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Sample records for pelvic cancers study

  1. Pelvic floor disorders and sexual function in gynecologic cancer survivors: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Teresa L.; Heckman, Seth R.; Qualls, Clifford; Muller, Carolyn Y.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and sexual function in survivors of gynecologic cancer. STUDY DESIGN We surveyed survivors of gynecologic cancer (survivors) and women seeking gynecologic care (control patients) who were >30 years old. All survivors were disease- and treatment-free for ≥ 1 year. Validated questionnaires were used to evaluate pelvic floor disorders. RESULTS One hundred eight control patient and 260 survivor questionnaires were completed. A high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders was observed in both groups; 56% of control subjects and 70% of survivors reported moderate-to-severe urinary incontinence (P > .05). Survivors were more likely to experience fecal incontinence (42% vs 32%; P = .02). Survivors reported less sexual desire (P = .04) and less ability to climax (P = .04), despite no difference in dyspareunia. CONCLUSION Fecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are significant problems in survivors of gynecologic cancer. PMID:20869691

  2. Laparoscopic Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in the Surgical Treatment of Endometrial Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Jabor, Antonín; Bartos, Pavel; Eim, Josef; Kliment, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the results and determine the contribution of laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of women with endometrial cancer and compare with the open technique. Methods: A prospective multicenter study was carried out on 120 women who underwent laparoscopic surgery (96 women) and open procedures (24 women) for endometrial cancer between April 1996 and March 2000. Results: Four patients whose laparoscopic surgery was completed by laparotomy were excluded from the study. The other 92 laparoscopic procedures were successfully completed. Laparoscopically assisted surgical staging (LASS) was performed based on the grade of the tumor and the depth of myometrial invasion. Sixty-seven of the patients underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO), and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and 25 women also had para-aortic lymph node sampling dissection. Eleven of these patients had positive pelvic or para-aortic nodes. The mean operating time for the laparoscopic procedure was significantly longer (173.8 min, P < 0.0001) than the time for the open procedure (135.0 min). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. The recovery time was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The laparoscopic approach to hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for early stage endometrial carcinoma is an attractive alternative to the abdominal surgical approach. The advantages of laparoscopically assisted surgical staging are patient related. Because the abdominal incision is avoided, the recovery time is reduced. Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection is a procedure that is appropriate, when applicable. PMID:12113415

  3. Adjuvant pelvic radiation is associated with improved survival and decreased disease recurrence in pelvic node-positive penile cancer after lymph node dissection: A multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dominic H; Djajadiningrat, Rosa; Diorio, Gregory; Chipollini, Juan; Ma, Zhenjun; Schaible, Braydon J; Catanzaro, Mario; Ye, Dingwei; Zhu, Yao; Nicolai, Nicola; Horenblas, Simon; Johnstone, Peter A S; Spiess, Philippe E

    2017-06-27

    Few studies have examined the role of radiation therapy in advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to evaluate the association of adjuvant pelvic radiation with survival and recurrence for patients with penile cancer and positive pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) after lymph node dissection. Data were collected retrospectively across 4 international centers of patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma undergoing lymph node dissections from 1980 to 2013. Further, 92 patients with available adjuvant pelvic radiation status and positive PLNs were analyzed. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and recurrence were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. 43% (n = 40) of patients received adjuvant pelvic radiation after a positive PLN dissection. Median follow-up was 9.3 months (interquartile range: 5.2-19.8). Patients receiving adjuvant pelvic radiation had a median DSS of 14.4 months vs. 8 months in the nonradiation group, respectively (P = 0.023). Patients without adjuvant pelvic radiation were associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.01-2.92; P = 0.04) and DSS (HR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.09-3.36; P = 0.02) on multivariable analysis. Median time to recurrence was 7.7 months vs. 5.3 months in the radiation and nonradiation arm, respectively (P = 0.042). Patients without adjuvant pelvic radiation was also independently associated with higher overall recurrence on multivariable analysis (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.06-3.12; P = 0.03). Adjuvant pelvic radiation is associated with improved survival and decreased recurrence in this population of patients with penile cancer with positive PLNs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, H; Swart, A M C; Qian, Q; Amos, C; Parmar, M K B

    2009-01-10

    Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24-58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.87-1.54; p=0.31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI -4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1.35 (1.06-1.73; p=0.017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1-12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1.04 (0.74-1.45; p=0.83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1.25 (0.93-1.66; p=0.14). Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early

  5. High energy neutron treatment for pelvic cancers: study stopped because of increased mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Errington, R D; Ashby, D; Gore, S M; Abrams, K R; Myint, S; Bonnett, D E; Blake, S W; Saxton, T E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare high energy fast neutron treatment with conventional megavoltage x ray treatment in the management of locally advanced pelvic carcinomas (of the cervix, bladder, prostate, and rectum). DESIGN--Randomised study from February 1986; randomisation to neutron treatment or photon treatment was unstratified and in the ratio of 3 to 1 until January 1988, when randomisation was in the ratio 1 to 1 and stratified by site of tumour. SETTING--Mersey regional radiotherapy centre at Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral. PATIENTS--151 patients with locally advanced, non-metastatic pelvic cancer (27 cervical, 69 of the bladder, seven prostatic, and 48 of the rectum). INTERVENTION--Randomisation to neutron treatment was stopped in February 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient survival and causes of death in relation to the development of metastatic disease and treatment related morbidity. RESULTS--In the first phase of the trial 42 patients were randomised to neutron treatment and 14 to photon treatment, and in the second phase 48 to neutron treatment and 47 to photon treatment. The relative risk of mortality for photons compared with neutrons was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 1.10) after adjustment for site of tumour and other important prognostic factors. Short term and long term complications were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS--The trial was stopped because of the increased mortality in patients with cancer of the cervix, bladder, or rectum treated with neutrons. PMID:1903663

  6. Gut microbial dysbiosis may predict diarrhea and fatigue in patients undergoing pelvic cancer radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Ling, Zongxin; Yang, Zhixiang; Kiela, Pawel R; Wang, Tao; Wang, Cheng; Cao, Le; Geng, Fang; Shen, Mingqiang; Ran, Xinze; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Wang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue and diarrhea are the most frequent adverse effects of pelvic radiotherapy, while their etiologies are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlations between fatigue, diarrhea, and alterations in gut microbiota induced by pelvic radiotherapy. During the 5-week treatment of pelvic radiotherapy in 11 cancer patients, the general fatigue score significantly increased and was more prominent in the patients with diarrhea. The fatigue score was closely correlated with the decrease of serum citrulline (an indicator of the functional enterocyte mass) and the increases of systemic inflammatory proteins, including haptoglobin, orosomuoid, α1-antitrypsin and TNF-α. Serum level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also elevated, especially in the patients with diarrhea indicating epithelial barrier breach and endotoxemia. Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed that microbial diversity, richness, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio were significantly altered prior to radiotherapy in patients who later developed diarrhea. Pelvic radiotherapy induced further changes in fecal microbial ecology, some of which were specific to the patients with or without diarrhea. Our results indicate that gut microbial dysbiosis prior to radiation therapy may be exploited to predict development of diarrhea and to guide preventive treatment options. Radiation-induced dysbiosis may contribute to pelvic radiation disease, including mucositis, diarrhea, systemic inflammatory response, and pelvic radiotherapy-associated fatigue in cancer patients.

  7. Feasibility Study of Pelvic Helical IMRT for Elderly Patients with Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Nickers, Philippe; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Cordoba, Abel; Leblanc, Eric; Comte, Pauline; Lacornerie, Thomas; Lartigau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Standard treatment for early-stage endometrial cancer involves surgery (when possible) followed by brachytherapy or external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for high-risk tumors. EBRT is not without toxicity, meaning that it could be difficult to complete for elderly patients, who typically have decreased reserve and resistance to stressors. Patients and methods Patients aged 70 and over treated between April 2009 and May 2013 for endometrial cancer and received IMRT (Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy) were included in this observational study. IMRT could be performed as adjuvant treatment or as an exclusive treatment for patients not amenable to surgery. The primary endpoints of this study were to assess the feasibility and toxicity of pelvic IMRT in this population. Secondary endpoints were to assess disease-specific survival, overall survival, and local control. Predictors of toxicity were also explored. Results Forty seven consecutive patients were included in the analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 75 years (range, 70–89 years). Eleven patients were aged 80 years and older. Toxicities were found in thirty four patients (72%) during treatment. Among these, toxicity did not exceed grade 2 for 32 patients (68%). Two patients had a grade 3 toxicity (4%). Overall survival rates were 87% and 83% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Six patients (12.8%) had a local relapse and nine others (19.1%) had distant relapse. Conclusions Pelvic helical IMRT for patients aged 70 and older is feasible with full standard radiation doses, showing that age greater than 70 should not be considered as a reason not to perform optimal treatment. PMID:25423024

  8. Quality assurance of multifractionated pelvic interstitial brachytherapy for postoperative recurrences of cervical cancers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pragya; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena; SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Pragya; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena; SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

  10. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  11. Enumerating pelvic recurrence following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: A Canadian multi-institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Libni J.; Jones, Edward; Kassouf, Wassim; Lambert, Carole; Morgan, Scott C.; Moussa, Madeleine; Nam, Robert; Parliament, Matthew; Russell, Laurie; Saad, Fred; Siemens, D. Robert; Souhami, Luis; Szumacher, Ewa; Tyldesley, Scott; Xu, Yan; Zbieranowski, Ingrid; Breau, Rodney H.; Belanger, Eric; Black, Peter; Estey, Eric; Bowan, Julie; Bora, Bishwajit; Brundage, Michael; Chung, Peter; Fleshner, Neil; Evans, Andrew; Bauman, Glenn; Izawa, Jonathan; Davidson, Chris; Brimo, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to enumerate the rate of pelvic recurrence following radical cystectomy at university-affiliated hospitals in Canada. Methods: Canadian, university-affiliated hospitals were invited to participate. They were asked to identify the first 10 consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy starting January 1, 2005, who had urothelial carcinoma stages pT3/T4 N0-2 M0. The first 10 consecutive cases starting January 1, 2005 who met these criteria were the patients submitted by that institution with information regarding tumour stage, age, number of nodes removed, and last known clinical status in regard to recurrence and patterns of failure. Results: Of the 111 patients, 80% had pT3 and 20% pT4 disease, with 62% being node-negative, 14% pN1, and 27% pN2; 57% had 10 or more nodes removed. Cumulative incidence of pelvic relapse was 40% among the entire group Conclusions: This review demonstrates a high rate of pelvic tumour recurrence following radical cystectomy for pT3/T4 urothelial cancer. PMID:27217852

  12. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in pelvic stopflow infusion and hypoxic pelvic perfusion with and without hemofiltration: a pilot study of patients with recurrent unresectable rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guadagni, S; Aigner, K R; Palumbo, G; Cantore, M; Fiorentini, G; Pozone, T; Deraco, M; Clerico, M; Chaudhuri, P K

    1998-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the advantage in drug delivery for regional chemotherapy in patients with unresectable recurrent rectal carcinoma by different methods. For this research, the pharmacokinetic advantages of mitomycin C delivery by four different methods were compared: intraaortic infusion with aortic stopflow; intraaortic infusion with inferior vena cava stopflow; intraaortic infusion with aortic and inferior caval vein stopflow (hypoxic pelvic perfusion); and hypoxic pelvic perfusion with hemofiltration. The results of this study indicate that pelvic stopflow infusion followed by hypoxic pelvic perfusion significantly increases mitomycin C concentrations in the blood coming from the tumor site. Also, use of hemofiltration reduces mitomycin C levels in peripheral blood after high-dose regional chemotherapy. Further investigations involving more patients should be carried out in the future to validate these results.

  13. Pelvic Fractures After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Jhingran, Anuja; Iyer, Revathy B.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Frumovitz, Michael; Bodurka, Diane C.; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of pelvic fractures and associated risk factors was determined in women treated with curative-intent radiotherapy for cervical cancer. METHODS The records of 516 women treated with curative-intent radiotherapy for cervical cancer between 2001 and 2006 at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were reviewed. Among these, 300 patients had at least 1 post-treatment computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging study available for review, and they comprised our study population. All imaging studies were re-reviewed by a single radiologist to evaluate for fractures. RESULTS Pelvic fractures were noted in 29 of 300 patients (9.7%). Fracture sites included sacrum (n = 24; 83%), sacrum and pubis (n = 3; 10%), iliac crest (n = 1; 3%), and sacrum and acetabulum (n = 1; 3%). Thirteen patients (45%) were symptomatic, with pain being the most common presenting symptom. The median time from the completion of radiotherapy to the detection of fractures on imaging studies was 14.1 months (range, 2.1–63.1 months), with 38% of patients diagnosed within 1 year and 83% diagnosed within 2 years of completing therapy. The median age of the patients at diagnosis was higher in the women who developed a fracture compared with the women who did not (56.5 years vs 46.7 years; P = .04). A higher number of women with a fracture were postmenopausal (62% vs 37%; P = .03). The median body mass index was lower in the women who had a fracture (26.0 kg/m2 vs 28.0 kg/m2; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS Pelvic fractures were detected in a substantial proportion of women after radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Bone mineral density screening and pharmacologic intervention should be considered in these women. PMID:20052724

  14. Pouchitis Associated With Pelvic Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Geeta; Liu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a viable option in managing potentially life-threatening malignancies including prostate cancer. It is known that pelvic radiation can result in injury of the distal large bowel with the development of radiation proctitis. Despite reports from retrospective studies, there is a lack of direct endoscopic and histologic evidence of external pelvic radiation injury to the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We present a case of a 68-year-old male with pouchitis resulting from pelvic radiation for prostate cancer. PMID:27807581

  15. Dosimetric Study of Pelvic Proton Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Vargas, Carlos; Morris, Christopher G.; Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Yeung, Daniel; Duvvuri, Srividya; Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy Price

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions in targeted tissues (prostate, seminal vesicles, pelvic regional nodes) and nontargeted tissues in the pelvis with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and forward-planned, double-scattered, three-dimensional proton radiotherapy (3D-PRT). Methods and Materials: IMRT, IMRT followed by a prostate 3D-PRT boost (IMRT/3D-PRT), and 3D-PRT plans were created for 5 high-risk prostate cancer patients (n = 15 plans). A 78-CGE/Gy dose was prescribed to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles and a 46-CGE/Gy was prescribed to the pelvic nodes. Various dosimetric endpoints were compared. Results: Target coverage of the prostate and nodal planning target volumes was adequate for all three plans. Compared with the IMRT and IMRT/3D-PRT plans, the 3D-PRT plans reduced the mean dose to the rectum, rectal wall, bladder, bladder wall, small bowel, and pelvis. The relative benefit of 3D-PRT (vs IMRT) at reducing the rectum and rectal wall V5-V40 was 53% to 71% (p < 0.05). For the bladder and bladder wall, the relative benefit for V5 to V40 CGE/Gy was 40% to 63% (p < 0.05). The relative benefit for reducing the volume of small bowel irradiated from 5 to 30 CGE/Gy in the 3D-PRT ranged from 62% to 69% (p < 0.05). Use of 3D-PRT did not produce the typical low-dose 'bath' of radiation to the pelvis seen with IMRT. Femoral head doses were higher for the 3D-PRT. Conclusions: Use of 3D-PRT significantly reduced the dose to normal tissues in the pelvis while maintaining adequate target coverage compared with IMRT or IMRT/3D-PRT. When treating the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes in prostate cancer, proton therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio beyond what is possible with IMRT.

  16. Whole-pelvic radiotherapy with spot-scanning proton beams for uterine cervical cancer: a planning study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shingo; Shibamoto, Yuta; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Hiroki; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Sugie, Chikao; Mizoe, Jun-etsu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric parameters of whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) for cervical cancer among plans involving 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). The dose distributions of 3D-CRT-, IMRT-, and SSPT-based WPRT plans were compared in 10 patients with cervical cancer. All of the patients were treated with a prescribed dose of 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions, and all of the plans involved the same planning target volume (PTV) constrictions. A 3D-CRT plan involving a four-field box, an IMRT plan involving seven coplanar fields, and an SSPT plan involving four fields were created. The median PTV D95% did not differ between the 3D-CRT, IMRT and SSPT plans. The median conformity index 95% and homogeneity index of the IMRT and SSPT were better than those of the 3D-CRT. The homogeneity index of the SSPT was better than that of the IMRT. SSPT resulted in lower median V20 values for the bladder wall, small intestine, colon, bilateral femoral heads, skin, and pelvic bone than IMRT. Comparing the Dmean values, SSPT spared the small intestine, colon, bilateral femoral heads, skin and pelvic bone to a greater extent than the other modalities. SSPT can reduce the irradiated volume of the organs at risk compared with 3D-CRT and IMRT, while maintaining excellent PTV coverage. Further investigations of SSPT are warranted to assess its role in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:27380800

  17. Survival after pelvic exenteration for uterine malignancy: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    PubMed

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Dayno, Megan; Strohl, Anna E; Graves, Stephen; Nieves-Neira, Wilberto; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2016-12-01

    To determine overall survival (OS) and factors associated with OS after pelvic exenteration for uterine cancer. Women with uterine cancer who underwent exenteration (n=1160) were identified from the 1998-2011 National Cancer Data Base. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards survival analyses were performed to test for associations of potential explanatory variables with OS. Analyzed confounders included age, comorbidity score, insurance status, income, distance from home to treatment center, stage, distant and nodal metastasis, tumor size, surgical margin status, exenteration type, and treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy. Among women with follow-up data (n=652), median (IQR) OS was 63.1 (42.2-107.2) and 17.6 (14.7-23.9) months for women with node-negative versus node-positive disease, respectively. Histology (p=1.5×10(-4)), grade (p=7.9×10(-14)), race (p=0.0002), lymph node status (p=1.0×10(-14)), surgical node evaluation (p=2.8×10(-8)), surgery for distant metastasis (p=0.004), distant metastasis at diagnosis (p=1.3×10(-10)), positive surgical margins (p=1.6×10(-9)), radiotherapy (p=0.004), and insurance status (p=6.5×10(-6)) were significantly associated with differential, unadjusted Kaplan-Meier OS estimates. Exenteration type was not associated with OS (p=0.357). By multivariate regression, increased age, positive surgical margins, nodal metastasis or unknown nodal status, higher histologic grade, and black race were associated with increased hazards for death. Exenteration may be curative for well-selected women with uterine cancer, particularly among women with pathologically negative lymph nodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of uterine, ovarian and breast cancer following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Yang, Albert C; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-11-03

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is characterized by infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract in women and is associated with health sequelae. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of gynecological cancers including ovarian, breast or uterine cancer. We identified subjects diagnosed with PID between January 1(st), 2000 and December 31(st), 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort constructed for patients without PID were matched according to age and sex. All PID patients and control groups were observed until diagnosed with ovarian, breast or uterine cancer, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until December 31(st), 2009. The PID cohort consisted of 32,268 patients, and an equal number of matched controls without PID. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of ovarian, breast or uterine cancer in subjects with PID were: HR 1.326 (95 % confidence interval: 0.775-2.269), HR: 1.039 (95 % confidence interval: 0.862-1.252), and HR: 1.439 (95 % confidence interval: 0.853-2.426) respectively in comparison with controls during follow-up. This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests that there is no increased risk for ovarian, breast or uterine cancer among women who have PID compared to a matching population.

  19. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed.

  20. Pelvic Insufficiency Fracture After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae Nam, Heerim; Park, Won; Han, Youngyih; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Lee, Je Ho

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Medical records and imaging studies, including bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI of 557 patients with cervical cancer who received whole-pelvic RT between January 1998 and August 2005 were reviewed. Results: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed as having PIF after pelvic RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PIF was 19.7%. The most commonly involved site was the sacroiliac joint. Pelvic pain developed in 48 patients (57.8%) at diagnosis. Eleven patients (13.3%) needed admission or narcotics because of severe pain, and others had good relief of symptoms with conservative management. In univariate analysis, age {>=}55 years (p < 0.001), anteroposterior/posteroanterior parallel opposing technique (p = 0.001), curative treatment (p < 0.001), and radiation dose {>=}50.4 Gy (p = 0.005) were the predisposing factors for development of PIF. Concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.78) was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that age {>=}55 years (p < 0.001), body weight <55 kg (p = 0.02), curative treatment (p = 0.03), and radiation dose {>=}50.4 Gy (p = 0.04) were significant predisposing factors for development of PIF. Conclusion: The development of PIF is not rare after pelvic RT. The use of multibeam arrangements to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture, especially in elderly women with low body weight.

  1. Randomized study of whole-abdomen irradiation versus pelvic irradiation plus cyclophosphamide in treatment of early ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sell, A.; Bertelsen, K.; Andersen, J.E.; Stroyer, I. )

    1990-06-01

    From 1 September 1981 to 1 January 1987, 118 patients with FIGO Stage IB, IC, IIA, IIB, and IIC epithelial ovarian cancer were randomized to abdominal irradiation or pelvic irradiation + cyclophosphamide. There was no difference between the regimens with respect to recurrence-free survival (55%) and 4-year overall survival (63%). At routine second-look laparotomy, 16% of patients without clinical detectable tumor showed recurrence. Twenty-five percent of the patients treated with pelvic irradiation + cyclophosphamide had hemorrhagic cystitis, probably caused by radiation damage and cyclophosphamide cystitis. Eight percent had late gastrointestinal symptoms requiring surgery.

  2. Ultrasound in preoperative assessment of pelvic and abdominal spread in patients with ovarian cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fischerova, D; Zikan, M; Semeradova, I; Slama, J; Kocian, R; Dundr, P; Nemejcova, K; Burgetova, A; Dusek, L; Cibula, D

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the accuracy of ultrasound in assessing pelvic and intra-abdominal spread in patients with ovarian cancer. This prospective study enrolled all consecutive patients referred to a single gynecological oncology center for suspected ovarian cancer. We analyzed only data from patients with histologically confirmed primary ovarian cancer who were evaluated following predefined preoperative ultrasound, intraoperative and pathology protocols. We evaluated the agreement of depth of infiltration of the rectosigmoid wall, tumor spread in different peritoneal compartments and presence of metastatic retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph nodes, as determined at ultrasound, with intraoperative and histopathological findings. In total, 578 patients were enrolled between March 2008 and January 2013, of whom 394 met the study inclusion criteria and were analyzed; 74% of these suffered from advanced-stage cancer. Our results showed excellent agreement between ultrasound and histology in assessment of rectosigmoid wall infiltration (kappa value, 0.812; area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve, 0.898). The overall accuracy in evaluating different peritoneal compartments, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph nodes and depth of rectosigmoid wall infiltration was 85.3%, 84.8%, 99.7% and 91.1%, respectively. Ultrasound showed high sensitivity only in the assessment of rectosigmoid wall infiltration (83.1%), peritoneal spread into the pelvis (81.4%) and omentum (67.3%), and inguinal metastatic lymph nodes (100%). The specificity of ultrasound in detection of all evaluated parameters was > 90%. This is the largest imaging study to date on ovarian cancer staging. Ultrasound can be used as the method of choice to plan rectosigmoid wall resection and dissection of infiltrated inguinal lymph nodes. In assessing different peritoneal and retroperitoneal compartments, ultrasound was accurate and highly specific. However, similar to other modern imaging techniques, it had

  3. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an association with chronic pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P < 0.001) and in those who received radio(chemo)therapy (OR 1.31 [1.01-1.7], P = 0.041) or underwent abdominoperineal excision (OR 1.71 [1.19-2.44], P = 0.003), total mesorectal excision (OR 1.39 [1.01-1.90], P = 0.041), and Hartmann procedure (OR 1.72 [1.04-2.84], P = 0.33) compared with partial mesorectal excision. Ordinal regression analysis showed a strong association between all QoL subgroups and pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  4. Treatment of Endometrial Cancer in Association with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Vanichtantikul, Asama; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2017-01-01

    Background. Uterine malignancy coexistent with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is uncommon and standardized treatment is not established. The objective of this case study was to highlight the management of endometrial cancer in association with pelvic organ prolapse. Case Report. An 87-year-old woman presented with POP Stage IV combined with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: clinical Stage IV B. She had multiple medical conditions including stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. She was treated with radiotherapy and pessary was placed. Conclusion. Genital prolapse with abnormal uterine bleeding requires proper evaluation and management. Concurrent adenocarcinoma and POP can be a difficult clinical situation to treat, and optimum management is controversial.

  5. Laparoscopic pelvic surgery for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Tay, Eng-Hseon

    2009-02-01

    The traditional approach for the treatment of endometrial cancer by laparotomy is increasingly being replaced by laparoscopic surgery. The advantages of laparoscopy have been well-documented. Laparoscopy avoids the morbidity of a laparotomy, overcomes the limitations of vaginal hysterectomy, provides adequate pathological information for an accurate surgical staging and expedites the postoperative recovery of patients. This paper reports the outcome of a series of 50 consecutive cases of laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancers that were performed by the author. The objective is to review the perioperative, postoperative experience and survival outcomes of patients with endometrial cancer managed by laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon. The records of 50 consecutive patients with endometrial cancers from October 1995 to October 2007 treated by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and laparoscopic hysterectomy (total and assisted) were retrospectively reviewed. Data on patients' attributes, endometrial cancers, surgical procedures, surgical complications and morbidity, perioperative experience, length of hospital stays and clinical outcome were analysed. Laparoscopic surgery was successful in all 50 patients and is clearly an option for the treatment of early endometrial cancer. Careful patient selection and surgical competency are instrumental in ensuring successful treatment.

  6. Low rate of lymphedema after extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by pelvic irradiation of node-positive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of lower limb lymphedema after pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Twenty-six patients underwent combined treatment for high-risk node-positive prostate cancer at Skåne University Hospital between April 2008 and March 2011. The treatment consisted of extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy. The pelvic lymphnodes, prostate and seminal vesicles were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to an absorbed dose of 50 Gy followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost of 2x10 Gy to the prostate only. Twenty-two patients accepted an invitation to a clinical examination with focus on lower limb swelling. The median time between the end of radiotherapy and examination was 2.2 years (range 1.2–4.1). Results Six patients (27%) experienced grade 1 lymphedema and two patients (9%) grade 2 while none had grade 3 or 4 according to the CTC Common Toxicity Criteria scale 4.0. Three patients required treatment with compression stockings. Conclusion Brachytherapy and pelvic EBRT have a low incidence of lymphedema (at median 2.2 y after treatment) in patients with high-risk node-positive prostate cancer that have undergone pelvic lymph node dissection. PMID:24252686

  7. Determinants of survival following pelvic exenteration for primary rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Radwan, R W; Jones, H G; Rawat, N; Davies, M; Evans, M D; Harris, D A; Beynon, J

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic exenteration is a potentially curative treatment for locally advanced primary rectal cancer. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes and heterogeneous data. A consecutive series of patients was studied to identify the clinicopathological determinants of survival. All patients undergoing pelvic exenterative surgery for primary rectal cancer (1992-2014) at this hospital were analysed. The primary outcome measure was 5-year overall survival. Secondary endpoints included length of hospital stay, complication rate, 30-day mortality and disease recurrence rate. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. A total of 174 patients with a median age of 65 (range 31-90) years were included. Ninety-six patients underwent posterior pelvic exenteration and 78 had total pelvic exenteration. Median follow-up was 48 (range 1-229) months. Two patients (1.1 per cent) died within 30 days of surgery and 16.1 per cent returned to the operating theatre. The 5-year survival rate following complete resection (R0) was 59.3 per cent. In univariable analysis, adverse survival was associated with advanced age (P = 0.003), metastatic disease (P = 0.001), pathological node status (P = 0.001), circumferential resection margin (P = 0.001), local recurrence (P = 0.015) and the need for neoadjuvant therapy (P = 0.039). Pelvic exenteration is an aggressive treatment option with a high morbidity rate that provides favourable long-term outcomes in patients with locally advanced primary rectal cancer. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Potential advantage of studying the lymphatic drainage by sentinel node technique and SPECT-CT image fusion for pelvic irradiation of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco . E-mail: krengli@med.unipmn.it; Ballare, Andrea; Cannillo, Barbara; Rudoni, Marco; Kocjancic, Ervin; Loi, Gianfranco; Brambilla, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Frea, Bruno

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the in vivo drainage of lymphatic spread by using the sentinel node (SN) technique and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-computed tomography (CT) image fusion, and to analyze the impact of such information on conformal pelvic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three prostate cancer patients, candidates for radical prostatectomy already included in a trial studying the SN technique, were enrolled. CT and SPECT images were obtained after intraprostate injection of 115 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, allowing identification of SN and other pelvic lymph nodes. Target and nontarget structures, including lymph nodes identified by SPECT, were drawn on SPECT-CT fusion images. A three-dimensional conformal treatment plan was performed for each patient. Results: Single-photon emission computed tomography lymph nodal uptake was detected in 20 of 23 cases (87%). The SN was inside the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV{sub 2}) in 16 of 20 cases (80%) and received no less than the prescribed dose in 17 of 20 cases (85%). The most frequent locations of SN outside the CTV{sub 2} were the common iliac and presacral lymph nodes. Sixteen of the 32 other lymph nodes (50%) identified by SPECT were found outside the CTV{sub 2}. Overall, the SN and other intrapelvic lymph nodes identified by SPECT were not included in the CTV{sub 2} in 5 of 20 (25%) patients. Conclusions: The study of lymphatic drainage can contribute to a better knowledge of the in vivo potential pattern of lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer and can lead to a modification of treatment volume with consequent optimization of pelvic irradiation.

  9. A qualitative study of cancer survivors' responses to information on the long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy 1-11 years post treatment.

    PubMed

    Boulton, M; Adams, E; Horne, A; Durrant, L; Rose, P; Watson, E

    2015-09-01

    As more patients survive cancer for longer term, the long-term and late effects of treatments become increasingly important issues for cancer survivors and providing information to enable survivors to recognise and manage them becomes an increasingly pressing challenge for health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer survivors regarding information given on potential long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 cancer survivors who had had radiotherapy to the pelvic area for a range of cancers 1-11 years previously. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling from a larger questionnaire survey of patients treated at one hospital. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework. Participants recognised the value of information to reassure and to inform action but also its potentially undesirable effects to frighten or raise anxieties about future problems and its inherent limitations in meeting their wider needs. They identified the timing, amount of information and context in which it was given as of particular importance. Information based on personal experience was also valued. These findings highlight the importance of appropriate, individualised information during treatment, at hospital discharge and subsequently in primary care.

  10. Prolonged pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment for recurrent pelvic cancers: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Alex; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a proof of concept study evaluating prolonged treatment with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent ovarian, tubal and peritoneal carcinoma. Thirteen consecutive patients received an average of 22.6 cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, with an average cumulative dose of 1409 mg/m(2) . Progression-free survival at 18 months was 61.5%, and was longer than the previous progression-free survival in 10 of the 13 patients. Overall 5-year survival was 78.8%. Despite prolonged use and relatively large cumulative doses of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, most of the patients had mild to moderate side-effects, none of the patients had detectable cardio-toxic side-effects, and a positive impact on the performance status was noticed. Thus, in our group of patients, continued pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment was associated with a longer progression-free interval and allowed improved performance status with manageable toxicity.

  11. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    SciTech Connect

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Toita, Takafumi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Niibe, Yuzuru; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Shikama, Naoto; Kenjo, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Chikako; Suzuki, Osamu; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  12. [Intraoperative radiotherapy in abdominal-pelvic cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Signor, M; Fongione, S

    1997-12-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy consists in the irradiation of the affected area, exposed using anesthesiological and laparotomic procedures, following the removal of a neoplasia using palliative or macroscopically radical surgical. This increases local tumour control and augments the selectivity of treatment between healthy and neoplastic tissues, thus obtaining a marked improvement in survival or palliation. The authors analyse the data reported in international literature regarding the possible use of intraoperative radiotherapy in patients undergoing abdomino-pelvic oncological surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate this method for use in selected and combined treatment in which surgery represents an obligatory step. Studies were carried out in a few highly specialised centres given that special technical, logistic and professional skills were required. The populations studied were often very small with a marked prevalence of feasibility studies compared to random studies. In spite of this intraoperative radiotherapy is undoubtedly indicated in locally advanced gastric, rectal and vesical neoplasia, it represents a valid palliative solution in pancreatic neoplasia and in pelvic recidivation, and an effective alternative solution to mutilating surgery in the initial stages of vesical cancer. Positive results are obtained in prostate and uterine cancer, but they are reported by non-conclusive studies. Toxicity is acceptable and non-limiting within a given range of doses and irradiated volume. The "repercussion" in terms of knowledge, experience, scientific integration between oncological surgeons and radiotherapists is basic, with a marked improved in the management of cancer treatment.

  13. Prediction model of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer and its clinical value.

    PubMed

    Sun, J R; Zhang, Y N; Sun, X M; Feng, S Y; Yan, M

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer in order to establish a prediction model for this metastasis and to explore the feasibility of conservative surgery. The records of 207 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients were retrospectivly analyzed. The risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. The prediction model for pelvic lymph node metastasis was established by logistic regression. Without preoperative adjuvant therapy, the metastatic rate of pelvic lymph node in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer was 25.1%. The serum SCCAg, the tumor diameter, the depth of cervical stroma invasion, and the cervical canal involvement were revealed as the risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis by univariate analysis (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the serum SCCAg and the depth of cervical stroma invasion were the independent risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis (P<0.05, OR = 6.917, 2.227). The patients were divided into three groups according to different independent risk factors: the low-risk group, the medium-risk group, and the high-risk group, which showed metastatic rates of pelvic lymph node of 5.7%, 16.9%, and 48.7%, respectively (P<0.001). A prediction model for pelvic lymph node metastasis was established as follows: Logti(P) = -2.534 + serum SCCAg×1.934 + depth of cervical stroma invasion×0.801. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of this prediction model were 53.8%, 83.9 %, 52.8%, 84.4%, and 76.3%, respectively. The serum SCCAg and the depth of cervical stroma invasion were the independent risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer. The proposed prediction model may help to improve the conservative surgery for early stage cervical cancer.

  14. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy affects the indications for lateral pelvic node dissection in mid/low rectal cancer with clinically suspected lateral node involvement: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Sung-Min; Lee, Soo Young; Ihn, Myoung Hun; Kim, Duck-Woo; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Jee Hyun; Chang, Tae-Young; Park, Sung-Chan; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Ji Won; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-07-01

    Although lateral pelvic node dissection (LPND) is recommended for rectal cancer with clinically metastatic lateral pelvic lymph nodes (LPNs), LPNs may respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Our aim was to determine the optimal indication for LPND after nCRT for mid/low rectal cancer. Of 2,263 patients with clinical stage II/III mid/low rectal cancer who were managed at three tertiary referral hospitals, 66 patients underwent curative surgery including LPND after nCRT were included in this study. Risk factors for LPN metastasis were retrospectively analyzed and oncologic outcomes determined according to LPN response to nCRT. Persistent LPNs greater than 5 mm on post-nCRT magnetic resonance imaging were significantly associated with residual tumor metastasis, unlike responsive LPN after nCRT (short-axis diameter ≤ 5 mm) (pathologically, 61.1 % [22 of 36] vs. 0 % [0 of 30], P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed post-nCRT LPN size as a significant and independent risk factor for LPN metastasis (odds ratio 2.390; 95 % confidence interval 1.104-4.069). Over a median follow-up of 39.3 months, the recurrence rate was lower in patients with responsive nodes than in patients with persistent nodes (20 % [6 of 30] vs. 47.2 % [17 of 36], P = 0.012). The 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival rates were lower in patients with persistent LPN than in patients with responsive LPN (44.6 % vs. 77.1 %, P = 0.034; 33.7 % vs. 72.5 %, P = 0.011, respectively). In mid/low rectal cancer with clinically metastatic LPNs, the decision to perform LPND should be based on the LPN response to nCRT.

  15. The re-construction of women's sexual lives after pelvic radiotherapy: a critique of social constructionist and biomedical perspectives on the study of female sexuality after cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    White, I D; Faithfull, S; Allan, H

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic radiotherapy creates physical effects and psychological responses that negatively affect the sexual health of women and couples, yet these sexual consequences are not frequently researched or clinically assessed. This focused ethnographic study explored factors that influence the clinical assessment of treatment-induced female sexual difficulties after pelvic radiotherapy within routine medical follow-up. Participant observation of follow-up clinics (n = 69) and in-depth interviews with 24 women, 5 partners and 20 health professionals were undertaken at two cancer centres in the South East of England from 2005 to 2006. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts resulted in five emergent themes, two of which are explored in detail within this paper. A social constructionist approach to human sexuality was used to explore representations of female sexuality in oncology follow-up constructed by clinicians, women and their partners. Yet neither social constructionist nor biomedical (the predominant model in medical follow-up) perspectives on human sexuality provided an adequate interpretation of these study findings. This paper argues that the comprehensive study and practice of sexual rehabilitation in oncology requires a synthesis of both biomedical and social constructionist perspectives in order to capture the complex, subjective and embodied nature of the female sexual response in both health and illness.

  16. [Pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer: what place for what volumes?].

    PubMed

    Chapet, O; Enachescu, C; Lorchel, F

    2013-10-01

    External beam radiotherapy alone is a standard treatment for prostate cancer. According to clinical, histological and biological characteristics of the tumour, lymph node irradiation can be done in combination with irradiation of the prostate. The completion of pelvic irradiation remains controversial and may cause complications by increasing volumes of irradiated healthy tissues. The accuracy of the delineation of lymph node becomes an important issue. This article proposes to take on the characteristics of the pelvic lymph node drainage of the prostate, to review the literature on pelvic irradiation and the definition of volumes to be irradiated.

  17. Phase III trial to confirm the superiority of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy to pelvic lymphadenectomy alone for endometrial cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study 1412 (SEPAL-P3).

    PubMed

    Watari, Hidemichi; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shibata, Taro; Ushijima, Kimio; Satoh, Toyomi; Onda, Takashi; Aoki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2017-10-01

    To prospectively investigate the survival benefit of para-aortic lymphadenectomy, we launched a new study, the JCOG1412. This is a randomized Phase III trial to confirm the superiority of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy to pelvic lymphadenectomy alone. Patients corresponding to possible FIGO Stage IB, II, IIIA, IIIB, and a part of IIIC1 are eligible for the first registration before surgery. Next, those patients without evidence of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and multiple pelvic lymph node metastasis during surgery will be included in the second registration and randomized to either the pelvic lymphadenectomy alone arm or the pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy arm. After the initial surgery, patients with post-operative recurrence risks receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints include relapse-free survival, short-term surgical outcomes, adverse events related to adjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence patterns. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm] as UMIN000025399. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna; Bandera, Elisa V; Doherty, Jennifer A; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M; Jordan, Susan J; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wicklund, Kristine G; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Edwards, Robert P; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Olson, Sara H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine M; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Risch, Harvey A; Jensen, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior and histotype. We pooled data from 13 case-control studies, conducted between 1989 and 2009, from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,162 women with ovarian cancers, 2,354 women with borderline tumors, and 14,736 control participants. Study-specific odds ratios were estimated and subsequently combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random-effects model. A history of PID was associated with an increased risk of borderline tumors (pooled odds ratio (pOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.58). Women with at least 2 episodes of PID had a 2-fold increased risk of borderline tumors (pOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.24). No association was observed between PID and ovarian cancer risk overall (pOR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.19); however, a statistically nonsignificantly increased risk of low-grade serous tumors (pOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.38) was noted. In conclusion, PID was associated with an increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors, particularly among women who had had multiple episodes of PID. Although our results indicated a histotype-specific association with PID, the association of PID with ovarian cancer risk is still somewhat uncertain and requires further investigation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of radiation therapy on the structure and function of the pelvic floor muscles of patients with cancer in the pelvic area: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphanie; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Moffet, Hélène; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2016-04-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is often recommended in the treatment of pelvic cancers. Following RT, a high prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, dyspareunia, and fecal incontinence) is reported. However, changes in pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) after RT remain unclear. The purpose of this review was to systematically document the effects of RT on the PFM structure and function in patients with cancer in the pelvic area. An electronic literature search using Pubmed Central, CINAHL, Embase, and SCOPUS was performed from date of inception up to June 2014. The following keywords were used: radiotherapy, muscle tissue, and pelvic floor. Two reviewers selected the studies in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement (PRISMA). Out of the 369 articles screened, 13 met all eligibility criteria. The methodological quality was assessed using the QualSyst scoring system, and standardized mean differences were calculated. Thirteen studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria, from which four were of good methodological quality. One presented strong evidence that RT affects PFM structure in men treated for prostate cancer. Four presented high-level evidence that RT affects PFM function in patients treated for rectal cancer. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and lack of descriptive statistics. There is some evidence that RT has detrimental impacts on both PFMs' structure and function. A better understanding of muscle damage and dysfunction following RT treatment will improve pelvic floor rehabilitation and, potentially, prevention of its detrimental impacts.

  20. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Igdem, Sefik; Alco, Guel; Ercan, Tuelay; Barlan, Metin; Ganiyusufoglu, Kuersat; Unalan, Buelent; Turkan, Sedat; Okkan, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence, predisposing factors, and clinical characteristics of insufficiency fractures (IF) in patients with prostate cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy as part of their definitive treatment. Methods and Materials: The charts of 134 prostate cancer patients, who were treated with pelvic radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. IF was diagnosed by bone scan and/or CT and/or MRI. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic IF was estimated by actuarial methods. Results: Eight patients were identified with symptomatic IF after a median follow-up period of 68 months (range, 12-116 months). The 5-year cumulative incidence of symptomatic IF was 6.8%. All patients presented with lower back pain. Insufficiency fracture developed at a median time of 20 months after the end of radiotherapy and was managed conservatively without any need for hospitalization. Three patients were thought to have metastatic disease because of increased uptake in their bone scans. However, subsequent CT and MR imaging revealed characteristic changes of IF, avoiding any further intervention. No predisposing factors for development of IF could be identified. Conclusions: Pelvic IF is a rare complication of pelvic radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Knowledge of pelvic IF is essential to rule out metastatic disease and prevent unnecessary treatment, especially in a patient cohort with high-risk features for distant spread.

  1. SU-E-T-13: A Comparative Dosimetric Study On Radio-Dynamic Therapy for Pelvic Cancer Treatment: Strategies for Bone Marrow Dose and Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C; Wang, B; Dong, Z; Ma, C; Ge, W; Xu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radio-dynamic therapy (RDT) is a potentially effective modality for local and systemic cancer treatment. Using RDT, the administration of a radio-sensitizer enhances the biological effect of high-energy photons. Although the sensitizer uptake ratio of tumor to normal tissue is normally high, one cannot simply neglect its effect on critical structures. In this study, we aim to explore planning strategies to improve bone marrow sparing without compromising the plan quality for RDT treatment of pelvic cancers. Methods: Ten cervical and ten prostate cancer patients who previously received radiotherapy at our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, nine plans were created using the Varian Eclipse treatmentplanning-system (TPS) with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT delivery techniques containing various gantry angle combinations and optimization parameters (dose constraints to the bone marrow). To evaluate the plans for bone marrow sparing, the dose-volume parameters V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, and V40 for bone marrow were examined. Effective doseenhancement factors for the sensitizer were used to weigh the dose-volume histograms for various tissues from individual fractions. Results: The planning strategies had different impacts on bone marrow sparing for the cervical and prostate cases. For the cervical cases, provided the bone marrow constraints were properly set during optimization, the dose to bone marrow sparing was found to be comparable between different IMRT and VMAT plans regardless of the gantry angle selection. For the prostate cases, however, careful selection of gantry angles could dramatically improve the bone marrow sparing, although the dose distribution in bone marrow was clinically acceptable for all prostate plans that we created. Conclusion: For intensity-modulated RDT planning for cervical cancer, planners should set bone marrow constraints properly to avoid any adverse damage, while for prostate cancer one can carefully select gantry

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved overall survival in pelvic node-positive penile cancer after lymph node dissection: a multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pranav; Djajadiningrat, Rosa; Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Catanzaro, Mario; Zhu, Yao; Nicolai, Nicola; Horenblas, Simon; Spiess, Philippe E

    2015-11-01

    We determined whether adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) would be associated with improved survival after lymph node dissection (LND) for patients with penile cancer (PeCa) who have positive pelvic lymph nodes (PPLNs). We retrospectively identified patients across 4 centers with penile squamous cell carcinoma who underwent LND from 1978 to 2013 and were found to have PPLNs. Patients who received chemotherapy before surgery or in the presence of recurrent disease were excluded. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of AC with overall survival (OS), which was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in OS were determined with the log-rank test. During the study period, 141 patients who underwent LND for PeCa had PPLNs, and 84 of them met inclusion criteria. Median number of PPLNs was 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4-7), with 10% of cases occurring bilaterally and 55% having pelvic extranodal extension. AC was used in 36 (43%) patients. Patients who received AC were younger (P = 0.014), had less-aggressive penile tumor pathology (P<0.01), were less likely to receive adjuvant radiation (P<0.01), had less bilateral inguinal disease (P = 0.019), and had more inguinal extranodal extension (P = 0.042). Median follow-up was 12.1 months. Estimated median OS was 21.7 months (IQR: 11.8-104) in patients who received AC vs. 10.1 (IQR: 5.6-48.1) in those who did not (P = 0.048). AC was independently associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.87; P = 0.021). AC is associated with improved OS in patients with PeCa who have PPLNs after LND. Prospective studies are needed to demonstrate causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Malcolm, A.W.; Bothe, A. Jr.; Valerio, D.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    A prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation was carried out in 32 patients with a primary pelvic malignancy and prior weight loss. Both curative and palliative patients were eligible for the study. Seventeen patients were randomized to receive intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) and fifteen patients served as controls who were maintained on their regular diet. Patients were stratified by percent body weight loss. Tolerance to therapy was assessed by evaluation of functional status and by using nutritional parameters of body weight change, change in serum protein levels, and response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. The curative IVH group tolerated therapy well by both functional and nutritional measurements. All curative IVH patients completed the planned radiation therapy without a treatment break and were fully active following treatment. Patients gained an average of 4.0 kg body weight during irradiation, which was significantly different from the curative control patients. They demonstrated a significant increase in serum transferrin reflecting an improvement in visceral protein. In addition, all showed a positive response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests at the completion of irradiation. The palliative IVH patients often did poorly because of progression of disease and demonstrated only an elevation of serum transferrin during treatment. The results in the curative IVH group suggest a potential adjunctive role for intravenous hyperalimentation in the malnourished cancer patient undergoing pelvic irradiation. Clearly, further study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation is needed using curative patients with a single tumor type and significant prior weight loss.

  4. Californium-252 neutron brachytherapy combined with external pelvic radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy for cervical cancer: a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shen; Ye, Ling; Tian, Yun-Hong; Wang, Li-Gen; Huang, Zuo-Ping; Li, Feng; Hou, Bing; Song, Ni; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2017-02-28

    Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Chinese women. A standard treatment modality for cervical cancer is the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, external-beam radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the long-term treatment outcomes of patients with cervical cancer who were treated with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 150 patients with primary stages IB-IVB cervical cancer who received neutron brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy concurrently with cisplatin chemotherapy. All patients were followed up. Using an actuarial analysis, patient outcomes and treatment-related adverse effects were evaluated and compared. The median overall survival (OS) was 33.2 months. The 3-year progression-free survival rates for patients with stages I-II, III, and IV diseases were 81.0% (68/84), 65.0% (39/60), and 0% (0/6), respectively; the 3-year OS rates were 90.5% (76/84), 85.0% (51/60), and 16.7% (1/6), respectively. Vaginal bleeding was controlled within the median time of 4.0 days. One month after treatment, 97.3% of patients achieved short-term local control. The local recurrence rates for patients with stages I-II, III, and IV disease were 4.8% (4/84), 11.7% (7/60), and 33.3% (2/6), respectively, and the occurrence rates of distant metastasis were 16.7% (14/84), 25.0% (15/60), and 100.0% (6/6), respectively. Cancer stage, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis were identified as prognostic risk factors, but only lymph node metastasis was found to be an independent prognostic factor. The most common adverse effects during treatment were grades 1 and 2 irradiation-related proctitis and radiocystitis. For patients with cervical cancer, neutron brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy produces a rapid response and greatly

  5. Dosimetric comparison study between intensity modulated radiation therapy and three-dimensional conformal proton therapy for pelvic bone marrow sparing in the treatment of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, William Y; Huh, Soon N; Liang, Yun; White, Greg; Nichols, R Charles; Watkins, W Tyler; Mundt, Arno J; Mell, Loren K

    2010-08-15

    The objective was to compare intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 3D conformal proton therapy (3DCPT) in the treatment of cervical cancer. In particular, each technique's ability to spare pelvic bone marrow (PBM) was of primary interest in this study. A total of six cervical cancer patients (3 postoperative and 3 intact) were planned and analyzed. All plans had uniform 1.0 cm CTV-PTV margin and satisfied the 95% PTV with 100% isodose (prescription dose = 45 Gy) coverage. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were analyzed for comparison. The overall PTV and PBM volumes were 1035.9 ± 192.2 cc and 1151.4 ± 198.3 cc, respectively. In terms of PTV dose conformity index (DCI) and dose homogeneity index (DHI), 3DCPT was slightly superior to IMRT with 1.00 ± 0.001, 1.01 ± 0.02, and 1.10 ± 0.02, 1.13 ± 0.01, respectively. In addition, 3DCPT demonstrated superiority in reducing lower doses (i.e., V30 or less) to PBM, small bowel and bladder. Particularly in PBM, average V10 and V20 reductions of 10.8% and 7.4% (p = 0.001 and 0.04), respectively, were observed. However, in the higher dose range, IMRT provided better sparing (> V30). For example, in small bowel and PBM, average reductions in V45 of 4.9% and 10.0% (p = 0.048 and 0.008), respectively, were observed. Due to its physical characteristics such as low entrance dose, spread-out Bragg peak and finite particle range of protons, 3DCPT illustrated superior target coverage uniformity and sparing of the lower doses in PBM and other organs. Further studies are, however, needed to fully exploit the benefits of protons for general use in cervical cancer.

  6. Extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and use of adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy for early-stage endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Ragab, Omar M; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Pham, Huyen Q; Roman, Lynda D

    2017-03-01

    To examine trends of adjuvant radiotherapy choice and to examine associations between pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy choice for women with early-stage endometrial cancer. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify surgically treated stage I-II endometrial cancer between 1983 and 2012 (type 1 n=79,474, and type 2 n=25,020). Piecewise linear regression models were used to examine temporal trends of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) use, pelvic lymphadenectomy rate, and sampled node counts. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors for ICBT use. There was a significant increase in ICBT use and decrease in WPRT use during the study period. ICBT use exceeded WPRT use in 2003 for type 1 stage IA, and in 2007 for type 1 stage IB and type 2 stage IA diseases. In addition, number of sampled pelvic nodes significantly increased over time in type 1-2 stage I-II diseases (mean, 7.0-12.7 in 1988 to 15.2-17.6 in 2012, all P<0.001). On multivariable analysis, extent of sampled pelvic nodes was significantly associated with ICBT use for type 1 cancer: adjusted-odds ratios for 1-10 and >10 nodes versus no lymphadenectomy in stage IA (1.38/2.40), IB (2.75/6.32), and II (1.36/2.91) diseases. Similar trends were observed for type 2 cancer: adjusted-odds ratios for stage IA (1.69/3.73), IB (2.25/5.65), and II (1.36/2.19) diseases. Our results suggest that surgeons and radiation oncologists are evaluating the extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy when counseling women with early-stage endometrial cancer for adjuvant radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix: pattern of cancer recurrence in patients undergoing elective radiation following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A.H.; Tong, D.Y.; Figge, D.C.; Tamimi, H.K.; Greer, B.E.; Elder, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thirty-seven patients with invasive cervical cancer have been referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients at high-risk for tumor recurrence were selected for adjuvant pelvic irradiation because of adverse risk factors identified on pathological study of the hysterectomy specimen. All patients were treated because of possible residual, microscopic carcinoma. Fourteen patients (38%) developed recurrent cancer, of whom 10 (27%) manifested initial failure within the irradiated volume. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  8. Complications of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Arduino, S; Leo, L; Febo, G; Tessarolo, M; Wierdis, T; Lanza, A

    1997-01-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) changed the staging criteria for endometrial cancer in 1988 and adopted a surgical-pathological staging involving also pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. A total of 236 patients were treated for endometrial adenocarcinoma at Department B of the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Institute, University of Turin, between January 1976 and December 1995. Our protocol for surgical staging always entails pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and a simple total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy with removal of the upper third of the vagina. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective evaluation of the morbidity in patients with endometrial cancer after surgical treatment, either TAH-BSO alone or TAH-BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

  9. How important is the number of pelvic lymph node retrieved to locorregional staging of cervix cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Bezerra, Artur Lício Rocha; Martins, Mário Rino; Carneiro, Vandré Cabral Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To explore how important is the number of pelvic lymph nodes dissected for the nodal staging in FIGO IA2-IB2 cervical cancer, submitted to radical surgical treatment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients who underwent Piver class II radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, in two centers in the state of Pernambuco, from January, 2001 to December, 2008. The analysis of the area under the ROC curve was adopted as a summary-measure of discriminatory power of the number of nodes dissected in predicting the pelvic nodal status. Additionally, we also confirm our findings using logistic regression and the Fisher's exact test. Results: The postoperative pathological study included 662 pelvic lymph nodes dissected (median per-patient=9, q25=6 − q75=13) from 69 patients. The ROC curve analysis revealed AUC=0.642, for the discriminatory value of the number of nodes dissected in predicting the pelvic nodal status. Similar findings were found after categorization using 10 and 15 lymph nodes as cut-offs (AUC=0.605 and 0.526, respectively). Logistic regression revealed odds ratio of 0.912 (95% CI=0.805-1.032; p=0.125) for the predictive value of the number of nodes dissected, and a number of nodes ≥10 or ≥15 lymph nodes was not significantly associated with the nodal status by the Fischer's exact test (p=0.224 and p=0.699, respectively). Conclusion: The number of pelvic lymph nodes dissected did not correlate with pelvic lymph node metastatic involvement. This study suggests that dissection of a greater number of lymph nodes does not increase locoregional nodal staging in cervical cancer. PMID:24488383

  10. Dosimetric planning study for the prevention of anal complications after post-operative whole pelvic radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Baek, J G; Kim, E C; Kim, S K; Jang, H

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced anal toxicity can be induced by low radiation doses in patients with haemorrhoids. The object of this study was to determine the dosimetric benefits of different whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) techniques in terms of dose delivered to the anal canal in post-operative patients with cervical cancer. The planning CT images of 10 patients with cervical cancer undergoing postoperative radiotherapy were used for comparison of three different plans. All patients had been treated using the conventional box technique WPRT (CV-WPRT), and we tried low-margin-modified WPRT (LM-WPRT), three-dimensional conformal techniques WPRT (CF-WPRT) and intensity-modulated WPRT (IM-WPRT) planning for dosimetric comparison of the anal canal, retrospectively. Mean anal canal doses of the IM-WPRT were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of CV-WPRT, LM-WPRT and CF-WPRT, and V10, V20, V30 and V40 to the anal canal were also significantly lower for IM-WPRT (p < 0.05). The proportion of planning target volumes (PTVs) that received ≥98% of the prescribed dose for all plans was >99%, and the proportion that received ≥108% of the prescribed dose for IM-WPRT was <2%. Volumes of bladders and rectums that received ≥30 or ≥40 Gy were significantly lower for IM-WPRT than for three of the four-field WPRT plans (p = 0.000). IM-WPRT can significantly reduce radiation dose delivered to the anal canal and does not compromise PTV coverage. In patients with haemorrhoids, IM-WPRT may be of value for the prevention of anal complications. Although tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients undergoing post-operative WPRT, patients with haemorrhoids may suffer complications at low radiation doses. The present study shows IM-WPRT can be meaningful in these patients.

  11. [Radiotherapy in pelvic recurrences of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Morganti, A G; Santoni, R; Osti, M F

    2001-01-01

    Patients with locally recurrent rectal carcinoma have an unfavourable prognosis for the high incidence of distant metastases, the infrequent feasibility of radical surgical resection, and, in these last cases, the high incidence of re-recurrences. Based on the low resectability rate of pelvic recurrences, the clear impact of tumor diameter on resectability and outcome, and the documented possibility to achieve a significant tumor downstaging and downsizing with the use of concurrent chemoradiation, it is evident that the most promising treatment several authors have considered concurrent chemoradiation followed, if feasible, by radical resection. Furthermore, based on the high local and distant failure rate after surgery, the utilization of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and adjuvant chemotherapy seems justified. Some published comparisons between patients treated with and without IORT seems to suggest the possible improvement in both local control and survival in these patients. Particularly interesting issues in this field are: 1) the definition of the most effective treatment modality (both in terms of radiation dose, fractionation and techniques, and drugs to be used concurrently to radiotherapy); 2) the analysis of the prognostic impact of several factors, with the aim of designing and validating staging systems of local rectal recurrences; 3) the possibility to treat with relatively high doses also patients previously irradiated on the pelvis.

  12. [Experience with radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of unresectable pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Fehér, István; Péley, Gábor; Rényi Vámos, Ferenc; Farkas, Emil; Sulyok, Zoltán; Kovács, Tibor; Köves, István

    2005-02-01

    More than half of colorectal cancers are located in the rectum, and the number of such cancers is increasing. In Hungary colorectal cancers are diagnosed predominantly in advanced stages. In the last five years 736 patients with colorectal cancer were operated on at our Department, with the following stage distribution: Dukes A 10%, BI 10%, B2 31%, C 36% and D 13%. The local recurrence rate is decreasing since the introduction of total mesorectal excision and preoperative radiation. Effective treatment options are however poor for unresectable pelvic recurrences. Chemo- and radiotherapy have severe limitations in this advanced stage cancer. In recent years there are a few publications on the minimal-invasive radiofrequency tumour ablation (RFTA) technique, which is an effective treatment for primary and metastatic liver carcinomas and is a new palliative for the local treatment of pelvic recurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the response to treatment using ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation in two patients with unresectable pelvic recurrent rectal cancer.

  13. Correction of Pelvic Tilt and Pelvic Rotation in Cup Measurement after THA - An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Timo Julian; Weber, Markus; Dornia, Christian; Worlicek, Michael; Renkawitz, Tobias; Grifka, Joachim; Craiovan, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    after THA. · Cup anteversion and inclination should be referenced to the pelvis. · Radiological measurement errors of cup position may be reduced by mathematical concepts. Citation Format · Schwarz TJ, Weber M, Dornia C et al. Correction of Pelvic Tilt and Pelvic Rotation in Cup Measurement after THA - An Experimental Study. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 864 - 873. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Primary vaginal reconstruction at the time of pelvic exenteration for gynecologic cancer: morbidity revisited.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Matías; Bazán, Antonio; Alcázar, Juan Luis; Garcia-Tutor, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze our experience about the benefits and morbidity of primary vaginal reconstruction in pelvic exenteration. Over a 10-year period, 64 patients underwent a pelvic exenteration for gynecologic cancer, except for ovarian and fallopian cancer. Twenty-nine patients underwent pelvic exenteration with vaginal reconstruction [21 cases with transverse rectus-abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap and eight cases with Singapore fascio-cutaneous flap]. Thirty-five patients did not undergo vaginal reconstruction. Postoperative morbidity was recorded and a comparative analysis of morbidity between groups was made. Pelvic abscess and small bowel fistula occurred more frequently in the no neovagina group (20% versus 6.9% and 20% versus 3.4%, respectively). There were no differences between groups regarding fever, colorectal anastomosis (CRA) dehiscence-leakage, prolonged ileus, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or wound complications. Surgery time was significantly longer for the neovagina group. There was only one perioperative death, which occurred in the neovagina group. Vaginal stenosis, necrosis, and shortness occurred less frequently for TRAM flap compared with Singapore flap (19.0% versus 28.6%, 14.5% versus 50% and 0% versus 100%, respectively). CRA dehiscence-leakage appeared more frequently (83.3% versus 28.6%) in the Singapore group. Nevertheless, this complication was statistically associated (p = 0.0009) with low CRA (<5 cm). TRAM flap seems to be the preferable option for reconstructing the vagina after pelvic exenteration. The Singapore fascio-cutaneous flap carries a higher rate of complications, does not work as functional neovagina after pelvic exenteration, and does not seem to be a good choice in cases of low colorectal anastomosis.

