Palomo-Couoh, J G; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; González-Garduño, R
This study compared the phenotypic susceptibility of Pelibuey and Katahdin female lambs against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) under grazing conditions in the hot humid tropics of Mexico. The study was performed during the rainy season (August to October, 2014). It included 27 Pelibuey and 12 Katahdin female lambs from 6 months of age and live weight of 21.0 ± 3.7 and 23.3 ± 3.6 kg, respectively. Lambs were reared free of GIN infection before the study. The study lasted 91 days. Animals were weighed and sampled (blood and feces) on days 0 and 28 and every 7 days onwards. Fecal samples were obtained to determine fecal eggs of GIN per gram (EPG), and blood samples were used to determine the packed cell volume (PCV), the peripheral eosinophil counts (PECs), and optical densities (ODs) for IgA. The EPG counts were significantly lower for Pelibuey lambs compared to Katahdin throughout the study (P < 0.001). Similarly, Pelibuey lambs had higher mean PCV (P < 0.01) and PEC (P < 0.05) than Katahdin lambs during the study. The total weight gain and OD for IgA were similar between breeds (P > 0.05). Negative associations (P < 0.05) between EPG and PCV or PEC were moderate to strong for the lambs of both breeds. No association was found between EPG and IgA. In conclusion, Pelibuey lambs showed phenotypic evidence of higher resistance to natural GIN infections compared to Katahdin lambs sharing the same grazing conditions in the hot humid tropics. The most accurate phenotypic markers to identify a difference in susceptibility were EPG and PEC.
Palomo-Couoh, Jovanny Gaspar; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel
This study evaluated four models based on the number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) to segregate Pelibuey or Katahdin ewes during the lactation period into resistant or susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in tropical Mexico. Nine hundred and thirty EPG counts of Pelibuey ewes and 710 of Katahdin ewes were obtained during 10 weeks of lactation. Ewes were segregated into resistant, intermediate and susceptible, using their individual EPG every week. Then, data of every ewe was used to provide a reference classification, which included all the EPG values of each animal. Then, four models were evaluated against such reference. Model 1 was based on the 10-week mean EPG count ± 2 SE. Models 2, 3 and 4 were based on the mean EPG count of 10, 5 and 2 weeks of lactation. The cutoff points for the segregation of ewe in those three models were the quartiles ≤Q1 (low elimination) and ≥Q3 (high elimination). In all the models evaluated, the ewes classified as resistant had lower EPG than intermediates and susceptible (P < 0.001) while ewes classified as susceptible had higher EPG than intermediate and resistant (P < 0.001). According to J Youden test, models presented concordance with the reference group (>70 %). Model 3 tended to show higher sensitivity and specificity with the reference data, but no difference was found with other models. The present study showed that the phenotypic marker EPG might serve to identify and segregate populations of adult ewes during the lactation period. All models used served to segregate Pelibuey and Katahdin ewes into resistant, intermediate and susceptible. The model 3 (mean of 5 weeks) could be used because it required less sampling effort without losing sensitivity or specificity in the segregation of animals. However, model 2 (mean of 2 weeks) was less labour-intensive.
Gavojdian, D.; Budai, C.; Cziszter, L. T.; Csizmar, N.; Javor, A.; Kusza, S.
The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age) managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014). In general, significant (p≤0.001) genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05) in Dorper (9.4%) and White Dorper (10.8%) breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%). Significant differences (p≤0.05) for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05) by the ewes’ genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p≤0.05) in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05) by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions. PMID:25656193
Deng, K D; Jiang, C G; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Liu, J; Ma, T; Zhao, Y G; Xu, G S; Diao, Q Y
The ME and NE requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs grown from 35 to 50 kg BW were assessed in a comparative slaughter trial. Thirty-five ewe lambs (33.5 ± 0.6 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were used: 7 lambs were slaughtered at the start of the trial to provide baseline measures of body composition and 7 lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 43 kg BW to provide intermediate measures of body composition. The remaining 21 lambs were divided into 3 groups of 7 lambs each and fed a pelleted mixed diet (concentrate:roughage = 44:56, DM basis) for ad libitum intake or 65 or 45% of ad libitum intake. All 3 groups were slaughtered when the ad libitum group reached 50 kg BW. Total body energy, N, fat, ash, and moisture content were measured. In a separate trial, 15 ewe lambs (39.5 ± 0.7 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were housed in metabolism cages to evaluate the ME value of the diet at each of the 3 levels of feed intake. In vivo methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry along with the collection of all feces and urine. The daily NEm requirement of the ewe lambs was 280 kJ/kg metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or 292 kJ/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW(0.75)), whereas the daily ME requirement for maintenance was 418 kJ/kg BW(0.75) or 437 kJ/kg SBW(0.75), with a partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance of 0.67. The NEg requirement ranged from 1.37 to 3.94 MJ/d for ADG from 100 to 250 g BW, and the partial efficiency of ME utilization for gain was 0.44. The NE and ME requirements of Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewe lambs were lower than the recommendations of the United States' nutritional system.
Daily intake of fresh common bermudagrass was estimated using 12 spring-born Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross ewe lambs (n=3 per breed group) individually fed fresh harvested forage in pens in each of three years. Two 24-h estimates of intake were measured for each week of the study from June...
Sánchez, José H; Martínez, Humberto A; García, María M; Garrido, Germán; Gómez, Luis; Aguilar, José A; de Andrés, Damián F; Reina, Ramsés; Ramírez, Hugo
The transmission frequency of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) through the placenta is controversial and may be associated with breed susceptibility. In Mexico, SRLV infections in sheep have been poorly studied. This work explores the presence of antibodies and proviral DNA in Mexican Pelibuey sheep. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; three commercial kits and two on the basis of synthetic peptides) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; amplifying the long terminal repeat and gag segments) were performed to diagnose SRLV infection in 25 adult Pelibuey ewes with an average age of 2.5 years and 32 fetuses with gestational ages ranging from 40 to 90 days without clinical signs of SRLV. Two of the three commercial ELISAs and the synthetic peptide-based ones were positive for SRLV antibody detection in 28% and 24% of the ewes, respectively, whereas none of the fetuses were positive by any of the ELISAs. By PCR, 31% of the ewes and, interestingly, two fetuses were positive. Characteristic SRLV lesions were not found in the fetal and/or ewe tissues, including those with positive PCR results. These findings demonstrate the susceptibility of Pelibuey sheep to SRLV infection and the low transmission frequency through the placenta.
Yeaman, J C; Waldron, D F; Willingham, T D
Data from Dorper and Rambouillet ram lambs (n = 79) were used to estimate breed means for postweaning growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency (kilograms of gain divided by kilograms of feed consumed), and residual feed intake on a high concentrate diet during the typical age and weight range for U.S. lamb production. Lambs were progeny of 6 unrelated sires/breed and were born over a 2-yr period. Dams of the lambs were a representative sample of Dorper ewes in the United States and Rambouillet ewes in Texas. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED with a model that included year, breed, birth type, and feeder pen as fixed effects and sire as a random effect. The mean BW at the start of the feeding trial was 31.4 ± 3.7 kg at a mean age of 92.7 ± 9.2 d. Electronic feeders were used to record individual animal feed intake. Growth rate and feed intake were measured for 77 d during the postweaning growth period. Mean ADG was 340 ± 9.2 g for Dorper lambs and 346 ± 8.6 g for Rambouillet lambs. The mean final bodyweight was 58.1 ± 4.8 kg when the mean age was 170 d. Average daily feed intake was 2,223 ± 50 g for Dorper lambs and 2,215 ± 48 g for Rambouillet lambs. Feed conversion efficiency was 0.153 ± 0.003 for Dorper lambs and 0.158 ± 0.003 for Rambouillet lambs. No significant differences were observed between Dorper and Rambouillet lambs for weaning weight, postweaning gain, final weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, or residual feed intake. Growth rate, feed intake, and feed conversion efficiency were similar for Dorper and Rambouillet ram lambs fed from a mean of 31 kg BW and 93 d of age to a mean BW of 58 kg and a mean age of 170 d.
Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor
A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds.
Albores-Moreno, S; Alayón-Gamboa, J A; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Solorio-Sánchez, F J; Aguilar-Pérez, C F; Olivera-Castillo, L; Ku-Vera, J C
An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), and molar proportions of propionic acid increased linearly (P < 0.05) as pods of E. cyclocarpum in the ration were increased. Higher intakes of DM and OM were found when lambs were fed 0.45 kg DM per day of E. cyclocarpum, and the highest proportion of propionic acid (0.21 and 0.22, respectively) was obtained with 0.15 and 0.30 kg of DM per lamb of E. cyclocarpum, while apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and molar proportion of acetic acid were reduced (P < 0.05). Rumen CH4 production decreased (P < 0.05) when 0.30 and 0.45 kg of DM/lamb/day of E. cyclocarpum were fed (21.8 and 25.3 L CH4/lamb/day, respectively). These results suggest that to improve the feeding of sheep fed tropical grass, it is advisable to supplement the basal ration with up to 0.30 kg DM of E. cyclocarpum pods.
Romero, Rosita Denny; Montero Pardo, Arnulfo; Montaldo, Hugo Horacio; Rodríguez, Ana Delia; Hernández Cerón, Joel
Pelibuey and Suffolk sheep were compared as to their capacity to regulate body temperature under environmental hyperthermia by measuring their differences in cellular response to heat stress (HS). In a first experiment, seven Pelibuey and seven Suffolk ewes were kept in a climatic chamber for 6 h daily during 10 days (temperatures within the 18 to 39.5 °C range). As chamber temperature rose, sheep rectal temperature increased in both groups, but to a lesser extent in Pelibuey (0.3 °C) than in Suffolk sheep (0.7 °C) (P < 0.05). In a second experiment, cellular viability was assessed using cultured blood mononuclear cells from 15 Pelibuey and 15 Suffolk sheep. They were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h (control) or 43 °C for 6 h followed by 18 h at 37 °C (HS). In a third experiment, another blood mononuclear cells culture from eight Pelibuey and eight Suffolk sheep was kept at 37 °C for 15 h; these were subsequently cultured for 6 h at 37 °C (controls) or 43 °C (HS). Next, HSP-70 concentration was determined. HS reduced the percentage of viable cells to a greater extent in Suffolk [37 °C (73.7 %) vs. 43 °C (61.9 %); P < 0.05] than in Pelibuey sheep [37 °C (74.9 %) vs. 43 °C (66.7 %); P > 0.05]. HS significantly increased HSP-70 average concentrations for both breeds at 43 °C. A significant effect was observed for the breed by temperature interaction (P < 0.05) caused by a greater difference between Pelibuey and Suffolk at 43 °C (2.85 vs. 0.53 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) than at 37 °C (0.05 vs. 0.03 ng/mL, respectively; P > 0.05). In conclusion, Pelibuey sheep show more effective body temperature regulation under conditions of environmental hyperthermia. Also, cell viability after HS was higher in Pelibuey than in Suffolk, an effect that could be mediated by an HSP-70-related mechanism.
Small ruminant species and breed may impact response to supplementation of pasture diets. The experiment evaluated traditional U.S. sheep (Suffolk crossbed; SX, n = 36), hair sheep (Katahdin; KA, n = 36), and meat goat (Boer crossbred; GX, n = 36) carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters...
Kalshingi, Habu A; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Gouws, Johan; van Vuuren, Moritz
Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50%) were identified as M. arginini with 99% - 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% - 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA) is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species.
Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E
Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.
Rastle-Simpson, S; D'Souza, K; Redhead, A; Singh-Knights, D; Baptiste, Q; Knights, M
The effect of season (S), lamb rearing system (RT) and grain supplementation (GS) on post-partum fertility in Katahdin ewes and growth in Katahdin lambs was evaluated. Katahdin ewes were bred to lamb in fall (n = 36) or spring (n = 56) and at approximately 2.5 months post-partum were randomly assigned to be permanently separated or to continue to suckle their lambs for an additional 3 months. All ewes were joined with rams following treatment to synchronize oestrus. Weaned (W, n = 84) and continuously suckled lambs (CSK, n = 88) were fed forage only (n = 84; hay and pasture for fall- and spring-born lambs respectively) or were supplemented (n = 88; 18% crude protein ration ad libitum) and all weighed biweekly. Ewes rebred in the fall had a shorter ram introduction to lambing interval (p < 0.05), higher prolificacy (p = 0.001) and higher lambing rates (p = 0.02); however, the proportion of ewes lambing was not affected by season. The first service lambing rate was lower in ewes continuously suckling lambs in the spring, but not in the fall breeding season (S × RT, p = 0.03). Lambs that continuously suckled their dams and were supplemented grew quicker and gained more (p < 0.001) than their weaned and unsupplemented counterparts. The effect of CSK on growth rate of lambs was greater in the spring (RT × S; p = 0.05), and the effect of supplementation on growth rate of lambs was greater in the fall (GS × S; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Katahdin lambs achieved higher weight gains from continuous suckling and grain supplementation. Moreover, Katahdin ewes are capable of early rebreeding post-partum while suckling their lambs, which makes them suited for use in accelerated lambing programmes.
Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve
The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876
López-Aguirre, Daniel; Hernández-Meléndez, Javier; Rojo, Rolando; Sánchez-Dávila, Fernando; López-Villalobos, Nicolás; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M; Martínez-González, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Ruíz, Salomón
Pelibuey sheep is the main breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, and high demand of sheep meat has favored the finishing of lambs in feedlots with diets containing high levels of grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and application method on nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of growing Pelibuey lambs. Treatments were based on comparison of two different methods of adding an enzyme product (sprayed on the total mixed ration or applied orally to the lambs) versus control treatment (no added enzyme). Twenty-one Pelibuey lambs, weighing 15.7 kg (SD = 1.8 kg) initial body weight, were individually housed in shaded pens and assigned randomly to one of the three enzyme treatments. At the end of study (lasting for 45 days), three lambs from each treatment were randomly selected and adapted to a pants and harness designed for fecal collection to measure nutrient digestibilities. Total body gain and average daily gain were affected (P < 0.05) by supplemental EE. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on FCE and FCR, but no effects were observed on nutrient intake. Supplemental EE did improve (P < 0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but no differences were observed in crude protein digestibility. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber. Supplemental EE can improve body weight gain and nutrient digestibilities without affecting nutrient intake in Pelibuey lambs, but the results of feed conversion efficiency and acid detergent fiber digestibility depend on the application method used of the EE.
