of 5FU + LV, and that 5FU + alpha-IFN is significantly inferior to 5FU + LV, for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

  3. Expression of interferon and interferon--induced genes in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cell lines SHK-1 and TO following infection with Salmon AlphaVirus SAV.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, Suresh K; Ellis, Anthony E; Collet, Bertrand

    2009-04-01

    Salmon AlphaVirus (SAV) is the aetiological agent of Salmon Pancreas Disease (SPD), a serious disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. Currently there is no available information on the ability of this virus to stimulate or suppress aspects of innate immunity in host cells. Two different Atlantic salmon cell lines (SHK-1 and TO), both derived from head kidney leucocytes, were infected with SAV and the kinetics and magnitude of gene expression were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. SAV nsP1 gene transcripts for strain P42P increased rapidly in TO cells with subsequent development of a cytopathic effect (CPE) while this virus strain hardly replicated at all SHK-1 cells causing no CPE. SAV P42P induced strong expression of type I IFN (IFN) and the antiviral IFN-induced gene MX transcripts in SHK-1 cells. Although the IFN response in infected TO cells was higher than in SHK-1 cells, the level of MX transcripts was lower. This may be because the virus was able to interfere with IFN-signaling and suppress MX transcription or that the TO cells are less able to transcribe the MX gene. Either way, it may account for why the SHK-1 cells suppress SAV replication while the TO cells are highly susceptible and succumb to the virus. The present results provide the first evidence for differential induction of expression of the interferon-induced antiviral gene, MX, correlating with resistant (SHK-1) and susceptible (TO) Atlantic salmon cell lines in response to infection by SAV.

  4. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Low-Dose Oral Interferon-Alpha in Preventing Hepatitis C Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chuan-Mo; Chen, Chi-Yi; Chien, Rong-Nan; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Tung, Shui-Yi; Fang, Yi-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Hung, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Tsung-Jang; Fang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Low-dose oral interferon could exert immune-modulating effects in human. We conducted a clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of oral interferon-alpha in preventing hepatitis C relapse. Totally 169 genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients having achieved end-of-therapy virological clearance were randomized to receive interferon-alpha lozenge 500 IU/day (n=59), 1,500 IU/day (n=53), or placebo (n=57) for 24 weeks. Overall, no significant differences were found for the relapse rates in the 3 groups (P>0.05). However, in patients with fibroindex 1.4–1.7, relapse occurred in 1/12 (8.3%) 500 IU-group patients versus 9/21 (42.9%) patients of the other groups (P=0.05). In 158 patients receiving at least 4 weeks of oral interferon, significantly higher platelet count was found at the end of trial in the 500 IU group (P=0.003). In thrombocytopenic patients, a significantly expedited recovery of platelet count was found in the 500 IU group (P=0.002). No drug-related severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, at 500 IU/day, oral interferon exerted a borderline suppression effect of virological relapse in chronic hepatitis C patients with mild liver fibrosis. Additionally, it significantly expedited platelet count recovery after the end of peginterferon therapy. PMID:24237300

  5. Ocular avirulence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 strain is associated with heightened sensitivity to alpha/beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Y H; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N

    1990-01-01

    BALB/c mice infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 35 [HSV-1(35)] rarely developed ocular disease even at challenge doses as high as 10(7) PFU per eye. In contrast, HSV-1(RE) consistently induced stromal keratitis at an inoculum of 2 x 10(4) PFU. The goal of this study was to determine the reason for the difference in virulence between the two HSV strains. Both HSV-1 strains replicated to similar titers in excised corneal "buttons." However, after in vivo infection of the cornea, the growth of strain 35 was evident only during the first 24 h postinfection, whereas the replication of strain RE persisted for at least 4 days. In vitro tests revealed that HSV-1(35) was greater than 10 times more sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) than HSV-1(RE). Both strains induced comparable serum levels of IFN after intraperitoneal inoculation. The kinetics of HSV-1(35) clearance from the eye was markedly altered by treatment with rabbit anti-IFN-alpha/beta. Virus titers exceeding 10(4) PFU per eye could be demonstrated 4 to 5 days postinfection in mice given a single inoculation of antiserum 1 h after infection. Furthermore, anti-IFN treatment in 3-week-old mice infected with HSV-1(35) led to the development of clinically apparent corneal disease which subsequently progressed to stromal keratitis in the majority of recipients. These results indicate that the striking difference in the capacity of HSV-1(35) and HSV-1(RE) to induce corneal disease was related to the inherently greater sensitivity of strain 35 to IFN-alpha/beta produced by the host in response to infection. PMID:2157880

  6. Chemoimmunotherapy with bleomycin, vincristine, lomustine, dacarbazine (BOLD) plus interferon alpha for metastatic melanoma: a multicentre phase II study.

    PubMed Central

    Punt, C. J.; van Herpen, C. M.; Jansen, R. L.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Muller, E. W.; de Mulder, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    High response rates in patients with metastatic melanoma have been achieved with combination chemoimmunotherapy. A response rate of 62% in 45 patients has been reported for treatment with dacarbazine, bleomycin, vincristine, lomustine (BOLD) plus interferon alpha (IFN-alpha). We conducted a multicentre phase II study to confirm these results. Melanoma patients with distant metastases were treated as outpatients with dacarbazine 200 mg m(-2) on days 1-5, vincristine 1 mg m(-2) on days 1 and 4, bleomycin 15 mg on days 2 and 5 i.v. and lomustine 80 mg orally on day 1, repeated every 4 weeks. IFN-alpha-2b was initiated s.c. on day 8 at 3 MU daily for 6 weeks, and 6 MU t.i.w. thereafter. Forty-three patients entered the study. The median number of metastatic sites was three (range 1-5), and 81% of patients had visceral metastases. Nine patients had brain metastases, and seven patients were systemically pretreated. Among the 41 patients that were evaluable for response, the response rate was 27% (95% CI 14-3%), with one complete and ten partial remissions. The response rate in 25 previously untreated patients without brain metastases was 40% (95% CI 21-61%). Median duration of response was 6 (range 2-14+) months; median overall survival was 5 (1-26) months. The main toxicity was malaise/fatigue. We confirm that BOLD plus IFN-alpha has activity in metastatic melanoma. The lower response rate in our study compared with the previous report is probably related to patient selection, as in the previous study 46% of patients had stage III disease, whereas all our patients had stage IV disease, which is associated with a worse prognosis. PMID:9231931

  7. Reduced interferon-alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and lectin-stimulated lymphocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S N; Hasan, R; Smythe, J

    1997-08-01

    The concentrations of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in supernatants from cultures of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from seven patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type I were below the 95% confidence limits for those derived from six healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of IFN-alpha in supernatants from cultures of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from four patients with other types of CDA and four patients with hereditary sideroblastic anaemia were normal. Supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen contained less IFN-alpha when the cells were derived from patients with CDA type I than when derived from healthy subjects. Since patients with CDA type I show a substantial haematological response to treatment with IFN-alpha, the data suggest that impaired IFN-alpha production may be an important pathogenetic mechanism in CDA type I.

  8. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  9. Effect of recombinant human interferon-alpha A/D on in vivo murine tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Uno, K; Shimizu, S; Inaba, K; Kitaura, M; Nakahira, K; Kato, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Muramatsu, S

    1988-05-01

    We investigated the effect of human recombinant interferon-alpha A/D A/D-IFN), which is known to delay the growth of murine tumor cells, on the growth of S1 and R1 subline cells of murine Meth A fibrosarcoma in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In vitro growth of S1 cells was sensitive to, and that of R1 cells was resistant to, the direct effect of A/D-IFN, as with murine natural IFN-alpha/beta, which was used originally to isolate these sublines. In vivo, however, the growth of not only S1 cells but also R1 cells was suppressed by the administration of A/D-IFN, and the survival time of tumor-bearing mice was prolonged. Although A/D-IFN had a direct effect on S1 cells in vivo, R1 cells were susceptible only to the indirect effect via the host cells. Macrophages (M phi) harvested from the peritoneal cavity of A/D-IFN-treated mice bearing ascitic R1 cells were very effective in suppressing the in vitro growth of R1 cells; those from non-R1-bearing A/D-IFN-treated mice were less effective. The results of in vitro experiments indicate that M phi are very probably activated by the synergism of A/D-IFN and M phi diameter-activating factor(s) produced by lymphoid cells in tumor-bearing mice.

  10. Sustained response to combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C and thrombocytopenia secondary to alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sáenz, M; Rojas, M; Piñar, A; Salas, E; Rebollo, J; Carmona, I; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, J M

    2000-05-01

    Recent data suggest that hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection may induce a significant autoimmune reaction to platelets, but the mechanism is unknown. Many patients with chronic hepatitis C, in fact, have high levels of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG) and HCV-RNA is present in the platelets of 100% of those patients with thrombocytopenia and high PAIgG levels. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with the development of thrombocytopenic purpura, sometimes triggered during interferon (IFN) therapy. In such cases, the treatment of the underlying disease is a difficult problem to solve. We report the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis C, who developed life-threatening thrombocytopenic purpura after a prolonged course of IFN-alpha2b over a 4-year period. Treatment with anti-immunoglobulin gammaglobulin (Polyglobin; Química Farmaceutica Bayer, Barcelona, Spain) had a transient effect on the platelet count, but prolonged therapy with prednisone was necessary for definitive relief of the haematological complication. Two years later, the patient was treated with combined therapy, including ribavirin (1200 mg/day) and IFN-alpha2b (5 mU, t.i.w.) for 12 months. This therapy induced a sustained response, both biochemical and virological, without haematological complications. This observation suggests that ribavirin may be of benefit in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C, preventing the harmful effect of IFN-alpha but also allowing both drugs to be combined so as to increase the probability of sustained remission of the liver disease.

  11. An interferon alpha2 mutant optimized by phage display for IFNAR1 binding confers specifically enhanced antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Kalie, Eyal; Jaitin, Diego A; Abramovich, Renne; Schreiber, Gideon

    2007-04-13

    All alpha-interferons (IFNalpha) bind the IFNAR1 receptor subunit with low affinity. Increasing the binding affinity was shown to specifically increase the antiproliferative potency of IFNalpha2. Here, we constructed a phage display library by randomizing three positions on IFNalpha2 previously shown to confer weak binding to IFNAR1. The tightest binding variant selected, comprised of mutations H57Y, E58N, and Q61S (YNS), was shown to bind IFNAR1 60-fold tighter compared with wild-type IFNalpha2, and 3-fold tighter compared with IFNbeta. Binding of YNS to IFNAR2 was comparable with wild-type IFNalpha2. The YNS mutant conferred a 150-fold higher antiproliferative potency in WISH cells compared with wild-type IFNalpha2, whereas its antiviral activity was increased by only 3.5-fold. The high antiproliferative activity was related to an induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V binding assays, and to specific gene induction, particularly TRAIL. To determine the potency of the YNS mutant in a xenograft cancer model, we injected it twice a week to nude mice carrying transplanted MDA231 human breast cancer cells. After 5 weeks, no tumors remained in mice treated with YNS, whereas most mice treated with wild-type IFNalpha2 showed visible tumors. Histological analysis of these tumors showed a significant anti-angiogenic effect of YNS, compared with wild-type IFNalpha2. This work demonstrates the application of detailed biophysical understanding in the process of protein engineering, yielding an interferon variant with highly increased biological potency.

  12. Alpha/Beta Interferon Receptor Signaling Amplifies Early Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in the Lung during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goritzka, Michelle; Durant, Lydia R.; Pereira, Catherine; Salek-Ardakani, Samira; Openshaw, Peter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs) are produced early upon virus infection and signal through the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) to induce genes that encode proteins important for limiting viral replication and directing immune responses. To investigate the extent to which type I IFNs play a role in the local regulation of inflammation in the airways, we examined their importance in early lung responses to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). IFNAR1-deficient (IFNAR1−/−) mice displayed increased lung viral load and weight loss during RSV infection. As expected, expression of IFN-inducible genes was markedly reduced in the lungs of IFNAR1−/− mice. Surprisingly, we found that the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs of RSV-infected mice were also greatly reduced in the absence of IFNAR signaling. Furthermore, low levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also detected in the lungs of IFNAR1−/− mice challenged with noninfectious innate immune stimuli such as selected Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Finally, recombinant IFN-α was sufficient to potentiate the production of inflammatory mediators in the lungs of wild-type mice challenged with innate immune stimuli. Thus, in addition to its well-known role in antiviral resistance, type I IFN receptor signaling acts as a central driver of early proinflammatory responses in the lung. Inhibiting the effects of type I IFNs may therefore be useful in dampening inflammation in lung diseases characterized by enhanced inflammatory cytokine production. IMPORTANCE The initial response to viral infection is characterized by the production of interferons (IFNs). One group of IFNs, the type I IFNs, are produced early upon virus infection and signal through the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) to induce proteins important for limiting viral replication and directing immune responses. Here we examined the importance of type I IFNs in early responses to respiratory

  13. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b (peg-intron) plus ribavirin (rebetol) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a local experience.

    PubMed

    Seow, E L; Robert Ding, P H

    2005-12-01

    This was an open-label, uncontrolled study with the aim of assessing the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Island Hospital, Penang beween January 2002 and December 2003. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this study with ten defaulters. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) (Intention-To-Treat analysis) in naïve patients was 39.10%. However, when the study was adjusted to only include those who completed treatment and follow-up, overall SVR as 52.9%. Side-effects were tolerable in most patients with anaemia occurring in 22 patients (66.7%), leukopenia 23 patients (69.7%) and thrombocytopenia in 15 patients (45.5%). This study showed that pegylated interferon alfa-2b 1.5 mcg/kg/week plus ribavirin > 10.6 mg/kg/day is efficacious and safe to be used in the treatment of: chronic hepatitis C.

  14. Pronunciation Pegs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    An ESL instructor describes her experience of using pronunciation pegs, a method to foster the self-monitoring and self-correction of pronunciation mistakes with a view to helping university-level students deal with the ongoing challenge of producing target-like pronunciation. The appeal of pegs to students led the instructor to reflect on what…

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection impairs IRF-7 translocation and Alpha interferon synthesis in immortalized human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Raychoudhuri, Amit; Shrivastava, Shubham; Steele, Robert; Dash, Srikanta; Kanda, Tatsuo; Ray, Ranjit; Ray, Ratna B

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes chronic infection in a significant number of infected humans, although the mechanisms for chronicity remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that HCV infection in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) induces beta interferon (IFN-β) expression (T. Kanda, R. Steele, R. Ray, and R. B. Ray, J. Virol. 81:12375-12381, 2007). However, the regulation of the downstream signaling pathway for IFN-α production by HCV is not clearly understood. In this study, the regulation of the IFN signaling pathway following HCV genotype 1a (clone H77) or genotype 2a (clone JFH1) infection of IHH was examined. HCV infection upregulated expression of total STAT1 but failed to induce phosphorylation and efficient nuclear translocation. Subsequent study revealed that HCV infection induces IFN-stimulated response element activation, as evidenced by upregulation of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1. However, nuclear translocation of IRF-7 was impaired following HCV infection. In HCV-infected IHH, IFN-α expression initially increased (up to 24 h) and then decreased at later time points, and IFN-α-inducible protein 27 was not induced. Interestingly, HCV infection blocked IRF-7 nuclear translocation upon poly(I-C) or IFN-α treatment of IHH. Together, our data suggest that HCV infection enhances STAT1 expression but impairs nuclear translocation of IRF-7 and its downstream molecules. These impairments in the IFN-α signaling pathway may, in part, be responsible for establishment of chronic HCV infection.

  16. The role of interferon alpha in initiation of type I diabetes in the NOD mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; McDevitt, Hugh O

    2011-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in both humans and the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, in which the insulin-producing-cells of the pancreatic islets are destroyed by a beta islet cell-specific T cell immune response. We recently reported that interferon (IFN)-α is an early trigger of the T1D process in NOD mice. Here, we show that extensive blockade of IFN-α action by a monoclonal antibody specific to IFN-α receptor 1 results in nearly complete prevention of T1D in NOD mice. Whether professional IFN-α producing cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), are responsible for the initiation of T1D has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that depletion of pDCs in NOD mice by a specific mAb given at 15-25 days of age significantly delays the onset and decreases the incidence of T1D. These findings indicate that pDC and pDC-derived IFN-α are the prime initiators of the pathogenesis of T1D in NOD mice.

  17. Interferon alpha inhibits spinal cord synaptic and nociceptive transmission via neuronal-glial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Cheng; Gao, Yong-Jing; Luo, Hao; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP. In the spinal cord IFN-α was primarily expressed by astrocytes. Perfusion of spinal cord slices with IFN-α suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission by reducing the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs). IFN-α also inhibited nociceptive transmission by reducing capsaicin-induced internalization of NK-1 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Finally, spinal (intrathecal) administration of IFN-α reduced inflammatory pain and increased pain threshold in naïve rats, whereas removal of endogenous IFN-α by a neutralizing antibody induced hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest a new form of neuronal-glial interaction by which IFN-α, produced by astrocytes, inhibits nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. PMID:27670299

  18. The genetic differences with whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping between responder and non-responder in interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-J; Hwang, Y; Lin, C G-J; Wu, Y-J; Wu, L S-H

    2008-04-01

    Interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy has been a mainstream treatment for hepatitis C infection. The efficacy of this combined treatment is around 30% to 60%, and the factors affecting the responsiveness are still poorly defined. Our study is intended to investigate the genetic differences between responder and non-responder patients. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium screening for loci associated with genetic difference between two patient groups was conducted by using 382 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers involving 92 patients. We have identified 19 STR markers displaying different allele frequencies between the two patient groups. In addition, based on their genomic location and biological function, we selected the CD81 and IL15 genes to perform single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. In conclusion, this study may provide a new approach for identifying the associated polymorphisms and the susceptible loci for interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  19. Interferons alpha and gamma induce p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis, respectively.

    PubMed

    Porta, Chiara; Hadj-Slimane, Reda; Nejmeddine, Mohamed; Pampin, Mathieu; Tovey, Michael G; Espert, Lucile; Alvarez, Sandra; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K

    2005-01-20

    Type I interferon (IFN) enhances the transcription of the tumor suppressor gene p53. To elucidate the molecular mechanism mediating IFN-induced apoptosis, we analysed programmed cell death in response to type I (IFNalpha) or type II (IFNgamma) treatment in relation to p53 status. In two cell lines (MCF-7, SKNSH), IFNalpha, but not IFNgamma, enhanced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, only IFNalpha upregulated p53 as well as p53 target genes (Noxa, Mdm2 and CD95). The apoptotic response to IFNalpha decreased in the presence of ZB4, an anti-CD95 antibody, suggesting that CD95 is involved in this process. When p53 was inactivated by the E6 viral protein or the expression of a p53 mutant, IFNalpha-induced apoptosis and p53 target genes upregulation were abrogated. Altogether these results demonstrate that p53 plays a pivotal role in the IFNalpha-induced apoptotic response. IFNalpha-induced PML was unable to recruit p53 into nuclear bodies and its downregulation by siRNA did not alter CD95 expression. In contrast, IFNgamma-induced apoptosis is p53-independent. CD95 and IFN-regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) are directly upregulated by this cytokine. Apoptotic response to IFNgamma is decreased in the presence of ZB4 and strongly diminished by IRF1 siRNA, implicating both CD95 and IRF1 in IFNgamma-induced apoptotic response. Taken together, these results show that in two different cell lines, IFNalpha and IFNgamma, induce p53-dependent -independent apoptosis, respectively.

  20. The effect of alpha-interferon on bone marrow megakaryocytes and platelet production rate in essential thrombocythemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J.; Ridell, B.; Revesz, P.; Jacobsson, S.; Magnusson, B.; Westin, J.; Vilen, L. )

    1991-05-15

    In 10 patients with previously untreated essential thrombocythemia (ET), by using {sup 111}In-labeled platelets and megakaryocyte morphometry, the relation between platelet production rate and bone marrow megakaryocytes was evaluated before and during alpha-2b-interferon (IFN) therapy. A highly significant decrease in platelet count occurred during IFN therapy; the platelet counts, at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of IFN therapy, were 1,102 +/- 345 x 10(9)/L, 524 +/- 169 x 10(9)/L (P less than .0001), and 476 +/- 139 x 10(9)/L (P less than .0001), respectively. The decrement in platelet count was mainly a result of diminished platelet production rate, which at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of IFN therapy was 89 +/- 30 x 10(10) platelets/d, 53 +/- 18 x 10(10) platelets/d (P = .0033), and 45 +/- 20 x 10(10) platelets/d (P less than .0001), respectively. Also, a slight shortening of platelet mean life-span (MLS) was observed in response to IFN treatment; platelet MLS was 7.96 +/- 0.69 days at baseline and 6.68 +/- 1.30 days (P = .012) after 6 months of IFN therapy. IFN induced a significant decrease in bone marrow megakaryocyte volume; both megakaryocyte nuclear and cytoplasmatic volumes were affected. The mean megakaryocyte volume was 372 +/- 126 x 10(2) pL/microL at baseline and 278 +/- 147 x 10(2) pL/microL (P = .049) after 6 months of IFN therapy. However, the number of megakaryocytes did not show any significant change in response to IFN. It is concluded that alpha-IFN reduces platelet production rate and the peripheral platelet count in ET mainly through an anti-proliferative action on the megakaryocytes and to a considerably lesser degree by a shortening of platelet MLS.

  1. Chitosan oligomers as potential and safe absorption enhancers for improving the pulmonary absorption of interferon-alpha in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keigo; Odomi, Masaaki; Okada, Naoki; Fujita, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akira

    2005-11-01

    Effects of chitosan oligomers on pulmonary absorption of interferon-alpha (IFN) were examined by means of an in vivo pulmonary absorption experiment. Chitosan oligomers used in this study were chitosan dimer, tetramer, hexamer, and water-soluble (WS) chitosan. A significant increase in serum IFN concentrations was observed after intratracheal administration of IFN with these oligomers. Of these chitosan oligomers, 0.5% w/v chitosan hexamer appeared to be more effective in enhancing the pulmonary absorption of IFN than other oligomers at the same concentration, and the AUC value of IFN with chitosan hexamer increased 2.6-fold as compared with the control. On the other hand, chitosan polymers, which have relatively high molecular weights (22-96 kDa), were not effective in enhancing the pulmonary absorption of IFN due to their low solubility in water. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations (0.1%-1% w/v) of chitosan hexamer on the pulmonary absorption of IFN was studied. Of these different concentrations of chitosan hexamers, the highest AUC value of IFN was obtained in the presence of 0.5% w/v chitosan hexamer. Furthermore, chitosan oligomers did not cause any membrane damage to the rat pulmonary tissues, as determined by leakage of protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Therefore, these findings indicated that the use of chitosan oligomers would be a promising approach for improving of the pulmonary absorption of biologically active peptides including IFN.

  2. Refolding of recombinant human interferon alpha-2a from Escherichia coli by urea gradient size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Shi, L; Xu, L X

    2013-01-01

    Protein refolding is still a puzzle in the production of recombinant proteins expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs) in Escherichia coli. Gradient size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a recently developed method for refolding of recombinant proteins in IBs. In this study, we used a decreasing urea gradient SEC for the refolding of recombinant human interferon alpha-2a (rhLFNalpha-2a) which was overexpressed as IBs in E. coli. In chromatographic process, the denatured rhLFNalpha-2a would pass along the 8.0-3.0 M urea gradient and refold gradually. Several operating conditions, such as final concentration of urea along the column, gradient length, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione and flow rate were investigated, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, 1.2 x 10(8) IU/mg of specific activity and 82% mass recovery were obtained from the loaded 10 ml of 1.75 mg/ml denatured protein, and rhLFNalpha-2a was also purified during this process with the purity of higher than 92%. Compared with dilution method, urea gradient SEC was more efficient for the rhl FNalpha-2a refolding in terms of specific activity and mass recovery.

  3. Interferon-alpha treatment induces depression-like behaviour accompanied by elevated hippocampal quinolinic acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christina Weide; Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Tillmann, Sandra; Liebenberg, Nico; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-10-15

    Immunotherapy with the cytokine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) can induce symptoms of depression, and it is likely that the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway may be involved in this regard. In this study we investigated the effects of IFN-α on depression-like behaviour and central metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway in rats. Secondly, we explored the modulating effects of an antidepressant (imipramine) and anti-inflammatory drug (celecoxib) on IFN-α-induced behavioural and pathophysiological changes in the brain. The following treatment groups were used: Control (saline), IFN-α (6×10(4)IU/kg s.c.), IFN-α+imipramine or IFN-α+celecoxib. Drugs were administered daily for 1 week. IFN-α treatment induced depression-like behaviour by increasing immobility in the forced swim test (FST), and decreased tryptophan levels in the brain. There was a trend for an increased kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, indicative of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation, and increased quinolinic acid in the hippocampus. Imipramine decreased immobility in the FST, but did not reverse the IFN-α-induced changes in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. There was a trend for celecoxib to decrease immobility and to reverse the IFN-α-induced increase in the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Thus, our study provides further evidence for IFN-α-induced depression-like behaviour through central changes of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway.

  4. Cellular response to influenza virus infection: a potential role for autophagy in CXCL10 and interferon-alpha induction.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna Hing-Yee; Lee, Davy Chun-Wai; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Peiris, Malik; Lau, Allan Sik-Yin

    2010-07-01

    Historically, influenza pandemics have arisen from avian influenza viruses. Avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H9N2 are potential pandemic candidates. Infection of humans with the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus is associated with a mortality in excess of 60%, which has been attributed to dysregulation of the cytokine system. Human macrophages and epithelial cells infected with some genotypes of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses express markedly elevated cytokine and chemokine levels when compared with seasonal influenza A subtype H1N1 virus. The mechanisms underlying this cytokine and chemokine hyperinduction are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that autophagy, a tightly regulated homeostatic process for self-digestion of unwanted cellular subcomponents, plays a role in cytokine induction. Autophagy is induced to a greater extent by H9N2/G1, in association with cytokine hyperinduction, compared with H1N1 and the novel pandemic swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 viruses. Using 3-methyladenine to inhibit autophagy and small interfering RNA to silence the autophagy gene, Atg5, we further show that autophagic responses play a role in influenza virus-induced CXCL10 and interferon-alpha expression in primary human blood macrophages. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of avian influenza viruses.

  5. A recombinant DNA vaccine protects mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor against lethal challenge with Usutu virus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Cañas-Arranz, Rodrigo; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-04-19

    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus whose circulation had been confined to Africa since it was first detected in 1959. However, in the last decade USUV has emerged in Europe causing episodes of avian mortality and sporadic severe neuroinvasive infections in humans. Remarkably, adult laboratory mice exhibit limited susceptibility to USUV infection, which has impaired the analysis of the immune responses, thus complicating the evaluation of virus-host interactions and of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. In this work, we showed that mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor (IFNAR (-/-) mice) were highly susceptible to USUV infection and provided a lethal challenge model for vaccine testing. To validate this infection model, a plasmid DNA vaccine candidate encoding the precursor of membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins of USUV was engineered. Transfection of cultured cells with this plasmid resulted in expression of USUV antigens and the assembly and secretion of small virus-like particles also known as recombinant subviral particles (RSPs). A single intramuscular immunization with this plasmid was sufficient to elicit a significant level of protection against challenge with USUV in IFNAR (-/-) mice. The characterization of the humoral response induced revealed that DNA vaccination primed anti-USUV antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies. Overall, these results probe the suitability of IFNAR (-/-) mice as an amenable small animal model for the study of USUV host virus interactions and vaccine testing, as well as the feasibility of DNA-based vaccine strategies for the control of this pathogen.

  6. [Influence of small doses human interferon-alpha intranasal injection on behavior of rats of different age].

    PubMed

    Loseva, E V; Pasikova, N V; Loginova, N A; Biriukova, L M; Mats, V M

    2007-01-01

    Behavior of young (3-4 month old) and ageing (12-15 month old) rats was studied during chronic intranasal application of low doses (10 ME or 350 ME) of human interferon-alpha (HIA). In ageing rats HIA did not affect dynamics (days 0th, 8th and 16th) of (a) locomotive and (b) investigative activity in the "open field" test and in two-side defensive conditioning, and (c) decreased anxiety ("open field", "light-darkness" test). In young rats HIA (a) increased locomotive activity by 16th day (it decreased in control), (b) investigative activity did not change (in control it decreased by 8th day; "open field" test), (c) anxiety decreased in the "open field" and increased in "light-darkness" tests, (d) development of conditioned reflex improved (during 2nd learning session in 5 days after the first one). Thus, small doses of HIA differently affected behavior of rats depending on the age and experimental situation. However, both HIA doses changed rats' behavior in the same direction. We suggest that chronic low doses of HIA can regulate different aspects of behavior, but not suppress activity as it is commonly thought. This regulation can be performed via modulation of neuro-immuno-endocrine complex.

  7. Chemokine gene expression in the murine renal cell carcinoma, RENCA, following treatment in vivo with interferon-alpha and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Sonouchi, K.; Hamilton, T. A.; Tannenbaum, C. S.; Tubbs, R. R.; Bukowski, R.; Finke, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of three chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) messenger (m)RNAs in the murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) from mice treated with a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin-2 was examined and related to tumor infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes. Using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, mRNAs encoding the KC, JE, and IP-10 genes were all elevated in tumor tissue from mice treated systemically with IFN-alpha/interleukin-2 for 4 days. Similarly, the mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also increased in tumors from treated as compared to control animals. The same tumors showed a significant increase in Mac-1+ leukocytes, which correlated well with the increase in chemokine and TNF-alpha gene expression. The renal cell carcinoma tumor itself may be responsible for the expression of chemokine genes in the tumor bed following cytokine therapy. Cultures of freshly explanted RENCA cells expressed significant levels of chemokine mRNAs when stimulated in vitro with IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and/or interleukin-2, demonstrating that this tumor cell has potential for expression of these genes in vivo. In contrast, TNF-alpha expression was not detected in cultured tumor cells. Thus TNF-alpha may be expressed by infiltrating monocytes following exposure to recombinant cytokine therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8160774

  8. Influence of bovine serum albumin on the secondary structure of interferon alpha 2b as determined by far UV circular dichroism spectropolarimetry.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael J W; Nemr, Kayla; Hefford, Mary A

    2010-03-01

    Many therapeutic biologics are formulated with excipients, including the protein excipient human serum albumin (HSA), to increase stability and prevent protein aggregation and adsorption onto glass vials. One biologic formulated with albumin is interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b). As is the case with other therapeutic biologics, the increased structural complexity of IFN alpha-2b compared to a small molecule drug requires that both the correct chemical structure (amino acid sequence) and also the correct secondary and tertiary structures (3 dimensional fold) be verified to assure safety and efficacy. Although numerous techniques are available to assess a biologic's primary, secondary and tertiary structures, difficulties arise when assessing higher order structure in the presence of protein excipients. In these studies far UV circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (far UV-CD) was used to determine the secondary structure of IFN alpha-2b in the presence of a protein excipient (bovine serum albumin, BSA). We demonstrated that the secondary structure of IFN alpha-2b remains mostly unchanged at a variety of BSA to IFN alpha-2b protein ratios. A significant difference in alpha helix and beta sheet content was noted when the BSA to IFN alpha-2b ratio was 5:1 (w/w), suggesting a potential conformational change in IFN alpha-2b secondary structure when BSA is in molar excess.

  9. Efficient production of canine interferon-alpha in silkworm Bombyx mori by use of a BmNPV/Bac-to-Bac expression system.

    PubMed

    Na, Zhao; Huipeng, Yao; Lipan, Lan; Cuiping, Cao; Umashankar, M L; Xingmeng, Lu; Xiaofeng, Wu; Bing, Wang; Weizheng, Cui; Cenis, J L

    2008-02-01

    We exploited the silkworm Bombyx mori for the production of recombinant canine interferon-alpha (CaIFN-alpha). The recombinant baculovirus harboring canine interferon gene was rapidly generated by the BmNPV/Bac-to-Bac system that was recently developed. In B. mori-derived cell lines, the expression of the recombinant protein reached maximal levels around 72-96 h post-infection. For the isolation of the expressed recombinant protein from B. mori larvae, the whole bodies of the infected larvae were homogenized, and the expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Based on the fact that the recombinant CaIFN-alpha showed two bands on the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pattern, the expressed protein was thought to be glycosylated. The rCaIFN-alpha yield was about 528 microg per larva, showing that the expression in silkworm was successful. Furthermore, the recombinant protein was proven to be able to inhibit the infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by the vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that it is biologically active in vitro. The method established in this study provides an efficient way to produce a large amount of CaIFN-alpha and paves the way for further utilization of this protein as a therapeutic agent or vaccine adjuvant in dogs.

  10. De-immunized and Functional Therapeutic (DeFT) versions of a long lasting recombinant alpha interferon for antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mufarrege, Eduardo F; Giorgetti, Sofía; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Terry, Frances; Martin, William; De Groot, Anne S

    2017-01-10

    Interferon α (IFN-α) exerts potent antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity and have proven clinical utility in chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections. However, repeated IFN-α administration induces neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against the therapeutic in a significant number of patients. Associations between IFN-α immunogenicity and loss of efficacy have been described. So as to improve the in vivo biological efficacy of IFN-α, a long lasting hyperglycosylated protein (4N-IFN) derived from IFN-α2b wild type (WT-IFN) was developed. However, in silico analysis performed using established in silico methods revealed that 4N-IFN had more T cell epitopes than WT-IFN. In order to develop a safer and more efficient IFN therapy, we applied the DeFT (De-immunization of Functional Therapeutics) approach to producing functional, de-immunized versions of 4N-IFN. Using the OptiMatrix in silico tool in ISPRI, the 4N-IFN sequence was modified to reduce HLA binding potential of specific T cell epitopes. Following verification of predictions by HLA binding assays, eight modifications were selected and integrated in three variants: 4N-IFN(VAR1), (VAR2) and (VAR3). Two of the three variants (VAR1 and VAR3) retained anti-viral function and demonstrated reduced T-cell immunogenicity in terms of T-cell proliferation and Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels, when compared to controls (commercial NG-IFN (non-glycosylated), PEG-IFN, WT-IFN and 4N-IFN). It was previously demonstrated that N-glycosylation improved IFN-α pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we further reduce immunogenicity as measured in vitro using T cell assays and cytokine profiling by modifying the T cell epitope content of a protein (de-immunizing). Taking into consideration the present results and previously reported immunogenicity data for commercial IFN-α2b variants, 4N-IFN(VAR1) and 4N-IFN-4N(VAR3) appear to be promising candidates for improved IFN-α therapy of HCV and HBV.

  11. Relative resistance of HIV-1 founder viruses to control by interferon-alpha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission, type 1 interferons (IFNs) are rapidly induced at sites of initial virus replication in the mucosa and draining lymph nodes. However, the role played by IFN-stimulated antiviral activity in restricting HIV-1 replication during the initial stages of infection is not clear. We hypothesized that if type 1 IFNs exert selective pressure on HIV-1 replication in the earliest stages of infection, the founder viruses that succeed in establishing systemic infection would be more IFN-resistant than viruses replicating during chronic infection, when type 1 IFNs are produced at much lower levels. To address this hypothesis, the relative resistance of virus isolates derived from HIV-1-infected individuals during acute and chronic infection to control by type 1 IFNs was analysed. Results The replication of plasma virus isolates generated from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 and molecularly cloned founder HIV-1 strains could be reduced but not fully suppressed by type 1 IFNs in vitro. The mean IC50 value for IFNα2 (22 U/ml) was lower than that for IFNβ (346 U/ml), although at maximally-inhibitory concentrations both IFN subtypes inhibited virus replication to similar extents. Individual virus isolates exhibited differential susceptibility to inhibition by IFNα2 and IFNβ, likely reflecting variation in resistance to differentially up-regulated IFN-stimulated genes. Virus isolates from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 were significantly more resistant to in vitro control by IFNα than virus isolates generated from the same individuals during chronic, asymptomatic infection. Viral IFN resistance declined rapidly after the acute phase of infection: in five subjects, viruses derived from six-month consensus molecular clones were significantly more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFNs than the corresponding founder viruses. Conclusions The establishment of systemic HIV-1 infection by

  12. Identification and implantation stage-specific expression of an interferon-alpha-regulated gene in human and rat endometrium.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhang, M; Kumar, S; Zhu, L J; Chen, D; Bagchi, M K; Bagchi, I C

    2001-06-01

    Implantation of the developing blastocyst is regulated by multiple effectors, such as steroid hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. To understand how these diverse signaling pathways interact to modulate uterine gene expression, we employed a gene expression screen technique to identify the molecules that are induced in the periimplantation rat uterus. Here we report the isolation of a complementary DNA representing a novel gene, interferon-regulated gene 1 (IRG1). This gene exhibits significant homology to interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta-inducible human genes p27 and 6-16, indicating that these genes may belong to the same family. Consistent with this finding, expression of IRG1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat uterus increased about 20-fold in response to IFNalpha. Uterine expression of IRG1 was also stimulated by estrogen and was partially inhibited by an antiestrogen, ICI 182,780. In pregnant rats, IRG1 expression was high on day 1, but declined on days 2 and 3. The level of IRG1 mRNA again rose transiently on day 4 immediately preceding implantation. In situ hybridization analysis localized the IRG1 mRNA expression in the endometrial epithelium and the surrounding stroma. Interestingly, the expression of p27, which shows high homology to IRG1, was strongly enhanced in human endometrium during the midsecretory phase of the menstrual cycle, overlapping the putative window of implantation. Both IRG1 and p27 mRNAs are therefore induced in the endometrium in an implantation stage-specific manner. We also observed a synergistic interaction between IFNalpha and estrogen receptor signaling pathways that led to maximal induction of p27 mRNA in Ishikawa cells. Although the functional roles of IRG1 and p27 remain unclear, we describe for the first time, identification of a gene family regulated by IFNalpha in both rodent and human uteri. More importantly, our studies reveal that a complex interplay between the steroid hormone and IFN pathways regulates the expression of these

  13. Enhanced immunogenicity of multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with porcine interferon alpha in mice and protective efficacy in guinea pigs and swine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yijun; Li, Yufeng; He, Hairong; Qi, Jing; Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Xinglong; Tang, Bo; Cao, Jun; Wang, Xianwei; Jiang, Ping

    2008-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In this study, three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 from VP1 protein of FMDV were selected as multiple-epitopes (VPe), and a recombinant adenovirus expressing the multiple-epitopes fused with porcine interferon alpha (rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe) was constructed. Six groups of female BALB/c mice (18 mice per group) were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) twice at 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses and the immune responses were examined. Following this the protective efficacy of rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe was examined in guinea pigs and swine. The results showed that both FMDV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses could be induced by rAd-VPe and increased when rAd-pIFN alpha is included in this regime in mice model. Moreover, the levels of the immune responses in the group inoculated with rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe were significantly higher than the group inoculated with rAd-VPe plus rAd-pIFN alpha. All guinea pigs and swine vaccinated with rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe were completely protected from viral challenge. It demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus rAd-pIFN alpha-VPe might be an attractive candidate vaccine for preventing FMDV infection.

  14. Early alpha/beta interferon production by myeloid dendritic cells in response to UV-inactivated virus requires viral entry and interferon regulatory factor 3 but not MyD88.

    PubMed

    Hidmark, Asa S; McInerney, Gerald M; Nordström, Eva K L; Douagi, Iyadh; Werner, Kristen M; Liljeström, Peter; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B

    2005-08-01

    Alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) are key mediators of innate immunity and important modulators of adaptive immunity. The mechanisms by which IFN-alpha/beta are induced are becoming increasingly well understood. Recent studies showed that Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 expressed by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) mediate the endosomal recognition of incoming viral RNA genomes, a process which requires myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Here we investigate the requirements for virus-induced IFN-alpha/beta production in cultures of bone marrow-derived murine myeloid DCs (mDCs). Using recombinant Semliki Forest virus blocked at different steps in the viral life cycle, we show that replication-defective virus induced IFN-alpha/beta in mDCs while fusion-defective virus did not induce IFN-alpha/beta. The response to replication-defective virus was largely intact in MyD88-/- mDC cultures but was severely reduced in mDC cultures from mice lacking IFN regulatory factor 3. Our observations suggest that mDCs respond to incoming virus via a pathway that differs from the fusion-independent, MyD88-mediated endosomal pathway described for the induction of IFN-alpha/beta in pDCs. We propose that events during or downstream of viral fusion, but prior to replication, can activate IFN-alpha/beta in mDCs. Thus, mDCs may contribute to the antiviral response activated by the immune system at early time points after infection.

  15. Injection of mice with antibody to mouse interferon alpha/beta decreases the level of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, I; Vignaux, F; Belardelli, F; Tovey, M G; Maunoury, M T

    1985-01-01

    Injection of conventional or axenic weanling mice with potent sheep or goat antibody to mouse interferon alpha/beta resulted in a decrease in the basal level of 2-5A synthetase in resting peritoneal macrophages and rendered these cells permissive for vesicular stomatitis virus. There was a good inverse correlation between the level of 2-5A synthetase in peritoneal macrophages and the permissivity of these cells for vesicular stomatitis virus. The peritoneal macrophages of 1- and 2-week-old mice had low levels of 2-5A synthetase and were permissive for vesicular stomatitis virus, whereas at 3 weeks (and after) there was a marked increase in the level of 2-5A synthetase in peritoneal macrophages, and these cells were no longer permissive for vesicular stomatitis virus. We suggest that low levels of interferon alpha or beta or both are produced in normal mice, and that this interferon contributes to host defense by inducing and maintaining an antiviral state in some cells. PMID:2981340

  16. A quantitative assessment of depression and thyroid dysfunction secondary to interferon-alpha therapy in patients with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Loftis, J M; Wall, J M; Linardatos, E; Benvenga, S; Hauser, P

    2004-01-01

    The most effective treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is interferon-alpha (IFN) therapy in combination with ribavirin. Although symptoms of depression are among the most common side effects of IFN therapy in treating patients with HCV, the mechanisms by which IFN produces these neuropsychiatric side effects remain unclear. In the brain, IFNs are involved in a number of regulatory functions, including but not limited to regulation of the endocrine system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -thyroid axes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of IFN therapy on thyroid function and to characterize the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and major depressive disorder during IFN therapy in patients with hepatitis C. Thirty-three patients with HCV were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Axis I Disorders (SCID) and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were on IFN for an average of 6 to 12 months depending on their viral genotype. Serum samples were collected at baseline, during and after IFN therapy, and measured for free thryoxine (FT4) and TSH levels. Patients who developed IFN-induced depression were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Only one patient developed transient IFN-induced overt hypothyroidism, but he did not develop depression. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences in either FT4 or TSH serum levels between patients who developed major depressive disorder (MDD) (no.= 10) during IFN therapy and those who did not (no.=23). These results illustrate the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms associated with IFN therapy and the apparent absence of a relationship between IFN-induced MDD and changes in thyroid function.

  17. Toxicity of combined treatment of adjuvant irradiation and interferon alpha2b in high-risk melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Conill, Carlos; Jorcano, Sandra; Domingo-Domènech, Josep; Marruecos, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Sánchez, Marcelo; Gallego, Rosa; Castel, Teresa

    2007-10-01

    Surgically resected stage III melanoma patients commonly receive adjuvant therapy with interferon (IFN) alpha2b. For those patients with high-risk features of draining node recurrence, radiation therapy can also be considered as a treatment option. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy and radiation-related toxicity of this combined therapy. Eighteen patients receiving adjuvant IFNalpha2b therapy during radiation therapy, or within 1 month of its completion, were reviewed retrospectively and analysed for outcome. Radiation was delivered at 600 cGy dose per fraction, in 16 out of 18 patients, twice a week, and at 200 cGy dose per fraction in two patients five times a week. Total radiation dose and number of fractions were as follows: 30 Gy/5 fr (n=8), 36 Gy/6 fr (n=8) and 50 Gy/25 fr (n=2). The percentage of disease-free patients, with no local recurrence, at 3 years was 88%. In 10 patients, IFNalpha2b was administered concurrently with radiotherapy; in three, within 30 days before or after radiation; and in five, more than 30 days after radiation. All the patients experienced acute skin reactions, grade I on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale. Late radiation-related toxicity was seen in one patient with grade III (RTOG) skin reaction and two with grade IV (RTOG) radiation-induced myelitis. Concurrent use of adjuvant radiotherapy and IFNalpha2b might enhance radiation-induced toxicity, and special care should be taken when the spinal cord is included in the radiation field.

  18. Mass spectrometric characterization of the isoforms in Escherichia coli recombinant DNA-derived interferon alpha-2b.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Hui; Wylie, David; Zhao, Jia; Cure, Raymond; Cutler, Collette; Cannon-Carlson, Susan; Yang, Xiaoyu; Nagabhushan, Tattanahalli L; Pramanik, Birendra N

    2011-01-01

    The isoforms Iso-2, Iso-3, and Iso-4 of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human interferon alpha-2b (rhIFN α-2b), generated by posttranslational modifications of the protein during fermentation, present a major problem in terms of purification and the yield of the drug substance. We report here the structural characterization of these isoforms by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. An extensive MS study was conducted on Iso-4, which is composed of up to 75% of the in-process IFN, and on the native rhIFN α-2b. The trypsin-digested peptide mixtures generated from the two samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, and targeted peptides were further studied by LC-tandem MS (triple quadrupole mass spectrometer), high-resolution MS(n) (LTQ Orbitrap), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS (MALDI-MS). The structure of Iso-4 was elucidated as a novel pyruvic acid ketimine derivative of the N-terminal cysteine (Cys1) of IFN α-2b, where the disulfide bond between Cys1 and Cys98 was fully reduced and the other disulfide bond pair, Cys29-ss-Cys138, was partially reduced. Similarly, Iso-2 was identified as a correctly disulfide-folded rhIFN α-2b with acetylation on Cys1, and Iso-3 was identified as an S-glutathionylated form (Cys98) of partially reduced rhIFN α-2b that was pyruvated on Cys1. Based on the characterization work, a reproducible conversion procedure was successfully implemented to convert Iso-4 to rhIFN α-2b.