  15. Dosimetric planning study for the prevention of anal complications after post-operative whole pelvic radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Baek, J G; Kim, E C; Kim, S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Radiation-induced anal toxicity can be induced by low radiation doses in patients with haemorrhoids. The object of this study was to determine the dosimetric benefits of different whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) techniques in terms of dose delivered to the anal canal in post-operative patients with cervical cancer. Methods: The planning CT images of 10 patients with cervical cancer undergoing postoperative radiotherapy were used for comparison of three different plans. All patients had been treated using the conventional box technique WPRT (CV-WPRT), and we tried low-margin-modified WPRT (LM-WPRT), three-dimensional conformal techniques WPRT (CF-WPRT) and intensity-modulated WPRT (IM-WPRT) planning for dosimetric comparison of the anal canal, retrospectively. Results: Mean anal canal doses of the IM-WPRT were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of CV-WPRT, LM-WPRT and CF-WPRT, and V10, V20, V30 and V40 to the anal canal were also significantly lower for IM-WPRT (p < 0.05). The proportion of planning target volumes (PTVs) that received ≥98% of the prescribed dose for all plans was >99%, and the proportion that received ≥108% of the prescribed dose for IM-WPRT was <2%. Volumes of bladders and rectums that received ≥30 or ≥40 Gy were significantly lower for IM-WPRT than for three of the four-field WPRT plans (p = 0.000). Conclusion: IM-WPRT can significantly reduce radiation dose delivered to the anal canal and does not compromise PTV coverage. In patients with haemorrhoids, IM-WPRT may be of value for the prevention of anal complications. Advances in knowledge: Although tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients undergoing post-operative WPRT, patients with haemorrhoids may suffer complications at low radiation doses. The present study shows IM-WPRT can be meaningful in these patients. PMID:26395671

  16. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  17. External beam boost irradiation for clinically positive pelvic nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Takuro; Toita, Takafumi; Kasuya, Goro; Nagai, Yutaka; Inamine, Morihiko; Kudaka, Wataru; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Aoki, Youichi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the treatment results of boost external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to clinically positive pelvic nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer. The study population comprised 174 patients with FIGO stages 1B1–4A cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT). Patients with positive para-aortic or common iliac nodes (≥10 mm in the shortest diameter, as evaluated by CT/MRI) were ineligible for the study. Fifty-seven patients (33%) had clinically positive pelvic nodes. The median maximum diameter of the nodes was 15 mm (range, 10–60 mm) and the median number of positive lymph nodes was two (range, one to four). Fifty-two of 57 patients (91%) with positive nodes were treated with boost EBRT (6–10 Gy in three to five fractions). The median prescribed dose of EBRT for nodes was 56 Gy. The median follow-up time for all patients was 66 months (range, 3–142 months). The 5-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate and pelvic control rate for patients with positive and negative nodes were 73% and 92% (P = 0.001), 58% and 84% (P < 0.001), and 83% and 92% (P = 0.082), respectively. Five of 57 node-positive patients (9%) developed pelvic node recurrences. All five patients with nodal failure had concomitant cervical failure and/or distant metastases. No significant difference was observed with respect to the incidence or severity of late complications by application of boost EBRT. The current retrospective study demonstrated that boost EBRT to positive pelvic nodes achieves favorable nodal control without increasing late complications. PMID:23365264

  18. Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor disorders after radiation therapy in endometrial cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Segal, Saya; John, Gabriella; Sammel, Mary; Andy, Uduak Umoh; Chu, Christina; Arya, Lily A; Brown, Justin; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-03-18

    To investigate radiation therapy as a risk factor for urinary or fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction in endometrial cancer survivors. We performed a retrospective cohort study of endometrial cancer survivors. Data were collected using a mailed survey and the medical record. Validated questionnaires were used to generate rates of urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor disorders. The incidence rates of pelvic floor disorders were compared across groups with different exposures to radiation. Of the 149 endometrial cancer survivors, 41% received radiation therapy. Fifty-one percent of women reported urine leakage. The rates of urinary incontinence in women exposed and not exposed to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) or whole-pelvis radiation were 48% and 58%, respectively (p=0.47). The incidence of fecal incontinence did not differ between groups, but the score for overall sexual function was significantly higher in women who did not undergo radiation therapy. On multivariable analysis, significant risk factors for urinary incontinence were age (AOR 1.06 95% CI 1.02, 1.10) and BMI (AOR 1.07 95% CI 1.02, 1.11), but treatment with radiation was not significantly associated with urinary incontinence, or fecal incontinence (p>0.05). Age, BMI, and radiation exposure were independent predictors of decreased sexual function score (p<0.01). Local or regional radiation is not associated with urinary or fecal incontinence, but may contribute to sexual dysfunction in endometrial cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Follow-Up of Preoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy and Concomitant Boost Irradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Multi-Institutional Phase II Study (KROG 04-01)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Taek-Keun; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Lee, Doo Seok; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Chang, Hee Jin; Yoon, Mee Sun; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Jang, Hong Seok

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a prospective phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant small-field boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, mid-to-lower rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. They had received preoperative chemoradiation therapy and total mesorectal excision. Pelvic radiation therapy of 43.2 Gy in 24 fractions plus concomitant boost radiation therapy of 7.2 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the pelvis and tumor bed for 5 weeks. Two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered for 3 days in the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The pathologic response, survival outcome, and treatment toxicity were evaluated for the study endpoints. Results: Of 69 patients, 8 (11.6%) had a pathologically complete response. Downstaging rates were 40.5% for T classification and 68.1% for N classification. At the median follow-up of 69 months, 36 patients have been followed up for more than 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 66.0% and 75.3%, respectively. Higher pathologic T (P = .045) and N (P = .032) classification were significant adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and high-grade histology was an adverse prognostic factor for both DFS (P = .025) and overall survival (P = .031) on the multivariate analysis. Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity, and 7 patients (10.1%) had long-term toxicity. Conclusion: Preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks showed acceptable acute and long-term toxicities. However, the benefit of concomitant small-field boost irradiation for 5 weeks in rectal cancer patients was not demonstrated beyond conventional irradiation for 6 weeks in terms of tumor response and

  20. The important risk factor for lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis of lower rectal cancer is node-positive status on magnetic resonance imaging: study of the Lymph Node Committee of Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shimpei; Hida, Jin-Ichi; Ike, Hideyuki; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Shinto, Eiji; Itabashi, Michio; Okamoto, Takahiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2016-10-01

    This study seeks to evaluate lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) and perirectal lymph node (PRLN) status on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis. The subjects were 394 patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent MRI prior to mesorectal excision (combined with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection in 272 patients) at 6 institutes. No patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Cases were classified as cN(+) and cN(-) based on the short axis of the largest lymph node ≥5 and <5 mm, respectively. LPLN and PRLN status and other clinicopathologic factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. The importance of identified risk factors for lymph node metastasis was examined using the area under the curve (AUC). Independent risk factors for right LPLN metastasis included histopathological grade (G3 + G4), pPRLN(+), M1, cLPLN(+) [odds ratio (OR) 10.73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.59-27.1], and those for left LPLN metastasis were age (<64), histopathological grade (G3 + G4), pPRLN(+), and cLPLN(+) (OR 24.53, 95 % CI 9.16-77.7). ORs for cLPLN(+) were highest. The AUCs for right and left cLPLN status of 0.7484 (95 % CI 0.6672-0.8153) and 0.7904 (95 % CI 0.7088-0.8538), respectively, were significantly higher than those for other risk factors. In contrast, the ORs for cPRLN(+) and cPRLN status of 2.46 (95 % CI 1.47-4.18) and 0.6396 (95 % CI 0.5917-0.6848) were not much higher than for other factors. An LPLN-positive status with a short axis ≥5 mm on MRI is an important predictor of LPLN metastasis, but PRLN status is not a strong predictor of PRLN metastasis.

  1. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Shida, Dai; Nasu, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Warabi, Masahiro; Inoue, Satoru

    2012-10-14

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, metastases to the penis are a rare event. A 57-year-old male, who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier, demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia. No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion. Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer. A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7, which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum. The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  2. Radiation alone in the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix: Analysis of pelvic failure and dose response relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.Y.; Trotti, A.; Wu, C.J.; Soong, S.J.; Salter, M.M. )

    1989-11-01

    This retrospective analysis involves 569 patients with invasive cancer of the uterine cervix treated with irradiation alone between 1969 and 1980. Treatment consisted of external and intracavitary irradiation and treatment policy remained consistent throughout the study interval. In early stage disease (FIGO IA, IB, and IIA), pelvic failure was 4.6%, 11.2%, and 8.2%, respectively. In late stage disease (FIGO IIB, III, and IVA), pelvic failure was 30.1%, 52.3%, and 69.2%, respectively. Further analysis revealed that total dose at point A is well correlated with pelvic control. An aggressive treatment is crucial in late stage disease in determining the probability of pelvic tumor control and survival. Methods of dose prescription, dose-response relationships, treatment philosophy and its therapeutic implications are discussed.

  3. Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cancer of the Cervix: Is What You Plan Actually What You Deliver?

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Karen; Kelly, Valerie; Stewart, James; Xie, Jason; Cho, Young-Bin; Moseley, Joanne B.; Brock, Kristy; Fyles, Anthony; Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Milosevic, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used to treat cervix cancer and other gynecologic tumors. However, tumor and normal organ movement during treatment can substantially detract from the benefits of this approach. This study explored the effect of internal anatomic changes on the dose delivered to the tumor and organs at risk using a strategy integrating deformable soft-tissue modeling with simulated dose accumulation. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with cervix cancer underwent baseline and weekly pelvic magnetic resonance imaging during treatment. Interfraction organ motion and delivered (accumulated) dose was modeled for three treatment scenarios: four-field box, large-margin whole pelvic IMRT (20-mm planning target volume, but 10 mm inferiorly) and small-margin IMRT (5-mm planning target volume). Results: Individually, the planned dose was not the same as the simulated delivered dose; however, when taken as a group, this was not statistically significant for the four-field box and large-margin IMRT plans. The small-margin IMRT plans yielded adequate target coverage in most patients; however, significant target underdosing occurred in 1 patient who displayed excessive, unpredictable internal target movement. The delivered doses to the organs at risk were significantly reduced with the small-margin plan, although substantial variability was present among the patients. Conclusion: Simulated dose accumulation might provide a more accurate depiction of the target and organ at risk coverage during fractionated whole pelvic IMRT for cervical cancer. The adequacy of primary tumor coverage using 5-mm planning target volume margins is contingent on the use of daily image-guided setup.

  4. Vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates based on vaginal cuff length in patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Cho, S Y; Park, S I; Kim, B J; Kim, M H; Choi, S C; Ryu, S Y; Lee, E D

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of vaginal cuff length (VCL) with vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates in patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies. The clinicopathologic characteristics were collected from the medical records of 280 patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies. The association of VCL with 3-year vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates was determined using a Z-test. The association of VCL with other clinicopathologic characteristics was also determined. The VCL was not associated with 3-year vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates. The 3-year vaginal recurrence rate was 0%-2% and the 3-year pelvic recurrence rate was 7%-8%, independent of VCL. The VCL and the age of patients had an inverse relationship. However, the VCL was not associated with histologic type, FIGO stage, clinical tumor size, tumor size in the surgical specimen, depth of invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, parametrial involvement, lymph node involvement, and adjuvant therapy. One-hundred ninety of 280 patients (68%) underwent adjuvant therapies following radical hysterectomies. Although it is limited by the high rate of adjuvant therapy, the current study suggested that the VCL following radical hysterectomy in patients with cervical cancer was not associated with vaginal and pelvic recurrence rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in abandoned radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Barquet-Muñoz, Salim Abraham; Rendón-Pereira, Gabriel Jaime; Acuña-González, Denise; Peñate, Monica Vanessa Heymann; Herrera-Montalvo, Luis Alonso; Gallardo-Alvarado, Lenny Nadia; Cantú-de León, David Francisco; Pareja, René

    2017-01-14

    Cervical cancer (CC) occupies fourth place in cancer incidence and mortality worldwide in women, with 560,505 new cases and 284,923 deaths per year. Approximately, nine of every ten (87%) take place in developing countries. When a macroscopic nodal involvement is discovered during a radical hysterectomy (RH), there is controversy in the literature between resect macroscopic lymph node compromise or abandonment of the surgery and sending the patient for standard chemo-radiotherapy treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the prognosis of patients with CC whom RH was abandoned and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed with that of patients who were only biopsied or with removal of a suspicious lymph node, treated with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy in the standard manner. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in two institutions from Mexico and Colombia. Clinical records of patients with early-stage CC programmed for RH with an intraoperative finding of pelvic lymph, para-aortic nodes, or any extracervical involvement that contraindicates the continuation of surgery were obtained. Between January 2007 and December 2012, 42 clinical patients complied with study inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. In patients with CC whom RH was abandoned due to lymph node affectation, there is no difference in overall survival or in disease-free period between systematic lymphadenectomy and tumor removal or lymph node biopsy, in pelvic lymph nodes as well as in para-aortic lymph nodes, when these patients receive adjuvant treatment with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy. This is a hypothesis-generator study; thus, the recommendation is made to conduct randomized prospective studies to procure better knowledge on the impact of bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy on this group of patients.

  6. Surgical and obstetrical outcomes after laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, So-Eun; So, Kyeong A; Kim, Seon-Ah; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and obstetrical outcomes of patients with early cervical cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods We analyzed data from women who underwent laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy between July 2000 and October 2014. Results Of a total of 12 patients, 91.7% were FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stages IA2 and IB1. Seven patients (58.3%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 1.87 cm (range, focal to 4.6 cm) and two patients (16.7%) had a tumor lager than 2 cm. Lymphovascular space invasion in the tumor lesion was reported in six patients (50%). The following surgical complications were observed: neurogenic bladder (one patient), hemoperitoneum (one patient), and infection (one patient). A total of 33.3% had attempted to conceive, resulting in two pregnancies and two healthy babies. All pregnancies were achieved by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Each woman underwent cesarean delivery because of premature pre-labor rupture of membranes at gestational weeks 27.3 and 33.3. After a median follow-up time of 4.4 years (range, 1 to 8 years), there were no recurrences or deaths. Conclusion Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy should be offered as an alternative treatment for women with early stage cervical cancer who want to preserve their fertility. PMID:27668200

  7. Neoadjuvant Treatment With Single-Agent Cetuximab Followed by 5-FU, Cetuximab, and Pelvic Radiotherapy: A Phase II Study in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, Federica Chiara, Silvana; Bengala, Carmelo; Antognoni, Paolo; Dealis, Cristina; Zironi, Sandra; Malavasi, Norma; Scolaro, Tindaro; Depenni, Roberta; Jovic, Gordana; Sonaglio, Claudia; Rossi, Aldo; Luppi, Gabriele; Conte, Pier Franco

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery represents the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Cetuximab has proved activity in advanced colorectal cancer, and its incorporation in preoperative treatment may increase tumor downstaging. Methods and Materials: After biopsy and staging, uT3/uT4 N0/+ LARC received single-agent cetuximab in three doses, followed by weekly cetuximab plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), concomitantly with RT. Sample size was calculated according to Bryant and Day test, a two-stage design with at least 10 pathologic complete remissions observed in 60 patients (pts) able to complete the treatment plan. Results: Forty pts with LARC were entered: male/female = 34/6; median age: 61 (range, 28-77); 12 uT3N0 Ed(30%); 25 uT3N1 (62%); 3 uT4N1 (8%); all Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group = 0. Thirty-five pts completed neoadjuvant treatment; 5 (12%) withdrew therapy after one cetuximab administration: three for hypersensitivity reactions, one for rapid progression, and one for purulent arthritis. They continued 5-FU in continuous infusion in association with RT. Thirty-one pts (77%) presented with acnelike rash; dose reduction/interruption of treatment was necessary in six pts (15%): two for Grade 3 acnelike rash, two for Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity, and two for refusal. Thirty-eight pts were evaluable for pathological response (one patient refused surgery, and one was progressed during neoadjuvant treatment). Pathological staging was: pT0N0 three pts (8%), pT1N0 1 pt (3%); pT2N0 13 pts (34%), and pT3 19 pts (50%) (N0:9, N1:5; N2:5); pT4 2 pts (5%). Conclusions: Preoperative treatment with 5-FU, cetuximab, and pelvic RT is feasible with acceptable toxicities; however, the rate of pathologic responses is disappointingly low.

  8. Phase 2 Study of (99m)Tc-Trofolastat SPECT/CT to Identify and Localize Prostate Cancer in Intermediate- and High-Risk Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy and Extended Pelvic LN Dissection.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Karolien E; Joniau, Steven; Tenke, Peter; Slawin, Kevin; Klein, Eric A; Stambler, Nancy; Strack, Thomas; Babich, John; Armor, Thomas; Wong, Vivien

    2017-09-01

    (99m)Tc-trofolastat ((99m)Tc-MIP-1404), a small-molecule inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen, shows high potential to detect prostate cancer (PCa) noninvasively using SPECT. We therefore wanted to assess the performance of (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT in a phase 2 multicenter, multireader prospective study in patients with intermediate- and high-grade PCa, before radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node (LN) dissection, with histopathology as the gold standard. Methods: PCa patients (n = 105) with an increased risk of LN involvement (LNI) underwent pelvic (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT before radical prostatectomy with extended pelvic LN dissection. The sensitivity of (99m)Tc-trofolastat for detection of PCa on a patient and lobe basis, using visual and semiquantitative (tumor-to-background ratio [TBR]) scores, and of LNI was evaluated as well as the correlation of uptake within the gland to Gleason scores (GS) and assessment of the predictive potential of (99m)Tc-trofolastat uptake for LNI. Results: PCa was detected in 98 patients (94%) with acceptable variability between readers. There was a significantly higher visual score and TBR in positive lobes compared with tumor-negative lobes. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that visual scores more accurately discriminated lobes with GS ≤ 3 + 3 from ≥ 3 + 4, whereas TBRs discriminated high-grade disease from normal lobes better. Visual scores and TBRs correlated significantly with GS. (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT detected LNI with a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 87%, and TBR values significantly predicted LNI with a sensitivity of 90%. Conclusion:(99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT detects PCa with high sensitivity in patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa compared with histology. It has the potential to be used as a surrogate marker for GS and predict LNI. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Prediction of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis from lower rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging and risk factors for metastasis: Multicenter study of the Lymph Node Committee of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shimpei; Hida, Jin-Ichi; Ike, Hideyuki; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Shinto, Eiji; Itabashi, Michio; Okamoto, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Sugihara, Kenichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-07-31

    The goal of the study was to examine prediction of lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) metastasis from lower rectal cancer using a logistic model including risk factors for LPLN metastasis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clinical LPLN (cLPLN) status, compared to prediction based on MRI alone. The subjects were 272 patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent MRI prior to mesorectal excision combined with LPLN dissection (LPLD) at six institutes. No patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Prediction models for right and left pathological LPLN (pLPLN) metastasis were developed using cLPLN status, histopathological grade, and perirectal lymph node (PRLN) status. For evaluation, data for patients with left LPLD were substituted into the right-side equation and vice versa. Left LPLN metastasis was predicted using the right-side model with accuracy of 86.5%, sensitivity 56.4%, specificity 92.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 61.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 91.2%, while these data using MRI cLPLN status alone were 80.4, 76.9, 81.2, 45.5, and 94.5%, respectively. Similarly, right LPLN metastasis was predicted using the left-side equation with accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity 57.8%, specificity 90.4%, PPV 60.5%, and NPV 89.4%, and the equivalent data using MRI alone were 78.4, 68.9, 80.8, 47.7, and 91.1%, respectively. The AUCs for the right- and left-side equations were significantly higher than the equivalent AUCs for MRI cLPLN status alone. A logistic model including risk factors for LPLN metastasis and MRI findings had significantly better performance for prediction of LPLN metastasis compared with a model based on MRI findings alone.

  10. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M.; Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  11. Total parietal peritonectomy with en bloc pelvic resection for advanced ovarian cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Bristow, Robert E; Chang, Suk-Joon

    2016-12-01

    The majority of advanced ovarian cancer patients have peritoneal carcinomatosis involving from the pelvis to upper abdomen, which is a major obstacle to optimal cytoreduction. Since total parietal peritonectomy was introduced for treating peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer [3], similar surgical techniques including pelvic peritonectomy have been applied in advanced ovarian cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis [1], and these can increase the rate of complete cytoreduction up to 60% [2]. However, there are few reports on total parietal peritonectomy for ovarian cancer patients. In this surgical film, we showed total parietal peritonectomy with en bloc pelvic resection for treating advanced ovarian cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis. A 43years-old woman was diagnosed with high-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary after right adnexectomy. Computed tomography demonstrated subdiaphragmatic involvements, omental cake, lymph node metastases and huge pelvic mass infiltrating the uterus, cul-de-sac, and pelvic peritoneum. Primary debulking surgery was considered because of a high likelihood for complete cytoreduction. First, the whole abdomen and pelvis were adequately exposed and the visceral organs thoroughly mobilized. Then, the parietal peritoneum was dissected from the subdiaphragmatic, paracolic and pelvic areas. Tumor-infiltrated visceral organs such as the uterus, adnexae, rectosigmoid colon and cul-de-sac were resected en bloc with the parietal peritoneum (Fig. 1). Total parietal peritonecotmy with en bloc pelvic resection is a feasible procedure for removing peritoneal metastasis in advanced ovarian cancer patients, which contributes to optimal cytoreduction improving prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does initial 45Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduce late complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? A cohort control study using definitive chemoradiotherapy with high-dose rate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chien, Chun-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing initial 45 Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and non-IMRT in terms of the late toxicities associated with advanced cervical cancer that has also been treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB). Patients and methods This retrospective study included 320 stage IB2-IIIB cervical cancer patients treated with CCRT (83 IMRT and 237 non-IMRT). The two groups had similar stage and HDRICB ratings. Following 45 Gy to the pelvis, HDRICB of 24 Gy in four courses was prescribed. Late toxicities, including rectal complications (RC), bladder complications (BC) and non-rectal intestinal injury (NRRII), were scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the complications. Results With a median follow-up duration of 33 and 77 months for IMRT and non-IMRT, 33 patients had Grade 2 or higher late RC (7.2% IMRT, 11.4% non-IMRT), whereas that for BC was 40 (9.6% IMRT, 13.5% non-IMRT) and for NRRII was 48 (12.0% IMRT, 16.0% non-IMRT). The cumulative rate for total grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities was 8.4% and 11.8% (p = 0.33). IMRT did not reduce the OR for all endpoints; however, the ORs for rectum and bladder reference doses to Point A were associated with RC and BC. Conclusions Locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with initial 45Gy of pelvic IMRT and HDRICB have similar treatment-related late toxicities as those treated with non-IMRT. Optimization of the brachytherapy scheme is essential to minimize late toxicities. PMID:23801915

  13. Factors for predicting rectal dose of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy after pelvic irradiation in patients with cervical cancer: a retrospective study with radiography-based dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Wang, Chong-Jong; Lan, Jen-Hong; Chen, Hui-Chun; Fang, Fu-Min; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD. Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1) Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors for Predicting Rectal Dose of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy After Pelvic Irradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study With Radiography-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Engyen; Wang Chongjong; Lan Jenhong; Chen Huichun; Fang Fumin; Hsu, H.-C.; Huang Yujie; Wang Changyu; Wang Yuming

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD. Results: Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1) Conclusion: Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT.

  15. Male urinary and sexual function after robotic pelvic autonomic nerve-preserving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Zhiming; Jiang, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Jieshou

    2017-03-01

    Urinary and sexual dysfunction is the potential complication of rectal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and sexual function in male patients with robotic surgery for rectal cancer. This prospective study included 137 of the 336 male patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer. Urinary and male sexual function was studied by means of a questionnaire based on the International Prostatic Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function. All data were collected before surgery and 12 months after surgery. Patients who underwent robotic surgery had significantly decreased incidence of partial or complete erectile dysfunction and sexual dysfunction than patients with laparoscopic surgery. The pre- and post-operative total IPSS scores in patients with robotic surgery were significantly less than that with laparoscopic surgeries. Robotic surgery shows distinct advantages in protecting the pelvic autonomic nerves and relieving post-operative sexual dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Study the Impact of Pretreatment FDG-PET for Cervical Cancer Patients With MRI-Detected Positive Pelvic but Negative Para-Aortic Lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-S.; Lai, C.-H.; Chang, T.-C.; Yen, T.-C.; Ng, K.-K.; Hsueh Swei; Lee, Steve P.; Hong, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: This prospective randomized study was undertaken to determine the possible impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on extrapelvic metastasis detection, radiation field design, and survival outcome for cervical cancer patients with enlarged pelvic nodes on MRI image. Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were patients with newly diagnosed Stage I-IVA cervical cancer and with positive pelvic but negative para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) as detected by magnetic resonance image and good performance status for concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eligible patients were randomized to receive either pretreatment FDG-PET (study group) or not (control group). Whole pelvis was the standard irradiation field for the control group and those with no extrapelvic findings on PET. The radiation fields for the rest of the study group were extended to include the PALN region or were modified according to the extrapelvic PET finding. Results: From January 2002 to April 2006, 129 patients were included, and 66 of them were randomized to receive FDG-PET. PET detected seven extrapelvic metastases (11%, 6 PALN and 1 omental node), and four of them remained disease-free after treatment modification. For patients who underwent PET compared with those who did not, there were no differences in the 4-year rates of overall survival (79% vs. 85%, p = 0.65), disease-free survival (75% vs. 77%, p = 0.64), and distant metastasis-free survival (82% vs. 78%, p = 0.83). Conclusions: Pretreatment FDG-PET in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging can improve the detection of extrapelvic metastasis, mainly PALN, and help select patients for extended-field radiotherapy. However, the addition of FDG-PET may not translate into survival benefit, even though PALN relapses are reduced.

  17. Pelvic reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection: a pilot study using an absorbable synthetic prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sanz, C; Manzanera-Díaz, M; Cortina-Oliva, F J; de Pedro-Conal, J; Clerveus, M; Picazo-Yeste, J

    2011-12-01

    Abdominoperineal resection (APR) is not free of complications, in particular complications due to the occupation of the pelvis by the small bowel after surgery. A number of surgical techniques have been described to prevent the small bowel from entering and adhering to the pelvis (pelvic partition), but there is no agreement concerning their use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of using an absorbable synthetic prosthetic material for pelvic partitioning after APR. A prospective non-randomised longitudinal pilot study was carried out on a series of 10 patients who underwent APR due to lower-third rectal cancer, in order to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of pelvic partitioning with an absorbable synthetic prosthetic material. In all the patients, it was possible to perform a radical resection and to install the prosthesis. After a mean follow-up of 9 months (range: 4-18 months), no abdominal or perineal complications were detected. One patient (10%) suffered chronic pelvic pain. Pelvic partition after APR of the rectum with an absorbable synthetic prosthesis is feasible, effective and safe.

  18. Fertility conserving management of early cervical cancer: our experience of LLETZ and pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Rhona; Burton, Kevin; Shanbhag, Smruta; Tolhurst, Jenny; Millan, David; Siddiqui, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Presently, for those diagnosed with early cervical cancer who wish to conserve their fertility, there is the option of radical trachelectomy. Although successful, this procedure is associated with significant obstetric morbidity. The recurrence risk of early cervical cancer is low and in tumors measuring less than 2 cm; if the lymphatics are negative, the likelihood of parametrial involvement is less than 1%. Therefore, pelvic lymph nodes are a surrogate marker of parametrial involvement and radical excision of the parametrium can be omitted if they are negative. The aim of this study was to report our experience of the fertility conserving management of early cervical cancer with repeat large loop excision of the transformation zone and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection. Between 2004 and 2011, a retrospective review of cases of early cervical cancer who had fertility conserving management within Glasgow Royal Infirmary was done. Forty-three patients underwent fertility conserving management of early cervical cancer. Forty were screen-detected cancers; 2 were stage IA1, 4 were stage IA2, and 37 were stage IB1. There were 2 central recurrences during the follow-up period. There have been 15 live children to 12 women and there are 4 ongoing pregnancies. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series described and confirms the low morbidity and mortality of this procedure. However, even within our highly select group, there have been 2 cases of central recurrent disease. We, therefore, are urging caution in the global adoption of this technique and would welcome a multicenter multinational randomized controlled trial.

  19. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer: dose contribution to involved pelvic nodes in two cancer centers.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Willemien; Beriwal, Sushil; Velema, Laura; de Leeuw, Astrid A C; Nomden, Christel N; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina-M

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the dose contributions from image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) to individual suspicious pelvic lymph nodes (pLNN) in cervical cancer patients. Data were collected in two cancer centers, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU). 27 and 15 patients with node positive cervical cancer treated with HDR (high dose rate) or PDR (pulsed dose rate)-IGABT were analyzed. HDR-IGABT (UPCI) was delivered with CT/MRI compatible tandem-ring applicators with 5.0-6.0 Gy × five fractions. PDR-IGABT (UMCU) dose was delivered with Utrecht tandem-ovoid applicators with 32 × 0.6 Gy × two fractions. Pelvic lymph nodes with short axis diameter of ≥ 5 mm on pre-treatment MRI or PET-CT were contoured for all BT-plans. Dose contributions to individual pLNN expressed as D90 (dose to 90% of the volume) were calculated from dose-volume histograms as absolute and relative physical dose (% of the reference dose) for each fraction. For each node, the total dose from all fractions was calculated, expressed in EQD2 (equivalent total dose in 2 Gy fractions). Fifty-seven (UPCI) and 40 (UMCU) individual pLNN were contoured. The mean D90 pLNN was 10.8% (range 5.7-25.1%) and 20.5% (range 6.8-93.3%), respectively, and therefore different in the two centers. These values translate into 2.7 Gy (1.3-6.6 Gy) EQD2 and 7.1 Gy (2.2-36.7 Gy) EQD2, respectively. Differences are caused by the location of the individual nodes in relation to the spatial dose distribution of IGABT, differences in total dose administered and radiobiology (HDR versus PDR). The IGABT dose contribution to individual pelvic nodes depends on patient and treatment related factors, and varies considerably.

  20. A Phase II/III randomized controlled trial comparing perioperative versus postoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 for lower rectal cancer with suspected lateral pelvic node metastasis: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1310 (PRECIOUS study).

    PubMed

    Ohue, Masayuki; Iwasa, Satoru; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Shiozawa, Manabu; Ito, Masaaki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Katayama, Hiroshi; Mizusawa, Junki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    A randomized phase II/III trial was started in May 2015 comparing perioperative versus postoperative chemotherapy with modified infusional fluorouracil and folinic acid with oxaliplatin for lower rectal cancer patients with suspected lateral pelvic node metastasis. The standard arm is total mesorectal excision or tumor-specific mesorectal excision with lateral pelvic node dissection (LND) followed by postoperative chemotherapy (modified infusional fluorouracil and folinic acid with oxaliplatin; 12 cycles). The experimental (perioperative chemotherapy) arm is six courses of modified infusional fluorouracil and folinic acid with oxaliplatin before and six courses after total mesorectal excision with lateral pelvic node dissection. The aim of this trial is to confirm the superiority of perioperative chemotherapy. A total of 330 patients will be enrolled over 7 years. The primary endpoint in Phase II part is proportion of R0 resection and that in Phase III part is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, local progression-free survival, etc. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017603 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm].

  1. Is pelvic vein incompetence associated with symptoms of chronic pelvic pain in women? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hansrani, Vivak; Morris, Julie; Caress, Ann-Louise; Payne, Katherine; Seif, Mourad; McCollum, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic vein incompetence (PVI) affects 15-20% of all women, yet we know little about how it affects sufferers. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to explore symptoms experienced by women with PVI, and determine its impact on quality of life and NHS costs. Case-control study at a UK University teaching hospital conducted over an eight-month period. Cases were 40 premenopausal women aged 18-49 years with PVI and varicose veins (VV). There were two age-matched controls groups: (i) 40 healthy women with no PVI but with VV, and (ii) 40 healthy women with no PVI and no VV. Subjects were asked to complete a structured questionnaire on disease specific outcomes, health status and use of healthcare resources. Mean age (range) was 39.8 (24-47) years for cases, 39.1 (24-49) for VV controls and 38 (25-49) for healthy controls. Pelvic pain was reported by 38 of 40 (95%) PVI cases, compared with 25 of 40 (62%) VV controls, and 26 of 40 (65%) healthy controls (p=0.001). The median (range) EQ-5D utility score for PVI cases was 0.80 (0.29-1.0) compared with 0.80 (0.09-1.0) for VV controls and 1.0 (0.62-1.0) for healthy controls (p=0.002). Of the 40 PVI cases, 35 (88%) visited a consultant in the previous 12 months compared with 12 of 40 (30%) VV controls, and 14 of 40 (35%) healthy controls (p<0.001). Women with PVI report a greater frequency of pelvic pain with reduced health status and increased use of healthcare resources compared with matched controls. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Timing of Intrauterine Manipulator Insertion During Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging and Results of Pelvic Cytology in Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Machida, Hiroko; Casey, Jacob P; Garcia-Sayre, Jocelyn; Jung, Carrie E; Casabar, Jennifer K; Moeini, Aida; Kato, Kazuyoshi; Roman, Lynda D; Matsuo, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Considering the hypothetical concern of retrograde tumor spread to the peritoneal cavity by insertion of an intrauterine manipulator, we examined the correlation between the timing of manipulator insertion and the results of pelvic cytology during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in endometrial cancer. Case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-based hospitals. Stage I to IV endometrial cancer patients who underwent TLH in which an intrauterine manipulator was used. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, surgical details, and tumor characteristics. Archived medical record review. A total of 333 patients was identified. Cases were divided into those with intrauterine manipulator insertion after pelvic cytology sampling (Group 1, n = 103) and those with intrauterine manipulator insertion before pelvic cytology sampling (Group 2, n = 230). Types of intrauterine manipulator were similar across the 2 groups (p = .77). There was no statistical difference in the results of pelvic cytology between the 2 groups: Group 1 versus 2, atypical cells 2.9% versus 4.8% and malignant cells 5.8% versus 9.6% (p = .36). Uterine perforation related to intrauterine manipulator insertion was seen in 1.0% and .4% of each group (p = .52). In a multivariate analysis controlling for demographics and tumor characteristics, advanced-stage disease remained an independent risk factor associated with increased risk of atypical and malignant cells (adjusted odds ratio, 10.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.44-23.8; p < .001). Our study suggested that the timing of intrauterine manipulator insertion during TLH for endometrial cancer is not associated with the results of pelvic cytology. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of Anastomotic Leakage After Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection in Male Rectal Cancer by Pelvic Measurement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Jo; Ishii, Toshimasa; Oka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Asami; Kondo, Hiroka; Yamaguchi, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic low anterior resection in male rectal cancer patients with a narrow pelvis cannot be easily resolved. The objective of this study is to assess numerical information of narrow pelvis and to determine whether prediction of morbidity can be possible. Methods: Retrospective medical record review was performed. From July 2007 to January 2013, 43 consecutive male patients with low rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection were divided into the anastomotic leakage–negative group and anastomotic leakage–positive group. Eleven anatomic parameters were measured from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of pelvis and a new index called “pelvic index” was calculated. Results: The pelvic index (difference between the interspinous distance and the diameter of the mesorectum divided by the depth of the cavity of the lesser pelvis) in the leakage-positive group was significantly smaller than that in the negative group (P=0.038). Comparison between those 2 groups at the border of the cut-off value of the pelvic index (13.0) showed a significant difference. Conclusions: Preoperative assessment by the pelvic index can predict the narrow pelvis and risk of anastomotic leakage. PMID:28092330

  4. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in early invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Salicrú, Sabina; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Montero, Anabel; Roure, Marisa; Pérez-Benavente, Assumpció; Xercavins, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy is one surgical procedure currently performed to treat gynecologic cancer. The objective of this review was to update the current knowledge of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy in early invasive cervical cancer. Articles indexed in the MEDLINE database using the key words "Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy" and "Cancer of the cervix" were reviewed. Studies of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for treatment of early cervical cancer with a minimum study population of 10 patients were selected. The laparoscopic approach was associated with less surgical morbidity (surgical bleeding) and with shorter length of hospital stay, although the duration of the operation may be longer. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with endoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy, and paraaortic lymphadenectomy if needed, is a safe surgical option for treatment and staging of early invasive cervical cancer considering surgical risk, intraoperative bleeding, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and patient recovery. It is important to respect the learning curve. Surgical advances including new laparoscopic instrumentation and, in particular, use of robotics will contribute to reducing the duration of the operation and to facilitating learning and teaching of the procedure.

  5. Recurrent or residual pelvic bowel cancer: accuracy of MRI local extent before salvage surgery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip; Carrington, Bernadette M; Swindell, Ric; Shanks, Johnathan H; O'dwyer, Sarah T

    2002-06-01

    To determine pre-operative MRI accuracy in assessing local disease extent in recurrent/residual pelvic bowel cancer by comparing MRI assessment and staging examination under anaesthesia (EUA), with laparotomy/histopathological findings. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with recurrent (n = 21) or residual (n = 6) pelvic bowel cancer (13 of the rectum, eleven of the anus and three of the colon) underwent EUA and pelvic MRI (1T) using a phased array pelvic coil. Retrospective analysis of eight specific anatomical regions for tumour involvement on MRI was performed. Findings at EUA and biopsy were recorded. The MRI and EUA findings were correlated with findings at surgery and histopathology. Statistical comparison between MRI and EUA results was performed using the chi-squared test. Overall MRI accuracy in determining tumour invasion for all sites assessed was 452/499 (91%), sensitivity was 95/109 (87%), specificity was 357/390 (92%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 95/128 (74%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 357/371 (96%). PPV and NPV for specific areas were 21/38 (55%) and 134/136 (99%) for genitourinary tract, 4/6 (67%) and 61/65 (94%) for pelvic side wall, 21/26 (81%) and 40/41 (98%) for pelvic floor, 1/6 (17%) and 40/43 (93%) for the posterior pelvis pre-sacrum/sacrum. For those anatomical sites evaluated by both EUA and MRI, MRI was superior to EUA, with an accuracy of 89% vs 73% (P < 0.05). MRI is an accurate technique for assessing disease extent in recurrent/residual pelvic bowel cancer. Copyright 2002 The Royal College of Radiologists.

  6. Long-Term Results of a Prospective, Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Ablation, Pelvic Radiotherapy, Brachytherapy Boost, and Adjuvant Docetaxel in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    DiBiase, Steven J.; Hussain, Arif; Kataria, Ritesh; Amin, Pradip; Bassi, Sunakshi; Dawson, Nancy; Kwok, Young

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We report the long-term results of a prospective, Phase II study of long-term androgen deprivation (AD), pelvic radiotherapy (EBRT), permanent transperineal prostate brachytherapy boost (PB), and adjuvant docetaxel in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included biopsy-proven prostate adenocarcinoma with the following: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 20 ng/ml; or Gleason score of 7 and a PSA >10 ng/ml; or any Gleason score of 8 to 10; or stage T2b to T3 irrespective of Gleason score or PSA. Treatment consisted of 45 Gy of pelvic EBRT, followed 1 month later by PB with either iodine-125 or Pd-103. One month after PB, patients received three cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy (35 mg/m{sup 2} per week, Days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). All patients received 2 years of AD. Biochemical failure was defined as per the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2). Results: From August 2000 to March 2004, 42 patients were enrolled. The median overall and active follow-ups were 5.6 years (range, 0.9-7.8 years) and 6.3 years (range, 4-7.8 years), respectively. Grade 2 and 3 acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were 50.0% and 14.2%, respectively, with no Grade 4 toxicities noted. Grade 3 and 4 acute hematologic toxicities were 19% and 2.4%, respectively. Of the patients, 85.7% were able to complete the planned multimodality treatment. The 5- and 7-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failures rates were 89.6% and 86.5%, and corresponding rates for disease-free survival were 76.2% and 70.4%, respectively. The 5- and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 83.3% and 80.1%, respectively. The 5- and 7-year actuarial rates of late Grade 2 GI/GU toxicity (no Grade 3-5) was 7.7%. Conclusions: The trimodality approach of using 2 years of AD, external radiation, brachytherapy, and upfront docetaxel in high-risk prostate cancer is well tolerated, produces encouraging long-term results, and should be validated in a

  7. Prevalence in a volunteer population of pelvic cancer detected with transvaginal ultrasound and color flow Doppler.

    PubMed

    Schulman, H; Conway, C; Zalud, I; Farmakides, G; Haley, J; Cassata, M

    1994-09-01

    Our objective was to find the prevalence of non-symptomatic endometrial and ovarian neoplasms in a volunteer population of women, aged 40 and over. We offered a free volunteer screening program to asymptomatic women for a study using transvaginal ultrasound and color flow Doppler for the detection of pelvic cancer. In the first 2 years, 2117 women were examined, 51.3% post-menopausal. An ovarian cyst was defined as having a maximum diameter of more than 2.4 cm. Color flow was used to identify blood vessels feeding pelvic organs and adnexal enlargements. An abnormal Doppler flow velocity for the ovary was defined as a resistance index of less than 0.41. Ovarian cysts of less than 5 cm with normal Doppler indices were followed up in 6 months to 1 year. An adnexal morphology score was created to quantify the usefulness of this parameter, particularly in postmenopausal women. Indications for surgery were pre-defined as a persistent ovarian cyst of more than 5 cm, a persistent suspicious Doppler and a total endometrial thickness of greater than 0.59 cm in postmenopausal women not taking hormones.A total of 202 women (9.5%) had ovarian cysts. Fourteen women were operated upon because of size criteria, one because of family history and three for persistent abnormal flow. By Doppler study, 15 cysts were predicted to be benign and histology was confirmatory. There were two false positives and one true positive, a stage Ib ovarian cancer. There were no false negatives, although a stage I endometrioid cancer of the ovary was detected 8 months after a negative scan. In those cases in which follow-up data were available, 56% of the cysts regressed in premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, 28% regressed. Twenty of 1086 postmenopausal women had endometrial biopsies. Three had endometrial cancer, two stage I and one stage IIA. Five had atypical or adenomatous hyperplasia, and seven had benign polyps. So many women have small asymptomatic cysts of the ovary that a major

  8. A novel conformal arc technique for postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruijie; Jiang, Weijuan; Wang, Junjie

    2009-12-01

    Conventional whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) exposes most of the contents of the true pelvis to the prescribed dose. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides more conformal dose distribution and better sparing of critical structures for WPRT. However, IMRT is more complicated in planning and delivery, requiring more expensive equipment and time-consuming quality assurance. We explore and evaluate a novel conformal arc radiotherapeutic technique for postoperative WPRT for endometrial cancer in this study. This technique involves 2-axis conformal arc therapy (2A-CAT) with 180-degree rotation around 2 isocenters each in 2 separate dose-shaping structures. Dosimetric comparison with 3D-CRT and IMRT for 10 endometrial cancer patients undergoing postoperative WPRT was performed to evaluate this new 2A-CAT technique. The mean conformity indices were 0.83, 0.61, and 0.88 for 2A-CAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT, respectively. The mean homogeneity indices were 1.15, 1.08, and 1.10. The mean doses to bowel, rectum, bladder, and pelvic bone marrow were, respectively, 1.19, 3.39, 4.65, and 1.64 Gy lower with 2A-CAT than with 3D-CRT (P < 0.05), whereas a little higher than with IMRT. The mean dose to normal tissue was 1.87 Gy higher with 2A-CAT than with IMRT (P = 0.00). In postoperative WPRT for endometrial cancer, 2A-CAT significantly improves the dose conformity and sparing of bowel, rectum, and bladder compared with 3D-CRT. Despite dose uniformity and conformity being still inferior to those of IMRT, its simplicity and extensive availability combined with further improvement warrant it as a potential shortcut alternative to IMRT.

  9. Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin given prior to and concurrently with preoperative pelvic radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koeberle, D; Burkhard, R; von Moos, R; Winterhalder, R; Hess, V; Heitzmann, F; Ruhstaller, T; Terraciano, L; Neuweiler, J; Bieri, G; Rust, C; Toepfer, M

    2008-01-01

    This multicentre phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of preoperative capecitabine plus oxaliplatin and radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (T3/T4 rectal adenocarcinoma with or without nodal involvement). Treatment consisted of one cycle of XELOX (capecitabine 1000 mg m−2 bid on days 1–14 and oxaliplatin 130 mg m−2 on day 1), followed by RT (1.8 Gy fractions 5 days per week for 5 weeks) plus CAPOX (capecitabine 825 mg m−2 bid on days 22–35 and 43–56, and oxaliplatin 50 mg m−2 on days 22, 29, 43 and 50). Surgery was recommended 5 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy. The primary end point was pathological complete tumour response (pCR). Sixty patients were enrolled. In the intent-to-treat population, the pCR rate was 23% (95% CI: 13–36%). 58 patients underwent surgery; R0 resection was achieved in 57 (98%) patients, including all 5 patients with T4 tumours. Sphincter preservation was achieved in 49 (84%) patients. Tumour and/or nodal downstaging was observed in 39 (65%) patients. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhoea (20%) and lymphocytopaenia (43%). Preoperative capecitabine, oxaliplatin and RT achieved encouraging rates of pCR, R0 resection, sphincter preservation and tumour downstaging in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:18349837

  10. Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin given prior to and concurrently with preoperative pelvic radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Koeberle, D; Burkhard, R; von Moos, R; Winterhalder, R; Hess, V; Heitzmann, F; Ruhstaller, T; Terraciano, L; Neuweiler, J; Bieri, G; Rust, C; Toepfer, M

    2008-04-08

    This multicentre phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of preoperative capecitabine plus oxaliplatin and radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (T3/T4 rectal adenocarcinoma with or without nodal involvement). Treatment consisted of one cycle of XELOX (capecitabine 1000 mg m(-2) bid on days 1-14 and oxaliplatin 130 mg m(-2) on day 1), followed by RT (1.8 Gy fractions 5 days per week for 5 weeks) plus CAPOX (capecitabine 825 mg m(-2) bid on days 22-35 and 43-56, and oxaliplatin 50 mg m(-2) on days 22, 29, 43 and 50). Surgery was recommended 5 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy. The primary end point was pathological complete tumour response (pCR). Sixty patients were enrolled. In the intent-to-treat population, the pCR rate was 23% (95% CI: 13-36%). 58 patients underwent surgery; R0 resection was achieved in 57 (98%) patients, including all 5 patients with T4 tumours. Sphincter preservation was achieved in 49 (84%) patients. Tumour and/or nodal downstaging was observed in 39 (65%) patients. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhoea (20%) and lymphocytopaenia (43%). Preoperative capecitabine, oxaliplatin and RT achieved encouraging rates of pCR, R0 resection, sphincter preservation and tumour downstaging in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle function, pelvic floor dysfunction and diastasis recti abdominis: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Sperstad, Jorun Bakken; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2017-03-01

    Compare vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, and endurance in women with and without diastasis recti abdominis at gestational week 21 and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Furthermore, to compare prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in the two groups at the same assessment points. This is a prospective cohort study following 300 nulliparous pregnant women giving birth at a public university hospital. VRP, PFM strength, and endurance were measured with vaginal manometry. ICIQ-UI-SF questionnaire and POP-Q were used to assess UI and POP. Diastasis recti abdominis was diagnosed with palpation of  ≥2 fingerbreadths 4.5 cm above, at, or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. At gestational week 21 women with diastasis recti abdominis had statistically significant greater VRP (mean difference 3.06 cm H2 O [95%CI: 0.70; 5.42]), PFM strength (mean difference 5.09 cm H2 O [95%CI: 0.76; 9.42]) and PFM muscle endurance (mean difference 47.08 cm H2 O sec [95%CI: 15.18; 78.99]) than women with no diastasis. There were no statistically significant differences between women with and without diastasis in any PFM variables at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. No significant difference was found in prevalence of UI in women with and without diastasis at any assessment points. Six weeks postpartum 15.9% of women without diastasis had POP versus 4.1% in the group with diastasis (P = 0.001). Women with diastasis were not more likely to have weaker PFM or more UI or POP. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:716-721, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phase III, Double-Blind Study of Depot Octreotide Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Acute Diarrhea in Patients Receiving Pelvic Radiation Therapy: Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group N00CA

    PubMed Central

    Martenson, James A.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Proulx, Gary M.; Miller, Robert C.; Deming, Richard L.; Dick, Stephen J.; Johnson, Harold A.; Tai, T.H. Patricia; Zhu, Angela W.; Keit, Joan; Stien, Kathy J.; Atherton, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness of depot octreotide for the prevention of diarrhea during pelvic radiation therapy. Patients and Methods Patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy (planned minimum dose, 45 Gy; 1.7 to 2.1 Gy daily) were eligible for the study. From May 10, 2002, through October 14, 2005, 125 patients were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to receive octreotide (100 μg, administered subcutaneously on day 1, followed by depot octreotide, 20 mg, administered intramuscularly on days 2 and 29; n = 62) or to receive a placebo (n = 63). Results Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 diarrhea were observed in 18%, 31%, 31%, and 21% of patients in the octreotide arm, respectively, and in 25%, 32%, 22%, and 21% of patients in the placebo arm, respectively (P = .64). Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 abdominal cramps were observed in 32%, 45%, 21%, and 2% of patients receiving octreotide, respectively, and in 51%, 24%, 21%, and 5% of patients receiving the placebo, respectively (P = .053). Some patient-reported symptoms were worse in the octreotide group, including nocturnal bowel movements (70% v 45%; P = .004), clustering of bowel movements (90% v 69%; P = .004), and bleeding with bowel movements (57% v 35%; P = .01). Conclusion As administered in this study, octreotide did not decrease diarrhea during pelvic radiation therapy. Some gastrointestinal symptoms were worse in patients treated with octreotide. Octreotide is not indicated for prevention of diarrhea during pelvic radiation therapy. PMID:18768432

  13. Intravenous phenytoin in the management of crescendo pelvic cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, V T

    1997-04-01

    Rapidly progressive pain, or "crescendo" pain, can be a difficult management problem. A cancer patient is presented who experienced crescendo neuropathic pain due to progressive pelvic disease. This patient reported significant pain relief with the administration of intravenous phenytoin. The case illustrates the type of therapeutic approach that may be considered for crescendo pain and highlights a potential role for intravenous phenytoin in the management of patients with crescendo cancer-related neuropathic pain.

  14. Image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) combined with whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer: a prospective study from Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Tippanya, Damrongsak; Nopnop, Wannapa; Galalae, Razvan; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A report of preliminary results and toxicity profiles using image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) combined with whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WP-IMRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Material and methods Fifteen patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were enrolled into the study. WP-IMRT was used to treat the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) with a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m2) was prescribed during radiotherapy (RT) on weekly basis. IGBT using computed tomography was performed at the dose of 7 Gy × 4 fractions to the High-Risk Clinical Target Volume (HR-CTV). Results The mean cumulative doses – in terms of equivalent dose of 2 Gy (EQD2) – of IGBT plus WP-IMRT to HR-CTV, bladder, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 88.3, 85.0, 68.2 and 73.6 Gy, respectively. In comparison with standard (point A prescription) dose-volume histograms, volume-based image-guided brachytherapy improved the cumulative doses for bladder of 67%, rectum of 47% and sigmoid of 46%. At the median follow-up time of 14 months, the local control, metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 93%, 100% and 93%, respectively. No grade 3-4 acute and late toxicities were observed. Conclusion The combination of image-guided brachytherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved the dose distribution to tumor volumes and avoided overdose in OARs which could be converted in excellent local control and toxicity profiles. PMID:23634150

  15. Split-Course, High-Dose Palliative Pelvic Radiotherapy for Locally Progressive Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Hickey, Brigid; Baumann, Kathryn; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Holt, Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Local progression, in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, often causes significant morbidity. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) provides effective palliation in this setting, with most published studies supporting the use of high-dose regimens. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of split-course hypofractionated RT used at our institution in treating this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 men with locoregionally progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer, treated with a split course of pelvic RT (45-60 Gy in 18-24 fractions) between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed. The primary endpoints were the response rate and actuarial locoregional progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, compliance, and acute and late toxicity. Results: The median age was 71 years (range, 53-88). Treatment resulted in an overall initial response rate of 91%, a median locoregional progression-free survival of 43 months, and median overall survival of 28 months. Compliance was excellent and no significant late toxicity was reported. Conclusions: The split course pelvic RT described has an acceptable toxicity profile, is effective, and compares well with other high-dose palliative regimens that have been previously reported.

  16. Enteric morbidity of postoperative pelvic external beam and brachytherapy for uterine cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Potish, R.A.; Dusenbery, K.E. )

    1990-05-01

    From 1970 through 1986, 219 women received postoperative pelvic external beam therapy and vaginal radium or cesium for uterine cancer. Prescribed external beam and total vaginal surface doses ranged from 38 to 51 Gy and from 70 to 119 Gy, respectively. Severe enteric morbidity developed in 7.8% of patients (15 small bowel, 1 sigmoid, 1 rectal). Complications occurred more frequently in patients with pelvic lymph node sampling at hysterectomy, abdominal surgery prior to hysterectomy, and low body weight. Logistic analysis demonstrated no significant effect of pelvic external beam dose, vaginal surface boost dose, or milligram hours. Five and 10-year overall survival rates were 85% and 74%, respectively. There were two proximal and one distal vaginal recurrences. Recommendations for avoiding complications are presented.

  17. Pelvic inflammatory disease and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiyi; Zeng, Fangfang; Yuan, Jianhui; Tang, Jinling; Colditz, Graham A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Trabert, Britton; Su, Xuefen

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the risk of ovarian cancer have found inconsistent results. We performed an updated meta-analysis to summarize the evidence of this association. PubMed, Embase, and ISI web of science databases were searched through October 2016 for studies that investigated the PID and ovarian cancer association. Summary risk estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Thirteen studies were eligible for analysis, which included six cohort studies and seven case-control studies. PID was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer overall [relative risk (RR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.44; I (2)  = 58.8%]. In analyses stratified by race, a significant positive association was observed in studies conducted among Asian women (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.34; I (2)  = 0%), but marginally significant among Caucasians (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39; I (2)  = 60.7%).Risk estimates were elevated in both cohort (RR1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.66; I (2)  = 64.7%) and case-control studies (RR 1.17; 95% CI 0.93-1.49; I (2)  = 57.6%), albeit not statistically significant in case-control studies. Our results suggested that PID might be a potential risk factor of ovarian cancer, with pronounced associations among Asian women. Large and well-designed studies with objective assessment methods, such as hospital records, are needed to confirm the findings of this meta-analysis.

  18. Intraoperative frozen section analysis for the diagnosis of early stage ovarian cancer in suspicious pelvic masses.

    PubMed

    Ratnavelu, Nithya D G; Brown, Andrew P; Mallett, Susan; Scholten, Rob J P M; Patel, Amit; Founta, Christina; Galaal, Khadra; Cross, Paul; Naik, Raj

    2016-03-01

    Women with suspected early-stage ovarian cancer need surgical staging which involves taking samples from areas within the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal lymph nodes in order to inform further treatment. One potential strategy is to surgically stage all women with suspicious ovarian masses, without any histological information during surgery. This avoids incomplete staging, but puts more women at risk of potential surgical over-treatment.A second strategy is to perform a two-stage procedure to remove the pelvic mass and subject it to paraffin sectioning, which involves formal tissue fixing with formalin and paraffin embedding, prior to ultrathin sectioning and multiple site sampling of the tumour. Surgeons may then base further surgical staging on this histology, reducing the rate of over-treatment, but conferring additional surgical and anaesthetic morbidity.A third strategy is to perform a rapid histological analysis on the ovarian mass during surgery, known as 'frozen section'. Tissues are snap frozen to allow fine tissue sections to be cut and basic histochemical staining to be performed. Surgeons can perform or avoid the full surgical staging procedure depending on the results. However, this is a relatively crude test compared to paraffin sections, which take many hours to perform. With frozen section there is therefore a risk of misdiagnosing malignancy and understaging women subsequently found to have a presumed early-stage malignancy (false negative), or overstaging women without a malignancy (false positive). Therefore it is important to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of adding frozen section to the clinical decision-making process. To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of frozen section (index test) to diagnose histopathological ovarian cancer in women with suspicious pelvic masses as verified by paraffin section (reference standard). We searched MEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015) and relevant

  19. Postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer : Morbidity of local-only or local-plus-pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Waldstein, Cora; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard; Widder, Joachim; Goldner, Gregor

    2017-09-19

    The aim of this work was to characterise actuarial incidence and prevalence of early and late side effects of local versus pelvic three-dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Based on a risk-adapted protocol, 575 patients received either local (n = 447) or local-plus-pelvic (n = 128) radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) side effects (≥grade 2 RTOG/EORTC criteria) were prospectively assessed. Maximum morbidity, actuarial incidence rate, and prevalence rates were compared between the two groups. For local radiotherapy, median follow-up was 68 months, and the mean dose was 66.7 Gy. In pelvic radiotherapy, the median follow-up was 49 months, and the mean local and pelvic doses were 66.9 and 48.3 Gy respectively. Early GI side effects ≥ G2 were detected in 26% and 42% of patients respectively (p < 0.001). Late GI adverse events were detected in 14% in both groups (p = 0.77). The 5‑year actuarial incidence rates were 14% and 14%, while the prevalence rates were 2% and 0% respectively. Early GU ≥ G2 side effects were detected in 15% and 16% (p = 0.96), while late GU morbidity was detected in 18% and 24% (p = 0.001). The 5‑year actuarial incidence rates were 16% and 35% (p = 0.001), while the respective prevalence rates were 6% and 8%. Despite the low prevalence of side effects, postoperative pelvic radiotherapy results in significant increases in the actuarial incidence of early GI and late GU morbidity using a conventional 4‑field box radiotherapy technique. Advanced treatment techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) should therefore be considered in pelvic radiotherapy to potentially reduce these side effects.

  20. Laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy: initial multi-institutional experience for treatment of invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Boruta, David M; Fagotti, Anna; Bradford, Leslie S; Escobar, Pedro F; Scambia, Giovanni; Kushnir, Christina L; Michener, Chad M; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2014-01-01

    To describe the feasibility, safety, and outcomes of women with stage I cervical cancer treated with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH). A retrospective descriptive study (Canadian Task Force classification III). Multiple academic teaching hospitals. Women with Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique FIGO stage IA1 to IB1 cervical cancer. LESS-RH as the primary therapy for cervical cancer performed by a gynecologic oncologist with expertise in LESS. A multichannel, single-port access device; a flexible-tipped 5-mm laparoscope; and a multifunctional instrument were used in all cases. Clinicopathologic, surgical, and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Twenty-two women were identified in whom a LESS-RH was attempted; 20 (91%) successfully underwent the procedure, including 19 in whom pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND) was completed. Of the 2 converted procedures, 1 patient underwent 2-port laparoscopy secondary to truncal obesity, and 1 patient underwent conversion to laparotomy secondary to external iliac vein laceration during PLND. The median age and body mass index were 46 years and 23.3 kg/m(2), respectively. The median number of pelvic lymph nodes removed was 22. One patient experienced an intraoperative complication, and no patient required reoperation. The margins of excision were negative. One patient with 2 positive pelvic nodes and 1 patient with microscopic parametrial disease received adjuvant chemosensitized radiation; 3 additional patients received adjuvant radiation therapy secondary to an intermediate risk for recurrence. After a median follow up of 11 months, no recurrences were detected. LESS-RH/PLND is feasible and safe for select patients with stage I cervical cancer. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether the increased technical difficulty of this procedure justifies its use in routine gynecologic oncology practice. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, Supriya; Dora, Tapas; Chinnachamy, Anand N.; Thomas, Biji; Kannan, Sadhna; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N.; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  2. Predictors of grade 3 or higher late bowel toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation for cervical cancer: results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Supriya; Dora, Tapas; Chinnachamy, Anand N; Thomas, Biji; Kannan, Sadhna; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates relationship between dose-volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pelvic-Floor Properties in Women Reporting Urinary Incontinence After Surgery and Radiotherapy for Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphanie; Moffet, Hélène; Plante, Marie; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Leblond, Jean; Dumoulin, Chantale

    2017-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer in Canadian women. Radiotherapy (RT) is frequently recommended as an adjuvant treatment. There is a high prevalence (>80%) of urinary incontinence (UI) after RT. It is plausible that UI is associated, at least in part, with alterations of the pelvic-floor muscles (PFM). The aim of this exploratory study was to compare the PFM functional properties of women reporting UI after hysterectomy and RT for endometrial cancer with those of women with a history of hysterectomy but without UI. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Eleven women were recruited for the affected group, and 18 were recruited for the comparison group. Urogenital and bowel functions were assessed using International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires, and PFM properties were evaluated using a Montreal dynamometer. Nonparametric tests were used for comparison of personal characteristics, functional status, and muscle properties. A correspondence analysis detailed the association between UI severity and PFM properties. Maximal opening of dynamometer branches, maximal vaginal length, PFM maximum force and rate of force development in a strength test, and number of rapid contractions during a speed test were reduced in the affected group. No significant difference was found for the endurance test. The severity of UI was found to correspond to the rate of force development and the number of rapid contractions in a speed test, endurance, age, and vaginal length. The results are limited to the population studied. The small sample size limited the strength of the conclusions. Some evidence of alterations in PFM properties were found in women with UI after hysterectomy and RT for endometrial cancer. These alterations appeared to be associated with UI, suggesting a possible role for rehabilitation.

  4. Genitofemoral neuropathy after pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with uterine corpus cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohito; Terai, Yoshito; Ono, Yoshihiro J; Fujiwara, Satoe; Tanaka, Yoshimichi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tsunetoh, Satoshi; Kanemura, Masanori; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence, etiology, and outcomes of genitofemoral neuropathy after pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLD) for uterine corpus cancer. The medical records of women who underwent PLD for uterine corpus cancer between June 2001 and June 2013 were reviewed. Information regarding neuropathy was directly reported by each subject. Thirty-two of 300 patients undergoing PLD during the defined period experienced postoperative neuropathy due to genitofemoral nerve injury, for an incidence of 10.7%. The patients treated with PLD with para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PALD) exhibited a lower rate of genitofemoral neuropathy than those treated without PALD (4.3% vs 13.5%, P = 0.01). The laparoscopy group displayed a higher rate of genitofemoral neuropathy than the laparotomy group (19.1% vs 9.1%, P = 0.04). A total of 81.3% of the patients experienced a full recovery, with a medium time to resolution of 6 months (3-12 months). The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy, including paclitaxel, did not extend the time to recovery. Neuropathy resulting from genitofemoral nerve injury is not infrequent; however, most of the patients recover completely. In this study, the use of laparoscopic procedures increased the incidence of genitofemoral neuropathy, whereas that of PALD did not.