Davis, P. Thompson; Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Finkel, Robert C.
Katahdin, the highest peak in Maine and part of the second highest mountain range in New England, provides an opportunity to assess the timing and style of continental ice sheet surface lowering during deglaciation. We collected 14 samples from boulders on the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine, from bedrock and boulders on the upper part of the mountain, and from boulders in the surrounding area to estimate the age at which they were exposed by deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Measurements of in situ produced 10Be, which are consistent with measurements of 26Al, indicate that the Katahdin edifice became exposed from under ice by 15.3 ± 2.1 ka (n = 6), an age indistinguishable from the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine (16.1 ± 1.2 ka, n = 5). A boulder in the lowlands several km south of the moraine dates to 14.5 ± 0.8 ka, and a boulder deposited at Pineo Ridge, about 170 km SE of Katahdin, dates to 17.5 ± 1.1 ka. These data show that samples collected over an elevation range of 1.6 km and a distance of >170 km all have exposure ages that are indistinguishable within uncertainties. Together these data suggest that the Laurentide Ice Sheet surface dropped rapidly and the ice sheet margin retreated quickly across Maine between about 16 and 15 ka, perhaps influenced by calving of the marine-based ice sheet in the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the north and the Penobscot basin to the south.
Arece-García, Javier; López-Leyva, Yoel; González-Garduño, Roberto; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine
A study was conducted from December to April 2013, with the aim of evaluating a system of selective antiparasitic treatments using the FAMACHA© color chart compared with a conventional suppressive deworming system every 30 days in Pelibuey ewes during lactation. For the study, 54 ewes were used. They were randomly divided into two groups: FAMACHA and chemical treatments. The ewes in the first group received selective treatment depending on the ocular mucosa coloration (FAMACHA) and body condition score (BCS), while in the second group (chemical) all the animals remained under routine deworming every 30 days. Fecal nematode egg counts, proportion of third-stage trichostrongylid larvae, body condition, coloration of the ocular mucosa, and packed cell volume in the ewes were determined, while in lambs only body weight (BW) was recorded. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in any of the studied variables between groups; however, the use of antiparasitic drugs was reduced during the experimental period in the FAMACHA group and no deaths of lambs or ewes were recorded. The results indicate that during the lactation of ewes, a strategy of selective treatments can be implemented without showing deterioration in major health and productive parameters of these animals.
Macedo, Rafael Julio; Arredondo, Victalina; García, Fernando; Aguilar, Miguel; Prado, Omar; Rodríguez, Rosario
The effects of supplemental yeast culture, litter size, stage and number of lactation on milk composition were studied in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments. Ten control ewes grazed on guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and were supplemented with concentrate. A further ten ewes received the same diet with 14 g/head/day of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Colostrum was collected within 24 h after parturition, and subsequently, milk samples were collected at fortnightly intervals (7, 21, 35, and 49 days). Total solids content averaged 32% in colostrum and 12.5% in milk. Colostrum of primiparous ewes had higher total solids content than that of ewes with more than five lactations. However, ewes with more than five lactations produced milk with higher net energy, total solids, protein, and casein than ewes with fewer lactations. Milk at 7 days had a significantly higher content of energy, total solids, and fat than milk at 21, 35, and 49 days. Total solids content was lower for ewes rearing one lamb than larger litter sizes. Supplementation with yeast culture did not affect the composition of colostrum and milk, which was mainly affected by the stage and number of lactation.
Sweeny, Joshua P A; Gardner, Graham E; Dobson, Robert J; Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin
Two flocks of pure bred Dorper lambs were managed separately according to sex (283 ewe lambs and 212 ram lambs) in southern Western Australia. Faecal sample collection, weighing and body condition assessments were performed for each lamb on 2 occasions, specifically pre-weaning (approximately 14 weeks of age) and post-weaning (approximately 9 months of age). Body condition score (BCS) was assessed using a scale of 1 (very thin, emaciated) to 5 (excessively fat). Faecal worm egg counts (WECs) were measured using a modified McMaster technique and larval cultures were performed to identify trichostrongylid nematode genera present. Eye muscle and c-site fat depths were measured using ultrasound at post-weaning. Lambs received an abamectin anthelmintic treatment at weaning (18 weeks of age). Worm egg count data was assessed for normality of data distribution and homogeneity of variance. This data was transformed using log(10)(WEC+25) to stabilise variances between groups prior to statistical analyses and general linear models were used to assess relationships between WEC and productivity measures. Mean WECs were 564 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and 514 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ewe flock and 552 EPG and 480 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ram flock. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae were identified. No lambs with WEC<500 EPG pre-weaning had WEC>1000 EPG post-weaning. Ewe and ram lambs with WEC>1000 EPG at pre-weaning were 42 (12-145 95% CI) and 37 (9-153) times more likely to have WEC>1000 EPG at post-weaning than lambs with WEC 501-1000 EPG at pre-weaning. There were no significant relationships between WEC and live weight in the ram flock, while relationships between WEC and live weight were inconsistent in the ewe lamb flock. There was no relationship between WEC and eye muscle or c-site fat depth. Significant negative relationships between WEC and BCS were identified at pre- and post
García-Salas, A; Cortez-Romero, C; Salazar-Ortiz, J; Arroyo-Ledezma, J; Ruíz-Vera, V M; Vaquera-Huerta, H; Gallegos-Sánchez, J
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of commercial porcine pituitary-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH) and pFSH-porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH), including equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), in ovulatory and embryonic response in Pelibuey sheep. Twenty-four Pelibuey sheep were used and were assigned randomly to four treatments (n = 6): (T1; 200 mg pFSH-Folltropin(®) ); (T2; 200 mg pFSH + 300 UI eCG-Folligon(®) ); (T3; 250 UI pFSH/pLH-Pluset(®) ) and (T4; 250 UI pFSH/pLH + 300 UI eCG). The interval of hours from withdrawal of the device to the beginning of oestrus (BO) was lower (p < .05) in sheep treated with eCG (T2 = 8.0 ± 1.4 and T4 = 10.0 ± 2.8) than in those without eCG (T1 = 12.6 ± 0.6 and T3 = 20.6 ± 2.4). The ovulatory rate (OR) was higher (p < .05) in T1 = 15.5 ± 2.8 and T2 = 15.6 ± 1.4, compared to T3 = 8.1 ± 3.2 and T4 = 11.8 ± 2.8; a significant difference was not shown between them (T1 vs. T2 and T3 vs. T4) when including eCG. The number of non-fertilized oocytes (NFO) was lower (p ˂ .05) in T1 = 0.8 ± 0.4 and T3 = 1.8 ± 1.8, compared to those that included eCG (T2 = 6.3 ± 2.4 and T4 = 2.1 ± 1.2). The number of transferable embryos (TE) was higher (p < .05) when FSH was applied (T1 = 5.8 ± 1.1), compared with (T2 = 2.6 ± 1.1, T3 = 2.3 ± 1.4 and T4 = 2.8 ± 1.5). The commercial treatments (pFSH or pFSH-pLH) in combination with eCG did not improve OR, NFO and TE. However, the exclusive pFSH (Folltropin) treatment presented a higher OR, lower number of NFO and higher number of TE.
König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan
Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper.
Chay-Canul, A J; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Ku-Vera, J C; Magaña-Monforte, J G; Tedeschi, L O
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on changes in fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions. Eighteen 3-year-old Pelibuey ewes with similar body weight (BW) of 37.6 ± 4.0 kg and body condition score (BCS) of 2.5 ± 0.20 were randomly assigned to three groups of six ewes each in a completely randomized design. Ewes were housed in metabolic crates and fed three levels of MEI: low (L), medium (M), and high (H) for 65 days to achieve different BW and BCS. At the end of the experiment, the ewes were slaughtered. Data recorded at slaughter were: weights of viscera and carcass. Internal fat (IF, internal adipose tissue) was dissected, weighed, and grouped as pelvic (around kidneys and pelvic region), omental, and mesenteric regions. Carcass was split at the dorsal midline in two equal halves, weighed, and chilled at 6°C during 24 h. After refrigeration, the left half of the carcass was completely dissected into subcutaneous and intermuscular fat (carcass fat). Dissected carcass fat (CF) of the left carcass was adjusted as whole carcass. At low levels of MEI, proportion of IF and CF was approximately 50%; however, as the MEI was increased, the proportion of IF was increased up to 57% and 60% for M and H, respectively. Omental and pelvic fat depots were those which increased in a larger proportion with respect to the mesenteric fat depot. Regression equations between the weight of each body fat depot and BW had a coefficient of determination (r (2)) that ranged between 0.37 for mesenteric fat and 0.87 for CF. The regression with BCS had a r (2) that ranged between 0.57 for mesenteric and 0.71 for TBF. BW was the best predictor for TBF, CF, omental fat, and pelvic fat; whereas, BCS was better than BW in predicting IF and mesenteric fat. Inclusion of both BW and BCS in multiple regressions improved the prediction for all fat depots, except for pelvic fat, which was best
Piñeiro-Vázquez, Angel Trinidad; Ayala-Burgos, Armín Javier; Chay-Canul, Alfonso Juventino; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of Enterolobium cyclocarpum pods in the ration on feed intake and digestibility by Pelibuey lambs. Five dietary treatments were imposed where ground pods replaced concentrate diet at 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. The concentrate portion was composed of ground sorghum, soybean meal, cane molasses and minerals. Five entire Pelibuey lambs with initial bodyweight 34 ± 2 kg were allocated in the treatments in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Values of dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter (DMD) and organic matter (OMD) digestibility were measured and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) estimated. Rumen degradation constants for E. cyclocarpum were also measured. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in average DMI (86.6 g/kg(0.75)) and OMI (81.2 g/kg(0.75)) among treatments. As the level of incorporation of E. cyclocarpum pods increased, voluntary DMI and OMI increased, whereas apparent DMD and OMD decreased linearly. Average digestible DM (65 g/kg(0.75)) and OM (61 g/kg(0.75)) intakes were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. Similarly, MEI (0.976 MJ ME kg(0.75)/day) was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. The potential rumen degradation (A + B) of ground pods of E. cyclocarpum was 866.4 g/kg DM. Ground pods of E. cyclocarpum can be employed for lamb feeding up to 50 % of the ration, without affecting DMI, DM apparent digestibility and MEI.
Estrada-Reyes, Zaira; López-Arellano, Ma Eugenia; Torres-Acosta, Felipe; López-Reyes, Alberto; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; González-Garduño, Roberto; Olazarán-Jenkins, Sara; Reyes-Guerrero, David; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel
The expression profiles of cytokines and anti-oxidant genes were determined from an experimental infection with H. contortus in Pelibuey lambs. The infection was followed for 34 days (d) to determine the number of eggs per gram (epg) and the packed cell volume (PCV). Differential white cell counts and expression profile estimations of IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, FCεR1A, GPX and SOD1 were determined at 0 h, 4 h, 2 d and 14 d post-infection (PI) in infected and control groups. Comparison of the fold-change between 0 and 4 h, 4 h and 2 d, and 2 and 14 d periods was performed. Significant differences (p<0.05) between epg (>2000) and PCV (>30%) were determined after 21 d, and were also observed with regards to monocyte and lymphocyte cells after 2 and 7 d PI. At 0 h and 14 d PI, the GPX and IL2 genes showed a 0.37 and 0.49-fold decrease in expression, respectively. In contrast, upregulation was observed at 4 h of IL8 (2.58) and FCεR1A (2.71), at 2 d for IL4 (2.14) and IL8 (4.02), and at 14 d for IL-2 (0.41), IL-10 (2.35) and FCεR1A (2.28). The comparison between the intervals of infection showed high expression values against H. contortus infection in Pelibuey sheep after the 2(nd) period of PI involving a dichotomy T cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Marshall, K; Mugambi, J M; Nagda, S; Sonstegard, T S; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L; Gibson, J P
A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep. The mapping population comprised six sire families, with 1026 lambs in total. The lambs were artificially challenged with H. contortus at about 6.5 months of age, and nine phenotypes were measured: fecal egg count, packed cell volume decline, two weight traits and five worm traits. A subset of the population (342 lambs) was selectively genotyped for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of the 26 autosomes. QTL mapping was performed for models which assumed that the QTL alleles were either fixed or segregating within each breed, combined with models with only an additive QTL effect fitted or both additive and dominance QTL effects fitted. Overall, QTL significant at the 1% chromosome-wide level were identified for 22 combinations of trait and chromosome. Of particular interest are a region of chromosome 26 with putative QTL for all nine traits and a region of chromosome 2 with putative QTL for three traits. Favorable QTL alleles for disease resistance originated in both the Red Maasai and Dorper breeds, were not always fixed within breed and had significant dominance effects in some cases. We anticipate that this study, in combination with follow-up work and other relevant studies, will help elucidate the biology of disease resistance.
de Andrade, Caroline Pinto; de Oliveira, Eduardo Conceição; Leal, Juliano Souza; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; de Castro, Luiza Amaral; da Silva, Sergio Ceroni; Driemeier, David
Scrapie is an infectious neurodegenerative disease affecting sheep and goats, related with conformational alteration of an isoform of the prion protein that leads to deposition and aggregation in the host's central nervous system. Occurrence of the natural disease can be influenced by host genetic factors, such as a single nucleotide polymorphism of the prion protein gene. This study reports three scrapie-affected Dorper flocks located on three different farms in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze these three flocks using scrapie diagnostics, combining histology, immunohistochemistry, genotyping, and western blot assays. For immunohistochemistry, 192 sheep were selected and 308 sheep blood samples were taken for genotyping. A total of 22 sheep were scrapie positive by immunohistochemistry. Of these, four presented clinical signs and had scrapie immunoreactivity at the obex in western blot assays. The sheep without clinical signs were positive in lymphoid organs, such as the third eyelid and rectal mucosa. The major genotypes found on the flocks were ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR, and ARQ/VRQ for codons 136, 154, and 171. Most of the sheep were considered to be at moderate to high risk, based on risk groups for developing scrapie. Some blood samples were sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in other codons, such as 127, 142, and 143. Our data demonstrate the importance of preclinical scrapie diagnosis in Brazilian sheep, as most of the affected sheep showed no clinical signs, and emphasize the relevance of genotyping other Dorper sheep to determine the genotypic profile of the breed.