  19. Role of nitric oxide in the central interferon-alpha-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Czimmer, Jozsef; Király, Ágnes; Szabó, Imre Laszlo; Mózsik, Gyula; Sütő, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines are known to play a key role in regulation of gastric functions. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has been published to impair gastric motility. Aims of this study were to clarify effect of IFN-α on gastric acid secretion (GAS) and determine role of nitric oxide (NO) in the process. Both subcutaneous (1000, 10000, 100 000 IU, s.c.) and intracisternal (10, 100, 1000 IU, i.c.) injections of IFN-α dose-dependently inhibited GAS induced by pylorus ligation in male SD rats in 2 hrs (370±40, 233±39, 208±50 micromol vs control 415±59 micromol and 481±50, 249±75, 141±25 micromol vs control 485±65 micromol, respectively). Central doses inducing same level inhibition were 100 times lower. NOS inhibitor L-NAME (3 mg/kg, i.v.) blocked the inhibitory effect of i.c. ED(50) dose 100 IU IFN-α (507±75 micromol/2 hrs), while L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevented L-NAME action (266±82 micromol/2 hrs). D-arginine failed to prevent L-NAME action on IFN-α-induced inhibition of GAS. Aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS) failed to block IFN-α induced inhibition of GAS. Results suggest that IFN-α inhibits GAS centrally through nitric oxide pathways probably mediated by continuous isoform of NOS that can be important in regulation of GAS in healthy or pathological conditions.

  20. Algorithmic Approach to High-Throughput Molecular Screening for Alpha Interferon-Resistant Genotypes in Hepatitis C Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sreevatsan, Srinand; Bookout, Jack B.; Ringpis, Fidel M.; Pottathil, Mridula R.; Marshall, David J.; De Arruda, Monika; Murvine, Christopher; Fors, Lance; Pottathil, Raveendran M.; Barathur, Raj R.

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the feasibility and validity of using Cleavase Fragment Length Polymorphism (CFLP) analysis as an alternative to DNA sequencing for high-throughput screening of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in a high-volume molecular pathology laboratory setting. By using a 244-bp amplicon from the 5′ untranslated region of the HCV genome, 61 clinical samples received for HCV reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were genotyped by this method. The genotype frequencies assigned by the CFLP method were 44.3% for type 1a, 26.2% for 1b, 13.1% for type 2b, and 5% type 3a. The results obtained by nucleotide sequence analysis provided 100% concordance with those obtained by CFLP analysis at the major genotype level, with resolvable differences as to subtype designations for five samples. CFLP analysis-derived HCV genotype frequencies also concurred with the national estimates (N. N. Zein et al., Ann. Intern. Med. 125:634–639, 1996). Reanalysis of 42 of these samples in parallel in a different research laboratory reproduced the CFLP fingerprints for 100% of the samples. Similarly, the major subtype designations for 19 samples subjected to different incubation temperature-time conditions were also 100% reproducible. Comparative cost analysis for genotyping of HCV by line probe assay, CFLP analysis, and automated DNA sequencing indicated that the average cost per amplicon was lowest for CFLP analysis, at $20 (direct costs). On the basis of these findings we propose that CFLP analysis is a robust, sensitive, specific, and an economical method for large-scale screening of HCV-infected patients for alpha interferon-resistant HCV genotypes. The paper describes an algorithm that uses as a reflex test the RT-PCR-based qualitative screening of samples for HCV detection and also addresses genotypes that are ambiguous. PMID:9650932

  1. Beneficial effects of post-transfusional hepatitis in acute myelogenous leukemia may be mediated by lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma.

    PubMed

    Treon, S P; Broitman, S A

    1992-10-01

    Post-transfusional hepatitis is often a complication in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in whom survival is paradoxically prolonged. The etiology is unknown. In previous studies, we showed that impaired hepatic endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) clearance in patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B, or C versus controls results in endotoxemia and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) release. TNF-alpha mediates anti-proliferative and differentiating effects in AML cell lines. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) released in acute viral hepatitis, acts in synergy with TNF-alpha. HL60, KG1, and U937 AML cells treated 3, 6, and 9 days with physiologically attainable TNF-alpha (10 U/ml), IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and LPS (10 ng/ml) levels, have significantly diminished viability and cell growth versus controls. Treatment of HL60 AML cells with LPS/TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma also resulted in significantly increased monocytic pathway differentiation not seen with KG1 or U937 AML cells. HL60 AML cells treated with TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma for 6 days released endogenous TNF-alpha (1.57 U/10(6) cells) upon LPS stimulation compared to less than 0.01 U/10(6) cells in non-LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-treated cells or untreated cells (p less than 0.0001). Untreated HL60 AML cells co-cultured with HL60 cells pretreated for 6 days with TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma and then subjected to LPS stimulation had significantly diminished cell growth compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). This effect could be reversed with anti-TNF-alpha antibody, supporting the concept that endogenous TNF-alpha release by LPS/TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma treated HL60 AML cells may act by paracrine means to suppress growth of other AML cells. The beneficial effects of post-transfusional hepatitis in AML patients may be mediated via LPS/TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-induced AML cell growth suppression and/or terminal differentiation in which AML cells participate by releasing TNF-alpha after being acted upon by LPS/TNF-alpha

  2. [Obtaining of ScFv-CBD fusion protein and its application for affinity purification of recombinant human interferon alpha2b].

    PubMed

    Hil'chuk, P V; Okuniev, O V; Pavlova, M V; Irodov, D M; Horbatiuk, O B

    2006-01-01

    The gene of ScFv-CBD-fusion protein has been designed using the DNA sequences encoding of single-chain antibody (ScFv) against human interferon alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) and cellulose-binding domain (CBD) from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. Biosynthesis of ScFv-CBD utilizing high-productive Escherichia coli system was carried out and the accumulation of target protein in bacterial inclusion bodies was shown. After the purification of the inclusion bodies and their subsequent in vitro refolding the soluble ScFv-CBD-fusion protein was directly immobilized on cellulose by bioaffinity coupling. The possibility to obtain the preparative quantities of ScFv-CBD in biologically-active form using different refolding schemes was accurately investigated in the paper. The general applicability of biologically immobilized ScFv-CBD-fusion proteins for affinity purification of recombinant IFN-alpha2b is shown.

  3. OBTAINING OF THE TRANSGENIC HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. PLANTS, CALLUS AND "HAIRY" ROOT CULTURES ABLE TO EXPRESS THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA-2b GENE.

    PubMed

    Maistrenko, O M; Luchakivska, Yu S; Zholobak, N M; Spivak, M Ya; Kuchuk, M V

    2015-01-01

    This work is the first to our knowledge to describe the successful attempt of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of topinambour in order to obtain the transgenic H. tuberosus plants, callus and "hairy" root cultures. The plasmid vectors contained the sequence of interferon gene fused with Nicotiana plumbagenifolia L. calreticulin apoplast targeting signal driven by 35S CaMV promoter or root-specific Mll promoter. Nearly 75% isolated Ri-root lines and callus cultures were proved (by PCR analysis) to contain HuINFa-2b transgene. We also managed to obtain H. tuberosus transgenic plants through somatic embryogenesis on the transgenic "hairy" root culture. The obtained transgenic H. tuberosus cultures exhibited high-level antiviral activity that ranged from 2000 to 54500 IU/g FW that makes this crop considered a promising source of recombinant interferon alpha 2b protein.

  4. Concomitant Interferon Alpha Stimulation and TLR3 Activation Induces Neuronal Expression of Depression-Related Genes That Are Elevated in the Brain of Suicidal Persons

    PubMed Central

    Trippler, Martin; Lutterbeck, Melanie; Liu, Zijian J.; Truebner, Kurt; Bajanowski, Thomas; Gerken, Guido; Hermann, Dirk M.; Schlaak, Joerg F.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified 15 genes that are associated with the development of severe depressive side effects during the standard therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin in the peripheral blood of hepatitis C virus infected patients. An enhanced expression of these genes was also found in the blood of psychiatric patients suffering severe depressive episode. Herein, we demonstrate that the same depression-related interferon-inducible genes (DRIIs) are also upregulated in post-mortem brains of suicidal individuals. Using cultured mouse hippocampal and prefrontal neurons we show that costimulation with murine IFN (mIFN) and the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) promotes the expression of the described DRIIs, at the same time inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through Stat1 and Stat3 activation, promoting neuronal apoptosis. Consequently, the upregulation of selective DRIIs, production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of neuronal plasticity may be involved in the pathogenesis of IFN-associated depression. PMID:24391741

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, but not HTLV-I tax, are likely factors in the epidermotropism of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma via induction of interferon-inducible protein-10.

    PubMed

    Daliani, D; Ulmer, R A; Jackow, C; Pugh, W; Gansbacher, B; Cabanillas, F; Duvic, M; Sarris, A H

    1998-04-01

    We have previously shown that Interferon-Inducible Protein-10 (IP-10), a cytokine chemotactic for CD4-positive lymphocytes, is overexpressed by lesional epidermal keratinocytes and probably accounts for the epidermotropism of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). The tax gene of human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) immortalizes CD4-positive lymphocytes, induces IFN-gamma, and has been detected in patients with classical CTCL who are seronegative for HTLV-I. TNF-alpha is synergistic with IFN-gamma for the induction of IP-10. We therefore decided to define the presence of tax, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IP-10 in lesions of 19 adults with classical CTCL who were seronegative for HTLV-I. Lesional mRNAs for actin, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and tax were detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. In addition IP-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma were detected and localized with immunocytochemistry of frozen sections. In agreement with previous observations IP-10 was overexpressed in lesional keratinocytes of all 19 patients. By RT-PCR, mRNA for IFN-gamma was detected in lesions of 8, and for TNF-alpha in lesions of 13 patients. By immunocytochemistry, TNF-alpha was expressed by lesional keratinocytes in 10 of 13 tested patients, whereas IFN-gamma was focally expressed by lesional lymphocytes and faintly by lesional keratinocytes in 9 of 13 tested patients. tax mRNA was not detected in lesions of any patient, but was easily detectable in cutaneous lesions or peripheral blood of control patients who were seropositive for HTLV-I. We conclude that TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma may cause epidermotropism by inducing IP-10. However, the tax gene of HTLV-I does not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of classical CTCL.

  6. Nanomedicines in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C co-infected with HIV – focus on pegylated interferon-alpha

    PubMed Central

    Zoller, Heinz; Vogel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In immuno-competent individuals, the natural course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly variable and 5%–30% of patients develop cirrhosis over 20 years. Co-infection with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an important prognostic factor and associated with more frequent and accelerated progression to cirrhosis. Until recently HIV/AIDS-related complications were life limiting in patients co-infected with HCV; the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and the better prognosis of HIV infection has made HCV-related complications an emerging health problem in HCV/HIV co-infected individuals. Treatment of chronic HCV infection has also evolved since the introduction of interferon-alpha. Recently, introduction of pegylated interferon-alpha (peginterferon-alpha) has resulted in an increase in sustained virus clearance rates of up to 80% in selected genotypes and patient populations. The safety and efficacy of modern anti HCV treatment regimens – based on peginterferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin – was evaluated in 4 controlled trials. Sustained clearance of hepatitis C virus can be achieved in up to 35% of patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, and novel HCV treatment regimens based on peginterferon-alpha have no negative effect on the control of HIV disease. In conclusion, if HIV infection is well controlled and CD4+ cell counts >100/mm3, treatment of chronic hepatitis C with peginterferon in combination with ribavirin is safe and should be given for 48 weeks regardless of the HCV genotype. Introduction of peginterferon-alpha has significantly improved adherence to treatment and treatment efficacy; in particular sustained virologic response in patients with HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection improved, but sustained viral clearance in only 7%–38% of patients infected with genotype 1 and 4 cannot be the final step in development of effective treatments in patients with HCV/HIV co-infection. PMID:17722274

  7. Sodium butyrate enhances STAT 1 expression in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells and augments their responsiveness to interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hung, W C; Chuang, L Y

    1999-05-01

    Although interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has shown great promise in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, the anti-tumour effect of this agent in the therapy of liver cancer is unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that differentiation-inducing agents could modulate the responsiveness of cancer cells to IFN-alpha by regulating the expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, a group of transcription factors which play important roles in the IFN signalling pathway. We have reported that sodium butyrate is a potent differentiation inducer for human hepatoma cells. In this study, we investigated whether this drug could regulate the expression of STAT proteins and enhance the anti-tumour effect of IFN-alpha in hepatoma cells. We found that sodium butyrate specifically activated STAT1 gene expression and enhanced IFN-alpha-induced phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 proteins. Co-treatment with these two drugs led to G1 growth arrest, accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21WAF-1, and accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in hepatoma cells. Additionally, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, a biological hallmark of apoptosis, was detected in hepatoma cells after continuous incubation with a combination of these two drugs for 72 h. Our results show that sodium butyrate potently enhances the anti-tumour effect of IFN-alpha in vitro and suggest that a rational combination of these two drugs may be useful for the treatment of liver cancer.

  8. Genomic footprinting: detection of putative regulatory proteins in the promoter region of the interferon alpha-1 gene in normal human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, M; Tovey, M G

    1990-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) genomic footprinting revealed the presence of putative regulatory proteins attached to specific sequences of the promoter region of the interferon (IFN) alpha-1 gene in normal human tissue. The pattern of protein-DNA interactions observed for the human alpha-1 promoter in freshly isolated human spleen cells was identical to that seen in DNA from the B-cell line Namalwa. The protein interactions involving the human IFN alpha-1 promoter spanned a region from positions -38 to -174 relative to the cap site which encompasses that part of the IFN alpha-1 promoter previously shown by deletion analysis to confer virus inducibility on the IFN alpha-1 gene. DNase I footprinting performed on isolated nuclei revealed a pattern of protein-DNA interactions for the promoter region of the IFN alpha-1 gene similar to that obtained with DMS footprinting performed on whole cells, with the appearance or disappearance of only a few additional protected nucleotides outside the region identified by the use of DMS. These results provide the first direct evidence for the presence of proteins bound in vivo to those parts of the IFN alpha-1 promoter between positions -64 and -109 previously shown by deletion analysis to confer virus inducibility on the IFN alpha-1 gene. The pattern of protein-DNA interactions observed for the IFN alpha-1 promoter after virus induction was identical to that seen before induction, in keeping with the finding that many transcriptional activators are present in both induced and uninduced cells. Images PMID:2342457

  9. Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Song Cheng; Krell, Peter; Yoo, Dongwan

    2010-11-25

    Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

  10. Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Lu; Qu, Xiao-Jing; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Liu, Ru-Yu; Hu, Lei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Xie, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion is considered to be the ideal endpoint of antiviral therapy and the ultimate treatment goal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to assess the patterns of HBsAg kinetics in CHB patients who achieved HBsAg loss during the treatment of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, composing of 83 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 67 HBeAg-negative patients. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a180 μg/week until HBsAg loss/seroconversion was achieved, which occurred within 96 weeks. Serum hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid and serological indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe) were determined before and every 3 months during PEG-IFN α-2a treatment. Biochemical markers and peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet counts were tested every 1–3 months. Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were 2.5 ± 1.3 log IU/ml, and decreased rapidly at 12 and 24 weeks by 48.3% and 88.3%, respectively. The mean time to HBsAg loss was 54.2 ± 30.4 weeks, though most patients needed extended treatment and 30.0% of HBsAg loss occurred during 72–96 weeks. Baseline HBsAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients (2.9 ± 1.1 log IU/ml) compared with HBeAg-negative patients (2.0 ± 1.3 log IU/ml; t = 4.733, P < 0.001), but the HBsAg kinetics were similar. Patients who achieved HBsAg loss within 48 weeks had significantly lower baseline HBsAg levels and had more rapid decline of HBsAg at 12 weeks compared to patients who needed extended treatment to achieve HBsAg loss. Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss. PMID:28229987

  11. T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), CD4+, CD8+, and their CD45RO+, and CD45RA+, subpopulations in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-HIV-co-infected patients during treatment with interferon alpha plus ribavirin: analysis in a population on effective antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Arizcorreta, A; Márquez, M; Fernández-Gutiérrez, C; Guzmán, E Pérez; Brun, F; Rodríguez-Iglesias, M; Girón-González, J A

    2006-11-01

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha induced CD4(+) T lymphopenia is a toxic effect of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected patients. To increase the knowledge about this secondary effect, we performed an analysis of the evolution of the T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and of their CD45RO(+) and CD45RA(+) subpopulations during the treatment of chronic hepatitis HCV with peginterferon alpha (pegIFN-alpha) + ribavirin. Twenty HCV/HIV-co-infected patients, with undetectable HIV load after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were treated with pegIFN-alpha + ribavirin. TRECs were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and their CD45RO(+) and CD45RA(+) subpopulations were analysed by two-colour flow cytometry. Median baseline CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were 592 mm(3) and 874 mm(3), respectively. Median baseline CD45RO(+) subpopulation was 48% for CD4(+) T and 57% for CD8(+) T lymphocytes. A progressive decrease in both T cell populations, as well as of their CD45RO(+) and CD45RA(+) subpopulations, was detected, with a difference between the baseline and nadir levels approaching 50%. The evolution of T cell populations and TRECs was independent of the response to the treatment. T lymphocytes and their subpopulations returned to baseline levels at 24 weeks after the end of treatment, with the exception of the T CD4(+) CD45RA(+) subpopulation. The ratio of CD4(+) CD45RO(+)/CD4(+) CD45RA(+) increased from 0.89 (baseline) to 1.44 (24 weeks after the end of the therapy). TRECs/ml did not return to the basal values. In conclusion, a significant reduction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and of their CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(+) subpopulations, in HIV/HCV co-infected patients treated with pegIFN-alpha was observed. Both subpopulations increased after the suppression of treatment, but the CD4(+) CD45RA subpopulation did not reach the basal levels as a

  12. Regulation of cytokine production by soluble CD23: costimulation of interferon gamma secretion and triggering of tumor necrosis factor alpha release

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Soluble CD23 (sCD23) has multiple IgE-independent biological activities. In the present study, we examined the regulatory effect of sCD23 on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We show that sCD23 enhances by about 80-fold the interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production and by about 10-fold the response to IL-12. This potentiating activity is time and dose dependent and is not associated with a significant effect on DNA synthesis. The sCD23 costimulatory activity for IFN-gamma synthesis is drastically reduced in monocyte-depleted PBMC, suggesting that monocytes may be the target for sCD23. This hypothesis was supported by the following observations. First, sCD23 alone is a potent inducer of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by PBMC and this effect disappears after monocyte depletion. The triggering of TNF-alpha release is specifically inhibited by neutralizing anti-CD23 monoclonal antibody (mAb). In addition, IL-2 and IL-12 synergize with sCD23 to induce TNF-alpha production. Second, sCD23 triggers the release of other inflammatory mediators such as IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. Finally, TNF-alpha production in response to IL-2 and sCD23 precedes IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma secretion is significantly inhibited by anti-TNF-alpha mAb, indicating that the sCD23 costimulatory signal for IFN-gamma production may be partially mediated by TNF-alpha release. It is proposed that sCD23 is a proinflammatory cytokine that, in addition, may play an important role in the control of the immune response via the enhancement of IFN-gamma production. PMID:8064221

  13. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulate amyloid-beta plaque deposition and beta-secretase expression in Swedish mutant APP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Kiyota, Tomomi; Horiba, Masahide; Buescher, James L; Walsh, Shannon M; Gendelman, Howard E; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2007-02-01

    Reactive astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease surround amyloid plaques and secrete proinflammatory cytokines that affect neuronal function. Relationship between cytokine signaling and amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) accumulation is poorly understood. Thus, we generated a novel Swedish beta-amyloid precursor protein mutant (APP) transgenic mouse in which the interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor type I was knocked out (APP/GRKO). IFN-gamma signaling loss in the APP/GRKO mice reduced gliosis and amyloid plaques at 14 months of age. Aggregated Abeta induced IFN-gamma production from co-culture of astrocytes and microglia, and IFN-gamma elicited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion in wild type (WT) but not GRKO microglia co-cultured with astrocytes. Both IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha enhanced Abeta production from APP-expressing astrocytes and cortical neurons. TNF-alpha directly stimulated beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) expression and enhanced beta-processing of APP in astrocytes. The numbers of reactive astrocytes expressing BACE1 were increased in APP compared with APP/GRKO mice in both cortex and hippocampus. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha activation of WT microglia suppressed Abeta degradation, whereas GRKO microglia had no changes. These results support the idea that glial IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha enhance Abeta deposition through BACE1 expression and suppression of Abeta clearance. Taken together, these observations suggest that proinflammatory cytokines are directly linked to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

  14. Removing a Cystein Group On Interferon Alpha 2b at Position 2 and 99 does Not Diminish Antitumor Activity of the Protein, Even Better.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Jessica, Adhitya; Sumirtaputra, Yeyet Cahyati; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Adlia, Amirah; Ningrum, Ratih Asmana

    2016-01-01

    Interferon alpha 2b is the only standard therapeutic protein for hepatitis virus infections. Further study demonstrated that this protein also posseses antitumor activity in several cancerous organs. One main pathway of this antitumor activity is mediated through antiproliferation as well as proapoptotic effects. Previously, we have successfully developed recombinant human interferon alpha 2b (rhIFNα2b) by using a synthetic gene. In addition, two mutein forms of rhIFNα2b were generated to improve the characteristics of this protein. Two point mutations showed better pharmacokinetic profiles than one point mutation as well as the native form. In the present study, this mutein form was studied for ist antitumor effect in vitro using HepG2 cells. As a comparison, the native form as well as a commercial rIFNα2b were used. Several parameters were investigated including the MTT assay, cell viability test, cell cycle using flow cytometric analysis, and the genes and protein expressions involved in cell growth. The latest was observed to study the mechanism of rhIFNα2b. There was no significant difference in the MTT assay and cell viability after cells were treated with both forms of rhIFNα2b. However, the mutein rhIFNα2b tended to show better proapoptotic activity reflected by flow cytometric data, protein expression of pSTAT1, and DNA expression of caspase 3.

  15. Haemophilus ducreyi lipooligosaccharides induce expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via type I interferons and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. In human inoculation experiments, most volunteers fail to clear the bacteria despite the infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells to the infected sites. The immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the L-tryptophan-kynurenine metabolic pathway. Tryptophan depletion and tryptophan metabolites contribute to pathogen persistence by inhibiting T cell proliferation, inducing T cell apoptosis, and promoting the expansion of FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. We previously found that FOXP3(+) Treg cells are enriched in experimental lesions and that H. ducreyi induced IDO transcription in dendritic cells (DC) derived from blood of infected volunteers who developed pustules. Here, we showed that enzymatically active IDO was induced in DC by H. ducreyi. Neutralizing antibodies against interferon alpha/beta receptor 2 chain (IFNAR2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibited IDO induction. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) also inhibited IDO expression. Neither bacterial contact with nor uptake by DC was required for IDO activation. H. ducreyi culture supernatant and H. ducreyi lipooligosaccharides (LOS) induced IDO expression, which required type I interferons, TNF-α, and the three MAPK (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal regulated kinase) and NF-κB pathways. In addition, LOS-induced IFN-β activated the JAK-STAT pathway. Blocking the LOS/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway greatly reduced H. ducreyi-induced IDO production. These findings indicate that H. ducreyi-induced IDO expression in DC is largely mediated by LOS via type I interferon- and TNF-α-dependent mechanisms and the MAPK, NF-κB, and JAK-STAT pathways.

  16. Serum levels of soluble immune factors and pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C, and their relation to therapeutic response to interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, J A; Martin, J; Pardo, M; Carreño, V

    1994-11-01

    To test the role of immune reactivity in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C, serum soluble immune factors were measured in a cohort of 57 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and in 20 healthy subjects. Levels of interleukin-1 beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 were detected in some, but not all, HCV patients and were in general undetectable in healthy subjects. Patients had significantly higher concentrations of neopterin (P = 0.0026), beta 2-microglobulin (P = 0.046), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (P = 0.021), and soluble CD8 (P < 0.039), than healthy controls; conversely, interferon-gamma levels were significantly lower (P = 0.023). Significant correlations were observed between beta 2-microglobulin concentration and Knodell's index (r = 0.638, P = 0.00045), the score of piecemeal necrosis (r = 0.572, P = 0.0023), and the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.527, P = 0.0056). Interleukin-2 levels correlated significantly with Knodell's index (r = 0.412, P = 0.037), and the degree of lobular cytolysis (r = 0.389, P = 0.048). According to therapeutic outcome, pretreatment levels of soluble CD8 were only significantly elevated (P = 0.042) in patients with a sustained biochemical response. On interferon-alpha treatment, the levels of beta 2-microglobulin, neopterin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor increased significantly (P < 0.05), irrespective of therapy outcome. In summary, HCV patients have an altered immune reactivity that might play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C, and might influence the therapeutic outcome to interferon-gamma.

  17. Interferon alpha treatment stimulates interferon gamma expression in type I NKT cells and enhances their antiviral effect against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Eisuke; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Uchida, Takuro; Kan, Hiromi; Tsuge, Masataka; Abe-Chayama, Hiromi; Hayes, C Nelson; Makokha, Grace Naswa; Serikawa, Masahiro; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ochi, Hidenori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Ohdan, Hideki; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication through up-regulation of intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression but also through activation of host immune cells. In the present study, we analyzed the immune cell-mediated antiviral effects of IFN-α using HCV-infected mice. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with transplanted human hepatocytes were infected with genotype 1b HCV and injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). IFN-α treatment following human PBMC transplantation resulted in a significant reduction in serum HCV RNA titers and a higher human CD45-positive mononuclear cell chimerism compared to mice without human PBMC transplantation. In mice with human PBMCs treated with IFN-α, serum concentrations of IFN-γ increased, and natural killer T (NKT) cells, especially type I NKT cells, produced IFN-γ. Mice in which IFN-γ signaling was blocked using antibody or in which transplanted PBMCs were depleted for type I NKT cells showed similar levels of anti-HCV effect compared with mice treated only with IFN-α. These results show that IFN-α stimulates IFN-γ expression in type 1 NKT cells and enhances the inhibition of HCV replication. We propose that type 1 NKT cells might represent a new therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis C patients.

  18. Interferon alpha treatment stimulates interferon gamma expression in type I NKT cells and enhances their antiviral effect against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Miyaki, Eisuke; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Uchida, Takuro; Kan, Hiromi; Tsuge, Masataka; Abe-Chayama, Hiromi; Hayes, C. Nelson; Makokha, Grace Naswa; Serikawa, Masahiro; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ochi, Hidenori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Ohdan, Hideki; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication through up-regulation of intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression but also through activation of host immune cells. In the present study, we analyzed the immune cell-mediated antiviral effects of IFN-α using HCV-infected mice. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with transplanted human hepatocytes were infected with genotype 1b HCV and injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). IFN-α treatment following human PBMC transplantation resulted in a significant reduction in serum HCV RNA titers and a higher human CD45-positive mononuclear cell chimerism compared to mice without human PBMC transplantation. In mice with human PBMCs treated with IFN-α, serum concentrations of IFN-γ increased, and natural killer T (NKT) cells, especially type I NKT cells, produced IFN-γ. Mice in which IFN-γ signaling was blocked using antibody or in which transplanted PBMCs were depleted for type I NKT cells showed similar levels of anti-HCV effect compared with mice treated only with IFN-α. These results show that IFN-α stimulates IFN-γ expression in type 1 NKT cells and enhances the inhibition of HCV replication. We propose that type 1 NKT cells might represent a new therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:28253324

  19. Interferon Alpha Induces Sustained Changes in NK Cell Responsiveness to Hepatitis B Viral Load Suppression In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Upkar S.; Peppa, Dimitra; Micco, Lorenzo; Singh, Harsimran D.; Carey, Ivana; Foster, Graham R.; Maini, Mala K.; Kennedy, Patrick T. F.

    2016-01-01

    NK cells are important antiviral effectors, highly enriched in the liver, with the potential to regulate immunopathogenesis in persistent viral infections. Here we examined whether changes in the NK pool are induced when patients with eAg-positive CHB are ‘primed’ with PegIFNα and importantly, whether these changes are sustained or further modulated long-term after switching to nucleos(t)ides (sequential NUC therapy), an approach currently tested in the clinic. Longitudinal sampling of a prospectively recruited cohort of patients with eAg+CHB showed that the cumulative expansion of CD56bright NK cells driven by 48-weeks of PegIFNα was maintained at higher than baseline levels throughout the subsequent 9 months of sequential NUCs. Unexpectedly, PegIFNα-expanded NK cells showed further augmentation in their expression of the activating NK cell receptors NKp30 and NKp46 during sequential NUCs. The expansion in proliferating, functional NK cells was more pronounced following sequential NUCs than in comparison cohorts of patients treated with de novo NUCs or PegIFNα only. Reduction in circulating HBsAg concentrations, a key goal in the path towards functional cure of CHB, was only achieved in those patients with enhancement of NK cell IFNγ and cytotoxicity but decrease in their expression of the death ligand TRAIL. In summary, we conclude that PegIFNα priming can expand a population of functional NK cells with an altered responsiveness to subsequent antiviral suppression by NUCs. Patients on sequential NUCs with a distinct NK cell profile show a decline in HBsAg, providing mechanistic insights for the further optimisation of treatment strategies to achieve sustained responses in CHB. PMID:27487232

  20. Effects of gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 on infection and proliferation of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoblasts and production of interferon by parasitized cells.

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, J C; Baldwin, C L

    1991-01-01

    Theileria parva is a protozoan parasite that infects bovine B cells and alpha beta and gamma delta T cells and transforms them into continually proliferating cells. CD4+ T. parva-antigen-specific immune T cells have been shown to produce cytokines in response to stimulation with parasitized cells, and T. parva-infected lymphocytes produce and consume T-cell growth factors and interleukin-2 (IL-2). To ascertain the role of T-cell cytokines on T. parva infections, we evaluated recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma), rIL-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) for their effects on establishment, proliferation, and survival of parasitized cells. The results indicate that neither rIFN-gamma nor rTNF-alpha had an enhancing or inhibitory effect on the growth of established T. parva-infected T-cell clones, whereas bovine rIL-2 increased the proliferation of infected B-cell and alpha beta T-cell clones but not that of gamma delta T-cell clones. To evaluate the effects of the cytokines on establishment of parasitized cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in their presence immediately following infection with T. parva sporozoites. Neither rIFN-gamma nor rIL-2 altered the proportion of cells initially developing schizonts, but both enhanced establishment of infected cell lines by about twofold. In contrast, rTNF-alpha resulted in about a 33% decrease in the proportion of schizont-infected cells. Inhibitory effects on establishment of parasitized cell lines by rTNF-alpha were no longer apparent by 12 days following infection. Tests conducted during this study indicated that T. parva-infected lymphocytes also spontaneously produce IFN that is neutralized by acidic pH treatment. In conclusion, we speculate that none of these T-cell cytokines are likely to have a profound inhibitory effect in vivo on T. parva infections. Instead, IFN-gamma and IL-2 may facilitate the establishment of infection by T. parva. PMID:1937812

  1. Oligoclonal CD8+ T-cell expansion in patients with chronic hepatitis C is associated with liver pathology and poor response to interferon-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Manfras, Burkhard J; Weidenbach, Hans; Beckh, Karl-Heinz; Kern, Peter; Möller, Peter; Adler, Guido; Mertens, Thomas; Boehm, Bernhard O

    2004-05-01

    The role of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and in liver injury with subsequent development of fibrosis and cirrhosis is poorly understood. To address this question, we performed a follow-up study including 27 chronically HCV-infected individuals. We determined clonality and phenotypes of circulating CD8(+) T cells employing TCRBV spectratyping. Antigen specificity was tested by rMHC-peptide tetramer staining and stimulation with recombinant HCV antigens. In addition, T-cell clonality and phenotypes were followed during the variable clinical response of interferon- (IFN) alpha treatment. We could demonstrate that CD8(+) T-cell expansions were significantly associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Likewise, increased oligoclonality of circulating CD8(+) T cells in chronic HCV infection was identified as an indicator for poor clinical response to IFN-alpha therapy. Moreover, we also found that IFN-alpha therapy enhanced the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells towards a late differentiation phenotype (CD28(-) CD57(+)). In cases of virus elimination the disappearance of expanded terminally differentiated CD8(+) cells was observed. Thus, this study identifies an association of clonal expansions of circulating CD8(+) T cells with liver pathology and provides a possible explanation for the fact that response to IFN-alpha therapy diminishes with the duration of infection.

  2. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  3. A hot-spot on interferon alpha/beta receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) underpins its interaction with interferon-β and dictates signaling.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Nicole A; Matthews, Antony Y; Pattie, Phillip R; Bourke, Nollaig M; Lim, San S; Vivian, Julian P; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hertzog, Paul J

    2017-03-13

    The interaction of IFN-β with its receptor IFNAR1 is vital for host-protective anti-viral and anti-proliferative responses, but signaling via this interaction can be detrimental if dysregulated. While it is established that IFNAR1 is an essential component of the IFNAR signaling complex, the key residues underpinning the IFN-β-IFNAR1 interaction are unknown. Guided by the crystal structure of the IFN-β-IFNAR1 complex, we used truncation variants and site directed mutagenesis to investigate domains and residues enabling complexation of IFN-β to IFNAR1. We have identified an interface on IFNAR1-subdomain (SD)-3 that is differentially utilized by IFN-β and IFN-α for signal transduction. We used surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays to investigate this important IFN-β binding interface which is centered on IFNAR1 tyrosine residues Y240 and Y274 binding the C-terminal and N-terminal of B and C helices of IFN-β, respectively. Using IFNAR1 and IFN-β variants, we show that this interface contributes significantly to the affinity of IFN-β for IFNAR1, its ability to activate STAT1, the expression of interferon stimulated genes and ultimately to the anti-viral and anti-proliferative properties of IFN-β. These results identify a key interface created by IFNAR1 residues Y240 and Y274 interacting with IFN-β residues F63, L64, E77, T78, V81, R82 that underlie IFN-β-IFNAR1 mediated signaling and biological processes.

  4. Inhibition of sup 125 I organification and thyroid hormone release by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in human thyrocytes in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Satoh, T.; Shizume, K.; Ozawa, M.; Han, D.C.; Imamura, H.; Tsushima, T.; Demura, H.; Kanaji, Y.; Ito, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in patients with subacute thyroiditis and painless thyroiditis, human thyroid follicles were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and the effects of these cytokines on thyroid function were studied in vitro. When human thyrocytes were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum and TSH for 5-8 days, the cells incorporated 125I, synthesized de novo (125I)iodotyrosines and (125I)iodothyronines, and secreted (125I)T4 and (125I)T3 into the medium. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta inhibited 125I incorporation and (125I)iodothyronine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory effect was detected at 10 pg/ml. Electron microscopic examination revealed a marked decrease in lysosome formation in IL-1-treated thyrocytes. TNF alpha and IFN gamma also inhibited thyroid function in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, when thyrocytes were cultured with IL-1, TNF alpha and IFN gamma, these cytokines more than additively inhibited thyroid function. Although the main mechanism of 131I uptake suppression in the thyroid gland in subacute thyroiditis is due to cellular damage and suppression of TSH release, our present findings suggest that IL-1, TNF alpha, and IFN gamma produced in the inflammatory process within the thyroid gland further inhibit iodine incorporation and at least partly account for the decreased 131I uptake by the thyroid gland in destruction-induced hyperthyroidism.

  5. Interferon-alpha regulates the dynamic balance between human activated regulatory and effector T cells: implications for antiviral and autoimmune responses.

    PubMed

    Golding, Amit; Rosen, Antony; Petri, Michelle; Akhter, Ehtisham; Andrade, Felipe

    2010-09-01

    An adequate effector response against pathogens and its subsequent inactivation after pathogen clearance are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. This process involves an initial phase of T-cell effector (Teff) activation followed by the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs), a unique cell population that limits Teff functions. However, significant questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that regulate the balance between these cell populations. Using an in vitro system to mimic T-cell activation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we analysed the patterns of Treg and Teff activation, with special attention to the role of type I interferon (IFN-I). Interestingly, we found that IFN-alpha, either exogenously added or endogenously induced, suppressed the generation of CD4(+) FoxP3(HI )IFN-gamma(Neg) activated Tregs (aTregs) while simultaneously promoting propagation of CD4(+) FoxP3(Low/Neg )IFN-gamma(Pos) activated Teffs (aTeffs). We also showed that IFN-alpha-mediated inhibition of interleukin (IL)-2 production may play an essential role in IFN-alpha-induced suppression of aTregs. In order to test our findings in a disease state with chronically elevated IFN-alpha, we investigated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Plasma from patients with SLE was found to contain IFN-I activity that suppressed aTreg generation. Furthermore, anti-CD3 activated SLE PBMCs exhibited preferential expansion of aTeffs with a very limited increase in aTreg numbers. Together, these observations support a model whereby a transient production of IFN-alpha (such as is seen in an early antiviral response) may promote CD4 effector functions by delaying aTreg generation, but a chronic elevation of IFN-alpha may tip the aTeff:aTreg balance towards aTeffs and autoimmunity.

  6. CD69 acts downstream of interferon-alpha/beta to inhibit S1P1 and lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Shiow, Lawrence R; Rosen, David B; Brdicková, Nadezda; Xu, Ying; An, Jinping; Lanier, Lewis L; Cyster, Jason G; Matloubian, Mehrdad

    2006-03-23

    Naive lymphocytes continually enter and exit lymphoid organs in a recirculation process that is essential for immune surveillance. During immune responses, the egress process can be shut down transiently. When this occurs locally it increases lymphocyte numbers in the responding lymphoid organ; when it occurs systemically it can lead to immunosuppression as a result of the depletion of recirculating lymphocytes. Several mediators of the innate immune system are known to cause shutdown, including interferon alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) and tumour necrosis factor, but the mechanism has been unclear. Here we show that treatment with the IFN-alpha/beta inducer polyinosine polycytidylic acid (hereafter 'poly(I:C)') inhibited egress by a mechanism that was partly lymphocyte-intrinsic. The transmembrane C-type lectin CD69 was rapidly induced and CD69-/- cells were poorly retained in lymphoid tissues after treatment with poly(I:C) or infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte responsiveness to S1P. By contrast, CD69-/- cells retained S1P1 function after exposure to IFN-alpha/beta. In coexpression experiments, CD69 inhibited S1P1 chemotactic function and led to downmodulation of S1P1. In a reporter assay, S1P1 crosslinking led to co-crosslinking and activation of a CD69-CD3zeta chimaera. CD69 co-immunoprecipitated with S1P1 but not the related receptor, S1P3. These observations indicate that CD69 forms a complex with and negatively regulates S1P1 and that it functions downstream of IFN-alpha/beta, and possibly other activating stimuli, to promote lymphocyte retention in lymphoid organs.

  7. Interferons alpha, beta, gamma each inhibit hepatitis C virus replication at the level of internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation.

    PubMed

    Dash, Srikanta; Prabhu, Ramesh; Hazari, Sidhartha; Bastian, Frank; Garry, Robert; Zou, Weiping; Haque, Salima; Joshi, Virendra; Regenstein, Fredric G; Thung, Swan N

    2005-06-01

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha is the standard therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, but the mechanisms underlying its antiviral action are not well understood. In this report, we demonstrated that IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma inhibit replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a cell culture model at concentrations between 10 and 100 IU/ml. We demonstrated that the antiviral actions each of each these IFNs are targeted to the highly conserved 5' untranslated region of the HCV genome, and that they directly inhibit translation from a chimeric clone between full-length HCV genome and green fluorescent protein (GFP). This effect is not limited to HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES), since these IFNs also inhibit translation of the encephalomyocardititis virus (EMCV) chimeric mRNA in which GFP is expressed by IRES-dependent mechanisms (pCITE-GFP). These IFNs had minimal effects on the expression of mRNAs from clones in which translation is not IRES dependent. We conclude that IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma inhibit replication of sub-genomic HCV RNA in a cell culture model by directly inhibiting two internal translation initiation sites of HCV- and EMCV-IRES sequences present in the dicistronic HCV sub-genomic RNA. Results of this in vitro study suggest that selective inhibition of IRES-mediated translation of viral polyprotein is a general mechanism by which IFNs inhibits HCV replication.

  8. Role of a distal enhancer in the transcriptional responsiveness of the human CD200 gene to interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqi; Marsden, Philip A; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2009-06-01

    CD200 plays an important role in prevention of graft rejection, autoimmune diseases and spontaneous abortion by delivering an immunoregulatory signal through interaction with its receptor. It also plays a role in regulating tumor immunity. We previously documented evidence for C/EBP beta as being important in the regulation of constitutive expression of CD200. However, the molecular mechanism(s) controlling inducible expression of CD200 are yet to be explored. Here we address the regulated expression of human CD200 by T cells in response to Con A, IFN-gamma or/and TNF-alpha. A prominent DNase I hypersensitivity site (DHS) was localized approximately 5.4 kb upstream of the major transcriptional start site. Four cis-elements were identified within this genomic region: one nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) site, one IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) element and two IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) for binding of interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs), respectively. Mutation of the NF-kappaB site, GAS or one but not the other of ISREs dramatically reduced the luciferase activity. These findings were further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays using antibodies against NF-kappaB p65, STAT1alpha, and IRF-1. All the above findings suggest that IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha induce CD200 expression through a 5' upstream enhancer and that NF-kappaB, STAT1 and IRF-1 play pivotal roles in this process.

  9. Crystal Structure of the Interferon Gamma Receptor Alpha Chain from Chicken Reveals an Undetected Extra Helix Compared with the Human Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Zhiguang; Qi, Jianxun; Sun, Yanling; Lu, Guangwen; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xiaojia

    2014-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine that induces antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects on target cells, and is also crucial in the early defense against intracellular parasites, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. The biological activity of IFN-γ relies upon the formation of a complex with its 2 receptors, the interferon gamma alpha chain (IFNGR1) and beta chain (IFNGR2), which are type II cytokine receptors. Structural models of ligand–receptor interaction and complex structure of chicken IFNs with their receptors have remained elusive. Here we report the first structure of Gallus gallus (chicken) IFNGR1 (chIFNGR1) at 2.0 Å by molecule replacement according to the structure of selenomethionine substituted chIFNGR1. The structural comparison reveals its structural similarities with other class II cytokine receptors, despite divergent primary sequences. We further investigate the ligand–receptor interaction properties of chicken IFN-γ (chIFN-γ) and chIFNGR1 using size-exclusion chromatography and surface plasmon resonance techniques. These data aid in the understanding of the interaction of chicken (avian) IFN-γ with its receptors and its signal transduction. PMID:24283193

  10. Phase III trial of chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil and streptozotocin compared with interferon alpha for advanced carcinoid tumors: FNCLCC-FFCD 9710.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Laetitia; Bonnetain, Frank; Rougier, Philippe; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Gamelin, Eric; Etienne, Pierre-Luc; Cadiot, Guillaume; Mitry, Emmanuel; Smith, Denis; Cvitkovic, Frédérique; Coudert, Bruno; Ricard, Floriane; Bedenne, Laurent; Seitz, Jean-François

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this randomized multicenter phase III trial was to compare chemotherapy and interferon (IFN) in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors. Patients with documented progressive, unresectable, metastatic carcinoid tumors were randomized between 5-fluorouracil plus streptozotocin (day 1-5) and recombinant IFN-alpha-2a (3 MU x 3 per week). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). From February 1998 to June 2004, 64 patients were included. The two arms were well matched for median age, sex ratio, PS 0-1, previous chemotherapy, surgery, or radiotherapy. The median PFS for chemotherapy was 5.5 months versus 14.1 for IFN (hazard ratio=0.75 (0.41-1.36)). Overall survival (OS), tolerance, and effects on carcinoid symptoms were not significantly different. Despite a trend in favor of IFN, there was no difference in PFS and OS in advanced metastatic carcinoid tumors and therapeutic effect of both treatments was mild.

  11. Successful autografting in chronic myelogenous leukaemia using Philadelphia negative blood progenitor cells mobilized with rHuG-CSF alone in a patient responding to alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Carreras, E; Sierra, J; Rovira, M; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Martinez, C; Nomdedeu, B; Cervantes, F; Marín, P; Rozman, C; Montserrat, E

    1997-02-01

    Several non-randomized studies suggest a possible survival advantage for chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) patients treated with an autologous stem-cell transplantation. Due to the possible contribution of residual leukaemic cells present in the inoculum in post-transplant relapse, several methods are being evaluated to eliminate neoplastic cells or to select 'normal' (Ph1 negative) progenitor cells for autografting. Recently, several studies have shown that Ph1 negative blood progenitor cells can be mobilized by rHuG-CSF alone in patients who have a cytogenetic response to alpha-interferon (IFN). We describe the first case, as far as we are aware, of a CML patient responding to IFN autografted by using blood progenitor cells collected by rHuG-CSF alone.

  12. A serial ¹⁸FDG-PET study of a patient with SSPE who had good prognosis by combination therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Takashi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Shibuya, Ikuhiko; Hara, Munetsugu; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Kaida, Hayato; Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-07-01

    We describe a 15-year-old girl with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in stage II who was treated with isoprinosine, intraventricular interferon alpha (IFN-α), and ribavirin for 3 years. She is alive at three years from onset and studies at school with the assistance of a special educational teacher. To assess residual brain function, serial (18)FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) was performed three times to measure cortical metabolism: at onset, a year later, and three years later. At onset, PET study revealed preserved glucose metabolism of the cerebral cortex. In serial PET study, glucose metabolism of the cerebral cortex was also preserved even after three years. Although SSPE is a progressive disease of the neuronal system, and typically leads to death in approximately 2-3 years, the neurological prognosis of our case was good. We consider that combination therapy in the very early stage without hypometabolism in the cerebral cortex may be effective for SSPE.