  5. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sokbom; Park, Jung-Yeol; Lim, Myung-Chul; Song, Yong-Joong; Park, Se-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Ki; Chung, Dae-Chul; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor muscle activity and vaginal blood flow: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen

    2007-05-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse, is hypothesized to be related to pelvic floor hyperactivity and to diminished sexual arousal. Empirical research to support these hypotheses is scarce and concentrates mostly on the role of either pelvic floor activity or genital arousal in female dyspareunia. Currently, however, there is no measurement device to assess pelvic floor activity and genital response simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of a new device that enables simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor activity and genital response in women. Genital arousal measured as vaginal pulse amplitude, and vaginal surface electromyogram (EMG). Thirty sexually functional women participated. To investigate the accuracy of genital response measurement with the adapted photoplethysmograph, and the sensitivity of the device for involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, vaginal pulse amplitude and vaginal surface EMG were monitored during exposure to emotional, including erotic, films. In addition, vaginal surface EMG was monitored during instructed pelvic floor contractions. The genital data obtained during emotional films proved accurate measurement of genital response. EMG values during the emotional films indicated limited sensitivity of the device for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity due to emotional state. The EMG measurements during the instructed pelvic floor contractions proved sensitivity of the new probe to voluntary pelvic floor activity. It is concluded that following improvement of the sensitivity of the EMG measurement for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, the device will be a valuable tool in research on superficial dyspareunia.

  7. Postoperative pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high risk endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Shih, Karin K; Milgrom, Sarah A; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Kollmeier, Marisa A; Gardner, Ginger J; Tew, William P; Barakat, Richard R; Alektiar, Kaled M

    2013-03-01

    According to national surveys, the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in gynecologic cancers is on the rise, yet there is still some reluctance to adopt adjuvant IMRT as standard practice. The purpose of this study is to report a single-institution experience using postoperative pelvic IMRT with or without chemotherapy in high-risk endometrial cancer. From 11/2004 to 12/2009, 46 patients underwent hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for stage I-III (22% stage I/II and 78% stage III) endometrial cancer. Median IMRT dose was 50.4Gy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 30 (65%) patients. With a median follow-up of 52months, 4 patients recurred: 1 vaginal plus lung metastasis, 2 isolated para-aortic recurrences, and 1 lungs and liver metastasis. Five-year relapse rate was 9% (95% CI, 0-13.6%). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 88% (95% CI, 77-98%) and overall survival (OS) was 97% (95% CI, 90-100%). There were 2 patients with non-hematological grade 3 toxicity: 1 (2%) acute and 1 (2%) chronic gastrointestinal toxicity. In patients treated with IMRT and chemotherapy (n=30), 5 had grade 3 leukopenia, 8 grade 2 anemia, and 2 grade 2 thrombocytopenia. Oncologic outcomes with postoperative IMRT were very good, with DFS and OS rates of >88% at median follow-up of 52months, despite a preponderance (78%) of stage III disease. Toxicity was minimal even in the setting of an aggressive trimodality (65% of patients) approach. Data from this study and emerging data from RTOG trial 0418 demonstrate the advantages of IMRT in high-risk endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pelvic fracture pattern predicts the need for hemorrhage control intervention -- results of a AAST multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Todd W; Coimbra, Raul; Holcomb, John B; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Catalano, Richard; Blackburn, Allie; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M; Williams, Lashonda; Conflitti, Joseph; Keeney, Scott; Hoey, Christy; Zhou, Tianhua; Sperry, Jason; Skiada, Dimitra; Inaba, Kenji; Williams, Brian H; Minei, Joseph P; Privette, Alicia; Mackersie, Robert C; Robinson, Brenton R; Moore, Forrest O

    2017-03-23

    Early identification of patients with pelvic fractures at risk for severe bleeding requiring intervention is critical. We performed a multi-institutional study to test our hypothesis that pelvic fracture patterns predict the need for a pelvic hemorrhage control intervention. This prospective, observational multi-center study enrolled patients with pelvic fracture due to blunt trauma. Inclusion criteria included shock on admission (SBP<90 or HR>120 and base deficit > 5, and the ability to review pelvic imaging. Demographic data, open pelvic fracture, blood transfusion, pelvic hemorrhage control intervention (angioembolization, external fixator, pelvic packing and/or REBOA), and mortality were recorded. Pelvic fracture pattern was classified according to Young-Burgess in a blinded fashion. Predictors of pelvic hemorrhage control intervention and mortality were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. A total of 163 patients presenting in shock were enrolled from eleven Level-1 trauma centers. The most common pelvic fracture pattern was Lateral Compression (LC) I, followed by LC II, and Vertical Shear. Of the 12 patients with an Anterior-Posterior Compression (APC) III fracture, 10 (83%) required a pelvic hemorrhage control intervention. Factors associated with the need for pelvic fracture hemorrhage control intervention on univariate analysis included vertical shear pelvic fracture pattern, increasing age, and transfusion of blood products. APC III fracture patterns and open pelvic fracture predicted the need for pelvic hemorrhage control intervention on multivariate analysis. Overall in-hospital mortality for patients admitted in shock with pelvic fracture was 30% and did not differ based on pelvic fracture pattern on multivariate analysis. Blunt trauma patients admitted in shock with APC III fracture patterns or patients with open pelvic fracture are at greatest risk of bleeding requiring pelvic hemorrhage control intervention. Prognostic Study

  9. Pelvic fracture pattern predicts the need for hemorrhage control intervention-Results of an AAST multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Todd W; Coimbra, Raul; Holcomb, John B; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Catalano, Richard D; Blackburn, Allie; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M; Williams, Lashonda; Conflitti, Joseph; Keeney, Scott; Hoey, Christy; Zhou, Tianhua; Sperry, Jason; Skiada, Dimitra; Inaba, Kenji; Williams, Brian H; Minei, Joseph P; Privette, Alicia; Mackersie, Robert C; Robinson, Brenton R; Moore, Forrest O

    2017-06-01

    Early identification of patients with pelvic fractures at risk of severe bleeding requiring intervention is critical. We performed a multi-institutional study to test our hypothesis that pelvic fracture patterns predict the need for a pelvic hemorrhage control intervention. This prospective, observational, multicenter study enrolled patients with pelvic fracture due to blunt trauma. Inclusion criteria included shock on admission (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg or heart rate >120 beats/min and base deficit >5, and the ability to review pelvic imaging). Demographic data, open pelvic fracture, blood transfusion, pelvic hemorrhage control intervention (angioembolization, external fixator, pelvic packing, and/or REBOA [resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta]), and mortality were recorded. Pelvic fracture pattern was classified according to Young-Burgess in a blinded fashion. Predictors of pelvic hemorrhage control intervention and mortality were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A total of 163 patients presenting in shock were enrolled from 11 Level I trauma centers. The most common pelvic fracture pattern was lateral compression I, followed by lateral compression I, and vertical shear. Of the 12 patients with an anterior-posterior compression III fracture, 10 (83%) required a pelvic hemorrhage control intervention. Factors associated with the need for pelvic fracture hemorrhage control intervention on univariate analysis included vertical shear pelvic fracture pattern, increasing age, and transfusion of blood products. Anterior-posterior compression III fracture patterns and open pelvic fracture predicted the need for pelvic hemorrhage control intervention on multivariate analysis. Overall in-hospital mortality for patients admitted in shock with pelvic fracture was 30% and did not differ based on pelvic fracture pattern on multivariate analysis. Blunt trauma patients admitted in shock with anterior-posterior compression III fracture

  10. Pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for surgical staging of endometrial cancer: morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Larson, D M; Johnson, K; Olson, K A

    1992-06-01

    This analysis compared retrospectively the morbidity and mortality of patients with endometrial cancer who had total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) alone or with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy performed by the same surgeon at one private institution. Between August 1987 and March 1991, 77 women with endometrial cancer were staged surgically by a standard protocol without preoperative radiotherapy. Thirty-five patients (45%) had TAH/BSO alone and 42 (55%) had TAH/BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 18. Patients having lymphadenectomy had an increased mean (+/- standard deviation) operative time (129 +/- 29 versus 87 +/- 26 minutes; P less than .0001), increased mean estimated blood loss (391 +/- 192 versus 272 +/- 219 mL; P = .013), and a longer postoperative hospital stay (P = .017) compared with patients having TAH/BSO alone. However, there was no difference in transfusion rate, febrile morbidity, postoperative complications, or mortality. We conclude that pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy can be added to TAH/BSO in patients with endometrial cancer without a clinically significant increase in morbidity or mortality.

  11. A feasibility study of pelvic morphology for curved implants.

    PubMed

    Zakariaee, Roja; Schlosser, Colin L; Baker, Daniel R; Meek, Robert N; Coope, Robin J N

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesize that inserting a curved intramedullary internal fixation device which follows curved osseous fixation paths (OFPs) would be more versatile and mechanically stronger than straight screws for fixation of pelvic ring and acetabular injuries. This study characterizes the dimensions of curved OFPs of the pelvic ring and acetabulum and suggests design parameters for such a curved device. CT scans of intact pelves of 50 female and 50 male subjects were studied using MIM Maestro™ and Solidworks™ to determine the constriction points (smallest cross sections) and the tightest radii of curvature (RoC) in the anterior column, posterior column, iliosacral and pubic symphysis OFPs. The constriction point diameters for the superior pubic ramus and supra-acetabular areas were 13±3mm and 12±3mm, respectively. The anterior column RoC was greater than 65mm in all cases. The minimum observed RoC for the path from one ilium, across the SI joint, the sacrum and to the other ilium was 71mm, with 99% of the cases having a RoC of at least 80mm, in both the inlet and outlet views. This study shows that if a flexible implant which could be stiffened once in place was available, it would enable the use of larger and longer fixation taking advantage of the pelvis's curved intracortical spaces. Even for dysmorphic pelves, accessible tunnels support a long, strong, curved fixation device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Punctate midline myelotomy: a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of pain in inextirpable abdominal and pelvic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dun; Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2007-01-01

    The midline of the dorsal column contains a pathway that may be more important for transmitting visceral nociceptive signals than the spinothalamic tract. Punctate midline myelotomy, a neuroablative operation with the intent of interrupting the midline of the dorsal column, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of otherwise intractable abdominal and pelvic cancer pain. The indications, technical procedure, outcomes, and complications of all published clinical studies of punctate midline myelotomy are reviewed. The lesion level of the spinal cord and the depth of the incision are discussed, with the focus on the feasibility of this technique.

  13. A three-dimensional pelvic model made with a three-dimensional printer: applications for laparoscopic surgery to treat rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamabe, A; Ito, M

    2017-05-01

    To help understand the three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among the highly complex structures of the pelvis, we made a novel 3D pelvic model with a 3D printing system. We created two pelvic models including the muscles, vessels, nerves, and urogenital organs; the first based on the pelvic anatomy of a healthy male volunteer and the second on the pelvic anatomy of a female volunteer with rectal cancer. The models clearly demonstrated the complicated spatial relationships between anatomical structures in the pelvis. Surgeons could use these models to improve their spatial understanding of pelvic anatomy, which could consequently improve the safety and efficiency of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William; Goudreault, Julie

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  15. Prostate cancer: comparison of local staging accuracy of pelvic phased-array coil alone versus integrated endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils. Local staging accuracy of prostate cancer using endorectal coil MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Fütterer, Jurgen J; Engelbrecht, Marc R; Jager, Gerrit J; Hartman, Robert P; King, Bernard F; Hulsbergen-Van de Kaa, Christina A; Witjes, J Alfred; Barentsz, Jelle O

    2007-04-01

    To compare the visibility of anatomical details and prostate cancer local staging performance of pelvic phased-array coil and integrated endorectal-pelvic phased-array coil MR imaging, with histologic analysis serving as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed in 81 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved prostate cancer, prior to radical prostatectomy, on a 1.5T scanner. T2-weighted fast spin echo images of the prostate were obtained using phased-array coil and endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils. Prospectively, one radiologist, retrospectively, two radiologists and two less experienced radiologists working in consensus, evaluated and scored all endorectal-pelvic phased-array imaging, with regard to visibility of anatomical details and local staging. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed. Anatomical details of the overall prostate were significantly better evaluated using the endorectal-pelvic phased-array coil setup (P<0.05). The overall local staging accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the pelvic phased-array coil was 59% (48/81), 56% (20/36) and 62% (28/45), and for the endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils 83% (67/81), 64% (23/36) and 98% (44/45) respectively, for the prospective reader. Accuracy and specificity were significantly better with endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils (P<0.05). The overall staging accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the retrospective readers were 78-79% (P<0.05), 56-58% and 96%, for the endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils. Area under the ROC curve (Az) was significantly higher for endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils (Az=0.74) compared to pelvic phased-array coil (Az=0.57), for the prospective reader. The use of endorectal-pelvic phased array coils resulted in significant improvement of anatomic details, extracapsular extension accuracy and specificity. Overstaging is reduced significantly with equal sensitivity when an endorectal-pelvic phased-array coil is used.

  16. Supporting patients following pelvic radiotherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Emma

    Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the UK. Affected women often live with long-term complex and debilitating side-effects of radiotherapy treatment, such as bowel toxicity, fatigue and psychosexual problems. Women also experience negative feelings around self-image and sexuality, which contribute to a decline in their quality of life. A review of the literature and national policy showed that women had unmet needs after completing radiotherapy treatment for endometrial cancers, and that cancer nurse specialists are in a prime position to deliver a holistic package of personalized care. Staff at a nurse-led gynaecology oncology clinic performed an audit that found the clinic was not meeting the longer-term needs of most women after radiotherapy for endometrial cancers, and that women were attending multiple appointments to access different services. The clinical nurse specialist reviewed local and national policy, carried out situational analysis and engaged with service users to identify where change was needed and to examine whether a new model of service provision, where patients could consult different professionals at one appointment, would help the move forward in life after treatment.

  17. Early ovarian cancer surgery with indocyanine-green-guided targeted compartmental lymphadenectomy (TCL, pelvic part).

    PubMed

    Kimmig, Rainer; Buderath, Paul; Rusch, Peter; Mach, Pawel; Aktas, Bahriye

    2017-09-01

    Para-aortic indocyanine-green (ICG)-guided targeted compartmental lymphadenectomy is feasible in early ovarian cancer; systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy could potentially be avoided if thoroughly investigated sentinel nodes could predict whether residual nodes will be involved or free of disease. In contrast to advanced ovarian cancer, where the therapeutic potential of lymphadenectomy will soon be clarified by the results of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie lymphadenectomy in ovarian neoplasms (AGO LION) trial, systematic lymphadenectomy seems to be mandatory for diagnostic and also therapeutic purposes in early ovarian cancer. Sentinel node biopsy or resection of the regional lymphatic network may reduce morbidity compared to systematic lymphadenectomy as shown already for other entities. Apart from the ovarian mesonephric pathway, a second Müllerian uterine pathway exists for lymphatic drainage of the ovary. Lymphatic valves apparently do not exist at this level of the utero-ovarian network since injection of radioactivity into the ovarian ligaments also labelled pelvic nodes. We applied ICG using 4×0.5 mL of a 1.66 mg/mL ICG solution for transcervical injection into the fundal and midcorporal myometrium at each side [10] instead of injection into the infundibulopelvic ligament, since the utero-ovarian drainage was intact. In this case a 1.8 cm cancer of the right ovary was removed in continuity with its draining lymphatic vessels and at least the first 2 sentinel nodes in each channel "en bloc" as shown in this video for the pelvic part, consistent with the loco-regional ontogenetic approach. This could potentially avoid most of systematic lymphadenectomies in early ovarian cancer.

  18. Spontaneous Twin Pregnancy After Oophoropexy and Pelvic Radiation for Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wald, Kaitlyn; Easterling, Tom; Swisher, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    Pregnancy after adulthood pelvic radiation is rare. There is a paucity of literature to guide preconception counseling and pregnancy management for these patients. A 36-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1001, was referred at 28 weeks of gestation with spontaneous twins, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and a history of rectal cancer that had been treated 3 years previously with oophoropexy, chemoradiation, and abdominal perineal resection. Delivery was complicated by difficult fetal extraction and resulted in the demise of twin A. Pregnancy after adulthood pelvic radiation is a potentially morbid event. Patients should be counseled about the potential delivery complications as well as the need for contraception after oophoropexy with intact fallopian tubes.

  19. Risk of Hypogonadism From Scatter Radiation During Pelvic Radiation in Male Patients With Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Ivan; Vuong, Te Garant, Aurelie; Ducruet, Thierry; Doran, Patrick; Faria, Sergio; Liberman, Sender; Richard, Carole; Letellier, Francois; Charlebois, Patrick; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have reported fluctuations in sex hormones during pelvic irradiation. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of radiation on hormonal profiles for two treatment modalities: conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) given neoadjuvantly for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Routine serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were collected from 119 consecutive male patients receiving either EBRT, using 45.0-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy or HDRBT using 26 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: Thirty patients with initially abnormal profiles were excluded. Profiles included in this study were collected from 51 patients treated with EBRT and 38 patients treated with HDRBT, all of whom had normal hormonal profiles before treatment. Mean follow-up times were 17 months for the entire patient cohort-14 and 20 months, respectively-for the EBRT and HDRBT arms. Dosimetry results revealed a mean cumulative testicular dose of 1.24 Gy received in EBRT patients compared with 0.27 Gy in the HDRBT group. After treatment, FSH and LH were elevated in all patients but were more pronounced in the EBRT group. The testosterone-to-LH ratio was significantly lower (p = 0.0036) in EBRT patients for tumors in the lower third of the rectum. The 2-year hypogonadism rate observed was 2.6% for HDRBT compared with 17.6% for EBRT (p = 0.09) for tumors in the lower two thirds of the rectum. Conclusion: HDRBT allows better hormonal sparing than EBRT during neoadjuvant treatment of patients with rectal cancer.

  20. The anal canal as a risk organ in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunsoo; Baek, Jong Geun; Jo, Sunmi

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients with cervical cancer undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. However, patients with hemorrhoids may be troubled with low radiation dose. We tried to analyze the dose-volume statistics of the anal canal in patients undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. The records of 31 patients with cervical cancer who received definite or postoperative radiotherapy at one institution were reviewed. Acute anal symptoms, such as anal pain and bleeding, were evaluated from radiotherapy start to 1 month after radiotherapy completion. Various clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed to characterize relations with acute anal complications. The anal verge was located an average of 1.2 cm (range -0.6~3.9) below the lower border of the ischial tuberosity and an average of 2.7 cm (range -0.6~5.7) behind the sacral promontory level. The presence of hemorrhoids before radiotherapy was found to be significantly associated with acute radiation-induced anal symptoms (p = 0.001), and the mean induction dose for anal symptoms was 36.9 Gy. No patient without hemorrhoids developed an anal symptom during radiotherapy. Dosimetric analyses of V30 and V40 showed marginal correlations with anal symptoms (p = 0.07). The present study suggests a relation between acute anal symptoms following radiotherapy and acute hemorrhoid aggravation. Furthermore, the location of the anal verge was found to be variable, and consequently doses administered to the anal canal also varied substantially. Our results caution careful radiation treatment planning for whole pelvic radiotherapy, and that proper clinical management be afforded patients with hemorrhoids during radiotherapy.

  1. Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Su Ssan; Park, Jin-hong; Jeong, Yuri; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Ahn, Seung Do

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions. Results The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings. PMID:24501707

  2. Individual and dyadic planning predicting pelvic floor exercise among prostate cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jan; Burkert, Silke; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Schrader, Mark; Knoll, Nina

    2015-08-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 60(3) of Rehabilitation Psychology (see record 2015-40319-001). Aleksandra Luszczynska's institutional affiliation was incorrectly set as Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities. It should have been University of Social Sciences and Humanities. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Radical prostatectomy, a standard treatment for localized prostate cancer, is often followed by a recommendation to initiate and maintain pelvic floor exercise (PFE), to control postsurgery urinary incontinence. Previous studies showed that planning facilitated the uptake and maintenance of a new behavior. Whereas individual planning addresses the setting of plans by 1 person, dyadic planning refers to creating plans together with a partner on when, where, and how the individual target person will perform a behavior. Individual and dyadic planning of PFE, their development over time, and their associations with PFE were investigated. In a correlational study, 175 prostate-cancer patients provided data at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months following the onset of incontinence. Individual planning of PFE by patients and dyadic planning of PFE between patients and their partners, PFE, and incontinence were assessed by patients' self-reports. Two-level models with repeated assessments nested in individuals revealed stable levels of individual planning of PFE over time in patients with higher incontinence severity, whereas patients with receding incontinence showed decreases. Independent of incontinence severity, a curvilinear increase followed by a decrease of dyadic planning of PFE across time emerged. Sequential associations of both planning strategies with PFE were found. Whereas individual planning was steadily associated with PFE, associations between dyadic planning and PFE were nonsignificant in the beginning, but increased over time. Findings point to the importance of individual planning for the adoption and

  3. [Providing of a virtual simulator perineal anatomy (Pelvic Mentor®) in learning pelvic perineology: results of a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Sahmoune Rachedi, L; Descamps, P; Fernandez, H

    2015-01-01

    Medical and surgical simulation is in high demand. It is widely used in North America as a method of education and training of medical students and surgical residents. Learning anatomy and vaginal surgery are based on palpation recognition of different structures. The absence of visual control of actions learners is a limiting factor for the reproducibility of surgical techniques prolapse and urinary incontinenence. However, this reproducibility is the only guarantee of success and safety of these minimally invasive surgeries. We evaluated the contribution of an educational module perineal anatomy using a system combining anatomic mannequin and a computerized 3D virtual simulator (Pelvic Mentor®, Simbionix) in the knowledge of pelvic-perineal anatomical structures for eight residents of obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in Paris. The self-study training module has led to substantial improvements in internal rating with a proportion of structures recognized from 31.25 to 87.5 % (P<0.001) for the front compartment and 20 to 85 % (P<0.001) for the posterior compartment. The preliminary results suggest that the 3D virtual simulator enhances and facilitates learning the anatomy of the pelvic floor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation therapy and pelvic node dissection in the management of cancer of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Batata, M A; Grabstald, H

    1974-08-01

    A technique involving a pelvic lymphadenectomy and a retropubic implantation of the prostate with iodine 125 encapsulated sources is under investigation at Memorial Hospital. This technique is simple and applicable to patients with localized cancer of the prostate, clinically stage B or C. It has increased the accuracy of staging, carries no mortality and has low morbidity. The results have been encouraging with substantial local tumor control and no late urinary or rectal disturbances in the 49 patients who have been followed from 6 to 30 months.

  5. Whole-pelvic volumetric-modulated arc therapy for high-risk prostate cancer: treatment planning and acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Ogino, Ryo; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Fujioka, Chiaki; Okada, Wataru; Nakahara, Ryota; Kawamorita, Ryu; Tada, Takuhito; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate dosimetric quality and acute toxicity of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and daily image guidance in high-risk prostate cancer patients. A total of 100 consecutive high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with definitive VMAT with prophylactic whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) were enrolled. All patients were treated with a double-arc VMAT plan delivering 52 Gy to the prostate planning target volume (PTV), while simultaneously delivering 46.8 Gy to the pelvic nodal PTV in 26 fractions, followed by a single-arc VMAT plan delivering 26 Gy to the prostate PTV in 13 fractions. Image-guided RT was performed with daily cone-beam computed tomography. Dose–volume parameters for the PTV and the organs at risk (OARs), total number of monitor units (MUs) and treatment time were evaluated. Acute toxicity was assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. All dosimetric parameters met the present plan acceptance criteria. Mean MU and treatment time were 471 and 146 s for double-arc VMAT, respectively, and were 520 and 76 s for single-arc VMAT, respectively. No Grade 3 or higher acute toxicity was reported. Acute Grade 2 proctitis, diarrhea, and genitourinary toxicity occurred in 12 patients (12%), 6 patients (6%) and 13 patients (13%), respectively. The present study demonstrated that VMAT for WPRT in prostate cancer results in favorable PTV coverage and OAR sparing with short treatment time and an acceptable rate of acute toxicity. These findings support the use of VMAT for delivering WPRT to high-risk prostate cancer patients. PMID:25304328

  6. Deep pelvic anatomy revisited for a description of crucial steps in extralevator abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stelzner, Sigmar; Holm, Torbjörn; Moran, Brendan J; Heald, Richard J; Witzigmann, Helmut; Zorenkov, Dimitri; Wedel, Thilo

    2011-08-01

    Extralevator abdominoperineal excision results in superior oncologic outcome for advanced low rectal cancer. The exact definition of surgical resection planes is pivotal to achieving negative circumferential resection margins. This study aims to describe the surrounding anatomical structures that are at risk for inadvertent damage during extralevator abdominoperineal excision. Joint surgical and macroanatomical dissection was performed in a university laboratory of clinical anatomy. A stepwise dissection study was conducted according to the technique of extralevator abdominoperineal excision by abdominal and perineal approaches in 4 human cadaveric pelvises. Muscular, fascial, tendinous, and neural structures were carefully exposed and related to the corresponding surgical resection planes. In addition to the autonomic nerves to be identified and preserved during total mesorectal excision, further structures endangered during extralevator abdominoperineal excision can be clearly identified. Terminal pudendal nerve branches come close to the surgical resection plane at the outer surface of the puborectal sling. Likewise, the pelvic plexus and its neurovascular bundles embedded within the parietal pelvic fascia extend close to the apex of the prostate where the parietal pelvic fascia has to be divided. These neural structures converge in the region of the perineal body, an area that provides no "self-opening" planes for surgical dissection. Thus, the necessity to sharply detach the anorectal specimen anteriorly from the perineal body and the superficial transverse perineal muscle bears the risk of both inadvertent damage of the aforementioned anatomical structures and perforation of the specimen. The study focused primarily on the macroscopic topography relevant to the surgical procedure, so that previously published histologic examinations were not performed. The present anatomical dissection study highlights those anatomical landmarks that require clear

  7. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer in Patients With Prior Pelvic Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Prajnan; Delclos, Marc E.; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry W.; Chang, George J.; Eng, Cathy; Bedi, Manpreet; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine rates of toxicity, freedom from local progression, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with reirradiation. Methods and Materials: Between February 2001 and February 2005, 50 patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy were treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for primary (n = 2 patients) or recurrent (n = 48 patients) rectal adenocarcinoma. Patients were treated with 150-cGy fractions twice daily, with a total dose of 39 Gy (n = 47 patients) if the retreatment interval was >=1 year or 30 Gy (n = 3) if the retreatment interval was <1 year. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 48 (96%) patients. Eighteen (36%) patients underwent surgical resection following radiotherapy. Results: Two patients had grade 3 acute toxicity and 13 patients had grade 3 to 4 late toxicity. The 3-year rate of grade 3 to 4 late toxicity was 35%. The 3-year rate of freedom from local progression was 33%. The 3-year freedom from local progression rate was 47% in patients undergoing surgery and 21% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.057). The 3-year overall survival rate was 39%. The 3-year overall survival rate was 66% in patients undergoing surgery and 27% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.003). The 3-year overall survival rate was 53% in patients with a retreatment interval of >2 years and 21% in those with a retreatment interval of <=2 years (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated, accelerated reirradiation was well tolerated, with low rates of acute toxicity and moderate rates of late toxicity. Reirradiation may help improve pelvic control in rectal cancer patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy.

  8. Surgical and Survival Outcomes Following Pelvic Exenteration for Locally Advanced Primary Rectal Cancer: Results from an International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    2017-09-21

    The aim of the study was to analyze data from an international collaboration, and ascertain prognostic indicators that inform clinical decision-making and practices regarding the role of pelvic exenteration for locally advanced primary rectal cancer (LARC). With improved national screening programs fewer patients present with LARC. Despite this, select cohorts of patients require pelvic exenteration. To date, the majority of outcome data are from single-center series. Anonymized data from 14 countries on patients who had pelvic exenteration for LARC between 2004 and 2014 were accumulated. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The impact of resection margin, nodal status, bone resection, and use of neoadjuvant therapy (before exenteration) on survival was evaluated using multivariable analysis. Of 1291 patients, 778 (60.3%) were male with a median (range) age of 63 (18-90) years; 78.1% received neoadjuvant therapy. Bone resection en bloc was performed in 8.2% of patients (n = 106), and 22.6% (n = 292) had resection combined with flap reconstruction. Negative resection margin (R0 resection) was achieved in 79.9%. The 30-day postoperative mortality was 1.5%.The median overall survival following R0, R1, and R2 resection was 43, 21, and 10 months (P < 0.001) with a 3-year survival of 56.4%, 29.6%, and 8.1%, respectively (P < 0.001); 37.8% of patients experienced one or more major complication. Neoadjuvant therapy increased the risk of 30-day morbidity (P < 0.012). Multivariable analysis identified resection margin and nodal status as significant determinants of overall survival (other than advanced age). Attainment of negative resection margins (R0) is the key to survival. Neoadjuvant therapy may improve survival; however, it does so at the increased risk of postoperative morbidity.

  9. Prevalence of pelvic floor symptoms in female patients attending the two-week wait clinic with suspected colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Greenwood, A; Durdey, P; Glancy, D

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of pelvic floor symptoms in women referred to a colorectal two-week wait (2WW) clinic with suspected colorectal cancer. Methods A questionnaire assessing faecal incontinence (FI) (Wexner score) and obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) (Renzi score) was offered to 98 consecutive female patients attending a colorectal 2WW clinic at a single trust. Results Overall, 56 (57%) of the 98 patients had significant ODS and/or FI (scores >9/20), 33 (34%) had ODS and 40 (41%) had FI. Seventeen patients (17%) had both ODS and FI. Analysis of the 63 patients referred with a change in bowel habit (CIBH) showed 40 (63%) to be Renzi and/or Wexner positive compared with 16 (46%) of the 35 patients who presented without CIBH (p=0.095, Fisher's exact test). Further analysis showed that 31 (78%) of the 40 patients with FI presented with CIBH compared with 32 (55%) of the 58 without FI (p=0.032). In terms of ODS, 23 (70%) of the 33 patients with ODS presented with CIBH compared with 40 (62%) of the 65 without ODS (p=0.506). Conclusions Over half of the female patients attending our colorectal 2WW clinic had significant pelvic floor dysfunction (FI/ODS), which may account for their symptoms (especially in the CIBH referral category). While it is important for malignancy to be excluded, many patients may benefit from investigation and management of their pelvic floor dysfunction as the cause for their presenting symptoms.

  10. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan–Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used. The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06–1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00–1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the

  11. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-11-01

    As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed.Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used.The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06-1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00-1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the genitals, bladder, and

  12. Two-stage technique for implantation of inflatable penile prosthesis in pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Boyd, S D

    1988-07-01

    A two-stage technique for implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis has been developed for patients undergoing radical pelvic cancer surgery. Over the past five years, this method has been utilized in 147 men undergoing radical cystectomies or prostatectomies. The technique involves implanting the reservoir and pump of the prosthesis at the time of the radical cancer operation when the lateral neurovascular bundles of erection are being sacrificed. The reservoir and pump are permanently connected, and the cylinder tubings from the pump are temporarily connected and placed in the subcutaneous tissue overlying the pubis. During a second procedure, usually six to twelve weeks later, the cylinders are implanted infrapubically and connected to the easily located pump tubing. The advantages are several. (1) The pump and reservoir are easily implanted during the pelvic surgery while importantly not adding significantly to the operative time or morbidity of the primary procedure. (2) The reservoir is easily positioned in the pelvis. (3) The scrotum with its contained pump already will be healed when the entire prosthesis is connected, bypassing the initial scrotal pain and edema. (4) Psychologically the patients feel relieved that their erectile dysfunction is being treated immediately. This two-stage technique appears to maximize the gain of early and easy implantation while minimizing the potential problems of concomitant surgery.

  13. C14ORF166 overexpression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijing; Ou, Jianping; Lei, Fangyong; Hou, Teng; Wu, Shu; Niu, Chunhao; Xu, Liqun; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    C14ORF166 (chromosome 14 open reading frame 166) is a transcriptional repressor related to the regulation of centrosome architecture. However, the role of C14ORF166 in the development and progression of cancer remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of C14ORF166 in cervical cancer. C14ORF166 expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting in cervical cancer cell lines and eight paired cervical cancer samples and the adjacent normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze C14ORF166 protein expression in 148 clinicopathologically characterized cervical cancer specimens. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the expression of C14ORF166 and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. C14ORF166 mRNA and protein expression were significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and tissue samples (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a high expression of C14ORF166 was observed in 39.9 % (59/148) of the cervical cancer specimens; the remaining samples expressed low levels or did not express any detectable C14ORF166. The chi-square test indicated that high-level expression of C14ORF166 was significantly associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P < 0.001), vital status (P = 0.026), tumor size (P = 0.034), serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level (SCC-Ag; P = 0.035), and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Patients with highly expressed C14ORF166 showed a tendency to receive postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.005) and postoperative radiation (P = 0.008). Furthermore, high C14ORF166 expression was associated with poorer overall survival compared to low C14ORF166 expression, and C14ORF166 was a significant prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High C14ORF166 expression had prognostic

  14. Obesity and pelvic organ prolapse: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Giri, Ayush; Hartmann, Katherine E; Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Edwards, Todd L

    2017-07-01

    Studies evaluating the association between obesity and pelvic organ prolapse report estimates that range from negative to positive associations. Heterogeneous definitions for pelvic organ prolapse and variable choices for categorizing obesity measures have made it challenging to conduct meta-analysis. We systematically evaluated evidence to provide quantitative summaries of association between degrees of obesity and pelvic organ prolapse, and identify sources of heterogeneity. We searched for all indexed publications relevant to pelvic organ prolapse up until June 18, 2015, in PubMed/MEDLINE to identify analytical observational studies published in English that reported risk ratios (relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio) for body mass index categories in relation to pelvic organ prolapse. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to report associations with pelvic organ prolapse for overweight and obese body mass index categories compared with women in the normal-weight category (referent: body mass index <25 kg/m(2)). Of the 70 studies that reported evidence on obesity and pelvic organ prolapse, 22 eligible studies provided effect estimates for meta-analysis of the overweight and obese body mass index categories. Compared with the referent category, women in the overweight and obese categories had meta-analysis risk ratios of at least 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.53) and at least 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.59), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed effect estimates for objectively measured clinically significant pelvic organ prolapse were higher than for self-reported pelvic organ prolapse. Other potential sources of heterogeneity included proportion of postmenopausal women in study and reported study design. Overweight and obese women are more likely to have pelvic organ prolapse compared with women with body mass index in the normal range. The finding that the associations for obesity measures were strongest for objectively measured

  15. Pelvic Incidence: A Predictive Factor for Three-Dimensional Acetabular Orientation—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bollini, Gérard; Legaye, Jean; Tardieu, Christine; Prat-Pradal, Dominique; Chabrol, Brigitte; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Duval-Beaupère, Ginette; Pélissier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Acetabular cup orientation (inclination and anteversion) is a fundamental topic in orthopaedics and depends on pelvis tilt (positional parameter) emphasising the notion of a safe range of pelvis tilt. The hypothesis was that pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could yield a more accurate and reliable assessment than pelvis tilt. The aim was to find out a predictive equation of acetabular 3D orientation parameters which were determined by pelvic incidence to include in the model. The second aim was to consider the asymmetry between the right and left acetabulae. Twelve pelvic anatomic specimens were measured with an electromagnetic Fastrak system (Polhemus Society) providing 3D position of anatomical landmarks to allow measurement of acetabular and pelvic parameters. Acetabulum and pelvis data were correlated by a Spearman matrix. A robust linear regression analysis provided prediction of acetabulum axes. The orientation of each acetabulum could be predicted by the incidence. The incidence is correlated with the morphology of acetabula. The asymmetry of the acetabular roof was correlated with pelvic incidence. This study allowed analysis of relationships of acetabular orientation and pelvic incidence. Pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could determine the safe range of pelvis tilt (positional parameter) for an individual and not a group. PMID:25006461

  16. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain - a prospective single-subject research design study.

    PubMed

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Stuge, Britt

    2014-03-15

    The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage.

  17. Comparison of three different pelvic circumferential compression devices: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Knops, S P; Schep, N W L; Spoor, C W; van Riel, M P J M; Spanjersberg, W R; Kleinrensink, G J; van Lieshout, E M M; Patka, P; Schipper, I B

    2011-02-02

    Pelvic circumferential compression devices are designed to stabilize the pelvic ring and reduce the volume of the pelvis following trauma. It is uncertain whether pelvic circumferential compression devices can be safely applied for all types of pelvic fractures because the effects of the devices on the reduction of fracture fragments are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of circumferential compression devices on the dynamic realignment and final reduction of the pelvic fractures as a measure of the quality of reduction. Three circumferential compression devices were evaluated: the Pelvic Binder, the SAM Sling, and the T-POD. In sixteen cadavers, four fracture types were generated according to the Tile classification system. Infrared retroreflective markers were fixed in the different fracture fragments of each pelvis. The circumferential compression device was applied sequentially in a randomized order with gradually increasing forces applied. Fracture fragment movement was studied with use of a three-dimensional infrared video system. Dynamic realignment and final reduction of the fracture fragments during closure of the circumferential compression devices were determined. A factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance with pairwise post hoc comparisons was performed to analyze the differences in pulling force between the circumferential compression devices. In the partially stable and unstable (Tile type-B and C) pelvic fractures, all circumferential compression devices accomplished closure of the pelvic ring and consequently reduced the pelvic volume. No adverse fracture displacement (>5 mm) was observed in these fracture types. The required pulling force to attain complete reduction at the symphysis pubis varied substantially among the three different circumferential compression devices, with a mean (and standard error of the mean) of 43 ± 7 N for the T-POD, 60 ± 9 N for the Pelvic Binder, and 112 ± 10 N for the SAM Sling. The

  18. Pelvic Actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Alejandra; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa; Sandoval-Trujillo, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. No epidemiological studies have been conducted to determine prevalence or incidence of such infections. Objective To analyse the clinical cases of pelvic actinomycosis reported worldwide, to update the information about the disease. Methods A systematic review of worldwide pelvic actinomycosis cases between 1980 and 2014 was performed, utilising the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The following information was analysed: year, country, type of study, number of cases, use of intrauterine device (IUD), final and initial diagnosis, and method of diagnosis. Results 63 articles met the search criteria, of which 55 reported clinical cases and 8 reported cross-sectional studies. Conclusions Pelvic actinomycosis is confusing to diagnose and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic chronic inflammatory lesions. It is commonly diagnosed through a histological report, obtained after a surgery subsequent to an erroneous initial diagnosis. A bacterial culture in anaerobic medium could be useful for the diagnosis but requires a controlled technique and should be performed using specialised equipment. PMID:28684963

  19. Relationship between minimally invasive hysterectomy, pelvic cytology, and lymph vascular space invasion: a single institution study of 458 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chelsea; Havrilesky, Laura J; Broadwater, Gloria; Di Santo, Nicola; Ehrisman, Jessie A; Lee, Paula S; Berchuck, Andrew; Alvarez Secord, Angeles; Bean, Sarah; Bentley, Rex C; Valea, Fidel A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether a minimally invasive approach to hysterectomy is associated with an increased rate of lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI) and/or malignant pelvic peritoneal cytology in endometrial cancer. We performed a single institution analysis of 458 women with endometrial cancer who underwent either total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) or minimally invasive hysterectomy (MIH) with use of a disposable uterine manipulator. All patients had endometrial cancer diagnosed by endometrial biopsy at a single academic institution between 2002 and 2012. Exclusion criteria were pre-operative D&C and/or hysteroscopy, uterine perforation or morcellation, and conversion to laparotomy. Multivariate logistic regression models to determine if type of hysterectomy predicts either LVSI or presence of abnormal cytology were controlled for grade, stage, depth of invasion, tumor size, cervical and adnexal involvement. LVSI was identified in 39/214 (18%) MIH and 44/242 (18%) TAH (p=0.99). Pelvic washings were malignant in 14/203 (7%) MIH and 16/241 (7%) TAH (p=1.0). Washings were atypical or inconclusive in 16/203 (8%) MIH and 6/241 (2.5%) TAH (p=0.014). In multivariate analyses, type of hysterectomy was not a significant predictor of either LVSI (p=0.29) or presence of malignant washings (p=0.66), but was a predictor of atypical or inconclusive washings (p=0.03). Minimally invasive hysterectomy with use of a uterine manipulator for endometrial cancer is not associated with LVSI or malignant cytology. Algorithms that better determine the etiology and implications of inconclusive or atypical pelvic cytology are needed to inform the possible additional risk associated with a minimally invasive approach to endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The pain management approach to chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D

    1987-05-01

    Chronic pelvic pain remains a difficult management problem that is often refractory to traditional medical or surgical therapy. The pain management center approach used successfully for the treatment of cancer pain and headache can be adapted to the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that the multidisciplinary techniques of pain management promise to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.

  1. Age at menarche and pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy: a population study of 74 973 women.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, E K; Eberhard-Gran, M; Nielsen, C S; Eskild, A

    2011-12-01

    To study the association of age at menarche with presence of pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy. Population study. Norway 1999-2007. A total of 74 973 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires in weeks 17 and 30 of gestation. Pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy at 30 weeks of gestation, defined as pain in the pubic symphysis in the anterior pelvis and in both sacroiliac joints in the posterior pelvis. The prevalence of pelvic girdle syndrome was 20.6% (328/1593) in women with menarche before the age of 11, it was 16.3% (3200/22 044) in women with menarche at the age of 12 and 12.7% (1252/9859) in women with menarche after the age of 14 (chi-square test for trend, P < 0.001). The inverse association of age at menarche with pelvic girdle syndrome remained after adjustment for body mass index, maternal age, parity, educational level, previous low back pain, emotional distress and physically demanding work. Women with early menarche and high body mass index had the highest prevalence of pelvic girdle syndrome, but the association of early menarche with pelvic girdle syndrome was similar in women with and without high body mass index. Early menarche was associated with increased prevalence of pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy. Factors associated with early menarche may play a role in the development of pelvic girdle pain. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  2. Surgical-pathologic risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in stage Ib1-IIb cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Donglin; Cai, Jing; Kuang, Yan; Cao, Jin; Wang, Zehua

    2012-07-01

    To study the distribution characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer lymph node metastasis (LNM). Retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Affiliated Hospital to Zunyi Medical College. 404 women diagnosed with cervical cancer FIGO stage Ib1-IIa who underwent primary radical surgery and 104 women with Ib2-IIb tumors treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before surgery. Clinicopathological data were collected and analyzed. Incidence of infiltration, metastasis and pelvic LNM. In women without NACT, the incidence of infiltration, metastasis and LNM was 7.2, 17.6 and 15.8%, respectively. Metastasis and LNM were significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage and poorer histological grade. The incidence of multiple metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs), bilateral LNM, skip LNM, LNM in primary group and LNM in secondary group was 6.2, 3.0, 6.2%, 11.4 and 4.5%, respectively. Of the 111 MLNs, 13 (11.7%) were common iliac lymph nodes. In the NACT group, infiltration, metastasis and LNM were observed in 10 (9.6%), 24 (23.1%) and 21 (20.1%) of 104 women, respectively. Metastasis and LNM were significantly correlated with moderate cell differentiation. High LNM risk is expected in tumors of IIa stage or higher and in moderately differentiated tumors. Skip metastasis and common iliac LNM are relatively common and therefore should not be neglected. Our results suggest that standardized and complete pelvic lymph node dissection under surgery is an important measure to ensure a therapeutic effect. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Pelvic Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Planning Procedures and Early Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Muren, Ludvig Paul Wasbo, Ellen; Helle, Svein Inge; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Karlsdottir, Asa; Odland, Odd Harald; Valen, Harald; Ekerold, Randi; Johannessen, Dag Clement

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: We present planning and early clinical outcomes of a study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 43 patients initially treated with an IMRT plan delivering 50 Gy to the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes, followed by a conformal radiotherapy (CRT) plan delivering 20 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles, were studied. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data for the added plans were compared with dose-volume histogram data for the sum of two CRT plans for 15 cases. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity, based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system, was recorded weekly throughout treatment as well as 3 to 18 months after treatment and are presented. Results: Treatment with IMRT both reduced normal tissue doses and increased the minimum target doses. Intestine volumes receiving more than 40 and 50 Gy were significantly reduced (e.g., at 50 Gy, from 81 to 19 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.026), as were bladder volumes above 40, 50, and 60 Gy, rectum volumes above 30, 50, and 60 Gy, and hip joint muscle volumes above 20, 30, and 40 Gy. During treatment, Grade 2 GI toxicity was reported by 12 of 43 patients (28%), and Grade 2 to 4 GU toxicity was also observed among 12 patients (28%). With 6 to 18 months of follow-up, 2 patients (5%) experienced Grade 2 GI effects and 7 patients (16%) experienced Grade 2 GU effects. Conclusions: Use of IMRT for pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer reduces normal tissue doses, improves target coverage, and has a promising toxicity profile.

  4. Outcomes of uterine cervical cancer patients with pelvic lymph node metastases after radiotherapy without boost irradiation of metastases.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Eriko; Koiwai, Keiichiro; Ina, Hironobu; Fukazawa, Ayumu; Sakai, Katsuya; Ozawa, Takesumi; Matsushita, Hirohide; Kadoya, Masumi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of uterine cervical cancer patients with pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastases after radiotherapy without boost irradiation of the metastases and to clarify the necessity of the boost irradiation of metastatic lesions. Thirty-two patients with uterine cervical cancer metastasizing only to the PLN were treated with definitive radiotherapy without boost irradiation of the metastases between 2008 and 2012 at our institution and were selected for this study. The pattern of progression, overall survival, and progression-free survival were analyzed. Ninety percent of the PLN metastases were controlled by radiotherapy. Twenty-two of 32 patients (69%) experienced progression. Distant metastases as initial progression were observed in 21 of these 22 patients (95%). Only two patients experienced failures in pre-treatment metastatic PLN as initial progression, along with other failures. Severe late lower gastrointestinal toxicities were not observed in any patients. Two-year cumulative overall survival and progression-free survival were 74% and 31%, respectively. Boost irradiation of PLN metastases is not necessarily indispensable. Further studies to examine the necessity of boost irradiation of PLN metastases in radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer patients with metastases are required. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-Induced Vaginal Stenosis After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Rectal and Anal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Son, Christina H; Law, Ethel; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya P; Yang, T Jonathan; Riedel, Elyn; Wu, Abraham J; Deasy, Joseph O; Goodman, Karyn A

    2015-07-01

    Although vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized toxicity in women who receive pelvic radiation therapy (RT), the relationship between RT dose and the volume and extent of toxicity has not been analyzed. We modeled this relationship to identify predictors of VS. We evaluated 54 women, aged 29 to 78 years, who underwent pelvic RT for rectal or anal cancer during 2008 to 2011 and were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating vaginal dilator use. Maximum dilator size was measured before RT (baseline) and 1 month and 12 months after RT. Dilator use was initiated at 1 month. The difference (D) in dilator size before and after RT was recorded. Those with D ≤-1 were classified as having VS (n=35); those with D ≥0 were classified as having no VS (n=19 at 1 month). Dose-volume parameters were extracted, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used to build a predictive model. The mean vaginal doses were 50.0 Gy and 36.8 Gy for anal and rectal cancer patients, respectively. One month after RT, a gEUD model using a wide range of a values suggests that sparing of vaginal volume to a low dose may be important. When gEUD (a = -1) was <35 Gy and the mean vaginal dose was <43 Gy, severe VS was reduced (P=.02). A 1-year analysis suggests increasingly negative D values with increasing mean dose. However, patients with compliance <40% were more likely to have toxicity. Vaginal stenosis is influenced by multiple RT dose-volume characteristics. Mean dose and gEUD constraints together may reduce the risk of severe VS. Patients receiving higher mean vaginal doses should have greater compliance with dilator therapy to minimize risk of toxicity. Further validation with independent datasets is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TH-C-BRD-11: Robustness of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Pelvic Cancer Under Anatomical Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinges, E; Bhatia, S; Gross, B; McGuire, S; Wang, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy provides excellent dosimetric benefits in pelvic cancer treatment, yet day-to-day anatomical variations in pelvic region tend to cause range uncertainties. This study evaluates the dosimetric robustness under anatomical changes for three PBS intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), IMPT using worstcase robust optimization (thereafter ‘Robust IMPT’), and single-field uniform dose (SFUD), in cervical cancer treatment. Methods: IMPT, Robust IMPT, and SFUD plans using the same beam directions and the same prescription (Rx) were generated on computed tomography (CT) images acquired on the simulation day. The dose from each plan was then recomputed on CT images acquired in subsequent two to five weeks using the same protocol. The weekly CTs were registered to the planning CT based on bony anatomy. Target coverage was considered adequate on each weekly CT if dose to 99% of the internal target volume (D-ITV99%) reached at least 95% of the Rx dose. Statistical analysis was then performed on the 21 weekly CT images available for the 7 enrolled patients. Results: Statistically, IMPT was unable to maintain target coverage (mean D-ITV99% = 90.5% Rx, p = 0.004), and SFUD was able to maintain target coverage (mean D-ITV99% = 98.0% Rx, p = 0.0064), in the weeks following simulation. Robust IMPT was able to improve the robustness of IMPT significantly (p < 0.0001), though its maintenance of target coverage was not statistically significant by the 95% Rx criteria (mean D-ITV99% = 96.0%, p = 0.1677). Conclusion: During the multi-week treatment course with anatomical variations, SFUD is robust in terms of maintaining target coverage while IMPT is not. The worst-case optimized Robust IMPT, assuming ±3.5% range uncertainties, improves the robustness of IMPT under anatomical changes significantly, even though it was not designed to account for anatomical changes by mechanism.

  7. Robotic and laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection for rectal cancer: short-term outcomes of 21 consecutive series

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Uk; Saklani, Avanish P.; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience and assess the feasibility and safety of robotic and laparoscopic lateral pelvic node dissection (LPND) in advanced rectal cancer. Methods Between November 2007 and November 2012, extended minimally invasive surgery for LPND was performed in 21 selected patients with advanced rectal cancer, including 11 patients who underwent robotic LPND and 10 who underwent laparoscopic LPND. Extended lymphadenectomy was performed when LPN metastasis was suspected on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging even after chemoradiation. Results All 21 procedures were technically successful without the need for conversion to open surgery. The median operation time was 396 minutes (range, 170-581 minutes) and estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50-700 mL). The median length of stay was 10 days (range, 5-24 days) and time to removal of the urinary catheter was 3 days (range, 1-21 days). The median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 24 (range, 8-43), and total number of lateral pelvic lymph nodes was 7 (range, 2-23). Six patients (28.6%) developed postoperative complications; three with an anastomotic leakages, two with ileus and one patient with chyle leakage. Two patients (9.5%) developed urinary incontinence. There was no mortality within 30 days. During a median follow-up of 14 months, two patients developed lung metastasis and there was no local recurrence. Conclusion Robotic and laparoscopic LPND is technically feasible and safe. Minimally invasive techniques for LPND in selected patients can be an acceptable alternative to an open LPND. PMID:24761412

  8. Impact of lower limb lymphedema on quality of life in gynecologic cancer survivors after pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Ik; Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seon; Lee, Yumi; Park, KiByung; Joo, Jungnam; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Chung, Seung Hyun; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of lower limb lymphedema (LLL) on quality of life (QOL) in cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer survivors after pelvic lymph node dissection. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed using the Korean version of the Gynecologic Cancer Lymphedema Questionnaire (GCLQ-K) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). In total, 25 women with LLL and 28 women without LLL completed both questionnaires. The GCLQ-K total symptom score and scores for swelling-general, swelling-limb, and heaviness were significantly higher in the LLL group than in the control group. In the EORTC QLQ-C30, the LLL group reported more financial difficulties compared to the control group (mean score, 16.0 vs. 6.0; P=0.035). Global health status was poorer in the LLL group with borderline statistical significance (mean score, 62.7 vs. 71.4; P=0.069). Spearman's correlations suggested that global health status in the EORTC QLQ-C30 correlated with the GCLQ-K total symptom score (in the LLL group, R=-0.64, P=0.001; in the control group, R=-0.42, P=0.027). QOL decreases due to LLL-related symptoms and financial difficulty in women with LLL. Well-designed prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospective study of functional bone marrow-sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for pelvic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun; Bydder, Mark; Yashar, Catheryn M; Rose, Brent S; Cornell, Mariel; Hoh, Carl K; Lawson, Joshua D; Einck, John; Saenz, Cheryl; Fanta, Paul; Mundt, Arno J; Bydder, Graeme M; Mell, Loren K

    2013-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can reduce radiation dose to functional bone marrow (BM) in patients with pelvic malignancies (phase IA) and estimate the clinical feasibility and acute toxicity associated with this technique (phase IB). We enrolled 31 subjects (19 with gynecologic cancer and 12 with anal cancer) in an institutional review board-approved prospective trial (6 in the pilot study, 10 in phase IA, and 15 in phase IB). The mean age was 52 years; 8 of 31 patients (26%) were men. Twenty-one subjects completed (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging by use of quantitative IDEAL (IDEAL IQ; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). The PET/CT and IDEAL IQ were registered, and BM subvolumes were segmented above the mean standardized uptake value and below the mean fat fraction within the pelvis and lumbar spine; their intersection was designated as functional BM for IMRT planning. Functional BM-sparing vs total BM-sparing IMRT plans were compared in 12 subjects; 10 were treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT per protocol. In gynecologic cancer patients, the mean functional BM V(10) (volume receiving ≥10 Gy) and V(20) (volume receiving ≥20 Gy) were 85% vs 94% (P<.0001) and 70% vs 82% (P<.0001), respectively, for functional BM-sparing IMRT vs total BM-sparing IMRT. In anal cancer patients, the corresponding values were 75% vs 77% (P=.06) and 62% vs 67% (P=.002), respectively. Of 10 subjects treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT, 3 (30%) had acute grade 3 hematologic toxicity or greater. IMRT can reduce dose to BM subregions identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT and IDEAL IQ. The efficacy of BM-sparing IMRT is being tested in a phase II trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective Study of Functional Bone Marrow-Sparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Pelvic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Yun; Bydder, Mark; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Rose, Brent S.; Cornell, Mariel; Hoh, Carl K.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Einck, John; Saenz, Cheryl; Fanta, Paul; Mundt, Arno J.; Bydder, Graeme M.; and others

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can reduce radiation dose to functional bone marrow (BM) in patients with pelvic malignancies (phase IA) and estimate the clinical feasibility and acute toxicity associated with this technique (phase IB). Methods and Materials: We enrolled 31 subjects (19 with gynecologic cancer and 12 with anal cancer) in an institutional review board-approved prospective trial (6 in the pilot study, 10 in phase IA, and 15 in phase IB). The mean age was 52 years; 8 of 31 patients (26%) were men. Twenty-one subjects completed {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging by use of quantitative IDEAL (IDEAL IQ; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). The PET/CT and IDEAL IQ were registered, and BM subvolumes were segmented above the mean standardized uptake value and below the mean fat fraction within the pelvis and lumbar spine; their intersection was designated as functional BM for IMRT planning. Functional BM-sparing vs total BM-sparing IMRT plans were compared in 12 subjects; 10 were treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT per protocol. Results: In gynecologic cancer patients, the mean functional BM V{sub 10} (volume receiving {>=}10 Gy) and V{sub 20} (volume receiving {>=}20 Gy) were 85% vs 94% (P<.0001) and 70% vs 82% (P<.0001), respectively, for functional BM-sparing IMRT vs total BM-sparing IMRT. In anal cancer patients, the corresponding values were 75% vs 77% (P=.06) and 62% vs 67% (P=.002), respectively. Of 10 subjects treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT, 3 (30%) had acute grade 3 hematologic toxicity or greater. Conclusions: IMRT can reduce dose to BM subregions identified by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT and IDEAL IQ. The efficacy of BM-sparing IMRT is being tested in a phase II trial.

  11. The evaluation of pelvic floor muscle strength in women with pelvic floor dysfunction: A reliability and correlation study.

    PubMed

    Navarro Brazález, Beatriz; Torres Lacomba, María; de la Villa, Pedro; Sánchez Sánchez, Beatriz; Prieto Gómez, Virginia; Asúnsolo Del Barco, Ángel; McLean, Linda

    2017-04-28

    The purposes of this study were: (i) to evaluate the reliability of vaginal palpation, vaginal manometry, vaginal dynamometry; and surface (transperineal) electromyography (sEMG), when evaluating pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and/or activation; and (ii) to determine the associations among PFM strength measured using these assessments. One hundred and fifty women with pelvic floor disorders participated on one occasion, and 20 women returned for the same investigations by two different raters on 3 different days. At each session, PFM strength was assessed using palpation (both the modified Oxford Grading Scale and the Levator ani testing), manometry, and dynamometry; and PFM activation was assessed using sEMG. The interrater reliability of manometry, dynamometry, and sEMG (both root-mean-square [RMS] and integral average) was high (Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient [CCC] = 0.95, 0.93, 0.91, 0.86, respectively), whereas the interrater reliability of both palpation grading scales was low (Cohen's Kappa [k] = 0.27-0.38). The intrarater reliability of manometry (CCC = 0.96), and dynamometry (CCC = 0.96) were high, whereas intrarater reliability of both palpation scales (k = 0.78 for both), and of sEMG (CCC = 0.79 vs 0.80 for RMS vs integral average) was moderate. The Bland-Altman plot showed good inter and intrarater agreement, with little random variability for all instruments. The correlations among palpation, manometry, and dynamometry were moderate (coefficient of determination [r(2) ] ranged from 0.52 to 0.75), however, transperineal sEMG amplitude was only weakly correlated with all measures of strength (r(2)  = 0.23-0.30). Manometry and dynamometry are more reliable tools than vaginal palpation for the assessment of PFM strength in women with pelvic floor disorders, especially when different raters are involved. The different PFM strength measures used clinically are moderately correlated; whereas, PFM activation recorded

  12. Dosimetric comparison of postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy for endometrial cancer using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruijie; Xu, Shouping; Jiang, Weijuan; Wang, Junjie; Xie, Chuanbin

    2010-01-01

    The use of Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and Helical tomotherapy (HT) is increasing in gynecological cancer patients. No published studies have performed a dosimetric evaluation of whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) using HT for postoperative endometrial cancer. The purpose of this study was to perform a direct dosimetric comparison of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), IMRT and HT plans for WPRT in postoperative endometrial cancer patients, and to evaluate the integral dose to organs at risk (OARs) and normal tissue. We selected ten patients with endometrial cancer undergoing postoperative WPRT. Plans for 3D-CRT, IMRT and HT were developed for each patient. All plans were normalized to deliver 50 Gy to 95% of the PTV. The dosimetry and integral dose to OARs and normal tissue were compared. The significance of differences was tested using a paired two-tailed Student t-test. IMRT were superior to 3D-CRT in dose conformity (conformity index: 0.87 vs. 0.61, p = 0.00) and integral dose to OARs and normal tissue, although a greater volume of normal tissue receiving dose below 10 Gy was observed. The results were similar in HT except that the integral dose to normal tissue increased slightly. Compared directly with IMRT, HT showed better dose homogeneity and lower integral dose to rectum and bladder, but the integral dose to pelvic bones and normal tissue slightly increased. In postoperative WPRT of endometrial cancer, IMRT and HT result in better conformity and lower integral dose to OARs compared with 3D-CRT. The integral dose to normal tissue did not increase significantly in IMRT, although a greater volume of normal tissue is irradiated to the dose below 10 Gy. HT further improves the dose homogeneity and integral dose to rectum and bladder, at the expense of a slightly higher integral dose to pelvic bones and normal tissue.

  13. The role of thallium-201 whole body scan with pelvic SPECT in patients with uterine cervical cancer treated by radiation therapy: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shang-Wen; Yang, Shih-Neng; Sun, Shung-Shung

    2003-10-01

    Evaluation of tumor extent before treatment and its response to therapy is important. The aim of this report is to assess the usefulness with thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging study including whole body scan and pelvic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with uterine cervical cancers treated by radiation therapy. Before irradiation, eleven patients received detailed physical examination and Tl-201 imaging studies. A 4-score grading system was set for evaluation. The interval between Tl-201 imaging follow-up and completion of radiotherapy is one to four months, and its findings were compared with those from CT scan and clinical evidence. Before radiation, left supraclavicular and paraaortic lymphadenopathy was identified in one patient from whole body scan. Accumulation of Tl-201 uptake is observed from pelvic SPECT in all patients. It seems that patients with more tumor bulk had more intense uptake, except for one case with history of suspected pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). After radiotherapy, complete or partial regression is observed. For 6 patients with complete regression (score = 0), no evidence of recurrence is confirmed by follow-up examinations. For three patients with little residual uptake (score = 1), one is suspected with residual density and she is under close follow-up, the other two patients seem due to uterine myoma or short latency. These three patients received another Tl-201 scan 6 months after irradiation completion and the score became zero. One patient with residual intense uptake (score = 2) suffered from relapse in the pelvis and abdomen. This preliminary report indicates that Tl-201 whole body scan and pelvic SPECT has potential in the assessment of response to radiotherapy in patients with uterine cervical cancers. However, further studies including more cases and longer follow-up are needed.