A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...
García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel
Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg(-1) of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg(-1) of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg(-1) of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg(-1) of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg(-1) of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.
Tejada, Luz M; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Rivas-Muñoz, Raymundo; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Carrillo, Evaristo; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz-Deras, Francisco G
We determine whether Dorper rams treated with testosterone in the sexual resting season trigger both appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors and sexual and reproductive outcomes in anestrous ewes at 26° North during March-April. Dorper rams (n = 12, 2.5 years) were randomly divided prior to mating in two groups: GT (treated group; n = 6), treated with testosterone propionate (25 mg i.m. every 3 days × 3 weeks) and GC (control group; n = 6), treated with saline. Thereafter, adult anovulatory Dorper ewes (n = 61) were exposed to the GT-rams while the other group (n = 60) was exposed to the GC-rams. Ram's appetitive sexual behavior was similar (50 %) in both groups, yet the GT-rams exerted 100 % of the consummatory sexual behavior. Sexual and reproductive outcomes of the anestrus females exposed to both male groups considered two phases: 0-15 and 16-25 days from exposure to males. Involved variables were: ewes in estrus, ewes ovulating, duration of estrus, pregnant ewes, and lambed ewes. All the average variables favored those ewes exposed to GT-males: ewes in estrus: 85 versus 40 %; ewes ovulating: 80 versus 53 %; duration of estrus: 37 versus 25 h; pregnant ewes: 60 versus 31 %, and lambed ewes: 57 versus 31 %. Results confirm that adult Dorper rams treated with exogenous testosterone had improved consummatory sexual behavior and induced increased ovulation and pregnancy rates when exposed to anestrus ewes. This feasible and inexpensive testosterone-based protocol through the male effect also enhanced both sexual and reproductive outcomes in previously anestrous Dorper ewes during the natural out-of-season. Results are important to speed up reproductive performance of sheep during the natural anestrous season at this latitude, while also they embrace interesting outcomes from a comparative sexual behavior stand point.
Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Gastélum, Miguel A; Álvarez, Francisco D; Correa, Abelardo; Díaz, Raúl; Meza-Herrera, César A; Mellado, Miguel; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel
Ten non-lactating multiparous Pelibuey breed ewes were housed in a corral to evaluate the effects of summer thermal stress on physiologic variables, estrous behavior, ovulation and corpus luteum functionality under natural conditions of an arid region. In summer and autumn, daily estrous detection with a ram fitted with an apron and blood sample collections were performed during two natural estrous cycles. An environment of heat stress was detected in summer and thermoneutral in autumn. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency were greater (P < 0.01) in summer than in autumn during the morning and afternoon. Season did not affect (P > 0.05) live weight, body condition, length of estrous cycle or percentage of ewes in estrous and ovulating. Compared with autumn, serum progesterone concentrations in summer decreased (P < 0.05) between days 8 and 14 of the estrous cycle. It is concluded that under outdoor conditions of arid regions, while estrous and ovulatory activities of Pelibuey ewes were not affected by summer thermal stress, the corpus luteum functionality was decreased.
This experiment was conducted to compare the meat quality and carcass composition of a diverse sampling of sheep breeds. Finnsheep, Romanov, Dorper, White Dorper, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Suffolk, Texel, Dorset, and Composite rams were mated to mature Composite ewes. Lambs (n = 804) were reared inte...
Kariuki, C M; Ilatsia, Evans D; Kosgey, Isaac S; Kahi, Alexander K
Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated for lamb growth traits for the Dorper sheep in semi-arid Kenya using an animal model. Data on lamb growth performance were extracted from available performance records at the Sheep and Goats Station in Naivasha, Kenya. Growth traits considered were body weights at birth (BW0, kg), at 1 month (BW1, kg), at 2 months (BW2, kg), at weaning (WW, kg), at 6 months (BW6, kg), at 9 months (BW9, kg) and at yearling (YW, kg), average daily gain from birth to 6 months (ADG(0-6), gm) and from 6 months to 1 year (ADG(6-12), gm). Direct heritability estimates were, correspondingly, 0.18, 0.36, 0.32, 0.28, 0.21, 0.14, 0.29, 0.12 and 0.30 for BW0, BW1, BW2, WW, BW6, BW9, YW, ADG(0-6) and ADG(6-12). The corresponding maternal genetic heritability estimates for body weights up to 9 months were 0.16, 0.10, 0.10, 0.19, 0.21 and 0.18. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative and high ranging between -0.47 to -0.94. Negative genetic correlations were observed for ADG(0-6)-ADG(6-12), BW2-ADG(6-12), WW-ADG(6-12) and BW6-ADG(6-12). Phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.96. Maternal effects are important in the growth performance of the Dorper sheep though a negative correlation exists between direct and maternal genetic effects. The current study has provided important information on the extent of additive genetic variation in the existing flocks that could now be used in determining the merit of breeding rams and ewes for sale to the commercial flocks. The estimates provided would form the basis of designing breeding schemes for the Dorper sheep in Kenya. Implications of the study to future Dorper sheep breeding programmes are also discussed.
Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M.; Gibson, John P.; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089
Almeida, André M.; Palhinhas, Rui G.; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Timothy; van Harten, Sofia; Milton, John; Blache, Dominique; Greeff, Johan; Oldham, Chris; Coelho, Ana Varela; Cardoso, Luís Alfaro
Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) is an important constraint, limiting animal production in the Tropics and the Mediterranean. As a result, the study of physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which domestic animal breeds respond to SWL is important to those interested in animal breeding and the improvement thereof. To that end, the study of the proteome has been instrumental in gathering important information on physiological mechanisms, including those underlying SWL. In spite of that, little information is available concerning physiological mechanisms of SWL in production animals. The objective of this study was to determine differential protein expression in the muscle of three different breeds of sheep, the Australian Merino, the Dorper and the Damara, each showing different levels of tolerance to weight loss (low, medium and high, respectively). Per breed, two experimental groups were established, one labeled “Growth” and the other labeled “Restricted.” After forty-two days of dietary treatment, all animals were euthanized. Muscle samples were then taken. Total protein was extracted from the muscle, then quantified and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were conducted using 24 cm pH 3–10 immobiline dry strips and colloidal coomassie staining. Gels were analyzed using Samespots® software and spots of interest were in-gel digested with trypsin. The isolated proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF. Results indicated relevant differences between breeds; several proteins are suggested as putative biomarkers of tolerance to weight loss: Desmin, Troponin T, Phosphoglucomutase and the Histidine Triad nucleotide-binding protein 1. This information is of relevance to and of possible use in selection programs aiming towards ruminant animal production in regions prone to droughts and weight loss. PMID:26828937
Castillo, Juan Antonio Figueroa; Medina, Rubén Danilo Méndez; Villalobos, José Manuel Berruecos; Gayosso-Vázquez, Amanda; Ulloa-Arvízu, Raúl; Rodríguez, Rebeca Acosta; Ramírez, Hugo Pérez; Morales, Rogelio A Alonso
The objective of this study was to assess the correlation among traits associated with resistance or susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infestation and to evaluate the participation of the ovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Pelibuey sheep, a prevalent breed in tropical and sub-tropical regions in Mexico and elsewhere. Association among the fecal egg count (FEC), blood packed cell volume (PCV), antibody (AB) levels, serum proteins (SP) and blood eosinophil count (EOS) was assessed in 52 lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus, and the participation of the MHC was evaluated using polymorphisms in three microsatellites, located at the class I (OMHC1) and class II (OLADRB1, OLADRB2) regions of the MHC. Spearman correlation analysis among the traits showed a negative association (P<0.01) between FEC and PCV (-0.35), EOS (-0.50), SP (-0.30) and AB (-0.57), and a positive correlation of antibodies with EOS (0.50). The homozygotes for the OMHC1-188 and OLADRB2-282 alleles were associated with a reduction in FEC (-813 and -551, respectively). Conversely, the OMHC1-200 and OMHC1-206 alleles were associated with an increase in FEC (1704 and 1008, respectively). Furthermore, the OLADRB1-482 allele was associated with an increase of 163 EOS by allele copy, while the OMHC1-200 allele showed a reduction of 95 EOS in homozygotes. The associations among microsatellite MHC loci and the remaining variables were not significant. These results reinforce the evidence that MHC polymorphisms have an important role in parasite resistance or susceptibility in Pelibuey sheep and could be used as genetic markers to assist selection and improve parasite resistance to H. contortus.
Zetina-Córdoba, P; Ortega-Cerrilla, M E; Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M T; Herrera-Haro, J G; Ortega-Jiménez, E; Reta-Mendiola, J L; Vilaboa-Arroniz, J
The effect of duckweed (DW) supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI), presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4) in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH). Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05); however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05) on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05). However the period was significant (p<0.01), since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application.
Zetina-Córdoba, P.; Ortega-Cerrilla, M. E.; Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M. T.; Herrera-Haro, J. G.; Ortega-Jiménez, E.; Reta-Mendiola, J. L.; Vilaboa-Arroniz, J.
The effect of duckweed (DW) supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI), presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4) in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH). Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05); however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05) on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05). However the period was significant (p<0.01), since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application. PMID:25049670
Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Valencia-Núñez, Keyla; Bastida-López, Jesús; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro Cvabodni; Cruz-Monterrosa, Rosy Gabriela; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando
Sheep raising in the state of Guerrero, México, is a primary activity that is worth about US$3,251,931 annually. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition, degradability, nutrient intake, and animal performance of Pelibuey lambs fed on different combinations of maize-soybean silages. Twenty-one combinations of maize silage (MS) and soybean silage (SS) were evaluated at day 45 post-ensiling; in each combination, MS was replaced by 5 % of SS. The 21 combinations were analysed for crude protein (CP) and chemical composition. In order to obtain a statistical criterion of potential treatments for the animal feeding test, a cluster analysis was performed based on the CP contents of all combinations at day 45 post-ensiling. From cluster analysis, four treatments were selected T1 = 100-0 % (MS/SS), T8 = 65-35 %, T12 = 45-55 %, and T16 = 25-75 %. Results indicated that cluster analysis was useful for identifying the potential treatments for animal feeding based on the crude protein content. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents did not declined significantly (P > 0.05) during the fermentation of silages but CP content decreased from day 0 to 45 post-ensiling. The treatment with the highest estimated microbial crude protein synthesis was T8 and it showed the highest metabolizable energy intake, high feed efficiency with a forage-concentrate ratio of 84:16.
Zhao, J X; Liu, X D; Li, K; Liu, W Z; Ren, Y S; Zhang, J X
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the mechanisms through which different levels of dietary energy affect postnatal skeletal muscle development in ewe lambs. Twelve Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs (100 d of age; 20 ± 0.5 kg BW) were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups in a completely randomized design. Animals were offered identical diets at 100% or 65% of ad libitum intake. Lambs were euthanized when BW in the ad libitum group reached 35 kg and the semitendinosus muscle was sampled. Final BW and skeletal muscle weight were decreased (P < 0.01) by feed restriction. Both muscle fiber size distribution and myofibril cross-sectional area were altered by feed restriction. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) content was decreased (P < 0.05) when lambs were underfed, whereas no difference for IGF-2 mRNA expression was observed (P > 0.05). Feed restriction altered phosphor-Akt protein abundance (P < 0.01). Moreover, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was inhibited by feed restriction, which was associated with decreased phosphor-mTOR, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (phosphor-4EBP1), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (phosphor-S6K). Both mRNA expression of myostatin and its protein content were elevated in feed-restricted ewe lambs (P < 0.05). In addition, mRNA expression of both muscle RING finger 1 and muscle atrophy F-box was increased when ewe lambs were underfed. In summary, feed restriction in young growing ewe lambs attenuates skeletal muscle hypertrophy by inhibiting protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation, which may act through the Akt-dependent pathway.
Carrera-Chávez, José Maria; Hernández-Cerón, Joel; Aréchiga-Flores, Carlos Fernando; López-Carlos, Marco Antonio; Lozano-Domínguez, Raúl Renato; Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Echavarría-Cháirez, Francisco Guadalupe
This study evaluated whether the administration of 50 and 100 mg bovine somatotropin (bST) at the start of estrous synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination improves lambing rate and prolificacy in hair sheep. Four hundred eighty adult hair ewes (Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper, Katahdin, and their crosses) were synchronized with intravaginal sponge containing 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate. On the day of sponge insertion, ewes were assigned to three treatments: the bST-100 treatment (n = 156) received 100 mg bST at the start of synchronization (d 0) and at the time of insemination (d 14), the bST-50 treatment (n = 159) received 50 mg bST in the same schedule as the previous group, and the control (n = 165) did not receive any bST. Lambing rate and percentage of multiple births were analyzed using the GENMOD procedure of SAS. Prolificacy data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were analyzed with ANOVA for repeated measures. The bST application did not affect the lambing rate (P = 0.06). The proportion of ewes with multiple births (P = 0.01) and prolificacy (P = 0.04) were higher in the bST-50 (54.3% and 1.57 ± 0.1) than the bST-100 (18.2% and 1.25 ± 0.1) and control (33.3% and 1.28 ± 0.1) groups. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the bST-treated groups, but the insulin concentration was higher (P = 0.001) in the bST-100 group than in the bST-50 group. The administration of 50 or 100 mg bST at the start of synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination does not increase lambing rate. However, the dose of 50 mg increased the proportion of multiple births and prolificacy.