  13. Human leukocyte interferon-alpha in cream for the management of genital herpes in Asian women: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Syed, T A; Lundin, S; Cheema, K M; Kahlon, R C; Khayyami, M; Ahmad, S A; Ahmad, S H; Kahlon, B M; Kahlon, A M

    1995-03-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the clinical efficacy and tolerance of human leukocyte interferon-alpha (2 x 10(6) IU/g) in hydrophilic cream to cure patients afflicted with first episodes of genital herpes. Sixty patients aged 18-40 years (mean 24.5) with culture-confirmed herpes simplex genitalis, bearing 755 lesions (mean 12.6) were randomized to active and placebo groups. Patients joined the study within 7 days (mean 4.1) of the manifestation of lesions. Each patient was given a precoded 40-g tube containing placebo/active preparation with instructions on self-application of the trial medication to their lesions three times daily for 5 consecutive days (max. 15 topical applications per week). Patients were examined three times a week to evaluate clinical efficacy and other beneficial effects. A reepithelialized lesion with some residual erythema was recorded as healed. Patients resolved during the active treatment period (1-4 weeks) were spared further therapy and were requested to visit us as scheduled for posttreatment control after 16 weeks. From the remaining patients empty tubes were collected, and similarly coded replacement tubes were given to continue the treatment (in total 160 tubes were used). Patients treated with leukocyte interferon-alpha cream had significantly shorter mean duration of viral shedding/healing than placebo recipients, (6.2 days vs. 15 days; P < 0.01); thus the number of healed patients was 25/30 (83.3%) vs. 5/30 (17%; P < 0.001. Of the 60 patients 49 (81.6%) complained no drug-related side effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibit Interferon Signaling in Hepatocytes by Increasing Ubiquitin-Like Protease 18 (USP18) Expression

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Ma, Xue-Zhong; Chen, Limin; Khattar, Ramzi; Cherepanov, Vera; Selzner, Markus; Feld, Jordan J.; Selzner, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation may be maladaptive to the control of viral infection when it impairs interferon (IFN) responses, enhancing viral replication and spread. Dysregulated immunity as a result of inappropriate innate inflammatory responses is a hallmark of chronic viral infections such as, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that expression of an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG), ubiquitin-like protease (USP)18 is upregulated in chronic HCV infection, leading to impaired hepatocyte responses to IFN-α. We examined the ability of inflammatory stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 to upregulate hepatocyte USP18 expression and blunt the IFN-α response. Human hepatoma cells and primary murine hepatocytes were treated with TNF-α/LPS/IL-6/IL-10 and USP18, phosphorylated (p)-STAT1 and myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (Mx1) expression was determined. Treatment of Huh7.5 cells and primary murine hepatocytes with LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 or IL-10, led to upregulated USP18 expression and induced an IFN-α refractory state, which was reversed by USP18 knockdown. Liver inflammation was induced in vivo using a murine model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury led to an induction of USP18 expression in liver tissue and promotion of lymphocytic choriomeningitis replication. These data demonstrate that certain inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α and LPS) but not others (IL-6 and IL-10) target USP18 expression and thus inhibit IFN signaling. These findings represent a new paradigm for how inflammation alters hepatic innate immune responses, with USP18 representing a potential target for intervention in various inflammatory states. IMPORTANCE Inflammation may prevent the control of viral infection when it impairs the innate immune response, enhancing viral replication and spread. Blunted immunity as a result of

  15. Interferon beta 2/interleukin 6 modulates synthesis of alpha 1-antitrypsin in human mononuclear phagocytes and in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, D H; May, L T; Sehgal, P B

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine IFN beta 2/IL-6 has recently been shown to regulate the expression of genes encoding hepatic acute phase plasma proteins. INF beta 2/IL-6 has also been shown to be identical to MGI-2, a protein that induces differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells toward mature granulocytes and monocytes. Accordingly, we have examined the effect of IFN beta 2/IL-6 on expression of the IL-1- and tumor necrosis factor-unresponsive acute phase protein alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT) in human hepatoma-derived hepatocytes and in human mononuclear phagocytes. Purified human fibroblast and recombinant IFN beta 2/IL-6 each mediate a specific increase in steady-state levels of alpha 1 AT mRNA and a corresponding increase in net synthesis of alpha 1 AT in primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocytes as well as in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Thus, the effect of IFN beta 2/IL-6 on alpha 1 AT gene expression in these cells is primarily due to an increase in accumulation of alpha 1 AT mRNA and can be distinguished from the direct, predominantly translational effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on expression of this gene in monocytes and macrophages. The results indicate that IFN beta 2/IL-6 regulates acute phase gene expression, specifically alpha 1 AT gene expression, in extrahepatic as well as hepatic cell types. Images PMID:2472425

  16. Role of the Methoxy Group in Immune Responses to mPEG-Protein Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Anti-PEG antibodies have been reported to mediate the accelerated clearance of PEG-conjugated proteins and liposomes, all of which contain methoxyPEG (mPEG). The goal of this research was to assess the role of the methoxy group in the immune responses to mPEG conjugates and the potential advantages of replacing mPEG with hydroxyPEG (HO-PEG). Rabbits were immunized with mPEG, HO-PEG, or t-butoxyPEG (t-BuO-PEG) conjugates of human serum albumin, human interferon-α, or porcine uricase as adjuvant emulsions. Assay plates for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were coated with mPEG, HO-PEG, or t-BuO-PEG conjugates of the non-cross-reacting protein, porcine superoxide dismutase (SOD). In sera from rabbits immunized with HO-PEG conjugates of interferon-α or uricase, the ratio of titers of anti-PEG antibodies detected on mPEG-SOD over HO-PEG-SOD (“relative titer”) had a median of 1.1 (range 0.9–1.5). In contrast, sera from rabbits immunized with mPEG conjugates of three proteins had relative titers with a median of 3.0 (range 1.1–20). Analyses of sera from rabbits immunized with t-BuO-PEG-albumin showed that t-butoxy groups are more immunogenic than methoxy groups. Adding Tween 20 or Tween 80 to buffers used to wash the assay plates, as is often done in ELISAs, greatly reduced the sensitivity of detection of anti-PEG antibodies. Competitive ELISAs revealed that the affinities of antibodies raised against mPEG-uricase were c. 70 times higher for 10 kDa mPEG than for 10 kDa PEG diol and that anti-PEG antibodies raised against mPEG conjugates of three proteins had >1000 times higher affinities for albumin conjugates with c. 20 mPEGs than for analogous HO-PEG-albumin conjugates. Overall, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that antibodies with high affinity for methoxy groups contribute to the loss of efficacy of mPEG conjugates, especially if multiply-PEGylated. Using monofunctionally activated HO-PEG instead of mPEG in preparing conjugates for

  17. Expression of feline interferon-alpha subtypes in Esherichia coli, and their antiviral activity and animal species specificity.

    PubMed

    Taira, Osamu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Yuko; Aramaki, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Itsuki; Watanabe, Takao; Motokawa, Kenji; Arai, Setsuo; Sato, Hisaaki; Maehara, Nobutoshi

    2005-05-01

    Two kinds of FeIFN-alpha consisting of 166 amino acids (aa) and 171 aa were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified proteins were tested for antiviral activity on homologous and heterologous animal cells. Crude FeIFN induced in feline cells revealed antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells. In contrast, both types of recombinant FeIFN-alpha revealed antiviral activity only on the feline cells. All of the FeIFN-alpha subtypes showed high activity to vesicular stomatitis virus, and the three species of feline viruses belonging to different families.

  18. A phase II trial of bevacizumab with dacarbazine and daily low-dose interferon-alpha2a as first line treatment in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vihinen, Pia P; Hernberg, Micaela; Vuoristo, Meri-Sisko; Tyynelä, Kristiina; Laukka, Marjut; Lundin, Johan; Ivaska, Johanna; Pyrhönen, Seppo

    2010-08-01

    Metastatic melanomas are hypervascular tumours with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that treatment of metastatic melanoma with a combination of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, dacarbazine (DTIC) and low-dose interferon alpha-2a (IFN-alpha2a) might lead to a synergistic inhibition of angiogenesis and regression of tumours. Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks), DTIC (200 mg/m days 1-5 every 4 weeks) and IFN-alpha2a (three MIU subcutaneously daily from day 15 onwards). Patients exhibiting response or stable disease after 6 months were treated with bevacizumab+/-IFN-alpha2a until disease progression. The primary study objectives were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival and safety. Twenty-six patients were accrued. Response rate was 23% (two complete responses, four partial responses), and six patients showed stable disease. The median PFS for all patients was 2.3 months and for responders 8.1 months. The median overall survival for all patients was 11.5 months. Four life-threatening adverse events were seen: two pulmonary thromboembolisms, an intracerebral haemorrhage, and one grade 4 hypertension. One of the pulmonary emboli and the intracerebral haemorrhage were observed > or =3 months after the last bevacizumab-DTIC dose. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels changed during therapy. There was a trend towards favourable PFS among patients with only minimal or moderate change in these marker expression levels. The present regimen was active in this patient group but was also associated with remarkable vascular events.

  19. Glycyrrhizin in patients who failed previous interferon alpha-based therapies: biochemical and histological effects after 52 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Singer, A; Khomutjanskaja, N; Dienes, H P; Roskams, T; Goldin, R; Hehnke, U; Inoue, H

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C patients often fail to respond to interferon-based therapies. This phase III study aimed at confirming the efficacy and safety of glycyrrhizin in interferon + ribavirin-based therapy non-responders. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparison of glycyrrhizin, administered intravenously 5×/or 3×/week, and 5×/week placebo for 12 weeks to 379 patients, was followed by a randomised, open comparison of glycyrrhizin i.v. 5×/versus 3×/week for 40 weeks. Primary endpoints were: (1) the proportion of patients with ≥50% ALT (alanine aminotransferase) reduction after 12 weeks double-blind phase, and (2) the proportion of patients with improvement of necro-inflammation after 52 weeks as compared with baseline. The proportion of patients with ALT reduction ≥50% after 12 weeks was significantly higher with 5×/week glycyrrhizin (28.7%, P < 0.0001) and 3×/week glycyrrhizin (29.0%, P < 0.0001) compared with placebo (7.0%). The proportion of patients with improvement in necro-inflammation after 52 weeks was 44.9% with 5×/week and 46.0% with 3×/week, respectively. Glycyrrhizin exhibited a significantly higher ALT reduction compared to placebo after 12 weeks of therapy and an improvement of necro-inflammation and fibrosis after 52-weeks treatment. Generally, glycyrrhizin treatment was well tolerated. PMID:22762137

  20. Recombinant interferon-alpha selectively inhibits the production of interleukin-5 by human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Del Prete, G F; Cogan, E; Stordeur, P; Crusiaux, A; Kennes, B; Romagnani, S; Goldman, M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of recombinant IFN-alpha on the production of IL-5 by human CD4+ T cells were first analyzed on resting CD4+ T cells purified from normal PBMC and stimulated either with a combination of PMA and anti-CD28 mAb or anti-CD3 mAb cross-linked on B7-1/CD32-transfected mouse fibroblasts. We found that IFN-alpha profoundly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner IL-5 production by resting CD4+ T cells whereas IL-10 was upregulated in both systems. The addition of a neutralizing anti-IL-10 mAb to PMA and anti-CD28 mAb upregulated IL-5 production by resting CD4+ T cells but did not prevent IFN-alpha-induced IL-5 inhibition. We then analyzed the effect of IFN-alpha on the production of cytokines by differentiated type 2 helper (Th2) CD4+CD3- cells isolated from peripheral blood of two patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome. In both cases, IFN-alpha markedly inhibited IL-5 production while it induced mild upregulation of IL-4 and IL-10. Finally, the inhibitory effect of IFN-alpha on IL-5 production was confirmed on a panel of Th2 and Th0 clones generated in vitro. In 2 out of 6 clones, IL-5 inhibition was associated with upregulation of IL-4 and IL-10. We conclude that IFN-alpha selectively downregulates IL-5 synthesis by human CD4+ T cells. PMID:8567949

  1. Compromised recovery of natural interferon-alpha/beta-producing cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation complicated by acute graft-versus-host disease and glucocorticoid administration.

    PubMed

    Kitawaki, T; Kadowaki, N; Ishikawa, T; Ichinohe, T; Uchiyama, T

    2003-07-01

    Delayed recovery of the immune system is a major cause of post-transplant infection. Natural interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta-producing cells (IPC) appear to play a critical role in inducing effective immune responses to a variety of microbial pathogens by producing an enormous amount of IFN-alpha/beta and thereafter by differentiating into dendritic cells. Here, we examined the recovery of IPC as well as other immune cells in 28 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in order to investigate the role of IPC in post-transplant immune reconstitution. In uncomplicated cases, IPC frequency recovered to the lower range of normal values within 30 days after transplantation, resembling the prompt recovery of other cell types in innate immunity. In contrast, the recovery of IPC was profoundly suppressed in the cases with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and glucocorticoid administration. The patients with lower numbers of IPC were significantly more susceptible to viral infection. The prompt recovery of IPC in uncomplicated cases may contribute to establishing a first line of host defense at the early stage after allogeneic HSCT, whereas the marked suppression of IPC recovery accompanying acute GVHD and glucocorticoid administration may increase the risk of opportunistic infections.

  2. Selective STAT protein degradation induced by paramyxoviruses requires both STAT1 and STAT2 but is independent of alpha/beta interferon signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Parisien, Jean-Patrick; Lau, Joe F; Rodriguez, Jason J; Ulane, Christina M; Horvath, Curt M

    2002-05-01

    The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta)-induced STAT signal transduction pathway leading to activation of the ISGF3 transcription complex and subsequent antiviral responses is the target of viral pathogenesis strategies. Members of the Rubulavirus genus of the Paramyxovirus family of RNA viruses have acquired the ability to specifically target either STAT1 or STAT2 for proteolytic degradation as a countermeasure for evading IFN responses. While type II human parainfluenza virus induces STAT2 degradation, simian virus 5 induces STAT1 degradation. The components of the IFN signaling system that are required for STAT protein degradation by these paramyxoviruses have been investigated in a series of human somatic cell lines deficient in IFN signaling proteins. Results indicate that neither the IFN-alpha/beta receptor, the tyrosine kinases Jak1 or Tyk2, nor the ISGF3 DNA-binding subunit, IFN regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), is required for STAT protein degradation induced by either virus. Nonetheless, both STAT1 and STAT2 are strictly required in the host cell to establish a degradation-permissive environment enabling both viruses to target their respective STAT protein. Complementation studies reveal that STAT protein-activating tyrosine phosphorylation and functional src homology 2 (SH2) domains are dispensable for creating a permissive STAT degradation environment in degradation-incompetent cells, but the N terminus of the missing STAT protein is essential. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicates that V and STAT proteins interact physically in vitro and in vivo. These results constitute genetic and biochemical evidence supporting a virus-induced, IFN-independent STAT protein degradation complex that contains at least STAT1 and STAT2.

  3. Genotype, viral load and age as independent predictors of treatment outcome of interferon-alpha 2a treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Construct group.

    PubMed

    Bell, H; Hellum, K; Harthug, S; Maeland, A; Ritland, S; Myrvang, B; von der Lippe, B; Raknerud, N; Skaug, K; Gutigard, B G; Skjaerven, R; Prescott, L E; Simmonds, P

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C respond differently when treated with interferon. We randomized 116 patients with chronic hepatitis C in order to compare two dosage regimens of recombinant interferon alpha 2a:3 MIU x 3 per week for 6 months (arm A) or 6 MIU x 3 per week for 3 months and then 3 MIU x 3 per week for 3 months (arm B). There were no significant differences concerning outcome between the two dose regimens: sustained clearance of HCV viremia 6 months after the end of treatment was obtained in 12/59 (20%) in group A compared with 18/57 (32%) in group B (p = 0.24). In patients with genotype 1a, 4/31 (13%), in genotype 1b, none of 9 (0%), 9/15 (60%) in genotype 2, and 17/58 (29%) in genotype 3, showed sustained clearance of HCV viremia 6 months after the end of treatment (p = 0.002). In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, only pretreatment viral load (p = 0.0001), genotype (p = 0.001) and age (p = 0.04) were identified as independent predictors of sustained clearance of HCV viremia. Liver histology as assessed by Knodell index was significantly improved in patients with sustained HCV RNA response 6 months after the end of treatment (5.2 +/- 2.2 vs 2.6 +/- 2.2, p < 0.001), but not in responders with relapse or in non-responders. In conclusion, stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that viral load, HCV genotype and age were the only independent predictors for sustained HCV RNA response.

  4. Clinical outcome of combined immunotherapy with interferon-alpha and low-dose interleukine-2 for Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Takenaka, Atsushi; Inoue, Taka-aki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate clinical outcomes of combined immunotherapy with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This study included a total of 52 patients with metastatic RCC who were treated by combined immunotherapy with IFN-alpha and low-dose IL-2 following radical nephrectomy. These patients received a subcutaneous injection of IFN-alpha (5 to 6 million U/d) three times per week and intravenous injection of IL-2 (1.4 million U/d) twice per week. Tumor response was evaluated every 16 weeks, and as a rule, this weekly regimen was repeated 50 times in patients with evidence of objective response or stable disease. In this series, complete response and partial response were achieved in 1 and 11 patients, respectively; however, the remaining 20 and 20 patients were diagnosed as showing stable disease and progressive disease, respectively. Of several parameters examined, presence of metastases at diagnosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were significantly associated with response to this combined therapy. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rates of these 52 patients were 80.4%, 51.7%, and 38.8%, respectively. Furthermore, cancer-specific survival was significantly associated with performance status, presence of metastases at diagnosis, metastatic organ and CRP level on univariate analysis; however, only performance status and presence of metastases at diagnosis appeared to be independent predictors of cancer-specific death by multivariate analysis. Toxicities related to this therapy were generally mild and tolerable, limited to World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 or 2 in the majority of patients. Collectively, these findings suggest that combined immunotherapy with IFN-alpha and low-dose IL-2 could achieve comparatively acceptable oncological outcomes in patients with metastatic RCC; however, other therapeutic options

  5. Successful interferon-alpha 2b therapy for unremitting warts in a patient with DOCK8 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Daifulah; Raddadi, Ali; Massaad, Michel; Keles, Sevgi; Jabara, Haifa H; Chatila, Talal A; Geha, Raif

    2014-07-01

    The autosomal recessive form of the Hyper IgE syndrome (AR-HIES) with dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is associated with difficult to treat persistent viral skin infections, including papilloma virus infection. Type I interferons play an important role in the defense against viruses. We examined the effect of therapy with IFN-α 2b in an 11-year old boy with DOCK8 deficiency due to a homozygous splice donor site mutation in DOCK8 intron 40. His unremitting warts showed dramatic response to IFN-α 2b therapy. Immunological studies revealed decreased circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and profound deficiency of IFN-α production by his peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to treatment with CpG oligonucleotides. These findings indicate that underlying pDC deficiency and impaired IFN-α production may predispose to chronic viral infections in DOCK8 deficiency. IFN-α 2b therapy maybe useful in controlling recalcitrant viral infections in these patients.

  6. Monocyte-derived interferon-alpha primed dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis: new pieces in the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Arpád; Kemény, Lajos

    2012-06-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder with serious clinical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. There is much evidence that different dendritic cell (DC) subsets, various proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. One of the early events in psoriatic inflammation is the secretion of interferon (IFN)-α by activated plasmacytoid DCs, a special DC subset present in symptomless psoriatic skin. Secreted IFN-α along with other proinflammatory cytokines can lead to monocyte-derived DC (moDC) development, which might contribute to T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 lymphocyte differentiation/activation and to keratinocyte proliferation. Recently it was proven that interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 play a critical role in this process. Additionally in psoriatic lesions, Th1 and Th17 lympocytes can interact with monocytes and instruct these cells to differentiate into Th1- and Th17-promoting moDCs, further governing the formation and function of specialized moDC subsets. The concept we present here focuses on the initial and central role of IFN-α, on the importance of other proinflammatory cytokines, on TLR stimulation and on the effect of T lymphocytes in priming moDCs, which may play an important role in initiating and maintaining psoriasis.

  7. Role of the Alpha/Beta Interferon Response in the Acquisition of Susceptibility to Poliovirus by Kidney Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ida-Hosonuma, Miki; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Fujita, Takashi; Horie, Hitoshi; Miyazawa, Miwako; Abe, Shinobu; Simizu, Bunsiti; Koike, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Replication of poliovirus (PV) is restricted to a few sites, including the brain and spinal cord. However, this neurotropism is not conserved in cultured cells. Monkey kidney cells become susceptible to PV infection after cultivation in vitro, and cell lines of monolayer cultures from almost any tissue of primates are susceptible to PV infection. These observations suggest that cellular changes during cultivation are required for acquisition of susceptibility. The molecular basis for the cellular changes during this process is not known. We investigated the relationship between PV susceptibility and interferon (IFN) response in primary cultured kidney and liver cells derived from transgenic mice expressing human PV receptor and in several primate cell lines. Both kidneys and liver in vivo showed rapid IFN response within 6 h postinfection. However, monkey and mouse kidney cells in culture and primate cell lines, which were susceptible to PV, did not show such rapid response or showed no response at all. On the other hand, primary cultured liver cells, which were partially resistant to infection, showed rapid IFN induction. The loss of IFN inducibility in kidney cells was associated with a decrease in expression of IFN-stimulated genes involved in IFN response. Mouse kidney cells pretreated with a small dose of IFN, in turn, restored IFN inducibility and resistance to PV. These results strongly suggest that the cells in culture acquire PV susceptibility during the process of cultivation by losing rapid IFN response that has been normally maintained in extraneural tissues in vivo. PMID:16611890

  8. The correlations among serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and sialic acids with peripheral lymphocytes in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed; Emadi, Mahboobeh; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan

    2010-10-01

    The infection with protozoan parasite Theileria annulata induces changes triggering the activation and/or proliferation of the host lymphocytes. In order to find out the possible correlations among peripheral circulatory lymphocytes, cytokine activities and the level of sialic acids, 50 dairy Holstein cattle, naturally infected with T. annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5% and >5%). Also, ten non-infected cattle were sampled as control group. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein into acid citrate dextrose-containing tubes for measuring hematological parameters and B and T (CD(4) and CD(8)) cell populations and without anticoagulant for TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and sialic acid concentrations. Remarkable decreases observed in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and packed cell volume (PCV) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones (P < 0.05). Also, with increase in parasitemia rate, total lymphocytes and monocytes alleviated in the diseased groups. By contrast, total neutrohpils and the concentrations of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and total sialic acids were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in infected animals. Accordingly, the circulatory populations of CD(4) and CD(8) T cells and B cells showed a substantial decrease, while a significant increase was observed in T (CD(4) and CD(8)) cells in cattle infected with <1% parasitemia rates. Decreased circulatory T cell population shows the ineffective responses of T cells to the stimulatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha. On the other hand, the elevation of cytokines (particularly IFN-gamma) and sialic acids have presumably an inhibitory role on circulatory B cell population in infected cattle. In addition, a high level of sialic acid concentration indicates the probable role of sialic acid to regulate the parasite-host cell adhesion during sporozoites invasion.

  9. Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-03-03

    We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

  10. Oligonucleotide motifs that disappear during the evolution of influenza virus in humans increase alpha interferon secretion by plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Baranda, Sonia; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Manches, Olivier; Handler, Jesse; Rabadán, Raúl; Levine, Arnold; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2011-04-01

    CpG motifs in an A/U context have been preferentially eliminated from classical H1N1 influenza virus genomes during virus evolution in humans. The hypothesis of the current work is that CpG motifs in a uracil context represent sequence patterns with the capacity to induce an immune response, and the avoidance of this immunostimulatory signal is the reason for the observed preferential decline. To analyze the immunogenicity of these domains, we used plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). pDCs express pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), which recognizes guanosine- and uridine-rich viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), including influenza virus ssRNA. The signaling through TLR7 results in the induction of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN-I), an essential process for the induction of specific adaptive immune responses and for mounting a robust antiviral response mediated by IFN-α. Secretion of IFN-α is also linked to the activation of other immune cells, potentially amplifying the effect of an initial IFN-α secretion. We therefore also examined the role of IFN-α-driven activation of NK cells as another source of selective pressure on the viral genome. We found direct evidence that CpG RNA motifs in a U-rich context control pDC activation and IFN-α-driven activation of NK cells, likely through TLR7. These data provide a potential explanation for the loss of CpG motifs from avian influenza viruses as they adapt to mammalian hosts. The selective decrease of CpG motifs surrounded by U/A may be a viral strategy to avoid immune recognition, a strategy likely shared by highly expressed human immune genes.

  11. The use of differential staining of sister chromatid to estimate the in vitro effect of human alpha interferon on cell division in normal and tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Georgian, L; Moraru, I; Ghyka, G; Savi, I; Călugăru, A

    1986-01-01

    Concentration of 10, 100 and 1000 I.U./ml of human leukocyte alpha interferon (IFN) were added into peripheral human blood (PBL) cultures and in KB cell cultures in the presence of 5-bromdeoxyuridine (BrdU) at 10 micrograms/ml. After 72 hours the differential staining of sister chromatid (harlequin) technique was applied in order to differentiate among the metaphases of successive cell generations occurring in the presence of IFN. The frequency of the first (M1), second (M2) and third (M3) metaphases was recorded and the replication index (RI) as well as the average generation time (AGT) was calculated for untreated controls and for each of the IFN concentrations used, both in the blood cultures and in the KB cells. In the PBL cultures a clear dose-related inhibitory effect of IFN on cell division was observed, the RI values being lessened whereas the AGT concomitantly increased by increasing the IFN concentrations. An increase in M1 metaphase frequency was observed concomitantly with a diminished number of M3 cells. In KB cells the division kinetics was not influenced by IFN as indicated by similar RI and AGT values observed in controls and in IFN treated cells. However, the frequencies of both M1 and M3 cells were slightly diminished concomitantly with a discrete augmentation of M2 cell number. The differential staining of sister chromatid thus proved a highly useful technique to investigate the different sensitivity of the normal and malignant cells to the growth inhibitory effect induced by alpha IFN in vitro.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of omega-3 & interferon alpha-2b administration on partial bladder outlet obstruction in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Firat, Fatih; Uluocak, Nihat; Erdemir, Fikret; Atilgan, Dogan; Markoc, Fatma; Parlaktas, Bekir Suha; Yasar, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: In bladder outlet obstruction-induced rat models, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and collagen ratios have been shown to be increased. Increased TGF-β leads to fibrosis. In this study, the effect of omega-3 and interferon alpha-2b (IFN α-2b) was investigated on oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in bladder structure in a partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) rat model. Methods: A total of 35 male Wistar albino rats, weighing 300-350 g, were used in the study. The rats were randomly divided into five groups. At the end of the experimental period, bladders were harvested from all the rats, and pathological analysis of the rat bladder tissues was performed. In addition, investigations were carried out with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems to study the antioxidant properties of omega-3 fatty acid and IFN alpha-2b. Results: Increased bladder weight in the PBOO group, in comparison to the control group, was decreased by the administration of omega-3 and IFN α-2b (P=0.002). Significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were detected in group 2 in comparison to the control group. It was also detected that serum SOD, glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly higher in group 2 when compared to the control group (P<0.05). In the pathologic evaluation, group 2 showed significantly increased inflammation and fibrosis compared to the control group. Omega-3 treatment significantly decreased inflammation. It was shown that IFN α-2b application partially decreased inflammation. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the present study showed that in addition to the standard primary approaches to prevent the damage to the upper urinary tract secondary to PBOO, omega-3 fatty acid and IFN α-2b could be beneficial as adjunct treatment in clinical practice. However, this needs to be further investigated with prospective, randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes

  13. Interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20kDa links psychiatric events to distinct Hepatitis C Virus responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Katsounas, Antonios; Rasimas, Joseph J.; Schlaak, Joerg F.; Lempicki, Richard A.; Rosenstein, Donald L.; Kottilil, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection occurs frequently in patients with preexisting mental illness. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C using interferon formulations often increases risk for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Pegylated-Interferon-α (PegIFN-α) remains crucial for attaining sustained virologic response (SVR); however, PegIFN-α based treatment is associated with psychiatric adverse effects, which require dose reduction and/or interruption. This study's main objective was to identify genes induced by PegIFN-α and expressed in the central nervous system and immune system, which could mediate the development of psychiatric toxicity in association with antiviral outcome. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/HCV co-infected donors (N=28), DNA microarray analysis was performed and 21 differentially regulated genes were identified in patients with psychiatric toxicity vs. those without. Using these 21 expression profiles a two-way-ANOVA was performed to select genes based on antiviral outcome and occurrence of neuropsychiatric adverse events. Microarray analysis demonstrated that Interferon-stimulated-exonuclease-gene 20kDa (ISG20) and Interferon-alpha-inducible-protein 27 (IFI27) were the most regulated genes (P<0.05) between three groups that were built by combining antiviral outcome and neuropsychiatric toxicity. Validation by bDNA assay confirmed that ISG20 expression levels were significantly associated with these outcomes (P<0.035). Baseline levels and induction of ISG20 correlated independently with no occurrence of psychiatric adverse events and non-response to therapy (P<0.001). Among the 21 genes that were associated with psychiatric adverse events and 20 Interferon-inducible genes (IFIGs) used as controls, only ISG20 expression was able to link PegIFN-α related neuropsychiatric toxicity to distinct HCV-responses in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV in vivo. PMID:24782267

  14. Disparate effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on early neutrophil respiratory burst and fungicidal responses to Candida albicans hyphae in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, R D; Lyman, C A; Wysong, D R

    1991-01-01

    We examined effects of priming with recombinant human interferon-gamma (IFN) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) on neutrophil responses to Candida albicans hyphae. Both cytokines increased early superoxide generation after hyphal stimulation. The more pronounced effects of TNF were accompanied by an augmented surface membrane depolarization rate and were insensitive to both pertussis toxin and calcium ion chelation, but were negated by concomitant incubation with puromycin or cycloheximide during priming. IFN augmented hyphal killing despite its only minor enhancement of early respiratory burst responses, but TNF reduced neutrophil fungicidal activity to nearly 40% below those by unprimed control cells even though it enhanced early superoxide responses more dramatically. Though TNF-primed neutrophils killed hyphae at normal initial rates, IFN-primed or even unprimed cells manifested more fungicidal sustained activity. These disparate consequences of cytokine priming on hyphal destruction were paralleled by differences in late generation of potentially candidacidal oxidants, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid. IFN added during priming failed to correct TNF-associated functional defects in neutrophil anti-Candida responses. Thus, augmentation of early respiratory burst responses to oxidant-sensitive organisms need not necessarily reflect concomitant salutary effects on microbicidal activity. Images PMID:1846880

  15. Establishment of a poliovirus oral infection system in human poliovirus receptor-expressing transgenic mice that are deficient in alpha/beta interferon receptor.

    PubMed

    Ohka, Seii; Igarashi, Hiroko; Nagata, Noriyo; Sakai, Mai; Koike, Satoshi; Nochi, Tomonori; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Akio

    2007-08-01

    Poliovirus (PV) is easily transferred to humans orally; however, no rodent model for oral infections has been developed because of the alimentary tract's low sensitivity to the virus. Here we showed that PV is inactivated by the low pH of the gastric contents in mice. The addition of 3% NaHCO3 to the viral inoculum increased the titer of virus reaching the small intestine through the stomach after intragastric inoculation of PV. Transgenic mice (Tg) carrying the human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene and lacking the alpha/beta interferon receptor (IFNAR) gene (hPVR-Tg/IfnarKO) were sensitive to the oral administration of PV with 3% NaHCO3, whereas hPVR-Tg expressing IFNAR were much less sensitive. The virus was detected in the epithelia of the small intestine and proliferated in the alimentary tract of hPVR-Tg/IfnarKO. By the ninth day after the administration of a virulent PV, the mice had died. These results suggest that IFNAR plays an important role in determining permissivity in the alimentary tract as well as the generation of virus-specific immune responses to PV via the oral route. Thus, hPVR-Tg/IfnarKO are considered to be the first oral infection model for PV, although levels of anti-PV antibodies were not elevated dramatically in serum and intestinal secretions of surviving mice when hPVR-Tg/IfnarKO were administered an attenuated PV.

  16. Interferon-alpha and bortezomib overcome Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 over-expression in melanoma cells by stimulating the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Raig, Ene T.; Guenterberg, Kristan; Brown, Lloyd; Go, Michael R.; Shah, Nisha N.; Lewis, Adrian; Quimper, Megan; Hade, Erinn; Young, Gregory; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Ladner, Katherine J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Bouchard, Page

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that interferon-alpha (IFN-α) would enhance the apoptotic activity of bortezomib on melanoma cells. Combined treatment with bortezomib and IFN-α induced synergistic apoptosis in melanoma and other solid tumor cell lines. Apoptosis was associated with processing of procaspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and with cleavage of Bid and PARP. Bortezomib plus IFN-α was effective at inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells that over-expressed Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, suggesting that this treatment combination can overcome mitochondrial pathways of cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effects of this treatment combination were abrogated by a caspase-8 inhibitor, led to increased association of Fas and FADD prior to the onset of cell death, and were significantly reduced in cells transfected with a dominant-negative FADD construct or siRNA targeting Fas. These data suggest that bortezomib and IFN-α act through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis via FADD-induced caspase-8 activation to initiate cell death. Finally, bortezomib and IFN-α displayed statistically significant anti-tumor activity as compared to either agent alone in both the B16 murine model of melanoma and in athymic mice bearing human A375 xenografts. These data support the future clinical development of bortezomib and IFN-α for malignant melanoma. PMID:18922907

  17. Interferon-alpha, -beta and -gamma induce CXCL9 and CXCL10 secretion by human thyrocytes: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Ghiri, Emiliano; Crescioli, Clara; Romagnani, Paola; Vitti, Paolo; Serio, Mario; Ferrannini, Ele

    2010-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that interferon (IFN) alpha and beta cause autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions by changing the Th1/Th2 balance, but the mechanisms involved are not yet known. The aims of this study were: (a) to test the effect of IFNalpha, IFNbeta and IFNgamma on the secretion of the Th1 chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, in "primary cultures of human thyroid follicular cells" (TFC); (b) to assess the effect of PPARgamma activation on CXCL9 and CXCL10 secretion. In TFC, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were undetectable in the supernatant. IFNgamma, IFNalpha and IFNbeta, dose dependently induced CXCL9 and CXCL10 release. TNFalpha alone had no effect. The combination of each of the IFNs with TNFalpha had a significant synergistic effect on CXCL9 and CXCL10 secretion. Treatment of TFC with rosiglitazone dose dependently inhibited the IFNs-stimulated CXCL9 and CXCL10 release. Compared with IFNalpha and IFNbeta, IFNgamma was the most potent stimulus of CXCL9 and CXCL10 secretion. In conclusion, IFNalpha, IFNbeta, IFNgamma and TNFalpha (synergistically with IFNs) dose-dependently induce the release of CXCL9 and CXCL10 by TFC, suggesting that this process may be related, at least in part, to the appearance of thyroid dysfunction during IFNs therapy. Furthermore, PPARgamma activation partially inhibits this process.

  18. Regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly in two patients with hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis after interferon and ribavirin combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Jae; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Na, Soo-Young; Choi, Eun Kwang; Boo, Sun Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk; Song, Hyung Joo; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Bong Soo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Some recent studies have found regression of liver cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, but there have been no reports of complete regression of esophageal varices after interferon/peg-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We describe two cases of complete regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly after interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Esophageal varices and splenomegaly regressed after 3 and 8 years of sustained virologic responses in cases 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that complications of liver cirrhosis, such as esophageal varices and splenomegaly, can regress after antiviral therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  19. Low Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin plus Nitazoxanide for HCV Genotype 4 and HIV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Juan; López-Cortés, Luis F.; Téllez, Francisco; Recio, Eva; Ojeda-Burgos, Guillermo; Ríos, MªJosé; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Delgado, Marcial; Jeremías, Rivas-; Pineda, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nitazoxanide (NTZ) plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) improved the sustained virological response (SVR) achieved with Peg-IFN/RBV in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4)-monoinfected patients. There are no data currently on the efficacy of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-4 coinfection. Therefore, the objectives of this clinical trial were to assess the efficacy and to evaluate the safety of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ in HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients. Patients and Methods This was an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II pilot clinical trial (NCT01529073) enrolling HIV-infected individuals with HCV-4 chronic infection, naïve to HCV therapy. Patients were treated with NTZ 500 mg bid for 4 weeks, followed by NTZ 500 mg bid plus Peg-IFN alpha-2b 1.5 μg/kg/week plus weight-adjusted RBV during 48 weeks. Analyses were done by intention-to-treat (ITT, missing = failure). A historical cohort of HIV/HCV-4-infected patients treated with Peg-IFN alpha-2b and RBV at the same area was used as control. Results Two (9.5%) of 21 patients included in the trial compared with 5 (21.7%) of 23 patients included in the historical cohort achieved SVR (SVR risk difference, -12.2%; 95% confidence interval, -33.2% to 8.8%; p = 0.416). Virological failure was due to lack of response in 13 (62%) individuals recruited in the trial. Two (9.5%) patients included in the trial and two (9.5%) individuals from the historical cohort discontinued permanently due to adverse events. Conclusions No increase in SVR was observed among HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients receiving Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ compared with a historical cohort treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Interruptions due to adverse events of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ were similar to those of dual therapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01529073 PMID:26640956

  20. Synergistic effect of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression: an explanation of cell sloughing during testicular inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-03-01

    Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a junction molecule that expresses on Sertoli and germ cells. It mediates Sertoli-germ cell adhesion and facilitates migration of preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes across the blood-testis barrier, suggesting that CAR-based cell adhesion and migration are crucial for spermatogenesis. Interferon-gamma (IFNG) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) are two major cytokines that are elevated during testicular inflammation and cause reduced fertility. We investigated the mechanism by which IFNG and TNF exert their disruptive effects on testicular cell adhesion. We have demonstrated that combined treatment with IFNG and TNF (IFNG+TNF) exerts a synergistic effect by downregulating CAR mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that IFNG+TNF treatment effectively removes CAR from the site of cell-cell contact. Using inhibitor and co-immunoprecipitation, we confirmed that IFNG+TNF mediates CAR protein degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome and NFKB pathways. Blockage of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway significantly inhibits CAR degradation, as indicated by the reappearance of CAR at the site of cell-cell contact. Additionally, IFNG+TNF reduces CAR mRNA via transcriptional regulation. Mutational studies have shown that IFNG+TNF-induced CAR repression is achieved by suppression of the basal transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed that IFNG+TNF treament not only inhibits binding of the basal transcription factors but also promotes binding of NFKB subunits and Sp1 (negative regulators) to the CAR promoter region. Taken together, IFNG+TNF treatment significantly downregulates CAR expression, which provides an explanation of how cell sloughing in the epithelium mediates, by loss of CAR-based cell adhesion, during testicular inflammation.

  1. Elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids predicts depression development following interferon-alpha treatment: relationship with interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Lotrich, Francis E; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K

    2013-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that an elevated ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acid is associated with depression, and controlled intervention studies have found that decreasing this ratio through administration of omega-3 fatty acids can alleviate depressive symptoms. Additionally, arachidonic acid and omega-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on inflammatory signaling. Exogenous administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) can trigger a depressive episode in a subset of vulnerable people, though associated risk factors remain poorly understood. Using a within-subject prospective design of 138 subjects, we examined whether baseline long-chain omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid - DHA; eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA) and omega-6 (arachidonic acid - AA; di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid - DGLA) fatty acid status was associated with depression vulnerability in hepatitis C patients treated with IFN-α. Based on the literature, we had specific a priori interest in the AA/EPA+DHA ratio. Lower baseline DHA predicted depression incidence (p=0.04), as did elevated DGLA (p=0.02) and an elevated AA/EPA+DHA ratio (p=0.007). The AA/EPA+DHA ratio predicted depression even when controlling for other critical variables such as sleep quality and race. A higher AA/EPA+DHA ratio was positively associated with both increasing Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scores over time (F=4.0; p<0.05) as well as interleukin-6 levels (F=107.4; p<0.05) but not C-reactive protein. Importantly, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid status was not associated with sustained viral response to IFN-α treatment. These prospective data support the role of fatty acid status in depression vulnerability and indicate a potential role for omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of inflammation-induced depression.

  2. A strategy for high-level expression of soluble and functional human interferon alpha as a GST-fusion protein in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Rabhi-Essafi, Imen; Sadok, Amine; Khalaf, Noureddine; Fathallah, Dahmani M

    2007-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most extensively used host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, most of the eukaryotic proteins are typically obtained as insoluble, misfolded inclusion bodies that need solubilization and refolding. To achieve high-level expression of soluble recombinant human interferon alpha (rhIFNalpha) in E. coli, we have first constructed a recombinant expression plasmid (pGEX-hIFNalpha2b), in which we merged the hIFNalpha2b cDNA with the glutathione S-transferase (GST) coding sequence downstream of the tac-inducible promoter. Using this plasmid, we have achieved 70% expression of soluble rhIFNalpha2b as a GST fusion protein using E. coli BL21 strain, under optimized environmental factors such as culture growth temperature and inducer (IPTG) concentration. However, release of the IFN moiety from the fusion protein by thrombin digestion was not optimal. Therefore, we have engineered the expression cassette to optimize the amino acid sequence at the GST-IFN junction and to introduce E. coli preferred codon within the thrombin cleavage site. We have used the engineered plasmid (pGEX-Delta-hIFNalpha2b) and the modified E. coli trxB(-)/gor(-) (Origami) strain to overcome the problem of removing the GST moiety while expressing soluble rhIFNalpha2b. Our results show the production of soluble and functional rhIFNalpha2b at a yield of 100 mg/l, without optimization of any step of the process. The specific biological activity of the purified soluble rhIFNalpha2b was equal to 2.0 x 10(8) IU/mg when compared with the WHO IFNalpha standard. Our data are the first to show that high yield production of soluble and functional rhIFNalpha2b tagged with GST can be achieved in E. coli.

  3. Intensified antineoplastic effect by combining an HDAC-inhibitor, an mTOR-inhibitor and low dosed interferon alpha in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsaur, Igor; Hudak, Lukasz; Makarević, Jasmina; Juengel, Eva; Mani, Jens; Borgmann, Hendrik; Gust, Kilian M; Schilling, David; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) eventually develop metastatic disease, which progresses to castration resistance, despite initial response to androgen deprivation. As anticancer therapy has become increasingly effective, acquired drug resistance has emerged, limiting efficacy. Combination treatment, utilizing different drug classes, exemplifies a possible strategy to foil resistance development. The effects of the triple application of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and low dosed interferon alpha (IFNα) on PCa cell growth and dissemination capacity were investigated. For that purpose, the human PCa cell lines, PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP were treated with the combined regimen or separate single agents. Cell growth was investigated by the MTT dye reduction assay. Flow cytometry served to analyse cell cycle progression. Adhesion to vascular endothelium or immobilized collagen, fibronectin and laminin was quantified. Migration and invasion characteristics were determined by the modified Boyden chamber assay. Integrin α and β subtypes were investigated by flow cytometry, western blotting and RT-PCR. Integrin related signalling, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr), Akt, p70S6kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 activation were also assessed. The triple application of VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα blocked tumour cell growth and dissemination significantly better than any agent alone. Antitumour effects were associated with pronounced alteration in the cell cycle machinery, intracellular signalling and integrin expression profile. Combining VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα might be a promising option to counteract resistance development and improve outcome in PCa patients. PMID:25808196

  4. Emergence of occult minority genotype 2b hepatitis C infection in an HIV-1-co-infected patient treated for genotype 5a HCV infection with 48 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Buckton, A J; Kulasegaram, R; Ngui, S L; Fisher, M; James, R; Rangarajan, S; Teo, C G

    2007-09-01

    An HIV-1/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patient with haemophilia received a 48-week course of pegylated interferon-alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy for genotype 5a HCV infection. Virological response was achieved at week 24. At the end of treatment, HCV RNA in serum was detected and identified to belong to genotype 2b, rather than genotype 5a. A sensitive method for identifying minority HCV genotypes in pre-treatment serum showed genotype 2b HCV carriage prior to treatment. Sequencing the interferon sensitivity-determining region of the HCV NS5A gene obtained from pre-, intra- and post-treatment sera revealed emergence of quasispecies bearing R-->K and M-->A/T mutations at codons 2222 and 2223, respectively. Occult presence of minority HCV subpopulations and their acquisition of mutations following therapy can result in poor treatment outcome.

  5. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Alpay, Nadir; Hamdard, Jamshid; Emegil, Sebnem; Bag Soydas, Rabia; Baysal, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon. PMID:27847659

  6. Randomized phase II trial of BCDT [carmustine (BCNU), cisplatin, dacarbazine (DTIC) and tamoxifen] with or without interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin (IL-2) in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S. R.; Constenla, D. O.; Moore, J.; Atkinson, H.; A'Hern, R. P.; Dadian, G.; Riches, P. G.; Gore, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a randomized phase II trial the efficacy and toxicity of combination biochemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. Sixty-five patients with metastatic melanoma (ECOG performance status 0 or 1) were randomized to receive intravenous BCNU 100 mg m(-2) (day 1, alternate courses), cisplatin 25 mg m(-2) (days 1-3), DTIC 220 mg m(-2) (days 1-3) and oral tamoxifen 40 mg (BCDT regimen) with (n = 35) or without (n = 30) subcutaneous interleukin 2 (IL-2) 18 x 10(6) iu t.d.s. (day - 2), 9 x 10(6) iu b.d. (day - 1 and 0) and interferon 2 alpha (IFN-alpha) 9 MU (days 1-3). Evidence for immune activation was determined by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment was repeated every 4 weeks up to six courses depending on response. The overall response rate of BCDT with IL-2/IFN-alpha was 23% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10-40%] with one complete response (CR) and seven partial responses (PR), and for BCDT alone 27% (95% CI 12-46%) with eight PRs; the median durations of response were 2.8 months and 2.5 months respectively. Sites of response were similar in both groups. There was no difference between the two groups in progression-free survival or overall survival (median survival 5 months for BCDT with IL-2/IFNalpha and 5.5 months for BCDT alone). Although 3 days of subcutaneous IL-2 resulted in significant lymphopenia, evidence of immune activation was indicated by a significant rise in the percentage of CD56- (NK cells) and CD3/HLA-DR-positive (activated T cells) subsets, without any change in the percentage of CD4 or CD4 T-cell subsets. Toxicity assessment revealed a significantly higher incidence of severe thrombocytopenia in patients treated with combination chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone (37% vs 13%, P = 0.03) and a higher incidence of grade 3/4 flu-like symptoms (20% vs 10%) and fatigue (26% vs 13%). The addition of subcutaneous IL-2 and IFNalpha to

  7. Induction of the Ly-6A/E gene by interferon alpha/beta and gamma requires a DNA element to which a tyrosine-phosphorylated 91-kDa protein binds.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, K D; Shuai, K; Lindwall, G; Maher, S E; Darnell, J E; Bothwell, A L

    1993-01-01

    The murine Ly-6A/E gene is transcriptionally induced in cells exposed to interferon alpha/beta or gamma (IFN-alpha/beta or IFN-gamma). Analysis of the 5' flanking sequence using reporter plasmids that contain upstream elements of the Ly-6E gene has previously identified an approximately 850-base-pair IFN-responsive region that lacked an IFN-alpha-stimulated response element (ISRE), the element present and required for an IFN-alpha response of a number of genes. Analysis by deletion and stable transfection of the IFN-responsive region of the Ly-6E promoter has defined an 80-base-pair region containing an IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) but no ISRE that allows IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha inducibility of the Ly-6E gene. As tested by specific antiserum, a 91-kDa protein known to be activated in IFN-alpha- or IFN-gamma-treated cells binds to the GAS element from the Ly-6E promoter. The 91-kDa protein exists as an inactive cytoplasmic precursor and depends on tyrosine phosphorylation for its activation. Thus the same 91-kDa protein appears to act in the signal transduction pathways of both types of IFN for the Ly-6-A/E gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7688129

  8. Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the regulation of protein kinase C-alpha activation in interferon-gamma-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Pierre-Olivier; Diallo, Tamsir O; Matte, Christine; Descoteaux, Albert

    2009-09-01

    Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family are activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and modulate IFN-gamma-induced cellular responses by regulating the activity of transcription factors. We previously reported that PKC-alpha enhances the ability of IFN regulatory factor-1 to transactivate the class II transactivator (CIITA) promoter IV in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages. In addition, we showed that IFN-gamma induces the nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha but the mechanisms for this remain to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to identify signalling pathways involved in IFN-gamma-induced activation of PKC-alpha and to characterize their potential roles in modulating IFN-gamma-induced responses in macrophages. IFN-gamma-mediated nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha was a Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2)-independent process, which required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, PKC-alpha phosphorylation was independent of PI3K and p38 MAPK, indicating that IFN-gamma-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha are mediated by distinct mechanisms. In addition, inhibition of PI3K, but not of p38 MAPK, strongly impaired IFN-gamma-induced CIITA and MHC II gene expression. Finally, PKC-alpha associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and was required for the phosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, our data indicate that PI3K and p38 MAPK modulate IFN-gamma-stimulated PKC-alpha nuclear translocation independently of JAK2 activity and that both PI3K and PKC-alpha are required for type IV CIITA and MHC II gene expression in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages.