  14. Emotional and sexual concerns in women undergoing pelvic surgery and associated treatment for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Cara; Gunn, Abigail; Sonoda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of gynecologic cancer can cause short- and long-term effects on sexuality, emotional well being, reproductive function, and overall quality of life (QoL). Fortunately, innovative approaches developed over the past several decades have improved oncologic outcomes and reduced treatment sequelae; however, these side effects of treatment are still prevalent. In this article, we provide an overview of the various standard-of-care pelvic surgeries and multimodality cancer treatments (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) by anatomic site and highlight the potential emotional and sexual consequences that can influence cancer survivorship and QoL. Potential screening tools that can be used in clinical practice to identify some of these concerns and treatment side effects and possible solutions are also provided. These screening tools include brief assessments that can be used in the clinical care setting to assist in the identification of problematic issues throughout the continuum of care. This optimizes quality of care, and ultimately, QoL in these women. Prospective clinical trials with gynecologic oncology populations should include patient-reported outcomes to identify subgroups at risk for difficulties during and following treatment for early intervention. PMID:26816823

  15. Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Exam, Pelvic Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1500x1230 View Download Large: 3000x2460 View Download Title: Exam, Pelvic Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

  16. Strength and endurance of the pelvic floor muscles in continent women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Quartly, Emma; Hallam, Taryn; Kilbreath, Sharon; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    To describe the maximal strength and endurance of the pelvic floor muscles in a cohort of women with no history of incontinence; and to determine the effect of age, parity, hormonal status, previous gynaecological surgery and regular performance of pelvic floor muscle exercises on the strength and endurance of these muscles. Preliminary cross-sectional observational study. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Australia. Twenty-eight women aged 19 to 58 years, 16 of whom were under 40 years of age. Participants were excluded if they had a history of incontinence or were currently menstruating. Pelvic floor muscle strength assessed using a perineometer, and pelvic floor muscle endurance above 60% of maximal voluntary contraction. The effect of age, parity, hormonal status, previous gynaecological surgery and regular performance of pelvic floor muscle exercises on the strength and endurance of these muscles. Maximum strength of the pelvic floor muscles was not correlated with endurance (r=0.21, P=0.290) or age (r=-0.31, P=0.107); however, it was influenced by parity (r=-0.44, P=0.020). Endurance was significantly and positively correlated with age (r=0.38, P=0.048). This study provides preliminary data that age and parity may be important factors in pelvic floor muscle performance in women who are continent. A larger study that considers the variability associated with these variables will provide useful guidelines for prescription of exercise. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential Prognostic Benefit of Lateral Pelvic Node Dissection for Rectal Cancer Located Below the Peritoneal Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hideki; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Ishiguro, Megumi; Miyoshi, Masayoshi; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Sato, Taichi; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Hase, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To identify the parameters related to the effective selection of patients who could receive prognostic benefit from lateral pelvic node dissection. Background: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of lateral nodal involvement (LNI) remains difficult, and the indications for lateral lymph node dissection have been controversial. Patients and Methods: A total of 244 consecutive patients who underwent potentially curative surgery with lateral dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer (1985–2000) were reviewed. Patients were stratified into groups based on various parameters, and the therapeutic value index for survival benefit was compared among groups. The therapeutic index of lateral dissection was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the lateral area and the cancer-related 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis to the lateral area, irrespective of metastasis to other areas (mesorectal, superior rectal artery [SRA], and inferior mesenteric artery [IMA] areas). Results: LNI was observed in 41 patients (17%); and 88% of them had nodal involvement in the region along the internal iliac/pudendal artery or in the obturator region (“vulnerable field”). The cancer-related 5-year survival rate among the patients with LNI was 42%; the therapeutic index for lateral dissection was calculated as 7.0 patients, which was much higher than that of lymphadenectomy of the SRA area (1.6 patients) and the IMA area (0.4 patients), and almost comparable to that of lymphadenectomy of the upward mesorectal area (6.9 patients). Although it was possible to select groups at high and low risk for LNI based on several parameters related to tumor aggressiveness, such as tumor differentiation in biopsy specimens, the therapeutic value index was not significantly different between these groups. Unlike these parameters, the diameter of the largest lymph node in the “vulnerable field,” which was positively correlated with the rate of LNI but irrelevant

  18. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence–Free Survival Between Periprostatic and Pelvic Lymph Node Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    González-Roibón, Nilda; Han, Jeong S.; Lee, Stephen; Feng, Zhaoyong; Arslankoz, Sehbal; Smith, Nathaniel; Pierorazio, Philip M.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Deweese, Theodore L.; Partin, Alan W.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Han, Misop; Trock, Bruce; Netto, Georges J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the pathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of periprostatic lymph node (LN) metastasis of prostate cancer. The latter was performed by comparing biochemical recurrence (BCR)–free survival in cases of periprostatic LN metastasis versus matched patients showing pelvic LN metastasis Methods and Materials We identified 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy in our institution (1984–2011) showing positive periprostatic and negative pelvic LN with available follow-up information (group 1). These patients were matched 1:2 to patients with positive pelvic LN (group 2) for pertinent clinicopathologic parameters. Results Main locations of positive periprostatic LN were posterior base and mid posterolateral. Overall higher rate of positive margins, smaller LN, and metastasis size were encountered in group 1 compared with group 2. At 5 years postprostatectomy, 69% of patients in group 1 were free of BCR, whereas 26% of those in group 2 remained BCR free, suggesting that patients with periprostatic node metastasis appeared to have a lower risk of BCR. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .072). The same was true when adjusted for the effect of prostate-specific antigen, surgical margin status, size of LNs, size of metastasis, age, and year of surgery. Conclusion Patients with periprostatic node metastasis may have a lower risk of BCR compared with those with metastasis to pelvic LN. Future analysis of larger cohorts will help establish the biologic significance of prostate cancer metastasis to periprostatic LN. PMID:23564700

  19. [Clinical and microbiological study of acute pelvic inflammatory disease].

    PubMed

    Ovalle, A; Martínez, M A; Casals, A; Yuhaniak, R; Giglio, M S

    1993-01-01

    Upper genital tract infection was investigated in 46 women admitted to hospital with clinic diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and 62 control women accepted to hospital for laparoscopy Fallopian tubes sterilization. Diagnosis was ratified by laparoscopy in mild and moderate salpingitis; culdocentesis and ultrasonography were performed in severe salpingitis and endometrial sample was made in endometritis. Microbiological specimens were taken from the cervix and abdomen. Antecedents and complete clinical studies were obtained. Patients were treated with antibiotic association sodic G penicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Risk factors to development PID were: single female (p < 0.05), multiple sexual partner (p < 0.01), previous PID (p < 0.05), infertility (p < 0.05), mean year of IUD use in severe salpingitis (p = 0.05) and mean years of age from women with sexually transmitted bacterias (STB) vs endogenous bacterias (EB) (p < 0.05). In the control group no abdomen bacterias were isolated. In patients with PID, C. trachomatis was detected by serology in 28.3%. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from the cervix in 23.9% and from the abdomen 17.4%. Besides it was isolated from the abdomen: M. hominis 17.3% and E. coli 15.2%. STB were isolated in 54.3% and EB in 47.8% of the patients. Bacterial association was present on the 37%. Cervix isolation of G. vaginalis and Mycoplasma were not correlated with development of PID. Cervix microbiological samples were useful to know abdomen microbic etiology. They coincide with those in the 90.9%. EB were more frequently isolated from severe salpingitis (p = 0.05) and STB from mild and moderate salpingitis (p = 0.05). Antibiotic association cured all the mild and moderate salpingitis with independence of bacterial etiology. Failure occurred in 2 diffuse peritonitis and 13/14 tubo-ovarian abscesses. Surgery used in severe salpingitis and diffuse peritonitis, principally consisted in anexectomy, peritoneal toilet and

  20. Baropodometry on women suffering from chronic pelvic pain - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated chronic pelvic pain with a stereotyped pattern of movement and posture, lack of normal body sensations, a characteristic pain distribution. We aimed at evaluating if these postural changes are detectable in baropodometry results in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods We performed a prospective study in a university hospital. We selected 32 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain (study group) and 30 women without this pathology (regular gynecological work out - control group). Pain scores and baropodometric analysis were performed. Results As expected, study group presented higher pain scores than control group. Study and control groups presented similar averages for the maximum pressures to the left and right soles as well as soles supports in the forefeet and hind feet. Women suffering from chronic pelvic pain did not present differences in baropodometric analysis when compared to healthy controls. Conclusions This data demonstrates that postural abnormalities resulting from CPP could not be demonstrated by baropodometric evaluation. Other postural measures should be addressed to evaluate pelvic pain patients. PMID:22093947

  1. Selection of Lymph Node-Positive Cases Based on Perirectal and Lateral Pelvic Lymph Nodes Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Study of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shimpei; Hida, Jin-Ichi; Ike, Hideyuki; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Shinto, Eiji; Itabashi, Michio; Kameoka, Shingo; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the optimum cutoff for lymph node size to identify cases positive for perirectal lymph node (PRLN) and lateral lymph node (LPLN) metastasis of lower rectal cancer on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The subjects were 449 patients who underwent preoperative MRI. Mesorectal excision was performed in all patients (combined with lateral pelvic lymph node [LN] dissection in 324) between 2004 and 2013 at 6 institutes. Cases were classified as cN positive and cN negative on the basis of the short axis of the largest LN being greater than or equal to a cutoff or less than a cutoff, respectively. PRLN and LPLN diagnoses using 5 and 10 mm cutoffs were compared with histologic diagnoses. Of the 449 patients, 55 received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. MRI was only performed after this therapy in all of these patients. For PRLNs, 5 and 10 mm cutoffs gave area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.6364 and 0.5794, respectively. The 5 mm cutoff gave a significantly higher AUC value (P = 0.0152), with an accuracy of 63.7 %, sensitivity of 72.6 %, and specificity of 54.7 %. For right LPLNs, the respective AUC values were 0.7418 and 0.6326 (P = 0.0034), and the variables (5 mm cutoff) were 77.6, 68.6, and 79.7 %. For left LPLNs, AUC values were 0.7593 and 0.6559, respectively (P = 0.0057), and the variables (5 mm cutoff) were 79.3, 70.8, and 81.0 %. Identification of LN-positive cases on the basis of PRLN and LPLN sizes was superior at a short-axis 5 mm cutoff. Size-based diagnosis of LN metastasis is simple and useful, but further investigation is needed to clarify whether it is superior to diagnosis based on morphology, such as shape, border, and signal intensity.

  2. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Caravatta, Luciana; Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Macchia, Gabriella; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa; Rossi, Marco; Flocco, Mariano; Scapati, Andrea; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  3. Predicting the Risk of Pelvic Node Involvement Among Men With Prostate Cancer in the Contemporary Era

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L. Chen, M.-H.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Katz, Matthew S.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: The 'Roach formula' for the risk of pelvic lymph node metastases [(2/3) * PSA + (Gleason score - 6) * 10] was developed in the early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era. We examined the accuracy of this formula in contemporary patients. Methods: We included men in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry with a diagnosis of clinical T1c-T4 prostate cancer in 2004 who had a surgical lymph node evaluation, Gleason score (typically from prostatectomy), and baseline PSA level (n = 9,387). Expected and observed rates of node positivity were compared. Results: Ninety-eight percent were clinical T1c/T2, and 97% underwent prostatectomy. Overall, 309 patients (3.29%) had positive lymph nodes. Roach scores overestimated the actual rate of positive lymph nodes in the derivation set by 16-fold for patients with Roach score less than or equal to 10%, by 7-fold for scores greater than 10-20%, and by approximately 2.5-fold for scores greater than 20%. Applying these adjustment factors to Roach scores in the validation data set yielded accurate predictions of risk. For those with Roach score less than or equal to 10%, adjusted expected risk was 0.2% and observed risk was 0.2%. For Roach score greater than 10-20%, adjusted expected risk was 2.0% and observed risk was 2.1%. For Roach score greater than 20-30%, adjusted expected risk was 9.7% and observed risk was 6.5%. For Roach score greater than 30-40%, adjusted expected risk was 13.9% and observed risk was 13.9%. Conclusion: Applied to contemporary patients with mainly T1c/T2 disease, the Roach formula appears to overestimate pelvic lymph node risk. The adjustment factors presented here should be validated by using biopsy Gleason scores and extended lymphadenectomies.

  4. CPE overexpression is correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong-Wei; Tan, Jin-Feng; Shang, Jian-Hong; Hou, Min-Zhi; Liu, Jun; He, Li; Yao, Shu-Zhong; He, Shan-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Elevated carboxypeptidase E (CPE) levels play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This study investigated the expression and clinicopathological significance of CPE in early-stage cervical cancer. Elevated carboxypeptidase E expression was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer cell lines, and in cervical cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANTs) from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine CPE expression in tissue samples from 112 patients with early-stage cervical cancer (FIGO stages Ia2-IIa2), 60 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and 19 patients with normal cervical tissues (NCTs). Associations between CPE expression and prognostic and diagnostic factors were evaluated statistically. CPE expression was significantly higher in cervical cancer cell lines and tissues than in normal tissues and ANTs. Semi-quantitative analysis of IHC indicated that CPE gradually increased from CIN I to cervical cancer, but was absent in NCTs. CPE expression was seen in 40.2 % (45/112) of the cervical cancer samples. CPE expression was significantly associated with FIGO stage (P = 0.003), tumor size (P = 0.012), stromal invasion (P < 0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (P = 0.016), parametrial infiltration (P = 0.027), vaginal involvement (P = 0.007), postoperative adjuvant therapy (P = 0.024), recurrence (P < 0.001), survival (P < 0.001), and pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) (P < 0.001), and it was significantly higher in tissues from patients with PLNM than without PLNM. Logistic regression analysis identified high-level CPE expression as an independent risk factor for PLNM (P = 0.001). Patients with higher CPE expression had shorter overall survival duration than patients with lower CPE expression. Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analyses suggested that high-level CPE expression is an independent

  5. Description of a reproducible anatomically based surgical algorithm for detection of pelvic sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jan; Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Céline; Bollino, Michele; Måsbäck, Anna

    2017-10-01

    To describe and evaluate a reproducible, anatomically based surgical algorithm, including reinjection of tracer to enhance technical success rate, for detection of pelvic sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in endometrial cancer (EC). A prospective study of 102 consecutive women with high risk EC scheduled for robotic surgery was conducted. Following cervical injection of a fluorescent dye, an algorithm for trans- and retroperitoneal identification of tracer display in the lower and upper paracervical pathways was strictly adhered to. To enhance the technical success rate, this included ipsilateral reinjection of tracer in case of non-display of any lymphatic pathway. The lymphatic pathways were kept intact by opening the avascular planes. To minimize disturbance from leaking dye, removal of SLNs was first performed along the lower paracervical (presacral) pathways followed by the more caudal upper paracervical pathways. In each pathway, the juxtauterine node with an afferent lymph vessel was defined as an SLN. After removal of SLNs, a complete pelvic and, unless contraindicated, infrarenal paraaortic lymph node dissection was performed. The bilateral detection rate including tracer reinjection was 96%. All 24 (23.5%) node positive patients had at least one metastatic SLN. Presacral lymph node metastases were discovered in 33.3% of the node positive patients. One patient (4.2%) had an isolated presacral lymph node metastasis. The described cranial-to-caudal anatomically based surgical SLN algorithm, including a presacral dissection and reinjection of tracer, results in a high SLN detection rate and identified all patients with lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental studies on the human gait using a tethered pelvic assist device (T-PAD).

    PubMed

    Vashista, Vineet; Mustafa, S K; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a novel tethered pelvic assist device (T-PAD). This is a purely passive device, consisting of a set of elastic tethers with one end attached to a hip brace worn by a subject walking on a treadmill, and the other end attached to a fixed frame surrounding the subject. T-PAD offers the flexibility of varying the assistance required on the pelvis by changing the configuration of the tether attachment locations, number of tethers and tether elasticity. Experimental studies were conducted using a full and a partial pelvic constraint configuration of T-PAD, with varying tether elasticity. The studies were aimed at observing the effect of T-PAD on the human gait. Results show that T-PAD reduced the range-of-motion for the pelvic angles with increase of tether elasticity. However, it had mixed effects on the range-of-motion of the hip angles, but negligible effect on the knee and ankle joint angles. Overall, T-PAD shows potential as a low-cost pelvic support device with pelvic motion control capabilities, and can work in tandem with existing gait trainers.

  7. Clinical and Oncological Outcomes of Laparoscopic Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Advanced Lower Rectal Cancer: Single-institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Fukuda, Akiko; Maekawa, Kyoichiro; Nagayoshi, Shigeki; Tokunaga, Takayuki; Takatsuki, Mitsutoshi; Kitajima, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for total mesorectal excision (TME) with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPLD) in advanced lower rectal cancer. Forty-four patients who underwent TME with LPLD for lower rectal cancer (pStage II/III) between January 2008 and December 2014 were divided into two groups according to the type of surgical approach as follows: open LPLD group (OLD, n=17) and laparoscopic LPLD group (LLD, n=27). Operative time was comparable between the groups (p=0.15), whereas intraoperative blood loss and complication rates were significantly less in LLD than in OLD. Postoperative hospital stay was shorter in LLD than in OLD. Overall survival and local recurrence-free survival were similar in the two groups. Disease-free survival was better in LLD than in OLD, although the difference was not significant. Laparoscopic TME with LPLD is safe and feasible. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. [Prevent postnatal urinary incontinence by prenatal pelvic floor exercise? Rationale and protocol of the multicenter randomized study PreNatal Pelvic floor Prevention (3PN)].

    PubMed

    Fritel, X; Fauconnier, A; de Tayrac, R; Amblard, J; Cotte, L; Fernandez, H

    2008-09-01

    Female urinary incontinence (UI) is a frequent affection that generates handicap and expenses. There is a link between UI and pregnancy; onset of UI during pregnancy is a risk factor for permanent UI. Postnatal pelvic floor exercise has shown efficacy to improve postnatal UI. However, it remains uncertain if benefits last more than few months. Publication of our rationale for prenatal pelvic floor exercise is an opportunity to expose our pre-specified hypotheses and help health professionals' awareness. The purpose of PreNatal Pelvic floor Prevention (3PN) is to compare the effects of prenatal pelvic floor exercise versus sole written instructions on UI one year after delivery. It is a multicenter, randomized, single blind study. Main inclusion criteria are first, single and non-complicated pregnancy over 18 years. Women randomized in pelvic floor exercise group will undergo eight sessions with a physiotherapist between six and eight months of pregnancy. Our principal criterion is UI score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-SF]) one year after delivery. We plan to include 280 pregnant women in five centers over a 12-month screening period to show a one-point difference on UI score. ETHIC AND FINANCING: The study was approved by the IRB Comité de protection des personnes Sud-Ouest et Outre-Mer. It was registered by French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) and Clinical Trials.gov. It is supported by the French Ministry of Health through the 2007 Hospital Plan for Clinical Research (PHRC). We plan to assess if prenatal pelvic floor exercise reduces postnatal medical consultations or physiotherapy sessions.

  9. A novel index for preoperative, non-invasive prediction of macro-radical primary surgery in patients with stage IIIC-IV ovarian cancer-a part of the Danish prospective pelvic mass study.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Mona Aarenstrup; Fagö-Olsen, Carsten; Høgdall, Estrid; Schnack, Tine Henrichsen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nedergaard, Lotte; Lundvall, Lene; Lydolph, Magnus Christian; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel index for preoperative, non-invasive prediction of complete primary cytoreduction in patients with FIGO stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Prospectively collected clinical data was registered in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. Blood samples were collected within 14 days of surgery and stored by the Danish CancerBiobank. Serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125), age, performance status, and presence/absence of ascites at ultrasonography were evaluated individually and combined to predict complete tumor removal. One hundred fifty patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer were treated with primary debulking surgery (PDS). Complete PDS was achieved in 41 cases (27 %). The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.785 for HE4, 0.678 for CA125, and 0.688 for age. The multivariate model (Cancer Ovarii Non-invasive Assessment of Treatment Strategy (CONATS) index), consisting of HE4, age, and performance status, demonstrated an AUC of 0.853. According to the Danish indicator level, macro-radical PDS should be achieved in 60 % of patients admitted to primary surgery (positive predictive value of 60 %), resulting in a negative predictive value of 87.5 %, sensitivity of 68.3 %, specificity of 83.5 %, and cutoff of 0.63 for the CONATS index. Non-invasive prediction of complete PDS is possible with the CONATS index. The CONATS index is meant as a supplement to the standard preoperative evaluation of each patient. Evaluation of the CONATS index combined with radiological and/or laparoscopic findings may improve the assessment of the optimal treatment strategy in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  10. Stop-flow technique for loco-regional delivery of high dose chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pelvic cancers.

    PubMed

    Strocchi, E; Iaffaioli, R V; Facchini, G; Mantovani, G; Ricci, S; Cavallo, G; Tortoriello, A; D'Angelo, R; Formato, R; Rosato, G; Fiore, F; Iaccarino, V; Petrella, G; Memoli, B; Santangelo, M; Camaggi, C M

    2004-08-01

    To verify the rationale of a pelvic stop-flow technique for the perfusion of high-doses of mitomycin C and anthacyclines in patients with inoperable, recurrent pelvic cancer. The stop-flow technique was realized by using percutaneous double-balloon arterial-venous catheters that selectively isolate the pelvic vascular section and a perfusion provided by an extracorporeal pump for 20 min. Ten patients (pts) with unresectable pelvic recurrence from colon-rectal cancer were treated with a combination of Mitomycin C (MMC, 20 mg/sqm) plus doxorubicin (DOXO, 75 mg/sqm; 8pts) or epirubicin (EPI, 75 mg/sqm; 2pts) infused into the isolated pelvic compartment. Blood samples were collected from the extracorporeal vascular flow and from peripheral plasma, and analysed for drug quantitation. During the procedure, there were no technical or hemodynamic complications, and no deaths occurred during surgery or in the postoperative period. MMC and DOXO peak levels measured in the extracorporeal system which irrotates the tumor area, were on average 21.6 (range: 4.3-44.3, MMC) and 17.2 (range: 1.8-48.4, DOXO) times higher than those observed in the peripheral blood. Similarly; the area under concentration (AUC) versus time curves measured in the pelvic compartment during stop-flow perfusion were 19.9 (range: 3.8-45.0, MMC) and 13.4 (range: 1.2-26.6, DOXO) times higher than the corresponding value in peripheral circulation. The drug percentage eliminated in the ultra filtrate was only 7.7% (MMC) and 0.9% (DOXO), and the plasmatic AUC(0-24) were similar to those observed with iv bolus of equivalent drug doses. Minimal systemic and local toxicities were observed. One complete pathological and 2 partial responses were observed; pain remission in 8/10 patients. median survival was 12 months (8-31). The endo-arterial administration into the local vasculature produces high pelvic-systemic concentration gradients during the stop-flow perfusion with limited local and systemic toxicity. The

  11. Radiographic diagnosis of sagittal plane rotational displacement in pelvic fractures: a cadaveric model and clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Shui, Xiaolong; Ying, Xiaozhou; Kong, Jianzhong; Feng, Yongzeng; Hu, Wei; Guo, Xiaoshan; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to measure the sagittal plane rotational (flexion and extension) displacement of hemipelvis radiologically and analyze the ratio of flexion and extension displacement of unstable pelvic fractures. We used 8 cadaveric models to study the radiographic evidence of pelvic fractures in the sagittal plane. We performed pelvic osteotomy on 8 cadavers to simulate anterior and posterior pelvic ring injury. Radiological data were measured in the flexion and extension group under different angles (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). We retrospectively reviewed 164 patients who were diagnosed with a unilateral fracture of the pelvis. Pelvic ring displacement was identified and recorded radiographically in cadaveric models. The flexion and extension displacement of pelvic fractures was measured in terms of the vertical distance of fracture from the top of iliac crest to the pubic tubercle (CD) or from the top of iliac crest to the lowest point of ischial tuberosity (AB). Fifty-seven pelves showed flexion displacement and 15 showed extension displacement. Closed reduction including internal fixation and external fixation was successfully used in 141 cases (86.0 %). The success rates of closed reduction in flexion and extension displacement groups were 77 and 73 %, respectively, which were lower than in unstable pelvic ring fractures. The sagittal plane rotation (flexion and extension) displacement of pelvic fractures could be measured by special points and lines on the radiographs. Minimally invasive reduction should be based on clearly identified differences between the sagittal plane rotation and the vertical displacement of pelvic fractures.

  12. Diagnosis of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis of T1 lower rectal cancer using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case report with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection of lower rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SHIMPEI; ITABASHI, MICHIO; HIROSAWA, TOMOICHIRO; HASHIMOTO, TAKUZO; BAMBA, YOSHIKO; OKAMOTO, TAKAHIRO

    2016-01-01

    The present study presented a 35-year-old female patient in whom fecal occult blood was detected in a medical check-up. Colonoscopy revealed a superficial elevated-type tumor with central depression in the lower rectum. The tumor was diagnosed as T1 deep invasive cancer. No swollen lymph nodes or distant metastasis were found on computed tomography or [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography with computed tomography. However, a swollen right lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN; short axis 4 mm) was revealed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This lymph node exhibited high intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), suggesting metastasis. Low anterior resection, regional lymph node dissection and right LPLN dissection (LPLD) were performed. Histological analysis revealed metastasis in the right LPLN, as suggested by the high DWI intensity. The indication for LPLD in the current Japanese guidelines is based on the tumor location and depth of invasion (≥T3), however, not on the status of LPLN metastasis in pre-operative evaluation. The present case was cT1, which is not included in this indication. DWI is sensitive for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer, although inflammation-induced swelling of lymph nodes in advanced rectal cancer may cause a false-positive result, which is uncommon in T1 cases. Therefore, an LPLN with a high intensity DWI signal in T1 cases is likely to be metastasis-positive. Pre-operative DWI-MRI may be useful for identifying LPLN metastasis when planning the treatment strategy in these cases. The present study suggested reinvestigation of the indication for LPLD with inclusion of LPLN status on pre-operative imaging. PMID:27123286

  13. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  14. Use of prolene mesh in surgical treatment of tissue defects after radical inguinal and pelvic lymph node dissection in vulvar cancer--a brief report.

    PubMed

    Olejek, A

    2006-01-01

    Surgery is still the procedure of choice in treatment of advanced vulvar cancer. Radical vulvar surgery is often associated with severe vulvar and inguinal skin and fat-tissue deficits resulting from wide "butterfly" shape resection. Primary closure of large vulvar and inguinal defects is hampered by lack of tissue. The study presents the case of using prolene mesh in filling up the tissue defects over femoral vein and artery after radical excision of enlarged inguinal superficial, femoral, and pelvic nodes to prevent vessels in hiatus saphenus. It is the first report describing the use of prolene mesh in such a procedure.

  15. Study of dienogest for dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain associated with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ah; Um, Mi Jung; Kim, Han Kyoung; Kim, Suk Jin; Moon, Seo Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of orally administered dienogest (DNG) for dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Methods For this study we recruited 89 patients with dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain associated with endometriosis diagnosed by laparoscopy. All patients complained of persistent dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain despite surgical treatment 6 months previously. After 6 months of DNG treatment, we used a 0 to 3 point verbal rating scale to measure the severity of disability in daily life due to dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain, and the use of analgesics. Weight gain, serum lipid and liver enzyme tests were performed before treatment and after 6 months of DNG treatment. Results Total dysmenorrhea scores assessed by the verbal rating scale significantly decreased by the end of treatment (P<0.001). The mean (±standard deviation) pain score for dysmenorrhea before and after treatment were 1.42±1.1 and 0.1±0.3, respectively. The mean non-menstrual pelvic pain scores before and after treatment were 0.52±0.6 and 0.18±0.3, respectively, showing a significant difference (P<0.001). The use of analgesics significantly decreased by the end of the treatment (P<0.001). The associated adverse effects were weight gains (in 56 of 89 patients, 63%) and uterine bleeding (in 28 of 89 patients, 31.5%). The weight gain (before treatment, 57.9±9.7; after treatment, 61.1±12.6) was statistically significant (P<0.040). Conclusion This study demonstrated that orally administered DNG could be used to effectively treat dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain associated with endometriosis although the side effects of weight gain and uterine bleeding should be considered. PMID:27896253

  16. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Sousa, Vanessa Oliveira; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe; Muchailh, Rosana Carneiro; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1) (n = 50) included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2) (n = 50) included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 in G1 and 25.0 kg/m2 in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004). In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006) and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001) compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:21915489

  17. A study on difference and importance of sacral slope and pelvic sacral angle that affect lumbar curvature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seyoung; Lee, Minsun; Kwon, Byongan

    2014-01-01

    Individual pelvic sacral angle was measured, compared and analyzed for the 6 male and female adults who were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and mild spondylolisthesis in accordance with spinal parameters, pelvic parameters and occlusion state of sacroiliac joint presented by the author of this thesis based on the fact that the degree of lumbar excessive lordosis that was one of the causes for lumbar pain was determined by sacral slope. The measured values were compared with the standard values of the average normal range from 20 s to 40 s of normal Koreans stated in the study on the change in lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope in accordance with the age by Oh et al. [5] and sacral slope and pelvic sacral slope of each individual of the subjects for measurement were compared. Comparing the difference between the two tilt angles possessed by an individual is a comparison to determine how much the sacroiliac joint connecting pelvis and sacral vertebrae compensated and corrected the sacral vertebrae slope by pelvic tilt under the condition of synarthrodial joint.Under the condition that the location conforming to the line in which the sagittal line of gravity connects with pelvic ASIS and pubic pubic tuberele is the neutral location of pelvic tilt, sacral slope being greater than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic anterior tilting, whereas sacral slope being smaller than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic posterior tilting. On that account, male B, female A and female C had a pelvic posterior tilting of 16 degrees, 1 degree and 5 degrees respectively, whereas male A, male C and female B had a pelvic anterior tilting of 3 degrees, 9 degrees and 4 degrees respectively. In addition, the 6 patients the values of lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope that were almost twice as much as the normal standard values of Koreans. It is believed that this is because the pelvic sacral slope maintaining an angle that is

  18. Whole-pelvic nodal radiation therapy in the context of hypofractionation for high-risk prostate cancer patients: a step forward.

    PubMed

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Roach, Mack; Créhange, Gilles

    2013-07-15

    Given the low α/β ratio of prostate cancer, prostate hypofractionation has been tested through numerous clinical studies. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that with high conformal radiation therapy and even with more sophisticated radiation techniques, such as high-dose-rate brachytherapy or image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, morbidity associated with shortening overall treatment time with higher doses per fraction remains low when compared with protracted conventional radiation therapy to the prostate only. In high-risk prostate cancer patients, there is accumulating evidence that either dose escalation to the prostate or hypofractionation may improve outcome. Nevertheless, selected patients who have a high risk of lymph node involvement may benefit from whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Although combining WPRT with hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy is feasible, it remains investigational. By combining modern advances in radiation oncology (high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy with an improved image guidance for soft-tissue sparing), it is hypothesized that WPRT could take advantage of recent results from hypofractionation trials. Moreover, the results from hypofractionation trials raise questions as to whether hypofractionation to pelvic lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement might improve the outcomes in WPRT. Although investigational, this review discusses the challenging idea of WPRT in the context of hypofractionation for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  19. Whole-Pelvic Nodal Radiation Therapy in the Context of Hypofractionation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients: A Step Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Roach, Mack; Créhange, Gilles

    2013-07-15

    Given the low α/β ratio of prostate cancer, prostate hypofractionation has been tested through numerous clinical studies. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that with high conformal radiation therapy and even with more sophisticated radiation techniques, such as high-dose-rate brachytherapy or image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, morbidity associated with shortening overall treatment time with higher doses per fraction remains low when compared with protracted conventional radiation therapy to the prostate only. In high-risk prostate cancer patients, there is accumulating evidence that either dose escalation to the prostate or hypofractionation may improve outcome. Nevertheless, selected patients who have a high risk of lymph node involvement may benefit from whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Although combining WPRT with hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy is feasible, it remains investigational. By combining modern advances in radiation oncology (high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy with an improved image guidance for soft-tissue sparing), it is hypothesized that WPRT could take advantage of recent results from hypofractionation trials. Moreover, the results from hypofractionation trials raise questions as to whether hypofractionation to pelvic lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement might improve the outcomes in WPRT. Although investigational, this review discusses the challenging idea of WPRT in the context of hypofractionation for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  20. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Juhl, Mette

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16. The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per week spent on exercise (p < 0.001). Compared to no exercise, swimming was associated with a decreased risk of pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58-0.91, p = 0.005). The findings suggest a possible protective effect of physical exercise on pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiotherapy in cervical cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-lan; Chen, Zhen-yun; Cui, Yong-chun; Sheng, Xui-gui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the dosimetry, toxicity, and efficacy of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiotherapy (SMART) with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in cervical cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Total 32 patients who underwent SMART were retrospectively evaluated. Daily fractions of 2.2 to 2.4 Gy and 1.8 to 2 Gy were prescribed and delivered to gross tumor volume and clinical target volume to a total dose of 63.8 and 52.2 Gy, respectively. A 3DCRT plan was designed for the SMART group and planned to deliver the same prescribed dose. The doses of organs at risk (OARs) were compared. Thirty-six patients who received 3DCRT were used to compare the target dose, toxicities, and efficacy with 32 cases who received SMART. The mean doses delivered to gross tumor volume and clinical target volume were significantly higher in the SMART group than in the 3DCRT group (63.8 vs 55.2 Gy [P < 0.01] and 52.5 vs 48.6 Gy [P < 0.01], respectively). For SMART plan, the doses of OARs were significantly lower than that of 3DCRT plans (small intestine: 25.1 vs 30.9 Gy [P < 0.01], bladder: 35.3 vs 46.3 [P < 0.01], and rectum: 31.7 vs 43.7 [P = 0.002], respectively). The patients experienced less acute and late toxicities in the SMART group (acute toxicities: enteroproctitis, P = 0.019; cystitis, P = 0.013; leukopenia, P = 0.025; late toxicities: enteroproctitis, P = 0.007; and cystitis, P = 0.026, respectively). No significant difference was found for 1-year survival (78.7% vs 67.7%, P = 0.222), but SMART group had a higher 2-year survival rate (2-year: 63.1% vs 39.1%, P = 0.029). Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiotherapy plans yielded higher dose to the targets and better sparing of OARs than did 3DCRT in cervical cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiotherapy provided better clinical outcomes than

  2. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-Induced Vaginal Stenosis After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Rectal and Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Christina H.; Law, Ethel; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya P.; Yang, T. Jonathan; Riedel, Elyn; Wu, Abraham J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized toxicity in women who receive pelvic radiation therapy (RT), the relationship between RT dose and the volume and extent of toxicity has not been analyzed. We modeled this relationship to identify predictors of VS. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 54 women, aged 29 to 78 years, who underwent pelvic RT for rectal or anal cancer during 2008 to 2011 and were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating vaginal dilator use. Maximum dilator size was measured before RT (baseline) and 1 month and 12 months after RT. Dilator use was initiated at 1 month. The difference (D) in dilator size before and after RT was recorded. Those with D ≤−1 were classified as having VS (n=35); those with D ≥0 were classified as having no VS (n=19 at 1 month). Dose-volume parameters were extracted, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used to build a predictive model. Results: The mean vaginal doses were 50.0 Gy and 36.8 Gy for anal and rectal cancer patients, respectively. One month after RT, a gEUD model using a wide range of a values suggests that sparing of vaginal volume to a low dose may be important. When gEUD (a = −1) was <35 Gy and the mean vaginal dose was <43 Gy, severe VS was reduced (P=.02). A 1-year analysis suggests increasingly negative D values with increasing mean dose. However, patients with compliance <40% were more likely to have toxicity. Conclusions: Vaginal stenosis is influenced by multiple RT dose-volume characteristics. Mean dose and gEUD constraints together may reduce the risk of severe VS. Patients receiving higher mean vaginal doses should have greater compliance with dilator therapy to minimize risk of toxicity. Further validation with independent datasets is needed.

  3. Incidence and predictors of febrile morbidity after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early stage cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Lattiwongsakorn, Worashorn; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence and independent predictors for febrile morbidity after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancers who had undergone RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2005, were reviewed. The clinical variables including the age at diagnosis, menopausal status, body mass index, previous cervical conization, tumor size, preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative anemia, operative time, and estimated blood loss were analyzed for prediction of postoperative febrile morbidity. During the study period, 357 women were reviewed. The mean age was 44.7 years. Sixty-five (18.2%) women were postmenopausal. The majority of women (77.3%) were in FIGO stage IB1. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (69.2%). Febrile morbidity was noted in 94 women (26.3%, 95% CI= 21.8-31.2) in whom 25 (7.0%) had urinary tract infection (19), abdominal wound infection (4), and vaginal cuff infection (2), respectively. Only massive blood loss (>1,500 ml) was noted as the significantly independent predictor for febrile morbidity (aOR= 2.7, 95% CI=1.1-6.6, P=0.028). In conclusion, approximately one-fourth of the women undergoing RHPL at our institute had postoperative febrile morbidity. Only massive blood loss is a significant predictor for this complication.

  4. Effect of intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy on second cancer risk in the postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zwahlen, Daniel R; Ruben, Jeremy D; Jones, Phillip; Gagliardi, Frank; Millar, Jeremy L; Schneider, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    To estimate and compare intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of second cancer risk (SCR) for postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer. To estimate SCR, the organ equivalent dose concept with a linear-exponential, a plateau, and a linear dose-response model was applied to dose distributions, calculated in a planning computed tomography scan of a 68-year-old woman. Three plans were computed: four-field 18-MV 3DCRT and nine-field IMRT with 6- and 18-MV photons. SCR was estimated as a function of target dose (50.4 Gy/28 fractions) in organs of interest according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Cumulative SCR relative to 3DCRT was +6% (3% for a plateau model, -4% for a linear model) for 6-MV IMRT and +26% (25%, 4%) for the 18-MV IMRT plan. For an organ within the primary beam, SCR was +12% (0%, -12%) for 6-MV and +5% (-2%, -7%) for 18-MV IMRT. 18-MV IMRT increased SCR 6-7 times for organs away from the primary beam relative to 3DCRT and 6-MV IMRT. Skin SCR increased by 22-37% for 6-MV and 50-69% for 18-MV IMRT inasmuch as a larger volume of skin was exposed. Cancer risk after IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancer is dependent on treatment energy. 6-MV pelvic IMRT represents a safe alternative with respect to SCR relative to 3DCRT, independently of the dose-response model. 18-MV IMRT produces second neutrons that modestly increase the SCR.

  5. Effect of Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy on Second Cancer Risk in the Postoperative Treatment of Endometrial and Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zwahlen, Daniel R. Ruben, Jeremy D.; Jones, Phillip; Gagliardi, Frank; Millar, Jeremy L.; Schneider, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of second cancer risk (SCR) for postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: To estimate SCR, the organ equivalent dose concept with a linear-exponential, a plateau, and a linear dose-response model was applied to dose distributions, calculated in a planning computed tomography scan of a 68-year-old woman. Three plans were computed: four-field 18-MV 3DCRT and nine-field IMRT with 6- and 18-MV photons. SCR was estimated as a function of target dose (50.4 Gy/28 fractions) in organs of interest according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection Results: Cumulative SCR relative to 3DCRT was +6% (3% for a plateau model, -4% for a linear model) for 6-MV IMRT and +26% (25%, 4%) for the 18-MV IMRT plan. For an organ within the primary beam, SCR was +12% (0%, -12%) for 6-MV and +5% (-2%, -7%) for 18-MV IMRT. 18-MV IMRT increased SCR 6-7 times for organs away from the primary beam relative to 3DCRT and 6-MV IMRT. Skin SCR increased by 22-37% for 6-MV and 50-69% for 18-MV IMRT inasmuch as a larger volume of skin was exposed. Conclusion: Cancer risk after IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancer is dependent on treatment energy. 6-MV pelvic IMRT represents a safe alternative with respect to SCR relative to 3DCRT, independently of the dose-response model. 18-MV IMRT produces second neutrons that modestly increase the SCR.

  6. Retained surgical items after abdominal and pelvic surgery: Incidence, trend and predictors- observational study.

    PubMed

    Elsharydah, Ahmad; Warmack, Kimberly O; Minhajuddin, Abu; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2016-12-01

    Surgical retained items (RSIs) are associated with increase in perioperative morbidity and mortality. We used a large national database to investigate the incidence, trends and possible predictors for RSIs after major abdominal and pelvic procedures. The nationwide inpatient sample data were queried to identify patients who underwent major abdominal and pelvic procedures and discharged with secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of (998.44 and 998.7). McNemar's tests and conditional logistic regression analyses of a 1:1 matched sample were conducted to explore possible predictive factors for RSI. RSI incidence rate was 13 in 100,000 cases-years from 2007 to 2011 after major abdominal and pelvic procedures. RSI incidence remained steady over the five-year study period. Rural hospitals and elective procedures were associated with a higher RSI incidence rate [(OR 1.391, 95% CL 1.056-1.832), p = 0.019] and [(OR 1.775, 95%CL 1.501-2.098), p < 0.001] respectively. Our study was able to add more to the epidemiological perspective and the risk profile of retained surgical items in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Surgical cases associated with these factors may need further testing to rule out RSI.

  7. Cefotaxime Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Thomas P.; Miller, Timothy T.; Nolan, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    We studied cefotaxime in the treatment of gonococcal and nongonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease. Cefotaxime was uniformly effective against gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease. However, 4 of 11 patients with nongonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease had a suboptimal response. PMID:6275789

  8. Three-dimensional study of pelvic asymmetry on anatomical specimens and its clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Christophe; Tardieu, Christine; Bénaim, Charles; Hecquet, Jérome; Marty, Catherine; Prat-Pradal, Dominique; Legaye, Jean; Duval-Beaupère, Ginette; Pélissier, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pelvic asymmetry (i.e. to determine whether the right iliac bone and the right part of the sacrum are mirror images of the left), both quantitatively and qualitatively, using three-dimensional measurements. Pelvic symmetry was described osteologically using a common reference coordinate system for a large sample of pelvises. Landmarks were established on 12 anatomical specimens with an electromagnetic Fastrak system. Seventy-one paired variables were tested with a paired t-test and a non-parametric test (Wilcoxon). A Pearson correlation matrix between the right and left values of the same variable was applied exclusively to values that were significantly asymmetric in order to calculate a dimensionless asymmetry index, ABGi, for each variable. Fifteen variables were significantly asymmetric and correlated with the right vs. left sides for the following anatomical regions: sacrum, iliac blades, iliac width, acetabulum and the superior lunate surface of the acetabulum. ABGi values above a threshold of ± 4.8% were considered significantly asymmetric in seven variables of the pelvic area. Total asymmetry involving the right and the left pelvis seems to follow a spiral path in the pelvis; in the upper part, the iliac blades rotate clockwise, and in the lower part, the pubic symphysis rotates anticlockwise. Thus, pelvic asymmetry may be evaluated in clinical examinations by measuring iliac crest orientation. PMID:16420376

  9. Obstetric trauma, pelvic floor injury and fecal incontinence: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Fletcher, J G; Melton, L Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2012-06-01

    Current concepts based on referral center data suggest that pelvic floor injury from obstetric trauma is a major risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI) in women. In contrast, a majority of community women only develop FI decades after vaginal delivery, and obstetric events are not independent risk factors for FI. However, obstetric events are imperfect surrogates for anal and pelvic floor injury, which is often clinically occult. Hence, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between prior obstetric events, pelvic floor injury, and FI among community women. In this nested case-control study of 68 women with FI (cases; mean age 57 years) and 68 age-matched controls from a population-based cohort in Olmsted County, MN, pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction and defecation were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obstetric events and bowel habits were recorded. By multivariable analysis, internal sphincter injury (cases-28%, controls-6%; odds ratio (OR): 8.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-34) and reduced perineal descent during defecation (cases-2.6 ± 0.2 cm, controls-3.1 ± 0.2 cm; OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) increased FI risk, but external sphincter injury (cases-25%, controls-4%; P<0.005) was not independently predictive. Puborectalis injury was associated (P<0.05) with impaired anorectal motion during squeeze, but was not independently associated with FI. Grades 3-4 episiotomy (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-11) but not other obstetric events increased the risk for pelvic floor injury. Heavy smoking (≥ 20 pack-years) was associated (P=0.052) with external sphincter atrophy. State-of-the-art imaging techniques reveal pelvic floor injury or abnormal anorectal motion in a minority of community women with FI. Internal sphincter injury and reduced perineal descent during defecation are independent risk factors for FI. In addition to grades 3-4 episiotomy, smoking may be a potentially preventable, risk factor for pelvic floor

  10. Dosimetric predictors of acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mell, Loren K. . E-mail: lmell@radonc.uchicago.edu; Kochanski, Joel D.; Roeske, John C.; Haslam, Josh J.; Mehta, Neil; Yamada, S. Diane; Hurteau, Jean A.; Collins, Yvonne C.; Lengyel, Ernst; Mundt, Arno J.

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric parameters associated with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) and chemotherapy delivery in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 37 cervical cancer patients receiving concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy. Pelvic bone marrow (BM) was contoured for each patient and divided into three subsites: lumbosacral spine, ilium, and lower pelvis. The volume of each region receiving 10, 20, 30, and {>=}40 Gy (V{sub 1}, V{sub 2}, V{sub 3}, and V{sub 4}, respectively) was calculated. HT was graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. Multivariate regression models were used to test associations between dosimetric parameters and HT and chemotherapy delivery. Results: Increased pelvic BM V{sub 1} (BM-V{sub 1}) was associated with an increased Grade 2 or worse leukopenia and neutropenia (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.53; p = 0.006; and OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.02-1.94; p = 0.037, respectively). Patients with BM-V{sub 1} {>=}90% had higher rates of Grade 2 or worse leukopenia and neutropenia than did patients with BM-V{sub 1} <90% (11.1% vs. 73.7%, p < 0.01; and 5.6% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.09) and were more likely to have chemotherapy held on univariate (16.7% vs. 47.4%, p = 0.08) and multivariate (OR, 32.2; 95% CI, 1.67-622; p = 0.02) analysis. No associations between HT and V{sub 3} and V{sub 4} were observed. Dosimetric parameters involving the lumbosacral spine and lower pelvis had stronger associations with HT than did those involving the ilium. Conclusion: The volume of pelvic BM receiving low-dose radiation is associated with HT and chemotherapy delivery in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  11. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  12. Transiliac Osteotomy in Surgical Management of Pelvic Post-Traumatic Malunions: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Wu, Junwei; Fu, Baisheng; Dong, Jinlei; Yang, Yongliang; Xin, Maoyuan; Wang, Guodong; He, Tong-Chuan; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2016-03-01

    While uncommon, post-traumatic pelvic malunions present reconstructive challenges and are associated with significant disability and financial burden. A transiliac osteotomy is a surgical technique useful to correct certain types of pelvic fracture malunions, and is only used when the correction of a limb-length discrepancy is the primary goal. This study aims to present our experience with this technique in the treatment of post-traumatic pelvic malunions. Eight patients who underwent transiliac osteotomies for post-traumatic pelvic malunions at our department from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic results of these patients. By the time of their last follow-up, all osteotomy sites and iliac bone graft had healed with no evidence of internal fixation failure. Of the 3 patients who complained of preoperative posterior pain, 2 reported an improvement. All 8 patients noted the resolution of their lower back pain. At the time of their final follow-up, 4 patients could walk normally, 2 had a slight limp without a cane, 1 patient used a cane to help with standing and walking, and the final felt limited during ambulation with a cane. Limb-lengthening relative to preoperative measurements was 2.86 cm (2.2-3.0 cm) at the time of the last follow-up. Two patients were able to return to their previous jobs, 4 patients changed their jobs or engaged in light manual labor while the final 2 were able to perform activities of daily living but were unable to participate in work or labor. Three patients reported being "extremely satisfied" with their outcomes, 3 were "satisfied," and 2 were "unsatisfied." A transiliac osteotomy can be used to manage selected cases of post-traumatic pelvic malunions that are unable to be corrected with a traditional release and osteotomy. However, in these cases the correction of limb-length discrepancies should be the primary reconstructive goal.

  13. OBSTETRIC TRAUMA, PELVIC FLOOR INJURY AND FECAL INCONTINENCE: A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Fletcher, J.G.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Current concepts based on referral center data suggest that pelvic floor injury from obstetric trauma is a major risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI) in women. In contrast, a majority of community women only develop FI decades after vaginal delivery, and obstetric events are not independent risk factors for FI. However, obstetric events are imperfect surrogates for anal and pelvic floor injury, which is often clinically occult. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the relationship between prior obstetric events, pelvic floor injury, and FI among community women. Design In this nested case-control study of 68 women with FI (cases; mean age 57y) and 68 age-matched controls from a population-based cohort in Olmsted County, MN, pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction and defecation were assessed by MRI. Obstetric events and bowel habits were recorded. Results By multivariable analysis, internal sphincter injury (cases-28%, controls-6%; odds ratio [OR], 8.8; 95% CI, 2.3–34) and reduced perineal descent during defecation (cases-2.6 ± 0.2 cm, controls-3.1 ± 0.2 cm; OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.4) increased FI risk, but external sphincter injury (cases-25%, controls-4%;p < 0.005) was not independently predictive. Puborectalis injury was associated (p<0.05) with impaired anorectal motion during squeeze, but was not independently associated with FI. Grade 3–4 episiotomy (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4–11) but not other obstetric events increased the risk for pelvic floor injury. Heavy smoking (≥ 20 pack-years) was associated (p=0.052) with external sphincter atrophy. Conclusions State-of-the-art imaging techniques reveal pelvic floor injury or abnormal anorectal motion in a minority of community women with FI. Internal sphincter injury and reduced perineal descent during defecation are independent risk factors for FI. In addition to grade 3–4 episiotomy, smoking may be a potentially preventable, risk factor for pelvic floor injury

  14. The effect of pelvic motion on spino-pelvic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Andrew M; Hayes, Ann M; Brechbuhler, Jennifer L; Israel, Heidi; Place, Howard M

    2017-08-15

    To date, many studies have examined how pelvic position affects the spinal curvature and spino-pelvic parameters. However, these studies focus on a static relationship, comparing pelvis and spine in a relaxed or baseline position only. Indeed, the spino-pelvic connection is dynamic, as a subject can easily be taught to rotate their pelvis anteriorly or posteriorly on the femoral head, all while maintaining an erect posture. Therefore, for a true understanding of pelvic influence on the spinal column, it is necessary to examine spino-pelvic parameters in multiple pelvic positions within the same subject. The objective of this study was to examine the dynamic effect of pelvic motion on the spine and associated radiographic parameters. Single-center, cross-sectional study of 50 healthy, asymptomatic volunteers. Subjects were recruited and screened based upon the following criteria: *Between 18-79 years of age. *No known spinal, pelvic, or lower extremity pain lasting greater than 48 hours. *No history of spinal, pelvic, or lower extremity dysfunction requiring medical care. *No radiographic evidence of spinal or pelvic abnormality, scoliosis deformity, or other associated spinal pathologies. *Not currently pregnant and with no possibility of being pregnant. *BMI < 30 64 subjects were screened and 14 were excluded for a total of 50 subjects. Thoracic Kyphosis (TK), Lumbar Lordosis (LL), Sagittal Vertical Axis (SVA), Pelvic Tilt (PT) Sacral Slope (SS), and Pelvic Incidence (PI) METHODS: This study was funded by a Small Exploratory Research Grant from the Scoliosis Research Society. Each subject was instructed and observed to stand in 3 different positions: pelvic resting, anterior pelvic rotation and posterior pelvic rotation. Lateral standing radiographs were taken in each position and each image was examined by an Orthopaedic spine surgeon who digitally measured: thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic

  15. DLL4 as a predictor of pelvic lymph node metastasis and a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Liu, YunDuo; Xia, BaiRong; Deng, Jiangpeng; Liu, TianBo; Li, Qi; Yang, YanPing; Wang, YaoXian; Ning, XiaoMing; Zhang, YunYan; Xiao, Min

    2016-04-01

    Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4), one of the five Notch signaling ligands in mammals, has an important function in proliferation, invasion, metastasis, progression, and angiogenesis of malignancies. This study aimed to investigate DLL4 expression level in early-stage cervical carcinoma and to evaluate its clinical significance. We used fresh frozen and paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues to analyze DLL4 expression and its clinical significance. DLL4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in cervical cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal cervical tissues. High DLL4 protein level was clearly correlated with high International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P = 0.044), lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) (P = 0.015), pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) (P = 0.001), and recurrence (P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that DLL4 overexpression was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 2.790; 95 % CI, 1.344-5.791; P = 0.006). Moreover, survival analysis revealed that DLL4 expression was an independent factor of unfavorable overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.130; 95 % CI, 1.108-4.097; P = 0.023) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.965; 95 % CI, 1.085-3.560; P = 0.026) in patients with cervical cancer. Overall, our data indicate that high DLL4 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor survival in cervical cancer. Therefore, DLL4 may be a potential clinical diagnostic marker for patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

  16. Radiochemotherapy combined with regional pelvic hyperthermia induces high response and resectability rates in patients with nonresectable cervical cancer {>=}FIGO IIB 'bulky'

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasa, Geetha; Hildebrandt, Bert; Kuemmel, Sherko; Jungnickel, Kirsten; Cho, Chie Hee; Tilly, Wolfgang; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter . E-mail: peter.wust@charite.de

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate preoperative radiochemotherapy combined with regional pelvic hyperthermia in patients with nonresectable cervical cancer {>=} International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB 'bulky' in a Phase II study. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two patients with nonresectable FIGO IIB-IVA cervical cancer confined to the pelvis were treated with radiochemotherapy (5 x 1.8 Gy/wk, 45-50.4 Gy; cisplatin, 40 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) and weekly regional pelvic hyperthermia (SIGMA-60 applicator, system BSD-2000; BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT). Responders underwent hysterectomy if possible, whereas patients still unresectable received definitive hyperthermic radiochemotherapy. Feasibility, toxicity, as well as response and resectability, local progression free- and overall survival rates, were evaluated. Results: Thirty of 32 patients completed treatment. Grade III/IV toxicities (National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria) were diarrhea (n = 5), weight loss >10 kg (n = 4), and nausea (n = 2). Twenty-four of 32 patients (75%) achieved a partial remission after 45-50 Gy, and 20 patients underwent hysterectomy (18 patients, R0; 8 patients pCR). Three-year overall survival was 60%, with moderate (13%) rates of severe late toxicity. R0-resected patients had a favorable chronic toxicity profile and an excellent prognosis (3-year survival rate: 93%). Response depended on thermal parameters (vaginal reference point), whereas response, R0-resection, and FIGO stage are significant prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion: Preoperative hyperthermic radiochemotherapy (45-50 Gy) induces high response rates and enables curative surgery in a high proportion of patients with nonresectable cervical cancer. Therefore, the use of hyperthermia in conjunction with standard chemo-/radiotherapy {+-} surgery may allow for more effective tumor treatment while decreasing the risk of complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  17. The impact of pelvic floor surgery on female sexual function: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Roos, A M; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H; de Leeuw, J W; Paulus, A T G

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the current condition-specific sexual function questionnaire provides full insight into sexual function following pelvic floor surgery. Prospective, mixed quantitative and qualitative study. Urogynaecology clinic in a large university hospital. Thirty-seven women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Women were seen before surgery and 3 months postoperatively. At both visits the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ) was completed and a qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted. PISQ total and domain scores, as well as the change in the preoperative and postoperative score, were calculated and analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and one-sample t-test. The qualitative data were systematically analysed using data-matrices. The impact of pelvic floor surgery on female sexual function. Significant improvement was seen for PISQ total score (P = 0.003) as well as Physical (P < 0.001) and Partner-related (P = 0.002) domains, but not for the Behavioural/Emotive domain (P = 0.220). Analysis of qualitative data showed that improvement in sexual function was a result of cure of POP and SUI symptoms. Deterioration of sexual function was due to dyspareunia, fear of causing damage to the surgical result, new symptoms and a disappointing result of surgery. Our qualitative data show that PISQ is limited in the assessment of sexual function after pelvic floor surgery as it does not assess most surgery-specific negative effects on sexual function. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-10-20

    There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  19. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:27775588

  20. Utility of Closed Suction Pelvic Drains at Time of Large Bowel Resection for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalogera, Eleftheria; Dowdy, Sean C.; Mariani, Andrea; Aletti, Giovanni; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Cliby, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the use of closed suction pelvic drains placed at time of large bowel resection (LBR) for ovarian cancer (OC) decrease morbidity following anastomotic leak (AL). Methods Consecutive cases of LBR for OC between 01/01/1994 and 06/20/2011 were retrospectively identified. Drains were routinely used until bowel movement. AL was defined as: 1) feculent fluid from drains/wound/vagina, 2) radiographic evidence of AL, or 3) AL found at reoperation. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank-sum, Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used. Results 43 cases met inclusion criteria. AL was characterized by method of diagnosis as follows: change in drain output only (DO, n=8); change in drain output associated with ambiguous clinical signs/symptoms (D-SSX, n=11); or clinical signs/symptoms only (SSX, n=24). The sensitivity of drains in diagnosing AL was 50%. Time to diagnosis was earlier in DO/D-SSX (median 7 vs. 11 days, P=0.003), however, no significant differences were observed in rates of reoperation, length of stay, time to chemotherapy (TTC), and 30- and 90-day mortality between DO/D-SSX and SSX. Comparing cases where no drains were placed (n=5) vs. those with drain (n=38), we observed no differences in outcomes. TTC though statistically significant (47 vs. 59 days, P=0.023) was not clinically significant. Conclusions Though a change in drain output correlated with earlier diagnosis, this did not appear to impact overall outcomes. We did not find strong evidence supporting routine prolonged drainage after LBR for OC. Additionally, absence of change in drain output does not rule out presence of AL. PMID:22617523

  1. Is "pelvic radiation disease" always the cause of bowel symptoms following prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Min, Myo; Chua, Benjamin; Guttner, Yvonne; Abraham, Ned; Aherne, Noel J; Hoffmann, Matthew; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-02-01

    Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) also widely known as "radiation proctopathy" is a well recognised late side-effect following conventional prostate radiotherapy. However, endoscopic evaluation and/or specialist referral for new or persistent post-prostate radiotherapy bowel symptoms is not routine and serious diagnoses may potentially be missed. Here we report a policy of endoscopic evaluation of bowel symptoms persisting >90 days post radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A consecutive series of 102 patients who had radical prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)/image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and who had new or ongoing bowel symptoms or positive faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) on follow up visits more than three months after treatment, were referred for endoscopic examination. All but one (99%) had full colonoscopic investigation. Endoscopic findings included gastric/colonic/rectal polyps (56%), diverticular disease (49%), haemorrhoids (38%), radiation proctopathy (29%), gastritis/oesophagitis (8%) and rarer diagnoses, including bowel cancer which was found in 3%. Only four patients (4%) had radiation proctopathy without associated pathology and 65 patients (63%) had more than one diagnosis. If flexible sigmoidoscopy alone were used, 36.6% of patients and 46.6% patients with polyp(s) would have had their diagnoses missed. Our study has shown that bowel symptoms following prostate IMRT/IGRT are due to numerous diagnoses other than PRD, including malignancy. Routine referral pathways should be developed for endoscopic evaluation/specialist review for patients with new or persistent bowel symptoms (or positive FOBT) following prostate radiotherapy. This recommendation should be considered for incorporation into national guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chylous ascites and high-output chylous fistula after extended pelvic lymph node dissection for urological cancer: a rare postoperative complication.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Octavio A; Borgna, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    Chylous ascites and high-output chylous fistula are rare complications following abdominal or pelvic surgery. We report a series of five cases that occurred after pelvic lymph node dissection for urological cancer, in addition to their clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The series comprises five patients; four men in whom robotic radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed, and one woman with an infiltrating bladder cancer that underwent robotic anterior pelvic exenteration and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. The first four patients developed chylous ascites, and the female patient a high-output chylous fistula. In all cases, diagnosis of chylous ascites or chylous fistula was confirmed, and they were handled in varied ways, from observation to medical treatment, paracentesis, and surgery, according to their clinical presentation and evolution. We describe a simple treatment algorithm. This rare surgical complication requires a grade of suspicion and a defined treatment according to the probability of the medical compromise. Prevention is an important element. This series, according to our knowledge, is the first description in patients undergoing robotic extended pelvic lymphadenectomy.