Successful storage of processing potatoes balances the risk of crop loss caused by pathogen-dependent spoilage with the need to maintain the low tuber reducing sugar contents that are required to produce light-colored fried products. Potato varieties with very low expression of the vacuolar acid inv...
Avendaño-Reyes, L; Macías-Cruz, U; Alvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Aguila-Tepato, E; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; Soto-Navarro, S A
Twenty-four Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs initially weighing 25.1 ± 0.6 kg were used in a 34-d feeding experiment and after slaughter to evaluate the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and wholesale cut yield. Ewe lambs were individually housed in pens, blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) control (no ZH) and 2) supplemented with ZH (10 mg/ewe lamb daily) during 32-d and a 2-d withdrawal preslaughter period. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.01) final BW, ADG, and G:F of ewe lambs, whereas feed intake was unaffected (P = 0.80). Hot and cold carcass weights, dressing percentage, and conformation score were improved (P < 0.001) when ZH was fed. Likewise, LM area was 3.7 ± 0.41 cm(2) larger (P < 0.001) for ZH than control ewe lambs. Feeding ZH did not affect (P ≥ 0.29) cooling loss, carcass length, fat thickness, or KPH. With exception of peritoneum (P < 0.001), head (P = 0.021), and neck (P < 0.001), ZH did not increase (P ≥ 0.12) noncarcass components or wholesale cut yield percentage. A trend to increase (P = 0.060) loin percentage from HCW was observed in lambs supplemented with ZH. In conclusion, feeding ZH to Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs improved feedlot performance and also some carcass traits (HCW, cool carcass weight, dressing percentage, and LM area) of economic importance; however, fat deposition was not affected by ZH.
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...
Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L
This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention.
Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.
Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.
Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...
Vicente-Pérez, Ricardo; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Mejía-Vázquez, Ángel; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F Daniel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Mellado, Miguel; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Guerra-Liera, Juan E; Robinson, P H; Macías-Cruz, Ulises
Rectal temperature (RT) is the foremost physiological variable indicating if an animal is suffering hyperthermia. However, this variable is traditionally measured by invasive methods, which may compromise animal welfare. Models to predict RT have been developed for growing pigs and lactating dairy cows, but not for pregnant heat-stressed ewes. Our aim was to develop a prediction equation for RT using non-invasive physiological variables in pregnant ewes under heat stress. A total of 192 records of respiratory frequency (RF) and hair coat temperature in various body regions (i.e., head, rump, flank, shoulder, and belly) obtained from 24 Katahdin × Pelibuey pregnant multiparous ewes were collected during the last third of gestation (i.e., d 100 to lambing) with a 15 d sampling interval. Hair coat temperatures were taken using infrared thermal imaging technology. Initially, a Pearson correlation analysis examined the relationship among variables, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop the prediction equations. All predictor variables were positively correlated (P<0.01; r=0.59-0.67) with RT. The adjusted equation which best predicted RT (P<0.01; Radj(2)=56.15%; CV=0.65%) included as predictors RF and head and belly temperatures. Comparison of predicted and observed values for RT indicates a suitable agreement (P<0.01) between them with moderate accuracy (Radj(2)=56.15%) when RT was calculated with the adjusted equation. In general, the final equation does not violate any assumption of multiple regression analysis. The RT in heat-stressed pregnant ewes can be predicted with an adequate accuracy using non-invasive physiologic variables, and the final equation was: RT=35.57+0.004 (RF)+0.067 (heat temperature)+0.028 (belly temperature).
Soli, F; Terrill, T H; Shaik, S A; Getz, W R; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Burke, J M
Profitable sheep and goat production in the USA is severely limited by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism, particularly by Haemonchus contortus. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have anti-parasitic properties in the diet of small ruminants, but efficacy of COWP may differ between sheep and goats. In a study with weaned kids (Kiko x Spanish cross, 6 months old) and lambs (Katahdin or Dorper x Blackface crosses, 5 months old), grazing the same pasture area in Central Georgia, 2g of COWP in a gel capsule was given to half the animals of each species, while the other half were given no COWP. Fecal and blood samples were taken weekly to determine GIN fecal egg counts (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV). After COWP treatment, animals were grazed for 4 weeks and then slaughtered, with adult GIN recovered from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and identification to species. For both sheep and goats, COWP treatment reduced EPG (P<0.05), increased PCV (P<0.05), and lowered abomasal GIN numbers (P<0.05). For EPG, these differences were 82.5 and 90.5% for sheep and goats, respectively, 26 days after treatment, while adult H. contortus were 67.2 and 85.8% lower for COWP-treated sheep and goats, respectively. In this study, COWP treatment was equally effective against H. contortus infection in lambs and kids and appears to be an effective method of controlling H. contortus infection for up to 6 weeks in small ruminants following weaning.
Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P≥0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P≥0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet.
Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L
Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.
Sugar metabolism, chip color, invertase activity, and gene expression during long-term cold storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers from wild-type and vacuolar invertase silencing lines of Katahdin
Storing potato tubers at low temperatures helps to minimize losses from sprouting and disease but often leads to an accumulation of reducing sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. When tubers with increased amounts of reducing sugars are processed at high temperatures, as by frying, the...
Gerude Neto, Osman José de Aguiar; Parente, Michelle de Oliveira Maia; Alves, Arnaud Azevedo; dos Santos, Paull Andrews Carvalho; Moreira Filho, Miguel Arcanjo; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Gomes, Ruan Mourão da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on intake, apparent digestibility, and ruminal constituents of sheep in response to the addition of increasing levels of babassu mesocarp flour (BMF) to the diet. Twenty crossbred sheep (29.17 ± 2.23 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were confined for 21 days, with 16 days for diet adaptation and 5 days for data collection, in which they were fed an isonitrogenous diet (16.5 ± 0.2 CP, DM basis) containing 70% of concentrate and 30% (DM basis) of Tifton 85 hay. Increasing levels of BMF were 0, 10, 20, and 30% (DM basis). There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the DM intake, nutrients intake, and digestibility of CP and NFC. The digestibility of DM, OM, TC, and NDF decreased linearly, while EE digestibility increased linearly with increasing levels of BMF. The high NDF content presented in the chemical composition of the babassu mesocarp flour ranked the same as fibrous food, which can limit the inclusion in the diet of high production animals. So, babassu mesocarp flour is an alternative for energy source in lambs feed and can be added at levels up to 10%. PMID:27957525
In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa.
Kidanemariam, A; Gouws, J; van Vuuren, M; Gummow, B
The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of an agar disk diffusion test. The MICs of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were within the ranges of 0.125-0.5, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-8.0 microg/ml, respectively. This study has shown that resistance of MmmLC against enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin was negligible. All the field strains of A. pyogenes that were tested were susceptible to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin with mean inhibition zones of 30.6, 42.3 and 35.8 mm, respectively. Although there is lack of data on in vivo efficacy and in vitro MIC or inhibition zone diameter breakpoints of these antimicrobial drugs for MmmLC, the MIC results indicate that these 4 classes of antimicrobial drugs should be effective in the treatment of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep in South Africa.
Influence of Quaternary Benzophenantridine and Protopine Alkaloids on Growth Performance, Dietary Energy, Carcass Traits, Visceral Mass, and Rumen Health in Finishing Ewes under Conditions of Severe Temperature-humidity Index.
Estrada-Angulo, A; Aguilar-Hernández, A; Osuna-Pérez, M; Núñez-Benítez, V H; Castro-Pérez, B I; Silva-Hidalgo, G; Contreras-Pérez, G; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Zinn, R A
Twenty Pelibuey×Katahdin ewes (35±2.3 kg) were used to determine the effects of the consumption of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on growth performance, dietary energetics, visceral mass, and ruminal epithelial health in heat-stressed ewes fed with a high-energy corn-based diet. The basal diet (13.9% crude protein and 2.09 Mcal of net energy [NE] of maintenance/kg of dry matter) contained 49.7% starch and 15.3% neutral detergent fiber. Source of QBA+PA was Sangrovit RS (SANG) which contains 3 g of quaternary benzophenathridine and protopine alkaloids per kg of product. Treatments consisted of a daily consumption of 0 or 0.5 g SANG/ewe. Ewes were grouped by weight and assigned to 10 pens (5 pens/treatment), with two ewes per pen. The experimental period lasted 70 days. The mean temperature humidity index during the course of this experiment was 81.7±1.0 (severe heat stress). There were no treatment effects on water intake. Dry matter intake was not affected (p = 0.70) by treatments, but the group fed SANG had a numerically (11.2%) higher gain in comparison to the control group, SANG improved gain efficiency (8.3%, p = 0.04), dietary NE (5.2%, p<0.01) and the observed-to-expected NE (5.9%, p<0.01). Supplemental SANG did not affect (p≥0.12) carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder, and organ weights (g/kg empty body weight) of stomach complex, intestines, and heart/lung. Supplemental SANG decreased liver weight (10.3%, p = 0.02) and increased visceral fat (16.9%, p = 0.02). Rumen epithelium of ewes fed SANG had lower scores for cellular dropsical degeneration (2.08 vs 2.34, p = 0.02), parakeratosis (1.30 vs 1.82, p = 0.03) and neutrophil infiltration (2.08 vs 2.86, p = 0.05) than controls. It is concluded that SANG supplementation helped ameliorate the negative effects of severe heat on growth performance of feedlot ewes fed high-energy corn-based diets
Félix-Bernal, J A; Estrada-Angulo, A; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Landeros-López, H; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Zinn, R A; Plascencia, A
The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g/day or 0.57, 1.08, and 1.62 g/kg LW for the 2%, 4%, and 6% levels of supplementation, respectively. Supplemental JCO did not affect ( = 0.33) dry matter intake (DMI), but tended to increase (linear effect, = 0.06) average daily gain, efficiency of gain (linear effect, < 0.01), and dietary net energy (linear effect, < 0.01) and decreased (linear effect, < 0.01) the ratio of observed/expected DMI. At low levels (20 g/kg diet dry matter) of supplementation, the net energy (NE) value of JCO corresponds closely (0.99) to the NE value assigned by current standards (), and this NE value decreased linearly as the inclusion level of JCO increased. There were not treatment effects on plasma metabolites. Across treatments, the concentrations of hemoglobin (11.64 ± 1.08 g/dL), hematocrit (39.15 ± 3.67%), glucose (85.2 ± 17.64 mg/dL), creatinine (1.43 ± 0.28 mg/dL), and urea (20.70 ± 4.35 mg/dL) were within normal (9-15 g/dL, 27%-40%, 50-90 mg/dL, 1.0-1.8 mg/dL, and 15-50 mg/dL, for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, creatinine, and urea, respectively) ranges for healthy lambs. Based on DMI, performance and plasma metabolites observed in this study, nontoxic JCO is a suitable source of energy in finishing diets for lambs.
Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Vicente-Pérez, Arnulfo; Osorio-Marín, Yolanda; Girón-Gómez, Blenda Sinahí; Beltran-Calderon, Eira; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Macías-Cruz, Ulises
The effect of two divergent nutritional levels during late pregnancy upon some physiological variables and the number (NC) and diameter (DC) of placental cotyledons along with litter weight at birth (LWB) on heat-stressed (42-45 °C) hair ewes was evaluated. Multiparous Katahdin x Pelibuey ewes (n = 24) at the onset of the 3/3 of pregnancy were randomly assigned to two treatments (n = 12): (1) non-nutritionally restricted (NNR) ewes, with free access to wheat straw plus 500 g/day of concentrate, and (2) nutritionally restricted (NR) ewes, receiving only wheat straw ad libitum. On days 100, 115, 130, and 145 of gestation, the body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) were registered in the afternoon (15:00) while the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. At lambing, NC, DC, and LWB were also registered. Analyses considered a completely random design (CRD)-ANOVA with repeated measures across time, considering to litter size (LS) as covariable to reduce any possible influence of LS upon the response variables along experimental diets. BW and BCS were higher in NNR ewes at days 115, 130, and 145. Despite RT similarities (P < 0.05) between treatments, RR was greater (P < 0.01) in the NNR ewes, particularly towards the end of the experimental period. The observed THI averages confirmed severe heat stress conditions on ewes all day round across the experimental period, yet, NC, DC, and LWB favored (P < 0.05) to the NNR ewes. Despite that NNR ewes faced a significant heat stress based on the observed THI values, they consumed a diet with an increased energy-protein density, suggesting that the increased RR in the NNR group was exerted as a compensatory thermoregulation mechanism. Nutritional supplementation in hair ewes besides to an increase the energy body reserves (BW and BCS) also improved both the number and size of cotyledons, while generated an increased litter weight at birth.