  9. Enhanced effects of combined bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (TJ-41) and interleukin-18 on the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Tamura, R; Takahashi, H K; Xue, D; Kubo, S; Saito, S; Nishibori, M; Iwagaki, H; Tanaka, N

    2004-01-01

    Co-stimulatory molecules play important roles in immune responses. We investigated the effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (TJ-41) on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), B7.1 and B7.2 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by interleukin-18 (IL-18) using fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. TJ-41 increased IL-18-induced ICAM-1 and B7.2 expression, resulting in enhanced production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that TJ-41 enhances IL-18-induced cell-mediated immunity and may enhance host defence mechanisms against pathogens.

  10. Human leukocyte interferon-alpha in a hydrophilic cream versus in a gel for the treatment of genital herpes in males: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Syed, T A; Ahmadpour, O A; Ahmad, S A; Ahmad, S H

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study was to differentiate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of human leukocyte interferon-alpha incorporated (2 x 10(6) IU/g) in a hydrophilic cream and in a gel to heal males afflicted with first episodes of genital herpes. Patients (n = 60), aged 18-40 years (mean 23.2) with culture-confirmed diagnosis of herpes genitalis were randomized to three parallel groups. Each patient was allocated a precoded 40-g tube, containing either preparation or placebo. Cream or gel was applied three times daily for 5 consecutive days. The duration of the active treatment was two weeks. Patients were examined after 48 hours in initial treatment, and thereafter two times a week. A reepithelialized lesion with some residual erythema was recorded as healed. The study demonstrated that patients treated with leukocyte interferon-alpha cream had both significantly shorter mean duration of lesions than gel and placebo recipients (5.3 days vs. 8 days, 13 days respectively; p < 0.001) and a higher number of healed patients (80% vs. 55%, 20% respectively; p < 0.001). Of the 60 patients, 49 (82%) complained of no drug-related side effects. Eleven patients predominantly in the cream/gel groups reported non-objective transitory increase in their body temperature (> 38 degrees C) with moderate headache, malaise and myalgia. The study was followed-up for 24 months after the first day of the treatment, and out of 31/60 cured patients, 4 had a relapse after 18 months. In conclusion the study affirmed that human leukocyte interferon-alpha (2 x 10(6) IU/g) in a hydrophilic cream is more efficacious than its incorporation in gel or placebo, thus suggesting that leukocyte interferon-alpha in a hydrophilic cream, with a profile of non-objective mild to moderate drug-induced indications, may be considered an alternative and effective treatment modality to cure male patients afflicted with first episodes of genital herpes.

  11. [Interferon in the treatment of viral hepatitis. The interferon was discovered 50 years ago].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2007-08-19

    The interferons are heterogenic glycoproteins which are produced on the effect of virus infection, as immune answer, by the living cells. They were discovered half a century ago. They have antineoplastic, antiviral and immunomodulator effect. The names of interferons used in the therapy are nominated with Greek letters. This nomination shows their origins: the interferon-alpha originates from leucocytes, the interferon-beta does from fibroblasts and the interferon-gamma is produced as immune interferon by lymphocytes. In human medicine both natural and recombinant interferons are applied. The connection of polyethyleneglycol to interferons ensures their sustained effect. Nowadays they are applied in the therapy of chronic hepatitis B or C as well as in oncology to inhibit the neoplasm progression.

  12. Comparative immunochemical analysis of some human leukocytic interferons

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Izotova, L.S.; Eremashvili, M.R.; Galaktionov, K.I.; Yurin, V.L.; Korobitsin, L.P.; Pivovarov, A.P.; Pavlov, I.Yu.; Tyagotin, Yu.V.; Fridlyanskaya, I.I.; Margulis, B.A.

    1986-06-20

    It was established by radioimmunological methods based on the use of mono- and polyclonal antibodies against interferon ..cap alpha..A that the latter react quantitatively not only with this protein, but also with interferons ..cap alpha..F and ..cap alpha..N, whereas all the variants of the monoclonal antibodies obtained react only with interferons ..cap alpha..A and ..cap alpha..N. The monoclonal antibodies investigated (5A6, 11E9, 19C10, 258, and 268) are directed against overlapping epitopes of the interferon ..cap alpha..A molecule, which does not bind more than two molecular of antibodies of differing specificity simultaneously. The degree of correlation between the immunochemical and biological activity of interferon ..cap alpha..A upon thermal denaturation and proteolytic degradation as well as the ability of this protein to form oligomeric structures was studied.

  13. Viral Protein VP4 Is a Target of Human Antibodies Enhancing Coxsackievirus B4- and B3-Induced Synthesis of Alpha Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Chehadeh, Wassim; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sauter, Pierre; Goffard, Anne; Lucas, Bernadette; Weill, Jacques; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Alm, Gunnar; Pigny, Pascal; Hober, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4)-induced production of alpha interferon (IFN-α) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is enhanced in vitro by nonneutralizing anti-CVB4 antibodies from healthy subjects and, to a higher extent, from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this study, we focused on identification of the viral target of these antibodies in CVB systems. High levels of IFN-α were obtained in supernatants of PBMC incubated with CVB4E2 or CVB3 and plasma from healthy subjects and, to a higher extent, from patients. The VP4 capsid proteins dissociated by heating at 56°C from CVB4E2 (VP4CVB4) and CVB3 (VP4CVB3) but not H antigen preincubated with plasma from healthy subjects or patients inhibited the plasma-dependent enhancement of CVB4E2- and CVB3-induced IFN-α synthesis. There was no cross-reaction between VP4CVB4 and VP4CVB3 in the inhibiting effect. IFN-α levels in culture supernatants showed dose-dependent correlation with anti-VP4 antibodies eluted from plasma specimens using VP4-coated plates. There were higher index values for anti-VP4 antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and higher proportions of positive detection in 40 patients than in 40 healthy subjects (80% versus 15% for anti-VP4CVB4). There was no relationship between the levels of anti-CVB neutralizing antibodies and the detection of anti-VP4 antibodies by ELISA. The CVB plasma-induced IFN-α levels obtained in PBMC cultures in the anti-VP4 antibody-positive groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the anti-VP4 antibody-negative groups regardless of the titers of anti-CVB neutralizing antibodies. These results show that VP4 is the target of antibodies involved in the plasma-dependent enhancement of CVB4E2- and CVB3-induced IFN-α synthesis by PBMC. PMID:16254324

  14. Recombinant interferon alpha 2b for ocular surface squamous neoplasia: An efficient and cost-effective treatment modality in Asian Indian patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaliki, Swathi; Singh, Swati; Iram, Sadiya; Tripuraneni, Dharani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to study the efficacy of interferon alpha 2b (INF α2b) in the treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and analyze its cost-effectiveness in India. Study Design: This was a retrospective study of thirty patients with OSSN treated with topical INF α2b (1 MIU/cc) ± perilesional INF α2b (5 MIU/cc). Results: The tumor involved cornea (n = 9, 30%), conjunctivo-limbal-corneal surface (n = 19, 63%), or bulbar conjunctiva (n = 2, 7%). The mean basal dimension of the tumor was 16 mm. The tumors belonged to Tis (n = 6, 20%) or T3 (n = 24, 80%) based on the American Joint Committee Classification, 7th edition. In the six patients with Tis, three cycles of topical INF α2b were used for immunoprevention. In the remaining 24 patients, INF α2b was advised for immunoreduction, but served as immunotherapy with 100% tumor regression in 22 (92%) cases, and resulted in 95% immunoreduction in 2 (6%) cases. Complete tumor regression by immunotherapy (n = 22) was achieved with a mean number of three topical INF α2b cycles and two perilesional injections. All these 22 patients received three additional topical INF α2b cycles after complete tumor regression. For immunoreduction (n = 2), both patients received six cycles of topical INF α2b which was three perilesional INF α2b injections. The mean total treatment cost per patient with INF α2b was INR 9164 ($US 137). Based on maximum basal diameter of tumor at presentation, the mean total treatment cost per patient with INF α2b was INR 4866 ($US 73) for eyes with microscopic evidence of tumor residue (n = 6), INR 9607 ($US 143) for tumors ≤10 mm (n = 13), and INR 10,985 ($US 164) for tumors >10 mm (n = 11), with two patients needing additional surgical excision for complete tumor control. Conclusion: INF α2b can be used for immunoreduction, immunotherapy, or immunoprevention of OSSN. INF α2b is a cost-effective treatment modality for OSSN at an average total treatment cost of INR 9164 ($US

  15. Alpha Interferon Inhibits Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Reactivation in Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells and Reduces HHV-8 Load in Cultured Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monini, Paolo; Carlini, Francesca; Stürzl, Michael; Rimessi, Paola; Superti, Fabiana; Franco, Marina; Melucci-Vigo, Gianna; Cafaro, Aurelio; Goletti, Delia; Sgadari, Cecilia; Butto’, Stefano; Leone, Patrizia; Leone, Pasqualina; Chiozzini, Chiara; Barresi, Caterina; Tinari, Antonella; Bonaccorsi, Angela; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Giuliani, Massimo; di Carlo, Aldo; Andreoni, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni; Ensoli, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Infection by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). Since regression of KS can be achieved by treatment of the patients with alpha interferon (IFN-α), we analyzed the effects of IFN-α or anti-IFN-α antibodies (Ab) on HHV-8 latently infected primary effusion lymphoma-derived cell lines (BCBL-1 and BC-1) and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with all forms of KS and from at-risk subjects. IFN-α inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the amplification of HHV-8 DNA in BCBL-1 cells induced to lytic infection with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). This effect was associated with the inhibition of the expression of HHV-8 nut-1 and kaposin genes that are induced early and several hours, respectively, after TPA treatment. In addition, IFN-α inhibited virus production and/or release from BCBL-1 cells. Inhibition of nut-1 and kaposin genes by IFN-α was also observed in BC-1 cells induced with n-butyrate. Conversely, the addition of anti-IFN-α Ab to TPA-induced BCBL-1 cells resulted in a larger number of mature enveloped particles and in a more extensive cytopathic effect due to the neutralization of the endogenous IFN produced by these cells. IFN was also produced by cultured PBMC from HHV-8-infected individuals, and this was associated with a loss of viral DNA during culture. However, the addition of anti-IFN-α Ab or anti-type I IFN receptor Ab promoted the maintenance of HHV-8 DNA in these cells that was associated with the detection of the latency-associated kaposin RNA. Finally, the addition of IFN-α reduced the HHV-8 load in PBMC. Thus, IFN-α appears to have inhibitory effects on HHV-8 persistent infection of PBMC. These results suggest that, in addition to inhibiting the expression of angiogenic factors that are key to KS development, IFN-α may induce KS regression by reducing the HHV-8 load and/or inhibiting virus reactivation. PMID:10196299

  16. The interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Toy, J L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the interferons is presented. A description of something of what is known about them is given, including: their genes; their protein structures and characteristics; their mechanisms of actions; and their varied biological effects emphasising particularly their immunomodulatory actions. Finally, a brief summary is made of the current status of human clinical studies that have been conducted with interferons in the oncological and viral fields, mentioning also recent findings in patients who have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:6193915

  17. Most Patients of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in India Present Late for Interferon-Based Antiviral Treatment: An Epidemiological Study of 777 Patients from a North Indian Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Praveen; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Arora, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-based antiviral therapy is offered only to those HCV patients who have either chronic hepatitis or early cirrhosis. Advanced cirrhotics do not tolerate interferon-based therapy. Since HCV is asymptomatic in early stages and usually presents late, the eligibility for interferon-based therapy is thus limited. There are scarce studies from India, which looked specifically the eligibility of interferon-based therapy in HCV patients. Aim To study the spectrum of presentation of HCV infection, determine their eligibility for interferon-based therapy, and follow for SVR. Methods The records of all consecutive patients of HCV, >14 years age, who presented to our department between 2008 and 2014, were analyzed for categorization into chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with detectable HCV RNA who have chronic hepatitis or Child A cirrhosis were considered eligible for Peg-interferon and ribavirin. Patients who received treatment were followed for SVR. Results 777 patients (median age 49 [range 15–95] years, males 69%) were included. Cirrhosis was the most common presentation (56%, 439/777) followed by chronic hepatitis (37%, 287/777) and HCC (7%, 51/777). Of patients who had cirrhosis (including those with HCC), 36% (174/490) were Child A; 51% (250/490) were Child B and 14% (66/490) were Child C. Only 347/777 (45%) were eligible for Peg-interferon-alpha and Ribavirin. Among the remaining 430 patients, in 326 (76%) the disease was far too advanced. Of eligible patients only 54% actually received Peg-interferon-alpha and Ribavirin and 81% patients could complete the course. Of them only 70% could achieve SVR. Conclusions Most HCV patients in India present late and only about 45% are eligible for Interferon-based antiviral treatment. At presentation 56% patients already have cirrhosis and 7% have HCC. Since HCV is usually asymptomatic in early stages, awareness about screening should be increased so that more patients are

  18. Interferon induction of fibroblast proteins with guanylate binding activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Colonno, R J; Yin, F H

    1983-06-25

    Treatment of human diploid fibroblastic cells with interferon induces the synthesis of two guanylate binding proteins (GBP) with molecular weights of 67,000 and 56,000. The Mr = 67,000 protein (67K GBP) is synthesized upon treatment with either alpha-, beta-, or gamma-interferon. Among these interferons, gamma-interferon induces a higher level of 67K GBP synthesis. The 67K GBP synthesized in either beta- or gamma-interferon-treated cells has two charge forms with isoelectric points of 6.0 and 5.8, respectively. The synthesis of the Mr = 56,000 protein is induced by the treatment using either alpha- or beta-interferon, but its synthesis in gamma-interferon-treated cells is undetectable. The amounts of the radioactive GBPs synthesized in human fibroblasts are proportional to the amounts of the purified beta-interferon used for the inductions. Syntheses of GBPs require the transcription of cellular genes because their syntheses are completely blocked by actinomycin D treatments. The mRNA for the 67K GBP is found in fibroblasts that are treated by either alpha-, beta-, or gamma-interferon, but it is not detected in untreated cells. More 67K GBP mRNA is accumulated in the gamma-interferon-treated than in alpha- or beta-interferon-treated fibroblasts. This is consistent with more 67K GBP synthesis found in gamma-interferon-treated fibroblasts.

  19. Cure of mice with established metastatic friend leukemia cell tumors by a combined therapy with tumor cells expressing both interferon-alpha 1 and herpes simplex thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Santodonato, L; Ferrantini, M; Gabriele, L; Proietti, E; Venditti, M; Musiani, P; Modesti, A; Modica, A; Lupton, S D; Belardelli, F

    1996-01-01

    Transduction of the murine interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) gene into various malignant mouse tumor cells has resulted in the loss of tumorigenicity and an acquired capacity to induce long-lasting antitumor immunity following their injection into immunocompetent syngeneic mice. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of IFN-alpha-producing tumor cells in the therapy of mice with established mouse tumors. In DBA/2 mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) Friend erythroleukemia cell (FLC) tumors, we found that to achieve some antitumor response (i) it was necessary to inject high numbers of IFN-alpha-producing FLC, which occasionally lead to the formation of slowly growing tumors; and, that (ii) repeated injections of irradiated IFN-alpha-FLC did not result in any antitumor effect. The therapeutic potential of IFN-alpha-producing FLC rendered sensitive to ganciclovir (GCV), by transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene, was investigated. Complete tumor rejection and cure was observed in > or = 70% of the animals after injection of high numbers (10(7)) of IFN-alpha-producing tk-expressing tumor cells followed 4 days later by repeated GCV treatments, whereas only a slight increase in survival time was obtained after administration of control tk-expressing tumor cells (not producing IFN) and GCV. Tumor rejection was associated with a dramatic destruction of tumor tissue and with the subsequent development of a potent and long-lasting antitumor immunity. No therapeutic effect was observed in immunosuppressed nude mice. These data indicate that this approach may represent an effective and safe therapeutic strategy for antitumor cytokine gene therapy.

  20. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma from human peripheral blood lymphocytes by MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, and its synergy with interleukin-2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, M; Jewett, A

    2000-01-01

    Recently, we presented evidence for the role of MGN-3, an enzymatically modified arabinoxylan extracted from rice bran, in potent activation of human natural killer (NK) cell function in vivo and in vitro. In the current study, we examined the mechanism by which MGN-3 elevated NK cytotoxic activity. We did this by testing the action of MGN-3 on the levels of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretions and MGN-3 function on the expression of key cell surface receptors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with MGN-3 at concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, and supernatants were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that MGN-3 is a potent TNF-alpha inducer. The effect was dose-dependent. MGN-3 concentration at 0.1 and 1 mg/ml increased TNF-alpha production by 22.8- and 47. 1-fold, respectively. MGN-3 also increased production of IFN-gamma but at lower levels as compared to TNF-alpha With respect to key cell surface receptors, MGN-3 increases the expression of CD69, an early activation antigen at 16 hours after treatment. Furthermore, the interleukin-2 receptor CD25 and the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 (CD54) were upregulated after treatment with MGN-3. Treating highly purified NK cells with MGN-3 also resulted in increased levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion in conjunction with augmentation of NK cell cytotoxic function. Furthermore, addition of MGN-3 to interleukin-2-activated NK cells resulted in a synergistic induction of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion. Overall, our data suggest that MGN-3, a novel biological response modifier, can be used as a safe alternative or as an adjuvant to the existing immunotherapeutic modalities.

  1. CTN-194 (PICCO): design of a trial of citalopram for the prevention of depression and its consequences in HIV-hepatitis C co-infected individuals initiating pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marina B; Cooper, Curtis; Brouillette, Marie-Josée; Sheehan, Nancy L; Benkelfat, Chawki; Annable, Lawrence; Weston, Francine; Kraus, Deborah; Singer, Joel

    2008-07-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV)-related end stage liver disease is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in people with HIV. Despite this, co-infected patients have low rates of HCV treatment initiation and completion. This is in large part due to the risk of pegylated-interferon alpha (PEG-IFN-alpha)-related neuropsychiatric complications. We describe the design of a multicentre randomized, placebo-controlled trial that evaluates whether antidepressant prophylaxis is superior to early detection and treatment of depression in increasing the successful completion of HCV therapy. Seventy-six HIV+ adults with chronic HCV infection requiring therapy and with no contraindications to PEG-IFN-alpha/ribavirin will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive citalopram or placebo starting three weeks prior to HCV treatment. A novel aspect of the trial design is the built-in management of emergent depression while maintaining the blinded treatment assignment. This will permit the comparison of prophylactic versus therapeutic use of citalopram. The primary outcome is the average proportion of prescribed PEG-IFN-alpha and ribavirin doses taken per month at weeks 12 and 24, and will be compared between treatment arms. The study will also compare the development of moderate-to-severe depression between treatment arms. A unique feature of this trial will be the use of Telepsychiatry to standardize observer-administered neuropsychiatric evaluations. Assessments of anxiety, quality of life, and adherence to therapy, as well as pathogenetic studies of neuropsychiatric side effects, will be conducted. Intention-to-treat analyses using random regression modeling will be employed to analyze longitudinal data on prescribed PEG-IFN-alpha and ribavirin doses. Survival analyses will be used to compare the time to the development of depression between the two arms. Effective prevention of a broad range of neuropsychiatric symptoms by citalopram has the potential to diminish PEG-IFN-alpha associated

  2. PEG tube insertion -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... shower or bathe. Keeping the PEG-tube in Place If the feeding tube comes out, the stoma ... eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 100. ...

  3. Differences in HCV Viral Decline between Low and Standard-Dose Pegylated-Interferon-Alpha-2a with Ribavirin in HIV/HCV Genotype 3 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Lopez-Cortes, Luis F.; Camacho, Angela; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; Pineda, Juan A.; Marquez-Solero, Manuel; Caruz, Antonio; Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Gutierrez-Valencia, Alicia; Rivero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyze the different impact of standard and low-dose Peg-IFN-α2a/RBV therapies on HCV viral decline in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients during the first weeks of treatment. Methods Plasma HCV viral decline was analyzed between baseline and weeks 1, 2 and 4 in two groups of treatment-naïve HCV genotype 3 patients with HIV co-infection. The Standard Dose Group (SDG) included patients who received Peg-IFN at 180 µg/per week with a weight-adjusted dose of ribavirin; Low-Dose Group (LDG) patients received Peg-IFN at 135 µg/per week with 800 mg/day ribavirin. The effect of IL28B genotype on HCV viral decline was evaluated in both groups. HCV viral decline was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model. Results One hundred and six patients were included: 48 patients in the SDG and 58 in the LDG. HCV viral decline for patients in the LDG was less than for those in the SDG (week 1∶1.72±0.74 log10 IU/mL versus 1.78±0.67 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.827; week 2∶2.3±0.89 log10 IU/mL versus 3.01±1.02 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.013; week 4∶3.52±1.2 log10 IU/mL versus 4.09±1.1 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.005). The linear regression model identified the Peg-IFN/RBV dose as an independent factor for HCV viral decline at week 4. Conclusions Our results showed that HCV viral decline was less for patients in the low-dose group compared to those receiving the standard dose. Until a randomized clinical trial is conducted, clinicians should be cautious about using lower doses of Peg-IFN/RBV in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients. PMID:23145040

  4. Disruption by interferon-alpha of an autocrine interleukin-6 growth loop in IL-6-dependent U266 myeloma cells by homologous and heterologous down-regulation of the IL-6 receptor alpha- and beta-chains.

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, M; Brini, A T; Bosco, M C; Rubboli, F; Egawa, M; Zhao, J; Princler, G L; Kung, H F

    1994-01-01

    IL-6 is an autocrine growth factor for U266 myeloma cells and their growth is inhibited by IFN-alpha or IL-6 mAb. We asked, therefore, whether IFN-alpha-induced growth inhibition involved IL-6. IFN-alpha and mAb against IL-6, the IL-6R alpha-(gp80) or beta-chain (gp130) potently inhibited U266 cells. Remarkably, this effect occurred despite IFN-alpha-augmented secretion of endogenous IL-6. However, examining the IL-6R revealed that IFN-alpha drastically curtailed expression of the IL-6R alpha- and beta-chain. This effect occurred on two different levels (protein and mRNA) and by two different mechanisms (directly and indirectly through IL-6). First, IFN-alpha, but not IL-6, greatly decreased gp80 and, to a lesser extent, gp130 mRNA levels which resulted in a loss of IL-6 binding sites. Second, IFN-alpha-induced IL-6 predominantly down-regulated membrane-bound gp130. IFN-alpha-mediated decrease of gp80 levels was not detected on IL-6-independent myeloma (RPMI 8226) or myeloid cells (U937). We conclude that IFN-alpha inhibited IL-6-dependent myeloma cell growth by depriving U266 cells of an essential component of their autocrine growth loop, a functional IL-6R. Images PMID:7989587

  5. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function.

    PubMed

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2009-04-06

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE(2) used for generating standard DCs (sDC). Several studies indicate that IFN-alpha might also be important for DC differentiation and maturation. In this study, we tested the effect of IFN-alpha alone or as addition to the gold standard sDC cocktail. We observed that maturation by IFN-alpha differs from sDC maturation: The major phenotypic change after IFN-alpha maturation was dose-dependent up-regulation of CD38 but not CD83, while sDCs expressed the opposite profile with low CD38 and high CD83 expression. Similarly, maturation by Poly I:C leads to CD38high, CD83low DCs indicating a functional relationship between CD38, IFN-alpha and TLR3. Thus, CD38 appear to be a relevant marker for activation by TLR3 or IFN-alpha. Addition of IFN-alpha to the sDC cocktail results in up-regulation of both CD38 and CD83 and improved capacity for induction of autologous T-cell responses despite few other changes in DC phenotype and cytokine secretion. Our observations suggest that IFN-alpha could be included in maturation protocols for clinical grade DCs used for immunotherapy against cancer and should be included if DCs are used for CD8+ T-cell stimulation in vitro.

  6. Safety of Interferon Alpha-2a in Patients with Severe Ophthalmic Behçet's Disease: Response to Bielefeld et al.'s Letter.

    PubMed

    Ghembaza, Mohammed El Amine; Lounici, Ali

    2017-01-12

    Thyroid dysfunction is a common and severe side-effect encountered in up to 40% of patients treated with IFN-alpha-2a. The main two mechanisms by which IFN-alpha-2a induces thyroid dysfunction can be categorized as autoimmune and non-autoimmune disease. In the first subgroup, thyroid antibodies are found before treatment initiation, and then patients develop thyroiditis. In the second subgroup, IFN-alpha-2a induces thyroiditis by a direct cytotoxic effect on the thyroid gland; in this case, thyroid antibodies are usually negative. To avoid such complications, patients should undergo routine thyroid screening (thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid antibodies) prior to IFN-alpha-2a initiation, during the treatment period, and 6 months after treatment withdrawal.

  7. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein elicits protection in the interferon alpha/beta receptor knock-out mouse.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lyn M; Stokes, Margaret G; Lonsdale, Stephen G; Maslowski, David R; Smither, Sophie J; Lever, Mark S; Laws, Thomas R; Perkins, Stuart D

    2014-03-01

    The resistance of adult immunocompetent mice to infection with ebolaviruses has led to the development of alternative small animal models that utilise immunodeficient mice, for example the interferon α/β receptor knock-out mouse (IFNR(-/-)). IFNR(-/-) mice have been shown to be susceptible to infection with ebolaviruses by multiple routes but it is not known if this murine model is suitable for testing therapeutics that rely on the generation of an immune response for efficacy. We have tested recombinant adenovirus vectors for their ability to protect IFNR(-/-) mice from challenge with Ebola virus and have analysed the humoral response generated after immunisation. The recombinant vaccines elicited good levels of protection in the knock-out mouse and the antibody response in IFNR(-/-) mice was similar to that observed in vaccinated wild-type mice. These results indicate that the IFNR(-/-) mouse is a relevant small animal model for studying ebolavirus-specific therapeutics.

  8. Ifit2 Deficiency Results in Uncontrolled Neurotropic Coronavirus Replication and Enhanced Encephalitis via Impaired Alpha/Beta Interferon Induction in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Butchi, Niranjan B.; Hinton, David R.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Kapil, Parul; Fensterl, Volker; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) limit viral dissemination prior to the emergence of adaptive immune responses through the concerted action of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although IFN-α/β induction by coronaviruses is modest, it effectively limits viral spread within the central nervous system (CNS) and protects against mortality. The protective roles of specific ISGs against the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) members of the coronaviruses are largely unknown. This study demonstrates a protective role of the ISG Ifit2 in encephalitis induced by the dual hepato- and neurotropic MHV-A59. Contrasting the mild encephalitis and 100% survival of MHV-A59-infected wild-type (wt) mice, nearly 60% of infected Ifit2−/− mice exhibited severe encephalitis and succumbed between 6 and 8 days postinfection. Increased clinical disease in Ifit2−/− mice coincided with higher viral loads and enhanced viral spread throughout the CNS parenchyma. Ifit2−/− mice also expressed significantly reduced IFN-α/β and downstream ISG mRNAs Ifit1, Isg15, and Pkr, while expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was only modestly affected in the CNS. Impaired IFN-α/β induction in the absence of Ifit2 was confirmed by ex vivo mRNA analysis of microglia and macrophages, the prominent cell types producing IFN-α/β following MHV CNS infection. Furthermore, both IFN-α/β mRNA and protein production were significantly reduced in MHV-infected Ifit2−/− relative to wt bone marrow-derived macrophages. Collectively, the data implicate Ifit2 as a positive regulator of IFN-α/β expression, rather than direct antiviral mediator, during MHV-induced encephalitis. PMID:24198415

  9. Protein kinase C and the antiviral effect of human interferon.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M; Cajal, N

    1989-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors: Hidaka's compounds H-7 (10 microM) and H-8 (20 microM), palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) and phloretin (50 microM), did not modify the antiviral effect of human natural or recombinant interferon alpha and of natural interferon beta. The tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (200 nM), known as activator of PKC induced an antiviral state when tested on human embryo fibroblasts challenged with the vesicular stomatitis virus. The battery of PKC inhibitors used inhibited the antiviral effect induced by TPA. Palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) exerted a toxic effect that was reversed by interferon treatment (2,000 IU/ml interferon alpha). These results suggest that PKC, possibly activated by interferon-receptor interaction, is not essential for inducing the antiviral effect of interferon, but, probably, mediates the antiviral effect of TPA.

  10. Results of therapy with interferon alpha and cyclic combination chemotherapy in patients with philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in early chronic phase.

    PubMed

    Giles, F J; Kantarjian, H; O'Brien, S; Rios, M B; Cortes, J; Beran, M; Koller, C; Keating, M; Talpaz, M

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the toxicity and efficacy of cyclic combination therapy offered to patients with Ph-positive CML having a sub-optimal response to IFN-alpha. Patients in early chronic phase CML were treated with IFN-alpha at 5MU/m(2) daily. Patients who did not achieve cytogenetic response after 6 months of IFN-alpha therapy, or Ph-suppression to less than 35% Ph-positive cells (partial cytogenetic response) after 12 months of therapy were offered cyclic intensive chemotherapy every 6 months, with IFN-alpha maintenance between cycles. The initial 3 cycles included daunorubicin, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and prednisone (DOAP). Later cycles were given with cyclophosphamide replacing daunorubicin (COAP). Of 74 patients treated, 61 (82%) achieved complete hematologic response (CHR): 51 (69%) had a cytogenetic response, which was major (Ph < 35%) in 31 (42%), and complete in 23 (31%). Fifty-five patients (74%) achieved CHR by 6 months of therapy, 38 (69%; 51% of total) with a cytogenetic response - 13 (24%) had a major cytogenetic response. Seventeen patients received at least 1 course of DOAP therapy. Median survival of the overall cohort of patients was 120 months. With a median follow-up of 145 months (103+ to 155+ months), 40 patients (54%) have died. The median duration of cytogenetic response was 35 months (range 3 to 149+ months) and the estimated 10-year cytogenetic response rate was 37%. A durable complete cytogenetic response was observed in 16 patients (20%) with a median duration of 139+ months (range 12+ to 149+ months), 11 of them (15%) are now off IFN-alpha therapy for a median of 57+ months (range 12+ to 128+ months). The projected 10-year survival was 50% for the study group versus 35% for 208 patients who received other IFN-alpha based regimens at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (p<.01). In conclusion, the addition of intensive chemotherapy may improve survival in patients with CML who have not obtained an

  11. Can pegylated interferon improve the outcome of polycythemia vera patients?

    PubMed

    Crisà, Elena; Cerrano, Marco; Beggiato, Eloise; Benevolo, Giulia; Lanzarone, Giuseppe; Manzini, Paola Maria; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Riera, Ludovica; Boccadoro, Mario; Ferrero, Dario

    2017-01-13

    Pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) was proven by phase II trials to be effective in polycythemia vera (PV); however, it is not clear whether it could improve patient outcome compared to hydroxyurea (HU). Here, we present an observational study on 65 PV patients aged 65 years or younger, who received either peg-IFN (30) or HU (35) according to the physician choice. Median follow-up was 75 months. The two cohorts were comparable for patient and disease characteristics. Eighty-seven percent of the patients treated with peg-INF responded, with a CR rate of 70% as compared to 100 and 49% with HU, respectively. Discontinuation rate was similar in the two groups (20% in peg-IFN vs 17% in HU). JAK2 allele burden was monitored in peg-INF arm only, and a reduction was observed in 88% of the patients. No thrombotic events were observed during peg-IFN treatment compared to three on HU. Disease progression to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia occurred to a patient only in peg-INF, compared to three in HU. Overall, three second malignancies were observed during the study, two in patients who received HU only, and one in a patient largely treated HU who received also peg-IFN for 3 months. Overall survival was significantly better for peg-IFN patients compared to HU, p = 0.027. Our study, albeit limited by small patient and event number and lack of randomization, confirms the efficacy of peg-INF in PV and shows a significant survival advantage for peg-INF-treated patients. Waiting for confirming data from the ongoing phase III trials, our study can support peg-INF as a first-line treatment option for PV, at least for younger patients.

  12. Interferon induced thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Yaron; Menconi, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) is used for the treatment of various disorders, most notable chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One of the commonest side effects of IFNalpha therapy is thyroiditis, with up to 40% of HCV patients on IFNalpha developing clinical or subclinical disease. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. IIT can manifest as clinical autoimmune thyroiditis, presenting with symptoms of classical Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease, or as non-autoimmune thyroiditis. Non-autoimmune thyroiditis can manifest as destructive thyroiditis, with early thyrotoxicosis and later hypothyroidism, or as non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of IIT have been well characterized the mechanisms causing IIT are still poorly understood. It is likely that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) itself plays a role in the disease, as the association between HCV infection and thyroiditis is well established. It is believed that IFNalpha induces thyroiditis by both immune stimulatory effects and by direct effects on the thyroid. Early detection and therapy of this condition are important in order to avoid complications of thyroid disease such as cardiac arrhythmias.

  13. Interferon modulation of c-myc expression in cloned Daudi cells: relationship to the phenotype of interferon resistance.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Modjtahedi, N; Brison, O; Tovey, M G

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of interferon-sensitive Daudi cell with electrophoretically pure human interferon alpha markedly reduced the level of c-myc mRNA, increased the level of class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) mRNA, and did not affect the level of actin mRNA within the same cells. In contrast, the level of c-myc mRNA or HLA mRNA did not change significantly following interferon treatment in different clones of Daudi cells selected for resistance to the antiproliferative action of interferon. These cells possessed interferon receptors, however, and responded to interferon modulation of other genes, including 2',5' oligoisoadenylate synthetase (M. G. Tovey, M. Dron, K. E. Mogensen, B. Lebleu, N. Metchi, and J. Begon-Lours, Guymarho, J. Gen. Virol., 64:2649-2653, 1983; M. Dron, M. G. Tovey, and P. Eid, J. Gen. Virol., 66:787-795, 1985). A clone of interferon-resistant Daudi cells which had reverted to almost complete sensitivity to both the antiproliferative action of interferon and the interferon-enhanced expression of HLA mRNA remained refractory, however, to interferon modulation of c-myc expression, suggesting that a reduced level of c-myc mRNA may not be a prerequisite for inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells. Our results do not exclude the possibility, however, that posttranscriptional modification(s) of c-myc expression may precede an inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells.

  14. Interferon modulation of c-myc expression in cloned Daudi cells: relationship to the phenotype of interferon resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Dron, M; Modjtahedi, N; Brison, O; Tovey, M G

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of interferon-sensitive Daudi cell with electrophoretically pure human interferon alpha markedly reduced the level of c-myc mRNA, increased the level of class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) mRNA, and did not affect the level of actin mRNA within the same cells. In contrast, the level of c-myc mRNA or HLA mRNA did not change significantly following interferon treatment in different clones of Daudi cells selected for resistance to the antiproliferative action of interferon. These cells possessed interferon receptors, however, and responded to interferon modulation of other genes, including 2',5' oligoisoadenylate synthetase (M. G. Tovey, M. Dron, K. E. Mogensen, B. Lebleu, N. Metchi, and J. Begon-Lours, Guymarho, J. Gen. Virol., 64:2649-2653, 1983; M. Dron, M. G. Tovey, and P. Eid, J. Gen. Virol., 66:787-795, 1985). A clone of interferon-resistant Daudi cells which had reverted to almost complete sensitivity to both the antiproliferative action of interferon and the interferon-enhanced expression of HLA mRNA remained refractory, however, to interferon modulation of c-myc expression, suggesting that a reduced level of c-myc mRNA may not be a prerequisite for inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells. Our results do not exclude the possibility, however, that posttranscriptional modification(s) of c-myc expression may precede an inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells. Images PMID:3785169

  15. Tc-99m labeled anti CEA F(ab{prime}){sub 2}: Augmenting tumor uptake with anitbody:Interferon (MAb:IFN-{alpha}-2b) conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Donegan, M.; Li, J.

    1996-05-01

    Previously we have shown that IFN-{alpha}-2b, a potent biological response modifier (BRM) significantly enhanced tumor uptake of radiolabeled MAbs. Results were attributed to increased blood flow and upregulation of cell surface receptor glycoproteins. Probably because of the blood flow increase in all organs, radioactivity levels in other tissues, although to a lesser extent, were also enhanced. In order to validate our hypothesis that selective tumor targeting of IFN-{alpha}-2b (Schering-Plough, N.J.) may enhance tumor uptake and diminish uptake in normal organs, IFN-{alpha}-2b was conjugated with anti CEA MAb F-6 (IgG2a), by reacting with 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate (CMC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS) in a 1:2:50:50 ratio by weight at pH 9.2 (22{degrees}C) for 24 hr. The conjugate (30{mu}g) was administered i.v. to nude mice bearing human colorectal carcinoma LS174T, 3hr prior to the i.v. administration of 300uCi / 20ug (1.5Ci / uM) F-6F(ab{prime}){sub 2}. Animals not receiving the conjugate served as controls. The conjugation efficiency as determined using I-125-IFN-{alpha}-2b was >70% and MAb:IFN-{alpha}-2b ratio was approximately 1:1. In animals receiving IFN conjugate tumor uptake enhanced by 180% and liver uptake decreased to 56%. Radioactivity also decreased in most other tissues. Furthermore with conjugate, the tumor/muscle ratio increased by 210% (10 {plus_minus} 1.2 Vs 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.5), tumor/blood ratio by 220% (5.4 {plus_minus} 0.6 Vs 2.5 {plus_minus} 0.3), and tumor/liver ratio by 317% (0.7 {plus_minus} 0.1 Vs 0.2 {plus_minus} 0.05).

  16. [Role of cycloferon and interferon-alphain apoptosis regulation in neuroendocrinal system on aging].

    PubMed

    Bazhanova, E D

    2012-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the literature data gives contradictory information about the role of interferon-alpha in the regulation of apoptosis, while there are almost no data on the participation of cycloferon in this process. Results of original experiments in recent years showed that exogenous interferon-alpha is not apoptosis protector in hypothalamic neurons on aging. The treatment with interferon-alpha activates dystrophic processes in neurosecretory cells of aged mice. However, endogenous interferon induced by cycloferon leads to a decrease in the apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons in both young and old animals. Antiapoptotic activity of interferon-alpha and cycloferon has been found in aged animals under stress condition. Thus, the role of immunomodulators in apoptosis regulation in hypothalamic neurons depends on the age and the type of immunomodulators. This fact opens new prospects for the clinical use of interferon-alpha and cycloferon.

  17. Anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibody (MAb17-1A) based treatment combined with alpha-interferon, 5-fluorouracil and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liljefors, Maria; Ragnhammar, Peter; Nilsson, Bo; Ullenhag, Gustav; Mellstedt, Håkan; Frödin, Jan-Erik

    2004-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have different modes of action and toxicity profile compared to chemotherapeutics, which makes it interesting to combine these drugs. Addition of cytokines to MAb therapy may also augment immune effector functions utilized by MAb. In an effort to improve the therapeutic effect of a MAb-based regimen in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients, the effects of a combination of alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and mouse MAb17-1A was evaluated in 27 patients with metastatic disease. alpha-IFN was given s.c. once daily for 5 consecutive days and at days 4 and 5, 5-FU was administered as a daily i.v. bolus injection. After 2 days rest, GM-CSF was given s.c. once daily, days 8-14 and on day 10, MAb17-1A was given i.v. The treatment cycle was repeated every 4th week. One patient achieved a partial remission and 13 patients showed a minor response or stable disease >3 months, inducing an overall response rate of 54%. Responding patients survived significantly longer than non-responding patients (p=0.021). Median overall survival time for all patients was 75 weeks and progression-free survival time 15 weeks. Adverse events related to alpha-IFN, GM-CSF and 5-FU were as expected. The frequency of patients with an immediate-type allergic reaction (ITAR) against MAb17-1A at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatment cycles was 11%, 52%, 62% and 64% respectively. The planned MAb17-1A dose had to be reduced by repeated infusions. No patient received full dose of MAb17-1A from the 3rd cycle and onward. Compared to historical control patients treated with MAb17-1A alone, the present combination regimen seemed to improve the response rate (54% vs 15%) as well as progression-free survival (15 vs 7 weeks; p<0.05).

  18. Interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta modulate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Henson, P M

    1997-09-08

    Engagement of receptors for the Fc region of IgG (Fc gamma R) can activate a variety of biological responses in macrophages, and these responses can be modulated either positively or negatively by co-stimulation with a variety of agents including cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We have previously demonstrated that Fc gamma R crosslinking activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and JNK. Herein, we examined the modulatory effect of IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on Fc gamma R-induced MAPK activation in murine macrophages. Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK and JNK was augmented nearly two-fold by pretreatment with IFN-gamma. Conversely, TGF-beta pretreatment suppressed Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK, JNK, and p38. These modulatory effects of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta on MAPK activation correlated with changes in Fc gamma R-stimulated TNF-alpha production by these two cytokines.

  19. The Delta 32 mutation of the chemokine-receptor 5 gene neither is correlated with chronic hepatitis C nor does it predict response to therapy with interferon-alpha and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Glas, J; Török, H P; Simperl, C; König, A; Martin, K; Schmidt, F; Schaefer, M; Schiemann, U; Folwaczny, C

    2003-07-01

    Unlike in HIV, homozygosity for a 32-bp deletion (Delta 32) of the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene was recently described in increased frequency in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Thus, it was speculated that this mutation might be relevant for disease susceptibility and influence the response to antiviral therapy. The present study sought to confirm the association between HCV and the Delta 32 mutation of the CCR5 gene and to correlate it with the response to therapy with interferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin. Sixty-two patients with HCV and 119 healthy unrelated controls were genotyped for the Delta 32 mutation. For the correlation between the Delta 32 mutation and response to therapy, only patients (n = 59) who completed 6 months of combination therapy as part of a prospective study were evaluated. The Delta 32 mutation was not observed in increased frequency in HCV. Furthermore, a significant difference of the HCV load or aminotransferase concentrations was not observed in carriers versus noncarriers of the Delta 32 mutation. After stratification for potentially confounding factors such as gender or HCV genotype, a significant difference was also not detected with respect to treatment outcome. These observations argue strongly against a role of CCR5 for susceptibility to HCV infection or response to combination therapy.

  20. Differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 T-cell phenotype during pegylated alpha interferon and ribavirin treatment are related to response to antiviral therapy in patients chronically infected with HCV.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Joana; Martinho, António; Paiva, Artur; Pais, Beatriz; Valente, Cristina; Luxo, Cristina

    2008-08-01

    CD8 T cells play a major role in antiviral immune responses. Their importance for progression to chronic hepatitis C and response to treatment are still unclear. To address these issues, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 T-cell responses were monitored, at the single-cell level, using HLA class I pentamers specific for HCV core and HCV NS3 epitopes, in 23 chronically infected patients during treatment with pegylated alpha interferon and ribavirin. Patients who presented a sustained-response to therapy had stronger HCV-specific CD8 T-cell responses at all time points studied. Moreover, there were clear differences in the phenotypes of these cells during therapy: in responder patients, terminally differentiated effector cells increased more rapidly, and their frequency was always higher than in nonresponder patients. Sustained-responder patients also showed a higher frequency of HCV-specific CD8 T cells producing cytotoxic factors. Overall, a late and inefficient differentiation process of HCV-specific CD8 T cells might be associated with lack of response to treatment. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this impairment may be important for the development of new therapeutic strategies to maintain, restore, or increase CD8 T-cell effectiveness in chronic HCV infection.

  1. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy for chronic hepatitis B in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected individuals for whom interferon-alpha and lamivudine therapy have failed.

    PubMed

    Ristig, Maria B; Crippin, Jeffrey; Aberg, Judith A; Powderly, William G; Lisker-Melman, Mauricio; Kessels, Lisa; Tebas, Pablo

    2002-12-15

    A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Currently available treatments for chronic hepatitis B (interferon [IFN]-alpha and lamivudine [3TC]) have limited long-term utility because of side effects or of the development of resistance. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide analog with excellent activity in vitro against HBV, which is also active against 3TC-resistant HBV variants. In this 24-week pilot study, the anti-HBV activity of TDF was prospectively evaluated in a cohort of 6 HIV coinfected subjects for whom 3TC and IFN therapy had previously failed. At baseline, all patients were taking 3TC or FTC and were hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen positive; 4 had cirrhosis. Baseline HBV load was 7.95 log(10) copies/mL. By weeks 12 and 24, HBV load had decreased by 3.1 log(10) copies/mL and 4.3 log(10) copies/mL, respectively. There was a transient increase of transaminases after the initiation of treatment. No patient developed HBe antibodies. TDF is a very promising drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected individuals.

