Sugiarto; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Soviana, Susi; Hakim, Lukman
The bionomics of Anopheles was investigated in coastal Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. Mosquitoes were captured using human landing collections. A total of 5,103 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 11 species were caught and 2,259 adult parous females were tested by ELISA for Plasmodium antigen. Anopheles vagus, An. sundaicus and An. subpictus were the most abundant species caught. Overall, Anopheles vagus were zoophilic and exophagic, but there was variation between species. Anopheles sundaicus and An. subpictus were anthropophilic and endophagic. Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. sundaicus collected biting humans outdoors were positive for P. falciparum protein and were incriminated as the likely vectors of malaria in Sungai Nyamuk Village. This research also showed that malaria transmission in Sungai Nyamuk Village occurred outdoors. Residual house spraying therefore would not protect the human population from vector contact, so that combination use of long lasting nets and personel protection is needed.
Novitasari, D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Rachmidha, T. D.; Reksowardojo, I. K.; Irsyad, M.
Nyamuk Island in Karimunjawa District is one of the regions in Java that has no access to electricity grid. The electricity in Nyamuk Island relies on diesel engine which is managed by local government and only operated for 6 hours per day. It occurs as a consequence of high fuel cost. A study on smart micro grid system based on renewable energy was conducted in Combustion Engine and Propulsion System Laboratory of Institut Teknologi Bandung by using 1 kWp solar panels and a 3 kW bio based diesel engine. The fuels used to run the bio based diesel engine were diesel, virgin coconut oil and pure palm oil. The results show that the smart grid system run well at varying load and also with different fuel. Based on the experiments, average inverter efficiency was about 87%. This experiments proved that the use of biofuels had no effects to the overall system performance. Based on the results of prototype experiments, this paper will focus on design and optimization of smart micro grid system using HOMER software for Nyamuk Island. The design consists of (1) a diesel engine existing in Nyamuk Island whose fuel was diesel, (2) a lister engine whose fuel was from vegetable oil from Callophyllum inophyllum, (3) solar panels, (4) batteries and (5) converter. In this simulation, the existing diesel engine was set to operate 2 hours per day, while operating time of the lister engine has been varied with several scenarios. In scenario I, the lister engine was operated 5 hours per day, in scenario II the lister engine was operated 24 hours per day and in scenario III the lister engine was operated 8 hours per week in the weekend. In addition, a design using a modified diesel engine was conducted as well with an assumption that the modified cost was about 10% of new diesel engine cost. By modifying the diesel engine, the system will not need a lister engine. Assessments has been done to evaluate the designs, and the result shows that the optimal value obtains by the lister engine
Haryanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Abadyo
This ethnomathematics article focused on the models of knot which is used in the frame of "Rumah Kaki Seribu." The knot model itself was studied mathematically. The results of this study revealed the way Arfak tribal communities think mathematically. This article uses exploration, documentation, interview, experiments and literature…
Alharbi, T.; Ahmed, M.
Across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the fresh water resources are limited only to those found in aquifer systems. Those aquifers were believed to be recharged during the previous wet climatic period but still receiving modest local recharge in interleaving dry periods such as those prevailing at present. Quantifying temporal and spatial variabilities in rainfall patterns, magnitudes, durations, and frequencies is of prime importance when it comes to sustainable management of such aquifer systems. In this study, an integrated approach, using remote sensing and field data, was used to assess the past, the current, and the projected spatial and temporal variations in rainfall over one of the major watersheds in KSA, Wadi Ar-Rumah. This watershed was selected given its larger areal extent and population intensity. Rainfall data were extracted from (1) the Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; spatial coverage: global; spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal coverage: January 1979 to April 2015; temporal resolution: monthly), and (2) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; spatial coverage: 50°N to 50°S; spatial resolution: 0.25° × 0.25°; temporal coverage: January 1998 to March 2015; temporal resolution: 3 hours) and calibrated against rainfall measurements extracted from rain gauges. Trends in rainfall patterns were examined over four main investigation periods: period I (01/1979 to 12/1985), period II (01/1986 to 12/1992), period III (01/1993 to 12/2002), and period IV (01/2003 to 12/2014). Our findings indicate: (1) a significant increase (+14.19 mm/yr) in rainfall rates were observed during period I, (2) a significant decrease in rainfall rates were observed during periods II (-5.80 mm/yr), III (-9.38 mm/yr), and IV (-2.46 mm/yr), and (3) the observed variations in rainfall rates are largely related to the temporal variations in the northerlies (also called northwesterlies) and the monsoonal wind regimes.
Kambaru Windi, Yohanes; Whittaker, Andrea
Qualitative research was undertaken among Dawan people living in Fatumnasi, West Timor, to investigate the reasons for the Dawan's retention of traditional houses, ume kbubu, in the face of a national development campaign to introduce modern, "healthy" homes (rumah sehat). Indoor smoke pollution from internal fires and poor ventilation is believed to contribute to poor respiratory health among this population. The study explored Dawan cultural constructions of health to find that ume kbubu are fundamental to the Dawan's sense of psychosocial well-being and ethnic identity. While rumah sehat are associated with prosperity, public image and social status they do not provide the warmth, security and emotional nurturance that the Dawan perceive as necessary for optimum health and to protect them from disease.
Muhammad Zayyid, M; Saidatul Saadah, R; Adil, A R; Rohela, M; Jamaiah, I
This is a survey of 120 children for scabies and head lice infestations in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang. Children from this welfare home (Rumah Kanak-Kanak Taman Bakti, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) were randomly selected. Majority of them were Malays (72.5%) and the rest were Indians. The infestation rates were highest in the 10-12 years age group with 46% and 70% for scabies and head lice respectively. Head lice was more commonly seen in girls (65%) than boys (29%). Scabies was more commonly seen in boys (50%) than girls (16%). Overall prevalence rate for scabies was 31% and for head lice infestation was 49%.