Pollott, G E
The ability of a sheep to shed its own wool has an attraction in scenarios where the costs of harvesting wool outweigh its value. Certain breeds and composites have the ability to shed their wool in the spring, and these are investigated in this work in an attempt to outline the genetics of wool shedding. One flock from a breeding group in Southern England (UK) containing sheep with wool-shedding characteristics provided shedding scores (1 to 5 scale; no shedding to complete shedding) that were used in a range of genetic analyses. The particular nature of wool shedding suggested that there may be a major gene segregating in these populations that facilitates wool shedding. In addition, there was clearly variation among wool shedders in the speed and extent of shedding, so a polygenic trait was also investigated. The breeding group used a range of shedding breeds and composites in a regular program to introduce wool-shedding genes into their flocks. This allowed the testing of Mendelian ratios for shedders:nonshedders in both first-cross and first-backcross animals. Four modes of inheritance were tested: autosomal recessive, sex-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex-linked dominant. The most likely mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant (P < 0.05), with a low level of incomplete penetrance. In first back-cross animals, this mode of inheritance was confirmed but with complete penetrance. Approximately 11% of shedders did not exhibit the trait as lambs. Mixed-model analyses of shedding scores allowed an investigation of factors that affected wool shedding and also the extent of any genetic and permanent animal variance. Shedding score was found to have a heritability of 0.54 ± 0.07 in lambs and 0.26 ± 0.06 in animals of all ages in one flock using Easycare, Wiltshire Horn, Katahdin, and Dorper shedding animals. Shedding score as a lamb had a genetic correlation of 0.94 ± 0.08 with shedding score as a 2 yr old, but at the phenotypic level this
Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Larsen, M; Terrill, T H
An experiment was completed to determine if copper oxide wire particles (COWP) had any effect on the activity of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in growing lambs. COWP has been used recently as a dewormer in small ruminants because of nematode resistance to anthelmintics. D. flagrans has been used to control free-living stages of parasitic nematodes in livestock. Katahdin and Dorper lambs, 4 months of age, were administered no or 4 g COWP (n=24/dose) in early October 2003. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant gastrointestinal parasite during the trial, which was acquired naturally from pasture. Half the lambs from each COWP group were supplemented with corn/soybean meal with or without D. flagrans for 35 days. Fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined weekly between days 0 (day of COWP administration) and 35. Feces from lambs in each treatment group were pooled and three replicates per group were cultured for 14 days at room temperature. Larvae (L3) were identified and counted per gram of feces cultured. Treatment with COWP was effective in decreasing FEC, which remained low compared with FEC from lambs not treated with COWP. This led to an increase in PCV in these lambs (COWP x day, P<0.001). Number of larvae was decreased in feces from lambs treated with COWP and D. flagrans between days 14 and 35 compared to the other groups of lambs (COWP x D. flagrans x day, P<0.003). Percentage of larvae identified as H. contortus decreased in feces collected from lambs treated with COWP and D. flagrans between days 14 and 28 compared with other treatments (COWP x D. flagrans x day, P<0.05). Other trichostrongyles were present and remained less than 7% in feces collected from control lambs. There was no adverse effect of COWP on the ability of D. flagrans to trap residual larvae after COWP treatment. With fewer eggs being excreted due to the effect of copper on H. contortus, and the additional larval reducing effect exerted by
Dávila-Ramírez, J L; Macías-Cruz, U; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Peña-Ramos, E A; Soto-Navarro, S A; Avendaño-Reyes, L
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 0 or 10 mg/lamb daily) and soybean oil (SBO; 0 or 6%) supplementation on feedlot performance, carcass traits, and wholesale cut yield of 32 Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs (30.55 ± 2. 57 kg of initial BW). Lambs were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to treatments under a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. After a 34-d feeding period, all ewes were slaughtered. No ZH × SBO interactions were detected (P ≥ 0.11) for the variables evaluated. In the overall feeding period and first 17 d of experiment, feedlot performance was not affected (P ≥ 0.26) by ZH supplementation, but from d 18 to 34, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.03) total gain, ADG, and G:F without affecting DMI (P = 0.58). Also, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.02) HCW, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, LM area, and leg perimeter. Lung weight as percentage of final BW decreased (P = 0.05) whereas other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P ≥ 0.06) by ZH supplementation. Inclusion of SBO did not affect (P ≥ 0.08) feedlot performance or wholesale cut yields. The LM pH at 24 h postmortem as well as liver and peritoneum percentages were decreased (P ≤ 0.05) by SBO supplementation, but no other carcass characteristics or noncarcass components were affected (P ≥ 0.08) by SBO. In conclusion, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were not altered by the interaction of ZH × SBO. However, ZH alone increased the growth of ewes during the last 17 d of the feeding period. Likewise, carcass characteristics of economic importance (i.e., HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and leg perimeter) increased with ZH supplementation. In general, feedlot performance, carcass traits, and wholesale cut yields were not altered by including 6% of SBO in the finishing diet of ewe lambs.
Arzola, Claudio; Copado, Ramon; Epps, Sharon V R P; Rodriguez-Almeida, Felipe; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Diaz-Plascencia, Daniel
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium chlorate administration on reducing total coliform populations in ewes. A 30% sodium chlorate product or a sodium chloride placebo was administered to twelve lactating Dorper X Blackbelly or Pelibuey crossbred ewes averaging 65 kg body weight. The ewes were adapted to diet and management. Ewes were randomly assigned (4/treatment) to one of three treatments which were administered twice daily by oral gavage for five consecutive days: a control (TC) consisting of 3 g sodium chloride/animal/d, a T3 treatment consisting of 1.8 g of sodium chlorate/animal/d, and a T9 treatment consisting of 5.4 g sodium chlorate/animal/d; the latter was intended to approximate a lowest known effective dose. Ruminal samples collected by stomach tube and freshly voided fecal samples were collected daily beginning 3 days before treatment initiation and for 6 days thereafter. Contents were cultured quantitatively to enumerate total coliforms. There were no significant differences in total coliform numbers (log10 cfu/g) in the feces between treatments (P = 0.832). There were differences (P < 0.02) in ruminal coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) between treatments (4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 log10/mL contents in TC, T3 and T9 Treatments, respectively) which tended to increase from the beginning of treatment until the 5th day of treatment (P < 0.05). Overall, we did not obtain the expected results with oral administration of sodium chloride at the applied doses. By comparing the trends in coliform populations in the rumen contents in all treatments, there was an increase over the days. The opposite trend occurred in the feces, due mainly to differences among rumen contents and feces in ewes administered the T9 treatment (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the low chlorate doses used here were suboptimal for the control of coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract of ewes.
Copado, R; Arzola, C; Epps, S V R; Rodriguez-Almeida, F; Ruiz, O; Rodriguez-Muela, C; Castillo, Yamicela Castillo; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Salinas, J
The minimal effective dose of sodium chlorate as an intervention to reduce the carriage of pathogenic bacteria in food-producing animals has not been clearly established. The effect of low-level oral chlorate administration to ewes was assessed by comparing the diversity of prominent bacterial populations in their gastrointestinal tract. Twelve lactating crossed Pelibuey and Blackbelly-Dorper ewes (average body weight, 65 kg) were randomly assigned (four per treatment) to receive a control treatment (TC; consisting of 3 g of NaCl per animal per day) or one of two chlorate treatments (T3 or T9; consisting of 1.8 or 5.4 g of NaClO3 per animal per day, respectively). Treatments were administered twice daily via oral gavage for 5 days. Ruminal and fecal samples were collected daily, starting 3 days before and ending 6 days after treatment, and were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence amplified from total population DNA. For ruminal microbes, percent similarity coefficients (SCs) between groups varied from 23.0 to 67.5% and from 39.4 to 43.3% during pretreatment and treatment periods, respectively. During the treatment period, SCs within groups ranged from 39.4 to 90.3%, 43.3 to 86.7%, and 67.5 to 92.4% for TC, T3, and T9, respectively. For fecal microbes, SCs between groups varied from 38.0 to 85.2% and 38.0 to 94.2% during pretreatment and treatment periods, respectively. SCs for fecal populations during treatment were most varied for TC (38.0 to 67.9%), intermediate for T9 (75.6 to 92.0%), and least varied for T3 (80.6 to 90.6%). Heterogeneity within and between groups provided no evidence of an effect of chlorate treatment on ruminal or fecal microbial populations.
Xing, H J; Wang, Z Y; Zhong, B S; Ying, S J; Nie, H T; Zhou, Z R; Fan, Y X; Wang, F
MSTN, IGF-І(insulin-like growth factor-І) and IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor-II) regulate skeletal muscle growth. This study investigated the effects of different dietary intake levels on skeletal muscles. Sheep was randomly assigned to 3 feeding groups: 1) the maintenance diet (M), 2) 1.4 x the maintenance diet (1.4M), and 3) 2.15 x the maintenance diet (2.15M). Before slaughtering the animals, blood samples were collected to measure plasma urea, growth hormone, and insulin concentrations. After slaughtering, the longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gastrocnemius, soleus, and chest muscle were removed to record various parameters, including the mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGFs, in addition to skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area. The result showed that as dietary intake improved, the mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGF-II decreased, whereas IGF-Іexpression increased. The mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGFs were significantly different in the same skeletal muscle under different dietary intake. The skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area increased with greater dietary intake, as observed for the mRNA expression of IGF-І; however, it contrasted to that observed for the mRNA expression of MSTN and IGF-II. In conclusion, dietary intake levels have a certain influence on MSTN and IGFs mRNA expression levels, in addition to skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area. This study contributes valuable information for enhancing the molecular-based breeding of sheep.
Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics of Feedlot Lambs Fed Finishing Diets with Different Starch to Acid Detergent Fiber Ratios
Estrada-Angulo, A.; López-Soto, M. A.; Rivera-Méndez, C. R.; Castro, B. I.; Ríos, F. G.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Barreras, A.; Urías-Estrada, J. D.; Zinn, R. A.; Plascencia, A.
Recent findings have shown that microbial nitrogen flow and digestible energy of diets are increased when urea is combined with a slow-release urea (SRU) in diets with a starch to acid detergent fibre ratio (S:F) 4:1. This affect is attributable to enhanced synchrony between ruminal N availability for microbial growth and carbohydrate degradation. To verify the magnitude of this effects on lamb performance, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of combining urea and a SRU in diets containing S:F ratios of 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 on performance, dietary energetics and carcass characteristics of finishing lambs. For that, 40 Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs (36.65±3 kg) were assigned to one of five weight groupings in 20 pens (5 repetition/treatments). The S:F ratio in the diet was manipulated by partially replacing the corn grain and dried distiller’s grain with solubles by forage (wheat straw) and soybean meal to reach S:F ratios of 3:1, 4:1 or 5:1. An additional treatment of 4:1 S:F ratio with 0.8% urea as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used as a reference for comparing the effect of urea combination vs. conventional urea at the same S:F ratio. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake (DMI). Compared the urea combination vs urea at the same S:F ratio, urea combination increased (p<0.01) average daily gain (ADG, 18.3%), gain for feed (G:F, 9.5%), and apparent energy retention per unit DMI (8.2%). Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved the observed-to-expected dietary ratio and apparent retention per unit DMI was maximal (quadratic effect, p≤0.03) at an S:F ratio of 4:1, while the conventional urea treatment did not modify the observed-to-expected net energy ratio nor the apparent retention per unit DMI at 4:1 S:F ratio. Urea combination group tended (3.8%, p = 0.08) to have heavier carcasses with no effects on the rest of carcass characteristics. As S:F ratio increased, ADG, G:F, dietary net energy, carcass weight
Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing SL and selective use of COWP based on FAMACHA for control of GIN. Katahdin lambs (145.6 ± 2.1 d of age; 30.1 ± 0.7 kg) w...
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control for ‘natural’ or organic lamb production is needed, especially where Haemonchus contortus is prevalent. The objective was to determine the impact of rotational grazing on GIN infection of weaned lambs. In year 1, naturally infected Katahdin lambs (120 days of ...
Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...
Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage. There is limited published quantitative data on predicting tuber blight. We validated a tuber blight prediction model developed in New York with cultivars Allegany, NY 101, and Katahdin using independent...
Waitt, R.B.; Davis, P.T.
New field data and scrutiny of past reports reveal no firm evidence that local cirque glaciers were rejuvenated after late Wisconsin continental ice disappeared from the northern Green Mountains of Vermont, Mount Katahdin in Maine, and the northern Presidential Range of New Hampshire. The sharpness of some cirques and aretes in New England is not reliable evidence that the cirques were last occupied by local glaciers, for even sharper cirques and aretes have survived overriding by icesheets in other regions. -from Authors
Burpee, L. L.; Bloom, J. R.
The influence of Pratylenchus penetrans on the incidence and severity of Verticillium wilt was examined in the potato cultivars 'Kennebec', 'Katahdin', and 'Abnaki'. Single-stem plants were grown in soil maintained at a temperature of 22 ± 1 C. Axenically cultured nematodes were suspended in water and introduced to the soil, at a rate of ca 5,000/25.4-cm pot, through holes made around each stem. Ten days after infestation with nematodes, conidial suspensions of Verticillium albo-atrum were introduced into the soil at a rate of ca 1,000,000/pot. Among Katahdin plants, the severity of foliar symptoms was increased in the presence of both pathogens 2 and 3 weeks after soil intestation. During the remaining 5 weeks, severity of foliar symptoms was not different between plants infected by both pathogens and those infected by Verticillium alone. Within the wilt-susceptible cultivar Kennebec and the resistant eultivar Abnaki, no effects on foliar symptom severity were observed. When plant heights, shoot weights, and tuber yields were analyzed, a Pratylenchus-Verticillium interaction was not evident within any of the cultivars tested. Nematode populations in roots and rhizosphere were suppressed in Kennebec and Katahdin plants in the presence of Verticillium. PMID:19305819
Rudert, C P; Lawrence, J A; Foggin, C; Barlow, R M
A syndrome characterised by the birth of lambs with varying degrees of rigidity of the limbs and spine has been encountered on several occasions in Rhodesia. Outbreaks have occurred in autumn-born lambs from Dorper ewes grazing heavily fertilised Star grass cv No 2 (Cynodon aethiopicus) pastures. The condition appears to be exacerbated by the application of sulphur to the pasture and is partly prevented by the administration of selenium and vitamin E to the ewes before lambing. The aetiology is unknown.
Palma, Mariana; Scanlon, Tim; Kilminster, Tanya; Milton, John; Oldham, Chris; Greeff, Johan; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Almeida, André M.