  2. Clinical significance of TT virus (TTV) infection in chronic hepatitis C patients with high dose interferon-alpha therapy in Taiwan: re-evaluated by using new set of TTV primers.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chia Yen; Yu, Ming Lung; Lin, Zu Yau; Chen, Shinn Cherng; Hsieh, Ming Yen; Lee, Li Po; Hou, Nei Jen; Hsieh, Ming Yuh; Wang, Liang Yen; Tsai, Jung Fa; Chuang, Wan Long; Chang, Wen Yu

    2003-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of TT virus (TTV) coinfection in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and influence of TTV viremia on hepatitis C virus (HCV) response to high dose interferon-alpha therapy in Taiwan were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 102 HCV RNA-positive CHC patients were enrolled. TTV DNA (using polymerase chain reaction primers derived from 5' non-coding region and open reading frame 2), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) RNA, anti-E2 antibody, genotype and RNA levels of HCV were tested. RESULTS: The prevalence of TTV DNA was 51.0%. The mean age of TTV viremic CHC patients was significant higher than non-viremic ones (P<0.05). HCV sustained viral response (SVR) was achieved in 42 (41.2%) patients. Based on multivariate regression analyses, SVR were significantly associated with low pretreatment HCV RNA levels, HCV genotype non-1b and high pretreatment levels of ALT but not TTV viremia. CONCLUSIONS: TTV viremia is highly prevalent among Taiwanese CHC patients and related to increased ages. Neither severity of liver disease nor replication and genotype distribution of HCV was affected by concurrent TTV infection. With high HCV SVR rate associated with pretreatment HCV RNA and ALT levels and HCV genotype, TTV viremia did not influence the HCV response.

  3. Quantitative analysis of interferon alpha receptor subunit 1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 gene transcription in blood cells of patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Interferon (IFN)-α receptor 1 (ifnar1) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (socs1) transcription levels were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 59 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 17 non-infected individuals. Samples were obtained from patients infected with HCV that were either untreated or treated with IFN-α2 plus ribavirin for 1 year and divided into responders and non-responders based on viral load reduction 6 months after treatment. Ifnar1 and socs1 transcription was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and the fold difference (2-ΔΔCT) with respect to hprt housekeeping gene was calculated. Results Ifnar1 transcription increased significantly in HCV-infected patients either untreated (3.26 ± 0.31), responders (3.1 ± 0.23) and non-responders (2.18 ± 0.23) with respect to non-infected individuals (1 ± 0.34; P = 0.005). Ifnar1 transcription increased significantly (P = 0.003) in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1a (4.74 ± 0.25) and 1b (2.81 ± 0.25) but not in 1a1b (1.58 ± 0.21). No association was found of Ifnar1 transcription with disease progress, initial viral load or other clinical factors. With respect to socs1 transcription, values were similar for non-infected individuals (1 ± 0.28) and untreated patients (0.99 ± 0.41) but increased in responders (2.81 ± 0.17) and non-responder patients (1.67 ± 0.41). Difference between responder and non-responder patients was not statistically significant. Socs1 transcription increased in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1a and 1b (2.87 ± 0.45 and 2.22 ± 0.17, respectively) but not in 1a1b (1.28 ± 0.40). Socs1 transcript was absent in three patients infected with HCV genotype 1b. A weak correlation between ifnar1 and socs1 transcription was found, when Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated. Conclusion Our results suggest that HCV infection may up-regulate ifnar1 transcription. HCV genotypes differ in their capacity to affect ifnar1 and

  4. Growth and major histocompatibility antigen expression regulation by IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, G G; Puri, R K; Kukuruga, M A; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P

    1994-01-01

    We have recently shown that human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumour lines express high-affinity IL-4 receptors. Binding of IL-4 to RCC cells induced a growth inhibition in the range of 20-68%. To enhance the growth inhibitory effect of IL-4, we have tested the effects of two additional cytokines capable of directly affecting tumour cell growth. IFN-gamma caused a significant inhibition of RCC tumour cell growth (up to 70%) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the effect of TNF-alpha was more limited (0-20% inhibition). The addition of IL-4 to IFN-gamma on RCC cells sensitive to IL-4 induced a greater inhibition of cell growth than that seen with each cytokine alone. IL-4 and IFN-gamma rendered RCC cells more responsive to the inhibitory effect mediated by TNF-alpha. The combination of TNF-alpha with IL-4 and IFN-gamma induced an optimal growth inhibition (up to 90-98%) of RCC cells. In addition to a direct anti-proliferative effect, we have demonstrated that these cytokines can also enhance the expression of MHC antigens on the surface of RCC tumour cell lines which may render the cells more immunogenic. All RCC lines tested expressed class I antigens, but not class II antigens. IFN-gamma induced class II expression and up-regulated the expression of class I antigens on RCC cells. Class II antigen expression was detectable following 48 h incubation, and greater after 72 h with IFN-gamma. IL-4 minimally affected class I expression, whereas TNF-alpha up-regulated class I antigen expression. IL-4 or TNF-alpha did not induce class II expression. The combination of the three cytokines slightly augmented the up-regulation of class I and class II antigens observed with IFN-gamma alone. These observations confirm the direct interaction of IL-4, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha with RCC tumour cells, both at the level of growth regulation and MHC antigen expression, and suggest a therapeutic potential of the combination of the three cytokines for renal cell carcinoma. PMID:8004818

  5. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of a new formulation containing synergistic proportions of interferons alpha-2b and gamma (HeberPAG®) in patients with mycosis fungoides: an open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The synergistic combination of interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and IFN gamma results in more potent in vitro biological effects mediated by both IFNs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate by first time the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this combination in patients with mycosis fungoides. Methods An exploratory, prospective, open-label clinical trial was conducted. Twelve patients, both genders, 18 to 75 years-old, with mycosis fungoides at stages IB to III, were eligible for the study. All of them received intramuscularly a single high dose (23 × 106 IU) of a novel synergistic IFN mixture (HeberPAG®) for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Serum IFN alpha-2b and IFN gamma concentrations were measured during 96 hours by commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA) specific for each IFN. Other blood IFN-inducible markers and laboratory variables were used as pharmacodynamics and safety criteria. Results The pharmacokinetic evaluation by EIA yielded a similar pattern for both IFNs that are also in agreement with the well-known described profiles for these molecules when these are administered separately. The average values for main parameters were: Cmax: 263 and 9.3 pg/mL; Tmax: 9.5 and 6.9 h; AUC: 4483 and 87.5 pg.h/mL, half-life (t1/2): 4.9 and 13.4 h; mean residence time (MRT): 13.9 and 13.5 h, for serum IFN alpha-2b and IFN gamma, respectively. The pharmacodynamic variables were strongly stimulated by simultaneous administration of both IFNs: serum neopterin and beta-2 microglobulin levels (β2M), and stimulation of 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1) mRNA expression. The most encouraging data was the high increment of serum neopterin, 8.0 ng/mL at 48 h, not been described before for any unmodified or pegylated IFN. Additionally, β2M concentration doubled the pre-dose value at 24–48 hours. For both variables the values remained clearly upper baseline levels at 96 hours. Conclusions HeberPAG®possesses improved

  6. Molecular design of hybrid tumour necrosis factor alpha with polyethylene glycol increases its anti-tumour potency.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Kihira, T.; Tsunoda, S.; Kanamori, T.; Nakagawa, S.; Mayumi, T.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the anti-tumour potency and reduce the toxic side-effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Natural human TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) using succinimidyl coupling of lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha. The number-average molecular weight of PEG-modified TNF-alpha (PEG-TNF-alpha) increased with an increase in the reaction time and the initial molar ratio of PEG relative to TNF-alpha. The resulting modified TNF-alpha was separated into fractions of various molecular weights. The specific activity of separated PEG-TNF-alpha s relative to that of native TNF-alpha gradually decreased with an increase in the degree of PEG modification, but the plasma half-life was drastically increased with the increase in molecular weight of modified TNF-alpha. PEG-TNF-alpha s, in which 29% and 56% of lysine residues were coupled to PEG, had anti-tumour activity approximately 4 and 100 times greater than unmodified TNF-alpha in the murine Meth-A fibrosarcoma model. Extensive PEG modification did not increase its in vivo activity. A high dose of unmodified TNF-alpha induced toxic side-effects, but these were not observed with the modified TNF-alpha s. Optimal PEG modification of TNF-alpha markedly increased its bioavailability and may facilitate its potential anti-tumour therapeutic use. PMID:7734321

  7. [Gamma (or immune) interferon].

    PubMed

    Maniu, H

    1987-01-01

    Research on interferon progressed very much during the last years, especially studies on the gamma type of interferon. Historical data about the research conducted on the gamma interferon, its inductors, its physical, chemical and biological properties, the methods of preparation and purification, as well as the perspective of therapeutical utilisation of this type of interferon, in spite of some reversible side effects, are presented and discussed.

  8. The interferon-gamma-induced GTPase, mGBP-2, inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by inhibiting NF-kappaB and Rac protein.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sujata; Fan, Meiyun; Messmer-Blust, Angela F; Yang, Chuan H; Trendel, Jill A; Jeyaratnam, Jonathan A; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Vestal, Deborah J

    2011-06-03

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is important in numerous normal and pathological processes, including the angiogenic switch during tumor development and tumor metastasis. Whereas TNF-α and other cytokines up-regulate MMP-9 expression, interferons (IFNs) inhibit MMP-9 expression. We found that IFN-γ treatment or forced expression of the IFN-induced GTPase, mGBP-2, inhibit TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, by inhibiting MMP-9 transcription. The NF-κB transcription factor is required for full induction of MMP-9 by TNF-α. Both IFN-γ and mGBP-2 inhibit the transcription of a NF-κB-dependent reporter construct, suggesting that mGBP-2 inhibits MMP-9 induction via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated transcription. Interestingly, mGBP-2 does not inhibit TNF-α-induced degradation of IκBα or p65/RelA translocation into the nucleus. However, mGBP-2 inhibits p65 binding to a κB oligonucleotide probe in gel shift assays and to the MMP-9 promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, TNF-α activation of NF-κB in NIH 3T3 cells is dependent on Rac activation, as evidenced by the inhibition of TNF-α induction of NF-κB-mediated transcription by a dominant inhibitory form of Rac1. A role for Rac in the inhibitory action of mGBP-2 on NF-κB is further shown by the findings that mGBP-2 inhibits TNF-α activation of endogenous Rac and constitutively activate Rac can restore NF-κB transcription in the presence of mGBP-2. This is a novel mechanism by which IFNs can inhibit the cytokine induction of MMP-9 expression.

  9. A critical function for type I interferons in cancer immunoediting.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Gavin P; Bruce, Allen T; Sheehan, Kathleen C F; Shankaran, Vijay; Uppaluri, Ravindra; Bui, Jack D; Diamond, Mark S; Koebel, Catherine M; Arthur, Cora; White, J Michael; Schreiber, Robert D

    2005-07-01

    'Cancer immunoediting' is a process wherein the immune system protects hosts against tumor development and facilitates outgrowth of tumors with reduced immunogenicity. Although interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is known to be involved in this process, the involvement of type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) has not been elucidated. We now show that, like IFN-gamma, endogenously produced IFN-alpha/beta was required for the prevention of the growth of primary carcinogen-induced and transplantable tumors. Although tumor cells are important IFN-gamma targets, they are not functionally relevant sites of the actions of the type I interferons. Instead, host hematopoietic cells are critical IFN-alpha/beta targets during development of protective antitumor responses. Therefore, type I interferons are important components of the cancer immunoediting process and function in a way that does not completely overlap the functions of IFN-gamma.

  10. Distinct myeloid suppressor cell subsets correlate with plasma IL-6 and IL-10 and reduced interferon-alpha signaling in CD4⁺ T cells from patients with GI malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Young, Gregory S; Bauer, Todd; Binkley, Elaine; Bloomston, Mark; Bill, Matthew A; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Carson, William E; Lesinski, Gregory B

    2011-09-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) promotes anti-tumor immunity through its actions on immune cells. We hypothesized that elevated percentages of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood would be associated with impaired response to IFN-α in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. This study evaluated relationships between plasma IL-6, IL-10, circulating MDSC subsets, and IFN-α-induced signal transduction in 40 patients with GI malignancies. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients versus normal donors. CD33(+)HLADR(-)CD11b(+)CD15(+) and CD33(+)HLADR(-/low)CD14(+) MDSC subsets were also elevated in patients versus normal donors (P < 0.0001). Plasma IL-6 was correlated with CD33(+)HLADR(-)CD15(+) MDSC (P = 0.008) and IL-10 with CD33(+)HLADR(-)CD15(-) MDSC (P = 0.002). The percentage of CD15(+) and CD15(-) but not CD14(+) MDSC subsets were inversely correlated with IFN-α-induced STAT1 phosphorylation in CD4(+) T cells, while co-culture with in vitro generated MDSC led to reduced IFN-α responsiveness in both PBMC and the CD4(+) subset of T cells from normal donors. Exploratory multivariable Cox proportional hazards models revealed that an increased percentage of the CD33(+)HLADR(-)CD15(-) MDSC subset was associated with reduced overall survival (P = 0.049), while an increased percentage of the CD33(+)HLADR(-/low)CD14(+) subset was associated with greater overall survival (P = 0.033). These data provide evidence for a unique relationship between specific cytokines, MDSC subsets, and IFN-α responsiveness in patients with GI malignancies.

  11. Inhibited interferon production after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.

  12. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  13. [Fundamentals of interferon system function in pathology and molecular biological peculiarities of interferon production].

    PubMed

    Spivak, M Ia; Didenko, L F; Lazarenko, L M; Zholobak, N M

    2008-01-01

    Molecular biological peculiarities of interferon system function in PV-infected persons have been found. It is evident that the interferon production, anti-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors and also defensines play an important role in the mechanism of virus interaction with sensitive cells of macroorganism with development of pathological process. The new conception of expediency for the use of interferons and their inducers as the polyfunctional regulators with a broad spectrum of activity for the treatment of PV-infected patients was suggested. Patents for the method of treatment of PV-infected patients were obtained. New inducers of interferon as well as recombinant IFN-alpha-2b was developed. Our results were introduced in the medical practice.

  14. Extreme hemodilution with PEG-hemoglobin vs. PEG-albumin.

    PubMed

    Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Winslow, Robert M; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2005-12-01

    Isovolemic hemodilution to 11% systemic hematocrit was performed in the hamster window chamber model using 6% dextran 70 kDa (Dx 70) and 5% human serum albumin (HSA). Systemic and microvascular effects of these solutions were compared with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated 5% albumin (MPA) and PEG-conjugated 4.2% Hb (MP4). These studies were performed for the purpose of comparing systemic and microvascular responses of PEG vs. non-PEG plasma expanders and similar oxygen-carrying vs. noncarrying blood replacement fluids. Mean arterial blood pressure was statistically significantly reduced for all groups compared with baseline (P < 0.05), HSA, MPA, and MP4 higher than Dx 70 (P < 0.05). MP4 and MPA had a significantly higher cardiac index than HSA and Dx 70, in addition to a positive base excess. Microvascular blood flow and capillary perfusion were significantly higher for the PEG compounds compared with HSA and Dx 70. Intravascular PO2 for MP4 and MPA was higher in arterioles (P < 0.05) compared with HSA and Dx 70, but there was no difference in either tissue or venular PO2 between groups. Total Hb in the MP4 group was 4.8 +/- 0.4 g/dl, whereas the remaining groups had a range of 3.6-3.8 g/dl. The hemodilution results showed that PEG compounds maintained microvascular conditions with lower concentrations than conventional plasma expanders. Furthermore, microvascular oxygen delivery and extraction in the window chamber tissue were significantly higher for the PEG compounds. MP4 was significantly higher than MPA (P < 0.05) and was not statistically different from baseline, an effect due to the additional oxygen release to the tissue by the Hb MP4.

  15. Growth advantage of chronic myeloid leukemia CFU-GM in vitro: survival to growth factor deprivation, possibly related to autocrine stimulation, is a more common feature than hypersensitivity to GM-CSF/IL3 and is efficiently counteracted by retinoids +- alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, D; Foli, C; Giaretta, F; Argentino, C; Rus, C; Pileri, A

    2001-03-01

    Bcr/abl fusion gene, in experimental models, induces survival to growth factor deprivation and hypersensitivity to IL3. However, conflicting data were reported about chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitors. We investigated the responsiveness of purified CML CFU-GM to GM-CSF/IL3 and their survival to growth factor deprivation. CFU-GM hypersensitivity to IL3 and/or GM-CSF was found in 3/11 CML cases only. CML CFU-GM survived well in stroma-free 'mass' culture (5 x 10(4) cells/ml) without cytokine addition, up to day 11, average recovery being around 95% in medium + 10% fetal bovine serum and 67-81% in serum-free medium. Conversely, normal progenitors declined steadily, particularly after extensive purification (18 +/- 10% recovery at the 7th day), and in serum-free medium (4 +/- 6% recovery). By contrast, normal and CML CFU-GM declined in a similar way in limiting dilution cultures (1-10 cells/50 microl). We also investigated the effects of retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on CFU-GM survival. Both all-trans- and 13-cis retinoic acid, particularly in combination with alpha-interferon, reduced CML CFU-GM recovery down to normal progenitors' values. In conclusion, hypersensitivity to CSFs is rare in CML, whereas resistance to growth factor deprivation has been confirmed in mass, but not in limiting, dilution cultures. Both stereoisomers of retinoic acid, at therapeutic concentrations and in combination with alpha-interferon, can overcome the survival advantage of CML progenitors.

  16. "Clickable" PEG-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Correa, Juan; Riguera, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    Three generations of azido-terminated PEG-dendritic block copolymers have been synthesized and completely characterized by NMR and MALDI-TOF. A radial decrease of density, leading to more mobile protons at the outermost periphery, and an increasingly higher compactness of the core with generation have been determined by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time studies. The efficient surface decoration of these dendritic polymers by means of click chemistry has been demonstrated by the incorporation of unprotected carbohydrate units in very good to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds at room temperature, under aqueous conditions, and requires just catalytic amounts of Cu. The modified block copolymers are conveniently purified by ultrafiltration. The glycodendrimers functionalized with alpha-mannose form aggregates with concanavalin A as determined by absorbance experiments at 400 nm. This aggregation ability increases with generation.

  17. Treatment Extension of Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Does Not Improve SVR in Patients with Genotypes 2/3 without Rapid Virological Response (OPTEX Trial): A Prospective, Randomized, Two-Arm, Multicentre Phase IV Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Benjamin; Cordes, Hans-Jörg; Klinker, Hartwig; Möller, Bernd; Naumann, Uwe; Rössle, Martin; Kraus, Michael R.; Böker, Klaus H.; Roggel, Christoph; Schuchmann, Marcus; Stoehr, Albrecht; Trein, Andreas; Hardtke, Svenja; Gonnermann, Andrea; Koch, Armin; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P.; Cornberg, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Although sofosbuvir has been approved for patients with genotypes 2/3 (G2/3), many parts of the world still consider pegylated Interferon alpha (P) and ribavirin (R) as standard of care for G2/3. Patients with rapid virological response (RVR) show response rates >80%. However, SVR (sustained virological response) in non-RVR patients is not satisfactory. Longer treatment duration may be required but evidence from prospective trials are lacking. A total of 1006 chronic HCV genotype 2/3 patients treated with P/R were recruited into a German HepNet multicenter screening registry. Of those, only 226 patients were still HCV RNA positive at week 4 (non-RVR). Non-RVR patients with ongoing response after 24 weeks P-2b/R qualified for OPTEX, a randomized trial investigating treatment extension of additional 24 weeks (total 48 weeks, Group A) or additional 12 weeks (total 36 weeks, group B) of 1.5 μg/kg P-2b and 800-1400 mg R. Due to the low number of patients without RVR, the number of 150 anticipated study patients was not met and only 99 non-RVR patients (n=50 Group A, n=49 Group B) could be enrolled into the OPTEX trial. Baseline factors did not differ between groups. Sixteen patients had G2 and 83 patients G3. Based on the ITT (intention-to-treat) analysis, 68% [55%; 81%] in Group A and 57% [43%; 71%] in Group B achieved SVR (p= 0.31). The primary endpoint of better SVR rates in Group A compared to a historical control group (SVR 70%) was not met. In conclusion, approximately 23% of G2/3 patients did not achieve RVR in a real world setting. However, subsequent recruitment in a treatment-extension study was difficult. Prolonged therapy beyond 24 weeks did not result in higher SVR compared to a historical control group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803309 PMID:26057627

  18. Quantification of neutralizing antibodies to human type I interferons using division-arrested frozen cells carrying an interferon-regulated reporter-gene.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, C; Meritet, J-F; Erickson, R; Grossberg, S E; Roullet, E; Lyon-Caen, O; Lebon, P; Tovey, M G

    2008-06-01

    Development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to interferons (IFNs) can reduce the clinical response to IFN therapy. As current cell-based assays for quantifying NAbs have limitations, a highly sensitive and reproducible assay was developed, using division-arrested frozen human U937 cells transfected with the luciferase reportergene controlled by an IFN-responsive chimeric promoter, which allows IFN activity to be determined with precision within hours. Assay-ready PIL5 cells can be stored frozen for >3 years without loss of IFN sensitivity or the need for cell propagation. The assay is highly IFN sensitive (detecting <1.0 IU/mL), reproducible (SE +/- 15%) over concentrations from <1.0 to 100 IU/mL and able to measure different IFN subtypes and their pegylated variants. The use of this assay has shown that NAbs from patients treated with IFN-alpha2 exhibited markedly lower titers against 10 LU/mL of low specific activity IFNs, namely, IFN-alpha1, PEG-Intron(TM) (Schering-Plough, Levallois-Perret,France), or Pegasys(TM) (Hoffmann-La Roche, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, than against 10 LU/mL IFN-alpha2. Similarly, NAbs from patients treated with IFN-beta1a exhibit lower titers against 10 LU/mL of low specific activity IFN-beta1b than against IFN-beta1a. The combination of the use of division-arrested, IFN-responsive human cells transfected with the luciferase reporter-gene makes the rapid PIL5 assay for NAbs highly advantageous.

  19. Inhibition by interferon of biochemical transformation induced by cloned herpesvirus thymidine kinase genes.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, H; Qavi, H; Kit, S

    1982-10-01

    To learn whether interferon could prevent the biochemical transformations induced by cloned herpesvirus thymidine kinase (TK) genes, LM(TK-) mouse fibroblast cultures were pretreated for 24 h with 2.4-40 international units (I.U.)/ml mouse alpha + beta interferon, and subsequently transformed to the TK+ phenotype with recombinant plasmids containing the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) TK gene (pAGO and pMH110) and the marmoset herpesvirus (MarHV) TK gene (pMAR035). Mouse alpha + beta interferon inhibited transformation and the inhibition was interferon dose-dependent. Transformation was also inhibited when LM(TK-) cells were pretreated for 2-5 h with 40 I.U./ml interferon. Maximal inhibitions of TK+ colony formation were observed following a 9-20 h pretreatment period with interferon. In contrast, 40 I.U./ml interferon treatment for 20 h did not reduce the rate or extent of LM(TK-) cell growth. Experiments in which cultures were first treated with plasmid pAGO and only afterwards treated with interferon also showed that, as the interferon concentration used, interferon did not inhibit the outgrowth of transformated colonies. Enzyme assays showed that pretreatment with interferon inhibited the induction of TK activity in cells that had been transfected with pAGO DNA.

  20. Favorable Outcomes of Chinese HCV-Related Cirrhotic Patients with Sustained Virological Response after Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You-ming; Zhang, Ting; Cai, Qing-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Zhi-xing

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have conducted follow-up investigations of the clinical course in HCV-related cirrhotic patients who achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment (PegIFN + RBV). We investigated the clinical course and laboratory data in a prospective cohort study enrolling HCV-related cirrhotic patients who received PegIFN + RBV between August 2008 and July 2013 in China. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and HCV-RNA were serially examined. Liver-related complications were recorded. To detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), alpha-fetoprotein assays, and ultrasound scans were repeated at 6-month intervals. Twenty-five patients were enrolled, including 8 patients with decompensation events before treatment. Eighteen patients achieved SVR with a mean follow-up period of 25.78 months. During the follow-up period, only one patient exhibited HCV-RNA positivity and no decompensation events were detected, but 4 patients developed HCC after SVR. APRI decreased more in patients with SVR than in patients with non-SVR (median, −1.33 versus 0.86, P < 0.001). The albumin levels and platelet counts significantly increased during the follow-up period after SVR (44.27 ± 4.09 versus 42.63 ± 4.37, P = 0.037 and 173.89 ± 87.36 versus 160.11 ± 77.97, P = 0.047). These data indicated that HCV-related cirrhotic patients with SVR after PegIFN + RBV may have a favorable clinical course and improvements in laboratory data. Moreover, HCC should be monitored. PMID:28232944

  1. Design and Characterization of PEG-Derivatized Vitamin E as a Nanomicellar Formulation for Delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianqin; Huang, Yixian; Zhao, Wenchen; Chen, Yichao; Li, Jiang; Gao, Xiang; Venkataramanan, Raman; Li, Song

    2013-01-01

    Various PEG-Vitamin E conjugates including D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 (TPGS) have been extensively studied as a nonionic surfactant in various drug delivery systems. However, limited information is available about the structure-activity relationship of PEG-Vitamin E conjugates as a micellar formulation for paclitaxel (PTX). In this study, four PEG-Vitamin E conjugates were developed that vary in the molecular weight of PEG (PEG2K vs PEG5K) and the molar ratio of PEG/Vitamin E (1/1 vs 1/2) in the conjugates. These conjugates were systematically characterized with respect to CMC, PTX loading efficiency, stability, and their efficiency in delivery of PTX to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that PEG5K-conjugates have lower CMC values and are more effective in PTX loading with respect to both loading capacity and stability. The conjugates with two Vitamin E molecules also worked better than the conjugates with one molecule of Vitamin E, particularly for PEG2K-system. Furthermore, all of the PEG-Vitamin E conjugates can inhibit P-gp function with their activity being comparable to that of TPGS. More importantly, PTX-loaded PEG5K-VE2 resulted in significantly improved tumor growth inhibitory effect in comparison to PTX formulated in PEG2K-VE or PEG2K-VE2, as well as Cremophor EL (Taxol) in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer (4T1.2). Our study suggests that PEG5K-Vitmin E2 may hold promise as an improved micellar formulation for in vivo delivery of anticancer agents such as PTX. PMID:23768151

  2. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  3. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  4. Antiviral activities of hybrids of two major human leukocyte interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Weck, P K; Apperson, S; Stebbing, N; Gray, P W; Leung, D; Shepard, H M; Goeddel, D V

    1981-01-01

    Four hybrid human leukocyte interferon (LeIF or IFN-alpha) genes have been constructed by in vitro recombination of LeIF-A (IFN-alpha 2) and LeIF-D (IFN-alpha 1) genes at common restriction endonuclease sites located within their coding regions. These hybrid genes have been expressed in E. coli under trp promoter control. The interferons produced [LeIF-AD (BglII), -AD (PvuII), -DA (BglII), -DA (PvuII)] have antiviral properties distinct from the parental molecules LeIF-A and -D, varying considerably in their abilities to inhibit plaque formation by different viruses in a range of mammalian cells. All six of the cloned LeIFs exhibit the heat stability, pH 2 stability and antigenic specificity of natural leukocyte interferons. PMID:6171779

  5. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  6. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  7. Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... interferons. Peginterferon is a combination of interferon and polyethylene glycol, which helps the interferon stay active in ... alpha interferons, any other medications, benzyl alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Ask your doctor if you are ...

  8. Selectivity of binding of PEGs and PEG-like oligomers to anti-PEG antibodies induced by methoxyPEG-proteins.

    PubMed

    Saifer, Mark G P; Williams, L David; Sobczyk, Monika A; Michaels, Shawnya J; Sherman, Merry R

    2014-02-01

    The use of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) in PEG conjugates of proteins and non-protein therapeutic agents has led to the recognition that the polymer components of such conjugates can induce anti-PEG antibodies (anti-PEGs) that may accelerate the clearance and reduce the efficacy of the conjugates. Others have classified anti-PEGs as "methoxy-specific" or "backbone-specific". The results of our previous research on anti-PEGs in the sera of rabbits immunized with mPEG or hydroxyPEG (HO-PEG) conjugates of three unrelated proteins were consistent with that classification (Sherman, M.R., et al., 2012. Bioconjug. Chem. 23, 485-499). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed on rabbit antisera and rabbit monoclonal anti-PEGs with competitors including 10 kDa mPEG, 10 kDa PEG diol and six linear or cyclic oligomers of oxyethylene (CH2CH2O), with molecular weights of ca. 150-264 Da. Our results demonstrate that (1) the binding affinities of anti-mPEGs depend more on the backbone lengths of the polymers and the hydrophobicities of their end-groups than on their resemblance to the methoxy terminus of the immunogenic polymer; (2) anti-PEGs raised against HO-PEG-proteins are not directed against the terminal hydroxy group, but against the backbone; (3) rabbit anti-PEGs bind to and distinguish among PEG-like oligomers with as few as three oxyethylene groups; and (4) none of the monoclonal or polyclonal anti-PEGs was absolutely "methoxy-specific" or "backbone-specific", but displayed distinct relative selectivities. If these results are relevant to human immune responses, the clinical use of stable conjugates of HO-PEG with proteins and non-protein therapeutic agents would be expected to produce fewer and less intense immune responses than those induced by conjugates with mPEG or PEGs with larger alkoxy groups.

  9. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or pharmacist) may measure the effectiveness and side effects of your treatment using laboratory tests and physical ... of infection. If you experience any of these effects near the site where you administer your interferon ...

  10. Cost comparison of treating chronic hepatitis C genotype one with pegylated interferons in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Saskia; Golubovska, Olha; Duda, Oleksandr; Dudar, Larisa; Fedorchenko, Sergiy; Zaliska, Olha; (Hans) Severens, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the pivotal trial showing no clinically relevant differences between pegylated interferon α-2b (Peg-α-2b) and α-2a (Peg-α-2a) combined with ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in Ukraine, a cost-minimization analysis was performed using a 1 year time horizon and both a health care and patients’ perspective. A decision tree reflects treatment pathways. Drug costs were based on drug labeling and adjusted to the average body mass in Ukraine. Subgroup analysis was applied to deal with heterogeneity of patient’s weight causing dose changes. A break-even price of Peg-α-2a and Peg-α-2b (based on the average dose) was calculated. Univariate sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were carried out to reflect decision uncertainty. For an average body weight, total medical costs per patient differ from US$9220 for Peg-α-2b to US$9513 for Peg-α-2a from a health care perspective, and from US$15,212 to US$15,696 from a patients’ perspective. Sensitivity analyses show these results are robust. With average body weight, the break-even price of Peg-α-2b may be 7.3% higher than Peg-α-2a to have similar total costs. PMID:28352673

  11. Bell's palsy during interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection in patients with haemorrhagic disorders.

    PubMed

    Ogundipe, O; Smith, M

    2000-03-01

    Two adult patients with life-long severe haemorrhagic disorders commenced on interferon-alpha2b therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. Both developed Bell's palsy several weeks after commencing therapy, They were started on steroids and, in addition, the first patient discontinued interferon-alpha2b therapy while the second patient elected to continue with therapy. In both cases facial paralysis improved over the ensuing weeks. Bell's palsy is often idiopathic but has been reported. in association with herpesviruses. It is not a recognised complication of chronic hepatitis B or C infection, or interferon-alpha2b therapy. However, the interferons are associated with numerous adverse reactions including various neuropsychiatric manifestations and neurological syndromes. There are several reports of nerve palsies, including optic tract neuropathy, occurring during interferon therapy, and immune-based mechanisms are thought to play a role in the aetiopathogenesis. No reports of Bell's palsy in association with interferon therapy were identified in our literature search, although one possible case has been reported to the Committee of Safety in Medicine. Although Bell's palsy in our patients may have occurred by chance, a neuropathic effect of interferon-alpha2b on the facial nerve cannot be excluded and we urge physicians using interferons to be aware of this potential side-effect.

  12. Treatment of trypanosome-infected mice with exogenous interferon, interferon inducers, or antibody to interferon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that mice resistant to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (the B10.BR/SgSnJ strain) produces, upon infection by this parasite, two peaks of serum interferon (IFN), while the susceptible mice (C3HeB/FeJ) produces no IFN. In the present study, survival times were compared for B10.BR/SgSnJ, C3HeB/FeJ, and CBA/J (an intermediately resistant strain) mice that were injected, prior to infection with the parasite, with either of the following three preparations (1) IFN-gamma, (2) an antibody to IFN-gamma and (3) polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (to induce IFN-alpha/beta). No effect on the survival times of mice by any of these preparations could be demonstrated, contrary to some previous reports.

  13. [Designing of hybrid human interferon alfa-2 strain-producers and the use of enteropeptidase for obtaining N-terminal methionine-free interferons].

    PubMed

    Shirokov, D A; Riabichenko, V V; Akishina, R I; Ospel'nikova, T P; Glazunov, A V; Chestukhina, G G; Veĭko, V P

    2011-01-01

    A system for production of human interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) and IFN-alpha2b lacking N-terminal methionine has been developed. Plasmids containing genes of hybrid IFN-alpha2 under the control of different promoters were constructed; a sequence encoding the enteropeptidase hydrolysis site being introduced in proximal part of the genes. As the result, 4 strains of Escherichia coli producing hybrid IFN-alpha2 have been obtained. The methodology for IFN-alpha2 renaturation, hydrolysis of its N-terminal part, chromatographic purification of N-terminal methionine-free IFN-alpha2 has been developed.

  14. SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN THE BRAIN AND LUNG LEADS TO DIFFERENTIAL TYPE I INTERFERON SIGNALING DURING ACUTE INFECTION*

    PubMed Central

    Alammar, Luna; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E.

    2011-01-01

    Using an accelerated and consistent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pigtailed macaque model of HIV associated neurological disorders, we have demonstrated that virus enters the brain during acute infection. However, neurological symptoms do not manifest until late stages of infection, suggesting that immunological mechanisms exist within the central nervous system (CNS) that control viral replication and associated inflammation. We have shown that interferon beta, a type I interferon central to viral innate immunity, is a major cytokine present in the brain during acute infection and is responsible for limiting virus infection and inflammatory cytokine expression. However, the induction and role of interferon alpha in the CNS during acute SIV infection has never been examined in this model. In the classical model of interferon signaling, interferon beta signals through the interferon α/β receptor, leading to expression of interferon alpha. Surprisingly, although interferon beta is up regulated during acute SIV infection, we found that interferon alpha is down regulated. We demonstrate that this down regulation is coupled with a suppression of signaling molecules downstream of the interferon receptor, namely tyk2, STAT1 and IRF7, as indicated by either lack of protein phosphorylation, lack of nuclear accumulation, or transcriptional and/or translational repression. In contrast to brain, interferon alpha is up regulated in lung and accompanied by activation of tyk2 and STAT1. These data provide a novel observation that during acute SIV infection in the brain there is differential signaling through the interferon α/β receptor that fails to activate expression of interferon alpha in the brain. PMID:21368232

  15. Synthesis and characterization of enzymatically biodegradable PEG and peptide-based hydrogels prepared by click chemistry.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Maarten; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Hennink, Wim E; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2010-06-14

    Herein we describe the synthesis and rheological characterization of a series of enzymatically sensitive PEG and peptide-based hydrogels by the Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The hydrogels were synthesized by a combination of alkyne-functionalized star-shaped PEG molecules (two 4-armed PEGs with M(w) 10 and 20 kDa, respectively, and one 8-armed PEG of 20 kDa) and the protease-sensitive bis-azido peptide, N(alpha)-(azido)-D-alanyl-phenylalanyl-lysyl-(2-azidoethyl)-amide (6) in the presence of CuSO(4) and sodium ascorbate in aqueous solution. The swelling ratio and the storage modulus (G') of the hydrogels could be tailored by several parameters, for example, the initial solid content of the hydrogel, the molecular weight of the PEG derivative, and by the architecture of the PEG molecule (4- versus 8-armed PEG derivative). The peptide sequence, D-Ala-Phe-Lys, was sensitive toward the proteases plasmin and trypsin to render the hydrogels biodegradable.

  16. The regulatory elements of araBAD operon, contrary to lac-based expression systems, afford hypersynthesis of murine, and human interferons in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Alessandra; Alfarano, Pietro; Merulla, Davide; Mattana, Paolo; Rolli, Eleonora; Mangino, Pierluigi; Masotti, Lanfranco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The overexpression of four different interferons, i.e., murine interferon alpha1 and human interferons alpha1, alpha 8, and alpha 21 was challenged in Escherichia coli. Synthetic genes coding for these interferons were designed, assembled, and cloned into the vector pET9a (using the NdeI and BamHI sites), placing interferon expression under the control of phage T7 promoter. Despite an intensive screening for optimal culture conditions, no interferon synthesis was observed using overexpression systems based on the regulatory elements of lac operon (e.g., in E. coli BL21DE3). On the contrary, high levels of interferon expression were detected in E. coli BL21AI, which chromosome contains the gene coding for phage T7 RNA polymerase under the control of the araBAD promoter. To analyze the reasons of this striking difference, the molecular events associated with the lack of interferon expression in E. coli BL21DE3 were studied, and murine interferon alpha1 was chosen as a model system. Surprisingly, it was observed that this interferon represses the synthesis of T7 RNA polymerase in E. coli BL21DE3 and, in particular, the expression of lac operon. In fact, by determining beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli BL21AI, a significantly lower LacZ activity was observed in cells induced to interferon synthesis.

  17. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  18. PEGylated recombinant human interferon-ω as a long-acting antiviral agent: structure, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weili; Yu, Changming; Wu, Ling; Fang, Ting; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Jinlong; Yu, Ting; Fu, Ling; Chen, Wei; Hu, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant human interferon-ω (rhIFN-ω) exhibits a potent antiviral activity. Because of poor pharmacokinetics (PK) of rhIFN-ω, frequent dosing of rhIFN-ω is necessitated to achieve the sustained antiviral efficacy. PEGylation can efficiently improve the PK of rhIFN-ω while substantially decrease its bioactivity. The structure, antiviral activity and PK of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω were measured to establish their relationship with PEGylation sites, polyethylene glycol (PEG) mass and PEG structure. Accordingly, N-terminus and the lysine residues were selected as the PEGylation sites. PEGs with Mw of 20kDa and 40kDa were used to investigate the effect of PEG mass. Linear and branched PEGs were used to investigate the effect of PEG structure. PEGylation decreased the antiviral activity of rhIFN-ω and improved its PK. The PEGylation sites determine the bioactivity of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω and the conjugated PEG mass determines the PK. N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with 40kDa linear PEG maintains 21.7% of the rhIFN-ω antiviral activity with a half-life of 139.6h. Thus, N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with linear 40kDa PEG is a potential antiviral agent for long-acting treatment of the viral diseases.

  19. Virus infection and interferon can activate gene expression through a single synthetic element, but endogenous genes show distinct regulation.

    PubMed

    Raj, N B; Engelhardt, J; Au, W C; Levy, D E; Pitha, P M

    1989-10-05

    Virus inducible elements (IE) in promoters of mouse alpha-interferon and human beta 1-interferon genes contain multiple copies of the hexanucleotide sequence AGT-GAA or its variants which are also found in the interferon-stimulated response element of genes transcriptionally induced by interferon. We have examined the similarities between virus and interferon induction of gene expression and the role of AGTGAA and AAT-GAA hexamers in these responses. Hybrid plasmids were constructed by inserting the IE region, the alpha 4 promoter, or the multiple copies of AGTGAA or AAT-GAA 5' to the inactive-45 human immunodeficiency-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase hybrid gene, and their inducible expression was studied in a transient expression assay. In L-cells, multiple hexamers were efficiently induced both by infection with Newcastle disease virus and by interferon treatment; while the alpha 4 promoter and the IE inducible region were induced predominantly by virus rather than by interferon. In order to dissociate the effect of virus and endogenous interferon on the induction process, we examined the gene expression in Vero cells, which have undergone homozygous deletion of type 1 interferon genes, and in VNPT-159 cells, which were derived from Vero cells by insertion of an inducible human interferon beta 1 gene. The results show that while the alpha 4 promoter was efficiently induced only by virus in both cell types, the constructs containing shorter segments of the IE were induced by both virus and interferon in Vero cells. However, the inducibility by interferon was not detected in VNPT-159 cells, suggesting that the presence of endogenous interferon suppresses interferon-induced expression of hexanucleotide repeats and the short inducible region. In contrast, virus inducibility of endogenous interferon-stimulated genes, ISG-15 and ISG-54, was about 100-fold more efficient in VNPT-159 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting that this induction is largely mediated through

  20. Effect of PEG and mPEG-anthracene on tRNA aggregation and particle formation.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, E; Mandeville, J S; Arnold, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-01-09

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and its derivatives are synthetic polymers with major applications in gene and drug delivery systems. Synthetic polymers are also used to transport miRNA and siRNA in vitro. We studied the interaction of tRNA with several PEGs of different compositions, such as PEG 3350, PEG 6000, and mPEG-anthracene under physiological conditions. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the PEG binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of polymer complexation on tRNA stability, aggregation, and particle formation. Structural analysis showed that PEG-tRNA interaction occurs via RNA bases and the backbone phosphate group with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts. The overall binding constants of K(PEG 3350-tRNA)= 1.9 (±0.5) × 10(4) M(-1), K(PEG 6000-tRNA) = 8.9 (±1) × 10(4) M(-1), and K(mPEG-anthracene)= 1.2 (±0.40) × 10(3) M(-1) show stronger polymer-RNA complexation by PEG 6000 and by PEG 3350 than the mPEG-anthracene. AFM imaging showed that PEG complexes contain on average one tRNA with PEG 3350, five tRNA with PEG 6000, and ten tRNA molecules with mPEG-anthracene. tRNA aggregation and particle formation occurred at high polymer concentrations, whereas it remains in A-family structure.

  1. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. V. Mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on HLA-DR expression, proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Gracia, J M; Zvaifler, N J; Firestein, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a broad array of cytokines, individually and in combination, were determined on separate functions (proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] production) and phenotype (expression of class II MHC antigens) of cultured fibroblast-like RA synoviocytes. The following recombinant cytokines were used: IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, GM-CSF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Only IFN-gamma induced HLA-DR (but not HLA-DQ) expression. TNF-alpha inhibited IFN-gamma-mediated HLA-DR expression (46.7 +/- 4.1% inhibition) and HLA-DR mRNA accumulation. This inhibitory effect was also observed in osteoarthritis synoviocytes. Only TNF-alpha and IL-1 increased synoviocyte proliferation (stimulation index 3.60 +/- 1.03 and 2.31 +/- 0.46, respectively). IFN-gamma (but none of the other cytokines) inhibited TNF-alpha-induced proliferation (70 +/- 14% inhibition) without affecting the activity of IL-1. Only IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced collagenase production (from less than 0.10 U/ml to 1.10 +/- 0.15 and 0.72 +/- 0.24, respectively). IFN-gamma decreased TNF-alpha-mediated collagenase production (69 +/- 19% inhibition) and GM-CSF production but had no effect on the action of IL-1. These data demonstrate mutual antagonism between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on fibroblast-like synoviocytes and suggest a novel homeostatic control mechanism that might be defective in RA where very little IFN-gamma is produced. Images PMID:2174906

  2. Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factors in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Claser, Carla; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and responsible for approximately 500 million clinical cases and 500 thousand deaths annually. Acquired adaptive immune responses control parasite replication and infection-induced pathologies. Most infections are clinically silent which reflects on the ability of adaptive immune mechanisms to prevent the disease. However, a minority of these can become severe and life-threatening, manifesting a range of overlapping syndromes of complex origins which could be induced by uncontrolled immune responses. Major players of the innate and adaptive responses are interferons. Here, we review their roles and the signaling pathways involved in their production and protection against infection and induced immunopathologies. PMID:25157202

  3. Raynaud's phenomenon and bilateral olecranon bursitis co-existing in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D treated with pegylated interferon.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shafique Rehman; Umer, Tahira Perveen

    2016-06-01

    Pegylated interferon remains the first line treatment for patients with hepatitis D virus and more than one year therapy may be necessary. Interferon a has the most extensive clinical application and is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D virus as well as HCV infections. The attachment of polyethylene glycol to interferon increases its half-life. Treatment with peg interferon is associated with many troublesome and occasionally with serious or even life-threatening side effects. In this case report, we have described a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D, who developed Raynaud's phenomenon, ischaemic digital necrosis and bilateral olecranon bursitis during Pegylated interferon therapy. The patient underwent a very extensive workup in order to determine the underlying cause of his digital ischaemia and olecranon bursitis, which was finally determined to be secondary to the use of Pegylated interferon.

  4. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated arginine deiminase: effects of PEG formulations on its pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Holtsberg, Frederick W; Ensor, Charles Mark; Steiner, Marion R; Bomalaski, John S; Clark, Mike A

    2002-04-23

    Some tumors, such as melanomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, have a unique nutritional requirement for arginine. Thus, enzymatic degradation of extracellular arginine is one possible means for inhibiting these tumors. Arginine deiminase is an arginine degrading enzyme (ADI) that has been studied as an anti-cancer enzyme. However, ADI has a short serum half-life and, as a microbial enzyme, is highly immunogenic. Formulation of other therapeutic proteins with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has overcome these problems. Here, ADI-PEGs were synthesized using PEGs of varying size, structure (linear or branched chain) and linker chemistries. All ADI-PEGs retained approximately 50% of enzyme activity when PEG was covalently attached to approximately 40% of the primary amines irrespective of the PEG molecular weight or attachment chemistry used. However, it was observed that, as the PEG size increases to 20 kDa, there was a corresponding increase in the pharmacokinetic (pK) and pharmacodynamic (pD) properties of the formulation. Variation in PEG linker or structure, or the use of PEGs >20,000 mw, did not affect the pK or pD. As has been shown with other therapeutic proteins, repeated injection of ADI-PEG into experimental animals resulted in significantly lower titers of antibodies against this protein than unmodified ADI. These data suggest that formulation of ADI with PEG of 20,000 mw results is the optimal method for formulating this promising therapeutic agent.