  3. Utilization and impact of surgical technique on the performance of pelvic lymph node dissection at radical prostatectomy: Results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Sun, Xizi; Howard, Lauren E; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Freedland, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate performance of pelvic lymph node dissection during radical prostatectomy within an equal access care setting over a period of time, and stratified by prostate cancer risk group and surgical technique. We identified men in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database who had open or robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy from 2006 to 2013. Univariable logistic regression was used to test the association between age, race, body mass index, total biopsy cores, number of positive biopsy cores, risk group, year, center, surgical volume and surgical technique on pelvic lymph node dissection use. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to examine surgical technique and pelvic lymph node dissection performance. Spearman's correlation examined temporal changes in pelvic lymph node dissection utilization stratified by risk group and surgical technique. A total of 1425 men met inclusion criteria; 67% of them underwent pelvic lymph node dissection. On multivariable analysis, robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy was associated with an 92% decreased use of pelvic lymph node dissection in low-risk, 84% decreased in intermediate-risk and 91% decreased in high-risk men (all P < 0.001). In robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, there was a trend for increased pelvic lymph node dissection utilization over time in high-risk men (Spearman; P = 0.077) reaching ~85% in 2012-2013, which was accompanied by increased use in low-risk men (P = 0.016). For open radical prostatectomy, fewer pelvic lymph node dissections were carried out in low-risk men over time, decreasing to ~35% (P = 0.047) in 2012-2013, whereas rates remained high for high-risk men throughout (~95%; P = 0.621). Regardless of risk group, pelvic lymph node dissection is carried out significantly less during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. For robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection utilization increased over time for high-risk men, but rates also increased for

  4. Computerized estimation of patient setup errors in portal images based on localized pelvic templates for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Itano, Wataru; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsushita, Norimasa; Magome, Taiki; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Anai, Shigeo; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Yamagami, Akihiko; Honda, Hiroshi; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hirata, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a computerized method for estimating patient setup errors in portal images based on localized pelvic templates for prostate cancer radiotherapy. The patient setup errors were estimated based on a template-matching technique that compared the portal image and a localized pelvic template image with a clinical target volume produced from a digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) image of each patient. We evaluated the proposed method by calculating the residual error between the patient setup error obtained by the proposed method and the gold standard setup error determined by consensus between two radiation oncologists. Eleven training cases with prostate cancer were used for development of the proposed method, and then we applied the method to 10 test cases as a validation test. As a result, the residual errors in the anterior–posterior, superior–inferior and left–right directions were smaller than 2 mm for the validation test. The mean residual error was 2.65 ± 1.21 mm in the Euclidean distance for training cases, and 3.10 ± 1.49 mm for the validation test. There was no statistically significant difference in the residual error between the test for training cases and the validation test (P = 0.438). The proposed method appears to be robust for detecting patient setup error in the treatment of prostate cancer radiotherapy. PMID:22843375

  5. Sexual function in older women with pelvic floor symptoms: a cross-sectional study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Panman, Chantal MCR; Wiegersma, Marian; Talsma, Marrit N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Leeuwen, Yvonne Lisman-Van; Dekker, Janny H

    2014-01-01

    Background Pelvic floor symptoms are common and are negatively associated with sexual function which, in turn, is an important aspect of quality of life. The majority of older women with pelvic floor symptoms are treated in general practice but evidence from studies in general practice on the sexual functioning of these women is scarce. Aim This study examined predictors of sexual inactivity in older women with pelvic floor symptoms in general practice and of sexual functioning in those women who are sexually active. Design and setting Cross-sectional study in women (aged ≥55 years) from 20 general practices who screened positive on a pelvic floor symptom questionnaire. Method Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to determine predictors of sexual inactivity and sexual functioning (PISQ-12) by assessing their association with patient characteristics, symptoms (PFDI-20) and degree of prolapse (POP-Q). Results A total of 639 women were included (sexually active n = 393, sexually inactive n = 246). Predictors of sexual inactivity were increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 1.17) and lower education (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = 1.50 to 3.54; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.208). In sexually active women, sexual functioning was associated with pelvic floor symptom distress (P<0.001) and pelvic floor surgery (P = 0.018; R2 = 0.138). Conclusion In older women with pelvic floor symptoms, increasing age and lower educational level are predictors of sexual inactivity. Many of these older women are sexually active and pelvic floor symptom distress is negatively associated with sexual functioning. These results may encourage GPs to ask about sexual problems in women with pelvic floor symptoms. PMID:24567653

  6. Efficacy of orgotein in prevention of late side effects of pelvic irradiation: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Esco, Ricardo; Valencia, Javier; Coronel, Pilar; Carceller, Jose Antonio; Gimeno, Mercedes; Bascón, Natividad

    2004-11-15

    To study whether orgotein is effective in preventing late radiation-induced effects. Patients >18 years old who were diagnosed with rectal cancer, had an indication for pelvic irradiation (RT) after surgery, and complied with the selection criteria were randomly assigned at the end of RT to receive orgotein for 7 weeks or no treatment (control). The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity scale was used to evaluate the RT-induced side effects for up to 2 years. Interruptions due to toxicity, concomitant medication, and non-RT adverse events were also recorded. A total of 100 patients were included, with 50 in each group. The groups were comparable in terms of the demographic and baseline characteristics. The orgotein group had statistically significant less late toxicity than the control group (p = 0.036) and nontreated patients had a 66% greater chance of developing late toxicity at 2 years. Grouping toxicity as nonrelevant (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 0-1) and relevant (Grade 2 or worse), patients given orgotein had a lower incidence of late relevant toxicity than did controls, with statistical significance reached at all follow-up visits. After 2 years, patients not treated with orgotein had, in general, a 37% greater chance of developing late relevant toxicity; this risk was 26% when referring specifically to GI toxicity. No adverse events attributable to orgotein were recorded at any time during the study. Orgotein is a safe treatment that significantly prevents the overall occurrence of late toxicity, with toxicity reduction particularly evident in the lower GI tract.

  7. Unique patterns of pelvic fin evolution: a case study of balistoid fishes (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes) based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Matsuura, Keiichi; Sakai, Harumi; Katoh, Masaya; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2009-01-01

    Balistoid fishes have a unique and reduced pelvic fin structure, which does not exhibit paired structures. The pelvic complex exhibits reductive trends, but its rudimentary structure was retained among balistoids, and its unidirectional and parsimonious reduction in more derived lineages has been hypothesized based on morphology. We investigated the evolution of pelvic complex reduction in balistoids using whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data from 33 species (27 newly determined during the study) that represent the entire morphological diversity of balistoids. Partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted with two datasets that comprised concatenated nucleotide sequences from 13 protein-coding genes (all positions included; third codon positions converted into purine [R] and pyrimidine [Y] [RY-coding]) plus 22 transfer RNA and two ribosomal RNA genes. The resultant trees were well resolved and largely congruent, with most internal branches having high support values. The mitogenomic datasets strongly supported monophylies of both balistids and monacanthids, but rejected previous hypotheses on the intra-relationships in each family. The present tree topology revealed that highly reduced pelvic complexes had multiple origins, and optimization of the traits on the resultant tree strongly suggested the non-unidirectional and independent reduction of pelvic complexes in balistoids. The evolution of balistoid pelvic structure is very different among fishes that exhibit its reductive trends, and this uniqueness in pelvic evolution may be a link to their reproductive behaviors.

  8. Endometrical cancer metastases in the region of abdominal muscles and pelvic wall.

    PubMed

    Djurdjević, S; Mladenović-Segedi, L; Djolai, M

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of surgical removal of solitary metastases in the region of anterior and lateral pelvic wall following primary surgery, pelvic irradiation (external beam-Linac X 6 MV to whole pelvis, followed by intra-vaginal Ir(192)), and adjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/adriamycin) in a patient with endometrial adenocarcinoma, FIGO stage IIIA, performed on 3 consecutive recurrences. All recurrences were histologically well-differentiated. The first of them was in the region of m. Rectus abdominis and m. psoas, and was totally removed. The location of the last 2 recurrences occured approximately at the same site, and, after surgical removal, the patient received 4 cycles of paclitaxel and adjuvant irradiation to the lateral pelvic wall (external beam-Linac X 6 MV) in order to possibly prolong the disease-free interval. The patient is in good general condition with no evidence of disease 36 months following primary surgery.

  9. [Study on modified Prolift for pelvic floor reconstruction in the prevention of stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Wang, Feng-mei; Huang, Hui-juan; Song, Yan-feng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of modified Prolift pelvic floor reconstruction with improving the placement of Prolift-A in treatment of severe pelvic floor dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). From July 2008 to September 2010, 170 cases with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP) treated by modified Prolift pelvic floor reconstruction surgery in Fuzhou General Hospital were enrolled in this study. The Prolift-A was laid tension-free under the mid-urethra with the position of Prolift-A displaced from the neck of bladder to the mid-urethra. No concomitant tension-free urethra suspender via vagina was performed. Primary outcomes were assessed with POP quantitation (POP-Q) system to evaluate the postoperative anatomical replacement stage. Secondary outcome measure were: urogenital distress inventory 6 (UDI-6), the incontinence impact questionnaire 7 (IIQ-7) and the pelvic floor incontinence questionnaire 7 (PFIQ-7) to evaluate the impact on life quality at the follow-up of 1, 6, 12 months. At 6 and 12 months after surgery, 168 cases and 163 cases were followed up. The anatomical cure rates were 98.8% (166/168) at 6 months and 97.5% (159/163) at 12 months, respectively. One case with bladder injury and 1 case with rectum injury were observed. Five cases with recurrence were observed, including 2 cases with anterior vagina prolapse, 2 cases with uterine prolapse and 1 case with posterior vagina prolapse. Meanwhile, 3 cases with hematoma and 7 cases with mesh erosion were observed. Quality of life of all patients were improved significantly by UDI-6, IIQ-7 and PFIQ-7 scoring system evaluation. Among 79 POP patients with SUI, the cure rate of SUI was 93.7% (74/79). Of 5 cases with symptomatic SUI, 2 cases were needed surgical intervention. Twenty-three cases were found with minimal SUI symptoms and subjective satisfaction without objective influence on quality of life. Seven patients presented dysuria after surgery, 5 cases recovered urination with 10 days

  10. SU-E-J-125: A Novel IMRT Planning Technique to Spare Sacral Bone Marrow in Pelvic Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S; Bhatia, S; Sun, W; Menda, Y; Ponto, L; Gross, B; Buatti, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop an IMRT planning technique that can preferentially spare sacral bone marrow for pelvic cancer patients. Methods: Six pelvic cancer patients (two each with anal, cervical, and rectal cancer) were enrolled in an IRB approved protocol to obtain FLT PET images at simulation, during, and post chemoradiation therapy. Initially, conventional IMRT plans were created to maintain target coverage and reduce dose to OARs such as bladder, bowel, rectum, and femoral heads. Simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans to spare bone marrow identified as regions with SUV of 2 or greater (IMRT-BMS) within the pelvic bones from top of L3 to 5mm below the greater trochanter without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing when compared to the initial IMRT plan. IMRT-BMS plans used 8–10 beam angles that surrounded the subject. These plans were used for treatment. Retrospectively, the same simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans that spared bone marrow located in the sacral pelvic bone region (IMRT-FAN) also without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing. IMRT-FAN plans used 16 beam angles every 12° anteriorly from 90° – 270°. Optimization objectives for the sacral bone marrow avoidance region were weighted to reduce ≥V10. Results: IMRT-FAN reduced dose to the sacral bone marrow for all six subjects. The average V5, V10, V20, and V30 differences from the IMRT-BMS plan were −2.2 ± 1.7%, −11.4 ± 3.6%, −17.6 ± 5.1%, and −19.1 ± 8.1% respectively. Average PTV coverage change was 0.5% ± 0.8% from the conventional IMRT plan. Conclusion: An IMRT planning technique that uses beams from the anterior and lateral directions reduced the volume of sacral bone marrow that receives ≤10Gy while maintaining PTV coverage and OAR sparing. Additionally, the volume of sacral bone marrow that received 20 or 30 Gy was also reduced.

  11. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (p<0.0001), sleep disturbance (p=0.035), depression (p=0.005), anxiety (p=0.011), psychological stress (p=0.005), negative affect scores (p=0.0004), and worse quality of life (p≤0.021). No difference in pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134

  12. Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection may be Limited on the Contralateral Side in Strictly Unilateral Bladder Cancer without Compromising Oncological Radicality.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Bernhard; Paerli, Michael; Schöndorf, Daniel; Burkhard, Fiona C; Thalmann, George N; Roth, Beat

    2016-01-07

    Results of a dynamic multimodality mapping study showed no lymphatic drainage of the lateral bladder wall to the contralateral internal iliac region. To validate whether pathoanatomical mapping in bladder cancer (BC) patients can confirm these results. Between 01/2000 and 07/2013, 825 BC patients preoperatively staged ≥pT1 and without clinical signs of metastases (cN0 cM0) underwent extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) and radical cystectomy at our department. Of these patients, 23% (193/825) were lymph node (LN) positive in the pathological specimen; 26% (51/193) of this subgroup had strictly unilateral BC. Pathoanatomical mapping was used to retrospectively validate the distribution of LN involvement in these 51 patients. A median of 35 LNs were removed per patient (range: 13-80 LNs), with a median of 2 positive LNs (range: 1-14 LNs). 27% (14/51) of patients presented with LN metastases on the contralateral side. No positive LNs were found in the contralateral internal iliac region or the contralateral fossa of Marcille. 10% (5/51) of patients had LN metastases only on the contralateral side without evidence of metastases on the tumor-bearing side. Our findings corroborate the data of a dynamic mapping study showing bilateral lymphatic drainage in almost one third of patients with strictly unilateral BC, but no lymphatic drainage from the lateral bladder wall to the contralateral internal iliac region. If prospective studies confirm these results, the contralateral internal iliac region may be omitted during ePLND in patients with strictly unilateral BC.

  13. Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection may be Limited on the Contralateral Side in Strictly Unilateral Bladder Cancer without Compromising Oncological Radicality

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Bernhard; Paerli, Michael; Schöndorf, Daniel; Burkhard, Fiona C.; Thalmann, George N.; Roth, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results of a dynamic multimodality mapping study showed no lymphatic drainage of the lateral bladder wall to the contralateral internal iliac region. Objectives: To validate whether pathoanatomical mapping in bladder cancer (BC) patients can confirm these results. Methods: Between 01/2000 and 07/2013, 825 BC patients preoperatively staged ≥pT1 and without clinical signs of metastases (cN0 cM0) underwent extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) and radical cystectomy at our department. Of these patients, 23% (193/825) were lymph node (LN) positive in the pathological specimen; 26% (51/193) of this subgroup had strictly unilateral BC. Pathoanatomical mapping was used to retrospectively validate the distribution of LN involvement in these 51 patients. Results: A median of 35 LNs were removed per patient (range: 13–80 LNs), with a median of 2 positive LNs (range: 1–14 LNs). 27% (14/51) of patients presented with LN metastases on the contralateral side. No positive LNs were found in the contralateral internal iliac region or the contralateral fossa of Marcille. 10% (5/51) of patients had LN metastases only on the contralateral side without evidence of metastases on the tumor-bearing side. Conclusions: Our findings corroborate the data of a dynamic mapping study showing bilateral lymphatic drainage in almost one third of patients with strictly unilateral BC, but no lymphatic drainage from the lateral bladder wall to the contralateral internal iliac region. If prospective studies confirm these results, the contralateral internal iliac region may be omitted during ePLND in patients with strictly unilateral BC. PMID:27376125

  14. The value of vaginal packing in pelvic floor surgery: a randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thiagamoorthy, G; Khalil, A; Cardozo, L; Srikrishna, S; Leslie, G; Robinson, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaginal packing following pelvic floor surgery with regard to post-operative pain, bleeding and infection. This was a double-blind randomised study of women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy and/or pelvic floor repair at a tertiary urogynaecology unit. The primary outcome of day 1 post-operative pain was assessed using the short-form McGill Pain score. Secondary outcomes were haematological and infective morbidity, evaluated using changes in full blood count, and cultures of midstream urine and high vaginal swabs. A transvaginal ultrasound scan to exclude pelvic haematoma was performed at 6 weeks in all women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with or without a pelvic floor repair. In total, 190 women were recruited: mean age 58.3 years (27-91 years), mean body mass index 27.4 kg/m(2) and median parity 3. Women were randomised into the 'pack' (n = 86) and 'no pack' (n = 87) arms with no demographic differences between the groups. No statistically significant differences in the post-operative pain scores or secondary outcome measures were demonstrated. Incidence of haematoma formation (14.8 % no pack, 7.3 % pack, p = 0.204) was not statistically significant. There were three clinically significant complications in the no pack group and none in the pack group. This is the first study to examine pain in association with post-operative vaginal packing. There is no evidence to suggest that packing increases pain scores or post-operative morbidity. A trend towards increased haematoma and significant complications was seen in the no pack group. As vaginal packing does no harm and may be of some benefit it may be argued that packing should be recommended as routine clinical practice.

  15. Spinal posture and pelvic position during pregnancy: a prospective rasterstereographic pilot study.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Marcel; Wehrle, Regina; Dor, Larissa; Rapp, Walter; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of low back pain during pregnancy there is still a lack in the understanding of its aetiology. Changes of the spinal posture due to the anatomical changes of the pregnant body seem to be in part responsible for the back pain. In this pilot study we assessed the potential to accurately measure the spinal posture and pelvic position during pregnancy without any harmful radiation using a spine and surface topography system. Thirteen pregnant women were examined during the second and third trimester of their pregnancy, and postpartum. Twenty female, non-pregnant volunteers comprised the control group. The spinal posture and pelvic position were measured with a radiation-free spine and surface topography system. We found a significant increase in thoracic kyphosis during the course of pregnancy, but no increased lumbar lordosis. The lateral deviation of the spine also decreased significantly. However, we did not measure significant changes of the pelvic position during or after pregnancy. The results of our study show that pregnancy has an effect on the spinal posture, and that spine and surface topography can be used to measure these changes three-dimensionally and without any harmful radiation. In future studies this technique could allow to further evaluate the relationship between posture and low back pain during pregnancy, helping to understand the aetiology of low back pain in pregnancy as well as to identify methods for its prevention and treatment.

  16. Comparative study of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of large renal pelvic stones

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Yasser M.; Morsy, Gamal; Badr, Magdy M.; Al Emam, Abdel Baset A.; Farid, Mourad; Etafy, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to investigate whether laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (LPL) could be used to manage large renal pelvic stones, generally considered excellent indications for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Methods: This study was performed from May 2009 to March 2012 at Al-Azhar University Hospitals (Assiut and Cairo), Egypt. It included two groups of patients with large renal pelvic stones; only patients with stones 2.5 cm2 or greater were included. Group 1 included 40 patients treated by PNL and Group 2 included 10 patients treated by LPL. The differences between the two procedures were compared and analyzed. Results: There was no difference between the two groups regarding patient demographics and stone size. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding mean estimated blood loss (65 ± 12.25 [range: 52.75–77.25] vs. 180 ± 20.74 [range: 159.26–200.74] mL, p ≤ 0001), mean hospital stay (2.3 ± 0.64 [range: 1.66–2.94] vs. 3.7 ± 1.4 [range: 2.3–5.1] days, p ≤ 0.006), rate of postoperative blood transfusion (0% vs. 4.8%, p ≤ 0.0024), and stone-free rate (80% vs. 78.6%, p ≤ 0.23). The mean operative time was significantly longer in Group 2 (LPL) (131 ± 22.11 [range: 108.89–153.11) vs. 51.19 ± 24.39 [range: 26.8–75.58] min, p ≤ 0001), respectively. Conclusion: Although PNL is the standard treatment in most cases of renal pelvic stones, LPL is another feasible surgical technique for patients with large renal pelvic stones. PMID:23589752

  17. [Quality of life after extensive pelvic surgery].

    PubMed

    Levý, M; Lipská, L; Visokai, V; Šimša, J

    Multiorgan resections in the small pelvis are standard procedures in oncosurgery and some indications have no alternative. In advanced pelvic cancer, pelvic exenteration with en bloc resection of the involved organs and structures, including portions of the bony pelvis, is indicated. The 5-year survival rate is fairly good, around 50%, but little is known about the long-term quality of life. The aim was to describe the quality of life of long-term total pelvic exenteration survivors. In total, 63 pelvic exenterations were performed between 2000 to 2015 at the Department of Surgery, Thomayer Hospital, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, mostly for primary or relapsed rectal cancer. In this retrospective cohort study, the quality of life was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) and the EORTC QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. The completed questionnaires were scored according to EORTC instructions. At the time of this survey, 24 patients after TPE were surviving longer than one year after the surgery. The five-year survival of all patients was 49%, median survival 4.6 years, and median follow-up 15 months. Most of our patients reported a good level of their physical, emotional, cognitive and social functions. Some patients reported a worse body image, and of course a worsening in their sexual life. Regarding symptom-oriented questions, some patients evaluated the necessity of more frequent care of the stomia as slightly problematic; most patients reported impotence (men) or painful sexual intercourse (women). Long-term quality of life in survivors of pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer is comparable with reported results following primary rectal cancer resection with the exception of the sexual function. The quality of life gradually improves in the course of weeks to months from the surgery. pelvic exenteration quality of life.

  18. Low Back Pain Response to Pelvic Tilt Position: An Observational Study of Chiropractic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Minicozzi, Salvatore J.; Russell, Brent S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Struebing, Alessandria Y.; Owens, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to look for differences between patients with an increased pain response as compared with those with a decreased pain response. Methods Data were collected from consecutive new patients with lumbar or lumbopelvic pain in a chiropractic clinic. A pelvic tilt exercise was included in the initial examination, and pain response was noted. Analysis was made of pain and disability severity, as well as symptom location, chronicity, and other characteristics, before and after a course of chiropractic care. Results Patients with an increased pain response to pelvic tilt (n = 12) had higher levels of pain and disability at baseline than patients without (n = 34). There were no between-group differences in other aspects of their complaints; in age, sex, or body mass; or in the types of care they received (eg, manipulation, stretching, exercise instruction). On the average, both groups of patients showed improvement with chiropractic care, and there was no detectable difference in improvement between groups. Conclusions This study found that patients experiencing pain in response to a pelvic tilt maneuver may have a poorer precare status than patients with a decreased pain response. PMID:27069429

  19. Pelvic floor physical therapy for lifelong vaginismus: a retrospective chart review and interview study.

    PubMed

    Reissing, Elke D; Armstrong, Heather L; Allen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic floor physical therapy is used in the treatment of sexual pain disorders; however, women with lifelong vaginismus have not yet been included in treatment studies or have not been differentiated from women with acquired vaginismus and/or dyspareunia. This retrospective chart review and interview study was intended to obtain initial information on physical therapy interventions, course, and outcome in women who have never been able to experience vaginal intercourse. The files of 53 women, consecutively treated at one physical therapy clinic, were included in the chart review; 13 of these women volunteered to be interviewed. The chart review revealed significant pelvic floor pathology and an average treatment course of 29 sessions. Internal manual techniques were found to be most effective, followed by patient education, dilatation exercises, and home exercises. Although participants were very satisfied with the physical therapy, some symptoms, such as pain, anxiety/fear, and pelvic floor tension remained and scores on the Female Sexual Distress Scale and Female Sexual Function Index indicated clinical levels of sexual distress and impaired sexual function after treatment. Although there appears to be no linear relation between symptom reduction and healthy sexual function, this initial information suggests that physical therapy may be a promising treatment option for some women with lifelong vaginismus and merits further evaluation.

  20. Pelvic radiation disease management by hyperbaric oxygen therapy: prospective study of 44 patients.

    PubMed

    Ouaïssi, Mehdi; Tran, Stephanie; Mege, Diane; Latrasse, Vivien; Barthelemy, Alain; Pirro, Nicolas; Grandval, Philippe; Lassey, James; Sielezneff, Igor; Sastre, Bernard; Coulange, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) occurs in 2-11% of patients undergoing pelvic radiation for urologic and gynecologic malignancies. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has previously been described as a noninvasive therapeutic option for the treatment of PRD. the purpose of study was to analyze prospectively the results of HBOT in 44 consecutive patients with PRD who were resistant to conventional oral or topical treatments. Material and Methods. The median age of the cohort was 65.7 years (39-85). Twenty-seven percent of patients required blood transfusion (n = 12). The median of delay between radiotherapy and HBOT was 26 months (3-175). We evaluated the results of HBOT, using SOMA-LENT Scale. Results. SOMA-LENT score was decreased in 59% of patient. The median of SOMA-LENT score before HBOT was significantly higher, being equal to 14 (0-36), than after HBOT with the SOMA-LENT score of 12 (0-38) (P = 0.003). Tenesmus (P = 0.02), bleeding (P = 0.0001), and ulceration (P = 0.001) significantly decreased after HBOT. Regarding patients with colostomy, 33% (n = 4) benefited from colostomies closure. HBOT was generally well tolerated. Only one patient stopped precociously due to transient myopia. Conclusion. This study is in favor of the interest of HBOT in pelvic radiation disease treatment (PRD).

  1. Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Vaginal Vault Brachytherapy With or Without Pelvic Radiotherapy for Stage 1 Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tétreault-Laflamme, Audrey; Nguyen-Huynh, Thu Van; Carrier, Jean-François; Samouëlian, Vanessa; Sauthier, Philippe; Beauchemin, Marie-Claude; Barkati, Maroie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare adjuvant chemotherapy followed by either high-dose-rate vaginal vault brachytherapy (VBT) alone or combined with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage 1 serous or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer. Between 2006 and 2012, 84 women with stage 1 serous or CC endometrial cancer were evaluated postoperatively for adjuvant treatment at our hospital. More than 80% of patients had pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients declining or not completing adjuvant treatments were excluded. Twenty-five women received 4 to 6 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel followed by EBRT and VBT. Thirty-two women received 6 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel followed by VBT. Locoregional control and toxicities were assessed during follow-up. The 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates for the VBT group compared with the EBRT + VBT group were 88% versus 84%, P = 0.6, and 100% versus 94%, P = 0.6, respectively. Only 1 patient in the EBRT + VBT group developed a distant recurrence. One patient had grade 3 toxicity (chronic gastrointestinal [GI] toxicity) in the EBRT + VBT group. Acute grade 1-to-2 GI and grade 1 genitourinary (GU) toxicities were less frequent in the VBT group compared with the EBRT + VBT group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.019, respectively). Late GI and GU toxicities were comparable. Grade 1 vaginal toxicity was similar in both groups. No acute or late grade 2 GU or vaginal toxicities were reported. According to this study, VBT alone seems to be as effective as EBRT and VBT for stage 1 serous and CC endometrial cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, less acute GI and GU toxicities were seen in the VBT group.

  2. Computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD): evolution, methodology and application in intra-pelvic innervation study.

    PubMed

    Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Diallo, Djibril; Karam, Ibrahim; Uhl, Jean François; Delmas, Vincent; Droupy, Stéphane; Benoît, Gérard

    2012-10-01

    Classic anatomical methods have limitations in micro determination of nerve fibre location. Furthermore, the precise detection of the nerve fibres nature is not possible by means of dissection. The combination of immunohistochemistry and three-dimensional reconstruction could be used to resolve these limitations of morphological sciences. Our aim is to describe the evolution of computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD), which is an original method applied to study the distribution of intra-pelvic nerves in anatomic research. Serial transverse sectioning of the pelvic region in rabbit, human fetus, infant and adult cadaver was performed. Sections were immuno-histochemically stained and digitized with a high optical resolution scanner. Photoshop 7 software was used in regrouping of the adult cadaver sections then a tri-dimensional reconstruction was achieved using WinSurf software. The 3D reconstruction of the immuno-histochemically stained histologic sections of the pelvis allowed for precise structural identification of the prostate and its innervations (in fetus, infant and adult). In addition, we reconstructed the entire intra-pelvic organs with accurate demonstration of the location of both adrenergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we performed a virtual dissection of each of the pelvic structures with description of the exact location of the inferior hypogastric plexus, as well as the nature and the distribution of its fibres. The CAAD is an original method in anatomic research, which illustrates the fact that descriptive anatomy is still a dynamic science. This method allows for a 3D presentation of the intra-organic innervation, the nature of the nerve fibres, and the distribution of receptors and their neurotransmitters. This technique improves the understanding of the complex anatomic regions such as the pelvis from both surgical and educational point of view.

  3. Defecatory disorders, anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction: a polygamy? Radiologic and manometric studies in 41 patients.

    PubMed

    Siproudhis, L; Ropert, A; Lucas, J; Raoul, J L; Heresbach, D; Bretagne, J F; Gosselin, M

    1992-06-01

    A consecutive series of 41 patients with defecatory disorders was prospectively studied by anal manometry and evacuation proctography to determine the relationship between abnormalities and symptoms. The patients (29 female, 12 male, aged 41 +/- 2.3 years) all complained of difficulty in evacuation. All had normal colonoscopy and biochemistry. There was no evidence of megacolon or megarectum, and no symptoms had been previously treated by pelvic floor surgery. All subjects completed detailed questionnaires related to gastrointestinal symptoms with special reference to excessive straining and discomfort, digital manipulations during defecation, a sense of pelvic heaviness and incomplete evacuation. Each patient underwent clinical examination, anal manometry and defecography during a single outpatient visit. Rectocele (16 patients) was significantly associated with vaginal digitation, lower stool frequency, delayed rectal emptying and decreased rectal sensation to distension. Increased anal pressure on straining (14 patients) was also related to a poor rectal emptying in 13 patients. Neither perineal descent (24 patients) nor external rectal prolapse (12 patients) was related to objective obstruction. Nevertheless there was an association with pelvic heaviness and lower anal manometric recordings. Five among 16 patients with rectocele had manometric anismus. Forty percent of patients with intussusception also had a paradoxical sphincter response during defaecation. Furthermore, associated abnormalities were extremely common (34 of 41 patients), accurate interpretation of which was necessary for planning effective therapy.

  4. A clinical study on the trocar-guided mesh repair system for pelvic organ prolapse surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Seul Gi; Moon, Jeong Beom; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Kyoung A; Lee, Ju Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the complication and recurrence rates in patients undergoing trocar-guided mesh implant for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) treatment. Methods A retrospective study was performed based on the medical records of patients who had undergone mesh implant by one surgeon from May 2006 to August 2013 at the Presbyterian Medical Center in Korea. We evaluated perioperative complications such as bladder injury, mesh exposure, urinary symptoms, infections, and chronic pelvic pain. Recurrence was defined as a POP-quantification system stage ≥II or any symptomatic prolapse. Results Sixty-seven patients were evaluated, and the mean age of patients was 65.4±7.2 years. Stage ≥III POP-quantification Ba was noted in 61 patients (91%). Intraoperative complications included three cases of bladder injury (4.5%). The mean follow-up period was 44.1±7.9 months. Postoperative complications occurred in seven women (10.5%): four cases of urinary symptoms (6%), two cases of infections (3%), and one case of chronic pelvic pain (1.5%). Mesh exposure did not occur (0%). Prolapse recurrence was reported in five patients (7.5%). Conclusion Based on our operational result, the trocar-guided mesh implant seems to provide safe and effective outcomes. PMID:27200311

  5. Animal model of simulated microgravity: a comparative study of hindlimb unloading via tail versus pelvic suspension.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Long, Ashley; Harris, Gabrielle; Soulsby, Michael E; Dobretsov, Maxim

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare physiological effects of hindlimb suspension (HLS) in tail- and pelvic-HLS rat models to determine if severe stretch in the tail-HLS rats lumbosacral skeleton may contribute to the changes traditionally attributed to simulated microgravity and musculoskeletal disuse in the tail-HLS model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into suspended and control-nonsuspended groups were subjected to two separate methods of suspension and maintained with regular food and water for 2 weeks. Body weights, food and water consumption, soleus muscle weight, tibial bone mineral density, random plasma insulin, and hindlimb pain on pressure threshold (PPT) were measured. X-ray analysis demonstrated severe lordosis in tail- but not pelvic-HLS animals. However, growth retardation, food consumption, and soleus muscle weight and tibial bone density (decreased relative to control) did not differ between two HLS models. Furthermore, HLS rats developed similar levels of insulinopenia and mechanical hyperalgesia (decreased PPT) in both tail- and pelvic-HLS groups. In the rat-to-rat comparisons, the growth retardation and the decreased PPT observed in HLS-rats was most associated with insulinopenia. In conclusion, these data suggest that HLS results in mild prediabetic state with some signs of pressure hyperalgesia, but lumbosacral skeleton stretch plays little role, if any, in these pathological changes.

  6. Osteopathy for Endometriosis and Chronic Pelvic Pain – a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sillem, M.; Juhasz-Böss, I.; Klausmeier, I.; Mechsner, S.; Siedentopf, F.; Solomayer, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pelvic pain is a common problem in gynaecological practice. It is often unclear whether definite causality exists between reported symptoms and objective clinical findings of the female genital tract, and medical or operative treatments do not always achieve long-term resolution of symptoms. Methods: This pilot study investigated 28 patients (age 20–65, median 36.5 years) from a gynaecology practice whose only clinical finding was painful pelvic floor muscle tightness. Following standardised gynaecological and physiotherapist examination, all patients received osteopathic treatment. Pain had been present for a median of 3 years (range 1 month to 20 years). 14 patients had previously confirmed endometriosis. Treatment success was evaluated on consultation with patients in person or in writing. Results: 22 of the 28 participants completed the treatment according to plan. Overall, 17 reported symptom improvement, while 10 of the 14 patients with endometriosis did. Conclusion: Osteopathy is well received by women with painful pelvic floor muscle tightness and appears to be an effective treatment option. PMID:27681520

  7. A review of pelvic fractures in adult pedestrians: experimental studies involving PMHS used to determine injury criteria for pedestrian dummies and component test procedures.

    PubMed

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kerrigan, Jason R; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Crandall, Jeff R

    2015-01-01

    Perform a systematic review for the most relevant pelvic injury research involving PMHS. The review begins with an explanation of the pelvic anatomy and a general description of pelvic fracture patterns followed by the particular case of pelvic fractures sustained in pedestrian-vehicle collisions. Field data documenting the vehicle, crash, and human risk factors for pedestrian pelvic injuries are assessed. A summary of full-scale PMHS tests and subsystem lateral pelvic tests is provided with an interpretation of the most significant findings for the most relevant studies. Based on the mechanisms of pedestrian pelvic injury, force, acceleration, and velocity and compression have been assessed as predictive variables by researchers although no consensus criterion exists.

  8. Is extended pelvic lymph node dissection for prostate cancer the only recommended option? A systematic over-view of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Thomas; Raison, Nicholas; Sheikh, Mohammed Iqbal; Jaffry, Zahra; Madaan, Sanjeev; Challacombe, Ben; Ahmed, Kamran; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is performed alongside radical prostatectomy as the most accurate method of staging prostate cancer. Yet the potential therapeutic benefits of lymphadenectomy are yet to be confirmed. Material and methods A PubMed database search was performed to identify all papers comparing techniques for PLND or none. The primary outcome measure was long term oncological outcomes. Studies looking at men with clinically localized prostate cancer at the time of radical prostatectomy who received no adjuvant treatment were included. Previous reviews and single case reports were excluded. The subsequent available papers were then systematically reviewed. Results Limited PLND provides no benefit in low risk prostate cancer and is unlikely to provide a therapeutic benefit in higher risk groups either when compared with no PLND. Extended PLND may provide some therapeutic benefit, particularly in patients with occult metastases; however, the evidence base for this is not particularly strong and may be down to statistical phenomena. Conclusion When performed in prostate cancer patients, PLND should be extended, as it is a more accurate staging tool and may provide therapeutic benefit to some patients. However, to properly assess this, randomised controlled studies need to be performed in this area. PMID:27909616

  9. Defining local nerve blocks for feline distal pelvic limb surgery: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Masataka; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Gerard, Mathew P

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Anatomical and methodological detail is lacking regarding local anesthetic peripheral nerve block techniques for distal pelvic limb surgery in cats. The aim of this study was to develop, describe and test nerve block methods based on cadaveric dissections and dye injections. Methods Ten pairs of feline pelvic limbs (n = 20) were dissected and the tibial nerve (T n.), common fibular (peroneal) nerve (CF n., and its two branches, the superficial fibular [peroneal] nerve [SpF n.] and the deep fibular [peroneal] nerve [DpF n.]) and the saphenous nerve (Sa n.) were identified. Based on these dissections, a 'distal crus block' (selective blockade of the CF n., T n. and Sa n.) and a 'distal pes block' (selective blockade of the SpF n., DpF n., T n. and Sa n.) were developed for surgical procedures in two different regions of the distal pelvic limb. Techniques were tested using new methylene blue (NMB) dye injections in feline pelvic limbs (n = 12). Using a 25 G × 5/8 inch needle and 1 ml syringe, 0.1 ml/kg of NMB dye solution was injected at the site of the CF n., and 0.05 ml/kg was injected at the sites of the SpF n., DpF n., Sa n. and T n. The length and circumference (fully or partially stained) of each stained nerve were measured. Results Positive staining of nerves was observed in 12/12 limbs. The lengths stained for the CF n., DpF n., SpF n., Sa n. and T n. were 27.19 ± 7.13, 20.39 ± 5.57, 22.82 ± 7.13, 30.89 ± 6.99 and 25.16 ± 8.09 mm, respectively. The nerves were fully stained in 12, 12, 10, 11 and 11 out of 12 limbs, respectively. Conclusions and relevance These two, three-point injection methods may be an effective perioperative analgesia technique for feline distal pelvic limb procedures.

  10. Survival Outcomes of Whole-Pelvic Versus Prostate-Only Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients With Use of the National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Amini, Arya; Jones, Bernard L; Yeh, Norman; Rusthoven, Chad G; Armstrong, Hirotatsu; Kavanagh, Brian D

    2015-12-01

    The addition of whole pelvic (WP) compared with prostate-only (PO) radiation therapy (RT) for clinically node-negative prostate cancer remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the survival benefit of adding WPRT versus PO-RT for high-risk, node-negative prostate cancer, using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated from 2004 to 2006, with available data for RT volume, coded as prostate and pelvis (WPRT) or prostate alone (PO-RT) were included. Multivariate analysis (MVA) and propensity-score matched analysis (PSM) were performed. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) based on overall survival (OS) using Gleason score (GS), T stage, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was also conducted. A total of 14,817 patients were included: 7606 (51.3%) received WPRT, and 7211 (48.7%) received PO-RT. The median follow-up time was 81 months (range, 2-122 months). Under MVA, the addition of WPRT for high-risk patients had no OS benefit compared with PO-RT (HR 1.05; P=.100). On subset analysis, patients receiving dose-escalated RT also did not benefit from WPRT (HR 1.01; P=.908). PSM confirmed no survival benefit with the addition of WPRT for high-risk patients (HR 1.05; P=.141). In addition, RPA was unable to demonstrate a survival benefit of WPRT for any subset. Other prognostic factors for inferior OS under MVA included older age (HR 1.25; P<.001), increasing comorbidity scores (HR 1.46; P<.001), higher T stage (HR 1.17; P<.001), PSA (HR 1.81; P<.001), and GS (HR 1.29; P<.001), and decreasing median county household income (HR 1.15; P=.011). Factors improving OS included the addition of androgen deprivation therapy (HR 0.92; P=.033), combination external beam RT plus brachytherapy boost (HR 0.71; P<.001), and treatment at an academic/research institution (HR 0.84; P=.002). In the largest reported analysis of WPRT for patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated in the dose-escalated era, the

  11. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, Marvin . E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Bundy, Brian; Lentz, Samuel S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Zaino, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or

  12. Real-time magnetic resonance-guided microwave coagulation therapy for pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer: initial clinical experience using a 0.5 T open magnetic resonance system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomoharu; Endo, Yoshihiro; Mekata, Eiji; Tatsuta, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Tani, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate consecutive cases of recurrent rectal cancer in the pelvic cavity treated with microwave coagulation therapy using real-time navigation by an open magnetic resonance system. Nine recurrent pelvic lesions in 8 patients after curative resection of rectal cancer were treated with real-time magnetic resonance-guided microwave coagulation therapy as a palliative local therapy to reduce tumor volume and/or local pain. Clinical and pathological data were collected retrospectively by reviewing medical records and clinical imaging results. Seven patients received other treatments before real-time magnetic resonance-guided microwave coagulation. Six patients had distant synchronous metastases. Three patients underwent surgery under lumbar anesthesia. Microwave coagulation was performed percutaneously in 5 lesions and under laparotomy in 4 lesions. Although adverse events related to microwave coagulation (skin necrosis and nerve injury) were observed, no fatal complications occurred. Local re-recurrence was observed in 2 of 9 ablated lesions. Except for 1 patient who died of chronic renal failure, the remaining 7 patients died of cancer. Median overall survival after microwave coagulation for all patients was 10 months (range, 4-37 mo). Median overall survival after discovery of pelvic recurrence in all patients was 22 months (range, 9-42 mo). The benefits of using an open magnetic resonance system in the pelvic cavity include the abilities to treat tumors that cannot be visualized by other modalities, to demonstrate internal architectural changes during treatment, to differentiate treated vs untreated areas, and to allow adjustments to the treatment plan during the procedure. Additional studies are required to clarify the efficacy of tumor coagulation for local control.

  13. Myofascial pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Kotarinos, Rhonda

    2012-10-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain is fraught with many unknowns. Is it the organs of the pelvis, is it the muscles of the pelvis, or is the origin of the pelvic pain from an extrapelvic muscle? Is there a single source or multiple? In this state of confusion what is the best way to manage the many symptoms that can be associated with myofascial pelvic pain. This article reviews current studies that attempt to answer some of these questions. More questions seem to develop as each study presents its findings.

  14. Form of presentation, natural history and course of postoperative venous thromboembolism in patients operated on for pelvic and abdominal cancer. Analysis of the RIETE registry.

    PubMed

    Bustos Merlo, Ana Belén; Arcelus Martínez, Juan Ignacio; Turiño Luque, Jesús Damián; Valero, Beatriz; Villalobos, Aurora; Aibar, Miguel Ángel; Monreal Bosch, Manuel

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a serious complication after oncologic surgery. Recent studies have shown that the risk of VTE persists several weeks after surgery. This study assesses the form of presentation and time course of VTE after abdominal and pelvic cancer surgery. Prospective, multicenter, observational study that analyzes data from an international registry (RIETE) that includes consecutive patients with symptomatic VTE. Our study assesses the form and time of presentation of postoperative VTE, as well as main outcomes, in patients operated for abdominopelvic cancer 8 weeks prior to VTE diagnosis. Variables related to the presentation of VTE after hospital discharge are identified. Out of the 766 analyzed patients with VTE, 395 (52%) presented pulmonary embolism (PE). Most VTE cases (84%) were detected after the first postoperative week, and 38% after one month. Among patients with VTE in the first postoperative week, 70% presented PE. VTE presented after hospital discharge in 54% of cases. Colorectal, urologic, and gynecologic tumors, the use of radiotherapy, and blood hemoglobin levels were independently associated with VTE diagnosis after hospital discharge. Complications (thrombosis recurrence, bleeding, and death) occurred in 34% of patients with VTE detected before hospital discharge, compared to 24% in VTE after hospital discharge (P<0.01). VTE occurs after hospital discharge in most patients, particularly in those operated for colorectal, urologic, and gynecologic cancer. Pulmonary embolism is more frequent in patients who develop early VTE, who also have worse prognosis. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison study of pelvic fractures and associated abdominal injuries between pediatric and adult blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Swaid, Forat; Peleg, Kobi; Alfici, Ricardo; Olsha, Oded; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic fractures are a marker of severe injury, mandating a thorough investigation for the presence of associated injuries. Anatomical and physiological differences between adults and children may lead to a different impact of pelvic fractures on these populations. The purpose of this study is to compare pelvic fractures between pediatric and adult blunt trauma victims, mainly regarding their severity and associated intraabdominal injuries. A retrospective study involving blunt trauma patients suffering pelvic fractures, according to the records of the Israeli National Trauma Registry. Patients included children, aged 0-14years, and adults between 15 and 64years. The presence and severity of associated injuries were assessed. Overall, 7621 patients aged 0-64years were identified with pelvic fractures following blunt trauma. The incidence of pelvic fractures in children was (0.8%), as compared to 4.3% in adults, p <0.0001. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (MVA) in adults, and pedestrian hit by car (PHBC) in children. About a quarter of the patients in both groups had an ISS >25. Adults sustained significantly more moderate to severe pelvic fractures (AIS≥3) than children (26.7% vs. 17.4%, p<0.0001). The overall mortality rate was similar among the two groups (5.4% in adults, 5.2% in children, p=0.7554). The only associated injury with statistically significant difference in incidence among the two groups was rectal injury (1.2% among children, 0.2% among adults, p<0.0001). Among adult patients, there was a clear correlation between the severity of pelvic fractures and the severity of concomitant splenic and hepatic injuries (p=0.026, p=0.0004, respectively). Among children, a similar correlation was not demonstrated. Adults involved in blunt trauma are more likely to sustain pelvic fractures, and these are generally more severe fractures, as compared to children suffering from blunt trauma. Nonetheless, mortality rates were found

  16. Pelvic floor muscle training improves quality of life of women with urinary incontinence: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hiu Lan; Chan, Symphorosa Shing Chee; Law, Tracy Sze Man; Cheung, Rachel Yau Kar; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung

    2013-06-01

    Women suffering from urinary incontinence have impaired quality of life (QoL). Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has been recommended to be the first-line treatment for them. This study evaluated the role of (PFMT) in women with urinary incontinence. All women suffering from urinary incontinence without pelvic organ prolapse who attended the urogynaecology unit of a university hospital from January 2009 to June 2010 were recruited. Urinary symptoms and impact on QoL were assessed using the Chinese validated Urogenital Distress Inventory short form (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire short form (IIQ-7) before and after PFMT. Urodynamic studies (UDS) were used to differentiate the diagnoses of urinary incontinence. Three hundred and seventy-two women, aged 52.3 ± 10.8 years and practised PFMT for 9.9 ± 7.3 months, completed the study. Over 65% recorded improvement in both UDI-6 and IIQ-7. Stratified for urodynamic diagnosis, stress incontinence group and those who had no UDS abnormality had significant improvement in their urinary symptoms and QoL after PFMT. UDI-6 and IIQ-7 also improved significantly after PFMT in groups where the clinical presentation was stress incontinence, overactive bladder symptoms or mixed urinary incontinence. Age was not associated with a significant difference in the response to PFMT. Pelvic floor muscle training appears to be an effective first-line intervention for improving urinary symptoms and QoL of women presenting with urinary incontinence. Future studies on long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are also required. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. The MAPP research network: a novel study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J Quentin; Mullins, Chris; Kusek, John W; Kirkali, Ziya; Mayer, Emeran A; Rodríguez, Larissa V; Klumpp, David J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Kreder, Karl J; Buchwald, Dedra; Andriole, Gerald L; Lucia, M Scott; Landis, J Richard; Clauw, Daniel J

    2014-08-01

    Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) may be defined to include interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The hallmark symptom of UCPPS is chronic pain in the pelvis, urogenital floor, or external genitalia often accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite numerous past basic and clinical research studies there is no broadly identifiable organ-specific pathology or understanding of etiology or risk factors for UCPPS, and diagnosis relies primarily on patient reported symptoms. In addition, there are no generally effective therapies. Recent findings have, however, revealed associations between UCPPS and "centralized" chronic pain disorders, suggesting UCPPS may represent a local manifestation of more widespread pathology in some patients. Here, we describe a new and novel effort initiated by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to address the many long standing questions regarding UCPPS, the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. The MAPP Network approaches UCPPS in a systemic manner, in which the interplay between the genitourinary system and other physiological systems is emphasized. The network's study design expands beyond previous research, which has primarily focused on urologic organs and tissues, to utilize integrated approaches to define patient phenotypes, identify clinically-relevant subgroups, and better understand treated natural history and pathophysiology. Thus, the MAPP Network provides an unprecedented, multi-layered characterization of UCPPS. Knowledge gained is expected to provide important insights into underlying pathophysiology, a foundation for better segmenting patients for future clinical trials, and ultimately translation into improved clinical management. In addition, the MAPP Network's integrated multi

  18. Subjective social status and depression symptoms: a prospective study of women with noncancerous pelvic problems.

    PubMed

    Diaz, O Vanessa; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) may be a stronger determinant of health than objective measures of socioeconomic status. We sought to examine the effect of community and national SSS on symptoms of depression in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult women with noncancerous uterine conditions. We conducted a secondary analysis of data obtained from 634 women who enrolled in the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy, and Intervention Alternatives (SOPHIA) in 2003 and 2004. SOPHIA was a longitudinal study of women aged 31 to 54 who were experiencing abnormal uterine bleeding, symptomatic fibroids, or pelvic pain. The primary outcome for this analysis consisted of symptoms suggesting major or other depressive disorder, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 2 years after study enrollment. We hypothesized that women who had low community and national SSS at baseline, as measured by the MacArthur SSS ladder, would be at higher risk of experiencing symptoms of depression at follow-up. Women with low community SSS had an increased odds of experiencing depression symptoms 2 years later compared with women with high SSS, after adjusting for age, pelvic problem impact and baseline depression (odds ratio, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.11-7.77). Odds remained elevated after further adjusting for income and education. Results for the national ladder were not significant. Low perceived community social status is predictive of symptoms suggestive of major or other depressive disorder among women with noncancerous uterine conditions. Asking about perceived community social status can help clinicians to identify patients who may be at increased risk for depressive disorders. Asking about perceived national social status does not seem to add value beyond that provided by income and education. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kendrick's extrication device and unstable pelvic fractures: Should a trochanteric belt be added? A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Floran A; Flaris, Alexandros N; Simms, Eric R; Rouvière, Olivier; Roy, Pascal; Prat, Nicolas J; Damizet, Jean-Gabriel; Caillot, Jean-Louis; Voiglio, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Pre-hospital pelvic stabilisation is advised to prevent exsanguination in patients with unstable pelvic fractures (UPFs). Kendrick's extrication device (KED) is commonly used to extricate patients from cars or crevasses. However the KED has not been tested for potential adverse effects in patients with pelvic fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the KED on pubic symphysis diastasis (SyD) with and without the use of a trochanteric belt (TB) during the extraction process following a MVC. Left-sided "open-book" UPFs were created in 18 human cadavers that were placed in seven different positions simulating pre-extraction and extraction positions using the KED with and without a TB in two different positions (through and over the thigh straps). The SyD was measured using anteroposterior radiographs. The effects of the KED with and without TB, on the SyD, were evaluated. The KED alone resulted in a non-significant increase of the SyD compared to baseline, whereas the addition of a TB to the KED resulted in a significant reduction of the SyD (p<0.001). The TB through the straps provided a significantly better reduction than the TB over the straps in the extracted position (p<0.05). Our study demonstrated that a TB in combination with the KED on UPFs is an effective way to achieve early reduction. The addition of the TB in combination with the KED could be considered for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) training protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward a new generation of pelvic floor implants with electrospun nanofibrous matrices: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vashaghian, Mahshid; Ruiz-Zapata, Alejandra M; Kerkhof, Manon H; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Werner, Arie; Roovers, Jan Paul; Smit, Theo H

    2017-03-01

    The use of knitted, polypropylene meshes for the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is frequently accompanied by severe complications. Looking for alternatives, we studied the potential of three different electrospun matrices in supporting the adhesion, proliferation, and matrix deposition of POP and non-POP fibroblasts, the most important cells to produce extracellular matrix (ECM), in vitro. We electrospun three commonly used medical materials: nylon; poly (lactide-co-glycolide) blended with poly-caprolactone (PLGA/PCL); and poly-caprolactone blended with gelatin (PCL/Gelatin). The matrices were characterized for their microstructure, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties. We seeded POP and non-POP fibroblasts from patients with POP and we determined cellular responses and ECM deposition. All matrices had >65% porosity, homogenous microstructures, and close to sufficient tensile strength for pelvic floor repair: 15.4 ± 3.3 MPa for Nylon; 12.4 ± 1.6 MPa for PLGA/PCL; and 3.5 ± 0.9 MPa for PCL/Gelatin. Both the POP and non-POP cells adhered to the electrospun matrices; they proliferated well and produced ample ECM. Overall, the best in vitro performance appeared to be on nylon, presumably because this was the most hydrophilic material with the thinnest fibers. Electrospun nanofibrous matrices show feasible mechanical strength and great biocompatibility for POP and non-POP fibroblasts to produce their ECM in vitro and, thus, may be candidates for a new generation of implants for pelvic floor repair. Further studies on electrospun nanofibrous matrices should focus on mechanical and immunological conditions that would be presented in vivo. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:565-573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijing; Hou, Teng; Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    The β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 gene (B3GNT3) encodes a member of the B3GNT family that functions as the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl-Lewis A and is involved in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. B3GNT3 has been implicated as an important element in the development of certain cancers. However, the characteristics of B3GNT3 in the development and progression of cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and the prognostic value of B3GNT3 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. The mRNA and protein levels of B3GNT3 expression were examined in eight cervical cancer cell lines and ten paired cervical cancer tumors, using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze B3GNT3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the association between B3GNT3 expression scores and clinical parameters, as well as patient survival. B3GNT3 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues. In the 196 cases of tested early-stage cervical cancer samples, the B3GNT3 protein level was positively correlated with high risk TYPES of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.026), FIGO stage (P < 0.001), tumor size (P = 0.025), tumor recurrence (P = 0.004), vital status (P < 0.001), concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (P = 0.016), lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.003) and most importantly, lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003). Patients with high B3GNT3 expression had a shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those with low expression of this protein. Multivariate analysis suggested that B3GNT3 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for cervical cancer patients. Our study

  2. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    cancer patients. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that elevated B3GNT3 expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in early-stage cervical cancer patients. B3GNT3 may be a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26709519

  3. Motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic region improve respiratory function in obese men. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bezzoli, Emanuela; Andreotti, Dianne; Pianta, Lucia; Mascheroni, Martina; Piccinno, Lorena; Puricelli, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Salvadori, Alberto; Codecasa, Franco; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2016-11-10

    Obese subjects have decreased pulmonary function. The hypothesis of our study was that poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic musculature secondary to obesity may hinder the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. The aim of the paper was to evaluate whether specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature were able to improve respiratory function. Twenty obese male patients underwent a rehabilitation program including adapted physical activity and respiratory physiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to a Specific Motor Control Exercise Group (SG) and a Control Group (CG). SG followed a protocol according to the SMARTERehab concept aimed at improving posture, intra-abdominal pressure, rib cage mobility, and perception of correct muscle activation. CG performed an exercise training protocol to improve aerobic capacity and muscle strength. After intervention, both groups showed similar changes in body weight, fat, and fat-free mass. Respiratory function indexes improved in SG due to improved proprioception and coordination of the deep lumbar-pelvic muscles. Our study provides preliminary evidence that breathing, postural control, and spinal stability are intertwined. Positive respiratory effects in obese men can be obtained by prescribing specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic muscles. Implications for rehabilitation Obese subjects present with decreased pulmonary function and postural changes. Poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic muscles affects posture and the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. Specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature can improve respiratory function. Breathing and postural control are intertwined: positive respiratory effects can be obtained by enhancing motor control of the lumbar-pelvic muscles.

  4. Treatment of bulky stage IB and IIB cervical cancers with outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation and extrafascial hysterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nagell, J.R.; Maruyama, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.S.; Hanson, M.B.; Gallion, H.H.; Powell, D.E.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    From January, 1977, to December, 1982, twenty-nine patients with bulky (>4 cms diameter) Stage IB or IIB cervical cancer were treated at the University of Kentucky Medical Center by a combination of out-patient neutron brachytherapy (Cf-252) and external pelvic radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. Residual tumor was present in the hysterectomy specimens of 25 per cent. Complications during and following radiation therapy and surgery were minimal and included vaginal stenosis, proctitis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. The mean duration of hospitalization for surgery in these patients was 6.6 days (range 5-15 days) and postoperative morbidity was low. No patient required blood transfusion. Four patients developed urinary tract infections and two had superficial wound separations. Following treatment, patients were seen at monthly intervals for one year, every three months for two years, and every six months thereafter. No patient has been lost to follow-up. Two patients (7 per cent) developed tumor recurrence and have died of disease (1 of distant metastases; 1 local). The remaining 27 patients (93 per cent) are alive and well with no evidence of disease 24-89 months (mean 48 months) after therapy. No radiogenic fistulae or bowel obstruction were observed. These preliminary results suggest that the combination of outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation, and extrafascial hysterectomy for patients with Stage IB and IIB cervical cancer is well tolerated. Complications associated with this treatment regimen have been minimal, and the recurrence rate is low. The duration of intracavitary neutron brachytherapy was short, and outpatient therapy was well received by patients.

  5. Sagittal balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: radiographic study of spino-pelvic compensation after surgery.

    PubMed

    La Maida, Giovanni Andrea; Zottarelli, Leonardo; Mineo, Giuseppe Vincenzo; Misaggi, Bernardo

    2013-11-01

    Radiographic retrospective study of a consecutive series of 76 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) undergoing posterior only surgical correction and fusion. To evaluate the sagittal profile changes in a population of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after posterior only surgical correction. Although the relationship between pelvic indexes and sagittal profile is well known, little has been published about the sagittal profile changes after posterior surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Radiological data of 76 AIS patients were analyzed by an independent observer to compare pelvic indexes and spino-pelvic parameters before and at the last follow-up after surgical posterior correction. All patients underwent a posterior only surgical correction by using different anchor techniques (all screws or hybrid construct), but the same derotation correction maneuver (C-D technique). The collected data were analyzed, on AP and LL radiographic views of the entire spine in the upright position, from the same independent observer and using the same Impax software analysis. We collected for each patient on latero-lateral X-rays the following data: pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), C7 plumb line (C7PL) and spino-sacral angle (SSA). All data were analyzed using a D'Agostino-Pearson normality test and the comparison between the groups was performed with a student's t test. The mean pelvic incidence (PI) of the cohort was 48.89° (± 11.24), with a mean Cobb angle for the main curve of 60.13° (± 13.6). The mean value of residual scoliosis after surgery was 28.18° (± 13.22) with an average improvement of the curve in the frontal plane of 53.2 %. The amount of curve correction of the primary scoliosis curve was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). In the evaluation of the whole group after surgery, we observed an increasing amount of PT (average delta value 2.38°) with a statistical

  6. Nodal Clearance Rate and Long-Term Efficacy of Individualized Sentinel Node-Based Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Müller, Arndt-Christian; Eckert, Franziska; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel; Stenzl, Arnulf; Schilling, David; Alber, Markus; Bares, Roland; Martus, Peter; Weckermann, Dorothea; Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute

    2016-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of individual sentinel node (SN)-guided pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by determining nodal clearance rate [(n expected nodal involvement - n observed regional recurrences)/n expected nodal involvement] in comparison with surgically staged patients. Data on 475 high-risk prostate cancer patients were examined. Sixty-one consecutive patients received pelvic SN-based IMRT (5 × 1.8 Gy/wk to 50.4 Gy [pelvic nodes + individual SN] and an integrated boost with 5 × 2.0 Gy/wk to 70.0 Gy to prostate + [base of] seminal vesicles) and neo-/adjuvant long-term androgen deprivation therapy; 414 patients after SN-pelvic lymph node dissection were used to calculate the expected nodal involvement rate for the radiation therapy sample. Biochemical control and overall survival were estimated for the SN-IMRT patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. The expected frequency of nodal involvement in the radiation therapy group was estimated by imputing frequencies of node-positive patients in the surgical sample to the pattern of Gleason, prostate-specific antigen, and T category in the radiation therapy sample. After a median follow-up of 61 months, 5-year OS after SN-guided IMRT reached 84.4%. Biochemical control according to the Phoenix definition was 73.8%. The nodal clearance rate of SN-IMRT reached 94%. Retrospective follow-up evaluation is the main limitation. Radiation treatment of pelvic nodes individualized by inclusion of SNs is an effective regional treatment modality in high-risk prostate cancer patients. The pattern of relapse indicates that the SN-based target volume concept correctly covers individual pelvic nodes. Thus, this SN-based approach justifies further evaluation, including current dose-escalation strategies to the prostate in a larger prospective series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge of pelvic floor problems: a study of third trimester, primiparous women.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Aideen T; Hockey, Joanne; O'Brien, Patrick; Williams, Amanda; Morris, Tim P; Khan, Tahira; Hardwick, Emma; Yoong, Wai

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic floor problems in women (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, uterovaginal prolapse) are common, and have an adverse effect on quality of life. We hypothesized that there is low knowledge of these problems amongst primiparous women in their third trimester of pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study in antenatal clinics of three hospitals in London, UK, from 2011 to 2013. Primiparous women aged ≥18 years and in the third trimester of pregnancy answered questions on pelvic floor problems. Knowledge scores were calculated based on the proportion of questions answered correctly. A total of 249 women completed the question set. The average knowledge score across all domains was low at 45 %. Scores were lowest for the less common problems of faecal incontinence (35 %) and prolapse (36 %). The score for urinary incontinence was higher at 63 %, but low when questions explored more detailed levels of knowledge (41 %). Knowledge scores were positively associated with both education to tertiary level and the use of books as the information source on pregnancy and delivery. Only 35 % of women cited antenatal classes as a source. Knowledge of pelvic floor problems is low amongst third-trimester, primiparous women in this London-based population. Adequate knowledge of these problems is important for women to be able to make informed choices about their antenatal care and to seek help if problems arise. The data suggest scope for health-care professionals to raise these issues early during pregnancy, and to help women access accurate sources of information.

  8. Treatment of endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain with letrozole and norethindrone acetate: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ailawadi, Radhika K; Jobanputra, Smeeta; Kataria, Meera; Gurates, Bilgin; Bulun, Serdar E

    2004-02-01

    To determine the role of an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, in the treatment of reproductive-age women with endometriosis and associated chronic pelvic pain. Phase 2, open-label, nonrandomized proof-of-concept study. Outpatient tertiary-care center. Ten patients with endometriosis, all previously treated both medically and surgically, with unsatisfactory results. Endometriosis was diagnosed by biopsy and scored from an initial diagnostic laparoscopy performed within 1 month before treatment was begun. Oral administration of letrozole (2.5 mg), the progestin norethindrone acetate (2.5 mg), calcium citrate (1,250 mg), and vitamin D (800 IU) was done daily for 6 months. Within 1-2 months after completion of the treatment, a second-look laparoscopy was performed to score and biopsy endometriosis. Changes in American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) scores for endometriosis, pelvic pain assessed by visual analog scale, serum hormone levels (FSH, LH, E(2), and estrone [E(1)]), and bone density (DEXA scan). No histologically demonstrable endometriosis was present in any patient during the second-look laparoscopy. ASRM and pelvic pain scores decreased significantly in response to treatment. Overall, no significant change in bone density was detected. Gonadotropin levels were not significantly altered by treatment, and although circulating E(2) and E(1) levels were reduced, the decrease was not statistically significant. The combination of letrozole and norethindrone acetate achieved marked reduction of laparoscopically visible and histologically confirmed endometriosis in all 10 patients and significant pain relief in nine out of 10 patients who had not responded previously to currently available treatments. On this basis, letrozole should be a candidate for the medical management of endometriosis.