Sheep are a valuable resource for meat and wool production. During the dry summer, pastures are scarce and animals face Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL), which decreases production yields. The study of breeds tolerant to SWL is important to understand the physiological mechanisms of tolerance to nutritional scarcity, and define breeding strategies. Merino, Damara and Dorper sheep breeds have been described as having different levels of tolerance to SWL. In this work, we assess their liver and muscle metabolomes, and compare the responses to feed restriction. Ram lambs from each breed were divided into growth and feed restricted groups, over 42 days. Tissue metabolomes were assessed by 1H-NMR. The Dorper restricted group showed few changes in both tissues, suggesting higher tolerance to nutritional scarcity. The Merinos exhibited more differences between treatment groups. Major differences were related to fat and protein mobilization, and antioxidant activity. Between the Damara groups, the main differences were observed in amino acid composition in muscle and in energy-related pathways in the liver. Integration of present results and previous data on the same animals support the hypothesis that, Dorper and Damara breeds are more tolerant to SWL conditions and thus, more suitable breeds for harsh environmental conditions. PMID:27966615
Giannitti, F; Rioseco, M Macias; García, J P; Beingesser, J; Woods, L W; Puschner, B; Uzal, F A
Within a 24-hour period, 7 out of 200 three- to four-week-old pastured Katahdin lambs died after showing clinical signs of hemoglobinuria, red-tinged feces, weakness, and recumbency. One of the lambs that was examined clinically before natural death also had abdominal pain, trembling, tachycardia, and severe anemia with a packed cell volume of 4%. Pathologic findings included icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, dark red urine, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, splenomegaly, and acute centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis with cholestasis. The differential diagnoses and diagnostic workup to achieve the diagnosis are briefly discussed.
Chen, Yu; Halterman, Dennis A
The potato gene RB, cloned from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers partial resistance to late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In order to better characterize this partial resistance phenotype, we have compared host resistance responses mediated by RB with those mediated by the S. demissum-derived R gene R9, which confers immunity to P. infestans carrying the corresponding avirulence gene avrR9. We found that both RB and R9 genes were capable of eliciting a hypersensitive cell death response (HR). However, in RB plants, the pathogen escaped HR lesions and continued to grow beyond the inoculation sites. We also found that callose deposition was negatively correlated with resistance levels in tested plants. Transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-1 basic, PR-2 acidic, and PR-5 indicated that P. infestans inoculation induced transcription of these defense-related genes regardless of the host genotype; however, transcription was reduced in both the susceptible and partially resistant plants later in the infection process but remained elevated in the immune host. Most interestingly, transcription of the HR-associated gene Hin1 was suppressed in both Katahdin and RB-transgenic Katahdin but not in R9 4 days after inoculation. Together, this suggests that suppression of certain defense-related genes may allow P. infestans to spread beyond the site of infection in the partially resistant host despite elicitation of hypersensitive cell death.
Mauk, Craighton S.; Langille, Alan R.
Using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cucumber cotyledon bioassay, and mass spectrometry a cytokinin isolated from Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Katahdin plant tissues has been identified as cis-zeatin riboside. Zeatin riboside (ZR) levels in plants grown under inducing conditions (28 C day and 13 C night with a 10-hour photoperiod) were significantly higher than those in plants grown under noninducing conditions (30 C day and 28 C night with an 18-hour photoperiod). The highest level of ZR was noted in below-ground tissue after 4 days exposure to inducing conditions, with tuber initiation observed after 8 days. A companion study conducted to determine the effect of ZR on in vitro tuberization of noninduced rhizomes revealed that after 1 month in culture, controls exhibited 0% tuberization, while ZR treatments of 0.3 and 3.0 milligrams per liter showed 39 and 75% tuberization, respectively. PMID:16660533
Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, Edward M.
Katahdin (Christ Cathar Spirit-signal stronghold) in Maine is sacred to the Penobscot Indian Nation. That mountain complex, and areas like Ellis Pond, ME and Penley Hill/Anasagunticook (adherent of Jesus Christ Spirit-signal doctor church) of the Mexico/Rumford/Mountain Valley region, also in Maine, have an association with historic Native Americans like the medicine woman Molocket/Molly Ockett. We have observed that these and other regions generate electromagnetic field (EMF) signals, which we can detect visually and in other ways. Such signals have sometimes been associated with significant and dynamic weather phenomena. Ohio's Serpent Mound and associated regions, or those now occupied by the Hopi Indian Nation, formerly an ancient Anasazi site, or areas of the current and earlier Mayan Nations, or the Nazca Plateau of Peru, may generate signals correlating with climate change, that may impact our technology, as in major power blackouts.
We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB. PMID:21637510
Arvizu, R R; Domínguez, I A; Rubio, M S; Bórquez, J L; Pinos-Rodríguez, J M; González, M; Jaramillo, G
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Suffolk×Dorper (SD) and Rambouillet (R) lamb genotypes, dietary supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits in male lambs grazing ryegrass pasture. SD lambs had heavier cold carcass (HCW) and better carcass yield (CY) and rib eye area at 12th rib (RA) than R lambs; R had larger legs. Feed supplement increased average daily weight gain (ADG), slaughter live weight (SLW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and cold carcass weight (CCW), carcass yield, carcass length (CL), leg perimeter (LP), major thorax width (MTW), minor thorax width (MiTW), rib eye area and dorsal fat at 12th rib (DF12), and also decreased meat moisture. Organic chromium reduced dorsal fat at 12th rib and meat fat content.
da Silva, Alessandra Ferreira; McManus, Concepta; do Prado Paim, Tiago; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Esteves, Geisa Isilda Ferreira; Louvandini, Helder; Neto, José Braccini; Lucci, Carolina Madeira
The once bred ewe slaughter method proposes the use of female lamb to produce a lamb and then both are slaughtered, increasing income and high quality meat production. Thus, this study evaluated the growth and reproduction performance of ewe lamb from Santa Inês (SI), a naturalized genetic resource, and their crosses (Dorper x Santa Inês (DOR), Texel x Santa Inês (TEX), Ile de France x Santa Inês (ILE)), as well as the survivability and development of their offspring. The animals were weighed monthly from birth to 12-months age. Samples of milk were collected on approximately 30 days of lactation. The physical-chemical analysis of milk was performed. SI females (2.94 kg) had significantly lower birth weight than DOR (3.80 kg) and TEX (3.87 kg). ILE females had higher weaning weight and weight at 12 months than SI females, which reflected in higher daily weight gain (ADG) (108.46 g/day) than TEX and SI. The pregnancy rates at 12 months were ILE (57.14%), TEX (25%), DOR (50%), and SI (28.57%), with TEX and SI differing of ILE and DOR (p = 0.03). Therefore, in semi-confinement and in a once-bred ewe production system using crossbreeding and allying meat production and reproduction, we recommend the use of Dorper and Ile de France breeds for crossbreeding with Santa Inês females. These results demonstrated the useful of a local genetic resource in productive system aiming a low cost meat production.
Sun, Yan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Chao, Tianle; Liu, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Guanqing; Wu, Changhao; Wang, Jianmin
To explore the basic characteristics and expressing profile of the three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes TNNC1 (Troponin C type 1), TNNI1 (troponin I type 1) and TNNT1 (troponin T type 1). Three purebred Dorper sheep and another three purebred small-tailed Han sheep were selected. The sequence of the genes from the small-tailed Han sheep was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; The characteristics of the predicted amino acids sequences were analyzed using bioinformatics analysis software; Gene expression analyses were performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The full-length cDNA sequences of the genes were 707, 898, and 1001 bp, respectively, and were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KR153938, KT218688 and KT218690. The three predicted proteins were predicted to be hydrophilic, non-secretory proteins and contain several phosphorylation sites. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the predicted proteins were relatively conserved in mammals. The expression results of the three genes in eight tissues of Dorper and small-tailed Han sheep revealed that the three genes had a similar mRNA expression pattern, whereas distinct differences were observed among the eight tissues of the two sheep species. We cloned the full-length cDNA of the three genes, analyzed the amino acid sequences, and determined the expression levels of the genes. These results might play important roles in facilitating the future research of the three genes.
Maine's MOLLOCKET and METALLAK: Adherents of God's Secret Spirit Signal, SSS, Applied Physicists of the EMF/Manitou, Doctors, Reincarnationists, "Potlachers," Confidants of the Powerful, and, they Did Own the Land.
Andrade, Jennifer; Ferreira, Nadja; Mc Leod, Roger D.
Northeastern ``Indians,'' reputed to ``make the weather,'' actually, from youth, observed earth phenomena, including SSS. These are subtle and barely detectable visual artifacts of the electromagnetic field, special information that led/leads to their spiritual belief in reincarnation, which came from the EMF/SSS communication, backward and forward, (up to) seven generations. It commands communal, democratic, ``potlatch'' redistribution of accumulated wealth, Mother Earth's bounty, from their land, gifted by ``The Great Spirit,'' Manitou, Peru's Ñari Huallac, ``Serpent God.'' Genetics established the non-Asian origins of 1/3 of North American Indians. Linguistics indicates a major impact westwards to us. MILLInocket is ``Adherent of God (Spirit-signal) monk Cathar.'' Katahdin, with a shared root, has Manitou. After 1820, Gov. E. Lincoln and at least one US senator went westward to MetALLAk; his biography is by a Rumford, ME Knight of Pythias. Why? MOLLOCKET frequently asserted ownership of western Maine. ``Great Council Fires,'' religious ``Law Things,'' were at Merrymeeting Bay in pre-Colonial times. ``Medicine men/priests'' often participated as their applied scientist-statesmen. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.1
Bradley, D.; Tucker, R.
The Acadian deformation front in the northern Appalachians of Maine and New Hampshire can now be closely located during the early Emsian (Early Devonian; 408-406 Ma). Tight correlations between paleontologically and isotopically dated rocks are possible only because of a new 408-Ma time scale tie point for the early Emsian. The deformation front lay between a belt of Lower Devonian flysch and molasse that were deposited in an Acadian foreland basin and had not yet been folded and a belt of early Emsian plutons that intruded folded Lower Devonian rocks. This plutonic belt includes the newly dated Ore Mountain gabbro (U/Pb; 406 Ma), which hosts magmatic-sulfide mineralization. Along the deformation front, a 407-Ma pluton that locally truncates Acadian folds (Katahdin) was the feeder to volcanic rocks (Traveler Rhyolite; 406-407 Ma) that are part of the foreland-basin succession involved in these same folds. The Emsian igneous rocks thus define a syncollisional magmatic province that straddled the deformation front. These findings bear on three alternative subduction geometries for the Acadian collision.
Schoonmaker, A.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Bradley, D.C.
During collisional convergence, failure in extension of the lithosphere of the lower plate due to slab pull will reduce the thickness or completely remove lower-plate lithosphere and cause decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle; magmas from this source may subsequently provide enough heat for substantial partial melting of crustal rocks under or beyond the toe of the collisional accretionary system. In central Maine, United States, this type of magmatism is first apparent in the Early Devonian West Branch Volcanics and equivalent mafic volcanics, in the slightly younger voluminous mafic/silicic magmatic event of the Moxie Gabbro-Katahdin batholith and related ignimbrite volcanism, and in other Early Devonian granitic plutons. Similar lower-plate collisional sequences with mafic and related silicic magmatism probably caused by slab breakoff are seen in the Miocene-Holocene Papuan orogen, and the Hercynian-Alleghenian belt. Magmatism of this type is significant because it gives evidence in those examples of whole-lithosphere extension. We infer that normal fault systems in outer trench slopes of collisional orogens in general, and possibly those of oceanic subduction zones, may not be primarily due to flexural bending, but are also driven by whole-lithosphere extension due to slab pull. The Maine Acadian example suggests that slab failure and this type of magmatism may be promoted by pre-existing large margin-parallel faults in the lower plate. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.
Mondragón, J A; Miranda, C; García-Mena, J; Ocádiz-Delgado, R; Gariglio, P; Romano, M C
In most mammals, the corpus luteum (CL) and placenta are the major sources of progesterone. The goat pregnancy depends on the presence of CL after mid-gestation, while sheep pregnancy does not. The expression and distribution of P450-aromatase (P450-Aro) mRNA throughout gestation has not been investigated in the goat CL and partially in the sheep CL. The present research was designed to characterize the expression of P450-Aro mRNA in small ruminant CL with emphasis in the goat. For this purpose, ovaries from Criollo goats and Pelibuey sheeps were analysed using in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the histological detection of P450-Aro transcripts. In addition, P450-Aro expression was determined by in vitro RT-PCR. In situ RT-PCR studies showed that the goat and sheep CL were rich in cells positive for P450-Aro mRNA. We have also found in vitro RT-PCR expression of P450-Aro mRNA in goat CL at 1, 3 and 4 months of gestation. This study shows that the goat CL expresses P450-Aro mRNA along gestation, suggesting that this structure is capable to produce oestrogens up to the end of gestation.