  5. Alopecia universalis after discontinuation of pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Nesrine; Brodosi, Lucia; Misciali, Cosimo; Patrizi, Annalisa; Vukatana, Gentiana; Malavolta, Nazzarena; Bernardi, Mauro; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, the combination therapy of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) has been considered as the standard of care treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, it has been associated with an increased incidence of many adverse cutaneous reactions and emergence of autoantibodies or even autoimmune diseases. We report a case of irreversible alopecia universalis (AU) with complete hair loss extended to the whole body, which started after discontinuation of Peg-IFN/RBV combination therapy for chronic HCV infection. In conclusion, this case represents an uncommon presentation of a common disease. Physicians must be aware of the potential adverse reactions of an antiviral therapy containing IFN, which might occur even after the discontinuation, and fully inform the patient at the beginning of his treatment course. We hope that interferon-free regimens will utterly supplant interferon-based therapy for most or all HCV patients avoiding the emergence of autoimmune manifestations.

  6. Split-dose menthol-enhanced PEG vs PEG-ascorbic acid for colonoscopy preparation

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Harb, Ali H; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Badreddine, Rami; Mourad, Fadi H; Othman, Mahmoud; Masri, Omar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and palatability of 4 L polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) plus sugar-free menthol candy (PEG + M) vs reduced-volume 2 L ascorbic acid-supplemented PEG (AscPEG). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial setting, ambulatory patients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either PEG + M or AscPEG, both split-dosed with minimal dietary restriction. Palatability was assessed on a linear scale of 1 to 5 (1 = disgusting; 5 = tasty). Quality of preparation was scored by assignment-blinded endoscopists using the modified Aronchick and Ottawa scales. The main outcomes were the palatability and efficacy of the preparation. Secondary outcomes included patient willingness to retake the same preparation again in the future and completion of the prescribed preparation. RESULTS: Overall, 200 patients were enrolled (100 patients per arm). PEG + M was more palatable than AscPEG (76% vs 62%, P = 0.03). Completing the preparation was not different between study groups (91% PEG + M vs 86% AscPEG, P = 0.38) but more patients were willing to retake PEG + M (54% vs 40% respectively, P = 0.047). There was no significant difference between PEG + M vs AscPEG in adequate cleansing on both the modified Aronchick (82% vs 77%, P = 0.31) and the Ottawa scale (85% vs 74%, P = 0.054). However, PEG + M was superior in the left colon on the Ottawa subsegmental score (score 0-2: 94% for PEG + M vs 81% for AscPEG, P = 0.005) and received significantly more excellent ratings than AscPEG on the modified Aronchick scale (61% vs 43%, P = 0.009). Both preparations performed less well in afternoon vs morning examinations (inadequate: 29% vs 15.2%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: 4 L PEG plus menthol has better palatability and acceptability than 2 L ascorbic acid- PEG and is associated with a higher rate of excellent preparations; Clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01788709. PMID:25684963

  7. The effects of estrogen, its antagonist ICI 182, 780, and interferon-tau on the expression of estrogen receptors and integrin alphaV beta 3 on cycle day 16 in bovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kimmins, Sarah; Russell, Gerald L; Lim, Hai Choo; Hall, Brian K; MacLaren, Leslie A

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that downregulation of intercaruncular stromal integrin αvβ3 in bovine endometrium on day 16 of the estrous cycle coincided with the antibody recognition of estrogen receptors (ER) in the luminal epithelium. In pregnancy, these changes were not observed. Our hypothesis was that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen from the dominant follicle causes a reduction in integrin αvβ3 and affects ERα in the luminal epithelium. The pregnancy recognition protein, interferon-τ (IFN-τ), may prevent downregulation of integrin αvβ3 and suppress ERα expression in the luminal epithelium. On days 14 to 16, heifers received uterine infusions of the anti-estrogen ICI 182, 780, estradiol 17β, IFN-τ or the saline control. On day 16, reproductive tracts were collected for analysis of integrin αvβ3 and ERα. Estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the luminal epithelium in control animals. Using anti-ERα recognizing the amino terminus, estrogen-treated animals showed reactivity in the stroma, shallow and deep glands and myometrium as is typical of estrus, whereas ICI 182, 870 treated heifers showed little or no reactivity. In contrast, carboxyl terminus-directed antibodies showed a widespread distribution of ERα with reactivity detected in the uterine epithelium, stroma and myometrium of both estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treated animals. Heifers treated with IFN-τ had low ERα reactivity overall. Control and IFN-τ treated heifers had lower intercaruncular stromal expression of integrin αvβ3 in comparison to estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treatments. Overall, the results suggest that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen effects on integrin αvβ3 are indirect and do not directly involve ERα in the luminal epithelium. During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERα in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin αvβ3 expression. PMID:12756058

  8. Inhibitory effect of interferon-gamma on adenovirus replication and late transcription.

    PubMed

    Mistchenko, A S; Diez, R A; Falcoff, R

    1989-06-15

    We have previously shown that human interferon-gamma inhibited adenovirus multiplication in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. This action was previous to capsid proteins synthesis and did not involve virus adsorption nor penetration. In this report we have analysed viral mRNA levels at early (7 hr post infection (p.i.)) or late (20 hr p.i.) times, as well as DNA replication in Wish cells pretreated with interferon-gamma and infected with adenovirus 5. Controls included untreated cells as well as cells treated with interferon-alpha, to which adenovirus are reported to be resistant. Transcription of adenovirus regions E1, E4, L1 and L2 has been analysed by Northern blot. Adenovirus DNA replication was determined by DNA-DNA hybridization with total adenovirus 2 DNA. We have also searched for adenovirus E1A proteins by immunoblot with a specific monoclonal antibody. Although pretreatment of cells with either interferon-alpha or interferon-gamma resulted in reduced amounts of E1 and E4 mRNA in the early phase of infection (7 hr p.i.), the near complete inhibition of viral DNA and late transcription was only achieved by interferon-gamma. Immunoblot has shown the absence of the 48-kD E1A protein in cells pretreated with interferon-gamma. The lack of this regulatory adenovirus protein may be involved in the inhibitory mechanism of interferon-gamma on adenovirus.

  9. Cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Lee, Kee-Ook; Kim, Yong-Seok; Kim, Sun-Moon; Huh, Kyu-Chan; Choi, Young-Woo; Kang, Young-Woo

    2014-05-01

    Various adverse events have been reported during combination therapy with pegylated (PEG)-interferon-α and ribavirin, although opportunistic infections, especially cryptococcal meningitis, are very rare. A 61-year-old woman complained of headaches and a fever during treatment of a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. She had been treated for 7 months. Her headaches were refractory to analgesics, and she developed subtle nuchal rigidity. The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) revealed a white blood cell count of 205/mm(3), 51 mg/dL protein, 35 mg/dL glucose, and negative Cryptococcus antigen. The CSF culture resulted in no growth. Five days later, the CSF was positive for Cryptococcus antigen. We administered amphotericin B and flucytosine, followed by fluconazole. Approximately 2 months later, she was discharged. For the first time, we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis during the treatment of chronic HCV with PEG-interferon-α and ribavirin.

  10. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T

    1996-12-01

    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  11. Encapsulation of biogenic and synthetic polyamines by nanoparticles PEG and mPEG-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Sanyakamdhorn, S; Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2014-01-05

    Synthetic polymers play a major role in drug delivery in vitro and in vivo. We report the bindings of biogenic polyamines, spermine (spm), and spermidine (spmd), and their synthetic analogues, 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane⋅4HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane⋅5HCl (BE-3333) with poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-3000, PEG-8000 and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) anthracene (PEG-anthracene). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic were used to analyze polyamine binding mode, the binding constant and the effect of PEG compositions on polyamine-polymer interaction. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind PEG through hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of Kspm-PEG-3000=3.1×10(4)M(-1), Kspmd-PEG-3000=5.5×10(4)M(-1), KBE-333-PEG-3000=2.5×10(4)M(-1), KBE-3333-PEG-3000=1.5×10(5)M(-1), Kspm-PEG-8000=4.1×10(5)M(-1), Kspmd-PEG-8000=7.5×10(5)M(-1), KBE-333-PEG-8000=4.5×10(4)M(-1), KBE-3333-PEG-8000=2.2×10(5)M(-1), Kspm-mPEG-ant=6.5×10(5)M(-1), Kspmd-mPEG-ant=1.1×10(6)M(-1), KBE-333-mPEG-ant=2.2×10(5)M(-1) and KBE-3333-mPEG-ant=6.9×10(4)M(-1). The number of binding sites (n) occupied by polyamines were from 0.2 to 0.5. Biogenic polyamines showed stronger affinity toward polymer complexation than synthetic polyamines, while weaker interaction was observed as polyamine cationic charges increased. Our results suggest that PEG and its derivative can act as carriers for delivering antitumor polyamine analogues to target tissues.

  12. Interferon-α induced severe thrombocytopenia: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Han, Da-Kang; Lu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of severe thrombocytopenia following pegylated interferon-α 2a (Peg-IFN-α 2a) treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and summarize the clinical characteristics of 16 cases of IFN-α induced severe thrombocytopenia and its immune-mediated mechanism. Discontinuation of IFN-α and early administration of immunosuppressants are the effective therapy for IFN-α induced severe thrombocytopenia. PMID:20238410

  13. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  14. Interferon-induced 2'-5' adenylate synthetase in vivo and interferon production in vitro by lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without circulating interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Preble, O.T.; Rothko, K.; Klippel, J.H.; Friedman, R.M.; Johnston, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    The interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme 2-5A synthetase was elevated in mononuclear cells from both serum IFN-positive and -negative systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This suggests that a much higher percentage of patients than previously thought produce endogenous IFN. These results may partly explain findings that mononuclear cells from SLE patients are deficient in IFN production in vitro in response to certain IFN inducers. Although normal lymphocytes can produce an acid-labile alpha IFN after stimulation with C. parvum in vitro, the reason for endogenous production of this unusual alpha IFN by SLE patients remains unknown.

  15. Interferon-alpha/beta deficiency greatly exacerbates arthritogenic disease in mice infected with wild-type chikungunya virus but not with the cell culture-adapted live-attenuated 181/25 vaccine candidate

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Burke, Crystal W.; Higgs, Stephen T.; Klimstra, William B.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes fever, rash, and acute and persisting polyarthalgia/arthritis associated with joint swelling. We report a new CHIKV disease model in adult mice that distinguishes the wild-type CHIKV-LR strain from the live-attenuated vaccine strain (CHIKV-181/25). Although eight-week old normal mice inoculated in the hind footpad developed no hind limb swelling with either virus, CHIKV-LR replicated in musculoskeletal tissues and caused detectable inflammation. In mice deficient in STAT1-dependent interferon (IFN) responses, CHIKV-LR caused significant swelling of the inoculated and contralateral limbs and dramatic inflammatory lesions, while CHIKV-181/25 vaccine and another arthritogenic alphavirus, Sindbis, failed to induce swelling. IFN responses suppressed CHIKV-LR and CHIKV-181/25 replication equally in dendritic cells in vitro whereas macrophages were refractory to infection independently of STAT1-mediated IFN responses. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding may be a CHIKV vaccine attenuation mechanism as CHIKV-LR infectivity was not dependent upon GAG, while CHIKV-181/25 was highly dependent. PMID:22305131

  16. [Dynamics of interferon production during different phases of the pathological process in children with acute pneumonia and relapsing bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, O L

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of gaining further insight into regularities of changes that take place in indices for the interferon status in children with acute pneumonia and current bronchitis depending on the phase of the pathological process, 112 children were examined in whom the level of serum interferon was measured together with production of alpha- and gamma-interferon by leucocytes of the peripheral blood in vitro. It is shown that in the examined patients with acute pneumonia and relapsing bronchitis in the acute period and during the phase of reparation there are differences in functioning of indices for the system of interferon.

  17. [Gamma interferon induced in human leukocytes by phytohemagglutinin: its production and biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Danielescu, G; Maniu, H; Georgescu, T; Cajal, N

    1988-01-01

    Human gamma type interferon (IFN) preparations were obtained through phytohemagglutinin stimulation of leukocytes from the peripheral blood. Biological value of these preparations varied between 160 u and 800 u/ml, depending on leukocyte incubation medium, culture system and inductor conservation. The rising of the antiviral activity through association between gamma (3 u) and alpha (27 u) interferons was revealed by the virus quantity reduction (in this case the vesicular stomatitis virus was used) during a 24-hour multiplication cycle. The protection ensured by the mixture of the two types of interferon was about ten times higher than the additive effect of the two preparations. Study of the antiproliferative activity of a gamma interferon preparation was conducted on two human cell lines of tumoral origin (T-10 from a glioblastoma, and HEp-2) and revealed the difficulties to quantify precisely this property of the crude gamma interferon preparations.

  18. Evolution of Interferons and Interferon Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Secombes, Chris J.; Zou, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The earliest jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomes) would likely have had interferon (IFN) genes, since they are present in extant cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and bony fish (lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, the latter consisting of the chondrostei, holostei, and teleostei), as well as in tetrapods. They are thought to have evolved from a class II helical cytokine ancestor, along with the interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family. The two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) that occurred between invertebrates and vertebrates (1) may have given rise to additional loci, initially containing an IL-10 ancestor and IFN ancestor, which have duplicated further to give rise to the two loci containing the IL-10 family genes, and potentially the IFN type I and IFN type III loci (2). The timing of the divergence of the IFN type II gene from the IL-10 family genes is not clear but was also an early event in vertebrate evolution. Further WGD events at the base of the teleost fish, and in particular teleost lineages (cyprinids, salmonids), have duplicated the loci further, giving rise to additional IFN genes, with tandem gene duplication within a locus a common occurrence. Finally, retrotransposition events have occurred in different vertebrate lineages giving rise to further IFN loci, with large expansions of genes at these loci in some cases. This review will initially explore the likely IFN system present in the earliest Gnathostomes by comparison of the known cartilaginous fish genes with those present in mammals and will then explore the changes that have occurred in gene number/diversification, gene organization, and the encoded proteins during vertebrate evolution. PMID:28303139

  19. Pegylated Interferon α-2a Triggers NK-Cell Functionality and Specific T-Cell Responses in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection without HBsAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Bruder Costa, Juliana; Dufeu-Duchesne, Tania; Leroy, Vincent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Pouget, Noelle; Brevot-Lutton, Ophelie; Bourliere, Marc; Zoulim, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (Peg-IFN-α) represents a therapeutic alternative to the prolonged use of nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The mechanisms leading to a positive clinical outcome remain unclear. As immune responses are critical for virus control, we investigated the effects of Peg-IFN-α on both innate and adaptive immunity, and related it to the clinical evolution. The phenotypic and functional features of the dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells and HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells were analyzed in HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated for 48-weeks with NA alone or together with Peg-IFN-α, before, during and up to 2-years after therapy. Peg-IFN-α induced an early activation of DCs, a potent expansion of the CD56bright NK subset, and enhanced the activation and functionality of the CD56dim NK subset. Peg-IFN-α triggered an increase in the frequencies of Th1- and Th17-oriented HBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cells. Peg-IFN-α reversed the unresponsiveness of patients to a specific stimulation. Most of the parameters returned to baseline after the stop of Peg-IFN-α therapy. Peg-IFN-α impacts both innate and adaptive immunity, overcoming dysfunctional immune responses in CHB patients. These modulations were not associated with seroconversion, which questioned the benefit of the add-on Peg-IFN-α treatment. PMID:27348813

  20. Component(s) of Sendai virus that can induce interferon in mouse spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Hosaka, Y

    1983-01-01

    To identify the active component of Sendai virus that induces interferon in mouse spleen cells, infectious and noninfectious viruses, envelope particles derived from them, and isolated hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins were examined for interferon induction. The interaction between membranous structures containing Sendai virus HN glycoprotein and the receptors on the cell surface was shown to be sufficient for interferon induction in mouse spleen cells, suggesting that the actual inducer of interferon in mouse spleen cells is the HN glycoprotein of Sendai virus. When mouse spleen cells were stimulated in vitro with Sendai virus grown in eggs or LLC-MK2 cells or with membranous structures containing glycoproteins obtained from these viruses, interferon could be detected in the culture fluid. Furthermore, isolated HN glycoprotein per se could induce interferon in the cells. A linear correlation was found between the titer of interferon induced and the hemagglutinating activity of the membranous structure containing the HN glycoprotein. It was concluded from these findings that HN glycoprotein was the active component of Sendai virus responsible for interferon induction in mouse spleen cells and that viral RNA and F glycoprotein were not required. The results also showed that the interaction between HN glycoprotein and receptors on the cell surface triggered production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Although when Sendai virus was incubated at 56 degrees C for 5 min it lost its hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities, it induced a considerable amount of interferon in the culture fluid of mouse spleen cells. The interferon-inducing ability of heat-inactivated virus could be absorbed with mouse spleen cells but not with sheep erythrocytes or mouse erythrocytes, indicating that the inactivated virus retained ability to bind to mouse lymphoid cells. PMID:6301988

  1. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Link, B M; Wagner, E R; Cosgrove, D J

    2001-10-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar outgrowth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. The development of the peg is thought to be gravity-dependent and has become a model system for plant-gravity response. Peg development requires rapid cell expansion, a process thought to be catalyzed by alpha-expansins, and thus was a good system to identify expansins that were regulated by gravity. This study identified 7 new alpha-expansin cDNAs from cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) and examined their expression patterns. Two alpha-expansins (CsExp3 and CsExp4) were more highly expressed in the peg and the root. Earlier reports stated that pegs tend not to form in the absence of gravity, so the expression levels were compared in the pegs of seedlings grown in space (STS-95), on a clinostat, and on earth (1 g). Pegs were observed to form at high frequency on clinostat and space-grown seedlings, yet on clinostats there was more than a 4-fold reduction in the expression of CsExp3 in the pegs of seedlings grown on clinostats vs. those grown at 1 g, while the CsExp4 gene appeared to be turned off (below detection limits). There were no detectable differences in expansin gene expression levels for the pegs of seedlings grown in space or in the orbiter environmental simulator (OES) (1 g) at NASA. The microgravity environment did not affect the expression of CsExp3 or CsExp4, and the clinostat did not simulate the microgravity environment well.

  2. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Wagner, E. R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar outgrowth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. The development of the peg is thought to be gravity-dependent and has become a model system for plant-gravity response. Peg development requires rapid cell expansion, a process thought to be catalyzed by alpha-expansins, and thus was a good system to identify expansins that were regulated by gravity. This study identified 7 new alpha-expansin cDNAs from cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) and examined their expression patterns. Two alpha-expansins (CsExp3 and CsExp4) were more highly expressed in the peg and the root. Earlier reports stated that pegs tend not to form in the absence of gravity, so the expression levels were compared in the pegs of seedlings grown in space (STS-95), on a clinostat, and on earth (1 g). Pegs were observed to form at high frequency on clinostat and space-grown seedlings, yet on clinostats there was more than a 4-fold reduction in the expression of CsExp3 in the pegs of seedlings grown on clinostats vs. those grown at 1 g, while the CsExp4 gene appeared to be turned off (below detection limits). There were no detectable differences in expansin gene expression levels for the pegs of seedlings grown in space or in the orbiter environmental simulator (OES) (1 g) at NASA. The microgravity environment did not affect the expression of CsExp3 or CsExp4, and the clinostat did not simulate the microgravity environment well.

  3. Anti-PEG immunity: emergence, characteristics, and unaddressed questions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    The modification of protein and nanoparticle therapeutics with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a flexible, uncharged, and highly hydrophilic polymer, is a widely adopted approach to reduce RES clearance, extend circulation time, and improve drug efficacy. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature, generated by numerous research groups, demonstrates that the immune system can produce antibodies that specifically bind PEG, which can lead to the 'accelerated blood clearance' of PEGylated therapeutics. In animals, anti-PEG immunity is typically robust but short-lived and consists of a predominantly anti-PEG IgM response. Rodent studies suggest that the induction of anti-PEG antibodies (α-PEG Abs) primarily occurs through a type 2 T-cell independent mechanism. Although anti-PEG immunity is less well-studied in humans, the presence of α-PEG Abs has been correlated with reduced efficacy of PEGylated therapeutics in clinical trials. The prevalence of anti-PEG IgG and reports of memory immune responses, as well as the existence of α-PEG Abs in healthy untreated individuals, suggests that the mechanism(s) and features of human anti-PEG immune responses may differ from those of animal models. Many questions, including the incidence rate of pre-existing α-PEG Abs and immunological mechanism(s) of α-PEG Ab formation in humans, must be answered in order to fully address the potential complications of anti-PEG immunity.

  4. Anti-PEG immunity: emergence, characteristics, and unaddressed questions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Lai, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    The modification of protein and nanoparticle therapeutics with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a flexible, uncharged and highly hydrophilic polymer, is a widely adopted approach to reduce RES clearance, extend circulation time, and improve drug efficacy. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature, generated by numerous research groups, demonstrates that the immune system can produce antibodies that specifically bind PEG, which can lead to the “accelerated blood clearance” of PEGylated therapeutics. In animals, anti-PEG immunity is typically robust but short-lived and consists of a predominantly anti-PEG IgM response. Rodent studies suggest that the induction of anti-PEG antibodies (α-PEG Abs) primarily occurs through a type 2 T-cell independent mechanism. Although anti-PEG immunity is less well-studied in humans, the presence of α-PEG Abs has been correlated with reduced efficacy of PEGylated therapeutics in clinical trials. The prevalence of anti-PEG IgG and reports of memory immune responses, as well as the existence of α-PEG Abs in healthy untreated individuals, suggests that the mechanism(s) and features of human anti-PEG immune responses may differ from those of animal models. Many questions, including the incidence rate of pre-existing α-PEG Abs and immunological mechanism(s) of α-PEG Ab formation in humans, must be answered in order to fully address the potential complications of anti-PEG immunity. PMID:25707913

  5. Quantitative analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in PEG-modified proteins/cytokines by aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, C; Malik, F; Selisko, B; Fisher, D; Francis, G E

    1994-12-01

    Covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to proteins produces conjugates with altered/improved physicochemical and biological properties which depend upon the number of PEG chains linked. Quantification of the attached PEG is however not a trivial issue. The partition coefficient, K, of the PEG-protein conjugate in PEG/dextran two-phase systems provides a quantitative measure for the degree of modification. A linear relationship between log K and the number of PEG chains was observed in fractionated PEG-modified-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor conjugates having 1 to 3 substitutions. Furthermore, in mixtures of PEG-bovine-serum-albumin conjugates with increasing degrees of modification, a linear relationship was found between log K and n, the average substitution. The increment in log K per PEG chain added is protein specific and this suggests that the interactions between the PEG-protein conjugate and the polymers in the phase system are more complex than just a simple affinity of the PEG for the PEG-rich top phase. Increasing the polymer concentration in the phase system produces larger increments in log K per PEG molecule attached and the proportionality between log K and number of PEG molecules is only compromised for conjugates with high degree of substitution when partitioned in biphasic systems of high concentration of polymers.

  6. Inhibitory effects of interferon-gamma on myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongkui; Li, Wei; Yang, Renhui; Ogasawara, Annie; Lu, Hsienwie; Paoni, Nicholas F

    2005-09-21

    Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) plays an important role in pathologic cardiac growth. After testing several immune cytokines, we found that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inhibited responsiveness of adult myocytes to PGF(2alpha). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that IFN-gamma inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by PGF(2alpha). Incubation of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes with PGF(2alpha) caused cell spreading, which was inhibited by IFN-gamma. The inhibitory effect was not affected by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors. In addition, administration of fluprostenol, a more selective agonist at the PGF(2alpha) receptor, induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Chronic treatment with IFN-gamma inhibited this myocardial growth, and the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma was not accompanied by an increase in myocardial NO synthase gene expression. Further, abdominal aortic constriction resulted in a substantial increase in heart, ventricular and left ventricular weights to BW ratio that was significantly attenuated by treatment with IFN-gamma. The results demonstrate that IFN-gamma inhibits the in vitro and in vivo effects of PGF(2alpha) on cardiac hypertrophy, and that the mechanism of action is likely independent of NO production. IFN-gamma also attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload, suggesting that PGF(2alpha) plays a role in the pathogeneses of this severe type of cardiac hypertrophy.

  7. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  8. Interaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with the membrane-binding domains following spinal cord injury (SCI): introduction of a mechanism for SCI repair.

    PubMed

    Rad, Iman; Khodayari, Kaveh; Hadi Alijanvand, Saeid; Mobasheri, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Lipid-binding domains regulate positioning of the membrane proteins via specific interactions with phospholipid's head groups. Spinal cord injury (SCI) diminishes the integrity of neural fiber membranes at nanoscopic level. In cases that the ruptured zone size is beyond the natural resealing ability, there is a need for reinforcing factors such as polymers (e.g. Polyethylene glycol) to patch the dismantled axoplasm. Certain conserved sequential and structural patterns of interacting residues specifically bind to PEGs. It is also found that PEG600, PEG400 and PEG200 share the strongest interaction with the lipid-binding domains even more successful than phospholipid head groups. The alpha helix structure composed of hydrophobic, neutral and acidic residues prepares an opportunity for PEG400 to play an amphipathic role in the interaction with injured membrane. This in-silico study introduces a mechanism for PEG restorative ability at the molecular level. It is believed that PEG400 interrelates the injured membrane to their underneath axoplasm while retaining the integrity of ruptured membrane via interaction with ENTH domains of membrane proteins. This privilege of PEG400 in treating injured membrane must be considered in designing of polymeric biomaterials that are introduced for SCI repair.

  9. Staphylococcal infection of the odontoid peg.

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, S.; Crockard, A.

    1992-01-01

    An epidural abscess secondary to osteomyelitis of the odontoid peg produced a sudden left-sided weakness. Appropriate antibiotics, transoral evacuation of the pus and subsequent posterior atlanto-axial fusion were associated with a full recovery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1561192

  10. The effect of two different polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives on the immunological response of PEG grafted pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Aghajani-Lazarjani, Hamideh; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Zahediasl, Saleh; Tiraihi, Taki; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2010-12-01

    Islet transplantation is one of the promising ways to treat diabetes. To reduce the immune system response, several methods have been developed, a novel one being the grafting of methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) derivatives onto collagen capsules of islets. In this study, the effects of the first and second generations of activated mPEG on the immunological response of polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted pancreatic islets were studied. mPEG-Succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) and mPEG-succinimidyl propionic acid (mPEG-SPA) (with nominal molecular weight 5 kDa), typical of the first and second generations of activated mPEG, were selected, respectively. Both activated mPEGs did not affect the morphology, viability, or functionality of PEGylated islets compared to free islets (naked islets). The amount of IL-2 secreted from lymphocytes co-cultured with mPEG-SPA grafted islets (131.83 ± 15.28 pg/ml) was not significantly different from that with mPEG-SC grafted islets (156.09 ± 27.94 pg/ml). These results indicated that both mPEG-SC and mPEG-SPA had the same effect for camouflaging Langerhans islets, but the former is more suitable due to its easier synthesis process.

  11. Tolerability and efficacy of pegylated consensus interferon-α in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan-Hua; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hong; Luo, Hua; Sun, Yan-Fu; Liu, Cheng-Jiao; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yu-Chen; Chen, Hong; Niu, Jun-Qi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore and evaluate the tolerability and antiviral activity of pegylated recombinant human consensus interferon-α (PEG-CIFN) in adults with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 48 adult subjects chronically infected with HCV were divided into five groups, which were treated separately with PEG-CIFN 1.0 µg/kg (n=10), 1.5 µg/kg (n=10), 2.0 µg/kg (n=9) or 3.0 µg/kg (n=10), or pegylated IFN α-2a (Pegasys) 180 µg (n=9) as controls. Symptoms were observed and laboratory results collected to monitor adverse reactions, adjust drug dosage and evaluate tolerability. The thrombocytopenic effects in all PEG-CIFN dose groups were less than that of pegylated IFN α-2a (at week 14, P<0.05). The rapid virologic response of the PEG-CIFN 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 µg/kg groups and the pegylated IFN α-2a group were significantly higher than that of the PEG-CIFN 1.0 µg/kg group (P<0.05). Patients who had HCV genotype 1b infections had relatively high responses. The early virologic response of the PEG-CIFN 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/kg groups and the pegylated IFN α-2a group were 30, 90, 88.8 and 88.8% respectively. PEG-CIFN is well tolerated, and was found to have dose-dependent effectiveness in subjects with chronic hepatitis C. Virological response rates between PEG-CIFN 1.5 or 2.0 µg/kg, and pegylated IFNα-2a were similar, and not significantly different. It is concluded that 1.5 µg/kg PEG-CIFN may be the clinically recommended dose. PEG-CIFN is superior to pegylated IFN α-2a in maintaining platelet levels. PMID:28123460

  12. Interferon-λ polymorphisms and response to pegylated interferon in Iranian hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Haj-sheykholeslami, Arghavan; Keshvari, Maryam; Sharafi, Heidar; Pouryasin, Ali; Hemmati, Khalil; Mohammadzadehparjikolaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of pegylated interferon in Iranian chronic hepatitis C patients in relation to interferon-λ (IFNL) polymorphisms. METHODS: This study enrolled patients with chronic hepatitis C referred to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Hepatitis Clinic in 2011. Patients were included in the study if they had no concomitant hepatic illness, were negative for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies, and had no prior history of treatment with any type of pegylated interferon. Patients were treated with 180 μg pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Pegaferon®) weekly and 800-1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 or 48 wk depending on weight and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype. Blood samples were collected from patients to obtain DNA for determination of IFNL rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms. The virologic response in patients was then evaluated and compared between the different IFNL genotypes. RESULTS: A total of 152 patients with a mean age of 41.9 ± 10.0 years were included in the study, of which 141/152 were men (92.8%). The most frequent HCV genotype was type-1, infecting 93/152 (61.2%) patients. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved in 81.9% of patients with HCV genotype-1 and 91.1% of patients with HCV genotype-3. Treatment success was achieved in 91.2% (52/57) of patients with the IFNL rs12979860 CC genotype and 82.1% (78/95) in those with other genotypes. Similar treatment response rates were also observed in patients with rs8099917 TT (39/45; 86.7%) and non-TT (61/68; 89.7%) genotypes. Univariate analyses identified the following factors which influenced treatment response for inclusion in a multivariate analysis: age, HCV RNA level, stage of liver fibrosis, rs12979860 CC genotype, and aspartate transaminase level. A logistic regression analysis revealed that only the rs12979860 CC genotype was significantly associated with achievement of SVR (OR = 6.2; 95%CI: 1.2-31.9; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with

  13. Development of a novel site-specific pegylated interferon beta for antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Masataka; Uchida, Takuro; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Kan, Hiromi; Makokha, Grace Naswa; Abe-Chayama, Hiromi; Miki, Daiki; Imamura, Michio; Ochi, Hidenori; Hayes, C Nelson; Shimozono, Rieko; Iwamura, Tomokatsu; Narumi, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Kainoh, Mie; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-04-03

    Although nucleot(s)ide analogues and pegylated-interferon-α2a (PEG-IFNα2a) can suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, it is difficult to achieve complete HBV elimination from hepatocytes. A novel site-specific pegylated recombinant human IFNβ (TRK-560) was recently developed. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral effects of TRK-560 on HBV replication in vitro and in vivoIn vitro and in vivo HBV replication models were treated with antivirals including TRK-560, and changes in HBV markers were evaluated. To analyze antiviral mechanisms, cDNA microarray analysis and an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) were performed. TRK-560 significantly suppressed the production of intracellular HBV replication intermediates and extracellular HBsAg (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), and the antiviral effects of TRK-560 were enhanced in combination with nucleot(s)ide analogues, such as entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The reduction in HBV DNA levels by TRK-560 treatment was significantly higher than that by PEG-IFNα2a treatment both in vitro and in vivo (P=0.004, P=0.046, respectively), and intracellular HBV cccDNA reduction by TRK-560 treatment was also significantly higher than by PEG-IFNα2a treatment in vivo (P=0.0495). cDNA microarrays and ELISA for CXCL10 production revealed significant differences between TRK-560 and PEG-IFNα2a in the induction potency of interferon stimulated genes. TRK-560 shows a stronger antiviral potency via higher induction of interferon stimulated genes and stronger stimulation of immune cell chemotaxis compared to PEG-IFNα2a. As HBsAg loss and HBV cccDNA eradication are important clinical goals, these results suggest a potential role for TRK-560 in the development of more effective treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection.

  14. Ophthalmologic Complications In Children With Chronic Hepatitis C Treated With Pegylated Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Narkewicz, Michael R.; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B; Drack, Arlene; Margolis, Todd; Repka, Michael X.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Interferon treatment for chronic viral hepatitis C (HCV) has been associated with the development of retinopathy in 19–29% of adults. Our purpose is to describe the ophthalmological complications of pegylated interferon (PEG) α2a with either placebo or ribavirin in children with chronic HCV (THE PEDS-C TRIAL). Methods Prospective comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations including slit lamp at enrollment and after 24 and 48 weeks of treatment of 114 children participating in a randomized clinical trial. Results 128 children were screened for entry of which 123 had an eye exam and no child had existing retinal disease. 114 children were eligible and were treated. 110 children had an eye exam at 24 weeks and 103 at 48 weeks. 3 of 114 subjects (2.6%) developed documented (n=2) or possible (1) serious eye complications: One developed evidence of ischemic retinopathy (cotton wool spots) by week 24, one developed uveitis by week 48, and one reported at week 48 transient (<4 hours) monocular blindness that had occurred at week 36 with a subsequent normal exam at week 48. Conclusions Ophthalmologic complications are infrequent in children who are treated with PEG α2a for HCV (2–3%). Because of the potential severity of ischemic retinopathy and uveitis, prospective ocular assessment should remain part of the monitoring strategy for children who are treated with interferon for HCV. PMID:20512062

  15. Binding of human fibroblast interferon to concanavalin A-agarose. Involvement of carbohydrate recognition and hydrophobic interaction.

    PubMed

    Davey, M W; Sulkowski, E; Carter, W A

    1976-02-10

    Human fibroblast interferon binds to a concanavalin A-agarose (Con A-Sepharose) equilibrated with methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside, or levan; in contrast, it is only partially retarded on a similar column equilibrated with ethylene glycol. Interferon does not bind, however, to a lectin column equilibrated with both methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside and ethylene glycol. Thus, a hydrophobic interaction between fibroblast interferon and the immobilized lectin seems to account for a large portion of the binding forces involved. Other hydrophobic solutes, such as dioxane, 1, 2-propanediol, and tetraethylammonium chloride, were found equally or more efficient than ethylene glycol in displacing interferon from the lectin column. The elution pattern of interferon from a concanavalin A-agarose (Con A-Sepharose) column, at a constant ehtylene glycol concentration and with an increasing mannoside concentration, reveals the existence of four distinct interferon components. The selective adsorption to and elution from a concanavalin A-agarose (Con A-Sepharose) column resulted in about a 3000-fold purification of human fibroblast interferon and complete recovery of activity. The specific activity of the partially purified interferon preparation is about 5 X 10(7) units per mg of protein. The chromatographic behavior of human leukocyte interferon is remarkable in that it does not bind to concanavalin A-agarose at all indicating the absence of carbohydrate moieties recognizable by the lectin, or if present, their masked status. When concanavalin A was coupled to an agarose matrix (cyanogen bromide activated) at pH 8.0 and 6.0 human fibroblast interferon bound to both lectin-agarose adsorbents and could be recovered with methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Concanavalin A, immobilized directly on agarose matrix at pH 8.0 and 6.0, thus displays only carbohydrate recognition toward interferon. By contrast, unless a hydrophobic solute was included in the solvent containing methyl mannoside

  16. The labeling of stem cells by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with PEG/PVP or PEG/PEI.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gao; Ma, Weiqiong; Zhang, Baolin; Xie, Qi

    2016-05-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) co-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) (PEG/PVP-SPIONs), and PEG and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) co-modified SPIONs (PEG/PEI-SPIONs) synthesized by thermal decomposition have been used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents to label adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with PEG/PVP-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs for 12h, and the MRI of labeled cells was evaluated. The cell viability tests showed the low cytotoxicity of PEG/PVP-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs. The cellular iron content incubated with PEG/PVP-SPIONs at a concentration of 25 μg/ml was 6.96 pg/cell, the cellular iron contents incubated with PEG/PEI-SPIONs at concentrations of 12 and 25 μg/ml were 20.16, 35.4 pg/cell, respectively. The SPIONs were located predominantly in the intracellular vesicles. The cellular iron oxide uptake was significantly high after incubation with PEG/PEI-SPIONs as compared with the commercial iron oxide agents (Feridex, Feridex@PLL, Resovist and Resovist@PLL) reported. This work demonstrates that PEG/PEI-SPIONs are the competent agents for the labeling of ADSCs.

  17. Impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with elements of retinal vein occlusion in a patient on interferon for polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Rue, Kelly S; Hirsch, Louis K; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2012-01-01

    We describe the course and likely pathophysiology of impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and retinal vein occlusion in a 56-year-old man with polycythemia vera managed with interferon alpha for 2 years. Our patient presented with decreased vision, scintillating scotomata, and floaters. Fundus examination findings and results of a fluorescein angiogram led to the diagnosis of impending AION and retinal vein occlusion. Considering that both polycythemia vera and interferon have possible influences on vascular occlusion and optic disc edema, we stopped interferon treatment and immediately attempted to treat the polycythemia vera empirically with pentoxifylline and any interferon-associated inflammation with prednisone. Our patient experienced complete resolution of fundus abnormalities and return of normal vision within 3 weeks, which may be attributed to our successful treatment of both etiologies. Thus, further study is warranted to elucidate the treatment of both polycythemia vera and interferon-induced impending AION.

  18. PEG feeding tube placement and aftercare.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Sharlene

    Some adults and children are unable to swallow or eat and drink enough. Insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube may enable long-term feeding, fluid and/or medication administration. The procedure involves gastroscopy under sedation to identify tube placement site, place the tube and check it has been placed correctly. Serious complications include peritonitis and perforation of the colon. Frequent observations immediately after placement are essential. With good nursing care, complications can be avoided or dealt with promptly.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  20. Effects of Pegylated Interferon/Ribavirin on Bone Turnover Markers in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients.

    PubMed

    Bedimo, Roger; Kang, Minhee; Tebas, Pablo; Overton, Edgar T; Hollabaugh, Kimberly; McComsey, Grace; Bhattacharya, Debika; Evans, Christopher; Brown, Todd T; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-04-01

    HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients have a 3-fold increased fracture incidence compared to uninfected patients. The impact of HCV therapy on bone health is unclear. We evaluated bone turnover markers (BTM) in well-controlled (HIV RNA <50 copies/ml) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who received pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in ACTG trial A5178. Early virologic responders (EVR: ≥2 log HCV RNA drop at week 12) continued PEG-IFN/RBV and non-EVRs were randomized to continuation of PEG-IFN alone or observation. We assessed changes in C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX; bone resorption marker) and procollagen type I intact N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; bone formation marker), and whether BTM changes were associated with EVR, complete early virologic response (cEVR: HCV RNA <600 IU/ml at week 12), or PEG-IFN treatment. A total of 192 subjects were included. After 12 weeks of PEG-IFN/RBV, CTX and P1NP decreased: -120 pg/ml and -8.48 μg/liter, respectively (both p < 0.0001). CTX declines were greater in cEVR (N = 91; vs. non-cEVR (N = 101; p = 0.003). From week 12 to 24, CTX declines were sustained among EVR patients who continued PEG-IFN/RBV (p = 0.027 vs. non-EVR) and among non-EVR patients who continued PEG-IFN alone (p = 0.022 vs. Observation). Median decreases of P1NP in EVR vs. non-EVR were similar at weeks 12 and 24. PEG-IFN-based therapy for chronic HCV markedly reduces bone turnover. It is unclear whether this is a direct IFN effect or a result of HCV viral clearance, or whether they will result in improved bone mineral density. Further studies with IFN-free regimens should explore these questions.

  1. Antiviral Actions of Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs. Furthermore, advances made while elucidating the IFN system have contributed significantly to our understanding in multiple areas of virology and molecular cell biology, ranging from pathways of signal transduction to the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control to the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. IFNs are approved therapeutics and have moved from the basic research laboratory to the clinic. Among the IFN-induced proteins important in the antiviral actions of IFNs are the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L, and the Mx protein GTPases. Double-stranded RNA plays a central role in modulating protein phosphorylation and RNA degradation catalyzed by the IFN-inducible PKR kinase and the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L, respectively, and also in RNA editing by the IFN-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1). IFN also induces a form of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS2) and the major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins, all of which play important roles in immune response to infections. Several additional genes whose expression profiles are altered in response to IFN treatment and virus infection have been identified by microarray analyses. The availability of cDNA and genomic clones for many of the components of the IFN system, including IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ, their receptors, Jak and Stat and IRF signal transduction components, and proteins such as PKR, 2′,5′-OAS, Mx, and ADAR, whose expression is regulated by IFNs, has permitted the generation of mutant proteins, cells that overexpress different forms of the proteins, and animals in which their expression has been disrupted by targeted gene disruption. The use of these IFN system

  2. Molecular analysis of patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia receiving pegylated interferon α-2a

    PubMed Central

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Manshouri, Taghi; Kilpivaara, Outi; Cortes, Jorge; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Zhang, Su-Jiang; Harris, David; Estrov, Zeev; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2013-01-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) has previously been shown to induce hematologic and molecular responses in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET). Here we present a follow-up of a phase 2 trial with PEG-IFN-α-2a treatment in 43 PV and 40 ET patients with detailed molecular analysis. After a median follow-up of 42 months, complete hematologic response was achieved in 76% of patients with PV and 77% of those with ET. This was accompanied by complete molecular response (CMR) (ie, undetectable JAK2V617F) in 18% and 17%, of PV and ET patients, respectively. Serial sequencing of TET2, ASXL1, EZH2, DNMT3A, and IDH1/2 revealed that patients failing to achieve CMR had a higher frequency of mutations outside the Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway and were more likely to acquire new mutations during therapy. Patients with both JAK2V617F and TET2 mutations at therapy onset had a higher JAK2V617F mutant allele burden and a less significant reduction in JAK2V617F allele burden compared with JAK2 mutant/TET2 wild-type patients. These data demonstrate that PEG-IFN-α-2a induces sustained CMR in a subset of PV or ET patients, and that genotypic context may influence clinical and molecular response to PEG-IFN-α-2a. PMID:23782935

  3. Ticks Take Cues from Mammalian Interferon.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Aravinda M

    2016-07-13

    Interferons are considered a first line of immune defense restricted to vertebrates. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Smith et al. (2016) demonstrate that mammalian interferon γ activates an antimicrobial response within ticks feeding on blood. The study suggests that arthropods have a parallel interferon-like defense system.

  4. Enhanced tumour specificity of an anti-carcinoembrionic antigen Fab' fragment by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification.

    PubMed

    Delgado, C; Pedley, R B; Herraez, A; Boden, R; Boden, J A; Keep, P A; Chester, K A; Fisher, D; Begent, R H; Francis, G E

    1996-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification of a chimeric Fab' fragment (F9) of A5B7 (alpha-CEA), using an improved coupling method, increases its specificity for subcutaneous LS174T tumours. PEGylation increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-144) in all tissues but there were significant differences (variance ratio test, F = 27.95, P < 0.001) between the proportional increases in AUC0-144, with the tumour showing the greatest increase. The increase in AUCtumour from F9 to PEG-F9 was similar to the reported increase from Fab' to F(ab')2 while the increase in AUCblood by PEGylation of F9 was only 21% of the reported increase from Fab' to whole IgG. A two sample t-test showed no significant differences between maximal tumour/tissue ratios for PEG-F9 and F9 while the tumour/tissue ratios for PEG-F9 remained high over a longer period, with tumour levels at least double those for F9. PEG-F9 emerges as a new generation antibody with potential advantages for both radioimmunotherapy and tumour imaging. Since there was a reduction in antigen binding, optimisation of PEGylation might further improve tumour specificity. The latter resulted from complex effects on both the entry into and exit rates from tumour and normal tissues in a tissue-specific fashion.

  5. Enhanced tumour specificity of an anti-carcinoembrionic antigen Fab' fragment by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, C.; Pedley, R. B.; Herraez, A.; Boden, R.; Boden, J. A.; Keep, P. A.; Chester, K. A.; Fisher, D.; Begent, R. H.; Francis, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification of a chimeric Fab' fragment (F9) of A5B7 (alpha-CEA), using an improved coupling method, increases its specificity for subcutaneous LS174T tumours. PEGylation increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-144) in all tissues but there were significant differences (variance ratio test, F = 27.95, P < 0.001) between the proportional increases in AUC0-144, with the tumour showing the greatest increase. The increase in AUCtumour from F9 to PEG-F9 was similar to the reported increase from Fab' to F(ab')2 while the increase in AUCblood by PEGylation of F9 was only 21% of the reported increase from Fab' to whole IgG. A two sample t-test showed no significant differences between maximal tumour/tissue ratios for PEG-F9 and F9 while the tumour/tissue ratios for PEG-F9 remained high over a longer period, with tumour levels at least double those for F9. PEG-F9 emerges as a new generation antibody with potential advantages for both radioimmunotherapy and tumour imaging. Since there was a reduction in antigen binding, optimisation of PEGylation might further improve tumour specificity. The latter resulted from complex effects on both the entry into and exit rates from tumour and normal tissues in a tissue-specific fashion. PMID:8546903

  6. Preliminary trial of recombinant fibroblast interferon in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, M; Rosno, S; Garcia, G; Konrad, M W; Gregory, P B; Robinson, W S; Merigan, T C

    1986-01-01

    Five patients with chronic hepatitis B were treated with 8-day courses of leukocyte (alpha) interferon (5 X 10(6) U/day) and with 8-day courses of recombinant fibroblast (betaser) interferon at dosages of 5 X 10(6), 35 X 10(6), and 105 X 10(6) U/day. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication as evidenced by a decrease in DNA polymerase (DNAP) activity was seen during all treatment courses. Equivalent reduction in DNAP was seen from the low-dose alpha and beta ser regimens, but beta ser interferon at 35 X 10(6) U/day achieved a significantly greater decrease in DNAP activity than did the low-dose regimens. In no patient, however, was permanent loss of DNAP noted. Because of dose-limiting toxicity, only two patients were escalated to the 105 X 10(6)-U/day dosage level. Transient proteinuria was noted in two patients while they were receiving interferon. This has not been noted in other patients receiving this preparation and could not be explained by the development of anti-interferon antibodies. This study has defined an appropriate dosage for future longer-term trials of this agent alone and in combination with other antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:3524420

  7. Effects of interferon on antibody formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the effects of interferon on primary and secondary antibody responses and of the relationship of interferon to other cytokines, or cell products, are presented. Dosage- and timing-dependent immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive activities of interferon are documented for mouse spleen cell cultures and for mice infected with murine hepatitis virus (MHV-3). A possibility that altered interferon production might lead to immunopathological disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, AIDS, arthritis, etc., is discussed. Latest technological developments are presented that indicate that interferon does apparently play a major role in the regulation of antibody responses.

  8. Interferon: signal molecules involved in its antiviral effect.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, S N; Cernescu, C; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M

    1989-01-01

    A major problem concerning interferon (IFN)-cell interaction is the second messenger system that transduces the IFN signal. We discuss the evidences existing in literature and our arguments which suggest that the antiviral effect of IFNs alpha and beta are mediated by a membrane mechanism including a phospholipase C dependent hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The resulting two second messengers: diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate and subsequent, separate but interacting, signal pathways: activation of protein kinase C and ionic events are tested in respect with the antiviral effect of IFN.

  9. Treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes with prednisone, hydroxyurea, and interferon.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The hypereosinophilic syndromes continue to challenge our clinical acumen and skills. Prednisone, hydroxyurea, and interferon alpha 2b are three of the oldest agents that allow control of eosinophilia and its devastating clinical consequences. They still work. As our experience with them has grown, it has become evident that use of these agents in combination will control eosinophilia in most patients. Moreover, with time, the doses can frequently be reduced. Even with the advent of newer agents for treatment of hypereosinophilic syndromes, these three medications still afford an excellent, cost-effective avenue for disease management.

  10. [The treatment of chronic myeloleukemia with recombinant alfa-2 interferon].

    PubMed

    Strozha, I; Petukhov, V; Bondare, D; Feldmane, G; Duks, A; Teilane, I; Medne, I; Mauritsas, M; Grinberga, L

    1993-01-01

    A trial has been conducted of recombinant alpha 2-interferon (reaferon) used in 32 patients with Ph'[correction of Rh']-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). A chronic stage was in 3, transient in 3 and blast in 1 patients. 25 CML patients were newly diagnosed. The treatment lasted from 2 months to 3 years. Clinicohematological remission was confirmed conventionally and by the degree of Ph'-positive clone reduction. An attempt is made to clarify the mechanism underlying the resistance to reaferon basing on the immunological data (detection of antireaferon neutralizing antibodies). The authors propose a combined treatment (myelosan plus reaferon) of CML which has obvious advantages over myelosan monotherapy.

  11. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  12. Results of space experiment program "interferon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tálas, Margarita; Bátkai, László; Stöger, Ivana; Nagy, Károly; Hiros, László; Konstantinova, Irina; Rykova, Marina; Mozgovaya, Irina; Guseva, Olga; Kozharinov, Valerii

    The results of the biological space experiment "Interferon" performed by two international cosmonaut teams (26 May 1980, and 16 May 1981) aboard space laboratory Solyut-6 are reported: (1) Human lymphocytes separated from blood of healthy donors and placed into "Interferon I" equipment could be kept for 7 days in suspension culture under spaceflight conditons. Interferon production could be induced in human lymphocytes by preparations of different origin: virus, synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial protein and plant pigment. An increased lymphocyte interferon production in space laboratory compared to ground control was observed. (2) Human interferon preparations and interferon inducers placed in space laboratory at room temperature for 7 days maintained their biological activity. (3) A decrease of induced interferon production and natural killer activity of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of cosmonauts was observed on the 1st day on Earth after 7-days spaceflight.

  13. Relating solubility data of parabens in liquid PEG 400 to the behaviour of PEG 4000-parabens solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Unga, Johan; Tajarobi, Farhad; Norder, Ove; Frenning, Göran; Larsson, Anette

    2009-10-01

    The solid state behaviour of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) and dispersions of a homologous series of parabens (methyl- (MP), ethyl- (EP), propyl- (PP) and butyl- (BP)) were examined and compared to the paraben solubility in liquid PEG 400. Dispersions were prepared by co-melting different amounts of paraben (5-80% (w/w)) and PEG 4000 and were studied using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small and wide angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD). Depending on the concentration of parabens in the dispersions, DSC showed melting peaks from folded and unfolded forms of PEG, a eutectic melting and melting of pure parabens. The fraction of folded PEG increased and the melting temperatures of both PEG forms decreased with increasing paraben content. In an apparent phase diagram of PP-PEG dispersions a eutectic mixture appeared above 5% PP. In addition, a melting peak corresponding to the paraben appeared for dispersion containing more than 60% PP. Similar phase diagrams were shown for the other parabens. The SAXD data and a 1D correlation function analysis revealed that MP and BP were incorporated into the amorphous domains of the lamellae of solid PEG to a higher degree than EP and PP. In addition, the lamellae thickness of PEG and the fraction of amorphous domains increased more for MP and BP compared to EP and PP. BP showed the highest solubility of the parabens followed by MP, EP and PP in both liquid and solid PEG. Furthermore, the thickness of the amorphous domains of the PEG in the different parabens-PEG dispersions could be correlated to the solubility in liquid PEG 400.

  14. Users oppose pegging gas rates to oil

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1982-08-16

    Several large gas users in the Chicago area are against the proposal to peg natural gas rates to No. 6 fuel oil because they fear gas prices will rise with oil prices even if pipeline gas prices go down. The alternate fuel-adjustment (AFA) clause reflects the fact that gas prices are approaching those of oil as well as gas utility fears that they will lose customers. The Illinois Commerce Commission expects to reach a decision on AFA by the end of the year. Intervenors claim that the complexity and associated costs will negate any benefits to users. (DCK)

  15. Structural and mechanical properties of Laponite-PEG hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Shikinaka, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Kazuto; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Osada, Yoshihito; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji; Shigehara, Kiyotaka

    2012-03-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrids were obtained by the sol-gel type organic modification reaction of Laponite sidewalls with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) bearing alkoxysiloxy terminal functionality. By casting an aqueous dispersion of the hybrid, the flexible and transparent hybrid films were obtained. Regardless of the inorganic/organic component ratio, the hybrid film had the ordered structure of Laponite in-plane flat arrays. The mechanical strength of hybrid films was drastically improved by the presence of cross-linking among alkoxysilyl functionalities of PEG terminals and the absence of PEG crystallines. Hybrid films, especially those that consisted of PEG with short chain, showed good mechanical properties that originate from quasi-homogeneous dispersion of components due to anchoring of PEG terminal to Laponite sidewall and interaction of PEG to Laponite surface.

  16. Gamma-interferon alters globin gene expression in neonatal and adult erythroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.A.; Perrine, S.P.; Antognetti, G.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Emerson, S.G.; Sieff, C.; Faller, D.V.

    1987-06-01

    The effect of gamma-interferon on fetal hemoglobin synthesis by purified cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors was studied with a radioligand assay to measure hemoglobin production by BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Coculture with recombinant gamma-interferon resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fetal hemoglobin production by neonatal and adult, but not fetal, BFU-E-derived erythroblasts. Accumulation of fetal hemoglobin by cord blood BFU-E-derived erythroblasts decreased up to 38.1% of control cultures (erythropoietin only). Synthesis of both G gamma/A gamma globin was decreased, since the G gamma/A gamma ratio was unchanged. Picograms fetal hemoglobin per cell was decreased by gamma-interferon addition, but picograms total hemoglobin was unchanged, demonstrating that a reciprocal increase in beta-globin production occurred in cultures treated with gamma-interferon. No toxic effect of gamma-interferon on colony growth was noted. The addition of gamma-interferon to cultures resulted in a decrease in the percentage of HbF produced by adult BFU-E-derived cells to 45.6% of control. Fetal hemoglobin production by cord blood, fetal liver, and adult bone marrow erythroid progenitors, was not significantly affected by the addition of recombinant GM-CSF, recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), recombinant IL-2, or recombinant alpha-interferon. Although fetal progenitor cells appear unable to alter their fetal hemoglobin program in response to any of the growth factors added here, the interaction of neonatal and adult erythroid progenitors with gamma-interferon results in an altered expression of globin genes.

  17. SnapShot: Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kwan T; Gale, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Interferons (IFNs) are crucial cytokines of antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The three types of IFN (I, II, and III) are classified by their receptor specificity and sequence homology. IFNs are produced and secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the subsequent IFN signaling events occurring through unique receptors leading to regulation of gene expression for modulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  18. Modeling and self-assembly behavior of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohan; Li, Suming; Coumes, Fanny; Darcos, Vincent; Lai Kee Him, Joséphine; Bron, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PLA-PEG) triblock copolymers with symmetric or asymmetric chain structures were synthesized by combination of ring-opening polymerization and copper-catalyzed click chemistry. The resulting copolymers were used to prepare self-assembled aggregates by dialysis. Various architectures such as nanotubes, polymersomes and spherical micelles were observed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryo-TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The formation of diverse aggregates is explained by modeling from the angle of both geometry and thermodynamics. From the angle of geometry, a ``blob'' model based on the Daoud-Cotton model for star polymers is proposed to describe the aggregate structures and structural changes with copolymer composition and molar mass. In fact, the copolymer chains extend in aqueous medium to form single layer polymersomes to minimize the system's free energy if one of the two PEG blocks is short enough. The curvature of polymersomes is dependent on the chain structure of copolymers, especially on the length of PLA blocks. A constant branch number of aggregates (f) is thus required to preserve the morphology of polymersomes. Meanwhile, the aggregation number (Nagg) determined from the thermodynamics of self-assembly is roughly proportional to the total length of polymer chains. Comparing f to Nagg, the aggregates take the form of polymersomes if Nagg ~ f, and change to nanotubes if Nagg > f to conform to the limits from both curvature and aggregation number. The length of nanotubes is mainly determined by the difference between Nagg and f. However, the hollow structure becomes unstable when both PEG segments are too long, and the aggregates eventually collapse to yield spherical micelles. Therefore, this work gives new insights into the self-assembly behavior of PEG-PLA-PEG triblock copolymers in aqueous solution which present great interest for biomedical and

  19. Clinical application of interferons and their inducers: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the clinical uses of interferons, specifically discussed are: uses of interferons in viral diseases; double stranded RNA and its analogs for clinical applications; interferons uses in cancer patients in Europe; Recombinant DNA technology; Gamma interferon and its role as a lymphokine and clinical trials of interferon in Japan and U.S.A.

  20. Expression of a functional human type I interferon receptor in hamster cells: application of functional yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) screening.

    PubMed

    Soh, J; Mariano, T M; Lim, J K; Izotova, L; Mirochnitchenko, O; Schwartz, B; Langer, J A; Pestka, S

    1994-07-08

    The previously cloned human interferon alpha/beta (Hu-IFN-alpha/beta; Type I interferon) receptor cDNA appears to be only one component of a receptor complex since expression of the cDNA in mouse cells confers sensitivity only to Hu-IFN-alpha B2, but a monoclonal antibody against this cloned receptor subunit inhibits biological activities of Hu-IFN-alpha A, Hu-IFN-alpha B2, Hu-IFN-omega, and Hu-IFN-beta. Here we report that a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a segment of human chromosome 21 introduced into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells confers upon these cells a greatly enhanced response to Hu-IFN-alpha A and Hu-IFN-alpha B2 as well as an increased response to Hu-IFN-omega, Hu-IFN-alpha A/D(Bgl), andd Hu-IFN-beta. These responses were measured by induction of class I MHC antigens and by protection against encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Furthermore, these cells exhibit specific high affinity binding of Hu-IFN-alpha A and Hu-IFN-alpha B2, Hu-IFN-beta, and Hu-IFN-omega. The results indicate that all the genes necessary to reconstitute a biologically active Type I human IFN receptor complex are located within the human DNA insert of this YAC clone.

  1. Recombinant human gamma interferon inhibits simian malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, R K; Czarniecki, C W; Dutta, G P; Puri, S K; Dhawan, B N; Friedman, R M

    1986-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment with 0.1 mg of human gamma interferon per kg (body weight) per day completely suppressed experimental infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi B sporozoites in rhesus monkeys. Treatment with lower doses partially suppressed this infection. Prophylactic treatment with human gamma interferon, however, had no protective effect against trophozoite-induced infection, suggesting that the interferon effect was limited to the exoerythrocytic stage of parasitic development. PMID:3091507

  2. Acute buried bumper syndrome: an endoscopic peg tube salvage approach.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ganesh; Suvarna, Deepak; Pai, Cannanore Ganesh

    2010-05-01

    Acute buried bumper syndrome is an uncommon complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement. If not recognized and treated appropriately, it can lead to serious complications including death. We report a case of an acute buried bumper syndrome, successfully managed with PEG tube repositioning through the original tract, without the need of replacement.

  3. Ganglioside inserted into PEGylated liposome attenuates anti-PEG immunity.

    PubMed

    Mima, Yu; Abu Lila, Amr S; Shimizu, Taro; Ukawa, Masami; Ando, Hidenori; Kurata, Yasuko; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2017-03-28

    Despite the clinical introduction of a vast number of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated therapeutics, conjugated PEG is also known for an unfortunate inclination toward immunogenicity. Immunogenicity of PEG, manifested by the robust production of anti-PEG IgM, is known to compromise the therapeutic efficacy and/or reduce the tolerance of PEGylated therapeutics. In the present study, we inserted ganglioside into the membrane of PEGylated liposome (PL) to prepare ganglioside-modified PEGylated liposomes (G-PL), and investigated its efficacy in attenuating the anti-PEG IgM response against PL. A single intravenous injection of G-PL significantly attenuated the anti-PEG IgM production, compared with that of naïve PL. In addition, pretreatment with G-PL substantially alleviated the anti-PEG IgM response elicited by a subsequent dose of PL, presumably via inducing B cell tolerance, and as a consequence, this modification abrogated/attenuated the incidence of the rapid clearance of subsequently administrated PL. These results indicate that incorporating gangliosides in PEGylated liposome membrane not only prevents the immunogenicity of PEG but also induces the tolerance of B cells to subsequent doses of the immunogenic PL. Consequently, liposomal membrane modification with ganglioside might represent a promising approach to attenuating the immunogenicity of PEGylated liposomes while preserving their therapeutic efficacy, particularly upon repeated administration.

  4. Alternative promoters of Peg3 with maternal specificity

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Bambarendage P. U.; Kim, Joomyeong

    2016-01-01

    Peg3 (paternally expressed gene 3) is an imprinted gene localized within an evolutionarily conserved 500-kb domain in human chromosome 19q13.4 and mouse proximal chromosome 7. In the current study, we have identified three alternative promoters for mouse Peg3 and one alternative promoter for human PEG3. These alternative promoters are localized within the 200-kb upstream region of human and mouse PEG3, which is well conserved and thus predicted to harbor several cis-regulatory elements for the PEG3 domain. In the mouse, two of these alternative promoters drive maternal-specific expression of Peg3 specifically in the hypothalamus of the adult brain, while the remaining third promoter drives bi-allelic expression of Peg3 with a paternal bias only in the neonatal-stage brain. In human, an alternative transcript is also detected at relatively very low levels in adult brain and placenta. Overall, the identification of alternative promoters in both mouse and human models suggests that these alternative promoters may be functionally selected features for the PEG3 imprinted domain during mammalian evolution. PMID:27075691

  5. Regulation of interferon receptor expression in human blood lymphocytes in vitro and during interferon therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A.S.; Hannigan, G.E.; Freedman, M.H.; Williams, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with /sup 125/I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus, the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy.

  6. Chemical Interactions of Polyethylene Glycols (PEG) and Glycerol with Protein Functional Groups: Applications to PEG, Glycerol Effects on Protein Processes

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, DB; Shkel, Irina A; Phan, Noel M; Sternke, Matt; Lingeman, Emily; Cheng, Xian; Cheng, Lixue; O’Connor, Kevin; Record, M. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Here we obtain the data needed to predict chemical interactions of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and glycerol with proteins and related organic compounds, and thereby interpret or predict chemical effects of PEGs on protein processes. To accomplish this we determine interactions of glycerol and tetraEG with >30 model compounds displaying the major C, N, and O functional groups of proteins. Analysis of these data yields coefficients (α-values) quantifying interactions of glycerol, tetraEG and PEG end (-CH2OH) and interior (-CH2OCH2-) groups with these groups, relative to interactions with water. TetraEG (strongly) and glycerol (weakly) interact favorably with aromatic C, amide N, and cationic N, but unfavorably with amide O, carboxylate O and salt ions. Strongly unfavorable O and salt anion interactions help make both small and large PEGs effective protein precipitants. Interactions of tetraEG and PEG interior groups with aliphatic C are quite favorable, while interactions of glycerol and PEG end groups with aliphatic C are not. Hence tetraEG and PEG 300 favor unfolding of the DNA-binding domain of lac repressor (lacDBD) while glycerol, di- and mono-ethylene glycol are stabilizers. Favorable interactions with aromatic and aliphatic C explain why PEG400 greatly increases the solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons and steroids. PEG400-steroid interactions are unusually favorable, presumably because of simultaneous interactions of multiple PEG interior groups with the fused ring system of the steroid. Using α-values reported here, chemical contributions to PEG m-values can be predicted or interpreted in terms of changes in water-accessible surface area (ΔASA), and separated from excluded volume effects. PMID:25962980

  7. Interferon Production by Human Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Celsa A.; Chang, R. Shihman; Mishra, L.; Golden, H. Dean

    1972-01-01

    The relative capacity of several types of human cells and tissue to produce interferon was studied. Types of cells and tissue included were fibroblasts from embryos, foreskins, and biopsied skins; amnion cells; peripheral leukocytes; established lymphoid cell lines; established heteroploid cell lines; and chorioamniotic membrane. When Newcastle disease virus was used as the inducer, fibroblasts and amnion cells produced more interferon per 106 cells than leukocytes, lymphoid cells, and heteroploid cells. Only minor variations in interferon-producing capacity were observed among fibroblasts from 36 persons. Culture passage level, cell concentration, and inducer were factors that significantly affected interferon production. PMID:4344957

  8. Recent advances in PEG-PLA block copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ren Zhong; Zeng, Zhao Wu; Zhou, Guang Lin; Wang, Jun Jie; Li, Fan Zhu; Wang, An Ming

    2010-11-26

    Due to their small particle size and large and modifiable surface, nanoparticles have unique advantages compared with other drug carriers. As a research focus in recent years, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) block copolymer and its end-group derivative nanoparticles can enhance the drug loading of hydrophobic drugs, reduce the burst effect, avoid being engulfed by phagocytes, increase the circulation time of drugs in blood, and improve bioavailability. Additionally, due to their smaller particle size and modified surface, these nanoparticles can accumulate in inflammation or target locations to enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity. Recent advances in PEG-PLA block copolymer nanoparticles, including the synthesis of PEG-PLA and the preparation of PEG-PLA nanoparticles, were introduced in this study, in particular the drug release and modifiable characteristics of PEG-PLA nanoparticles and their application in pharmaceutical preparations.

  9. Evasion of interferon responses by Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    PubMed

    Basler, Christopher F; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2009-09-01

    The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause frequently lethal viral hemorrhagic fever. These infections induce potent cytokine production, yet these host responses fail to prevent systemic virus replication. Consistent with this, filoviruses have been found to encode proteins VP35 and VP24 that block host interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta production and inhibit signaling downstream of the IFN-alpha/beta and the IFN-gamma receptors, respectively. VP35, which is a component of the viral nucleocapsid complex and plays an essential role in viral RNA synthesis, acts as a pseudosubstrate for the cellular kinases IKK-epsilon and TBK-1, which phosphorylate and activate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7). VP35 also promotes SUMOylation of IRF-7, repressing IFN gene transcription. In addition, VP35 is a dsRNA-binding protein, and mutations that disrupt dsRNA binding impair VP35 IFN-antagonist activity while leaving its RNA replication functions intact. The phenotypes of recombinant EBOV bearing mutant VP35s unable to inhibit IFN-alpha/beta demonstrate that VP35 IFN-antagonist activity is critical for full virulence of these lethal pathogens. The structure of the VP35 dsRNA-binding domain, which has recently become available, is expected to provide insight into how VP35 IFN-antagonist and dsRNA-binding functions are related. The EBOV VP24 protein inhibits IFN signaling through an interaction with select host cell karyopherin-alpha proteins, preventing the nuclear import of otherwise activated STAT1. It remains to be determined to what extent VP24 may also modulate the nuclear import of other host cell factors and to what extent this may influence the outcome of infection. Notably, the Marburg virus VP24 protein does not detectably block STAT1 nuclear import, and, unlike EBOV, MARV infection inhibits STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation. Thus, despite their similarities, there are fundamental differences by which

  10. PEG-b-PLA micelles and PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol-gels for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunah; Gao, Jieming; Kwon, Glen S

    2016-10-28

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-polyethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA) sol-gels have been extensively researched for systemic and localized drug delivery applications, respectively, and they have both progressed into humans for paclitaxel, an important yet poorly water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent. In this review article, preclinical and clinical research on PEG-b-PLA micelles and PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol-gels that has focused on paclitaxel will be updated, and recent research on other poorly water-soluble anticancer agents and delivery of drug combinations (i.e. multi-drug delivery) that seeks synergistic anticancer efficacy will be summarized. PEG-b-PLA micelles are a first-generation platform for the systemic multi-delivery of poorly water soluble anticancer agents. PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol-gels are a first-generation platform for the localized multi-drug delivery of water-soluble and/or poorly water-soluble anticancer agents. In summary, PEG-b-PLA micelles and PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA sol-gels may safely enable pre-clinical evaluation and clinical translation of poorly water-soluble anticancer agents, especially for promising, rapidly emerging anticancer combinations.

  11. Nasal absorption of interferon: Enhancement by surfactant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, C.; Phipps, R.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of spraying the nasal mucosa with an aerosol of recombinant human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha 2a) was studied in an animal model, the sheep, because cultures of sheep cells were found to be responsive to the antiviral activity of this IFN. Binding assays with {sup 125}I-labeled IFN-alpha 2a detected very few receptors in sheep nasal mucosa, but a membrane fraction prepared from this mucosa had abundant high-affinity receptors. Nasal mucosa homogenates were prepared from the turbinates of sheep that had been sprayed with IFN-alpha 2a aerosols, and the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) activity induced in response was measured. To try to enhance the permeability of the mucosa, surfactant agents were added to the IFN and aerosols generated. There were measurable levels of 2-5A synthetase after aerosols with added sodium deoxycholate or, better, polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether. This latter surfactant was well tolerated in previous studies with intranasally administered insulin. The level of 2-5A synthetase induced was related to the dose of IFN, and the increased activity persisted up to 72 h after an IFN aerosol. These studies suggest that surfactant agents may make IFN aerosols much more effective for the prophylaxis of respiratory virus infections.

  12. Can zinc enhance response interferon therapy for patients with HCV-related liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Patients with liver disease may be at risk of zinc depletion. Zinc supplementation has been shown to contribute to inhibition of liver fibrosis and improvement in hepatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of zinc on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related chronic liver disease. The standard of care for chronic HCV has improved markedly since the approval of interferon (IFN) therapy more than a decade ago. Over the past 20 years, IFN therapy has improved to more effectively eliminate the virus, progressing from single IFN therapy to combination therapy with ribavirin (RBV) and finally to pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN) therapy. However, even combined therapy with PEG-IFN and RBV for 48 wk is unable to eliminate the virus in some 40% of hepatitis C cases, particularly those with genotype 1b and high viral load. Treatment options for patients who have relapsed or are refractory to treatment with PEG-IFN and RBV therefore need to be critically assessed. This paper overviews the relationship between chronic liver disease and zinc metabolism. PMID:22783042

  13. Optimal PEGylation can improve the exposure of interferon in the lungs following pulmonary administration.

    PubMed

    Mcleod, Victoria M; Chan, Linda J; Ryan, Gemma M; Porter, Christopher J H; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2015-04-01

    The utility of inhaled protein therapeutics to treat lung-resident diseases is limited by protein degradation in the lungs and rapid clearance. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of PEGylation on the lung and systemic exposure of interferon (IFN) α2 after intratracheal administration to rats. An inverse correlation was observed between PEG chain length and systemic exposure, where bioavailability was 5.5% for the 31 kDa PEGylated construct and <0.4% for the 60 kDa PEGylated construct when compared with 15% for native IFN (19 kDa). Retention of PEGylated IFNα within the lungs increased 2.5-fold to threefold when compared with native IFN. When comparing the lung and systemic exposure of PEGylated and native IFN in terms of protein biological activity, the 31 kDa PEGylated construct increased exposure by 50% and 100%, respectively, when compared with native IFN, but the 60 kDa PEG construct offered no benefit. Preliminary work also indicated that the conjugation of IFNγ with 10 kDa PEG significantly increases the retention of the protein within the lung. Optimal PEGylation may therefore be used as a means to improve the exposure of lung-resident diseases to therapeutic cytokines and potentially reduce systemic exposure and side effects as well as dosing frequency.

  14. A type I interferon signature characterizes chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rascio, Federica; Pontrelli, Paola; Accetturo, Matteo; Oranger, Annarita; Gigante, Margherita; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gigante, Maddalena; Zito, Anna; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Ranieri, Elena; Stallone, Giovanni; Gesualdo, Loreto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) represents the main cause of kidney graft loss. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition, we characterized the molecular signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and, separately, of CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from CAMR patients, compared to kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology. We enrolled 29 patients with biopsy-proven CAMR, 29 stable transplant recipients (controls), and 8 transplant recipients with clinical and histological evidence of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. Messenger RNA and microRNA profiling of PBMCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes was performed using Agilent microarrays in eight randomly selected patients per group from CAMR and control subjects. Results were evaluated statistically and by functional pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and validated in the remaining subjects. In PBMCs, 45 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups, most of which were up-regulated in CAMR and were involved in type I interferon signalling. In the same patients, 16 microRNAs were down-regulated in CAMR subjects compared to controls: four were predicted modulators of six mRNAs identified in the transcriptional analysis. In silico functional analysis supported the involvement of type I interferon signalling. To further confirm this result, we investigated the transcriptomic profiles of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in an independent group of patients, observing that the activation of type I interferon signalling was a specific hallmark of CAMR. In addition, in CAMR patients, we detected a reduction of circulating BDCA2(+) dendritic cells, the natural type I interferon-producing cells, and their recruitment into the graft along with increased expression of MXA, a type I interferon-induced protein, at the tubulointerstitial and vascular level. Finally, interferon alpha mRNA expression was significantly increased in CAMR compared to control

  15. Isolation of human beta-interferon receptor by wheat germ lectin affinity and immunosorbent column chromatographies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Fournier, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    1986-06-15

    Radioiodinated human beta-interferon-Ser 17 (Betaseron) was reversibly cross-linked to Daudi cells by dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate). The radioactive ligand was cross-linked to three macromolecules forming labeled complexes of apparent Mr values of 130,000, 220,000, and 320,000. Betaseron, human alpha-interferon, human interleukin 2 but not recombinant human gamma-interferon competed with the labeled ligand for binding to these putative receptor(s). Human leukocyte-produced gamma-interferon competed weakly with /sup 125/I-Betaseron for binding to Daudi cells. The Betaseron-receptor complex(es) was purified by passage through a wheat germ lectin column followed by chromatography on an anti-interferon immunosorbent column and semipreparative gel electrophoresis. The cross-linked ligand-receptor complex was shown to be highly purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate and acetic acid:urea:Triton X-100 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It can be dissociated into the labeled Betaseron (Mr = 17,000) ligand and a receptor moiety which has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000. The chromatographic behavior of the ligand-receptor complex on wheat germ lectin column suggests that the receptor is a glycoprotein. The described procedure yielded about 1 microgram of Betaseron receptor from 10(10) Daudi cells, estimated to contain a maximum of about 15 micrograms of the receptor.

  16. Hepatitis C virus kinetics by administration of pegylated interferon-α in human and chimeric mice carrying human hepatocytes with variants of the IL28B gene

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Matsuura, Kentaro; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shuko; Iijima, Sayuki; Iio, Etsuko; Sugiyama, Masaya; Shimada, Takashi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Kohara, Michinori; Mizokami, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms near the IL28B gene are associated with the clinical outcome of pegylated interferon α (peg-IFN-α) plus ribavirin therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, it is unclear whether genetic variations near the IL28B gene influence hepatic interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) induction or cellular immune responses, lead to the viral reduction during IFN treatment. Design Changes in HCV-RNA levels before therapy, at day 1 and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 after administering peg-IFN-α plus ribavirin were measured in 54 patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Furthermore, we prepared four lines of chimeric mice having four different lots of human hepatocytes containing various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) around the IL28B gene. HCV infecting chimeric mice were subcutaneously administered with peg-IFN-α for 2 weeks. Results There were significant differences in the reduction of HCV-RNA levels after peg-IFN-α plus ribavirin therapy based on the IL28B SNP rs8099917 between TT (favourable) and TG/GG (unfavourable) genotypes in patients; the first-phase viral decline slope per day and second-phase slope per week in TT genotype were significantly higher than in TG/GG genotype. On peg-IFN-α administration to chimeric mice, however, no significant difference in the median reduction of HCV-RNA levels and the induction of antiviral ISG was observed between favourable and unfavourable human hepatocyte genotypes. Conclusions As chimeric mice have the characteristic of immunodeficiency, the response to peg-IFN-α associated with the variation in IL28B alleles in chronic HCV patients would be composed of the intact immune system. PMID:23135762

  17. A new method to produce monoPEGylated dimeric cytokines shown with human interferon-α2b.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Hsing; Rossi, Edmund A; Cardillo, Thomas M; Nordstrom, Diane L; McBride, William J; Goldenberg, David M

    2009-10-21

    We have adapted the dock-and-lock (DNL) method into a novel PEGylation technology using human interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) as an example. Central to DNL is a pair of distinct protein domains involved in the natural association between cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These domains serve as linkers for site-specific conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to a dimeric form of IFN-α2b. The combination of a fusion protein comprising IFN-α2b and the dimerization-and-docking domain (DDD) of PKA with a PEG-derivatized anchoring domain (AD) of an interactive AKAP results in facile formation of a trimeric complex containing two copies of IFN-α2b and a single site-specifically linked PEG chain. Three such monoPEGylated dimers of IFN-α2b have been generated, the first with a 20 kDa linear PEG, referred to as α2b-362, the second with a 30 kDa linear PEG (α2b-413), and the third with a 40 kDa branched PEG (α2b-457). All three retained antiviral and antitumor activity in vitro and showed improved pharmacokinetic properties in mice, which translated into potent and prolonged therapeutic efficacy in the Daudi human lymphoma xenograft model. We anticipate wide applicability of the DNL method for developing long-acting therapeutics that are dimeric and monoPEGylated with the increased bioavailability allowing for less frequent dosing.

  18. PEG3 Interacts with KAP1 through KRAB-A

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongzhi; Ye, An; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong

    2016-01-01

    Peg3 (Paternally Expressed Gene 3) is an imprinted gene that encodes a zinc finger DNA-binding protein. Peg3 itself is localized in the middle of a KRAB-A (Kruppel-Associated Box) zinc finger gene cluster. The amino acid sequence encoded by its exon 7 also shows sequence similarity to that of KRAB-A, suggesting Peg3 as a KRAB-containing zinc finger gene. As predicted, the PEG3 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with KAP1, a co-repressor that interacts with KRAB-A. A series of follow-up experiments further demonstrated that the exon 7 of PEG3 is indeed responsible for its physical interaction with KAP1. ChIP and promoter assays also indicated that PEG3 likely controls its downstream genes through the KAP1-mediated repression mechanism. Overall, the current study identifies PEG3 as a KRAB-containing zinc finger protein that interacts with the co-repressor protein KAP1. PMID:27898713

  19. Loading PEG-Catalase into Filamentous and Spherical Polymer Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Eric A.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Vardon, Vanessa; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Based on a unique phase alignment that occurs during formulation, we postulated that PEG-ylation of the cargo enzyme would enhance its encapsulation within diblock copolymer nanocarriers and thus resistance to proteases. Methods A freeze–thaw modified double emulsion technique was utilized to encapsulate either the catalytically active enzyme catalase (MW ~250 kDa) or PEG-catalase in PEG–PLA polymer nanocarriers (PNC). Spectrophotometer measurement of substrate depletion was utilized to monitor enzyme activity. Isotope labeling of the enzyme was used in conjunction with activity measurements to determine PNC loading efficiency and PNC-enzyme resistance to proteases. This labeling also enabled blood clearance measurements of PNC-loaded and non-loaded enzymes in mice. Results Non-loaded PEG-catalase exhibited longer circulation times than catalase, but was equally susceptible to proteolysis. Modulation of the ratio of relatively hydrophilic to hydrophobic domains in the diblock PEG–PLA copolymer provided either filamentous or spherical PNC loaded with PEG-catalase. For both PNC geometries, encapsulation and resistance to proteases of the resultant PNC-loaded enzyme were more effective for PEG-catalase than catalase. Isotope tracing showed similar blood levels of PNC-loaded and free PEG-catalase in mice. Conclusions PEGylation enhances active catalase loading within PNC and resistance to protease degradation, relative to unloaded PEG-catalase. PMID:18956141

  20. PEG-based degradable networks for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroha, Jamie L.

    The controlled delivery of therapeutic agents by biodegradable hydrogels has become a popular mechanism for drug administration in recent years. Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of polymer chains held together by crosslinks. Although the changes which the hydrogel undergoes in solution are important to a wide range of experimental studies, they have not been investigated systematically and the factors which influence the degree of swelling have not been adequately described. Hydrogels made of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) will generally resist degradation in aqueous conditions, while a hydrogel made from a copolymer of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and PEG will degrade via hydrolysis of the lactic acid group. This ability to degrade makes these hydrogels promising candidates for controlled release drug delivery systems. The goal of this research was to characterize the swelling and degradation of both degradable and non-degradable gels and to evaluate the release of different drugs from these hydrogels, where the key variable is the molecular weight of the PEG segment. These hydrogels were formed by the addition and subsequent chemically crosslinking of methacrylate end groups. During crosslinking, both PEG and LA-PEG-LA hydrogels of varied PEG molecular weight were loaded with Vitamin B12, Insulin, Haloperidol, and Dextran. It was shown that increasing PEG molecular weight produces a hydrogel with larger pores, thus increasing water uptake and degradation rate. While many environmental factors do not affect the swelling behavior, they do significantly impact the degradation of the hydrogel, and thus the release of incorporated therapeutic agents.

  1. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  2. Interferon Induced Transfer of Viral Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    interferon: We decided that rather than first studying induction of tyrosinase in melanoma cells or plasminogen activator in ovarian granulosa cells as...177-184 (HP Publishing, New York). 14. Lockhart, R.Z. (1973). Criteria for acceptance of a viral inhibitor as an interferon and a general

  3. Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 responds better to pegylated interferon with ribavirin than genotype 1 in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Mira, José A; Rivero, Antonio; de Los Santos-Gil, Ignacio; López-Cortés, Luis F; Girón-González, José A; Márquez, Manuel; Merino, Dolores; del Mar Viloria, María; Téllez, Francisco; Ríos-Villegas, María J; Omar, Mohamed; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A

    2012-08-24

    We assess the efficacy of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) with ribavirin (RBV) and the predictors of sustained virological response (SVR) among HIV/hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4)-coinfected patients. Thirty-nine (31.5%) of 124 individuals with HCV-4 achieved SVR compared with 103 (22.7%) of 453 individuals with HCV genotype 1 (P=0.046). Only interleukin-28B (IL28B) genotype CC was independently associated with SVR in HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients. The efficacy of peg-IFN with RBV in coinfected individuals with genotype 4 is significantly higher than in those with genotype 1. IL28B CC genotype is the main predictor of response in this population.

  4. Polyethylene glycol-modified interleukin-2 and thymosin alpha 1 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, R; Katzenstein, D A; Winters, M A; Kundu, S K; Merigan, T C

    1996-04-01

    The safety and antiviral effects of polyethylene glycolated interleukin-2 (PEG-IL-2) and thymosin alpha 1 in addition to zidovudine were studied in 12 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with 50-250 CD4 T cells/mm3. PEG-IL-2 was administered by intravenous infusions every 2 weeks at 10(6) IU/m2 for 20 weeks. Thymosin alpha 1 was administered subcutaneously at 400 microgram/m2 after four doses of PEG-IL-2, escalating to 1600 microgram/m2 weekly for an additional 2 months. Significant elevations of CD4 T cell numbers of 30%-40% were seen after PEG-IL-2 infusions, but no additional increase in CD4 cell count was observed with thymosin alpha 1. Virologic monitoring by polymerase chain reaction quantitation of proviral DNA and plasma RNA and p24 antigen assays showed no evidence of increased HIV activation during PEG-IL-2 or thymosin alpha 1 therapy. Patients tolerated both PEG-IL-2 and thymosin alpha 1 without significant toxicities.

  5. Adverse Skin Reactions due to Ribavirin in Hepatitis C Combination Therapy with Pegylated Interferon-α2a

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Masahisa; Terai, Isamu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of ribavirin to hepatitis C combination therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-α2a has improved sustained responses, but it has been accompanied by an increased incidence of cutaneous side effects. Most cases of drug eruption caused by ribavirin and PEG-IFN-α2 or IFN-α combination therapy were not severe and we progressed without discontinuation of the antiviral treatment. We describe a 59-year-old Japanese woman with a chronic hepatitis C infection who developed erythema during PEG-IFN-α2a and ribavirin combination therapy. The eruption at the injection site of IFN occurred after each injection, and then, eruption on her exposed skin was observed. Twenty milligrams of prednisolone was administered. The eruption recurred after each administration of prednisolone and ribavirin. She finally had infiltrative erythema without any mucosal symptoms on her body. It seemed to be an erythema multiforme type drug eruption of PEG-IFN-α2a, ribavirin and/or fluvastatin sodium from the clinical course. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) of ribavirin was positive. This is the first case of a positive result of an LTT for ribavirin. A photosensitive type drug eruption with ribavirin treatment has been reported. We should not only consider IFN, but also ribavirin in case of a generalized eruption, especially on an exposed area with combination therapy for HCV. PMID:24516409

  6. Synthesis and processing in Escherichia coli of human leucocyte interferon fused with the signal sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a-amylase

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, A.V.; Avakov, A.S.; Bogush, V.G.; Kostrov, S.V.; Gaiga, G.Z.; Iomantas, Yu.V.; Abalakina, E.G.; Stepanov, A.I.; Strongin, A.Ya.; Kozlov, Yu.I.; Debabov, V.G.

    1985-11-01

    Earlier, the authors reported cloning of the alpha-amylase gene of B. amyloliquefaciens in B. subtilis and E. coli. Currently, the authors report results on the expression of the hybrid gene consisting of the DNA fragment coding for the leader part of B. amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase and the structural part of the human interferon alpha-2 in E. coli cells. This gene contains an additional methionine codon at the 5'-terminal, which codes for the interferon structure (without its own signal peptide). The interferon gene was inserted into plasmid /sub p/TG 278 at the cleavage site of EcoRI. The structure of the plasmid thus obtained the signal peptide of amylase, five amino acids (Val-Gly-Glu-Phe-Met), and the structural part of the interferon. The E. coli C600 cells carrying plasmid pTGA6 were used to study interferon secretions. The interferon activity was determined radioimmunologically with the use of monoclonal anti-bodies NK2.

  7. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Bethany A.; Powers, Linda S.; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks. PMID:26562011

  8. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  9. Spinal cord fusion with PEG-GNRs (TexasPEG): Neurophysiological recovery in 24 hours in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Sikkema, William K. A.; Hwang, In-Kyu; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Un Jeng; Lee, Bae Hwan; Tour, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, for the first time, we report the effects of locally applied water-soluble, conductive PEG(polyethylene glycol)ylated graphene nanoribbons (PEG-GNRs) on neurophysiologic conduction after sharp cervical cord transection in rats. PEG-GNRs were produced by the polymerization of ethylene oxide from anion-edged graphene nanoribbons. These combine the fusogenic potential of PEG with the electrical conducting properties of the graphene nanoribbons. Methods: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After applying PEG-GNR on the severed part, electrophysiological recovery of the reconstructed cervical spinal cord was confirmed by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) at 24 h after surgery. Results: While no SSEPs were detected in the control group, PEG-GNR treated group showed fast recovery of SSEPs at 24 h after the surgery. Conclusion: In this preliminary dataset, for the first time, we report the effect of a novel form of PEG with the goal of rapid reconstruction of a sharply severed spinal cord. PMID:27656326

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  11. Interferon-induced inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis: dissociation from antiviral and antiproliferative effects.

    PubMed Central

    de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M; Goebel, J M; Fennie, C W; Czarniecki, C W

    1985-01-01

    The yield of infectious Chlamydia trachomatis was analyzed in human (HeLa) and mouse (McCoy) cell lines treated with the human interferon (IFN) subtypes IFN-alpha A and IFN-alpha D, with their hybrids [IFN-alpha AD (BglII), IFN-alpha AD (PvuII), and IFN-alpha DA (BglII)] constructed in vitro from their expression plasmids, or with IFN-beta 1 or buffy coat IFN. In HeLa cells, a significant inhibition of Chlamydia infectivity was obtained with IFN-alpha D, IFN-alpha DA (BglII), and buffy coat IFN. In McCoy cells, IFN-alpha AD (BglII) and IFN-alpha AD (PvuII) induced a strong degree of inhibition of Chlamydia infectivity. In McCoy cells, there was a correlation among the antichlamydial, antiviral, and antiproliferative activities of the different IFNs tested. In HeLa cells, however, the ability of a particular IFN subtype to inhibit Chlamydia infectivity did not always correlate with its inhibitory effects on encephalomyocarditis virus replication or with its antiproliferative activity. PMID:3972450

  12. High-density nucleosome occupancy map of human chromosome 9p21-22 reveals chromatin organization of the type I interferon gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Freaney, Jonathan E; Zhang, Quanwei; Yigit, Erbay; Kim, Rebecca; Widom, Jonathan; Wang, Ji-Ping; Horvath, Curt M

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide investigations have dramatically increased our understanding of nucleosome positioning and the role of chromatin in gene regulation, yet some genomic regions have been poorly represented in human nucleosome maps. One such region is represented by human chromosome 9p21-22, which contains the type I interferon gene cluster that includes 16 interferon alpha genes and the single interferon beta, interferon epsilon, and interferon omega genes. A high-density nucleosome mapping strategy was used to generate locus-wide maps of the nucleosome organization of this biomedically important locus at a steady state and during a time course of infection with Sendai virus, an inducer of interferon gene expression. Detailed statistical and computational analysis illustrates that nucleosomes in this locus exhibit preferences for particular dinucleotide and oligomer DNA sequence motifs in vivo, which are similar to those reported for lower eukaryotic nucleosome-DNA interactions. These data were used to visualize the region's chromatin architecture and reveal features that are common to the organization of all the type I interferon genes, indicating a common nucleosome-mediated gene regulatory paradigm. Additionally, this study clarifies aspects of the dynamic changes that occur with the nucleosome occupying the transcriptional start site of the interferon beta gene after virus infection.

  13. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  14. 13. Detail closeup view of wooden peg fastenings; note lapped ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail close-up view of wooden peg fastenings; note lapped joint fastened with iron bolts using washers fashioned from oxen shoes. - Mormon Tabernacle, Temple Square, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  15. Soluble polymer supported synthesis of alpha-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sauvagnat, B; Kulig, K; Lamaty, F; Lazaro, R; Martinez, J

    2000-01-01

    A Schiff base activated glycine supported on a soluble polymer (poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)) was readily alkylated with a wide variety of electrophiles in the presence of a carbonate base in acetonitrile. The presence of the polymer provided a phase-transfer catalysis environment which accelerated the reaction. Effects of various carbonate bases and leaving groups have been also studied. Completion of the PEG-supported reaction was obtained without using a large excess of reagents or an extra phase-transfer catalyst, even in the case of unreactive or hindered electrophiles. After cleavage from the polymer, alpha-amino esters are obtained in good yields.

  16. New Low Volume Resuscitation Solutions Containing PEG-20k

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Dan; Plant, Valerie; Lindell, Susanne L.; Limkemann, Ashley; Reichstetter, Heather; Aboutanos, Michel; Mangino, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypovolemic shock reduces oxygen delivery and compromises energy dependent cell volume control. Consequent cell swelling compromises microcirculatory flow, which reducing oxygen exchange further. The importance of this mechanism is highlighted by the effectiveness of cell impermeants in low volume resuscitation (LVR) solutions in acute studies. The objective of this study was to assess impermeants in survival models and compare them to commonly used crystalloid solutions. Methods Adult rats were hemorrhaged to a pressure of 30–35 mm Hg, held there until the plasma lactate reached 10 mM, and given an LVR solution (5–10% blood volume) with saline alone (control), saline with various concentrations of Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k), hextend or albumin. When lactate again reached 10 mM following LVR, full resuscitation was started with crystalloid and red cells. Rats were either euthanized (acute) or allowed to recover (survival). The LVR time, which is the time from the start of the LVR solution until the start of full resuscitation was measured as was survival and diagnostic labs. In some studies, the capillary oncotic reflection coefficient was determined for PEG-20k to determine its relative impermeant and oncotic effects. Results PEG-20k (10%) significantly increased LVR times relative to saline (8 fold), hextend, and albumin. Lower amounts of PEG-20k (5%) were also effective but less so than 10% doses. PEG-20k maintained normal arterial pressure during the low volume state. Survival of a 180 minute LVR time challenge was 0% in saline controls and 100% in rats given PEG-20k as the LVR solution. Surviving rats had normal labs 24 hours later. PEG-20k had an oncotic reflection coefficient of 0.65, which indicates that the molecule is a hybrid cell impermeant with significant oncotic properties. Conclusions PEG-20k based LVR solutions are highly effective for inducing tolerance to the low volume state and for improving survival. PMID:26091310

  17. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  18. Thermoresponsive biodegradable PEG-PCL-PEG based injectable hydrogel for pulsatile insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Payyappilly, Sanal; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2014-05-01

    An injectable biodegradable hydrogel was prepared for temperature-responsive pulsatile release of insulin. Triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) was prepared by ring opening bulk copolymerization and characterized using FT-IR, (1) HNMR, and gel permeation chromatography. Aqueous solution of PECE formed an injectable hydrogel, which was solution at room temperature and transformed into gel at 37°C. The temperature-responsive sol-gel transition and crystallinity of PECE hydrogel was studied and compared with pluronic, a well-studied nonbiodegradable injectable hydrogel. In vitro release study revealed that insulin release profile of PECE was similar to pluronic, and its viscosity was 1/30(th) of pluronic sol at 10,000 s(-1) shear rate. Release behavior of insulin from PECE hydrogels followed Fickian diffusion of first order. Insulin retained its secondary structure after release as confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum. A threefold increase in Fickian diffusion coefficient was evidenced when temperature was increased from 34 to 40°C because of crystalline melting of PCL part of PECE. Pulsatile release of insulin showed a correlation coefficient of 0.90 with the change of temperature.

  19. Formulating fluticasone propionate in novel PEG-containing nanostructured lipid carriers (PEG-NLC).

    PubMed

    Doktorovová, Slavomíra; Araújo, Joana; Garcia, Marisa L; Rakovský, Erik; Souto, Eliana B

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for topical delivery of fluticasone propionate (FP) with the aim to further improve the safety profile and decrease the adverse-side effects commonly reported in topical corticotherapy. NLC are colloidal drug-carriers consisting of a blend of a solid lipid and a small amount of liquid lipid since these carriers have proved to be effective in epidermal targeting in particular of glucocorticoids. NLC consisting of glyceryl palmito-stearate, and PEG-containing medium chain triglycerides mixture, stabilised by polysorbate 80 and soybean phosphatidylcholine were prepared. A mean particle size between 380 and 408 nm and entrapment efficacy of 95% were obtained for FP-loaded NLC. The crystallinity and polymorphic phase behaviour of FP-free and FP-loaded NLC were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Results revealed a low-crystalline structure and confirmed the incorporation of FP into the particles. The suitability of PEG-containing liquid lipids to form the lipid matrix of NLC was also confirmed.

  20. Interferon effects on protozoan infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Wirth, J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of interferon (IFN) on mice infected with two different parasitic protozoans, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the cell cultures, IFN and assays, antibody, and the experimental procedures are described. It is observed that in cells treated with IFN-gamma there is an increased association of T. cruzi with murine macrophages and an increase in the killing of T. cruzi by IFN-gamma-treated murine macrophages. For spleen cells infected with T.b. rhodesiense in vitro, it is detected that live trypanosomes cannot induce IFN in cells from normal mice, but can in cells from immunized mice; and that trypanosome-lysates induce IFN in vitro in cells from normal mice. The data suggest that there is a two-step mechanism for mice against T. cruzi and T.b. rhodesiense.

  1. Interferons, immunity and cancer immunoediting.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Gavin P; Koebel, Catherine M; Schreiber, Robert D

    2006-11-01

    A clear picture of the dynamic relationship between the host immune system and cancer is emerging as the cells and molecules that participate in naturally occurring antitumour immune responses are being identified. The interferons (IFNs) - that is, the type I IFNs (IFNalpha and IFNbeta) and type II IFN (IFNgamma) - have emerged as central coordinators of tumour-immune-system interactions. Indeed, the decade-old finding that IFNgamma has a pivotal role in promoting antitumour responses became the focus for a renewed interest in the largely abandoned concept of cancer immunosurveillance. More recently, type I IFNs have been found to have distinct functions in this process. In this Review, we discuss the roles of the IFNs, not only in cancer immunosurveillance but also in the broader process of cancer immunoediting.

  2. Alpha Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions such as high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Find out more about this class of medication. ... these conditions: High blood pressure Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) Though alpha blockers are commonly used to treat ...

  3. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alpha fetoprotein - series References Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. ...

  4. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  5. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  6. Molecular study of the interferon genes in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Larripa, I; Giere, I; Slavutsky, I; Diaz, M

    1995-08-01

    The interferons alpha, beta, and w (IFNA, IFNB, IFNW), are a family of genes that have been mapped on the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p21-22). Deletions of genetic material on 9p are frequently observed in hematological diseases, particularly in lymphoid neoplasias. In this paper we have performed the molecular studies of IFNA and IFNB genes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in order to determine if the deletions of these genes are prevalent in this pathology. Forty CML patients, Philadelphia positive or with BCR/ABL rearrangement, were studied at diagnosis. The analysis of IFNA and IFNB genes was performed by Southern and dot blot techniques. Homozygous or hemizygous deletions of IFNA and IFNB genes could not be detected, indicating that deletions of these genes would not be present or would be a very infrequent event in the chronic phase of the CML patients.

  7. The role of interferons in the treatment of malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Murren, J. R.; Buzaid, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are proteins with a wide range of biological effects. IFNs have antiviral and antiproliferative properties. They modulate both the immune system and the expression of cell phenotype. In the past decade, the IFNs have received intense clinical scrutiny. Alpha IFN is the best studied and displays activity in many neoplastic diseases; it has shown the most promise in the hematological cancers although several solid tumors, including epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma, respond. No neoplastic disease, however, has been cured by the IFNs. IFN seems to be most active in the setting of minimal residual disease, and clinical studies evaluating its role in the adjuvant setting are under way. Other areas of research include trials combining IFN with cytotoxic drugs or other biological response modifiers, and maintenance IFN to prolong remissions following successful induction therapy. PMID:2479178

  8. Sensitivity of Selected Arenaviruses to a Human Interferon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-25

    A97 3 5U~ ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FR-ETC F/6 6/5 I SENSITIVITY OF SELECTED ARENAVIRUSES TO A HUMAN INTERFERON. (U) U FEB 79...TYPEOF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Sensitivity of Selected Arenaviruses to a Human Interim - Interferon - / - 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR a...Human interferon, interferon sensitivity, human interferon bioassay, BS-C-l cells, Detroit 532 cells, Arenaviruses , vesicular stomatitis virus. O

  9. Effects of Pegylated Interferon/Ribavirin on Bone Turnover Markers in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minhee; Tebas, Pablo; Overton, Edgar T.; Hollabaugh, Kimberly; McComsey, Grace; Bhattacharya, Debika; Evans, Christopher; Brown, Todd T.; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients have a 3-fold increased fracture incidence compared to uninfected patients. The impact of HCV therapy on bone health is unclear. We evaluated bone turnover markers (BTM) in well-controlled (HIV RNA <50 copies/ml) HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who received pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in ACTG trial A5178. Early virologic responders (EVR: ≥2 log HCV RNA drop at week 12) continued PEG-IFN/RBV and non-EVRs were randomized to continuation of PEG-IFN alone or observation. We assessed changes in C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX; bone resorption marker) and procollagen type I intact N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; bone formation marker), and whether BTM changes were associated with EVR, complete early virologic response (cEVR: HCV RNA <600 IU/ml at week 12), or PEG-IFN treatment. A total of 192 subjects were included. After 12 weeks of PEG-IFN/RBV, CTX and P1NP decreased: −120 pg/ml and −8.48 μg/liter, respectively (both p < 0.0001). CTX declines were greater in cEVR (N = 91; vs. non-cEVR (N = 101; p = 0.003). From week 12 to 24, CTX declines were sustained among EVR patients who continued PEG-IFN/RBV (p = 0.027 vs. non-EVR) and among non-EVR patients who continued PEG-IFN alone (p = 0.022 vs. Observation). Median decreases of P1NP in EVR vs. non-EVR were similar at weeks 12 and 24. PEG-IFN-based therapy for chronic HCV markedly reduces bone turnover. It is unclear whether this is a direct IFN effect or a result of HCV viral clearance, or whether they will result in improved bone mineral density. Further studies with IFN-free regimens should explore these questions. PMID:26499270

  10. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  11. Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X.; Guan, X.; Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A.; Fang, Y.

    2010-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1alpha and nsp1beta subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1alpha and nsp1beta. Cleavage sites between nsp1alpha/nsp1beta and nsp1beta/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1alpha and nsp1beta mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-beta expression. The nsp1beta was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1beta has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1alpha alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

  12. Physical properties of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based resins for combinatorial solid phase organic chemistry: a comparison of PEG-cross-linked and PEG-grafted resins.

    PubMed

    Grøtli, M; Gotfredsen, C H; Rademann, J; Buchardt, J; Clark, A J; Duus, J O; Meldal, M

    2000-01-01

    Three series of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymers were synthesized and characterized with respect to their physical properties. Polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene (POEPOP), polyoxyethylene-polyoxetane (SPOCC), and polyoxyethylene-polystyrene (POEPS-3) were synthesized respectively by anion polymerization, cation polymerization, and radical polymerization. Both bulk and suspension modes were used to synthesize the polymers from derivatized PEG monomers (PEG 400, PEG 900, and PEG 1500). The three supports were compared with two commercially available PEG-grafted supports (TentaGel S OH, ArgoGel-OH) and two polystyrene supports (aminomethylated polystyrene [PS-NH2] and macroporous aminomethylated polystyrene [PLAMS]) with respect to their swelling properties, loading, NMR spectral quality, as well as solvent and reagent accessibility. Loadings of 0.3-0.7 mmol/g were obtained for the PEG-based resins. Swelling of the PEG-based resins was determined to be higher than that of the PEG-grafted resins and polystyrene supports. The PEG-based resins gave better resolved high-resolution NMR spectra than the PEG-grafted resins when examined by magic angle spinning nanoprobe (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, fluorescence quenching of polymer bound 2-amino-benzoate by protonation with p-toluenesulfonic acid showed moderate to fast diffusion through the polymer depending on the solvent and the polymer matrix.

  13. Structural basis of the broadly neutralizing anti-interferon-α antibody rontalizumab

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Brigitte; Bosanac, Ivan; Shia, Steven; Kwong, Mandy; Corpuz, Racquel; Vandlen, Richard; Schmidt, Kerstin; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Interferons-alpha (IFN-α) are the expressed gene products comprising thirteen type I interferons with protein pairwise sequence similarities in the 77–96% range. Three other widely expressed human type I interferons, IFN-β, IFN-κ and IFN-ω have sequences 29–33%, 29–32% and 56–60% similar to the IFN-αs, respectively. Type I interferons act on immune cells by producing subtly different immune-modulatory effects upon binding to the extracellular domains of a heterodimeric cell-surface receptor composed of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, most notably anti-viral effects. IFN-α has been used to treat infection by hepatitis-virus type C (HCV) and a correlation between hyperactivity of IFN-α-induced signaling and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), or lupus, has been noted. Anti-IFN-α antibodies including rontalizumab have been under clinical study for the treatment of lupus. To better understand the rontalizumab mechanism of action and specificity, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Fab fragment of rontalizumab bound to human IFN-α2 at 3Å resolution and find substantial overlap of the antibody and IFNA2 epitopes on IFN-α2. PMID:26099203

  14. Twenty four-week peginterferon plus ribavirin after interferon-β induction for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Okushin, Hiroaki; Morii, Kazuhiko; Uesaka, Koichi; Yuasa, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possibility of shortening the duration of peginterferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy by incorporating interferon-β (IFN-β) induction therapy. METHODS: A one treatment arm, cohort prospective study was conducted on seventy one patients. The patients were Japanese adults with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C, HCV-RNA levels of ≥ 5.0 Log IU/mL or 100 KIU/mL, and platelet counts of ≥ 90 000/μL. The treatment regimen consisted of a 2 wk course of twice-daily administration of IFN-β followed by 24 wk Peg-IFN plus RBV combination therapy. We prolonged the duration of the Peg-IFN plus RBV therapy to 48 wk if the patient requested it. RESULTS: The patients, including 44% males, were characterized by an median age of 63 years (range: 32-78 years), an median platelet count of 13.9 (range: 9.1-30.6) × 104/μL, 62% IFN-naïve, and median HCV-RNA of 6.1 (range: 5.1-7.2) Log IU/mL. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rates were 34% (Peg-IFN: 1-24 wk, n = 61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 24%-47%) and 55% (Peg-IFN: 20-24 wk, n = 31, 95% CI: 38%-71%, P < 0.001; vs Peg-IFN: 1-19 wk). The SVR rate when the administration was discontinued early was 13% (Peg-IFN: 1-19 wk, n = 30, 95% CI: 5%-30%), and that when the administration was prolonged was 50% (Peg-IFN: 25-48 wk, n = 10, 95% CI: 24%-76%, P < 0.05; vs Peg-IFN: 1-19 wk). In the patients who received 20-24 wk of Peg-IFN plus RBV, only the higher platelet count (≥ 130 000/μL) was significantly correlated with the SVR (odds ratio: 11.680, 95% CI: 2.3064-79.474, P = 0.0024). In 45% (14/31) of the patients with a higher platelet count (≥ 130 000/μL) before therapy, the HCV-RNA level decreased to below 3.3 Log IU/mL at the completion of IFN-β, and their SVR rate was 93% (13/14) after 20-24 wk administration of Peg-IFN plus RBV. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibilities of shortening the duration of Peg-IFN plus RBV combination therapy by actively reducing HCV

  15. Interferon α-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Hironari; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to various cellular components. Although many of therapies have shown great efficacy, they often associate with adverse effects. The development of safer therapies for SLE has led to recent emphasis on targeting selected pathways that can be important in the inflammatory process in SLE. The cytokine family of type I interferons (IFNs), and especially the IFNα subtypes, are implicated in pathogenesis of SLE. Genetic polymorphisms of several components of the IFN signaling pathway have been associated with an increased risk of SLE. Therefore, IFNα subtypes have been identified as a potential target for drug development in SLE. There have been developed three agents, IFNα-targeted therapy, Sifalimumab, Rontalizumab and NNC 0152-0000-0001. They are anti-IFNα monoclonal antibodies that bind to and specifically neutralizes most IFNα subtypes, preventing signaling through the type I IFN receptor. The safety and dose-proportional pharmacokinetics of those agents were demonstrated. A larger study is currently ongoing, further safety profile will be evaluated. This review provides an update on the ongoing clinical trials of anti-IFNα therapy and the promise and obstacles in the use of biologics in SLE.

  16. Optimization of lipodisk properties by modification of the extent and density of the PEG corona.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Malin Morin; Ahlgren, Sara; Agmo Hernández, Víctor; Parveen, Nagma; Edwards, Katarina

    2016-12-15

    Lipodisks are nanosized flat, circular, phospholipid bilayers that are edge-stabilized by polyethylene glycol-conjugated lipids (PEG-lipids). Over the last decade, lipodisks stabilized with PEG of molecular weight 2000 or 5000 have been shown to hold high potential as both biomimetic membranes and drug carriers. In this study we investigate the possibilities to optimize the properties of the lipodisks, and widen their applicability, by reducing the PEG molecular weight and/or the density of the PEG corona. Results obtained by cryo-transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering show that stable, well-defined lipodisks can be produced from mixtures of distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine conjugated to PEG of molecular weight 1000 (DSPE-PEG1000). Preparations based on the use of DSPE-PEG750 tend, in contrast, to be polydisperse in size and structure. By comparing immobilization of lipodisks stabilized with DSPE-PEG1000, DSPE-PEG2000, and DSPE-PEG5000 to porous and smooth silica surfaces, we show that the amount of surface bound disks can be considerably improved by the use of PEG-lipids with reduced molecular weight. Further, a modified preparation protocol that enables production of lipodisks with very low PEG-lipid content is described. The reduced PEG density, which facilitates the incorporation of externally added ligand-linked PEG-lipids, is shown to be beneficial for the production of targeting lipodisks.

  17. The Role of Type I Interferon Subtypes and Interferon-Gamma in Type I Interferon Diabetes Inhibitory Activity in the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Douglas; Ahvazi, Behrouz; Pontzer, Carol

    2016-04-01

    As in bacterial infections and endotoxin shock, type I interferons (IFNs) also have complex and often opposing effects in various models of autoimmune disease. We have shown that type I IFN paradoxically inhibits autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse (NOD) and biobreeding (BB) rat. We hypothesize that type I IFN activity differs by IFN subtype and interaction with IFN-gamma. We examined the structure-function relationship of the type I IFN molecule and the mechanism of its diabetes-sparing activity in the NOD mouse. While both recombinant human IFN-alpha A/D (bgl 11) (rHuIFN-alphaA/D) and ovine IFN-tauImod (ovIFN-tau) potently inhibited the development of diabetes (P < 0.01), neither recombinant human IFN-alpha B/D (rHuIFN-alphaB/D) nor recombinant human IFN-alpha consensus (CIFN) were efficacious. The activity of IFN subtypes correlate with their NH3-terminal amino acid sequences. All type I IFN save CIFN, which has no diabetes-sparing activity, inhibited the accessory cell function. IFN-tau administration decreased the expression of Fas and ICAM on total cells, class II MHC expression on B cells, and CD40L expression on T cells by 39%, 45%, 45%, and 60%, respectively. In addition, IFN-tau inhibited the development of diabetes in the NOD.IL4(null) but not the NOD.IFN-gamma(null) mice, suggesting a coordinated interaction between type I and type II IFNs to suppress diabetes development. Thus, the amino terminal portion of the type I IFN molecule influences its ability to inhibit the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. These data also support the contention that IFN-gamma may have a role in mediating the diabetes-sparing effect of high-dose type I IFNs by the inhibition of the IFN-gamma-inducible immune modulators, class II MHC, Fas, ICAM, and CD40L.

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, and biological activity of five feline type I interferons.

    PubMed

    Wonderling, Ramani; Powell, Tim; Baldwin, Susan; Morales, Tony; Snyder, Scott; Keiser, Kathy; Hunter, Shirley; Best, Elaine; McDermott, Martin J; Milhausen, Michael

    2002-10-08

    Type I interferons (IFN) are important mediators of the host defense against viral infections in mammals. In humans multiple subtypes of IFN-alpha exist, most of which possess antiviral activity. Little is known about the type I IFN genes in cats and the role they may play in feline immunological responses to viruses. We have isolated cDNAs encoding five feline IFN-alpha (feIFN) subtypes that share from 95 to 99% amino acid sequence identity. FeIFN-alpha5 has five additional amino acids inserted at position 139, which are not present in the other four subtypes. Sequence identity of the feIFN proteins encoded by the five clones compared to human IFN-alpha2 is approximately 60%. Unlike most of the human subtypes, each of the five feline IFN sequences has an N-glycosylation recognition site. Expression of all five feIFN-alpha subtypes in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and all resulting proteins were glycosylated. The antiviral activity of each feIFN-alpha subtype produced in transiently transfected CHO cell cultures was tested in vitro. In addition, subtype feIFN-alpha6 was expressed in the yeast, Pichia pastoris. The resulting secreted mature recombinant protein was purified and demonstrated significant antiviral activity and induction of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity in vitro.

  19. Polysiloxane-graft-PEG/Phosphonium Ionomer Morphology and Ion Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Michael; Liang, Siwei; Bartels, Joshua; Runt, James; Colby, Ralph; Winey, Karen

    2013-03-01

    A series of random polysiloxane-based copolymer single ion conductors with phosphonium and polyethylene glycol side chains have been synthesized at various compositions and counterions. Morphology is investigated via X-ray scattering, and reveals microphase separation on extremely small length scales. Despite the low molecular weight of the PEG side chain, polysiloxane and PEG assemble into microdomains with covalently bound phosphonium cations at the interface. Exceptionally low glass transition temperatures in these microphase separated ionomers allow for high ionic mobility for both bulky, charge delocalized counterions as well as small, electronegative counterions. Morphology interpretation is complemented by measurement of ion transport properties via dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

  20. Fluoxetine regulates cell growth inhibition of interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Min; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Sun, Hung-Yu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Su, Hui-Chen; Yen, Shu-Yang; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Young, Kung-Chia; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Fluoxetine, a well-known anti-depression agent, may act as a chemosensitizer to assist and promote cancer therapy. However, how fluoxetine regulates cellular signaling to enhance cellular responses against tumor cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, addition of fluoxetine promoted growth inhibition of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in human bladder carcinoma cells but not in normal uroepithelial cells through lessening the IFN-α-induced apoptosis but switching to cause G1 arrest, and maintaining the IFN-α-mediated reduction in G2/M phase. Activations and signal transducer and transactivator (STAT)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were involved in this process. Chemical inhibitions of STAT-1 or PPAR-α partially rescued bladder carcinoma cells from IFN-α-mediated growth inhibition via blockades of G1 arrest, cyclin D1 reduction, p53 downregulation and p27 upregulation in the presence of fluoxetine. However, the functions of both proteins were not involved in the control of fluoxetine over apoptosis and maintained the declined G2/M phase of IFN-α. These results indicated that activation of PPAR-α and STAT-1 participated, at least in part, in growth inhibition of IFN-α in the presence of fluoxetine.

  1. Interactions of the interferon system with cellular metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies concerning the interaction of the interferon (Inf) system with the activities of carcinogens, tumor promoters, and cytochrome P-450 are presented. The results show that the addition of a tumor promoter (TPA or 4-O-methyl-TPA) to a tissue culture enhances virus-induced Inf-gamma production, suggesting a potential value of tumor promoters in the biosynthesis of commercial Inf. On the other hand, the carcinogens were reported to inhibit the induction of Inf-alpha/beta in cultured cells and in intact animals (with no effect on the administered or preformed Inf). The demonstration of a correlation between the carcinogenic potential of a compound and its inhibitive effect on Inf production suggests a possible use of the Inf production assay in the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of chemicals. In addition, it was shown that the induction of Inf-alpha/beta as well as the administration of this Inf depresses the levels of rat liver cytochrome P-450 which is responsible for binding lipophilic drugs, steroids, and carcinogens, thus increasing the toxicity of the respective chemical.

  2. The use of interferon in melanoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Di Trolio, Rossella; Simeone, Ester; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Interferon (IFN) and PEG-IFN are the only drugs approved as adjuvant therapy in patients with melanoma at high-risk of recurrence after surgical resection. Several clinical trials of adjuvant IFN, using different doses and durations of therapy, have been conducted in these patients. Results generally suggest relapse-free survival and overall survival benefits; however, questions over the optimal dose and duration of treatment and concerns over toxicity have limited its use. IFN exerts its biological activity in melanoma via multiple mechanisms of action, most of which can be considered as indirect immunomodulatory effects. As such, IFN may also be of benefit in the neoadjuvant setting, where it may have a role in melanoma patients with locally advanced disease for whom immediate surgical excision is not possible. However, this has not been well studied. The use of IFN in patients with metastatic melanoma is controversial, with limited data and no convincing evidence of a survival benefit. However, IFN therapy combined with novel biological and immunotherapies offers the potential for a synergistic effect and improved clinical outcomes. Predictive and prognostic factors to better select melanoma patients for IFN treatment have been identified (e.g. disease stage, ulceration, various cytokines) and may also enhance its therapeutic efficacy, but their incorporation into the clinical decision-making process requires validation in prospective trials. In conclusion, the modest efficacy of IFN shown in clinical trials is largely a reflection of differences in response between patients. Despite advancements in the understanding of its biological mechanisms of action, the huge potential of IFN remains to be fully explored and utilized in patients with melanoma.

  3. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled recombinant beta interferon (IFN-beta Ser17) to human cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, E.C.; Drummond, R.J.; Creasey, A.A.

    1984-12-01

    The authors investigated the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled beta interferon (IFN-beta Ser17), a nonglycosylated recombinant human fibroblast interferon in which cysteine at position 17 is replaced by serine by site-specific mutagenesis. An optimized chloramine T radiolabeling method produced a highly labeled, fully active /sup 125/I-IFN suitable for these studies. Unlike the case with the chloramine T method, incorporation of a single mole of Bolton-Hunter reagent into a mole of IFN-beta Ser17 led to nearly complete loss of biological activity. /sup 125/I-IFN-beta Ser17, prepared by the chloramine T method, bound specifically to human lymphoblastoid cells (Daudi) with a dissociation constant of 0.24 nM. The number of binding sites per cell was 4,000. In competition assays, unlabeled beta interferons (native, recombinant IFN-beta Cys17, and various preparations of IFN-beta Ser17) equally displaced labeled IFN-beta Ser17 on Daudi cells. Recombinant IFN-alpha-1 displaced /sup 125/I-IFN-beta binding to Daudi cells less efficiently than did unlabeled native or recombinant beta interferon. However, at the concentrations tested, native gamma interferon showed no competition with /sup 125/I-IFN. The results indicate that IFN-beta Ser17 and native IFN-beta posses similar binding properties.

  4. Genetic variants in interferon-λ 4 influences HCV clearance in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Yao, Yinan; Yue, Ming; Tian, Ting; Chen, Hongbo; Chen, Mingzhu; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Rongbin

    2017-01-01

    Recent many studies indicated a novel dinucleotide variant in ss469415590 (TT vs. ΔG) of interferon-λ 4 (IFNL4) gene strongly associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. To evaluate the impact and clinical usefulness of IFNL4 ss469415590 genotype on predicting both spontaneous HCV clearance and response to therapy in Chinese population, we genotyped 795 chronic HCV carriers, 460 subjects with HCV natural clearance and 362 patients with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant genotypes significantly decreased host HCV clearance, both spontaneous (dominant model: OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36–0.71) and IFN-α induced (dominant model: OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.18–0.56). Multivariate stepwise analysis indicated that ss469415590, rs12979860, the level of baseline HCV RNA and platelet were as independent predictors for sustained virological response (SVR). But the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was only 0.58 for ss469415590, and it was elevated to 0.71 by adding rs12979860, baseline HCV RNA and platelet in the prediction model of SVR. Therefore, these findings underscore that although genetic factors of host and pathogen were commonly important during HCV clearance, ss469415590 may be also a strongly predictive marker in the Chinese population. PMID:28186161

  5. [Process Optimization of PEGylating Fused Protein of LL-37 and Interferon-α2a].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjie

    2015-12-01

    PEGylating is an effective way for prolonging the half-time period and decreasing the immunogenicity of protein drugs. With experiments of single factor, it was proved that the optimal processes for PEGylating the fused protein of LL-37 and interferon (IFN)-α2a were: PEG molecular weight was 5,000, fused protein concentration was 0.6 mg/mL, the mole ratio of protein to mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS was 1:10, the reaction temperature was 4 °C, and the pH was 9.0, respectively. With orthogonal experiments, we proved that the influential order of 3 main factors is: the fused protein concentration > the mole ratio of protein and mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS > pH and the optimal conditions were the fused protein concentration as 0.6 mg/mL, the mole ratio of protein and mPEG₅₀₀₀-SS as 1:10, pH as 8.8. Under these optimal conditions, the average rate of PEGylated protein with 3 times parallel experiments was 86.98%. After PEGylated, the interferon activity and antimicrobial activity of fused protein could be remained higher than 58% and 97%, respectively.

  6. In vitro studies of PEG thin films with different molecular weights deposited by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Ion, Valentin; Luculescu, Catalin-Romeo; Dinescu, Maria; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG) films were produced by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE). The possibility to tailor the properties of the films by means of polymer molecular weight was explored. The films of PEG of average molecular weights 400 Da, 1450 Da, and 10000 Da (PEG400, PEG1450, and PEG10000) were investigated in vitro, in media similar with those inside the body (phosphate buffer saline PBS with pH 7.4 and blood). The mass of the polymer did not change during this treatment, but the polymer molecular weight was found to strongly influence the films properties and their behavior in vitro. Thus, immersion in PBS induced swelling of the PEG films, which was more pronounced for PEG polymers of higher molecular weight. Prior to immersion in PBS, the PEG films of higher molecular weight were more hydrophilic, the water contact angles decreasing from ˜66 grd for PEG400 to ˜41 grd for PEG1450 and to ˜15 grd for PEG10000. The same trend was observed during immersion of the PEG films in PBS. Before immersion in PBS, the refractive index of the films increased from ˜1.43 for PEG400 to ˜1.48 for PEG1450 and to ˜1.68 for PEG10000. During immersion in PBS the refractive index decreased gradually, but remained higher for the PEG molecules of higher mass. Finally, blood compatibility tests showed that the PEG films of higher molecular weight were most compatible with blood.

  7. Evaluation of HPβCD-PEG microparticles for salmon calcitonin administration via pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Tewes, Frederic; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Amaro, Maria I; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-10-03

    For therapeutic peptides, the lung represents an attractive, noninvasive route into the bloodstream. To achieve optimal bioavailability and control their fast rate of absorption, peptides can be protected by coprocessing with polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Here, we formulated and characterized salmon calcitonin (sCT)-loaded microparticles using linear or branched PEG (L-PEG or B-PEG) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) for pulmonary administration. Mixtures of sCT, L-PEG or B-PEG and HPβCD were co-spray dried. Based on the particle properties, the best PEG:HPβCD ratio was 1:1 w:w for both PEGs. In the sCT-loaded particles, the L-PEG was more crystalline than B-PEG. Thus, L-PEG-based particles had lower surface free energy and better aerodynamic behavior than B-PEG-based particles. However, B-PEG-based particles provided better protection against chemical degradation of sCT. A decrease in sCT permeability, measured across Calu-3 bronchial epithelial monolayers, occurred when the PEG and HPβCD concentrations were both 1.6 wt %. This was attributed to an increase in buffer viscosity, caused by the two excipients. sCT pharmacokinetic profiles in Wistar rats were evaluated using a 2-compartment model after iv injection or lung insufflation. The maximal sCT plasma concentration was reached within 3 min following nebulization of sCT solution. L-PEG and B-PEG-based microparticles were able to increase T(max) to 20 ± 1 min and 18 ± 8 min, respectively. Furthermore, sCT absolute bioavailability after L-PEG-based microparticle aerosolization at 100 μg/kg was 2.3 times greater than for the nebulized sCT solution.

  8. Linking the foreign body response and protein adsorption to PEG-based hydrogels using proteomics.

    PubMed

    Swartzlander, Mark D; Barnes, Christopher A; Blakney, Anna K; Kaar, Joel L; Kyriakides, Themis R; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-02-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with their highly tunable properties are promising implantable materials, but as with all non-biological materials, they elicit a foreign body response (FBR). Recent studies, however, have shown that incorporating the oligopeptide RGD into PEG hydrogels reduces the FBR. To better understand the mechanisms involved and the role of RGD in mediating the FBR, PEG, PEG-RGD and PEG-RDG hydrogels were investigated. After a 28-day subcutaneous implantation in mice, a thinner and less dense fibrous capsule formed around PEG-RGD hydrogels, while PEG and PEG-RDG hydrogels exhibited stronger, but similar FBRs. Protein adsorption to the hydrogels, which is considered the first step in the FBR, was also characterized. In vitro experiments confirmed that serum proteins adsorbed to PEG-based hydrogels and were necessary to promote macrophage adhesion to PEG and PEG-RDG, but not PEG-RGD hydrogels. Proteins adsorbed to the hydrogels in vivo were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The majority (245) of the total proteins (≥300) that were identified was present on all hydrogels with many proteins being associated with wounding and acute inflammation. These findings suggest that the FBR to PEG hydrogels may be mediated by the presence of inflammatory-related proteins adsorbed to the surface, but that macrophages appear to sense the underlying chemistry, which for RGD improves the FBR.

  9. A case of chronic hepatitis C developing insulin-dependent diabetes, thyroid autoimmunity and stiff-person syndrome as complications of interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Scavone, G; Zaccardi, F; Manto, A; Caputo, S; Pitocco, D; Ghirlanda, G

    2010-08-01

    We describe the case of a 66-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and thyroid autoimmunity during Interferon alpha (INFalpha) therapy and then stiff-person syndrome (SPS). This is the first reported case in which SPS has appeared as complication of IFNalpha therapy.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of mPEG-PLA prodrug micelles.

    PubMed

    Hans, Meredith; Shimoni, Karin; Danino, Dganit; Siegel, Steven J; Lowman, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric prodrugs of mPEG-PLA-haloperidol (methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid)) can self-assemble into nanoscale micelle-like structures in aqueous solutions. mPEG-PLA-haloperidol was prepared and characterized using 1H and 13C NMR. The conjugation efficiency was found to be 64.8 +/- 21%. Micelles that form spontaneously upon solubilization of the mPEG-PLA and the polymeric prodrugs in water were characterized using a variety of techniques. The mPEG-PLA and prodrug micelles were found to have diameters of 28.73 +/- 1.45 and 49.67 +/- 4.29 nm, respectively, using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The micelle size and polydispersity were also evaluated with cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and were consistent with the DLS results. Cryo-TEM and proton NMR confirmed that the micelles were spherical in shape. DLS was also used to determine the aggregation numbers of the micelles. The aggregation numbers ranged from 351 to 603. The change in aggregation number was dependent on the total drug incorporation into the micelle core. Critical micelle concentrations were determined for the various micelle/drug formulations and found to range from 3 to 14 microg/mL. Finally, drug was incorporated into the micelle core using the conjugate, free drug with a saturated aqueous phase during production, or a combination of both techniques. Drug incorporation could be increased from 3% to 20% (w/w) using the different formulations.

  11. Parental and sexual conflicts over the Peg3 imprinted domain

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongzhi; Perera, Bambarendage P. U.; Ye, An; Kim, Joomyeong

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the imprinting control region of the mouse Peg3 domain was deleted to test its functional impact on animal growth and survival. The paternal transmission of the deletion resulted in complete abolition of the transcription of two paternally expressed genes, Peg3 and Usp29, causing the reduced body weight of the pups. In contrast, the maternal transmission resulted in the unexpected transcriptional up-regulation of the remaining paternal allele of both Peg3 and Usp29, causing the increased body weight and survival rates. Thus, the imprinted maternal allele of the ICR may be a suppressor antagonistic to the active paternal allele of the ICR, suggesting a potential intralocus allelic conflict. The opposite outcomes between the two transmissions also justify the functional compromise that the maternal allele has become epigenetically repressed rather than genetically deleted during mammalian evolution. The mice homozygous for the deletion develop normally but with a skewed sex ratio, one male per litter, revealing its sex-biased effect. Overall, the Peg3 locus may have evolved to an imprinted domain to cope with both parental and sexual conflicts driven by its growth-stimulating paternal versus growth-suppressing maternal alleles. PMID:27901122

  12. Morphology of PEG-Stabilized Carbon Nanofibers in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jian; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-09-02

    Small-angle light scattering is used to assess the dispersion of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized carbon nanofibers suspended in water. Analysis of these data elucidates the mechanism by which the functionalized nanofibers are solubilized in water. Linear, tube-like morphology is observed for the PEG-functionalized nanofibers dispersed in water. However, dispersion is not down to the individual tube level as determined by analysis of the light scattering data in conjunction with transmission electron micrographs. Rather, scattering entities are polydisperse side-by-side fiber aggregates (bundles). Because of the presence of water-soluble PEG oligomers on the surfaces of the nanofibers these small-scale aggregates do not agglomerate to form the large-scale clusters that are observed for untreated and acid-treated nanofibers. Acid-treated nanofibers, by contrast, do agglomerate, but in an unusual fashion, showing a 10-h induction period of followed by linear growth of large-scale agglomerates. PEG-functionalization of the acid-treated fibers leads to stabilization by inhibiting formation of the large-scale agglomerates, not by disrupting the side-by-side bundles.

  13. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrolytes to prevent dehydration and other serious side effects that may be caused by fluid loss as ... PEG-ES may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: nausea stomach pain, cramps, or fullness ...

  14. Fab-PEG-Fab as a potential antibody mimetic.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Hanieh; Godwin, Antony; Choi, Ji-Won; Lever, Rebecca; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve

    2013-11-20

    IgG antibodies have evolved to be flexible so that they can bind to epitopes located over a wide spatial range. The two Fabs in an IgG antibody are linked together as if each Fab is at the end of a linear, flexible molecule. PEG was used as a scaffold molecule to link two Fabs together to give Fab-PEG-Fab molecules, or FpFs. Preparation of FpFs was achieved with reagents that undergo site-specific conjugation at each PEG terminus by bis-alkylation with the two cysteine thiols from a disulfide bond. This allowed each Fab to be conjugated to the PEG scaffold in essentially the same region that each Fab is linked in an IgG. Fabs were sourced directly (e.g., ranibizumab) or monoclonal IgG antibodies were proteolytically digested to obtain the Fabs. This allowed the resulting FpFs to be directly compared to parent IgGs. PEG scaffolds of 6, 10, and 20 kDa were used to make the corresponding FpFs. Dynamic light scatting data suggested the resulting FpFs were similar in size to an IgG antibody and about half the size of a 20 kDa PEGylated-Fab. The solution size of PEG-conjugated proteins is known to be dominated by the extended solution structure of PEG, so it is thought that the smaller size of the FpFs is due to interactions between the two Fabs. Anti-VEGF and anti-Her2 FpFs were prepared and evaluated. The FpFs displayed similar apparent affinities to their parent IgGs. Slower dissociation rates were observed for the anti-VEGF FpFs compared to bevacizumab. The anti-VEGF FpFs also displayed in vitro anti-angiogenic properties comparable to or better than bevacizumab. These first studies indicate that FpFs warrant further examination in a therapeutic indication where the presence of the Fc may not be required.

  15. Development practices and lessons learned in developing SimPEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Kang, S.; Rosenkjaer, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modelling provides a mathematical framework for constructing a model of physical property distributions in the subsurface that are consistent with the data collected in geophysical surveys. The geosciences are increasingly moving towards the integration of geological, geophysical, and hydrological information to better characterize the subsurface. This integration must span disciplines and is not only challenging scientifically, but additionally the inconsistencies between conventions often makes implementations complicated, non­ reproducible, or inefficient. SimPEG is an open-source, multi-university effort aimed at providing a generalized framework for solving forward and inverse problems. SimPEG includes finite volume discretizations on structured and unstructured meshes, interfaces to standard numerical solver packages, convex optimization algorithms, model parameterizations, and visualization routines. The SimPEG package (http://simpeg.xyz) supports an ecosystem of forward and inverse modelling applications, including electromagnetics, vadose zone flow, seismic, and potential­ fields, that are all written with a common interface and toolbox. The goal of SimPEG is to support a community of researchers with well-tested, extensible tools, and encourage transparency and reproducibility both of the SimPEG software and the geoscientific research it is applied to. In this presentation, we will share some of the lessons we have learned in designing the modular infrastructure, testing and development practices of SimPEG. We will discuss our use of version control, extensive unit-testing, continuous integration, documentation, issue tracking, and resources that facilitate communication between existing team members and allows new researchers to get involved. These practices have enabled the use of SimPEG in research, industry, and education as well as the ability to support a growing number of dependent repositories and applications. We hope that sharing our

  16. Lubiprostone plus PEG electrolytes versus placebo plus PEG electrolytes for outpatient colonoscopy preparation: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sofi, Aijaz A; Nawras, Ali T; Pai, Chetan; Samuels, Qiana; Silverman, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    Bowel preparation using large volume of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions is often poorly tolerated. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop an alternative bowel cleansing regimen that should be equally effective and better tolerated. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lubiprostone (versus placebo) plus PEG as a bowel cleansing preparation for colonoscopy. Our study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled design. Patients scheduled for screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1 to lubiprostone (group 1) or placebo (group 2) plus 1 gallon of PEG. The primary endpoints were patient's tolerability and endoscopist's evaluation of the preparation quality. The secondary endpoint was to determine any reduction in the amount of PEG consumed in the lubiprostone group compared with the placebo group. One hundred twenty-three patients completed the study and were included in the analysis. There was no difference in overall cleanliness. The volume of PEG was similar in both the groups. The volume of PEG approached significance as a predictor of improved score for both the groups (P = 0.054). Lubiprostone plus PEG was similar to placebo plus PEG in colon cleansing and volume of PEG consumed. The volume of PEG consumed showed a trend toward improving the quality of the colon cleansing.

  17. Interferon Induced Transfer of Viral Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    interferon induction (27). Reaction kinetics plus the falure of soluble factors in the medium to induce interferon suggested that the inducing factor...staining. Only NDV infected lymphocytes stained with the anti-ACTHa (1-13) or anti-Y-endorphin sera. The staining reaction of the anti-ACTHa (1-13) sera was...reasons. First, a cross reaction between human immunoglobulin class IgGl, and O-endorphin and ACTH has been reported (46). It seems that this is not the

  18. Interferon-gamma-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis in mice treated with diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Mitsuru; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kurata, Tomomitsu; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2005-05-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multifactorial process in which continuous intrahepatic inflammation plays a major role. Although inflammatory cell infiltration is observed in the process of chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, the pathophysiological role of the inflammatory response is not well defined. To approach this question, molecular and cellular responses were monitored during the development of liver tumors in mice exposed to a chemical hepatocarcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), in drinking water (50 microg/l). Intrahepatic type I and type II interferon (IFN-beta and IFN-gamma, respectively) mRNA expression was found to be induced 2 months before the appearance of hepatocellular carcinomas. The pathogenetic importance of IFNs was determined by monitoring tumor development in mice genetically deficient in the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFN-alpha/betaR KO) or the IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR KO). IFN-gammaR KO mice developed fewer tumors than IFN-alpha/betaR KO and wild-type (wt) mice, although the tumor diameters did not differ significantly among the three lineages. Interestingly, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the percentage of monocytes/macrophages in infiltrating mononuclear cells was reduced greatly in the livers of IFN-gammaR KO mice, which is consistent with the facts that intrahepatic cytokine expression was diminished and oxidative DNA damage was induced to a lesser extent. In conclusion, type II IFN, but not type I IFNs, may be involved critically in the initiation stage, but not the promotion stage, of DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing monocytes/macrophages activation and eventual hepatocyte DNA damage.

  19. Molecular design of conjugated tumor necrosis factor-alpha: synthesis and characteristics of polyvinyl pyrrolidone modified tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Kamada, H; Tsutsumi, Y; Tsunoda, S; Kihira, T; Kaneda, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nakagawa, S; Horisawa, Y; Mayumi, T

    1999-04-13

    We conjugated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with the synthetic polymeric modifier polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to facilitate its clinical use for anti-tumor therapy. TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with the terminal carboxyl-bearing PVP at one end of its main chain, which was radically polymerized via the formation of an amide bond between the lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha and carboxyl group of PVP. In vitro specific bioactivity of PVP-conjugated TNF-alpha (PVP-TNF-alpha) relative to that of native TNF-alpha gradually decreased with increases in the degree of PVP attachment. In contrast, PVP-TNF-alpha in which 40% of TNF-alpha lysine residues were coupled with PVP (MPVP-TNF-alpha) exhibited the highest anti-tumor activity among the conjugated derivatives examined. MPVP-TNF-alpha had more than 200-fold higher anti-tumor efficacy than native TNF-alpha, and the anti-tumor activity of MPVP- TNF-alpha was more than 5-fold stronger than that MPEG- TNF-alpha which had the highest anti-tumor activity among PEG-conjugated TNF-alphas examined. Additionally, a high dose of native TNF-alpha induced toxic side-effects such as body weight reduction, piloerection and tissue inflammation, while no side effects were observed following i.v. administration of MPVP-TNF-alpha. The plasma half-life of MPVP-TNF-alpha (360 min) was about 80 and 3-fold longer than those of native TNF-alpha (4.6 min) and MPEG-TNF-alpha (122 min), respectively. These results suggested that PVP is a useful polymeric modifier for increasing the anti-tumor activity of PVP.

  20. Vitamin D and chronic hepatitis C: effects on success rate and prevention of side effects associated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Bassem; El-Shemi, Adel Galal; Ashshi, Ahmed; Azhar, Esam

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the most common causes of liver diseases worldwide, affecting 3% of the world population and 3 to 4 million people acquire new infection annually. Despite the recent introduction of novel antiviral drugs for the treatment of CHC, these drugs are expensive and the access to them is not an option for many patients. Hence, the traditional therapy by pegylated interferon-α (Peg-IFN-α) and ribavirin may still have a role in the clinical management of CHC especially in developing countries. However, this standard therapy is associated with several severe extra-hepatic side effects and the most common adverse events are hematological abnormalities and thyroid disorders and they could result in dose reduction and/or termination of therapy. Vitamin D has been shown to be a key regulatory element of the immune system, and its serum concentrations correlate with the severity of liver damage and the development of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin D with Peg-IFN-α based therapy for the treatment of CHC could be beneficial in increase the response rate to Peg-INF-α based therapy. Vitamin D has also been shown to regulate the thyroid functions and the process of erythropoiesis. This review appraises the data to date researching the role of vitamin D during the treatment of CHC and the potential role of vitamin D in preventing/treating Peg-IFN-α induced thyroiditis and anemia during the course of treatment.

  1. [Effects of neuropeptides on interferon production in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    The study of an interferon-inducing action of neuropeptides (a cerebrolysin model) on production of interferons by human blood leukocytes has shown that neuropeptides induce gamma-interferon production in the titer 267 IU/ml that determines one of the mechanisms of a neuroimmunocorrecting effect of cerebrolysin (Ebewe, Austria) in many neurological diseases (acute stroke, brain traumas and different neuroinfectious diseases).

  2. Interferon expression in the pancreases of patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Yuang, J; Goddard, A; Foulis, A; James, R F; Lernmark, A; Pujol-Borrell, R; Rabinovitch, A; Somoza, N; Stewart, T A

    1995-06-01

    We have used a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol to examine the expression of cytokines in the pancreases and islets of patients with type I diabetes. We detect a significant increase in the level of expression of interferon (IFN)-alpha in the pancreases of the diabetic patients as compared with the control pancreases. In contrast, IFN-beta was detected at comparable levels in both groups, while IFN-gamma was detected in three of four control pancreases and one of four pancreases from the diabetic individuals. The IFN-alpha cDNAs generated by the RT-PCR were cloned and sequenced to determine which alpha-subtypes were being expressed. We found that the repertoire of subtypes was quite limited in any one individual (diabetic or not), although each individual was different with respect to the pattern of subtypes expressed. We also examined these pancreases for the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. We found no detectable expression of TNF-alpha or IL-2 in any pancreases, and the expression of the other cytokines was variable, with no pattern emerging from the comparison of the diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. We conclude that, of the cytokines examined, only IFN-alpha was significantly increased in the diabetic patients, a result that is consistent with the possibility that this cytokine is directly involved in the