  9. Diagnosing pelvic osteomyelitis beneath pressure ulcers in spinal cord injured patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Brunel, A-S; Lamy, B; Cyteval, C; Perrochia, H; Téot, L; Masson, R; Bertet, H; Bourdon, A; Morquin, D; Reynes, J; Le Moing, V

    2016-03-01

    There is no consensus on a diagnostic strategy for osteomyelitis underlying pressure ulcers. We conducted a prospective study to assess the accuracy of multiple bone biopsies and imaging to diagnose pelvic osteomyelitis. Patients with clinically suspected osteomyelitis beneath pelvic pressure ulcers were enrolled. Bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical bone biopsies (three or more for microbiology and one for histology per ulcer) were performed. Bacterial osteomyelitis diagnosis relied upon the association of positive histology and microbiology (at least one positive culture for non-commensal microorganisms or three or more for commensal microorganisms of the skin). From 2011 to 2014, 34 patients with 44 pressure ulcers were included. Bacterial osteomyelitis was diagnosed for 28 (82.3%) patients and 35 (79.5%) ulcers according to the composite criterion. Discrepancy was observed between histology and microbiology for 5 (11.4%) ulcers. Most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (77.1%), Peptostreptococcus (48.6%) and Bacteroides (40%), cultured in three or more samples in 42.9% of ulcers for S. aureus and ≥20% for anaerobes. Only 2.8% of ulcers had three or more positive specimens with coagulase-negative staphylococci, group B Streptococcus, and nil with enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus and group milleri Streptococcus were recovered from one sample in 22.8%, 11.4% and 11.4% of ulcers, respectively. Agreement was poor between biopsies and MRI (κ 0.2). Sensitivity of MRI was 94.3% and specificity was 22.2%. The diagnosis of pelvic osteomyelitis relies on multiple surgical bone biopsies with microbiological and histological analyses. At least three bone samples allows the detection of pathogens and exclusion of contaminants. MRI is not routinely useful for diagnosis.

  10. Bladder Cancer Patterns of Pelvic Failure: Implications for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Vaughn, David J.; Keefe, Stephen M.; Vapiwala, Neha; Deville, Curtiland; Bekelman, Justin E.; Tucker, Kai; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LFs) after cystectomy with or without chemotherapy are common in locally advanced disease. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LFs, but toxicity has discouraged its use. Modern RT techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest but require knowledge of pelvic failure patterns to design treatment volumes. Methods and Materials: Five-year LF rates after radical cystectomy plus pelvic node dissection with or without chemotherapy were determined for 8 pelvic sites among 442 urothelial bladder carcinoma patients. The impact of pathologic stage, margin status, nodal involvement, and extent of node dissection on failure patterns was assessed using competing risk analysis. We calculated the percentage of patients whose sites of LF would have been completely encompassed within various hypothetical clinical target volumes (CTVs) for postoperative radiation. Results: Compared with stage {<=}pT2, stage {>=}pT3 patients had higher 5-year LF rates in virtually all pelvic sites. Among stage {>=}pT3 patients, margin status significantly altered the failure pattern whereas extent of node dissection and nodal positivity did not. In stage {>=}pT3 patients with negative margins, failure occurred predominantly in the iliac/obturator nodes and uncommonly in the cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodes. Of these patients in whom failure subsequently occurred, 76% would have had all LF sites encompassed within CTVs covering only the iliac/obturator nodes. In stage {>=}pT3 with positive margins, cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodal failures increased significantly. Only 57% of such patients had all LF sites within CTVs limited to the iliac/obturator nodes, but including the cystectomy bed and presacral nodes in the CTV when margins were positive increased the percentage of LFs encompassed to 91%. Conclusions: Patterns of failure within the pelvis are summarized to facilitate design of adjuvant RT protocols. These data suggest

  11. The potential for dose dumping in normal tissues with IMRT for pelvic and H&N cancers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nandanuri M S; Mazur, Andrzej K; Sampath, Seshadri; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brij M; Ravi, Akkamma; Nori, Dattatreyudu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the potential for dose dumping in normal tissues (>85% of prescription dose) and to analyze effectiveness of techniques used in reducing dose dumping during IMRT. Two hundred sixty-five intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for 55 patients with prostate, head-and-neck (H&N), and cervix cancers with 6-MV photon beams and >5 fields were reviewed to analyze why dose dumping occurred, and the techniques used to reduce dose dumping. Various factors including gantry angles, depth of beams (100-SSD), duration of optimization, severity of dose-volume constraints (DVC) on normal structures, and spatial location of planning treatment volumes (PTV) were reviewed in relation to dose dumping. In addition, the effect of partial contouring of rectum in beam's path on dose dumping in rectum was studied. Dose dumping occurred at d(max) in 17 pelvic cases (85% to 129%). This was related to (1) depth of beams (100 SSD [source-to-skin distance]), (2) PTV located between normal structures with DVC, and (3) relative lack of rectum and bladder in beam's path. Dose dumping could be reduced to 85% by changing beam angles and/or DVC for normal structures in 5 cases and by creating "phantom structures" in 12 cases. Decreasing the iterations (duration of optimization) also reduced dose dumping and monitor units (MUs). Part of uncontoured rectum, if present in the field, received a higher dose than the contoured rectum with DVC, indicating that complete delineation of normal structures and DVC is necessary to prevent dose dumping. In H&N, when PTV extends inadvertently into air beyond the body even by a few millimeters, dose dumping occurred in beam's path (220% for 5-field and 170%, 7-field plans). Keeping PTV margins within body contour reduced this type of dose dumping. Beamlet optimization, duration of optimization, spatial location of PTV, and DVC on PTV and normal structures has the potential to cause dose dumping. However, these

  12. The Potential for Dose Dumping in Normal Tissues with IMRT for Pelvic and H and N Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Nandanuri; Mazur, Andrzej K.; Sampath, Seshadri; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brij M.; Ravi, Akkamma; Nori, Dattatreyudu

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the potential for dose dumping in normal tissues (>85% of prescription dose) and to analyze effectiveness of techniques used in reducing dose dumping during IMRT. Two hundred sixty-five intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for 55 patients with prostate, head-and-neck (H and N), and cervix cancers with 6-MV photon beams and >5 fields were reviewed to analyze why dose dumping occurred, and the techniques used to reduce dose dumping. Various factors including gantry angles, depth of beams (100 - SSD), duration of optimization, severity of dose-volume constraints (DVC) on normal structures, and spatial location of planning treatment volumes (PTV) were reviewed in relation to dose dumping. In addition, the effect of partial contouring of rectum in beam's path on dose dumping in rectum was studied. Dose dumping occurred at d{sub max} in 17 pelvic cases (85% to 129%). This was related to (1) depth of beams (100 SSD [source-to-skin distance]), (2) PTV located between normal structures with DVC, and (3) relative lack of rectum and bladder in beam's path. Dose dumping could be reduced to 85% by changing beam angles and/or DVC for normal structures in 5 cases and by creating 'phantom structures' in 12 cases. Decreasing the iterations (duration of optimization) also reduced dose dumping and monitor units (MUs). Part of uncontoured rectum, if present in the field, received a higher dose than the contoured rectum with DVC, indicating that complete delineation of normal structures and DVC is necessary to prevent dose dumping. In H and N, when PTV extends inadvertently into air beyond the body even by a few millimeters, dose dumping occurred in beam's path (220% for 5-field and 170%, 7-field plans). Keeping PTV margins within body contour reduced this type of dose dumping. Beamlet optimization, duration of optimization, spatial location of PTV, and DVC on PTV and normal structures has the potential to cause dose dumping

  13. Pelvic incidentalomas

    PubMed Central

    Newmark, G.M.; Thakrar, K.H.; Mehta, U.K.; Berlin, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in multi-detector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound have led to the detection of incidental ovarian, uterine, vascular and pelvic nodal abnormalities in both the oncology and non-oncology patient population that in the past remained undiscovered. These incidental pelvic lesions have created a management dilemma for both clinicians and radiologists. Depending on the clinical setting, these lesions may require no further evaluation, additional immediate or serial follow-up imaging, or surgical intervention. In this review, guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of some of the more common pelvic incidentalomas are presented. PMID:20880789

  14. Primary sources of pelvic serous cancer in patients with endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Yuan, Zeng; Wang, Yiying; Cragun, Janiel M; Kong, Beihua; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is often associated with extrauterine disease. It is currently unclear where does the extrauterine disease come from. This study addressed this issue. A total of 135 samples from 21 serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma patients were studied. Cellular lineage relationships between intrauterine and extrauterine serous carcinomas were determined by TP53-mutation analysis and correlated to the clinicopathologic features. There were three conditions contributing the extrauterine disease: metastasis from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (n=10) showed identical TP53 mutation between intrauterine lesions and extrauterine disease, cases of adnexal origin (n=5) had discordant TP53 mutations, and the mixed cellular origin cases (n=6) with both identical and discordant mutation status. Patients with extrauterine disease from serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma metastasis typically had small tumor masses (<2 cm) in extrauterine sites and without finding of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, while extrauterine disease with adnexal or tubal origin commonly had larger tumor masses in extrauterine sites including ovary and omentum and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. The majority of extrauterine diseases associated with serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma are metastasized from the endometrium. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma is frequently associated with serous cancers of adnexal or tubal origin, indicating that endometrial and adnexal or tubal serous cancers may share similar etiologies. TP53-mutation analysis provides a strong linkage for cellular lineage analysis. Tumor size in extrauterine disease and presence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or not are useful clinicopathologic features to determine primary cancer site, which helps in clinical management.

  15. Pelvic floor biometry in Chinese primiparous women 1 year after delivery: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Chan, S S C; Cheung, R Y K; Yiu, K W; Lee, L L; Chung, T K H

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate pelvic floor biometry in Chinese women 1 year following childbirth and to explore factors that affect it. Translabial ultrasound examination was performed at rest, on Valsalva maneuver (VM) and on pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after delivery in a cohort of women delivering at term their first child. Offline analysis was undertaken to measure the position of the bladder neck, cervix, anorectal junction and hiatal dimensions at each posture and at each visit, and to detect levator ani muscle (LAM) injury on PFMC 8 weeks and 12 months after delivery. Results were analyzed according to mode of delivery. We recruited 442 women, of whom 328 (74.2%) completed the study; there was LAM injury in 48 women at 8 weeks and in only 38 women at 12 months. When comparing first-trimester biometry to that at 12 months after delivery, the bladder neck was more distal on VM and bladder neck displacement was increased, and the cervix was lower at rest and on VM in the vaginal delivery group. In the Cesarean section group, bladder neck and anorectal junction were more distal on VM, the cervix was lower at rest, on VM and on PFMC, and the hiatal area was increased on VM. There was a greater increase in hiatal area after vaginal delivery. Overall, 34.8% had irreversible hiatal distension (> 20% increase in hiatal area after delivery as compared to first trimester). LAM injury was significantly associated with irreversible hiatal distension (odds ratios, 5.2-9.5 at different postures). Pregnancy beyond 35 weeks of gestation has an effect on the pelvic floor of Chinese women, irrespective of mode of delivery. The pelvic organs remain more mobile after delivery when compared to in the first trimester, and there is no clear difference between the findings observed following vaginal delivery or Cesarean section, except in hiatal distension, which is greater after vaginal delivery

  16. Category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: insights from the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network studies.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Alexander, Richard B; Anderson, Rodney; Berger, Richard; Comiter, Craig V; Datta, Nand S; Fowler, Jackson E; Krieger, John N; Landis, J Richard; Litwin, Mark S; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; O'Leary, Michael P; Pontari, Michel A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Shoskes, Daniel A; White, Paige; Kusek, John; Nyberg, Leroy

    2008-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains an enigmatic medical condition. Creation of the National Institutes of Health-funded Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) has stimulated a renewed interest in research on and clinical aspects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Landmark publications of the CPCRN document a decade of progress. Insights from these CPCRN studies have improved our management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and offer hope for continued progress.

  17. Do women of reproductive age presenting with pelvic floor dysfunction have undisclosed anal incontinence: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Julie; Grzeskowiak, Luke; Murphy, Elizabeth Mary Ann; Wilson, Anne; Clifton, Vicki L

    2017-02-01

    Indirect and direct trauma following vaginal birth can negatively impact on the pelvic floor function increasing the risk of anal incontinence. It is often difficult for women to openly disclose that they have anal incontinence and there are limited data collection tools available for the identification of these women in a clinical setting. This study aims to describe the prevalence of undisclosed anal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women with pelvic floor dysfunction. Retrospective cohort study of 230 antenatal and postnatal women referred to a Continence Nursing Service in a large tertiary hospital in South Australia, Australia, with pelvic floor dysfunction. A criteria list was utilised to access the primary reason for referral, anal incontinence assessments and attendance to an appointment. Anal incontinence was identified in 26% of women (n=59). Anal incontinence was the primary reason for referral amongst 8 women, with the remaining 51 women identified as having anal incontinence following clinical screening via phone consultation. Eighty six percent of women stated they had not previously disclosed anal incontinence to health professionals. Overall, 71% of symptomatic women (n=28 antenatal and n=14 postnatal women) attended appointments to a service specialising in pelvic floor dysfunction. Women presenting with urinary incontinence or other markers of pelvic floor dysfunction should be actively screened for anal incontinence as the prevalence of this condition is high amongst childbearing women. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pelvic nerve innervation of the external sphincter of urethra as suggested by urodynamic and horse-radish peroxidase studies.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Nishizawa, O; Noto, H; Tsuchida, S

    1984-03-01

    In view of the fact that the detrusor vesicae and external urethral sphincter perform closely synergic functions in micturition, experiments were conducted to explore the action of the pelvic efferent neurons on the external urethral sphincter. The pelvic efferent neurons are generally recognized, by urodynamic assessments and histochemical study with the technique of retrograde axonal transport of horse-radish peroxidase, to innervate the vesical detrusor. In 7 of 15 adult dogs studied, the external urethral sphincter continued to show a normal synergic electromyogram pattern with enhanced electrical activity on vesical distention and disappearance of discharges on vesical contraction even after bilateral transection of the pudendal nerves. The electrical discharges ceased in the sphincter only after subsequent bilateral pelvic neurotomy. Horse-radish peroxidase-positive cells were demonstrated in the intermediolateral and intermediomedial nuclei and in the Onuf nucleus of the sacral cord in approximately half the dogs whose pelvic nerve was injected with the plant peroxidase. The results suggest that the pelvic nerve may contain somatic fibers innervating the external urethral sphincter.

  19. Knowledge of erectile dysfunction and pelvic floor disorders among young adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Richter, Lee A; Gutman, Robert E; Tefera, Eshetu; Estep, Allison; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders (PFD) in aging women is comparable to the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in aging men. The objective of this study was to assess young adults' familiarity with the definition, prevalence, etiology, and treatment of PFD and ED. Women and men aged 18-40 years completed a validated survey (Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Quiz) to assess knowledge of urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Both groups completed a similar questionnaire created to assess knowledge of ED. Participants were asked to estimate the prevalence of these conditions and to identify their source(s) of knowledge. Of 377 respondents, 65% were female and 35% were male. Respondents underestimated the prevalence of these disorders and were significantly worse at estimating the prevalence of PFD than ED. Men and women had significantly less knowledge of POP (67% +/- 32, compared to ED (83% +/- 20) and UI (82% +/- 22), p < 0.001). Men and women did not differ in their knowledge about UI and POP, but men had significantly more knowledge about ED than women (87% +/- 18 versus 81% +/- 21, p = 0.008). Higher education level and increased age were associated with better knowledge of PFD and ED. Despite high education levels, young adults in our study had a worse understanding of POP compared to UI or ED. Women knew more about ED than about POP, a condition that may affect them during their lifetime.

  20. Botulinum Toxin A Injections Into Pelvic Floor Muscles Under Electromyographic Guidance for Women With Refractory High-Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: A 6-Month Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Darlene; El-Khawand, Dominique; Ginzburg, Natasha; Wehbe, Salim; O'Hare, Peter; Whitmore, Kristene

    2015-01-01

    High-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder for many women with significant impact on their quality of life (QoL). Our objective was to determine the efficacy of electromyography-guided onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, Calif) injections in treating patient's perception of pelvic pain and improving QoL measurement scores. This is a prospective pilot open-label study of women with chronic pelvic pain and HTPFD who have failed conventional therapy between January 2011 and August 2013. Botox injections (up to 300 U) were done using needle electromyography guidance, from a transperineal approach, to localize spastic pelvic floor muscles (PFMs). Data were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injections. This included demographics; Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for pain and dyspareunia; validated questionnaires for symptoms, QoL, and sexual function; Global Response Assessment scale for pelvic pain; digital examination of PFM for tone and tenderness; and vaginal manometry. Side effects were also recorded. Out of 28 women who enrolled in the study, 21 completed the 6-month follow-up and qualified for analysis. The mean (SD) age was 35.1 (9.4) years (range, 22-50 years), and the mean (SD) body mass index was 25 (4.4). Comorbidities included interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (42.9%) and vulvodynia (66.7%). Overall, 61.9% of subjects reported improvement on Global Response Assessment at 4 weeks and 80.9% at 8, 12, and 24 weeks post injection, compared with baseline. Of the subjects who were sexually active at baseline, 58.8% (10/17), 68.8% (11/16), 80% (12/15), and 83.3% (15/18) reported less dyspareunia at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively. Dyspareunia Visual Analog Scale score significantly improved at weeks 12 (5.6, P = 0.011) and 24 (5.4, P = 0.004) compared with baseline (7.8). Two of the 4 patients who avoided sexual activity at baseline secondary to dyspareunia resumed and tolerated

  1. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the risk of pelvic and para-aortic nodal involvement in apparent early-stage ovarian cancer: A predictors- and nomogram-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Elena; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Casarin, Jvan; Chiappa, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Scaffa, Cono; Borghi, Chiara; Montanelli, Luca; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-08-02

    To estimate the prevalence of lymph node involvement in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer in order to assess the prognostic value of lymph node dissection. Data of consecutive patients undergoing staging for early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Logistic regression and a nomogram-based analysis were used to assess the risk of lymph node involvement. Overall, 290 patients were included. All patients had lymph node dissection including pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Forty-two (14.5%) patients were upstaged due to lymph node metastatic disease. Pelvic and para-aortic nodal metastases were observed in 22 (7.6%) and 42 (14.5%) patients. Lymph node involvement was observed in 18/95 (18.9%), 1/37 (2.7%), 4/29 (13.8%), 11/63 (17.4%), 3/41 (7.3%) and 5/24 (20.8%) patients with high-grade serous, low-grade-serous, endometrioid G1, endometrioid G2&3, clear cell and undifferentiated, histology, respectively (p=0.12, Chi-square test). We observed that high-grade serous histology was associated with an increased risk of pelvic node involvement; while, histology rather than low-grade serous and bilateral tumors were independently associated with para-aortic lymph node involvement (p<0.05). Nomograms displaying the risk of nodal involvement in the pelvic and para-aortic areas were built. High-grade serous histology and bilateral tumors are the main characteristics suggesting lymph node positivity. Our data suggested that high-grade serous and bilateral early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer are at high risk of having disease harboring in the lymphatic tissues of both pelvic and para-aortic area. After receiving external validation, our data will help to identify patients deserving comprehensive retroperitoneal staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation in the Definition of Clinical Target Volumes for Pelvic Nodal Conformal Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.F. Michalski, Jeff; El-Naqa, Issam; Kuban, Deborah; Lee, W. Robert; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Zietman, Anthony; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William; Ritter, Mark; Valicenti, Richard; Catton, Charles; Roach, Mack; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Seider, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: We conducted a comparative study of clinical target volume (CTV) definition of pelvic lymph nodes by multiple genitourinary (GU) radiation oncologists looking at the levels of discrepancies amongst this group. Methods and Materials: Pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans from 2 men were distributed to 14 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group GU radiation oncologists with instructions to define CTVs for the iliac and presacral lymph nodes. The CT data with contours were then returned for analysis. In addition, a questionnaire was completed that described the physicians' method for target volume definition. Results: Significant variation in the definition of the iliac and presacral CTVs was seen among the physicians. The minimum, maximum, mean (SD) iliac volumes (mL) were 81.8, 876.6, 337.6 {+-} 203 for case 1 and 60.3, 627.7, 251.8 {+-} 159.3 for case 2. The volume of 100% agreement was 30.6 and 17.4 for case 1 and 2 and the volume of the union of all contours was 1,012.0 and 807.4 for case 1 and 2, respectively. The overall agreement was judged to be moderate in both cases (kappa = 0.53 (p < 0.0001) and kappa = 0.48 (p < 0.0001). There was no volume of 100% agreement for either of the two presacral volumes. These variations were confirmed in the responses to the associated questionnaire. Conclusions: Significant disagreement exists in the definition of the CTV for pelvic nodal radiation therapy among GU radiation oncology specialists. A consensus needs to be developed so as to accurately assess the merit and safety of such treatment.

  4. Auricular Acupuncture as a Treatment for Pregnant Women Suffering from Low Back and Posterior Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Dizinno, Peggy; Lin, Eric C.; Lin, Haiqun; Yue, James J.; Berman, Michael R.; Braveman, Ferne; Kain, Zeev N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine whether one week of continuous auricular acupuncture could reduce low back and posterior pelvic pain associated with pregnancy. Study Design A randomized controlled trial was conducted on pregnant women suffering from lower back and posterior pelvic pain. These women were randomized into an acupuncture group, a sham acupuncture group, or a waiting list control group. All participants were followed for 2 weeks. Results Baseline and Day 7 showed significant group differences in pain [F= 15, P<0.0001] and in the disability rating index score [F=7, p<0.0001]. The participants in the acupuncture group reported a significant reduction of pain and improvement of functional status as compared to those in the sham acupuncture and control groups. Conclusion One week of continuous auricular acupuncture decreases the pain and disability experienced by women with pregnancy related low back and posterior pelvic pain. PMID:19560110

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence in young, nulliparous sport students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Da Roza, Thuane; de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Viana, Rui; Viana, Sara; Jorge, Renato Natal; Bø, Kari; Mascarenhas, Teresa

    2012-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is prevalent in sport students. We hypothesized that pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) can improve pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and symptoms of UI in this group of physically active women. Sixteen sport students with UI participated in this pre-post test pilot study. However, only seven of them, mean age 20.0 ± 0.8 years, completed the 8-week program. Activity level was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). The outcome measure was the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ UI SF). PFM strength was measured by manometry as maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Vaginal resting pressure improved by 17.4 cmH(2)O (SD 6.7), p = 0.04 and MVC by 16.4 cmH(2)O (SD 5.8), p = 0.04. ICIQ UI SF score, frequency, and amount of leakage showed statistically significant improvement. PFMT increased PFM strength and reduced frequency and amount of UI episodes in sport students that completed an 8-week PFMT program. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these results.

  6. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual function in women

    PubMed Central

    Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute

    2015-01-01

    Background During the past decade there has been considerable progress in developing new radiation methods for cancer treatment. Pelvic radiotherapy constitutes the primary or (neo) adjuvant treatment of many pelvic cancers e.g., locally advanced cervical and rectal cancer. There is an increasing focus on late effects and an increasing awareness that patient reported outcomes (PROs) i.e., patient assessment of physical, social, psychological, and sexual functioning provides the most valid information on the effects of cancer treatment. Following cure of cancer allow survivors focus on quality of life (QOL) issues; sexual functioning has proved to be one of the most important aspects of concern in long-term survivors. Methods An updated literature search in PubMed was performed on pelvic radiotherapy and female sexual functioning/dysfunction. Studies on gynaecological, urological and gastrointestinal cancers were included. The focus was on the period from 2010 to 2014, on studies using PROs, on potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where female sexual dysfunction (FSD) at least constituted a secondary outcome, and on studies reporting from modern radiotherapy modalities. Results The literature search revealed a few RCTs with FSD evaluated as a PRO and being a secondary outcome measure in endometrial and in rectal cancer patients. Very limited information could be extracted regarding FSD in bladder, vulva, and anal cancer patients. The literature before and after 2010 confirms that pelvic radiotherapy, independent on modality, increases the risk significantly for FSD both compared to data from age-matched healthy control women and compared to data on patients treated by surgery only. There was only very limited data available on modern radiotherapy modalities. These are awaited during the next five years. Several newer studies confirm that health care professionals are still reluctant to discuss treatment induced sexual dysfunction with patients. Conclusions

  7. Use of CT simulation for treatment of cervical cancer to assess the adequacy of lymph node coverage of conventional pelvic fields based on bony landmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Finlay, Marisa H.; Ackerman, Ida . E-mail: Ida.Ackerman@sw.ca; Tirona, Romeo G. B.Sc.; Hamilton, Paul; Barbera, Lisa; Thomas, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the adequacy of nodal coverage of 'conventional' pelvic radiation fields for carcinoma of the cervix, with contoured pelvic vessels on simulation computed tomography (CT) as surrogates for lymph node location. Methods and Materials: Pelvic arteries were contoured on non-contrast-enhanced CT simulation images of 43 patients with cervix cancer, FIGO Stages I-III. Vessel contours were hidden, and conventional pelvic fields were outlined: (1) anterior/posterior fields (AP): superior border, L5-S1 interspace; inferior border, obturator foramina; lateral border, 2 centimeters lateral to pelvic brim. (2) Lateral fields (LAT): Anterior border, symphysis pubis; posterior border, S2-S3 interspace. Distances were measured between the following: (1) bifurcation of the common iliac artery and superior border (2) external iliac artery and lateral border of the AP field, and (3) external iliac artery and anterior border of the LAT field. The distances were considered as 'inadequate' if <15 mm, 'adequate' if 15-20 mm, and 'generous' if >20 mm. Results: Superiorly, 34 patients (79.1%) had inadequate coverage. On the AP, margins were generous in 19 (44.2%), but inadequate in 9 (20.9%). On the LAT, margins were inadequate in 30 (69.8%) patients. Overall, 41 (95.4%, CI, 84.2%-99.4%) patients had at least 1 inadequate margin, the majority located superiorly. Twenty-four (55.8%; CI, 39.9%-70.9%) patients had at least 1 generous margin, the majority located laterally on the AP field. Conclusion: Conventional pelvic fields based on bony landmarks do not provide optimal lymph node coverage in a substantial proportion of patients and may include excess normal tissue in some. CT simulation with vessel contouring as a surrogate for lymph node localization provides more precise and individualized field delineation.

  8. Preoperative whole pelvic external irradiation in Stage I endometrial cancer. [/sup 60/Co; /sup 226/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Ritcher, N.; Lucas, W.E.; Yon, J.L.; Sanford, F.G.

    1981-07-01

    Between 1966 and 1978, 201 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium were treated at two hospitals in San Diego. Of these patients, 161 had disease limited to the corpus at the time of diagnosis. The majority of these patients received external whole-pelvic irradiation, followed as soon as possible by simple extrafascial hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. When this treatment method was used, actuarial survivals of 95% for Stage I disease were achieved. Also reported is the low incidence of wound complications in the group of patients operated soon after cessation of irradiation. The patients treated in this fashion had good survival rates, little morbidity from the adjunctive irradiation, and fewer wound complications than previously anticipated.

  9. Long-term outcomes of modified laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for advanced pelvic organ prolapse: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuo; Zhu, Lan; Song, Xiaochen; Xu, Tao; Sun, Zhijing; Lang, Jinghe

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of modified laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (MLSC) for the treatment of advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From May 2009 to September 2012, a consecutive prospective observational study of 30 participants was conducted to evaluate MLSC as a treatment for symptomatic advanced POP at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) classification was used to determine the POP stage. Validated tools were used to evaluate symptoms (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, PFDI-20) and sexual function (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, PISQ-12). Measurements were recorded preoperatively and then at 3 months and yearly after surgery. We compared the follow-up results with the preoperative data. All participants completed a 3-year clinical follow-up routine. The anatomical results at 3 months showed significant improvements (P < 0.05) compared with the preoperative results based on the POP-Q measurements. This improvement remained significant after 3 years (P < 0.05). The anatomical cure rate was 100% and 96.7% at 3 months and 3 years after surgery, respectively. Pelvic floor function remained significantly improved after surgery compared with preceding surgery (P < 0.05) according to the following measures: PFDI-20 (106.2 vs 36.0), Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory-6 (POPDI-6, 47.9 vs 13.7), Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory-8 (CRADI-8, 29.2 vs 9.2), and Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6, 29.2 vs 13.2). The participants maintained a high level of sexual function (PISQ-12: 29.0 vs 35.1, P < 0.05). One case of mesh exposure (3.3%) and two cases of de novo dyspareunia (8.7%) were observed. MLSC seems to be a safe and effective procedure that achieves good long-term anatomical and functional results.

  10. Symptom Variability and Early Symptom Regression in the MAPP Study: A Prospective Study of Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Clemens, J Quentin; Jemielita, Thomas; Farrar, John; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Hou, Xiaoling; Landis, J Richard

    2016-11-01

    We examined symptom variability in men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We describe symptom fluctuations as related to early symptom regression and its effect on estimated 1-year symptom change. We also describe a method to quantify patient specific symptom variability. Symptoms were assessed biweekly in 424 subjects with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome during 1 year. To evaluate the impact of early symptom regression subjects were classified as improved, no change or worse according to the rate of change using 1) all data, 2) excluding week 0 and 3) excluding weeks 0 and 2. Patient specific, time varying variability was calculated at each interval using a sliding window approach. Patients were classified as high, medium or low variability at each time and ultimately as high or low variability overall based on the variability for the majority of contacts. Prior to excluding early weeks to adjust for early symptom regression 25% to 38% and 5% to 6% of patients were classified as improved and worse, respectively. After adjustment the percent of patients who were improved or worse ranged from 15% to 25% and 6% to 9%, respectively. High and low variability phenotypes were each identified in 25% to 30% of participants. Patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome show symptom variability. At study enrollment patients had worse symptoms on average, resulting in a regression effect that influenced the estimated proportion of those who were improved or worse. Prospective studies should include a run-in period to account for regression to the mean and other causes of early symptom regression. Further, symptom variability may be quantified and used to characterize longitudinal symptom profiles of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor dysfunctions in female athletes in Brazil: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M B A; Barra, A A; Saltiel, F; Silva-Filho, A L; Fonseca, A M R M; Figueiredo, E M

    2016-09-01

    The pelvic floor (PF) provides support to all pelvic organs, as well as appropriately closure/opening mechanism of the urethra, vagina, and anus. Therefore, it is likely that female athletes involved in high-impact and in strong-effort activities are at risk for the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of UI and other PF dysfunctions (PFD) [anal incontinence (AI), symptoms of constipation, dyspareunia, vaginal laxity, and pelvic organ prolapse] in 67 amateur athletes (AT) compared with a group 96 of nonathletes (NAT). An ad hoc survey based on questions from reliable and valid instruments was developed to investigate the occurrence of PFD symptoms. The risk of UI was higher in AT group (odds ratio: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.50-5.61), mostly among artistic gymnastics and trampoline, followed by swimming and judo athletes. Whereas, AT group reported less straining to evacuate (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96), manual assistance to defecate (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05-1.12), and a higher stool frequency (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.64) than NAT group. The occurrence of loss of gas and sexual symptoms was high for both groups when compared with literature, although with no statistical difference between them. Pelvic organ prolapse was only reported by nonathletes. Athletes are at higher risk to develop UI, loss of gas, and sexual dysfunctions, either practicing high-impact or strong-effort activities. Thus, pelvic floor must be considered as an entity and addressed as well. Also, women involved in long-term high-impact and strengthening sports should be advised of the impact of such activities on pelvic floor function and offered preventive PFD strategies as well.

  12. Analysis of the Pelvic Functional Orientation in the Sagittal Plane: A Radiographic Study With EOS 2D/3D Technology.

    PubMed

    Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ragucci, Pasquala; Trenti, Nicoletta; Balzarini, Luca; Grappiolo, Guido

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between pelvic incidence (PI) with anterior pelvic plane angle (APPA), pelvic tilt (PT) angle, and sacral slope (SS) in standing and sitting positions to identify the best parameter expressing the pelvic functional orientation in the sagittal plane. We enrolled 109 consecutive patients (M:F = 43:66) eligible for a primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with an average age of 63.4 years (15-85). EOS 2D/3D radiography was performed in standing and sitting positions before THA to evaluate the functional pelvic orientation. 3D images took into account the patient-specific sagittal balance measuring APPA, PT, SS, and PI. In standing position, functional parameters measured 5° ± 7.1 for APPA, 11° ± 8.3 for PT, 43° ± 8.5 for SS, and 53° ± 10.9 for PI. In sitting position, they were -18° ± 10.4 for APPA, 34° ± 11.8 for PT, 20° ± 12.6 for SS, and 54° ± 10.9 for PI. There was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the functional parameters in both positions. No relationship was found between APPA and PI in both positions. SS correlated with PI in standing (r = 0.66; P < .0001; R(2) = 0.44) and sitting (r = 0.51; P < .0001; R(2) = 0.26). PT correlated with PI in standing (r = 0.65; P < .0001; R(2) = 0.42) and sitting (r = 0.38; P < .0001; R(2) = 0.14). SS shows the highest correlation with functional pelvic tilt. The study suggests that adjustments in acetabular anteversion during primary THA should be based on SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation dose reduction in thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT using tube current modulation: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Mustafa, Zakira; Nassir, Khadijah Mohd; Hamid, Hamzaini Abdul; Sun, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    This phantom study was designed to compare the radiation dose in thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT scans with and without use of tube current modulation (TCM). Effective dose (ED) and size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) were calculated with the absorbed doses measured at selective radiosensitive organs using a thermoluminescence dosimeter-100 (TLD-100). When compared to protocols without TCM, the ED and SSDE were reduced significantly with use of TCM for both the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT. With use of TCM, the ED was 6.50±0.29 mSv for thoracic and 6.01±0.20 mSv for the abdomen-pelvic CT protocols. However without use of TCM, the ED was 20.07±0.24 mSv and 17.30±0.41 mSv for the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols, respectively. The corresponding SSDE was 10.18±0.48 mGy and 11.96±0.27 mGy for the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols with TCM, and 31.56±0.43 mGy and 33.23±0.05 mGy for thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols without TCM, respectively. The highest absorbed dose was measured at the breast with 8.58±0.12 mGy in the TCM protocols and 51.52±14.72 mGy in the protocols without TCM during thoracic CT. In the abdomen-pelvic CT, the absorbed dose was highest at the skin with 9.30±1.28 mGy and 29.99±2.23 mGy in protocols with and without use of TCM, respectively. In conclusion, the TCM technique results in significant dose reduction; thus it is to be highly recommended in routine thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT. PACS numbers: 87.57.Q-, 87.57.qp, 87.53.Bn.

  14. Radiation dose reduction in thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT using tube current modulation: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Mustafa, Zakira; Nassir, Khadijah Mohd; Hamid, Hamzaini Abdul; Sun, Zhonghua

    2014-01-08

    This phantom study was designed to compare the radiation dose in thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT scans with and without use of tube current modulation (TCM). Effective dose (ED) and size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) were calculated with the absorbed doses measured at selective radiosensitive organs using a thermoluminescence dosimeter-100 (TLD-100). When compared to protocols without TCM, the ED and SSDE were reduced significantly with use of TCM for both the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT. With use of TCM, the ED was 6.50 ± 0.29 mSv for thoracic and 6.01 ± 0.20 mSv for the abdomen-pelvic CT protocols. However without use of TCM, the ED was 20.07 ± 0.24 mSv and 17.30 ± 0.41 mSv for the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols, respectively. The corresponding SSDE was 10.18 ± 0.48 mGy and 11.96 ± 0.27 mGy for the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols with TCM, and 31.56 ± 0.43 mGy and 33.23 ± 0.05 mGy for thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols without TCM, respectively. The highest absorbed dose was measured at the breast with 8.58 ± 0.12 mGy in the TCM protocols and 51.52 ± 14.72 mGy in the protocols without TCM during thoracic CT. In the abdomen-pelvic CT, the absorbed dose was highest at the skin with 9.30 ± 1.28mGy and 29.99 ± 2.23 mGy in protocols with and without use of TCM, respectively. In conclusion, the TCM technique results in significant dose reduction; thus it is to be highly recommended in routine thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT.

  15. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Joseph E; Tatu, Calin A; Bushon, Rebecca N; Stoeckel, Donald M; Brady, Amie M G; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C; Shi, Runhua; Orem, William H

    2006-12-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO(4) and NH(3), and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk.

  16. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Tatu, C.A.; Bushon, R.N.; Stoeckel, D.M.; Brady, A.M.G.; Beck, M.; Lerch, H.E.; McGee, B.; Hanson, B.C.; Shi, R.; Orem, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  17. Ligamentous contributions to pelvic stability in a rotationally unstable open-book injury: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Adham; Moed, Berton R

    2014-10-01

    Due to the orientation of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), as the symphysis widens in an open-book pelvic ring disruption, it should displace inferiorly. The purposes of this study were to reconfirm this inferior displacement and to evaluate the relative contributions of the pubic symphysis (PS), the sacrotuberous/sacrospinous ligament complex (STL/SSL) and the anterior sacroiliac ligament (ASIL) to pelvic ring stability in a rotationally unstable open-book injury. For each of 6 cadaver pelves, the right hemipelvis was fixed to a table and the PS was sectioned. Under fluoroscopy, a manual external rotational force was then applied through the unfixed, left ilium. At the point of maximal displacement, a permanent AP image was obtained. With magnification corrected, horizontal (H) and vertical (V) displacements were measured. The pelves were then divided into two groups of three each. In Group 1, the PS release was followed by sectioning of the STL/SSL, and then the ASIL. In Group 2, the PS release was followed by sectioning of the ASIL and then the STL/SSL. The above described technique of manual manipulation and radiographic measurement was repeated after each stage of ligament release. The displacement after initial PS sectioning was not significantly different when comparing Group 1 to Group 2. In both groups, a significant and progressive increase in displacement was noted when the PS (H and V; p<0.05) and ASIL (H and V; p<0.05) were sectioned. However, there was no significant change with SSL/STL sectioning in either group. Vertical displacements were all directed inferiorly. The PS and ASIL are important in maintaining pelvic ring external rotational stability. However, the SSL/STL has little, if any, effect in this regard. Due to the orientation of the SIJ, external rotation of the hemipelvis, as in open-book injury, will show inferior vertical, as well as horizontal, displacement on the AP radiograph, despite the PSIL being intact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Marques, Joseane; Silva, Valéria R.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Botelho, Simone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9) participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96), average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97), and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92) dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25993624

  19. Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Pelvic Floor Functional Changes in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Haavik, Heidi; Murphy, Bernadette A; Kruger, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation of pregnant women can alter pelvic floor muscle function as measured using ultrasonographic imaging. In this preliminary, prospective, comparative study, transperineal ultrasonographic imaging was used to assess pelvic floor anatomy and function in 11 primigravid women in their second trimester recruited via notice boards at obstetric caregivers, pregnancy keep-fit classes, and word of mouth and 15 nulliparous women recruited from a convenience sample of female students at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic. Following bladder voiding, 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography was performed on all participants in the supine position. Levator hiatal area measurements at rest, on maximal pelvic floor contraction, and during maximum Valsalva maneuver were collected before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention. Levator hiatal area at rest increased significantly (P < .05) after spinal manipulation in the pregnant women, with no change postmanipulation in the nonpregnant women at rest or in any of the other measured parameters. Spinal manipulation of pregnant women in their second trimester increased the levator hiatal area at rest and thus appears to relax the pelvic floor muscles. This did not occur in the nonpregnant control participants, suggesting that it may be pregnancy related. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Long-term outcomes of radical vaginal trachelectomy and laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the IB1 cervical cancer: A series of 60 cases.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Zhongyu; Fu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yan; Che, Hongzhi; Mo, Rui; Song, Lei

    2016-05-01

    The present study sought to analyze the long-time clinical outcomes of the stage IB1 cervical cancer patients who had received the radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) and laparoscopic lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). This is a prospective study of 60 patients potentially selected for RVT for a clinical and radiologic cervical cancer (stages IB 1) less than 2 cm. These patients were treated with surgery combined with preoperative NACT in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, PLA General Hospital. We collected the patients' general clinical information, surgical characteristics and obstetric data, and then assessed their long-term oncological outcomes. The average operative time of the enrolled cases was 204 min and the average blood loss was 443 mL. The average postoperative hospitalization time was 10.6 days. The postoperative pathologic results indicated that the average parametrical width was 1.99 cm; the average length of removed of cervical was 2.6 cm; the average number of excised pelvic lymph node was 20. The median of the follow-up was 43 months (range between 13month and 12 years). Only one case of recurrence was found. Thus far, totally 42 women had tried to conceive, and 36 of them had live births. The live birth pregnancy rate was 86% (36/42). The radical vaginal trachelectomy in combination with the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy surgical is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for the for IB 1 cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  2. [Guidelines for delineation of pelvic lymph nodes in anal cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Vendrely, V; Galland-Girodet, S; Orré, M; Maire, J-P

    2013-10-01

    Squamous cell anal cancer is a rare malignancy, its incidence increases due to higher exposure of the young adults to risk factors. The current management is based on chemoradiotherapy, which is highly effective and achieves locoregional control but causes important morbidity. Improvement of radiation technique such as intensity modulated radiation therapy has led to reduce acute toxicities, but also requires an accurate delineation of the target volumes in order not to underestimate potential and pathological sites resulting in an increase of the locoregional failures. PET scanner has an important place in the pretreatment work-up for staging and targeting the delineation of the volumes, allowing to select patients with localized disease, avoid geographic miss and appropriately boost nodal disease. The study of recurrences sites has not yet provided a real mapping of the recurrences depending on the treatment volumes. Different radiation oncologist cooperative groups have published guidelines and tools for delineation, in order to provide homogeneity but also customize the management of anal carcinoma.

  3. Feasibility and acceptability of couple counselling and pelvic floor muscle training after operation for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Randi V; E Bidstrup, Pernille; Hvarness, Helle; Bagi, Per; Friis Lippert, Elisabeth; Permild, Rikke; Giraldi, Annamaria; Lawaetz, Agnethe; Krause, Eva; Due, Ulla; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy is often followed by long-lasting erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence, with adverse effects on the quality of life and intimate relationship of patients and partners. We developed the ProCan intervention to ameliorate sexual and urological dysfunction after radical prostatectomy and examined its feasibility, acceptability and changes in sexual function. Between May 2014 and October 2014, seven couples attending the Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, were included 3-4 weeks after radical prostatectomy in the ProCan intervention, which consists of up to six couple counselling sessions, group instruction in pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), up to three individual PFMT sessions and a DVD home training program. We examined its feasibility on the basis of the recruitment rate, adherence to and acceptability of the intervention, the response rate and changes in erectile and sexual functioning measured on the International Index of Erectile Function at baseline and at eight and 12 months. The recruitment rate was 14%. One couple withdrew, six couples attended 1-4 counselling sessions, and all patients attended PFMT until continence was achieved. The response rate on outcomes was 85% for patients and 71% for partners. The couples reported that counselling improved their sex life but it did not improve their ability to talk openly about sex. Most patients found that the physiotherapist improved their motivation and the quality and intensity of PFMT. Erectile dysfunction improved from severe at baseline to moderate at eight months' follow-up, and mean sexual functioning improved from 18.4 to 37.1 points at eight months' follow-up, but decreased slightly to 31.4 at 12 months. Our results suggest that the recruitment procedure should be adapted and minor revisions are needed in the intervention. The key components, couple counselling and PFMT, were well accepted and achievable for the patients.

  4. [Quality analysis of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y T; Tao, L Y; He, H J; Han, J S

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China. Methods: The checklist of strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement was applied to evaluate the observational studies. The articles were searched in the SinoMed database using the terms: prolapse, uterine prolapse, cystocele, rectal prolapse and pelvic floor; limited to Chinese core journals in obstetrics and gynecology from January 1996 to December 2015. With two 10-year groups (1996-2005 and 2006-2015), the χ(2) test was used to evaluate inter-group differences. Results: (1) A total of 386 observational studies were selected, including 15.5%(60/386) of case-control studies, 80.6%(311/386) of cohort studies and 3.9% (15/386) of cross-sectional studies. (2) There were totally 22 items including 34 sub-items in the checklist. There were 17 sub-items (50.0%, 17/34) had a reporting ratio less than 50% in all of aticles, including: 1a (study's design) 3.9% (15/386), 6a (participants) 24.6% (95/386), 6b (matched studies) 0 (0/386), 9 (bias) 8.3% (32/386), 10 (study size) 3.9%, 11 (quantitative variables) 41.2% (159/386), 12b-12e (statistical methods in detail) 0-2.6% (10/386), 13a (numbers of individuals at each stage of study) 18.9% (73/386), 13b (reasons for non-participation at each stage) 18.9%, 13c (flow diagram) 0, 16b and 16c (results of category boundaries and relative risk) 9.6% (37/386) and 0, 19 (limitations) 31.6% (122/386), 22 (funding) 20.5% (79/386). (3) The quality of articles published in the two decades (1996-2005 and 2006-2015) were compared, and 38.2%(13/34) of sub-items had been significantly improved in the second 10-year (all P<0.05). The improved items were as follows: 1b (integrity of abstract), 2 (background/rationale), 6a (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources/measurement), 9 (bias), 11 (quantitative variables), 12a (statistical methods), 17 (other analyses), 18 (key results), 19 (limitations

  5. Radiation-Related Predictors of Hematologic Toxicity After Concurrent Chemoradiation for Cervical Cancer and Implications for Bone Marrow-Sparing Pelvic IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Albuquerque, Kevin; Giangreco, David; Morrison, Courtney; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Sinacore, Jim; Potkul, Ronald; Roeske, John

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To determine factors predictive for hematologic toxicity (HT) associated with concurrent chemoradiation for Stage II through IV cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 40 women receiving concurrent chemoradiation for cervical cancer were reviewed. Hematologic toxicity was defined by use of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0). Variables predicting for HT including age, body mass index, transfusions, and bone marrow volumes irradiated were included in the data analysis. Results: Of the patients, 13 (32.5%) had Grade 0 or 1 HT and 27 (67.5%) had Grade 2 through 4 HT (HT2+). Multiple logistic regression analysis of potential predictors showed that only the volume of bone receiving 20 Gy (V20) for whole pelvic bone tended toward significance for predicting HT2+. A strong correlation was noted between HT2+ and V20 (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001). A partitioning analysis to predict HT2+ showed a cutoff value of 79.42% (approximately 80%) for V20 of whole pelvic bone. That is, if the V20 of the whole pelvis exceeds 80%, the risk of HT2+ developing increases by a factor (odds ratio) of 4.5 (95%, confidence interval, 1.08-18.69) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We have shown a correlation between bone marrow volume radiated and development of HT. This has implications for use of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy, which can potentially decrease the volume of bone marrow radiated.

  6. Correlation of smoking history and other patient characteristics with major complications of pelvic radiation therapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Eifel, Patricia J; Jhingran, Anuja; Bodurka, Diane C; Levenback, Charles; Thames, Howard

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patient-related factors that influence the risk of serious late complications of pelvic radiation therapy. The records of 3,489 patients treated with radiation therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I or II carcinoma of the cervix were reviewed for information about patient characteristics, treatment details, and outcomes. Any complication occurring or persisting more than 3 months after treatment that required hospitalization, transfusion, or an operation or caused severe symptoms or the patient's death was considered a major late complication. Complication rates were calculated actuarially. The median duration of follow-up was 85 months, and 99% of patients were followed for at least 3 years or until they died. Heavy smoking was the strongest independent predictor of overall complications (multivariate hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84 to 2.87). The most striking influence of smoking was on the incidence of small bowel complications (hazard ratio for smokers of one or more packs per day, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.21 to 4.78). Hispanics had a significantly lower rate of small bowel complications than whites, and blacks had higher rates of bladder and rectal complications than whites. Thin women had an increased risk of gastrointestinal complications, and obese women were more likely to have serious bladder complications. Complications of pelvic radiation therapy are strongly correlated with smoking, race, and other patient characteristics. These factors should be considered before the results of clinical studies are generalized to different cultural and racial groups.

  7. Pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Gradison, Margaret

    2012-04-15

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial infection of the upper genital tract. It primarily affects young, sexually active women. The diagnosis is made clinically; no single test or study is sensitive or specific enough for a definitive diagnosis. Pelvic inflammatory disease should be suspected in at-risk patients who present with pelvic or lower abdominal pain with no identified etiology, and who have cervical motion, uterine, or adnexal tenderness. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most commonly implicated microorganisms; however, other microorganisms may be involved. The spectrum of disease ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening tubo-ovarian abscess. Patients should be treated empirically, even if they present with few symptoms. Most women can be treated successfully as outpatients with a single dose of a parenteral cephalosporin plus oral doxycycline, with or without oral metronidazole. Delay in treatment may lead to major sequelae, including chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Hospitalization and parenteral treatment are recommended if the patient is pregnant, has human immunodeficiency virus infection, does not respond to oral medication, or is severely ill. Strategies for preventing pelvic inflammatory disease include routine screening for chlamydia and patient education.

  8. Comparative anatomical study on the relationships between the vestigial pelvic bones and the surrounding structures of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides).

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yuko; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2004-07-01

    Morphology of the modern cetaceans represents the results of adaptation of the ancestral terrestrial mammals to aquatic life through their evolutional processes. Some of the primitive fossil cetaceans are known to have both fore and hind limbs, whereas the pelvic bones of modern cetaceans are, in general, a pair of slender rod-like structures within the abdominal wall muscles just anterior to the anus with no articulations to the axial skeleton in both sexes. It is interesting and important to consider the causes and processes of how the hind limbs were lost and how the pelvis was reduced during the process of adaptation. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the topography and function of rudimentary pelvic bones of the finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides), one of the members of the odontocete cetaceans, with special references to the structures around the pelvic bones. Some soft tissues such as M. ischiocavernosus relating to the pelvic bone are transformed following the drastic reduction of the pelvis. This transformation tells us that the cetaceans adapted to the aquatic life during evolutional processes chose the tail flukes driven by the powerful trunk muscles for locomotion, instead of modifying the hind limbs into hind flippers as seen in pinnipeds. On the other hand, it is evident that a function of the pelvic bones of the male finless porpoise was supporting the penis as those of terrestrial mammals. It is noteworthy that the morphological features of the ancestral terrestrial mammals can be traced when they are carefully compared with those of the finless porpoise.

  9. Assessment of Long-Term Rectal Function in Patients Who Received Pelvic Radiotherapy: A Pooled North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial Analysis, N09C1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Neben-Wittich, Michelle A.; Wender, Donald B.; Behrens, Robert J.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Haddock, Michael G.; Martenson, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic radiotherapy (PRT) is known to adversely affect bowel function (BF) and patient well-being. This study characterized long-term BF and evaluated quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving PRT. Methods Data from 252 patients were compiled from 2 North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective studies, which included assessment of BF and QOL by the BF questionnaire (BFQ) and Uniscale QOL at baseline and 12 and 24 months after completion of radiotherapy. BFQ scores (sum of symptoms), Uniscale results, adverse-event incidence, and baseline demographic data were compared via t test, χ2, Fisher exact, Wilcoxon, and correlation methodologies. Results The total BFQ score was higher than baseline at 12 and 24 months (P<.001). More patients had 5 or more symptoms at 12 months (13%) and 24 months (10%) than at baseline (2%). Symptoms occurring in greater than 20% of patients at 12 and 24 months were clustering, stool-gas confusion, and urgency. Factors associated with worse BF were female sex, rectal or gynecologic primary tumors, prior anterior resection of the rectum, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Patients experiencing grade 2 or higher acute toxicity had worse 24-month BF (P values, <.001-.02). Uniscale QOL was not significantly different from baseline at 12 or 24 months, despite worse BFQ scores. Conclusions PRT was associated with worse long-term BF. Worse BFQ score was not associated with poorer QOL. Further research to characterize the subset of patients at risk of significant decline in BF is warranted. PMID:23748483

  10. Evaluation of quality indices during multifractionated pelvic interstitial brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Supriya; Shukla, Pragya; Paul, Siji Nojin; Engineer, Reena; Phurailatpam, Reena; Swamidas, Jamema; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of needle displacements on quality indices during multifractionated pelvic interstitial brachytherapy (IBT). Patients undergoing boost IBT were included. Postprocedure planning and verification CT scans were obtained. Three-dimensional needle displacements were measured. Clinical target volume and organ at risk were delineated. Coverage index (CI), dose homogeneity index (DHI), dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), V170, V200, V250, and dose received by 2cc of organs at risk were obtained at baseline. The displacements were simulated by shifting dwell positions, and dose point optimized and graphically optimized plans were generated. Wilcoxon test determined statistical significance of differences in quality indices. Fifteen patients were included and received five fractions of IBT over 3 days. Maximum displacements were observed in caudal direction (average, 19.1mm). At baseline, CI of 0.94 (range, 0.91-0.99), DHI of 0.90 (range, 0.80-0.94), and DNR of 0.10 (range, 0.05-0.10) were attained. The CI, DHI, and DNR in Day 3 dose point optimized plans were 0.76 (range, 0.4-0.99), 0.76 (range, 0.40-0.94), and 0.23 (range, 0.06-0.64), respectively. The difference in CI, DHI, and DNR between baseline and Day 3 dose point optimized plans was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.007, and 0.001, respectively). Day 3 graphically optimized plans were superior to Day 3 dose point optimized plans (CI, 0.82 vs. 0.76; p = 0.01). Graphically optimized could however improve CI without compromise in DHI, DNR, V170, V200, and V250 only in patients wherein caudal displacements ≤15mm. Caudal needle displacements during multifractionated IBT cause significant deterioration of quality indices. Replanning with graphically optimized and/or needle repositioning maybe required for maintaining the quality of IBT. Copyright © 2013 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic Segmentation of Pelvic Structures From Magnetic Resonance Images for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David . E-mail: d-pasquier@o-lambret.fr; Lacornerie, Thomas; Vermandel, Maximilien; Rousseau, Jean; Lartigau, Eric; Betrouni, Nacim

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: Target-volume and organ-at-risk delineation is a time-consuming task in radiotherapy planning. The development of automated segmentation tools remains problematic, because of pelvic organ shape variability. We evaluate a three-dimensional (3D), deformable-model approach and a seeded region-growing algorithm for automatic delineation of the prostate and organs-at-risk on magnetic resonance images. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic delineation were compared in 24 patients using a sagittal T2-weighted (T2-w) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence and an axial T1-weighted (T1-w) 3D fast-field echo (FFE) or TSE sequence. For automatic prostate delineation, an organ model-based method was used. Prostates without seminal vesicles were delineated as the clinical target volume (CTV). For automatic bladder and rectum delineation, a seeded region-growing method was used. Manual contouring was considered the reference method. The following parameters were measured: volume ratio (Vr) (automatic/manual), volume overlap (Vo) (ratio of the volume of intersection to the volume of union; optimal value = 1), and correctly delineated volume (Vc) (percent ratio of the volume of intersection to the manually defined volume; optimal value 100). Results: For the CTV, the Vr, Vo, and Vc were 1.13 ({+-}0.1 SD), 0.78 ({+-}0.05 SD), and 94.75 ({+-}3.3 SD), respectively. For the rectum, the Vr, Vo, and Vc were 0.97 ({+-}0.1 SD), 0.78 ({+-}0.06 SD), and 86.52 ({+-}5 SD), respectively. For the bladder, the Vr, Vo, and Vc were 0.95 ({+-}0.03 SD), 0.88 ({+-}0.03 SD), and 91.29 ({+-}3.1 SD), respectively. Conclusions: Our results show that the organ-model method is robust, and results in reproducible prostate segmentation with minor interactive corrections. For automatic bladder and rectum delineation, magnetic resonance imaging soft-tissue contrast enables the use of region-growing methods.

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  13. Pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy versus pelvic and para-aortic irradiation for high-risk cervical cancer: an update of radiation therapy oncology group trial (RTOG) 90-01.

    PubMed

    Eifel, Patricia J; Winter, Kathryn; Morris, Mitchell; Levenback, Charles; Grigsby, Perry W; Cooper, Jay; Rotman, Marvin; Gershenson, David; Mutch, David G

    2004-03-01

    To report mature results of a randomized trial that compared extended-field radiotherapy (EFRT) versus pelvic radiotherapy with concomitant fluorouracil and cisplatin (CTRT) in women with locoregionally advanced carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Four hundred three women with cervical cancer were randomly assigned to receive either EFRT or CTRT. Patients were eligible if they had stage IIB to IVA disease, stage IB to IIA disease with a tumor diameter > or = 5 cm, or positive pelvic lymph nodes. Patients were stratified by stage and by method of lymph node evaluation. The median follow-up time for 228 surviving patients was 6.6 years. The overall survival rate for patients treated with CTRT was significantly greater than that for patients treated with EFRT (67% v 41% at 8 years; P <.0001). There was an overall reduction in the risk of disease recurrence of 51% (95% CI, 36% to 66%) for patients who received CTRT. Patients with stage IB to IIB disease who received CTRT had better overall and disease-free survival than those treated with EFRT (P <.0001); 116 patients with stage III to IVA disease had better disease-free survival (P =.05) and a trend toward better overall survival (P =.07) if they were randomly assigned to CTRT. The rate of serious late complications of treatment was similar for the two treatment arms. Mature analysis confirms that the addition of fluorouracil and cisplatin to radiotherapy significantly improved the survival rate of women with locally advanced cervical cancer without increasing the rate of late treatment-related side effects.

  14. Effect of posterior pelvic tilt taping in women with sacroiliac joint pain during active straight leg raising who habitually wore high-heeled shoes: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Seop; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Han, Jin-Tae

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a 1-day application of posterior pelvic tilt taping (PPTT) using a kinesiology tape would decrease anterior pelvic tilt and active straight leg raising test scores in women with sacroiliac joint who habitually wore high-heeled shoes. Sixteen women (mean age, 23.63 ± 3.18 years) were enrolled in this study. Anterior pelvic tilt was measured using a palpation meter before PPTT application, immediately after PPTT application, 1 day after PPTT application, and immediately after PPTT removal after 1 day of application. Active straight leg raising scores were measured at the same periods. Posterior pelvic tilt taping was applied in the target position (posterior pelvic tilt position). The anterior pelvic tilt was decreased during and after 1 day of PPTT application (before and after kinesiology tape removal) compared with the initial angle (all P < .05). Active straight leg raising scores were decreased during and 1 day after PPTT application (before and after kinesiology tape removal) compared with the initial score (all P < .05). The results of this preliminary study suggests that PPTT may temporarily decrease anterior pelvic tilt and active straight leg raising score in women with sacroiliac joint pain who habitually wear high-heeled shoes. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Same-day discharge in clinical stage I endometrial cancer patients treated with total laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Rettenmaier, Mark A; Mendivil, Alberto A; Brown, John V; Abaid, Lisa N; Micha, John P; Goldstein, Bram H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the capacity for same-day discharge in clinical stage I endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection (BPLND). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of stage I EC patients who were treated with TLH, BSO and BPLND and discharged on the same day. The intra- and postoperative clinical variables (e.g., age, complications, surgery time, patient hospital stay) were evaluated in an attempt to discern which factors may predispose a patient to same-day discharge. Twenty-one patients were successfully discharged on the same day of surgery. Mean operative time was 1.48 h and length of hospital stay was 6.35 h. There were no intraoperative complications or hospital readmissions. We present a single, institutional experience solely assessing the capacity for same-day discharge in clinical stage I EC patients treated with TLH, BSO and BPLND. Since the postoperative complication rate was minimal with no hospital readmissions, we suggest that particularly selected stage I EC patients are amenable to outpatient management. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in peri-tumor tissues and pelvic lymph nodes as potential molecular marker of micrometastasis in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Marianna; Annunziata, Clorinda; Liguori, Giuseppina; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Greggi, Stefano; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2016-01-01

    The association between high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) and cervical cancer has been firmly established. HPV genome is present in nearly all cases of cervical cancer and detection of viral DNA could therefore be used as a surrogate marker of micrometastasis in peri-tumor tissues and lymph nodes. We analyzed primary cervical carcinomas, peri-tumor biopsies and pelvic lymph nodes in 20 women with invasive cancer (FIGO stage I-II) who underwent radical pelvic surgery and lymphadenectomy. HPV DNA was searched by broad spectrum PCR in 142 DNA samples extracted from paraffin embedded tissues. Viral genotypes were identified by direct sequencing analysis. HPV DNA sequences were identified in all available primary cervical tumors (n = 15). The most common genotype was HPV16 (60 %), followed by HPV18 (20 %), HPV35 (7 %), HPV45 (7 %) and HPV66 (7 %). Seven out of 20 (35 %) women had metastatic spread in peri-tumor tissues and/or lymph nodes, as determined by histology. HPV DNA was detected in all histological positive samples as well as in 16 and 25 % of histological negative peri-tumor tissues and lymph nodes, respectively. Three out of 20 (15 %) women without histological evidence of metastatic spread had HPV-positive lymph nodes. HPV genotype was found always concordant between primary tumor and metastatic lesions. The remaining 10 women (50 %) were histology and HPV-negative in all peri-tumor biopsies and lymph nodes analyzed. Evaluation of HPV DNA in peri-tumor tissues as well as pelvic lymph nodes could be a sensitive marker to identify micrometastasis or isolated tumor cells and to monitor the risk of disease recurrence in women with cervical cancer.

  17. Defining the “Hostile Pelvis” for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: The Impact of Anatomic Variations in Pelvic Dimensions on Dose Delivered to Target Volumes and Organs at Risk in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Whole Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yirmibeşoğlu Erkal, Eda; Karabey, Sinan; Karabey, Ayşegül; Hayran, Mutlu; Erkal, Haldun Şükrü

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of variations in pelvic dimensions on the dose delivered to the target volumes and the organs at risk (OARs) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) to be treated with whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT) in an attempt to define the hostile pelvis in terms of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 45 men with high-risk PCa to be treated with WPRT, the target volumes and the OARs were delineated, the dose constraints for the OARs were defined, and treatment plans were generated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0924 protocol. Six dimensions to reflect the depth, width, and height of the bony pelvis were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from the planning computed tomographic scans. The minimum dose (D{sub min}), maximum dose (D{sub max}), and mean dose (D{sub mean}) for the target volumes and OARs and the partial volumes of each of these structures receiving a specified dose (V{sub D}) were calculated from the dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The data from the DVHs were correlated with the pelvic dimensions and indexes. Results: According to an overall hostility score (OHS) calculation, 25 patients were grouped as having a hospitable pelvis and 20 as having a hostile pelvis. Regarding the OHS grouping, the DVHs for the bladder, bowel bag, left femoral head, and right femoral head differed in favor of the hospitable pelvis group, and the DVHs for the rectum differed for a range of lower doses in favor of the hospitable pelvis group. Conclusions: Pelvimetry might be used as a guide to define the challenging anatomy or the hostile pelvis in terms of treatment planning for IMRT in patients with high-risk PCa to be treated with WPRT.

  18. Preliminary structural MRI based brain classification of chronic pelvic pain: A MAPP network study.

    PubMed

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Johnson, Kevin A; Martucci, Katherine T; Ichesco, Eric; Farmer, Melissa A; Labus, Jennifer; Ness, Timothy J; Harris, Richard; Deutsch, Georg; Apkarian, A Vania; Mayer, Emeran A; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that changes in brain morphology often accompany chronic pain conditions. However, brain biomarkers that are sensitive and specific to chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have not yet been adequately identified. Using data from the Trans-MAPP Research Network, we examined the changes in brain morphology associated with CPP. We used a multivariate pattern classification approach to detect these changes and to identify patterns that could be used to distinguish participants with CPP from age-matched healthy controls. In particular, we used a linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to differentiate gray matter images from the 2 groups. Regions of positive SVM weight included several regions within the primary somatosensory cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, hippocampus, and amygdala were identified as important drivers of the classification with 73% overall accuracy. Thus, we have identified a preliminary classifier based on brain structure that is able to predict the presence of CPP with a good degree of predictive power. Our regional findings suggest that in individuals with CPP, greater gray matter density may be found in the identified distributed brain regions, which are consistent with some previous investigations in visceral pain syndromes. Future studies are needed to improve upon our identified preliminary classifier with integration of additional variables and to assess whether the observed differences in brain structure are unique to CPP or generalizable to other chronic pain conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy with pelvic/aortic lymph node dissection for endometrial cancer--a consecutive series without case selection and comparison to laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Eisenkop, Scott M

    2010-05-01

    To determine feasibility of duplicating operative time and nodal yield of "open" procedures by using laparoscopy for clinically localized endometrial cancer without case selection and eliminating influence of BMI on conversion. In this retrospective study 210 consecutive patients were laparoscoped between July, 2006 and November, 2009 to perform total laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy and pelvic/aortic lymph node dissection (TLH/BSO/LND) using pulsed bipolar cautery to complete all phases of the procedure. Outcomes ("Scope" group) are compared to historic consecutive TAH/BSO/LND controls ("Open" group) operated on 2004-2009 and "open" series in the literature. Two hundred (95.2%) procedures were completed laparoscopically, 3 (1.4%) required a minilaparotomy to remove the uterus, and 7 (3.3%) were converted to complete the hysterectomy with some portion of LND. There was no influence of BMI (P=0.688), age (P=0.748) or the number of prior abdominal operations (P=0.875) on probability of conversion (Logistic regression). The mean age, BMI, number of prior abdominal procedures, and GOG performance status were equivalent in both study groups. The mean operative time was 139.5 min (IQR 125-152) for the "Scope" group and 128.4 min (IQR 105-124) for the "Open" group (P=0.008). The mean nodal yield was 34.7 (IQR 24-40) for the "Scope" group and 25.7 (IQR 18-30) for the "Open" group (P<0.001). The mean hospital stay was 3.2 days (IQR 2-4) for the "Scope" group and 7.9 days (IQR 5-9) for the "Open" group (P<0.001). For clinically localized endometrial cancer, TLH/BSO/LND can functionally duplicate operative time equivalent to "open" procedures, while improving nodal yield, and minimizing influence of BMI on conversion to laparotomy and case selection. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Predictors of mortality following severe pelvic ring fracture: results of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gabbe, Belinda J; de Steiger, Richard; Esser, Max; Bucknill, Andrew; Russ, Matthias K; Cameron, Peter A

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic disruption of the pelvic ring is uncommon but is associated with a high risk of mortality. These injuries are predominantly due to high energy blunt trauma such as a fall from height, road or workplace trauma, and severe associated injuries are prevalent, increasing the complexity of managing this patient group. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate predictors of mortality following severe pelvic ring fractures managed in an inclusive, regionalised trauma system. Cases aged≥15 years from 1st July 2001 to 30th June 2008 were extracted from the population-based statewide Victorian State Trauma Registry for analysis. Patient demographic, prehospital and admission characteristics were considered as potential predictors of mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of mortality with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated. There were 348 cases over the 8-year period. The mortality rate was 19%. Patients aged≥65 years were at higher odds of mortality (AOR 7.6, 95% CI: 2.8, 20.4) than patients aged 15-34 years. Patients hypotensive at the scene (AOR 5.5, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.2), and on arrival at the definitive hospital of care (AOR 3.7, 955 CI: 1.7, 8.0), were more likely to die than patients without hypotension. The presence of a severe chest injury was associated with an increased odds of mortality (AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1), whilst patients injured in intentional events were also more likely to die than patients involved in unintentional events (AOR 4.9, 95% CI: 1.6, 15.6). There was no association between the hospital of definitive management and mortality after adjustment for other variables, despite differences in the protocols for managing these patients at the major trauma services (Level 1 trauma centres). The findings highlight the importance of effective control of haemodynamic instability for reducing the risk of mortality. As most patients survive these injuries

  1. Nanofibrous biomimetic mesh can be used for pelvic reconstructive surgery: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Deng, Mou; Song, Xiao-Chen; Chen, Chun; Lai, Kui-Lin; Wang, Guo-Shuai; Yuan, Yu-Yu; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Lan

    2016-08-01

    Implantation of nonabsorbable polypropylene (PP) mesh in the vagina is the main surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP); however, clinical outcomes remain controversial and far from satisfactory. In particular, reducing the exposure or erosion of vaginal implants to obtain improved functional reconstruction is challenging. There is an urgent need for the development of new materials and/or products for POP treatment. A nanofibrous biomimetic mesh was recently developed to address this issue. In this study, the basic properties of the newly developed mesh, including structural characteristics, mechanical properties, biological response of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, and tissue regeneration and biocompatibility in vivo, were evaluated and compared with those of Gynemesh™PS. Scanning electron microscopy and uniaxial tensile methods were used to evaluate microstructure and mechanical properties, respectively. Mesenchymal stem cell growth on the meshes was observed by fluorescence microscopy to visualize the expression of enhanced red fluorescent protein. Twenty-four mature female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (nanofibrous biomimetic mesh, Medprin, Germany, n=12) and group 2 (Gynemesh(TM)PS, Ethicon, USA; n=12). The posterior vaginal wall was incised from the introitus, and the mesh was then implanted. Three implants of each type were tested for 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Connective tissue organization, inflammation, vascularization, and regenerated tissue were histologically assessed. The nanofibrous biomimetic mesh is a relatively heavy material and exhibited lower porosity than Gynemesh(TM)PS. The new mesh was stiffer than Gynemesh(TM)PS (p<0.001) but supported human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell attachment. Erosion of the grafts did not occur in any animal. The nanofibrous biomimetic mesh was encapsulated by a thicker layer of connective tissue and was associated with significantly greater

  2. Is IMRT needed to spare the rectum when pelvic lymph nodes are part of the initial treatment volume for prostate cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Cavey, Matthew L.; Endres, Eugene J. C.; Brandon, Gunn G.; Bayouth, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether a 4-field box technique (4FBT), along with its technical refinements, is an adequate approach in terms of rectal sparing and target coverage for patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing whole-pelvic radiotherapy followed by a prostate boost and whether or not intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is needed. Methods and Materials: For 8 patients, 31 plans were generated, each of them differing in one or more features, including prescription (dose/volume) and/or technical factors. For the latter, several 'solutions' to try to reduce the amount of irradiated rectal volume were addressed, including modifications of the 4FBT and the use of sequential IMRT. We constructed a database with 248 plans that were tested for their ability to meet a series of rectal dose-volume constraints at V50, V60, V65, V70, V75, and V75.6. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with the end point. Successful solutions were also compared in terms of coverage of both pelvic node and prostate planning target volume (PTV) by isodose 95%. Results: At multivariate logistic regression, both rectal blocking and IMRT were independent predictors of the probability of meeting rectal dose-volume constraints during the pelvic and boost phases of treatment with close relative risks. However, on average, partial rectal blocking on lateral fields of 4FBT during whole-pelvic radiotherapy resulted in about 3% of pelvic node PTV being outside isodose 95%; only 2 of 8 patients had the pelvic nodal PTV covered similarly to what was achieved by whole-pelvis IMRT. Conversely, blocking the rectum during the last 3 fractions of the conformal boost showed a dosimetric coverage of prostate PTV similar to that achieved by IMRT boost. Interestingly, patient anatomic configuration was the strongest predictor of rectal sparing. Finally, the size of prostate margins to generate PTV was also independently associated with the probability

  3. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts longitudinal pain symptom change in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a MAPP network study.

    PubMed

    Kutch, Jason J; Labus, Jennifer S; Harris, Richard E; Martucci, Katherine T; Farmer, Melissa A; Fenske, Sonja; Fling, Connor; Ichesco, Eric; Peltier, Scott; Petre, Bogdan; Guo, Wensheng; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa J; Mullins, Chris; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean C; Apkarian, A Vania; Landis, J Richard; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-06-01

    Chronic pain symptoms often change over time, even in individuals who have had symptoms for years. Studying biological factors that predict trends in symptom change in chronic pain may uncover novel pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated whether brain functional connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline can predict longitudinal symptom change (3, 6, and 12 months after scan) in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We studied 52 individuals with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (34 women, 18 men) who had baseline neuroimaging followed by symptom tracking every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. We found that brain functional connectivity can make a significant prediction of short-term (3 month) pain reduction with 73.1% accuracy (69.2% sensitivity and 75.0% precision). In addition, we found that the brain regions with greatest contribution to the classification were preferentially aligned with the left frontoparietal network. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures seemed to be less informative about 6- or 12-month symptom change. Our study provides the first evidence that future trends in symptom change in patients in a state of chronic pain may be linked to functional connectivity within specific brain networks.

  4. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Mary LLS; Mateus-Vasconcelos, Elaine CL; Rosa e Silva, Júlio C; dos Reis, Francisco J Candido; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group) who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group). Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p < 0.01) and scapulae (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.1–7.6; p < 0.05). Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment. PMID:19583850

  5. Acupuncture and Immune Function in Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Liong, Men Long; Yuen, Kah Hay; Krieger, John N

    2014-01-01

    Objective The immune system has been implicated as one mechanism underlying the benefits of acupuncture therapy. Evidence suggests that acupuncture can ameliorate symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), but the association between clinical response and the immune system has not been investigated. Design/Setting We investigated 12 CP/CPPS patients participating in a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for effects on cellular immunity. Blood samples were taken before the first needling and after the last of 20 treatment sessions (week 10). Patients also completed questionnaires examining their CP/CPPS symptoms and mood status at the baseline and end of study visits. Results At the end of study 8 of 12 participants (67%) were classified as treatment responders, 4 participants each from the acupuncture and sham groups. The acupuncture group averaged a 5% increase in natural killer cell levels compared to corresponding sham (-13%; p=0.03). Similarly, patients randomized to acupuncture reported a reduction in other white blood cell parameters examined, supporting the possibility that immunity might be important in the pathophysiology of CP/CPPS. Conclusions The specific effect of acupuncture on CP/CPPS remains unclear. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms by which acupuncture therapy may improve clinical symptoms in patients with CP/CPPS. PMID:25453515

  6. Constriction of the levator hiatus during instruction of pelvic floor or transversus abdominis contraction: a 4D ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari; Braekken, Ingeborg H; Majida, Memona; Engh, Marie E

    2009-01-01

    A new theory claims that the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) can be trained via the transversus abdominis (TrA). The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of instruction of PFM and TrA contraction on constriction of the levator hiatus, using 4D perineal ultrasonography. Thirteen women with pelvic organ prolapse participated in the study. Perineal ultrasound in standing position was used to assess constriction of the levator hiatus. Analyses were conducted off-line with measurements in the axial plane of minimal hiatal dimensions. The reduction of all the hiatal dimensions was significantly greater during PFM than TrA contraction. All patients had a reduction of the levator hiatus area during PFM contraction (mean reduction 24.0%; range 6.1-49.2%). In two patients, there was an increase of the levator hiatus area during TrA contraction. Instruction of PFM contraction is more effective than TrA contraction.

  7. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sue; Weijer, Charles; Gafni, Amiram; Ducey, Ariel; Thompson, Carmen; Lafreniere, Rene

    2010-08-26

    Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders--federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces) will be included. Ethics--beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics--scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs.For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing recommendations for regulatory bodies, device manufacturers, clinicians, health

  8. Pelvic Floor Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  9. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs when the tissue and muscles of the pelvic floor no longer support the pelvic organs resulting in ... organ prolapse. Supporting muscles and tissue of the pelvic floor may become torn or stretched because of labor ...

  10. Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal

    MedlinePlus

    ... you Bladder growths or other problems Kidney stones Pelvic inflammatory disease , an infection of a woman's uterus, ovaries, or tubes Abnormal vaginal bleeding Menstrual problems Problems ... the uterus Pelvic pain Pelvic ultrasound is also used during a ...

  11. [Extra peritoneal anterior pelvic exenteration with total urethrectomy and vaginectomy for bladder and urethra cancer - clinical case and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Dragiev, D

    2013-01-01

    The anterior pelvic exenteration is technically demanding surgical intervention carried out in advanced malignant genito-urethral process origin. It is characterized by a high percentage of intra and postoperative complications. They can be reduced through new surgical techniques, such as extra peritoneal approach to perform this operation. We present a clinical case of 56 years old patient with adenocarcinoma of the urethra/bladder established histologically by TUR (Transurethral) - biopsy. Of the clinical and imaging studies - data for the invasion to the anterior vaginal wall. The patient is after Total Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo oophorectomy on the occasion of the fibroids in the uterus. After a routine preoperative preparation, we did: extra peritoneal anterior pelvic exenteration with total urethrectomy and vaginectomy. Bilateral extra peritoneal ureterocutaneostomy with "JJ" stents. Bilateral extra peritoneal pelvic lymph dissection. Our clinical case, proves the thesis of many authors about the benefits of extra peritoneal approach for anterior pelvic exenteration. Reduce significantly the intra/post-operative complications, hospital stay and a time to follow postoperative therapy. We consider that the extra peritoneal approach for radical surgery should be applied whenever possible in the interest of the health of the patient.

  12. Body image perceptions in women with pelvic organ prolapse: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Jerry L; Ghetti, Chiara; Nikolajski, Cara; Oliphant, Sallie S; Zyczynski, Halina M

    2011-05-01

    To describe perceptions of prolapse-specific body image in women with symptomatic prolapse. Women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage ≥ II prolapse participated in semistructured focus groups or self-report questionnaire. Transcripts were independently reviewed and body image themes were identified and confirmed by consensus. Twenty-five women participated in focus groups and 27 in online questionnaires. Transcript analysis revealed 3 central themes and 25 body-image related subthemes. Women living with prolapse were more likely to feel self-conscious, isolated, "different," less feminine, and less attractive. Women often changed sexual intimacy practices because of embarrassment or discomfort, and many avoided intimacy all together. Prolapse greatly affected women's personal and professional activities causing some women to adjust routines or stop activities. Women reported loss of interest in activities, distraction while performing daily/work-related tasks, and embarrassment when asking for help with activities. Themes identified in this qualitative study demonstrate the profound effect of prolapse on a woman's body image. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of psychiatric disorders following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a common infection in women that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. A clear temporal causal relationship between PID and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with PID between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without PID. A total of 21 930 PID and 21 930 matched control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until 31 December 2009. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with PID were significantly higher (HR: 2.671, 2.173, 2.006 and 2.251, respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. PID may increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder, which will impair life quality. Our findings highlight that clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in PID patients.

  14. RapidArc radiotherapy for whole pelvic lymph node in cervical cancer with 6 and 15 MV: a treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, De-Yin; Yin, Yong; Gong, Guan-Zhong; Liu, Tong-Hai; Chen, Jin-Hu; Ma, Chang-Sheng; Lu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Dosimetric differences were investigated among single and dual arc RapidArc and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (f-IMRT) treatment plans for whole pelvic irradiation of lymph nodes. A total of 12 patients who had undergone radical surgery for cervical cancer and who had demonstrated multiple pelvic lymph node metastases were treated with radiotherapy. For all 12 cases, 7-field IMRT, single-arc RapidArc and dual-arc RapidArc were applied with 6 MV and 15 MV X-ray energies. The radiation dosimetric parameters for the different plans were compared with one another. All the plans met the clinical requirements. The homogeneity, conformity and external volume indices of f-IMRT and dual-arc RapidArc were better than for single-arc RapidArc (P < 0.05), while the differences between f-IMRT and dual-arc RapidArc were not significant. There were no significant differences in the radiation dose to organs at risk, except for the small bowel receiving >40 Gy (f-IMRT and dual-arc < single-arc, P < 0.05). The differences in dose distributions between the two applied X-ray energies for each of the modality plans were not significant. RapidArc plans resulted in fewer monitor units than the corresponding f-IMRT plans. Also, there were no differences between the two photon energies, except for a reduction in the number of MUs for 15 MV (P > 0.05). Compared to f-IMRT, no significant dosimetric benefits were found using RapidArc for whole pelvic lymph node irradiation. However, RapidArc has been associated with shorter treatment time and fewer monitor units, supporting the case for its safety and efficacy for pelvic irradiation. PMID:23283869

  15. Prevalence and use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E.; Learman, Lee A.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of and factors associated with use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Design We analyzed data from the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy and Intervention Alternatives (SOPHIA), a prospective cohort study of women seeking care for noncancerous pelvic problems with intact uteri at enrollment. Among a subset of 699 participants who reported having CPP, we analyzed the prevalence of complementary health approaches used and associated patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life, attitudes and beliefs, and conventional health care practices. Results At baseline, slightly over one-half (51%) of women with CPP used at least one complementary health approach in the past year, including acupuncture (8%), special foods or diets (22%), herbs (27%), and vitamins and minerals (29%). During follow-up surveys conducted annually for four years, a substantial proportion of women (44.8%) used complementary health approaches at more than half of the assessments. Users of complementary health approaches were more likely to undergo a hysterectomy or oophorectomy or to use gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or opioids during the study compared with non-users. Women with CPP who used complementary health approaches also had more optimal health-related quality of life measured by the Pelvic Problem Impact Questionnaire (31.6 vs. 25.6, p<0.001). Conclusion(s) Many women with CPP consistently use complementary health approaches. The substantial interest in and high prevalence of complementary health approaches used alongside conventional medical approaches highlights the need for better understanding of multimodal approaches to address the complex condition of CPP. PMID:25279935

  16. Bladder pain syndrome: validation of simple tests for diagnosis in women with chronic pelvic pain: BRaVADO study protocol.

    PubMed

    Tirlapur, Seema A; Priest, Lee; Wojdyla, Daniel; Khan, Khalid S

    2013-12-04

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), a condition with no gold standard diagnosis, comprises of a cluster of signs and symptoms. Bladder filling pain and bladder wall tenderness are two basic clinical features, present in a high number of sufferers. This study will validate the performance of these simple tests for BPS in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). We will conduct a prospective test validation study amongst women with unexplained CPP presenting to gynaecology outpatient clinics. Two index tests will be performed: patient reported bladder filling pain and bladder wall tenderness on internal pelvic bimanual examination. A final diagnosis of BPS will be made by expert consensus panel. We will assess the rates of index tests in women with CPP; evaluate the correlation between index tests and Pelvic Pain Urgency/ Frequency (PUF) questionnaire results; and determine index test sensitivity and specificity using a range of analytical methods. Assuming a 50% prevalence of BPS and an 80% power approximately 152 subjects will be required exclude sensitivity of < 55% at 70% sensitivity. The results of this test validation study will be used to identify whether a certain combination of signs and symptoms can accurately diagnose BPS.

  17. Lower limb compartment syndrome by reperfusion injury after treatment of arterial thrombosis post-laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Jihee; Jung, Ye Won; Yang, Shin Seok; Kang, Byung Hun; Lee, Mina; Ko, Young Bok; Yang, Jung Bo; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a clinical condition associated with decreased blood circulation that can lead to swelling of tissue in limited space. Several factors including lithotomy position, prolonged surgery, intermittent pneumatic compressor, and reperfusion after treatment of arterial thrombosis may contribute to compartment syndrome. However, compartment syndrome rarely occurs after gynecologic surgery. In this case, the patient was diagnosed as compartment syndrome due to reperfusion injury after treatment of arterial thrombosis, which occurred after laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for cervical cancer. Despite its rarity, prevention and identifying the risk factors of complication should be performed perioperatively; furthermore, gynecologist should be aware of the possibility of complications. PMID:28344966

  18. Lower limb compartment syndrome by reperfusion injury after treatment of arterial thrombosis post-laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Jihee; Jung, Ye Won; Yang, Shin Seok; Kang, Byung Hun; Lee, Mina; Ko, Young Bok; Yang, Jung Bo; Lee, Ki Hwan; Yoo, Heon Jong

    2017-03-01

    Compartment syndrome is a clinical condition associated with decreased blood circulation that can lead to swelling of tissue in limited space. Several factors including lithotomy position, prolonged surgery, intermittent pneumatic compressor, and reperfusion after treatment of arterial thrombosis may contribute to compartment syndrome. However, compartment syndrome rarely occurs after gynecologic surgery. In this case, the patient was diagnosed as compartment syndrome due to reperfusion injury after treatment of arterial thrombosis, which occurred after laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for cervical cancer. Despite its rarity, prevention and identifying the risk factors of complication should be performed perioperatively; furthermore, gynecologist should be aware of the possibility of complications.

  19. Pelvic Lymph Node Irradiation Including Pararectal Sentinel Nodes for Prostate Cancer Patients: Treatment Optimization Comparing Intensity Modulated X-rays, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, and Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vees, Hansjörg; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Nouet, Philippe; Zilli, Thomas; Cozzi, Luca; Miralbell, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to assess the dosimetric impact of advanced delivery radiotherapy techniques using either intensity modulated x-ray beams (IMXT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), or intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), for high-risk prostate cancer patients with sentinel nodes in the pararectal region. Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients were included in a prospective trial evaluating sentinel nodes on pelvic SPECT acquisition. To be eligible for the dosimetric study, patients had to present with pararectal sentinel nodes usually not included in the clinical target volume encompassing the pelvic lymph nodes. Radiotherapy-plans including the prostate, the seminal vesicles, and the pelvic lymph nodes with the pararectal sentinel nodes were optimized for 6 eligible patients. IMXT and IMPT were delivered with 7 and 3 beams respectively and VMAT with 2 arcs. Results were assessed with Dose-Volume Histograms and predictive normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) models between the three competing treatment modalities aiming to deliver a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Target coverage was optimized with IMPT when compared to IMXT and VMAT. Coverage of the sentinel node was slightly better with IMXT (D98% 5 57.3 ± 5.1 Gy) when compared with VMAT (D98% 5 56.2 ± 4.1 Gy). The irradiation of rectal, bladder, small bowel, and femoral heads volumes was significantly reduced with IMPT when compared to IMXT and VMAT. NTCPs rates for rectal and bladder ≥ grade-3 late toxicity were better with IMPT (0.4 ± 0.0% and 0.0 ± 0.0%) compared with IMXT (4.6 ± 3.3% and 1.4 ± 1.1%), and VMAT (4.5 ± 4.0% and 1.6 ± 1.6%), respectively. Acceptable dose-volume distributions and low rectal and urinary NTCPs were estimated to geometrically complex pelvic volumes such as the ones proposed in this study using IMXT, VMAT and IMPT. IMPT succeeded, however, to propose the best physical and biological treatment plans compared to both X-ray derived plans.

  20. Pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence 15-23 years after first delivery: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Volløyhaug, I; Mørkved, S; Salvesen, Ø; Salvesen, Kå

    2015-06-01

    To study the association between pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) and mode of delivery and to calculate the risks of PFD comparing caesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery to normal vaginal delivery 15-23 years after childbirth. A subgroup analysis comparing forceps and vacuum delivery was planned. Cross-sectional study. Postal questionnaire. 1641 (53%) of 3115 women who delivered their first child in Trondheim, Norway, between January 1990 and December 1997. A questionnaire including questions on symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence and surgery for these conditions. Prevalence of PFD measured by symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse or surgery (sPOP), urinary incontinence or surgery (UI) and fecal incontinence or surgery (FI). When caesarean delivery was compared to normal vaginal delivery the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for sPOP was 0.42 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.21-0.86) and the aOR for UI was 0.65 (95% CI 0.46-0.92). Operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased risk of sPOP (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.48) and FI (aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.26-3.06) when compared with normal vaginal delivery. There were no differences in sPOP, UI or FI in a subgroup analysis comparing forceps and vacuum delivery. Caesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk and operative vaginal delivery with increased risk of pelvic floor dysfunction 15-23 years after first delivery, but there were no differences between forceps and vacuum delivery. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Does calcium score in great pelvic vessels predict colorectal anastomotic leakage? A prospective study of one hundred anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Norooz, M T; Moradi, H; Safdarian, M; Jahangiri, F; Amoli, H A

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most severe surgical complications following surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate an association between the calcification in the descending aorta and its major branches using a calcium-scoring software and colorectal anastomotic leakage. From January 2012 to March 2013, one hundred patients underwent surgeries involving colorectal anastomosis procedures. Calcium score in descending aorta and great pelvic vessels was measured using the Syngo-CT 2006G-W software. A questionnaire was completed containing demographic and underlying risk factors suspicious to be associated with anastomotic leakage, in addition to surgical characteristics data. 55 males and 45 females entered the study with the mean age of 63.70±7.17 years. The average duration time of surgery was 149.30±20.24 minutes. The type of surgery was elective for 90 patients and emergency for 10 others. The mean calcium score was higher in greater arteries as in abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries in comparison to the other pelvic vessels. Comparing two groups of patients with and without anastomotic leakage, the calcium score was higher in descending aorta and all great pelvic vessels of patients with colorectal anastomotic leakage (P<0.001). One patient (1%) died due to postoperative anastomotic leakage two weeks after the surgery. Atherosclerotic calcification in the descending aorta and its major branches can be considered as a risk factor in the development of colorectal anastomotic leakage. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2016, 79, 415-420).

  2. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy or boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Jung; Phak, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woo Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after SBRT has not been well characterized. The purpose of the current study is to assess the kinetics of PSA for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT using Cyberknife as both monotherapy and boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in the absence of androgen deprivation therapy. Methods A total of 61 patients with low- and intermediated-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT as monotherapy (36.25 Gy in 5 fractions in 32 patients) and SBRT (21 Gy in 3 fractions in 29 patients) boost combined with WPRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated and compared. Results With a median follow-up of 52.4 months (range, 14–74 months), for SBRT monotherapy, the median PSA nadir was 0.31 ng/mL (range, 0.04–1.15 ng/mL) and slopes were –0.41 ng/mL/mo, –0.17 ng/mL/mo, –0.12 ng/mL/mo, and –0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively, for durations of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years postradiotherapy. Similarly, for SBRT boost after WPRT, the median PSA nadir was 0.34 ng/mL (range, 0.04–1.44 ng/mL) and slopes were –0.53 ng/mL/mo, –0.25 ng/mL/mo, –0.14 ng/mL/mo, and –0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively. The median nadir and slopes of SBRT monotherapy did not differ significantly from those of SBRT boost after WPRT. Benign PSA bounces were common in 30.4% of all cohorts, and the median time to PSA bounce was 12 months (range, 6–25 months). Conclusions In this report of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, an initial period of rapid PSA decline was followed by a slow decline, which resulted in a lower PSA nadir. The PSA kinetics of SBRT monotherapy appears to be comparable to those achieved

  3. Pelvic floor muscle electromyography during different running speeds: an exploratory and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Luginbuehl, Helena; Naeff, Rebecca; Zahnd, Anna; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Annette; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects women of all ages including young athletes, especially those involved in high-impact sports. To date, hardly any studies are available testing pelvic floor muscles (PFM) during sports activities. The aim of this study was the description and reliability test of six PFM electromyography (EMG) variables during three different running speeds. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether there was a speed-dependent difference between the PFM activity variables. This trial was designed as an exploratory and reliability study including ten young healthy female subjects to characterize PFM pre-activity and reflex activity during running at 7, 9 and 11 km/h. Six variables for each running speed, averaged over ten steps per subject, were presented descriptively, tested regarding their reliability (Friedman, ICC, SEM, MD) and speed difference (Friedman). PFM EMG variables varied between 67.6 and 106.1 %EMG, showed no systematic error and were low for SEM and MD using the single value model. Applying the average model over ten steps, ICC (3,k) were >0.75 and SEM and MD about 50 % lower than for the single value model. Activity was found to be highest in 11 km/h. EMG variables showed excellent ICC and very low SEM and MD. Further studies should investigate inter-session reliability and PFM reactivity patterns of SUI patients using the average over ten steps for each variable as it showed very high ICC and very low SEM and MD. Subsequently, longer running distances and other high-impact sports disciplines could be studied.

  4. [Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Influence of osteopathic treatment - a randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Marx, S; Cimniak, U; Beckert, R; Schwerla, F; Resch, K L

    2009-11-01

    Prostatitis is the most common urological disease in males under [corrected] the age of 50 years old. As bacteria are detected in only <5% of cases the disease can mostly be classified as chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. The symptoms of this problem complex, often described as chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP-CPPS), seem to be multifactorial so that an improvement can only rarely be achieved with conventional forms of therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether osteopathic treatment can influence the symptoms of CP-CPPS (randomized controlled study, 5 sessions, follow-up after 6 weeks and 1.5 years without treatment). The study was carried out in a practice for osteopathy. Patients were recruited by referral from urologists, newspaper articles and lectures on the topic. A total of 35 males with medically diagnosed CP-CPPS aged 29-70 years old took part in the study. Of the patients 20 were allocated to the treatment group and 15 to the placebo group whereby 2 patients had to retire from the study prematurely. Patients in the treatment group received 5 osteopathic treatment sessions separated by 1 week at the beginning and by up to 3 weeks at the end (total period 8 weeks). The osteopathic dysfunctions of the patients were treated according to the principles of osteopathy. The placebo treatment in the control group consisted of a training program with simple gymnastic and physiotherapeutic exercises. Improvements of the complaints by urination (LUTS), chronic pelvic pain (CPPS) and quality of life (QOL) were measured using the questionnaires for international prostate symptom score (IPSS), the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) and the quality of life index (QOL). Comparison of the results from the osteopathy and placebo groups revealed statistically significant differences in favor of the osteopathy group (p<0.0005). During the study period the average IPSS in the osteopathy group

  5. External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbe, Bengt; Horvath, Gyoergy; Andersson, Hakan; Boman, Karin; Lundgren, Caroline; Pettersson, Birgitta

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-year overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despite a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.

  6. Intermittent androgen ablation in patients with biochemical failure after pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cury, Fabio L.B.; Souhami, Luis . E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Rajan, Raghu; Tanguay, Simon; Gagnon, Bruno; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio L.; David, Marc; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of intermittent androgen ablation (IAA) in patients with biochemical failure after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients received a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog every 2 months for a total of 4 doses. IAA was then discontinued if serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) fell to a normal level with a castrate level of testosterone. Therapy was restarted when the serum PSA level reached {>=}10 ng/mL and was discontinued if hormone resistance or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Results: Median PSA was 9.1 ng/mL at the time of first IAA. The median time between the first and the second cycles was 20.1 months, decreasing to 15.5 months between the third and fourth cycles. Two patients discontinued the treatment because of severe hot flushes. Four patients developed hormone resistance. With a median follow-up of 56.4 months, 5-year survival is 92.3%. Three patients died of unrelated causes. The incidence of distant metastasis is 6.8%. Conclusions: The use of IAA seems to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with biochemical failure post radiotherapy and no evidence of metastatic disease. The use of IAA limits hormone-related side effects and health care costs without an apparent increase in the risk for the development of metastatic disease.

  7. [Study of effective components and molecular mechanism for Guizhi Fuling formula treatment of dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease and uterine fibroids].

    PubMed

    Ke, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Xin-zhuang; Ding, Yue; Cao, Ze-yu; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuan-jie; Zhang, Chen-feng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiao-jie

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the active components and potential molecular .mechanism of Guizhi Fuling formula in treatment on dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammation, and hysteromyoma were investigated using network pharmacological methods. Sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes, with high moleculal network degree, revealed promising effects on anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, and immune-regulation, according to D-T network analysis. On the other hand, the targets with high degree were involved in inflammatory, coagulation, angiopoiesis, smooth muscle contraction, and cell reproduction, which showed the novel function in anti-dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammation, and hysteromyoma. Furthermore, the formula was indicated to play a key role in smooth muscle proliferation, inhibition of new vessels, circulation improvement, reduction of hormone secretion, alleviation of smooth muscle, block of arachidonic acid metabolism, and inflammation in uterus. Thus, the main mechanism of Guizhi Fuling formula was summarized. In conclusion, Guizhi Fuling formula was proven to alleviated dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammation, and hysteromyoma by acting on multiple targets through several bioactive compounds, regulating 21 biological pathways.

  8. The interplay of dyadic and individual planning of pelvic-floor exercise in prostate-cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gralla, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    This study broadens the current understanding of the role of planning by focusing on the interplay between individual and dyadic planning (i.e. making plans about the target person's behaviour together with a partner). Self-report data from N=141 prostatectomy-patients and their partners were assessed at three times within 1 year post-surgery. Direct and indirect effects of dyadic and individual planning on patients' pelvic-floor exercise (PFE) were tested. Proposed mediators were social support, social control, and action control. Cross-sectionally, the dyadic planning-PFE relationship was mediated by patients' received support and partners' provided social control. Longitudinally, mediators of dyadic planning were partners' provided social control and support. Effects of individual planning on PFE were mediated by action control at baseline only. Also, at lower levels of individual planning, patients' dyadic planning was more strongly associated with receipt of social control. Results underscore the importance of social factors in the planning process and its mechanisms in health-behaviour change.

  9. FDG-PET/CT in advanced ovarian cancer staging: value and pitfalls in detecting lesions in different abdominal and pelvic quadrants compared with laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    De Iaco, Pierandrea; Musto, Alessandra; Orazi, Luca; Zamagni, Claudio; Rosati, Marta; Allegri, Vincenzo; Cacciari, Nicoletta; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Venturoli, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is a common cancer in the Western Countries, and an important cause of death in patients suffering with gynaecologic malignancies. The majority of patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Treatment with debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy is the standard approach while chemotherapy is contemplated when surgery is not possible. A correct pre-operative staging is important to ensure a most appropriate management. Laparoscopy (LPS) is the standard diagnostic tool for the assessment of intraperitoneal infiltration but is invasive and requires general anaesthesia. FDG-PET/CT is increasingly used for staging different types of cancer, and the aim of this study is to assess the value of FDG-PET/CT in staging advanced OC and its sensitivity to detect lesions in different quadrants of the abdominal-pelvic area compared to laparoscopy. From September 2004 till April 2008, 40 patients with high suspicion of OC were referred to our hospital for diagnostic LPS to explore the possibility of optimal debulking surgery. Those who were not suitable for surgery were referred for chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy, the patients underwent an FDG-PET/CT scan. The findings in 9 quadrants of abdominal-pelvic area (total 360 quadrants) for PET/CT and LPS were recorded and compared. In 14/360 areas (3.8%), surgical evaluation was not possible because of presence of adhesions, thus the number of areas explored by laparoscopy was 346. Tumour was found in 308 quadrants (38 quadrants free of disease). PET/CT was positive in all 40 patients with true negative results in 26/346 quadrants (7.5%), and true positives results in 243/346 quadrants (70.2%). False positive and negative PET/CT results were found in 12/346 and 65/346 quadrants, respectively. False positive PET/CT findings were evenly present in all quadrants. False negative PET/CT findings were present in 31/109 (28.4%) upper abdominal quadrants (epigastrium and diaphragmatic areas

  10. Physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery: a protocol for a mixed-methods prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Clark, Erin; Clark, Lauren; Egger, Marlene J; Hitchcock, Robert; Hsu, Yvonne; Norton, Peggy; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Shaw, Janet; Sheng, Xiaoming; Varner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), stress and urgency urinary incontinence, and faecal incontinence, are common and arise from loss of pelvic support. Although severe disease often does not occur until women become older, pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for PFDs, especially POP. We understand little about modifiable factors that impact pelvic floor function recovery after vaginal birth. This National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Program Project, ‘Bridging physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery’, uses mixed-methods research to study the influences of intra-abdominal pressure, physical activity, body habitus and muscle fitness on pelvic floor support and symptoms as well as the cultural context in which women experience those changes. Methods and analysis Using quantitative methods, we will evaluate whether pelvic floor support and symptoms 1 year after the first vaginal delivery are affected by biologically plausible factors that may impact muscle, nerve and connective tissue healing during recovery (first 8 weeks postpartum) and strengthening (remainder of the first postpartum year). Using qualitative methods, we will examine cultural aspects of perceptions, explanations of changes in pelvic floor support, and actions taken by Mexican-American and Euro-American primipara, emphasising early changes after childbirth. We will summarise project results in a resource toolkit that will enhance opportunities for dialogue between women, their families and providers, and across lay and medical discourses. We anticipate enrolling up to 1530 nulliparous women into the prospective cohort study during the third trimester, following those who deliver vaginally 1 year postpartum. Participants will be drawn from this cohort to meet the project's aims. Ethics and dissemination The University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare

  11. FDG PET/CT images demonstrating Fournier gangrene with bilateral pelvic muscle extension in a patient with recurrent rectosigmoid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Tien; Kao, Pan-Fu; Huang, Chi-Chou; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Lee, Jong-Kang

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old male patient with Parkinsonism was referred for an F-FDG PET/CT scan for suspicious recurrence of rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma. The FDG PET/CT scan revealed increased FDG uptakes in the lower pelvic region around the wall of the rectal stump, with extension to the bilateral pelvic sidewalls and the right gluteous minimus muscle. In addition, multiple small air bubbles were noted in the lesions on the attenuation CT images. Fournier gangrene was diagnosed. After treatment with intravenous antibiotics and debridement with sigmoidoscopic irrigation, the patient was discharged and remained uneventful during clinical follow-up for 50 days.

  12. Experiences of First-Time Mothers With Persistent Pelvic Girdle Pain After Childbirth: Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Curtis, Elizabeth; Begley, Cecily

    2015-10-01

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is common during pregnancy and negatively affects women's lives. When PGP persists after the birth, the way it affects women's lives may change, particularly for first-time mothers as they adjust to motherhood, yet the experiences of women with persistent PGP remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore primiparous women's experiences of persistent PGP and its impact on their lives postpartum, including caring for their infant and their parental role. This was a descriptive qualitative study. Following institution ethical approval, 23 consenting primiparous women with PGP that had started during pregnancy and persisted for at least 3 months postpartum participated in individual interviews. These interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) "Putting up with the pain: coping with everyday life," in which women put up with the pain but had to balance activities and were grateful for support from family and friends to face everyday challenges; (2) "I don't feel back to normal," in which women's feelings of physical limitations, frustration, and a negative impact on their mood were described; (3) "Unexpected," in which persistent symptoms were unexpected for women due to a lack of information given about PGP; and (4) "What next?," in which the future of women's symptoms was met with great uncertainty, and they expressed worry about having another baby. For first-time mothers, having persistent PGP postpartum affects their daily lives in many ways. These findings provide important information for health care providers, which will improve their understanding of these women's experiences, will enhance rapport, and can be used to provide information and address concerns to optimize maternity care during pregnancy and beyond. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors of De novo Stress Urinary Incontinence after Pelvic Floor Reconstruction: A Nested Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Yan; Cao, Ting-Ting; Wang, Run-Zhi; Yang, Xin; Sun, Xiu-Li; Wang, Jian-Liu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some patients with pelvic organ prolapse may suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially stress urinary incontinence (SUI) named de novo SUI after pelvic floor reconstruction. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of de novo SUI. Methods: This is a nested case-control study of 533 patients who underwent pelvic floor reconstruction due to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) at the Department of Gynecology in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2011 to March 2013. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 401 patients were enrolled in the study with the follow-up rate of 74.8% (101 patients lost to follow-up). There were 75 patients with de novo SUI postoperatively. According to the ratio of 1:3, we ensured the number of control group (n = 225). The preoperative urinary dynamics, POP-quantification scores, and LUTS were compared between the two groups by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to investigate the risk factors of de novo SUI. Results: The incidence of de novo SUI was 25% (75/300). Univariate analysis showed that the ratio of lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) before surgery in de novo SUI group was significantly higher than the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.1–4.0], P = 0.022). The interaction test of LUTO and other factors displayed that Aa value was an interaction factor. With the increasing score of Aa, the incidence of de novo SUI become higher (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.0–3.7], P = 0.045). After multivariable adjustment, multiple regression analysis showed that LUTO was independently associated with a greater risk of de novo SUI after pelvic floor surgery (OR = 2.3, 95% CI [1.2–4.6], P = 0.013). Conclusions: Preoperative LUTO in patients with POP is a high-risk factor of de novo SUI, and high score of Aa-point is related to the occurrence of de novo SUI, which might be due to the outlet obstruction caused by bladder

  14. Clinical Response of Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenopathy to a Radiation Boost in the Definitive Management of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rash, Dominique L.; Lee, Yongsook C.; Kashefi, Amir; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Mathai, Mathew; Valicenti, Richard; Mayadev, Jyoti S.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Optimal treatment with radiation for metastatic lymphadenopathy in locally advanced cervical cancer remains controversial. We investigated the clinical dose response threshold for pelvic and para-aortic lymph node boost using radiographic imaging and clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: Between 2007 and 2011, 68 patients were treated for locally advanced cervical cancer; 40 patients had clinically involved pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes. Computed tomography (CT) or 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans obtained pre- and postchemoradiation for 18 patients were reviewed to assess therapeutic radiographic response of individual lymph nodes. External beam boost doses to involved nodes were compared to treatment response, assessed by change in size of lymph nodes by short axis and change in standard uptake value (SUV). Patterns of failure, time to recurrence, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were determined. Results: Sixty-four lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic involvement were identified. Radiation boost doses ranged from 0 to 15 Gy, with a mean total dose of 52.3 Gy. Pelvic lymph nodes were treated with a slightly higher dose than para-aortic lymph nodes: mean 55.3 Gy versus 51.7 Gy, respectively. There was no correlation between dose delivered and change in size of lymph nodes along the short axis. All lymph nodes underwent a decrease in SUV with a complete resolution of abnormal uptake observed in 68%. Decrease in SUV was significantly greater for lymph nodes treated with ≥54 Gy compared to those treated with <54 Gy (P=.006). Median follow-up was 18.7 months. At 2 years, OS and DFS for the entire cohort were 78% and 50%, respectively. Locoregional control at 2 years was 84%. Conclusions: A biologic response, as measured by the change in SUV for metastatic lymph nodes, was observed at a dose threshold of 54 Gy. We recommend that involved lymph nodes be treated to this minimum dose.

  15. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Outlier identification in radiation therapy knowledge-based planning: A study of pelvic cases.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yang; Ge, Yaorong; Yuan, Lulin; Li, Taoran; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qingrong Jackie

    2017-09-04

    The purpose of this study was to apply statistical metrics to identify outliers and to investigate the impact of outliers on knowledge-based planning in radiation therapy of pelvic cases. We also aimed to develop a systematic workflow for identifying and analyzing geometric and dosimetric outliers. Four groups (G1-G4) of pelvic plans were sampled in this study. These include the following three groups of clinical IMRT cases: G1 (37 prostate cases), G2 (37 prostate plus lymph node cases) and G3 (37 prostate bed cases). Cases in G4 were planned in accordance with dynamic-arc radiation therapy procedure and include 10 prostate cases in addition to those from G1. The workflow was separated into two parts: 1. identifying geometric outliers, assessing outlier impact, and outlier cleaning; 2. identifying dosimetric outliers, assessing outlier impact, and outlier cleaning. G2 and G3 were used to analyze the effects of geometric outliers (first experiment outlined below) while G1 and G4 were used to analyze the effects of dosimetric outliers (second experiment outlined below). A baseline model was trained by regarding all G2 cases as inliers. G3 cases were then individually added to the baseline model as geometric outliers. The impact on the model was assessed by comparing leverages of inliers (G2) and outliers (G3). A receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal threshold. The experiment was repeated by training the baseline model with all G3 cases as inliers and perturbing the model with G2 cases as outliers. A separate baseline model was trained with 32 G1 cases. Each G4 case (dosimetric outlier) was subsequently added to perturb the model. Predictions of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were made using these perturbed models for the remaining 5 G1 cases. A Weighted Sum of Absolute Residuals (WSAR) was used to evaluate the impact of the dosimetric outliers. The leverage of inliers and outliers was significantly different. The

  17. Combined ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reliably detect pelvic lymph node metastases in normal-sized nodes of bladder and prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thoeny, Harriet C; Triantafyllou, Maria; Birkhaeuser, Frederic D; Froehlich, Johannes M; Tshering, Dechen W; Binser, Tobias; Fleischmann, Achim; Vermathen, Peter; Studer, Urs E

    2009-04-01

    Lymph node staging of bladder or prostate cancer using conventional imaging is limited. Newer approaches such as ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) have inconsistent diagnostic accuracy and are difficult to interpret. To assess whether combined USPIO and DW-MRI (USPIO-DW-MRI) improves staging of normal-sized lymph nodes in bladder and/or prostate cancer patients. Twenty-one consecutive patients with bladder and/or prostate cancer were enrolled between May and October 2008. One patient was excluded secondary to bone metastases detected on DW-MRI with subsequent abstention from surgery. Patients preoperatively underwent 3-T MRI before and after administration of lymphotropic USPIO using conventional MRI sequences combined with DW-MRI. Surgery consisted of extended pelvic lymphadenectomy and resection of primary tumors. Diagnostic accuracies of the new combined USPIO-DW-MRI approach compared with the "classic" reading method evaluating USPIO images without and with DW-MRI versus histopathology were evaluated. Duration of the two reading methods was noted for each patient. Diagnostic accuracy (90% per patient or per pelvic side) was comparable for the classic and the USPIO-DW-MRI reading method, while time of analysis with 80 min (range 45-180 min) for the classic and 13 min (range 5-90 min) for the USPIO-DW-MRI method was significantly shorter (p<0.0001). Interobserver agreement (three blinded readers) was high with a kappa value of 0.75 and 0.84, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed metastases in 26 of 802 analyzed lymph nodes (3.2%). Of these, 24 nodes (92%) were correctly diagnosed as positive on USPIO-DW-MRI. In two patients, one micrometastasis each (1.0x0.2 mm; 0.7x0.4 mm) was missed in all imaging studies. USPIO-DW-MRI is a fast and accurate method for detecting pelvic lymph node metastases, even in normal-sized nodes of bladder or prostate cancer patients.

  18. Material model of pelvic bone based on modal analysis: a study on the composite bone.

    PubMed

    Henyš, Petr; Čapek, Lukáš

    2017-02-01

    Digital models based on finite element (FE) analysis are widely used in orthopaedics to predict the stress or strain in the bone due to bone-implant interaction. The usability of the model depends strongly on the bone material description. The material model that is most commonly used is based on a constant Young's modulus or on the apparent density of bone obtained from computer tomography (CT) data. The Young's modulus of bone is described in many experimental works with large variations in the results. The concept of measuring and validating the material model of the pelvic bone based on modal analysis is introduced in this pilot study. The modal frequencies, damping, and shapes of the composite bone were measured precisely by an impact hammer at 239 points. An FE model was built using the data pertaining to the geometry and apparent density obtained from the CT of the composite bone. The isotropic homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the cortical and trabecular bone were estimated from the optimisation procedure including Gaussian statistical properties. The performance of the updated model was investigated through the sensitivity analysis of the natural frequencies with respect to the material parameters. The maximal error between the numerical and experimental natural frequencies of the bone reached 1.74 % in the first modal shape. Finally, the optimised parameters were matched with the data sheets of the composite bone. The maximal difference between the calibrated material properties and that obtained from the data sheet was 34 %. The optimisation scheme of the FE model based on the modal analysis data provides extremely useful calibration of the FE models with the uncertainty bounds and without the influence of the boundary conditions.

  19. [Study on the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse complicated with uterine myoma].

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Sakiko; Narushima, Masahiro; Kojima, Ippei; Takagi, Yasuharu; Shimoji, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between uterine myoma and recurrent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after transvaginal mesh (TVM) repair. Between June 2010 and January 2012, 103 female patients (mean age 67.8 years, mean parity 2.3, mean body mass index (BMI) 23.7) with POP underwent TVM procedures at our hospital. Sixtynine patients were qualified as stage 3 according to the POP quantification (POP-Q) system and 34 patients were stage 4. Twenty-six patients underwent anterior TVM (A-TVM) and 77 patients underwent anterior and posterior TVM (AP-TVM). All patients underwent a physical examination using the POP-Q system before and 6 month after surgery. Recurrence of prolapse was defined according to the International Continence Society by a measured value ≥ - 1, as most dependent portion of POP stage 2 or greater. One hundred-three patients were divided into group with uterine myoma larger than 5 cm in diameter and group without uterine myoma. Anatomical outcomes before and after TVM repair were compared between two groups. Preoperative Aa value, Ba value and gh value in group with uterine myoma were greater than in group without uterine myoma. Postoperative Aa value and Ba value in group with uterine myoma were greater than in group without uterine myoma, too. Postoperative recurrence of prolapse of stage 2 or greater was not found a statistical difference between two groups. The risks of anterior vaginal wall descent seem to be high in POP with uterine myoma. Therefore it should be kept in mind on treatment choice.

  20. The Risser sign for forensic age estimation in living individuals: a study of 643 pelvic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven; Heindel, Walter; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Vieth, Volker

    2013-03-01

    Due to increasing international migratory movements, forensic age estimations of living individuals in criminal proceedings are gaining increasing significance for forensic physicians and radiologists involved in delivering expert opinions. The present study examines the suitability of the radiologically well-known Risser sign grading as a possible new criterion in forensic age diagnostics. For this purpose, anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 643 patients aged between 10 and 30 years were retrospectively evaluated by means of two different Risser sign grading systems (US and French), each with 5 stages. The left and right sides of the pelvis were assessed separately. The data was analyzed with separation of the sexes. Reliable Risser sign determination was possible in 566 cases. In both sexes, stage 4 of both the US and the French grading systems was predominantly first noted at age 14 years. In the US grading system, stage 5 was also first achieved at age 14 years in the majority of both sexes. In the French grading system, females manifested stage 5 at a minimum of 16 years, whereas in males it was first observed at 17 years. As to the nature of iliac crest maturation, interesting deviations were observed at stages 1 and 5, raising doubts about Risser's ossification process. To conclude, both Risser sign grading systems are suitable for forensic age diagnostics, especially to determine whether the 14th year of life has been completed or not. The French Risser sign system additionally allows for statements as to the completion of the 16th year of age.

  1. Variations in pelvic dimensions do not predict the risk of circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Salerno, G; Daniels, I R; Brown, G; Norman, A R; Moran, B J; Heald, R J

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of preoperative pelvimetry, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in predicting the risk of an involved circumferential resection margin (CRM) in a group of patients with operable rectal cancer. A cohort of 186 patients from the MERCURY study was selected. These patients' histological CRM status was compared against 14 pelvimetry parameters measured from the preoperative MRI. These measurements were taken by one of the investigators (G.S.), who was blinded to the final CRM status. There was no correlation between the pelvimetry and the CRM status. However, there was a difference in the height of the rectal cancer and the positive CRM rate (p = 0.011). Of 61 patients with low rectal cancer, 10 had positive CRM at histology (16.4% with CI 8.2%-22.1%) compared with 5 of 110 patients with mid/upper rectal cancers (4.5% with CI 0.7%-8.4%). Magnetic resonance imaging can predict clear margins in most cases of rectal cancer. Circumferential resection margin positivity cannot be predicted from pelvimetry in patients with rectal cancer selected for curative surgery. The only predictive factor for a positive CRM in the patients studied was tumor height.

  2. Toll-like Receptor 4 and Comorbid Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510

  3. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Edilaine de Paula Batista; Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; Oliveira, Sheyla Guimaraes; Silva, Renata Luana da

    2016-08-15

    to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2) and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7) in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036) and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010), compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength. comparar a força muscular do assoalho pélvico em primíparas no pós-parto normal e cesariana, relacionando-a às características sociodemográficas, estado nutricional, incontinência urinária, dispareunia, exercício perineal na gestação, condição perineal e peso do recém-nascido. estudo transversal realizado entre 50 e 70 dias de pós-parto, com 24 primíparas submetidas à cesariana e 72 ao parto normal. Utilizou-se PeritronTM 9301 para análise da força muscular. Comparou-se as médias da força muscular entre os

  4. Omental transposition for low pelvic anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Topor, B; Acland, R D; Kolodko, V; Galandiuk, S

    2001-11-01

    Surgeons' opinions differ regarding the role of the omentum in low pelvic intestinal anastomoses. This study was undertaken to define the anatomy and surgical technique of omental transposition to the pelvis. We studied 45 cadavers to elucidate surgical aspects of omental mobilization, lengthening, and transposition into the pelvic cavity. In addition, intraoperative studies of omental transposition to the pelvis were performed in 20 patients with chronic ulcerative colitis, familial adenomatous polyposis, and rectal cancer who were undergoing ileal J-pouch anal anastomosis or low anterior resection. The most important anatomic variables for omental transposition are three variants of arterial blood supply: (1) In 56% of patients, there is one right, one (or two) middle, and one left omental artery. (2) In 26% of patients, the middle omental artery is absent. (3) In the remaining 18% of patients, the gastroepiploic artery is continued as a left omental artery but with various smaller connections to the right or middle omental artery. The first stage of omental lengthening is detachment of the omentum from the transverse colon mesentery. This must be performed carefully, as the omentum is closely adherent to the right transverse mesocolon. The second stage is the actual lengthening of the omentum. The third stage is placement of the omental flap into the pelvis. Creation of an omental pedicle is a simple surgical procedure. This procedure can be performed quickly, does not involve significant blood loss, and may reduce the frequency of complications after low pelvic anastomoses.

  5. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  6. Haemoglobin levels may predict toxicities in patients on pelvic chemoradiation for carcinoma of the cervix—experience of a regional cancer centre

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Aparna; Das, Joydeep; Nath, Partha; Biswas, Jaydip

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemoglobin levels and tissue oxygenation influence tumour outcome in carcinoma cervix radiotherapy. The clinical impact of haemoglobin levels on acute normal tissue toxicity during radiation and interaction with chemotherapy in carcinoma of the cervix is underexplored. This paper aims to explore this issue. Methods Treatment toxicity among 227 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix stages II B–IV A, receiving pelvic radiotherapy or chemoradiation at our institute, were studied prospectively. The baseline and weekly haemoglobin levels during treatment were recorded. Acute toxicities were recorded using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) criteria, version 4. For the analysis, patients were divided into two groups, depending on nadir haemoglobin levels. A cut-off value for anaemia was selected at 12 gm/dL. Toxicity was compared between anaemic and non-anaemic groups. Results Patients on chemoradiation and having haemoglobin levels >12 gm/dL suffered significantly higher dermatitis (two-tailed p value = 0.0288) and vaginal mucositis (two-tailed p value = 0.0187) of at least RTOG acute toxicity grade 2, compared with the anaemic group. In contrast patients receiving radiotherapy alone did not experience any significantly greater mucocutaneous toxicity if haemoglobin was >12 gm/dL. Anaemia had significantly greater impact on malaise and neutropenia (two-tailed p value <0.0001) of CTCAE grade 1 and above among chemoradiation patients, as opposed to those receiving radiotherapy alone (two-tailed p values = 0.0012 for neutropenia and 0.0422 for malaise). Conclusion Haemoglobin values >12 gm/dL significantly worsen acute mucocutaneous toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients receiving chemoradiation. Similar effects are not observed in the absence of chemotherapy. PMID:24963348

  7. Dose–volume analysis of predictors for chronic gastrointestinal complications in patients with cervical cancer treated with postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and whole-pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Mabuchi, Seiji; Akino, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Tamari, Keisuke; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Sawada, Kenjiro; Ueda, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sumida, Iori; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Okubo, Hirofumi; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dose–volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in patients with cervical cancer who have undergone postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). The subjects were 135 patients who had undergone postoperative WPRT with concurrent nedaplatin-based chemotherapy between 2000 and 2014. Associations between selected DVH parameters and the incidence of chronic GI complications of G3 or higher were evaluated. Chronic GI complications of severity G3 occurred in 18 (13%) patients. Patients with GI complications had significantly greater V5–V45, mean dose and the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of the small bowel loops, compared with those without GI complications. V30–V45, mean dose and gEUD of the bowel bag also showed significant differences between patients with and without GI complications. In contrast, no parameter for the large bowel loop was correlated with GI complications. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis indicated that V30–V45 of the small bowel loops were better predictors than these respective parameters for the bowel bag. Next, patients were divided into four groups based on the median V15 and V40 of the small bowel loops. The group with both a high V15 and a high V40 showed a significantly higher probability of chronic GI complications. In conclusion, the small bowel loops are better predictors of chronic GI complications compared with the bowel bag, and a relatively high-dose volume (e.g. V40) of the small bowel loops is a useful predictor of chronic GI complications. PMID:27342839

  8. Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Endometrial and Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Small, William Mell, Loren K.; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn M.S.; Mundt, Arno J.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an atlas of the clinical target volume (CTV) definitions for postoperative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group led an international collaberation of cooperative groups in the development of the atlas. The groups included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada, European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and American College of Radiology Imaging Network. The members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define the areas that were to be included in the CTV and to outline theses areas on individual computed tomography images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June 2005. Results: The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for postoperative therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of the vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node region. Conclusion: This report serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical cancer.

  9. CONSENSUS GUIDELINES FOR THE DELINEATION OF THE CLINICAL TARGET VOLUME FOR INTENSITY MODULATED PELVIC RADIOTHERAPY IN THE POSTOPERATIVE TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIAL AND CERVICAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Small, William; Mell, Loren K.; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn; Mundt, Arno J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To develop an atlas of the clinical target volumes (CTV) definitions for the post-operative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be utilized for planning pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) led an international collaberation of cooperative groups in development of the atlas. The groups included RTOG the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC), the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN). Members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define areas that were to be included in the CTV and were asked to outline theses areas on individual Computed Tomography (CT) images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June of 2005. RESULTS The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for the post-operative therapy of endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node-region. CONCLUSIONS This manuscript serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for the post-operative IMRT of endometrial and cervical cancer. PMID:18037584

  10. Consensus guidelines for delineation of clinical target volume for intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy in postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Small, William; Mell, Loren K; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn; Mundt, Arno J

    2008-06-01

    To develop an atlas of the clinical target volume (CTV) definitions for postoperative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group led an international collaboration of cooperative groups in the development of the atlas. The groups included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada, European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and American College of Radiology Imaging Network. The members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define the areas that were to be included in the CTV and to outline theses areas on individual computed tomography images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June 2005. The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for postoperative therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of the vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node region. This report serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical cancer.

  11. Presence of Mental Imagery Associated with Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Chantal; Vincent, Katy; Moore, Jane; Tracey, Irene; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether a small sample of patients with chronic pelvic pain experienced any pain-related cognitions in the form of mental images. Patients Ten women with chronic pelvic pain consecutively referred from a tertiary referral center by the physicians in charge of their treatment. Outcome measures An interview was used to determine the presence, emotional valence, content, and impact of cognitions about pain in the form of mental images and verbal thoughts. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed. Results In a population of patients with a prolonged duration of pain and high distress, all patients reported experiencing cognitions about pain in the form of mental images. For each patient, the most significant image was both negative in valence and intrusive. The associated emotional-behavioral pattern could be described within a cognitive behavioral therapy framework. Eight patients also reported coping imagery. Conclusion Negative pain-related cognitions in the form of intrusive mental imagery were reported by women with chronic pelvic pain. Targeting such imagery has led to interesting treatment innovation in the emotional disorders. Thus, imagery, hitherto neglected in pain phenomenology, could provide a novel target for cognitive behavioral therapy in chronic pain. These exciting yet preliminary results require replication and extension in a broader population of patients with chronic pain. PMID:21668746

  12. Less Invasive Endometrial Cancer Surgery with Extraperitoneal Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenectomy via a Small Midline Abdominal Incision and the Retroperitoneal Approach.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Takeya, Chiaki; Takahashi, Rena; Nagasaki, Sumito; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To achieve less invasive lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer patients, we performed extraperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy via a small midline abdominal incision with retroperitoneal approach. The feasibility and safety of this method were investigated. [Methods] Inclusion criteria were 1) endometrioid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by preoperative biopsy, 2) myometrial invasion by magnetic resonance imaging, and 3) no peritoneal dissemination or distant metastasis by computed tomography. Systematic extraperitoneal dissection of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes was performed via an approximately 12-cm midline lower abdominal incision, after which hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were done (extraperitoneal group). The historical control group was patients who underwent standard transperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The two groups were compared for demographic characteristics, perioperative factors, and complications. [Results] A total of 62 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinicopathological factors showed no differences between the extraperitoneal group (n = 34) and the historical control group (n = 28). The median number of pelvic (30 vs. 28) and para-aortic (14 vs. 17) nodes dissected was also similar. However, median intraoperative blood loss was significantly smaller in the extraperitoneal group than the control group (220 vs. 573 g). Median operating time (265 vs. 323.5 min), median laparotomy time (60 vs. 295 min), and median initial flatus time (8 vs. 32 hours) were all significantly shorter in the extraperitoneal group, while complications and severe postoperative pain were significantly less frequent. [Conclusions] Our new technique was feasible, safe, and less invasive than standard laparotomy. It is an alternative to laparoscope-assisted or robotic procedures.

  13. Less Invasive Endometrial Cancer Surgery with Extraperitoneal Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenectomy via a Small Midline Abdominal Incision and the Retroperitoneal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Takeya, Chiaki; Takahashi, Rena; Nagasaki, Sumito; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To achieve less invasive lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer patients, we performed extraperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy via a small midline abdominal incision with retroperitoneal approach. The feasibility and safety of this method were investigated. [Methods] Inclusion criteria were 1) endometrioid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by preoperative biopsy, 2) myometrial invasion by magnetic resonance imaging, and 3) no peritoneal dissemination or distant metastasis by computed tomography. Systematic extraperitoneal dissection of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes was performed via an approximately 12-cm midline lower abdominal incision, after which hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were done (extraperitoneal group). The historical control group was patients who underwent standard transperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The two groups were compared for demographic characteristics, perioperative factors, and complications. [Results] A total of 62 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinicopathological factors showed no differences between the extraperitoneal group (n = 34) and the historical control group (n = 28). The median number of pelvic (30 vs. 28) and para-aortic (14 vs. 17) nodes dissected was also similar. However, median intraoperative blood loss was significantly smaller in the extraperitoneal group than the control group (220 vs. 573 g). Median operating time (265 vs. 323.5 min), median laparotomy time (60 vs. 295 min), and median initial flatus time (8 vs. 32 hours) were all significantly shorter in the extraperitoneal group, while complications and severe postoperative pain were significantly less frequent. [Conclusions] Our new technique was feasible, safe, and less invasive than standard laparotomy. It is an alternative to laparoscope-assisted or robotic procedures. PMID:27313778

  14. Indications for Pelvic Nodal Treatment in Prostate Cancer Should Change. Validation of the Roach Formula in a Large Extended Nodal Dissection Series

    SciTech Connect

    Abdollah, Firas; Cozzarini, Cesare; Suardi, Nazareno; Gallina, Andrea; Capitanio, Umberto; Bianchi, Marco; Tutolo, Manuela; Salonia, Andrea; La Macchia, Mariangela; Di Muzio, Nadia; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have criticized the predicting ability of the Roach formula in assessing the risk of lymph node invasion (LNI) in contemporary patients with prostate cancer (PCa) due to a significant overestimation of LNI rates. However, all those studies included patients treated with limited pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), which is associated with high rates of false negative findings. We hypothesized that the Roach formula is still an accurate tool for LNI predictions if an extended PLND (ePLND) is performed. Methods and Materials: We included 3,115 consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy and ePLND between 2000 and 2010 at a single tertiary referral center. Extended PLND consisted of removal of obturator, external iliac, and hypogastric lymph nodes. We externally validated the Roach formula by using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and calibration plot method. Moreover, we tested the performance characteristics of different formula-generated cutoff values ranging from 1% to 20%. Results: The accuracy of the Roach formula was 80.3%. The calibration showed only a minor underestimation of the LNI risk in high-risk patients (6.7%). According to the Roach formula, the use of 15% cut off would have allowed 74.2% (2,311/3,115) of patients to avoid nodal irradiation, while up to 32.7% (111/336) of all patients with LNI would have been missed. When the cut off was lowered to 6%, nodal treatment would have been spared in 1,541 (49.5%) patients while missing 41 LNI patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values associated with the 6% cut off were 87.9%, 54%, and 97.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The Roach formula is still accurate and does not overestimate the rate of LNI in contemporary prostate cancer patients if they are treated with ePLND. However, the recommended cut off of 15% would miss approximately one-third of patients with LNI. Based on our results, the cut off should be lowered to

  15. Treatment of Unstable Posterior Pelvic Ring Fracture with Pedicle Screw-Rod Fixator Versus Locking Compression Plate: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Chun; Wang, Qiugen; Nagelli, Christopher; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the clinical results of treatment for unstable posterior pelvic fractures using a pedicle screw-rod fixator compared to use of a locking compression plate. Material/Methods A retrospective study was performed between June 2010 and May 2014 and the data were collected from 46 patients with unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures. All patients were treated using either a pedicle screw-rod fixator (study group, 24 patients) or locking compression plate (control group, 22 patients). In these patients, causes of injury included traffic accidents (n=27), fall from height (n=12), and crushing accidents (n=7). The quality of reduction and radiological grading were assessed. Clinical assessments included the operation time, times of X-ray exposures, bleeding volume during operation, incision length, and Majeed postoperative functional evaluation. Results No iatrogenic neurovascular injuries occurred during the operations in these 2 groups. The average follow-up time was 24.5 months. All fractures were healed. The significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 groups were operation duration, size of incision, and intraoperative bleeding volume. Statistically significant differences in the Majeed postoperative functional evaluation and times of X-ray exposures were not found between the 2 groups. Conclusions Similar clinical effects were achieved in treating the posterior pelvic ring fractures using the pedicle screw-rod fixator and the locking compression plate. However, the pedicle screw-rod fixator has the advantages of smaller incision, shorter duration of the operation, and less bleeding volume compared to using the locking compression plate. PMID:27748355

  16. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Methods/Design Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders - federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces) will be included. Ethics - beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics - scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs. For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. Discussion The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing recommendations for regulatory bodies

  17. Palliation of advanced pelvic malignant disease with large fraction pelvic radiation and misonidazole: final report of RTOG phase I/II study

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, W.J. Jr.; Wasserman, T.; Meoz, R.; Sala, J.; Kong, J.; Stetz, J.

    1987-10-01

    Between October 1979 and June 1982 forty-six patients were entered on a non-randomized Phase I-II protocol for the evaluation of Misonidazole combined with high dose per fraction radiation for the treatment of advanced pelvic malignancies. Pelvic radiation consisted of 1000 cGy in one fraction repeated at 4-week intervals for a total of three treatments. Oral Misonidazole at a dose of 4 gm/m2 was administered 4-6 hr prior to radiation (total dose 12 g/m2). The distribution of histology consisted of 20 gynecologic, 24 bowel, and 2 prostate malignancies. Of the thirty-seven patients completing the three treatments; there were 6 complete responses (14% CR), 10 partial responses (27% PR) 19 minimal or no response (32% NR), and 4 unevaluable. One patient remains NED 5.5 years following radiation. Toxicity directly related to Misonidazole was minimal and consisted primarily of transcient Grade 1, 2 peripheral neuropathy (20% Grade 1, 4% Grade 2) and Grade 2 ototoxicity (4%). Radiation toxicity was significant for late bowel damage. There were 4 (11%) Grade 3 and 7 (19%) Grade 4 gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities. Kaplan-Meier plot of GI toxicity showed a progressive increase in incidence with time for projected rate of 49% Grade 3, 4 by 12-month. GI toxicity (Grade 3, 4) was also related to tumor response. The complication rate was 80% (4/6) for CR, 30% (3/10) for PR and 26% (5/19) for NR or progression. Because of the GI complication rate, this protocol for palliation of advanced pelvic malignancies has been replaced by a protocol that uses 4 fractions over 2 days (b.i.d.) of 370 cGy per fraction repeated at 3-week intervals for a total of 3 courses.

  18. The potential role of infectious agents and pelvic inflammatory disease in ovarian carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Hogdall, Estrid; Schnack, Tine Henrichsen; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech; Hogdall, Claus; Blaakaer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The etiological cause of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. It has been theorized that bacterial or viral infection as well as pelvic inflammatory disease could play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis. To review the literature on studies examining the association between ovarian cancer and bacterial or viral infection or pelvic inflammatory disease. Database search through MEDLINE, applying the medical subject headings: "Ovarian neoplasms", AND "Chlamydia infections", "Neisseria gonorrhoeae", "Mycoplasma genitalium", "Papillomaviridae", or "pelvic inflammatory disease". Corresponding searches were performed in EMBASE, and Web of Science. The literature search identified 935 articles of which 40 were eligible for inclusion in this review. Seven studies examined the association between bacterial infection and ovarian cancer. A single study found a significant association between chlamydial infection and ovarian cancer, while another study identified Mycoplasma genitalium in a large proportion of ovarian cancer cases. The remaining studies found no association. Human papillomavirus detection rates varied from 0 to 67% and were generally higher in the Asian studies than in studies from Western countries. Cytomegalovirus was the only other virus to be detected and was found in 50% of cases in a case-control study. The association between ovarian cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease was examined in seven epidemiological studies, two of which, reported a statistically significant association. Data indicate a potential association between pelvic inflammatory disease and ovarian cancer. An association between ovarian cancer and high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes may exist in Asia, whereas an association in Western countries seems unlikely due to the low reported prevalence. Potential carcinogenic bacteria were found, but results were inconsistent, and further research is warranted.

  19. Relationship between aerobic capacity and pelvic floor muscles function: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, S.P.; Borghi-Silva, A.; Bastos, A.M.F.G.; Correia, G.N.; Pereira-Baldon, V.S.; Cabiddu, R.; Catai, A.M.; Driusso, P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aerobic capacity and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) function in adult women. Women aged 18 or over and without urinary dysfunction or other chronic diseases were eligible to participate. They completed the habitual physical activity (HPA) questionnaire, underwent a PFM functional evaluation by palpation and perineometry, and performed a submaximal (between 75 and 85% of maximum heart rate) cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test to determine the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT). Forty-one women were included (35±16 years, 75% physically active, 17% very active, and 8% sedentary and 17% presented grade 1 PFM contraction, 31.8% grade 2, 26.8% grade 3, and 24.4% grade 4, according to the modified Oxford Scale). The average PFM contraction pressure obtained by perineometer was 53±26 cmH2O and the average oxygen consumption at VAT (VO2VAT) obtained from CPX was 14±2 mL·kg-1·min-1. Significant correlations were found between PFM contraction pressure and VO2VAT (r=0.55; P<0.001); between PFM contraction pressure and HPA score (r=0.38; P=0.02); between age and VO2VAT (r=-0.25; P=0.049); and between VO2VAT and HPA score (r=0.36; P=0.02). An age-adjusted multiple linear regression equation (R2=0.32) was derived to estimate VO2VAT from the contraction value obtained by perineometer, so that the PFM contraction pressure was able to predict VO2VAT. The equation was validated using data from another group of 20 healthy women (33±12 years; PFM contraction: 49±23 cmH2O) and no significant difference was found between actual VO2VAT and predicted VO2VAT (13.1±1.9 vs 13.8±2.0 mL·kg-1·min-1). In conclusion, PFM function is associated with aerobic capacity in healthy women and PFM contraction pressure may be used to estimate VO2VAT in this population. PMID:28953985

  20. Relationship between aerobic capacity and pelvic floor muscles function: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, S P; Borghi-Silva, A; Bastos, A M F G; Correia, G N; Pereira-Baldon, V S; Cabiddu, R; Catai, A M; Driusso, P

    2017-09-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aerobic capacity and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) function in adult women. Women aged 18 or over and without urinary dysfunction or other chronic diseases were eligible to participate. They completed the habitual physical activity (HPA) questionnaire, underwent a PFM functional evaluation by palpation and perineometry, and performed a submaximal (between 75 and 85% of maximum heart rate) cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test to determine the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT). Forty-one women were included (35±16 years, 75% physically active, 17% very active, and 8% sedentary and 17% presented grade 1 PFM contraction, 31.8% grade 2, 26.8% grade 3, and 24.4% grade 4, according to the modified Oxford Scale). The average PFM contraction pressure obtained by perineometer was 53±26 cmH2O and the average oxygen consumption at VAT (VO2VAT) obtained from CPX was 14±2 mL·kg-1·min-1. Significant correlations were found between PFM contraction pressure and VO2VAT (r=0.55; P<0.001); between PFM contraction pressure and HPA score (r=0.38; P=0.02); between age and VO2VAT (r=-0.25; P=0.049); and between VO2VAT and HPA score (r=0.36; P=0.02). An age-adjusted multiple linear regression equation (R2=0.32) was derived to estimate VO2VAT from the contraction value obtained by perineometer, so that the PFM contraction pressure was able to predict VO2VAT. The equation was validated using data from another group of 20 healthy women (33±12 years; PFM contraction: 49±23 cmH2O) and no significant difference was found between actual VO2VAT and predicted VO2VAT (13.1±1.9 vs 13.8±2.0 mL·kg-1·min-1). In conclusion, PFM function is associated with aerobic capacity in healthy women and PFM contraction pressure may be used to estimate VO2VAT in this population.

  1. Pelvic floor muscle reflex activity during coughing - an exploratory and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Luginbuehl, Helena; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Annette; Christen, Regula; Oberli, Bettina; Eichelberger, Patric; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-12-01

    Activities that provoke stress urinary incontinence (SUI) rapidly increase the intra-abdominal pressure and the impact loading on the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs). Coughing can cause urinary leakage and is often used to test SUI. However, PFM characteristics during coughing, including their reliability, have not been investigated. Here, we used electromyography (EMG) to describe PFM pre-activity and reflexivity during coughing and examined the reliability of the measurements. This was an exploratory and reliability study including 11 young healthy women to characterize EMG reflex activity in PFMs during coughing. We describe 6 variables, averaged over 3 coughs per subject, and tested their reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 3,1 [ICC(3,1)] and ICC(3,k), related standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal difference [MD]). The variables represented the mean EMG activity for PFMs during 30-ms time intervals of pre-activity (initial time point of coughing [T0] and minus 30ms) and reflex activity (T0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120 and 120-150ms after T0) of stretch-reflex latency responses. The mean %EMG (normalized to maximal voluntary PFM contraction) for EMG variables was 35.1 to 52.2 and was significantly higher during coughing than for PFM activity at rest (mean 24.9±3.7%EMG; P<0.05). ICC(3,k) ranged from 0.67 to 0.91 (SEM 6.1-13.3%EMG and MD 16.7-36.8%EMG) and was higher than ICC(3,1) (range 0.40-0.77; SEM 9.0-18.0%EMG, MD 24.9-50.0%EMG). PFM activity during reflex latency response time intervals during coughing was significantly higher than at rest, which suggests PFM pre-activity and reflex activity during coughing. Although we standardized coughing, EMG variables for PFM activity showed poor reliability [good to excellent ICC(3,k) and fair to excellent ICC(3,1) but high SEM and MD]. Therefore, coughing is expected to be heterogeneous, with low reliability, in clinical test situations. Potential crosstalk from other muscles involved in coughing could

  2. [Feasibility study of transplantation of penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion in renal subserous region].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y D; Guan, R L; Wu, Y Y; Lei, H E; Yang, B C; Li, H X; Wang, L; Guo, Y L; Xin, Z C

    2016-02-18

    To study the feasibility of transplantation of normal rat penile corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) into the renal subserous region of a Nu/Nu mouse based on allograft technology. Penile corpus cavernosum and MPG, harvested from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under sterile condition, were transplanted underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice through the microsurgery instruments and surgery microscope. The histopathologic changes and cellular proliferation in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG were then analyzed at the end of 1week and 4 weeks after transplantation. Histological staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the main outcome measures. After 1 week, the tissue morphology of the transplanted corpus cavernosum underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice was consistent with normal penile corpus cavernosum, and blood could be observed in the penis cavernous sinus of the graft; after 4 weeks, the mophorlogy of the tranplanted corpus cavernosum near the kidney was consistent with normal penile corpus cavernosum, while fibrosis was noteworthy in the graft away from the kidney, but blood could still be seen in the penis cavernous sinus. After 1 week, the tissue morphology of the transplanted MPG was consistent with normal MPG, multiple islet-like cell clusters could be seen in the transplanted MPG in the renal subserous region, and angiogenesis could be observed near the kidney; after 4 weeks, a network of blood vessels was clearly visible away from the kidney, and islet-like cell clusters were still clearly observed in the transplanted MPG. In addition, ki67 positive cells were observed in the transplanted penile corpus cavernosum and MPG after 4 weeks of transplantation, which indicated that there was still cell proliferation activity in the grafts. The transplanted corpus cavernosum and MPG underneath the kidney capsule of Nu/Nu mice could survive at least 4 weeks. Moreover, the inner structure of the

  3. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study 1

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Edilaine de Paula Batista; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; Oliveira, Sheyla Guimaraes; da Silva, Renata Luana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. Results: the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2) and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7) in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036) and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010), compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. Conclusion: pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength. PMID:27533267

  4. Ectopic Pelvic Kidney Mimicking Sacral Metastasis on Post-Therapy Iodine-131 Scan of a Thyroid Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Soyluoğlu Demir, Selin; Ege Aktaş, Gül; Polat, Ahmet; Sarıkaya, Ali

    2017-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman had total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 ablation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Whole body imaging on the 7th day of therapeutic activity demonstrated radioiodine uptake in the remnant tissue and intense heterogeneous uptake at the sacral region prominently in the posterior image. Initial interpretation was suspicious for sacral metastasis. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scan demonstrated normal bone uptake and the absence of left kidney. On blood-pool phase of bone scan, the absence of left renal activity and an extra area of uptake in the sacral region suggestive of pelvic kidney were noticed. Magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed the ectopic pelvic kidney overlying the sacrum. PMID:28291010

  5. Patient-specific instrument can achieve same accuracy with less resection time than navigation assistance in periacetabular pelvic tumor surgery: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwok-Chuen; Sze, Kwan-Yik; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Wong, Chung-Ming; Kumta, Shekhar-Madhukar

    2016-02-01

    Inaccurate resection in pelvic tumors can result in compromised margins with increase local recurrence. Navigation-assisted and patient-specific instrument (PSI) techniques have recently been reported in assisting pelvic tumor surgery with the tendency of improving surgical accuracy. We examined and compared the accuracy of transferring a virtual pelvic resection plan to actual surgery using navigation-assisted or PSI technique in a cadaver study. We performed CT scan in twelve cadaveric bodies including whole pelvic bones. Either supraacetabular or partial acetabular resection was virtually planned in a hemipelvis using engineering software. The virtual resection plan was transferred to a CT-based navigation system or was used for design and fabrication of PSI. Pelvic resections were performed using navigation assistance in six cadavers and PSI in another six. Post-resection images were co-registered with preoperative planning for comparative analysis of resection accuracy in the two techniques. The mean average deviation error from the planned resection was no different ([Formula: see text]) for the navigation and the PSI groups: 1.9 versus 1.4 mm, respectively. The mean time required for the bone resection was greater ([Formula: see text]) for the navigation group than for the PSI group: 16.2 versus 1.1 min, respectively. In simulated periacetabular pelvic tumor resections, PSI technique enabled surgeons to reproduce the virtual surgical plan with similar accuracy but with less bone resection time when compared with navigation assistance. Further studies are required to investigate the clinical benefits of PSI technique in pelvic tumor surgery.

  6. Regional interdependence of the hip and lumbo-pelvic region in divison ii collegiate level baseball pitchers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Kathryn Kumagai; Cheatham, Scott; Chung, Wendy; Farwell, Daniel; De la Cruz, Francisco; Goetz, Jennifer; Lindblom, Kaleigh; Powers, Darcy

    2015-02-01

    Pitchers may be at greater risk of injury in comparison to other overhead throwing athletes due to the repetition of the pitching motion. It has been reported that approximately 30% of all baseball injuries occur in the lower body. This may be related to limited hip mobility, which can compromise pitching biomechanics while placing excessive stress on the trunk and upper quarter. Hip motion and strength measurements have been reported in professional baseball pitchers but have not been reported in collegiate pitchers. The purpose of this study was to report preliminary findings for passive hip motion and isometric hip muscle strength in collegiate pitchers and compare them to previously published values for professional level pitchers. Cross sectional study. Twenty-nine collegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.0 + 1.4 years, height = 1.88 + 0.06 m; weight = 89.3 + 10.7 kg; body mass index = 25.3 + 2.5 kg/m2) were recruited. Subjects were assessed for hip internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) passive motion, hip anteversion or retroversion, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, hip internal rotator, hip external rotator strength, and lumbo-pelvic control with the prone active hip rotation test as described by Sahrmann. Statistical analysis included calculation of subject demographics (means and SD) and use of a two-tailed t-test (p >0.05). Fifty-two percent of the right-handed and 50% of the left-handed pitchers demonstrated poor lumbo-pelvic motor control with an inability to stabilize during active hip IR and ER even though isolated strength deficits were not detected at a significant level. There were no significant differences in hip passive motion or gluteus medius strength between right and left-handed pitchers. Differences did exist between collegiate data and previously published values for professional pitchers for IR motion measured in prone and gluteus maximus strength. Hip retroversion was present in 55% of the pitchers primarily in both limbs with

  7. Development of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Module to Assess the Quality of Life of Patients With Proctitis After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Spry, Nigel; Halkett, Georgia Aoun, Samar; Spry, Jane; Yeoh, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a proctitis-specific quality-of-life module to supplement the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: The module was developed according to EORTC guidelines, which consisted of an extensive literature review to identify previously described issues and interviews conducted with seven health professionals and 10 patients to rationalize the item list for construction into a provisional module. The module developed was then pretested with 28 patients and five health professionals. Results: The final module contains 21-items that are suitable to obtain information about the patients' quality of life after high-dose pelvic irradiation. The questionnaire has now been translated into four languages and commenced field testing in late 2007. Conclusions: The EORTC QLQ-C30, supplemented by EORTC QLQ-PRT21, will enable health professionals to more accurately monitor the side effects that patients experience after pelvic irradiation.

  8. Pelvic congestion syndrome and pelvic varicosities.

    PubMed

    Koo, Sonya; Fan, Chieh-Min

    2014-06-01

    Pelvic venous insufficiency (PVI), defined as retrograde flow in the gonadal and internal iliac veins, is the underlying cause of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), a common cause of disabling chronic pelvic pain in women of child-bearing age. PCS is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by positional pelvic pain that is worse in the upright position and is associated with pelvic and vulvar varicosities as well as symptoms of dyspareunia and postcoital pain. Through collaterals to the lower extremity venous system, PVI may also contribute to varicose vein formation and recurrence in the lower extremities. Endovascular embolization of the ovarian and internal iliac veins has become the treatment of choice for PVI and PCS. This article reviews the pelvic retroperitoneal venous anatomy, pathophysiology of PCS, treatment options and techniques, and clinical outcomes of embolotherapy for PCS.

  9. A Comparative Study of Whole Body Vibration Training and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Women's Stress Urinary Incontinence: Three- Month Follow- Up

    PubMed Central

    Farzinmehr, Azizeh; Moezy, Azar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Kashanian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Whole Body Vibration Training (WBVT) is effective at improving pelvic floor muscles strength in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). Materials and methods: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. 43 women with SUI were randomly assigned in two groups; WBVT and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT) and received interventions for four weeks. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, quality of life and incontinence intensity were evaluated. All measurements were conducted pre and post intervention and also after 3 months in all participants. The ANOVA and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between the groups. Results: This study showed the WBVT protocol in this study was effective in pelvic floor muscles strength similar to PFMT, and also in reducing the severity of incontinence and increasing I-QOL questionnaire score. We found significant differences in each group pre and post intervention (p = 0.0001); but no significant difference in comparison of two groups' outcomes. Also after three-month follow up, there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in improving pelvic floor muscles strength and quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence in four-week treatment period and after three months follow up. PMID:27047560

  10. Changes in Pelvic Incidence, Pelvic Tilt, and Sacral Slope in Situations of Pelvic Rotation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai-Ming; Xu, Dao-Liang; Xuan, Jun; Chen, Jiao-Xiang; Chen, Kai; Goswami, Amit; Chen, Yu; Kong, Qiu-Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-08-01

    Digitally reconstructed radiograph-based study. Using a computer-based method to determine what degree of pelvic rotation is acceptable for measuring the pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS). The effectiveness of a geometrical formula used to calculate the angle of pelvic rotation proposed in a previous article was assessed. It is unclear whether PI, PT, and SS are valid with pelvic rotation while acquiring a radiograph. Ten 3-dimensionally reconstructed models were established with software and placed in a neutral orientation to orient all of the bones in a standing position. Next, 140 digitally reconstructed radiographs were obtained by rotating the models around the longitudinal axis of each pelvis in the software from 0 to 30 degrees at 2.5-degree intervals. PI, PT, and SS were measured. The rotation angle was considered to be acceptable when the change in the measured angle (compared with the "correct" position) was <6 degrees. The rotation angle (α) on the images was calculated by a geometrical formula. Consistency between the measured value and the set angle was assessed. The acceptable maximum angle of rotation for reliable measurements of PI was 17.5 degrees, and the changes in PT and SS were within an acceptable range (<6 degrees) when the pelvic rotation increased from 0 to 30 degrees. The effectiveness of the geometrical formula was shown by the consistency between the set and the calculated rotation angles of the pelvis (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.99). Our study provides insight into the influence of pelvic rotation on the PI, PT, and SS. PI changes with pelvic rotation. The acceptable maximum angle for reliable values of PI, PT, and SS was 17.5 degrees, and the rotation angle of the pelvis on a lateral spinopelvic radiograph can be calculated reliably.

  11. Cancers Selected for Study - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas researchers are mapping the genetic changes in 33 cancers. Find out which cancers have been selected for study, the criteria for selection and the scientific questions being asked about each cancer.

  12. Bone Health and Pelvic Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Higham, C E; Faithfull, S

    2015-11-01

    Survivors who have received pelvic radiotherapy make up many of the long-term cancer population, with therapies for gynaecological, bowel, bladder and prostate malignancies. Individuals who receive radiotherapy to the pelvis as part of their cancer treatment are at risk of insufficiency fractures. Symptoms of insufficiency fractures include pelvic and back pain and immobility, which can affect substantially quality of life. This constellation of symptoms can occur within 2 months of radiotherapy up to 63 months post-treatment, with a median incidence of 6-20 months. As a condition it is under reported and evidence is poor as to the contributing risk factors, causation and best management to improve the patient's bone health and mobility. As radiotherapy advances, chronic symptoms, such as insufficiency fractures, as a consequence of treatment need to be better understood and reviewed. This overview explores the current evidence for the effect of radiotherapy on bone health and insufficiency fractures and identifies what we know and where gaps in our knowledge lie. The overview concludes with the need to take seriously complaints of pelvic pain from patients after pelvic radiotherapy and to investigate and manage these symptoms more effectively. There is a clear need for definitive research in this field to provide the evidence-based guidance much needed in practice.

  13. Preliminary report of a new treatment strategy for advanced pelvic malignancy: surgical resection and radiation therapy using afterloading catheters plus an inflatable displacement prosthesis in the treatment of advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, H.D.; Hancock, S.; Coe, F.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.

    1986-09-01

    An unsolved problem in colon and rectal surgery involves the treatment of locally invasive primary and recurrent rectal cancer. An approach is described that uses intracavitary iridium-192 sources in combination with a pelvic displacement prosthesis to augment external beam radiation doses to sites of residual disease identified at surgery. This approach should permit administration of tumoricidal doses of radiation to positive surgical margins minimizing radiation toxicity to the small bowel. The radiation source and all prosthetic materials are removed at the bedside within 2 weeks of surgery, ensuring accurate radiation dosimetry, minimizing infectious complications, and sparing the patient the need for full high-dose pelvic irradiation.

  14. Pelvic Fasciae in Urology

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, B; Cahill, D

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite the vast literature on pelvic fascia, there is confusion over the periprostatic structures and their nomenclature, including their orientation, the neurovascular bundles and the existence of the prostatic ‘capsule’. In this review, we seek to clarify some of these issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS Review of published medical literature relating to the anatomy of the pelvic fascia including a Pubmed search using the terms – pelvic fascia, Denonvilliers' fascia, prostate capsule, neurovascular bundle of Walsh, pubo-prostatic ligament and the detrusor apron. CONCLUSIONS The findings of the study were as follows: The ‘capsule’ of the prostate does not exist. Rather, the fibromuscular band surrounding the prostate forms an integral part of the gland.The prostate is surrounded by fascial structures – anteriorly/anterolaterally by the prostatic fascia and posteriorly by the Denonvilliers' fascia. Laterally, the prostatic fascia merges with the endopelvic fascia.The posterior longitudinal fascia of the detrusor comprises a ‘posterior layer’ of the detrusor apron, extending from the bladder neck to the prostate base.The neurovascular structures tend to be located posterolaterally, but may not always form a bundle. A significant proportion of fibres may lie away from the main nerve structures, along the lateral/posterior aspects of the prostate. PMID:18828961

  15. Pelvic inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by infection of the upper female genital tract and is often asymptomatic. Pelvic inflammatory disease is the most common gynaecological reason for admission to hospital in the USA and is diagnosed in almost 2% of women aged 16 to 45 years consulting their GP in England and Wales. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment compared with treatment delayed until the results of microbiological investigations are known? How do different antimicrobial regimens compare? What are the effects of routine antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease before intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) insertion? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (oral, parenteral, empirical treatment, treatment guided by test results, different durations, outpatient, inpatient), and routine antibiotic prophylaxis (before intrauterine device insertion in women at high risk or low risk). PMID:19450319

  16. Effects of thoraco-pelvic supports during prone position in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a physiological study

    PubMed Central

    Chiumello, Davide; Cressoni, Massimo; Racagni, Milena; Landi, Laura; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Polli, Federico; Carlesso, Eleonora; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study sought to assess whether the use of thoraco-pelvic supports during prone positioning in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) improves, deteriorates or leaves unmodified gas exchange, hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics. Methods We studied 11 patients with ALI/ARDS, sedated and paralyzed, mechanically ventilated in volume control ventilation. Prone positioning with or without thoraco-pelvic supports was applied in a random sequence and maintained for a 1-hour period without changing the ventilation setting. In four healthy subjects the pressures between the body and the contact surface were measured with and without thoraco-pelvic supports. Oxygenation variables (arterial and central venous), physiologic dead space, end-expiratory lung volume (helium dilution technique) and respiratory mechanics (partitioned between lung and chest wall) were measured after 60 minutes in each condition. Results With thoraco-pelvic supports, the contact pressures almost doubled in comparison with those measured without supports (19.1 ± 15.2 versus 10.8 ± 7.0 cmH2O, p ≤ 0.05; means ± SD). The oxygenation-related variables were not different in the prone position, with or without thoraco-pelvic supports; neither were the CO2-related variables. The lung volumes were similar in the prone position with and without thoraco-pelvic supports. The use of thoraco-pelvic supports, however, did lead to a significant decrease in chest wall compliance from 158.1 ± 77.8 to 102.5 ± 38.0 ml/cmH2O and a significantly increased pleural pressure from 4.3 ± 1.9 to 6.1 ± 1.8 cmH2O, in comparison with the prone position without supports. Moreover, when thoraco-pelvic supports were added, heart rate increased significantly from 82.1 ± 17.9 to 86.7 ± 16.7 beats/minute and stroke volume index decreased significantly from 37.8 ± 6.8 to 34.9 ± 5.4 ml/m2. The increase in pleural pressure change was associated with a significant

  17. The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul, M A; Shittu, S O; Randawa, J A; Shehu, M S

    2009-09-01

    Cancer of the cervix is the commonest malignancy of the genital tract in Nigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. To determine cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and investigate the potential of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease as a risk factor to cervical dysplasia. Case-control study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty-nine premenopausal women attending the gynaecologic and family planning clinics of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Nigeria from January to December 2000. Of the 369 women that had cervical cytology by Pap smear, 163 (44%) had chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (cases) while 206 (56%) were non chronic PID patients (control). There was no statistical significance in the mean age between the two groups. The mean age at first coitus and marriage of all the women were 17.92.7 years and 18.5 3.4 years respectively. There were 52 dysplastic smears encountered, giving a prevalence rate of 140/1,000 or 14% for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. There were higher cases of dysplasia in the chronic PID group than in the control and this differences was statistically significant (p<0.05). Other risk factors to dysplasia identified include high parity (>4) and age of first coitus less than 20 years. Only 10% of all the women screened were aware of both cervical cancer and Pap smear. Women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease are probably at higher risk of developing cervical dysplasia than women without chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Cervical cancer screening programmes should be intensified in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease patients. However, further studies are needed in our setting to verify the association between pelvic inflammatory disease and

  18. Hematologic Toxicity in RTOG 0418: A Phase 2 Study of Postoperative IMRT for Gynecologic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klopp, Ann H.; Moughan, Jennifer; Portelance, Lorraine; Miller, Brigitte E.; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Hildebrandt, Evangeline; Nuanjing, Jenny; D'Souza, David; Souhami, Luis; Small, William; Gaur, Rakesh; Jhingran, Anuja

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), compared with conventional 4-field treatment, can reduce the volume of bone marrow irradiated. Pelvic bone marrow sparing has produced a clinically significant reduction in hematologic toxicity (HT). This analysis investigated HT in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0418, a prospective study to test the feasibility of delivering postoperative IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancer in a multiinstitutional setting. Methods and Materials: Patients in the RTOG 0418 study were treated with postoperative IMRT to 50.4 Gy to the pelvic lymphatics and vagina. Endometrial cancer patients received IMRT alone, whereas patients with cervical cancer received IMRT and weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}). Pelvic bone marrow was defined within the treatment field by using a computed tomography density-based autocontouring algorithm. The volume of bone marrow receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy and the median dose to bone marrow were correlated with HT, graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, criteria. Results: Eighty-three patients were eligible for analysis (43 with endometrial cancer and 40 with cervical cancer). Patients with cervical cancer treated with weekly cisplatin and pelvic IMRT had grades 1-5 HT (23%, 33%, 25%, 0%, and 0% of patients, respectively). Among patients with cervical cancer, 83% received 5 or more cycles of cisplatin, and 90% received at least 4 cycles of cisplatin. The median percentage volume of bone marrow receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy in all 83 patients, respectively, was 96%, 84%, 61%, and 37%. Among cervical cancer patients with a V40 >37%, 75% had grade 2 or higher HT compared with 40% of patients with a V40 less than or equal to 37% (P =.025). Cervical cancer patients with a median bone marrow dose of >34.2 Gy also had higher rates of grade ≥2 HT than did those with a dose of ≤34.2 Gy (74% vs 43%, P=.049). Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT with weekly cisplatin is

  19. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    The pelvic floor is a group of muscles and other tissues that form a sling or hammock across the pelvis. ... place so that they can work properly. The pelvic floor can become weak or be injured. The main ...

  20. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and layers of connective tissue, which are called fascia, become weakened, stretched, or are torn the pelvic ... delivery) can cause injury to the muscles or fascia of the pelvic floor. The increased pressure of ...

  1. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat chronic pelvic pain. They include medications, physical therapy, nutritional therapy, and surgery: Lifestyle changes—Good posture ... are helpful in relieving pelvic pain, especially dysmenorrhea . Physical therapy—Acupuncture, acupressure, and nerve stimulation therapies may be ...

  2. A preliminary report of musculoskeletal dysfunction in female chronic pelvic pain: a blinded study of examination findings.

    PubMed

    Neville, Cynthia E; Fitzgerald, Colleen M; Mallinson, Trudy; Badillo, Suzanne; Hynes, Christina; Tu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Female chronic pelvic pain is prevalent and causes disability. Can women with self-reported chronic pelvic pain (CPP) be distinguished from pain-free women by demonstrating a greater number of abnormal musculoskeletal findings on examination? In this cross-sectional study, blinded examiners performed 9 physical exam maneuvers on 48 participants; 19 with CPP, and 29 pain-free. Frequency of positive findings between groups, total number of positive exam findings, cluster analysis, and sensitivity - specificity analyses were performed. Women with CPP presented with significantly more abnormal findings than pain-free women. By using two examination maneuvers, examiners correctly classified women with self-reported CPP from pain-free women 85% of the time. Abnormal findings on musculoskeletal exam are more common in women with self-reported CPP. Women with CPP might benefit from a faster time to diagnosis and improved treatment outcomes if a musculoskeletal contribution to CPP was identified earlier. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A retrospective study of the effects of pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix on gastrointestinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, E.; Ahmad, A.; Horowitz, M.; Russo, A.; Muecke, T.; Chatterton, B. ); Robb, T. )

    1993-03-20

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of disordered gastrointestinal function following therapeutic irradiation. Gastrointestinal function was evaluated in 30 randomly selected patients who had received pelvic irradiation for treatment of carcinoma of the cervix between 1 and 6 years previously. Each patient underwent evaluations of (a) gastrointestinal symptoms (b) absorption of bile acid, vitamin B12, lactose and fat (c) gastrointestinal transit: gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and whole gut transit and (d) intestinal permeability. Results were compared with those obtained in 18 normal volunteers. Stool frequency was above the control range in five patients and had increased (p < 0.001) since radiotherapy treatment. Bile acid (p<0.001) vitamin B12(p<0.01) and lactose (p<0.01) absorption were less in the patients when compared with the control subjects. Bile acid adsorption was below the control range in 14 of the 30 patients. Dietary calcium intake was lower (p<0.05) in those patients with lactose malabsorption. Gastric emptying (p<0.01) and small intestinal transit (p<0.01) were more rapid in the patients. Both small intestinal (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and whole gut (r=-0.45) transit were inversely related to stool frequency. Either bowel frequency, bile acid adsorption, vitamin B12 absorption was outside the control range in 19 of the 30 patients. Abnormal gastrointestinal function is essentially an inevitable long-term sequel of pelvic irradiation. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Prospective study of /sup 123/I-labeled monoclonal antibody imaging in ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Granowska, M.; Britton, K.E.; Shepherd, J.H.; Nimmon, C.C.; Mather, S.; Ward, B.; Osborne, R.J.; Slevin, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty patients presenting with a pelvic mass were entered into a prospective study on the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy with the /sup 123/I-labeled monoclonal antibody HMFG2. The imaging data was obtained without knowledge of the clinical data and compared with subsequent surgical findings. A false-positive diagnosis of ovarian cancer was made in five of ten patients subsequently shown not to have ovarian cancer; thus the technique cannot be used as a screening test. A true-positive diagnosis was made in 19 out of 20 patients shown subsequently to have ovarian cancer. In 18 of these patients the distribution of uptake closely fitted the surgical findings. Methods of improving these results are described. In conclusion, radioimmunoscintigraphy is of no use in determining whether a pelvic mass is due to ovarian cancer, but has benefit in the evaluation of chemotherapy and may, in the future, prevent the need for second-look operations in some circumstances.

  5. Barriers and enablers to the provision and receipt of preoperative pelvic floor muscle training for men having radical prostatectomy: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strong evidence exists to support preoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to reduce the severity and duration of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Receipt of preoperative PFMT amongst men having radical prostatectomy in Western Sydney, however, is suboptimal. This study was undertaken to investigate barriers and enablers to provision/receipt of preoperative PFMT from the perspectives of potential referrers to and providers of PFMT, and of men having radical prostatectomy. Methods A qualitative research design was used. Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted with participants from three groups: (i) current and potential referrers to PFMT, including urological cancer surgeons, urological cancer nurses and general practitioners (n = 11); (ii) current and potential providers of PFMT across public and private sector hospital and outpatient settings, including physiotherapists and continence nurses (n = 14); and (iii) men having had radical prostatectomy at a specific public and co-located private hospital in Western Sydney (n = 13). Interview schedules were developed using Michie’s theoretical domains for investigating the implementation of evidence-based practice, and allowed participants to identify potential and actual barriers and enablers to preoperative PFMT. Transcribed interview data were analysed using a framework approach, and key themes were identified. Results Participant groups concurred that a recommendation for PFMT from the urological cancer surgeon, accompanied with a referral to a specific provider, was a key enabler of preoperative PFMT. Perceived barriers varied between participant groups and across public and private healthcare settings. Perceptions of financial cost of private sector PFMT, limited knowledge amongst referrers of public sector providers of PFMT, and limited awareness amongst patients of the benefits of PFMT were all posited to contribute to suboptimal PFMT provision and

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a ... tubal blockage; •• Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the womb); •• Infertility (inability to get pregnant); •• Long-term pelvic/abdominal ...

  7. Pelvic floor symptoms and quality of life changes during first pregnancy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Ninivaggio, Cara; Gallagher, Kelly; Borders, A Noelle; Qualls, Clifford; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2017-04-17

    We describe pelvic floor function in nulliparous pregnant women. Nulliparous midwifery patients completed the Incontinence Severity Index (ISI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7), Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale (W), and answered questions about sexual activity and perineal pain at baseline during the first (T1), second (T2), or third trimester (T3) and repeated in late T3. They also underwent a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) exam at their baseline visit. Data were compared across trimesters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression accounted for repeated measures and was controlled for age and education. We recruited 627 women. In T1, 124 women gave baseline data and completed questionnaires; in T2, 403; and in early T3, 96 (496 repeated questionnaires in later T3). Besides an increase in genital hiatus and perineal body (all adjusted p < .05), physical exam measures did not differ between trimesters. As pregnancy progressed, urinary incontinence (UI) (T1 = 33, T2 = 44, T3 = 69% women with ISI >0, all comparisons p < .02) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) scores increased. Fecal incontinence (FI) increased (T1 = 8, T2 = 15, T3 = 16% from T2 to T3, p = .04); the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire (CRAIQ-7) scores did not. Perineal pain increased (T1 = 17, T2 = 18 and T3 = 40%, all adjusted p < .001), and sexual activity decreased (T1 = 94, T2 = 90, T3 = 77% sexually active, T1 vs T3 and T2 vs T3, p < .001) as pregnancy progressed. During pregnancy, women experience worsening UI, FI, and perineal pain. UI symptoms are associated with a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Sexual activity decreased and POP-Q stage did not change.

  8. Pelvic movement strategies and leg extension power in patients with end-stage medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Dalgas, Ulrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2015-09-01

    During movement tasks, patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis use compensatory strategies to minimise the joint load of the affected leg. Movement strategies of the knees and trunk have been investigated, but less is known about movement strategies of the pelvis during advancing functional tasks, and how these strategies are associated with leg extension power. The aim of the study was to investigate pelvic movement strategies and leg extension power in patients with end-stage medial compartment knee osteoarthritis compared with controls. 57 patients (mean age 65.6 years) scheduled for medial uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty, and 29 age and gender matched controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Leg extension power was tested with the Nottingham Leg Extension Power-Rig. Pelvic range of motion was derived from an inertia-based measurement unit placed over the sacrum bone during walking, stair climbing and stepping. Patients had lower leg extension power than controls (20-39 %, P < 0.01) and used greater pelvic range of motion during stair and step ascending and descending (P ≤ 0.03, except for pelvic range of motion in the frontal plane during ascending, P > 0.06). Furthermore, an inverse association (coefficient: -0.03 to -0.04; R (2) = 13-22 %) between leg extension power and pelvic range of motion during stair and step descending was found in the patients. Compared to controls, patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis use greater pelvic movements during advanced functional performance tests, particularly when these involve descending tasks. Further studies should investigate if it is possible to alter these movement strategies by an intervention aimed at increasing strength and power for the patients.

  9. Female perineal membrane: a study using pelvic floor semiserial sections from elderly nulliparous and multiparous women.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masao; Matsubara, Akio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-Ichi; Ide, Yoshinobu; Sato, Iwao; Usui, Tsuguru

    2008-12-01

    To describe the architecture and topohistology of the female perineal structures, especially the perineal membrane (PM), we examined frontal sections (one side) and horizontal or transverse sections (another side) of 15 bisectioned pelvic floors. The PM, notably comprising elastic fibers, extended mediolaterally or transversely on the immediately inferior side of the rhabdosphincter area. More posteriorly, the elastic fibers more tilted along the long axis of the vagina and became lining the lateral vaginal wall as a fibrous skeleton. The compressor urethrae and urethrovaginal sphincter were embedded in and interdigitated with the PM. The elastic fiber architecture of the PM was similar to the rectovaginal septum. We hypothesize that the PM plays a role of a shock-absorber at the interface between the levator ani and distalmost vagina. A standard diagram of the female perineal structures is necessary to be revised.

  10. The pathophysiology of pelvic floor disorders: evidence from a histomorphologic study of the perineum and a mouse model of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    YIOU, RENÉ; DELMAS, VINCENT; CARMELIET, PETER; GHERARDI, ROMAIN K.; BARLOVATZ-MEIMON, GEORGIA; CHOPIN, DOMINIQUE K.; ABBOU, CLÉMENT-CLAUDE; LEFAUCHEUR, JEAN-PASCAL

    2001-01-01

    The muscle changes related to pelvic floor disorders are poorly understood. We conducted an anatomical and histological study of the perineum of the normal mouse and of a transgenic mouse strain deficient in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA−/−) that was previously reported to develop a high incidence of rectal prolapse. We could clearly identify the iliococcygeus (ILC) and pubococcygeus (PC) muscles and anal (SPA) and urethral (SPU) sphincters in male and female mice. The bulbocavernosus (BC), ischiocavernosus (ISC) and levator ani (LA) muscles could be found only in male mice. Histochemical analysis of the pelvic floor muscles revealed a majority of type IIA fibres. Rectal prolapses were observed only in male uPA−/− mice. The most obvious finding was an irreducible evagination of the rectal mucosa and a swelling of the entire perineal region corresponding to an irreducible hernia of the seminal vesicles through the pelvic outlet. The hernia caused stretching and thinning of the ISC, BC and LA. Myopathic damage, with degenerated and centronucleated myofibres, were observed in these muscles. The PC, ILC, SPA and SPU were not affected. This study provides an original description of a model of pelvic floor disorder and illustrates the differences existing between the perineum of humans and that of a quadruped species. In spite of these differences, the histopathologic changes observed in the pelvic floor muscles of uPA−/− mice with rectal prolapse suggest that prolonged muscular stretching causes a primary myopathic injury. This should be taken into account in the evaluation of pelvic floor disorders. PMID:11760891

  11. Intranodal signal suppression in pelvic MR lymphography of prostate cancer patients: a quantitative comparison of ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Fortuin, Ansje S.; Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Hambrock, Thomas; Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The key to MR lymphography is suppression of T2* MR signal in normal lymph nodes, while retaining high signal in metastatic nodes. Our objective is to quantitatively compare the ability of ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol to suppress the MR signal in normal pelvic lymph nodes. Methods In 2010, a set of consecutive patients who underwent intravenous MR Lymphography (MRL) were included. Signal suppression in normal lymph nodes in T2*-weighted images due to uptake of USPIO (Ultra-Small Superparamagnetic Particles of Iron Oxide) was quantified. Signal suppression by two USPIO contrast agents, ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol was compared using Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. Results Forty-four patients were included, of which all 44 had a ferumoxtran-10 MRL and 4 had additionally a ferumoxytol MRL. A total of 684 lymph nodes were identified in the images, of which 174 had been diagnosed as metastatic. USPIO-induced signal suppression in normal lymph nodes was significantly stronger in ferumoxtran-10 MRL than in ferumoxytol MRL (p < 0.005). Conclusions T2* signal suppression in normal pelvic lymph nodes is significantly stronger with ferumoxtran-10 than with ferumoxytol, which may affect diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27781154

  12. Determinants of pelvic organ prolapse among gynecologic patients in Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Asresie, Ayalnesh; Admassu, Eleni; Setegn, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a significant public health problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, less has been documented on risk factors of POP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants factors of POP. Methods An unmatched case–control study was conducted among gynecologic patients in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia, from July to October 2014. A total of 370 women (selected from outpatient departments) were included in the study. Cases (clients with stage III or IV POP) and controls (who declared free of any stages of POP) were identified by physicians using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantitative Examination tool. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical differences were considered at P<0.05, and the strength of association was assessed by odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals (CIs). Results This study revealed that determinants such as age of women (>40 years) (adjusted OR [AOR] =3.0 [95% CI: 1.59–5.89]), sphincter damage (AOR =8.1 [95% CI: 1.67–39.7]), family history of POP (AOR =4.9 [95% CI: 1.94–12.63]), parity (≥4) (AOR =4.5 [95% CI: 2.26–9.10]), nonattendance of formal education (AOR =4.3 [95% CI: 1.25–14.8]), carrying heavy objects (AOR =3.1 [95% CI: 1.56–6.30]), body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 (AOR =3.1 [95% CI: 1.22–7.82]), and delivery assisted by nonhealth professionals (AOR =2.6 [95% CI: 1.24–5.56]) were significantly associated with POP. Conclusion In our study, sphincter damage, family history of POP, being uneducated, having ≥4 vaginal deliveries, carrying heavy objects, BMI <18.5 kg/m2, age ≥40 years, and having delivery assisted by nonhealth professional were the independent determinants of POP. Therefore, skilled delivery, further promoting family planning and girls’ education, early pelvic floor assessment, and counseling on

  13. Multimodal nociceptive mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    HELLMAN, Kevin M.; PATANWALA, Insiyyah Y.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; TU, Frank F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate candidate mechanisms underlying the pelvic floor dysfunction in women with chronic pelvic pain and/or painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Notably, prior studies have not consistently controlled for potential confounding by psychological or anatomical factors. Study Design As part of a larger study on pelvic floor pain dysfunction and bladder pain sensitivity, we compared a measure of mechanical pain sensitivity, pressure pain thresholds, between women with pelvic pain and pain-free controls. We also assessed a novel pain measure using degree and duration of post-exam pain aftersensation, and conducted structural and functional assessments of the pelvic floor to account for any potential confounding. Phenotypic specificity of pelvic floor measures was assessed with receiver-operator characteristic curves adjusted for prevalence. Results A total of 23 women with chronic pelvic pain, 23 painful bladder syndrome, and 42 pain-free controls completed the study. Women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome exhibited enhanced pain sensitivity with lower pressure pain thresholds (1.18 [interquartile range: 0.87–1.41] kg/cm2) than pain-free participants (1.48 [1.11–1.76] kg/cm2; p<0.001) and prolonged pain aftersensation (3.5 [0–9] vs 0 [0–1] minutes; p< 0.001). Although genital hiatus (p<0.01) was wider in women with chronic pelvic pain there were no consistently observed group differences in pelvic floor anatomy, muscle tone or strength. The combination of pressure pain thresholds and aftersensation duration correlated with severity of pelvic floor tenderness (R2 =41–51, p’s< 0.01). Even after adjustment for prevalence, the combined metrics discriminated pain-free controls from women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome (area under the curve=0.87). Conclusion Both experimental assessment of pelvic floor pain thresholds and measurement of sustained pain are independently associated with pelvic pain

  14. Relationship between chronic nonurological associated somatic syndromes and symptom severity in urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes: baseline evaluation of the MAPP study.

    PubMed

    Krieger, John N; Stephens, Alisa J; Landis, J Richard; Clemens, J Quentin; Kreder, Karl; Lai, H Henry; Afari, Niloofar; Rodríguez, Larissa; Schaeffer, Anthony; Mackey, Sean; Andriole, Gerald L; Williams, David A

    2015-04-01

    We used MAPP data to identify participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes only or a chronic functional nonurological associated somatic syndrome in addition to urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. We characterized these 2 subgroups and explored them using 3 criteria, including 1) MAPP eligibility criteria, 2) self-reported medical history or 3) RICE criteria. Self-reported cross-sectional data were collected on men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes, including predominant symptoms, symptom duration and severity, nonurological associated somatic syndrome symptoms and psychosocial factors. Of 424 participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes 162 (38%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome, including irritable bowel syndrome in 93 (22%), fibromyalgia in 15 (4%), chronic fatigue syndrome in 13 (3%) and multiple syndromes in 41 (10%). Of 233 females 103 (44%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 59 of 191 males (31%) (p = 0.006). Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome had more severe urological symptoms and more frequent depression and anxiety. Of 424 participants 228 (54%) met RICE criteria. Of 228 RICE positive participants 108 (47%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 54 of 203 RICE negative patients (28%) with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome (p < 0.001). Nonurological associated somatic syndromes represent important clinical characteristics of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome have more severe symptoms, longer duration and higher rates of depression and anxiety. RICE positive patients are more likely to have a nonurological associated somatic syndrome and more severe symptoms. Because nonurological associated somatic syndromes are more common in women, future studies must account for this potential confounding factor in urological chronic pelvic pain

  15. Detecting active pelvic arterial haemorrhage on admission following serious pelvic fracture in multiple trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Brun, Julien; Guillot, Stéphanie; Bouzat, Pierre; Broux, Christophe; Thony, Frédéric; Genty, Céline; Heylbroeck, Christophe; Albaladejo, Pierre; Arvieux, Catherine; Tonetti, Jérôme; Payen, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis of pelvic arterial haemorrhage is challenging for initiating treatment by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in multiple trauma patients. We use an institutional algorithm focusing on haemodynamic status on admission and on a whole-body CT scan in stabilized patients to screen patients requiring TAE. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this approach. This retrospective cohort study included 106 multiple trauma patients admitted to the emergency room with serious pelvic fracture [pelvic abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score of 3 or more]. Of the 106 patients, 27 (25%) underwent pelvic angiography leading to TAE for active arterial haemorrhage in 24. The TAE procedure was successful within 3h of arrival in 18 patients. In accordance with the algorithm, 10 patients were directly admitted to the angiography unit (n=8) and/or operating room (n=2) for uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock on admission. Of the remaining 96 stabilized patients, 20 had contrast media extravasation on pelvic CT scan that prompted pelvic angiography in 16 patients leading to TAE in 14. One patient underwent a pelvic angiography despite showing no contrast media extravasation on pelvic CT scan. All 17 stabilized patients who underwent pelvic angiography presented a more severely compromised haemodynamic status on admission, and they required more blood products during their initial management than the 79 patients who did not undergo pelvic angiography. The incidence of unstable pelvic fractures was however comparable between the two groups. Overall, haemodynamic instability and contrast media extravasation on the CT-scan identified 26 out of the 27 patients who required subsequent pelvic angiography leading to TAE in 24. An algorithm focusing on haemodynamic status on arrival and on the whole-body CT scan in stabilized patients may be effective at triaging multiple trauma patients with serious pelvic fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  17. Utilization of surgical procedures for pelvic organ prolapse: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1965-2002.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Ebenezer O; Bharucha, Adil E; Melton, L Joseph; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Klingele, Christopher J; Gebhart, John B

    2008-09-01

    To describe trends in the utilization of surgical procedures for pelvic organ prolapse among women in Olmsted County, MN, we retrospectively identified all county residents undergoing pelvic organ prolapse repair from January 1, 1965 through December 31, 2002. From 1965 to 2002, 3,813 women had pelvic organ prolapse surgeries: 3,126 had hysterectomy combined with pelvic floor repair (PFR) procedures and 687 had PFR alone. The age-adjusted utilization of hysterectomy plus PFR and of PFR alone decreased by 62% (P < 0.001) and 32% (P = 0.02), respectively. In both groups, utilization decreased in all age groups over time except in women aged 80 years and older undergoing hysterectomy plus PFR and women aged 70 years and older undergoing PFR only. The most common indication for PFR was uterovaginal prolapse. Among women in the community, the rate of utilization and age distribution of pelvic organ prolapse surgery changed substantially between 1965 and 2002.

  18. A postoperative scoring system for distant recurrence in node-positive cervical cancer patients after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection with para-aortic lymph node sampling or dissection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Lee, Shin-Wha; Park, Jeong-Yeol; Suh, Dae-Shik; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Young-Tak; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    To identify risk factors for distant recurrence in node-positive cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with para-aortic lymph node sampling (PALNS) or para-aortic lymph node dissection (PALND). A total of 299 patients in whom lymph node metastasis was confirmed after radical surgery at Asan Medical Center for stage IA2 to IIB cervical cancer from February 2001 to December 2012 were identified. In all, 72 (24.1%) patients underwent PLND only and 227 (75.9%) underwent PLND with PALNS or PALND. Four patients were excluded due to diagnosed with small cell carcinoma. The clinicopathologic data of 223 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Distant recurrence was defined as recurrence at a site over the pelvic radiation field. Among all 223 study patients, the mean number of positive lymph nodes was 4.46. There were 54 (24.2%) patients with distant metastasis. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that histologic types (HR=3.031, P≤0.001 for adenocarcinoma, HR=2.302, P=0.066 for adenosquamous carcinoma), number of positive lymph nodes (HR=1.077, P≤0.001), and surgical stage (HR=1.264, P=0.022) were independent risk factors for distant recurrence of cervical cancer. A scoring system for the prediction of distant recurrence was generated by incorporating these factors and showed good discrimination and calibration (concordance index of 0.753). In an internal validation set, this scoring system showed good discrimination with a C-statistics of 0.777. According to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, the chi-square was 0.650 and the P-value was 0.723. We have developed a robust scoring system that can predict the risk of distant recurrence in node-positive cervical cancer patients after radical operation. This scoring system was used to identify a group of patients who required systemic control of distant micrometastasis. This group of patients is an appropriate target for consolidation

  19. Laparoscopic pelvic mesh placement with closure of pelvic floor entrance to prevent small intestine radiation trauma - A retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, R; Heinzelmann, F; Müller, A C; Ladurner, R; Schneider, C C; Königsrainer, A; Zdichavsky, M

    2015-11-01

    In most pelvic malignancies radiation therapy is a main part of the treatment concept. The main dose limiting organ is the small intestine. Different mechanical methods to prevent radiation damage to the small intestine have been described. We herein report a retrospective study of laparoscopic placement of an absorbable vicryl mesh in patients requiring pelvic radiotherapy displacing the bowel out of the radiation field. The study included 6 consecutive patients requiring definitive radiotherapy due to locally advanced prostate cancer. All patients had small intestine within the radiation fields despite the use of non-invasive displacement methods. All patients underwent laparoscopic small bowel displacement from the pelvis and closure of the pelvic floor entrance using vicryl mesh placement. Peri- or postoperative complications were not seen. Postoperative radiotherapy planning CT scans confirmed displacement of the small intestine allowing all patients to receive the planned radiotherapy volume. Laparoscopic mesh placement represents a safe and efficient procedure in patients requiring high-dose pelvic radiation, presenting with unacceptable small intestine volume in the radiation field. As an alternate to native tissue, the vicryl mesh is a safe, effective substitute for small bowel exclusion from external-beam radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain signature and functional impact of centralized pain: a multidisciplinary approach to the study of chronic pelvic pain (MAPP) network study.

    PubMed

    Kutch, Jason J; Ichesco, Eric; Hampson, Johnson P; Labus, Jennifer S; Farmer, Melissa A; Martucci, Katherine T; Ness, Timothy J; Deutsch, Georg; Apkarian, A Vania; Mackey, Sean C; Klumpp, David J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Kreder, Karl J; Buchwald, Dedra; Andriole, Gerald L; Lai, H Henry; Mullins, Chris; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Mayer, Emeran A; Clemens, J Quentin; Clauw, Daniel J; Harris, Richard E

    2017-10-01

    Chronic pain is often measured with a severity score that overlooks its spatial distribution across the body. This widespread pain is believed to be a marker of centralization, a central nervous system process that decouples pain perception from nociceptive input. Here, we investigated whether centralization is manifested at the level of the brain using data from 1079 participants in the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network (MAPP) study. Participants with a clinical diagnosis of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) were compared to pain-free controls and patients with fibromyalgia, the prototypical centralized pain disorder. Participants completed questionnaires capturing pain severity, function, and a body map of pain. A subset (UCPPS N = 110; fibromyalgia N = 23; healthy control N = 49) underwent functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with UCPPS reported pain ranging from localized (pelvic) to widespread (throughout the body). Patients with widespread UCPPS displayed increased brain gray matter volume and functional connectivity involving sensorimotor and insular cortices (P < 0.05 corrected). These changes translated across disease diagnoses as identical outcomes were present in patients with fibromyalgia but not pain-free controls. Widespread pain was also associated with reduced physical and mental function independent of pain severity. Brain pathology in patients with centralized pain is related to pain distribution throughout the body. These patients may benefit from interventions targeting the central nervous system.

  1. Assessment of nodal target definition and dosimetry using three different techniques: implications for re-defining the optimal pelvic field in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purposes 1. To determine the optimal pelvic nodal clinical target volume for post-operative treatment of endometrial cancer. 2. To compare the DVH of different treatment planning techniques applied to this new CTV and the surrounding tissues. Methods and Materials Based on the literature, we selected a methodology to delineate nodal target volume to define a NEW-CTV and NEW-PTV. Conventional 2D fields, 3D fields based on anatomic guidelines per RTOG 0418, 3D fields based on our guidelines, and IMRT based on our guidelines were assessed for coverage of NEW-CTV, NEW-PTV, and surrounding structures. CT scans of 10 patients with gynecologic malignancies after TAH/BSO were used. DVHs were compared. Results For NEW-PTV, mean V45Gy were 50% and 69% for 2D and RTOG 0418-3DCRT vs. 98% and 97% for NEW-3DCRT and NEW-IMRT (p < 0.0009). Mean V45Gy small bowel were 24% and 20% for 2D and RTOG 0418-3DCRT, increased to 32% with NEW-3DCRT, and decreased to 14% with IMRT (p = 0.005, 0.138, 0.002). Mean V45Gy rectum were 26%, 35%, and 52% for 2D, RTOG 0418-3DCRT, and NEW-3DCRT, and decreased to 26% with NEW-IMRT (p < 0.05). Mean V45Gy bladder were 83%, 51%, and 73% for 2D, RTOG 0418-3DCRT, and NEW-3DCRT, and decreased to 30% with NEW-IMRT (p < 0.002). Conclusions Conventional 2D and RTOG 0418-based 3DCRT