Godfrey, R W; Vinson, M C; Ketring, R C
Lactating St. Croix White and Dorper×St. Croix White ewes were used to evaluate the effect of breed and feeding a split ration on body temperature during the cool (March-April) and warm (July-August) seasons in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Within each season ewes were assigned to treatments (n=8/treatment) based on breed, age, and number of lambs. Treatments consisted of individually feeding ewes daily 0.9 kg concentrate (16.4% CP and 68% TDN) in the morning (AM) or afternoon (PM), 0.45 kg in the morning and afternoon (AM-PM), or no feed (Control) for 56 d beginning on d 7 (lambing=d 0). Ewes were fitted with intravaginal temperature data loggers, set to record vaginal temperature (VT) at 5-min intervals, for 48 h in wk 2 (d 8-14), 5 (d 29-35), and 8 (d 50-56) postpartum. Repeated measures analysis of VT was conducted using a model including treatment, season, and breed as fixed effects. There was no effect of season so data were pooled across season. The interaction of breed with treatment or season was not significant so breed comparisons were made using data pooled across treatments and season. The mean temperature, relative humidity, and temperature-humidity index during the cool and warm seasons were 25.8°C, 85.9%, and 76.1 and 28.3°C, 86.7%, and 80.6, respectively. There was no effect of season or the breed×treatment×season interaction on VT (P>0.10) so all data were pooled across season and breed for analysis of the treatment effect. During wk 2 there was no difference (P>0.10) in VT among treatment groups. During wk 5 the AM-PM ewes had higher (P<0.01) VT than AM, PM, or Control ewes. During wk 8 the AM-PM and PM ewes had higher VT (P<0.01) than either the AM or Control ewes. To evaluate breed effect, data were pooled across treatments and seasons and analyzed using breed as the single main effect. Dorper×St. Croix White ewes had higher (P<0.0001) VT than St. Croix White ewes. The results show that body temperature of ewes can be influenced by time of
Basso, F C; Adesogan, A T; Lara, E C; Rabelo, C H S; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Siqueira, G R; Reis, R A
This study aimed to examine the effects of feeding corn silage inoculated without or with either Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) alone or a combination of LB and Lactobacillus plantarum (LBLP) on the apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance of lambs. Thirty Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred intact males lambs weighing 20.4±3.8 kg were blocked by weight into 10 groups. Lambs in each group were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 dietary treatments: untreated (Control), LB, and LBLP silage. Lambs were fed experimental diets for 61 d. The apparent digestibility was indirectly estimated from indigestible NDF measured on d 57 to 59. Spot urine samples were collected from all animals on d 59 to estimate microbial protein synthesis. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation on d 61 when they weighed 32.4±5.2 kg. Six additional ruminally cannulated Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred wethers weighing 40.5±1.8 kg were used to examine dietary effects on ruminal fermentation. Average daily gain was increased when lambs were fed LBLP silage (P<0.05) but not LB silage. The LBLP silage had the highest (P<0.05) lactic acid concentration and both inoculated silages had greater acetic acid concentrations than the Control silage (P<0.05). Inoculation of corn silage increased intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, total carbohydrate (CHO), and GE by the lambs but decreased digestibility of DM, OM, CP, total and nonstructural carbohydrates, and concentration of GE and ME. (P<0.05). Nevertheless, lambs fed inoculated silages had greater microbial N supply than those on the Control treatment (P<0.05). The acetate to propionate ratio was lower in ruminal fluid of wethers in LBLP treatment than LB and Control treatment (P<0.05) and ruminal pH tended to be greater in LB lambs than in LBLP and Control wethers (P<0.10). Finally, the inoculation with both bacteria combined enhanced the silage fermentation. The intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and GE
Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira
To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.
De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined.
Ma, T; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Diao, Q Y
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using (15)N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.
Zhu, Caiye; Fan, Hongying; Yuan, Zehu; Hu, Shijin; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Fuping; Du, Lixin
Artificial selection has played a critical role in animal breeding. Detection of artificial selection footprints in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypic traits and better guide animal breeding. To more fully understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, a genome-wide scan was conducted using an OvineSNP50 BeadChip and integrated haplotype score and fixation index analyses to detect selection signatures on the X chromosome in three sheep breeds. We identified 49, 34, and 55 candidate selection regions with lengths of 27.49, 16.47, and 25.42 Mb in German Mutton, Dorper, and Sunit sheep, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that some of the genes in these regions with selection signatures, such as BMP15, were relevant to reproduction. We also identified some selection regions harboring genes that had human orthologs, including BKT, CENPI, GUCY2F, MSN, PCDH11X, PLP1, VSIG4, PAK3, WAS, PCDH19, PDHA1, and SRPX2. The VSIG4 and PCDH11X genes are associated with the immune system and disease, PDHA1 is associated with biosynthetic related pathways, and PCDH19 is expressed in the nervous system and skin. These genes may be useful as candidate genes for molecular breeding.
Han, J; Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H
Myostatin, which is also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Variation in the myostatin gene (MSTN) has been associated with variation in muscularity in many animals including sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to investigate MSTN in a diverse range of sheep breeds including the New Zealand (NZ) Romney, Coopworth, Corriedale, Dorper, Perendale, Suffolk, Merino, Dorset Down, Poll Dorset, Texel and other NZ cross-bred sheep. A total of 28 nucleotide substitutions were identified from nucleotide c.-1199 in the promoter region to c.*1813 (based on NCBI GenBank accession number DQ530260) and including the well-described substitution c.*1232G>A (MSTN g+6223G>A). Of these 28 substitutions, 3 were located in the promoter region, 3 in the 5'UTR, 11 in intron 1, 5 in intron 2 and 5 in the 3'UTR. One substitution in exon 1 (c.101G>A) potentially results in an amino acid substitution of glutamic acid (Glu) with glycine (Gly) at codon 34. Ten of these substitutions have not been reported previously. The genetic variation revealed in this study suggests this gene is more variable than hitherto reported and provides a foundation for future research into how this variation affects muscle and growth traits.
Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets
Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Garzón-Proaño, J. S.; López-Soto, M. A.; Barreras, A.; González, V. M.; Plascencia, A.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Ríos-Rincón, F. G.; Zinn, R. A.
Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg) with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis) in substitution for dry-rolled (DR) corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE) of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01), but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion (linear effect, p<0.01). Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02) duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN) or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N) were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04) as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06) and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08). However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg), reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs. PMID:25049896
Malinconico, M.L. . Dept. of Geology)
Vitrinite reflectance was measured on plant fossils from the Devonian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formations in northern Maine in order to assess the degree and possible history of thermal maturation of these post-Acadian intermontane basin deposits, generally considered to be unmetamorphosed. The Middle Devonian Mapleton Formation, west of Presque Isle, lies within the prehnite-pumpellyite terrane of northeastern Aroostook County in which the degree of metamorphism increases from west to east. Vitrinite reflectance from the quarry'' plant fossil locality has a reflectance of 1.4%, which is slightly higher than the death line'' of oil and indicates a maximum paleotemperature of ca. 120--150 C. If not due to burial alone, this very low grade metamorphism may be due to (1) intrusion of nearby teschenite dikes or (2) the Maritime Disturbance of the Pennsylvanian. Based on conodont alteration indices and vitrinite and graptolite reflectance, the degree of thermal maturation of pre-Acadian Ordovician to Lower Devonian formations decreases rapidly several kilometers west of the prehnite-analcime isograd; the lowest rank rocks, in a northeast-trending ban from Square Lake to Mud Lake have paleotemperatures in the range of 60--90 C, the birth line'' of oil. In the post- orogenic Lower Devonian Trout Valley Formation immediately north of Mt. Katahdin, two samples about seven kilometers apart have anthracite grade reflectances of 3.0% and 8.2% respectively. Both localities are near andesite sills. Importantly, the smooth nongranular non-coked texture of these samples suggests that all or part of the Trout Valley Formation had been heated by an unidentified thermal event to temperatures above the coking range of coal before being subjected to later very local contact metamorphism by dikes and sills.
Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel
Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.
Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Castillo-Martínez, Omar; Ramirez-Bribiesca, J Efren; Mellado, Miguel
A study was conducted to estimate dry matter (DM) degradability in the rumen of lambs offered a basal soybean meal and sorghum grain diet with three levels of white mulberry (WM) leaves (Morus alba). Diets consisted of 90% concentrate and 10% sorghum straw, which was incrementally replaced by WM leaves at 0% (control diet, T1), 2.5% (T2), and 5% (T3) of the total ration. Crude protein (CP) in WM was 21.8% (DM basis). Diets had equal CP (14% DM basis) and metabolizable energy (10.8 MJ/kg DM) content. Three non-castrated Pelibuey male lambs fitted with permanent rumen cannula were utilized in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 10 days of adaptation followed by sampling. DM degradability was determined using the nylon bag technique. Bags contained the experimental diets offered in each period and were incubated in rumen in pairs for 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The potential degradation was higher (P < 0.05) for T2, followed by T3 and T1. WM level did not influence the degradation rate or the effective degradation at the three passage rates modeled. It was concluded that WM forage may have useful application in feedlot diets for growing lambs, as this forage increases potential degradation of high-grain diets. The incorporation of WM in diets for feedlot lambs in tropics may reduce the use of expensive conventional protein supplements.
Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina
The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.
Li, Huawei; Wang, Hongrong; Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Mengzhi; Liu, Shimin; Sun, Lisha; Chen, Qing
This study determined the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on growth performance, blood lipids, meat quality and expression of genes involved in fatty-acid metabolism in young lambs. A total of 24 Dorper × Hu lambs (about 20 kg body weight) were kept in individual pens and fed diets with 0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% RPC for 60 d. Supplementation of 0.25% RPC increased average daily gain of lambs, whereas treatments had no significant effect on feed intake. The pH values of meat were increased at 0.25% RPC and both, dripping loss and shear force of meat, were significantly decreased in RPC-supplemented lambs. No significant changes were observed for dressing percentage and intramuscular fat. RPC supplementations had no significant effect on the concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterols in serum, but the concentration of high-density lipoprotein was decreased at 0.50% RPC and that of low-density lipoprotein was increased at 0.75% RPC. In m. longissimus dorsi, the expressions of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes were increased at 0.25% RPC. Supplementation of 0.75% RPC increased the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and FASN genes, decreased the expression of ACC gene and had no effect on CD36 gene. The results of this study showed that supplementation of 0.25% RPC could promote growth performance of lambs and improve meat quality. This may be mediated by effects on blood lipid profiles and the metabolism of fatty acids in skeleton muscles. However, the beneficial effects of 0.25% RPC supplementation need to be validated with a larger number of animals. Higher doses, particularly 0.75% RPC, showed adverse effects on live weight gain and ACC expression.
Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733
Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea
In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092
Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.
Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K
To investigate the role of the angularis oculi vein (AOV) in selective brain cooling (SBC), we measured brain and carotid blood temperatures in six adult female Dorper sheep. Halfway through the study, a section of the AOV, just caudal to its junction with the dorsal nasal vein, was extirpated on both sides. Before and after AOV surgery, the sheep were housed outdoors at 21-22°C and were exposed in a climatic chamber to daytime heat (40°C) and water deprivation for 5 days. In sheep outdoors, SBC was significantly lower after the AOV had been cut, with its 24-h mean reduced from 0.25 to 0.01°C (t(5) = 3.06, P = 0.03). Carotid blood temperature also was lower (by 0.28°C) at all times of day (t(5) = 3.68, P = 0.01), but the pattern of brain temperature was unchanged. The mean threshold temperature for SBC was not different before (38.85 ± 0.28°C) and after (38.85 ± 0.39°C) AOV surgery (t(5) =0.00, P = 1.00), but above the threshold, SBC magnitude was about twofold less after surgery. SBC after AOV surgery also was less during heat exposure and water deprivation. However, SBC increased progressively by the same magnitude (0.4°C) over the period of water deprivation, and return of drinking water led to rapid cessation of SBC in sheep before and after AOV surgery. We conclude that the AOV is not the only conduit for venous drainage contributing to SBC in sheep and that, contrary to widely held opinion, control of SBC does not involve changes in the vasomotor state of the AOV.
Ma, Teng; Tao, Jingli; Yang, Minghui; He, Changjiu; Tian, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Deng, Shoulong; Feng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jing; Ji, Pengyun; Song, Yukun; He, Pingli; Han, Hongbing; Fu, Juncai; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi
Melatonin as a potent antioxidant exhibits important nutritional and medicinal values. To produce melatonin-enriching milk will benefit to the consumers. In this study, a sheep bioreactor which generates melatonin-enriching milk has been successfully developed by the technology that combined CRISPR/Cas9 system and microinjection. The AANAT and ASMT were cloned from pineal gland of Dorper sheep (Ovis aries). The in vitro studies found that AANAT and ASMT were successfully transferred to the mammary epithelial cell lines and significantly increased melatonin production in the culture medium compared to the non-transgenic cell lines. In addition, the Cas9 mRNA, sgRNA and the linearized vectors pBC1-AANAT and pBC1-ASMT were co-injected into the cytoplasm of pronuclear embryos which were implanted into ewes by oviducts transferring. Thirty four transgenic sheep were generated with the transgenic positive rate being roughly 35% which were identified by southern-blot and sequencing. Seven carried transgenic AANAT, two carried ASMT and 25 carried both of AANAT and ASMT genes. RT-PCR and western-blot demonstrated that the lambs expressed these genes in their mammary epithelial cells and these animals produced melatonin-enriched milk. This is the first report to show a functional AANAT and ASMT transgenic animal model which produce significantly high levels of melatonin milk compared to their wild type counterparts. The advanced technologies used in the study laid a foundation for generating large transgenic livestock, for example the cows, which can produce high level of melatonin milk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
de Freitas Neto, Leopoldo Mayer; dos Santos, Maico Henrique Barbosa; de Aguiar Filho, Cristiano Rocha; de Almeida Irmão, José Monteiro; Caldas, Eduardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Neves, Jairo Pereira; Lima, Paulo Fernandes; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lemos
The objective of this study was to identify the migration period of the genital tubercle and the period of visualization of external genital structures in fetuses of the Dorper breed of sheep derived from natural mating and from fresh, frozen and vitrified embryo transfer. Transrectal ultrasound was performed using a double-frequency linear transducer (6.0 and 8.0 MHz) to monitor 130 ewe fetuses distributed in the four treatments regarding embryo origin. The accuracy of the ultrasound was 100% in this experiment. The fetuses originated from controlled natural mating (NM) and from fresh (FrE), frozen (FE) and vitrified (VE) embryo transfer, with embryos collected 7 days after breeding. Migration of the genital tubercle occurred earlier (P<0.05) in NM (42.21+/-2.86 days) than in FrE (43.98+/-3.00 days), FE (44.97+/-1.83 days) and VE (44.58+/-1.97 days). Visualization of the scrotal bag, prepuce and vulva occurred, respectively, earlier (P<0.05) in NM (45.22+/-1.25, 45.95+/-1.53 and 45.01+/-1.03 days) than in FrE (48.91+/-1.92, 48.52+/-1.41 and 47.41+/-1.41 days), FE (49.97+/-1.08, 49.18+/-2.00 and 47.64+/-1.82 days) and VE (50.12+/-1.66, 49.27+/-1.61 and 47.93+/-1.92 days). The results show that fetal sexing can be accomplished from the 50th day onward in fetuses produced by natural mating and from the 55th day onward in fetuses derived from fresh, frozen and vitrified embryos. It can also be concluded that real-time ultrasonography is a reliable tool for fetal sex determination in sheep taking into account both the location of the genital tubercle and the identification of external genital structures.
Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M
Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to
Kalbfleisch, Ted; Heaton, Michael P
Genomics research in mammals has produced reference genome sequences that are essential for identifying variation associated with disease. High quality reference genome sequences are now available for humans, model species, and economically important agricultural animals. Comparisons between these species have provided unique insights into mammalian gene function. However, the number of species with reference genomes is small compared to those needed for studying molecular evolutionary relationships in the tree of life. For example, among the even-toed ungulates there are approximately 300 species whose phylogenetic relationships have been calculated in the 10k trees project. Only six of these have reference genomes: cattle, swine, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and bison. Although reference sequences will eventually be developed for additional hoof stock, the resources in terms of time, money, infrastructure and expertise required to develop a quality reference genome may be unattainable for most species for at least another decade. In this work we mapped 35 Gb of next generation sequence data of a Katahdin sheep to its own species' reference genome ( Ovis aries Oar3.1) and to that of a species that diverged 15 to 30 million years ago ( Bos taurus UMD3.1). In total, 56% of reads covered 76% of UMD3.1 to an average depth of 6.8 reads per site, 83 million variants were identified, of which 78 million were homozygous and likely represent interspecies nucleotide differences. Excluding repeat regions and sex chromosomes, nearly 3.7 million heterozygous sites were identified in this animal vs. bovine UMD3.1, representing polymorphisms occurring in sheep. Of these, 41% could be readily mapped to orthologous positions in ovine Oar3.1 with 80% corroborated as heterozygous. These variant sites, identified via interspecies mapping could be used for comparative genomics, disease association studies, and ultimately to understand mammalian gene
Seaman, S. J.; Van Lankvelt, A.; Williams, M. L.
Two magmatic belts in Maine host essentially undeformed, well-preserved Silurian to Devonian volcanic sequences that include thick ash flow tuffs and rhyolitic lava flows. The Coastal Maine volcanic belt consists of at least five bimodal volcanic complexes (419 to 424 +/- 2 Ma) hosting volcanic sequences 1-4 km thick, spanning approximately 160 km of the Maine coastline. Entire cross-sections of the volcanic-plutonic complexes are visible, providing excellent sites to study the volcano/pluton interface. The Central Maine belt also extends approximately 160 km, northeast to southwest, across central Maine, and also hosts several bimodal plutonic/volcanic complexes. Rocks in the Central Maine belt range from 400 to 410 Ma (Hubacher and Lux, 1987; Bradley et al., 1996). The largest complex in the Central Maine belt is the ~407 Ma (Rankin and Tucker, 1995) Katahdin granite and Moxie mafic intrusive complex and the coeval Traveler Rhyolite, a monotonous two-member, 3200-meter-thick pyroclastic succession. In Rankin and Hon (1987), Hon argued that the original volume of the Traveler rhyolite was at least 5000 km3, making it one of the largest silicic caldera eruptions in the rock record. Both the Coastal Maine volcanic belt and the Central Maine belt are on the Gander terrane, a peri-Gondwanan crustal block that accreted to Laurentia during the Salinic orogeny. Accretion of the block was complete by ~421 Ma (Pollock et al., 2012), but by then the Avalon terrane was accreting to Gander. Either back-arc extension associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere on the leading edge of the Avalonian plate, or delamination of that plate beneath Gander resulted in back-arc extension, decompression melting of the mantle, and partial melting of thick crust. The Central Maine belt, farther inboard of the downgoing Avalonian slab, developed similar bimodal, extension-related magmatism by approximately 410 Ma. Large silicic caldera eruptions developed in these belts as a result of
Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos
The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 % L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 % L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3, but only higher in T3 for P. purpureum. Voluntary intake and rumen (N-NH3) was higher in T2 and T3 (P = 0.0001, P = 0.005, respectively). Molar VFA proportions were similar for all treatments (P > 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Estimated methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P < 0.0001). However, CH4 yield relative to animal performance (mol CH4/g LW gain) was lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.0001). In summary, these results indicate that including L. leucocephala in sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake.
Alpízar-Naranjo, A; Arece-García, J; Esperance, M; López, Y; Molina, M; González-García, E
Replacing commercial concentrate with mulberry foliage was evaluated in a feeding trial lasting 126 days. Forty-eight weaned male Pelibuey lambs (20.6 ± 0.80 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) supplementing the basal diet with mulberry at 1% (DM basis; M-1), (2) mulberry at 0.75% plus 0.1 kg concentrate fresh matter basis (M-0.75), (3) mulberry at 0.50% plus 0.2 kg concentrate (M-0.50) and (4) basal diet plus 0.3 kg concentrate (control; M-0). During the first 90 days, the basal diet was Pennisetum purpureum forage which was substituted by a mixture of guinea grass and sugarcane from 90 days. Average daily gain (ADG, g/day), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion rate (FCR; DMI/ADG) were determined. The ADG was affected (P < 0.01) by the diet, with the lowest obtained in M-1 lambs (71 ± 6.4 g/day), whereas no differences among the other groups were observed (94 ± 6.4 g DM/lamb). The DMI was higher (P < 0.01) in M-0 (937 g DM/lamb) which concomitantly affected differences in FCR (11.9, 9.9, 10.5 and 9.7 kg DMI/kg BW gain for M-1, M-0.75, M-0.50 and M-0 lambs, respectively). Final BW at slaughtering and hot or cold carcass yields were coherent with growth rate findings. Biological yield (cold carcass weight/empty BW) was higher (P < 0.01) in M-0.75. Without compromising animal productivity, replacing imported concentrate with mulberry reduced the feeding cost. Optimum results were obtained with M-75 diet. Further studies must be conducted for optimizing energy/protein ratios with different ingredients while increasing DMI and lamb growth rates in this tropical genotype.
Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O
Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with
Foster, J L; Adesogan, A T; Carter, J N; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Phatak, S C
The high cost of commercial supplements necessitates evaluation of alternatives for ruminant livestock fed poor quality warm-season grasses. This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage (Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Tifton 9) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin lambs (27.5 +/- 5 kg) were fed for ad libitum intake of bahiagrass haylage (67.8% NDF, 9.6% CP) alone (control) or supplemented with soybean meal (18.8% NDF, 51.4% CP) or haylages of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 39.6% NDF, 18.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 44.1% NDF, 16.0% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 40.0% NDF, 15.8% CP), or pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. GA-2; 65.0% NDF, 13.7% CP]. Haylages were harvested at the optimal maturity for maximizing yield and nutritive value, wilted to 45% DM, baled, wrapped in polyethylene plastic, and ensiled for 180 d. Legumes were fed at 50% of the dietary DM, and soybean meal was fed at 8% of the dietary DM to match the average CP concentration (12.8%) of legume haylage-supplemented diets. Lambs were fed each diet for a 14-d adaptation period and a 7-d data collection period. Each diet was fed to 7 lambs in period 1 and 4 lambs in period 2. Pigeonpea haylage supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) DM and OM intake and digestibility vs. controls. Other legume haylages increased (P < 0.05) DM and OM intake vs. controls; however, only soybean meal supplementation increased (P = 0.01) DM digestibility. All supplements decreased (P = 0.05) NDF digestibility. Except for pigeonpea haylage, all supplements increased (P < 0.01) N intake, digestibility, and retention, and the responses were greatest (P = 0.04) with soybean meal supplementation. Microbial N synthesis was reduced (P = 0.02) by pigeonpea haylage supplementation, but unaffected (P = 0.05) by other supplements
Foster, J L; Adesogan, A T; Carter, J N; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Phatak, S C
The increasing cost of feed supplements necessitates evaluation of alternatives for ruminant livestock grazing poor quality warm-season grasses. This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Pensacola) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume hays affected intake, digestibility, and N utilization by lambs. Dorper x Katadhin crossbred lambs (30.6 +/- 5.5 kg; n = 42) were fed bahiagrass hay (73.8% NDF, 8.1% CP) for ad libitum intake and supplemented with nothing (control), soybean meal, or hays of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 46.2% NDF, 14.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 62.2% NDF, 11.7% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 43.3% NDF, 15.2% CP), pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. GA-2; 78.6% NDF, 12.2% CP], or soybean (cv. Pioneer 97B52; 59.0% NDF, 13.5% CP). Legume hays were supplemented at 50% of total diet DM, and soybean meal was supplemented at a level (4.25% of diet DM) that matched the average dietary CP content (10.8%) of the legume hay-supplemented diets. The cowpea, pigeonpea, and soybean were harvested at respective maturities that maximized DM yield and nutritive value, and the peanuts were first cuttings. Diets were fed to 6 lambs per treatment for 2 consecutive 21-d periods. Supplementation with hays of annual and perennial peanut, cowpea, and soybean increased (P < 0.01) DMI vs. control, but apparent DM digestibility was only increased (P = 0.03) by supplementation with annual or perennial peanut hay. Compared with the control, N intake, digestibility, and retention were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation with legume hay or soybean meal. Responses were greatest when annual or perennial peanut hays were fed. Ruminal ammonia concentration was increased (P < 0.01) by all legume hay supplements vs. the control. Microbial N synthesis and ruminally degraded OM were increased (P = 0.03) by perennial and
Ma, T; Chen, D-D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N-F; Si, B-W; Deng, K-D; Diao, Q-Y
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred ewes. In experiment 1, ten ewes (67.2 ± 2.24 kg BW) were assigned to two dietary treatments, a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with resveratrol (0.25 g/head·day), to investigate the effect of resveratrol on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. In experiment 2, six ewes (64.0 ± 1.85 kg BW) with ruminal cannulae were assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment 1 to investigate supplementary resveratrol on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora using qPCR. The results showed that supplementary resveratrol improved the digestibility of organic matter (OM; p < 0.001), nitrogen (N; p = 0.007), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; p < 0.001) and acid detergent fibre (ADF; p < 0.001). The excretion of faecal N was reduced (p = 0.007), whereas that of urinary N increased (p = 0.002), which led to an unchanged N retention (p = 0.157). Both CO2 and CH4 output scaled to digestible dry matter (DM) intake decreased from 602.5 to 518.7 (p = 0.039) and 68.2 to 56.6 (p < 0.001) respectively. Ruminal pH (p = 0.341), ammonia (p = 0.512) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) (p = 0.249) were unaffected by resveratrol. The molar proportion of propionate increased from 13.1 to 17.5% (p < 0.001) while that of butyrate decreased from 11.0 to 9.55% (p < 0.001). The ratio of acetate to propionate (A/P) decreased from 5.44 to 3.96 (p < 0.001). Supplementary resveratrol increased ruminal population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (p < 0.001) while decreased protozoa and methanogens. In conclusion, dietary resveratrol inhibited methanogenesis without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation.
Cheng, Jianbo; Ma, Hui; Fan, Caiyun; Zhang, Zijun; Jia, Zhihai; Zhu, Xiaoping; Wang, Lisheng
This study was performed to determine the effects of different copper (Cu) sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, and Cu status of lambs. Fifty Dorper × Mongolia wether lambs (approximately 3 month of age; average BW = 23.8 ± 0.6 kg) were divided into five equal groups each with ten animals according to their weight. Treatments consisted of (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (4) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl; TBCC), and (5) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from TBCC. The Cu concentration was 6.74 mg/kg DM in the basal diet. Plasma copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities were not affected on day 30 by Cu supplementation. Copper supplementation increased plasma and liver copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities on day 60. Muscle Cu concentrations were not affected by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle Cu concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities between Cu-lysine and TBCC. Liver copper concentrations and plasma ceruloplasmin activities were increased in lambs supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM than in those supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM on day 60. However, copper levels had no effects on Cu concentrations in plasma and muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were decreased in plasma and liver tissues, but not affected in muscle by Cu supplementation. Plasma SOD activities were increased by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle MDA concentrations and plasma SOD activities between Cu sources and levels. These results indicated that Cu supplementation increased plasma SOD activity, lipid oxidative stability, and copper status of lambs, but did not influence lipid oxidative stability in sheep muscle. Cu-lysine and TBCC were of similar availability when offered to finishing sheep.
George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T
Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The
Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J
This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( < 0.0001) for Late-1 lambs than for Early-1 lambs (14.6 ± 0.3 vs. 11.0 ± 0.3 kg, respectively) and greater ( < 0.008) for DRPX lambs than for STX lambs (13.9 ± 0.4 vs. 11.5 ± 0.4 kg, respectively). Litter weaning weight was greater ( < 0.004) for Late-1 ewes than for Early-1 ewes (20.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.4 ± 0.8 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency ([ewe BW at weaning/litter weaning weight] × 100) was greater ( < 0.004) for Late-1 ewes than for Early-1 ewes (50.7 ± 1.9 vs. 42.3 ± 1.8%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 90 d of age was lower ( < 0.03) for Early-1 lambs than for Late-1 lambs (2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 2, weaning weight was greater ( < 0.0001) for Late-2 lambs than for Early-2 lambs (18.7 ± 0.4 vs. 11.8 ± 0.4 kg, respectively) and greater ( < 0.008) for DRPX lambs than for STX lambs (16.9 ± 0.5 vs. 13.3 ± 0.5 kg, respectively). Litter weaning weight was greater ( < 0.0001) in Late-2 ewes than in Early-2 ewes (27.2 ± 1.0 vs. 17.5 ± 0.9 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency was greater ( < 0.0001) for Late-2 ewes than for Early-2 ewes (68.1 ± 2.2 vs. 41.9 ± 2.0%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 120 d of age was not different ( > 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing