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Sample records for penetration flat position

  1. Stability of Full Penetration, Flat Position Weld Pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Coan, Al. B.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the dropthrough distance of a full penetration, flat position weld pool is described. Close to incipient root side penetration the dropthrough is metastable, so that a small drop in power can cause a loss of penetration if not followed soon enough by a compensating rise in power. The SPA (Soft Plasma Arc) process with higher pressure on top of the weld pool loses penetration more quickly than the GTA (Gas Tungsten Arc) process. 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy with a lower surface tension loses penetration more quickly than 2219 aluminum alloy. An instance of loss of penetration of a SPA weld in 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy is discussed in the light of the model.

  2. Weld Pool Stability in the Flat Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Coan, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Soft Plasma Arc (SPA) process was devised to avoid interactions between backshield and full penetration mode plasma jet in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Occasional sudden and mysterious losses in penetration were encountered in flat position SPA welding. To understand what was happening a model of the dynamics of the molten metal meniscus at the root of the weld was worked out. When the power input to the weld P(sub in) exceeds the power leakage P(sub out) the difference in power is absorbed by an increase in the molten weld pool volume V, Rho X L(SUB m) X (d(V)/dt)) = P(sub in) - P(sub out) where rho is the density and L(sub m) the specific heat of the weld metal.

  3. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... it does not require surgery. Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and ...

  4. The effect of aircraft speed on the penetration of sonic boom noise into a flat ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.

    1994-01-01

    As U.S. aircraft manufacturers now have focused their HSCT efforts on overwater supersonic flight, a great deal more must be known about sonic booms propagating overwater and interacting with the ocean. For example, it is thought that atmospheric turbulence effects are often much less severe over water than over land. Another important aspect of the overwater flight problems is the penetration of the sonic boom noise into the ocean, where there could be an environmental impact on sea life. This talk will present a brief review on the penetration of sonic boom noise into a large body of water with a flat surface. It has been determined recently that faster supersonic speeds imply greater penetration of sonic boom noise into the ocean. The new theory is derived from the original Sawyers paper and from the knowledge that for level flight a boom's duration is proportional to the quantity M/(M(exp 2)-1)(exp 3/8) where M is the Mach number. It is found that for depths of 10 m or less, the peak SPL varies less than 6 dB over a wide range of M. For greater depths, 100 m for example, increased Mach numbers may increase the SPL by 15 dB or more.

  5. Impact and Penetration of Thin Aluminum 2024 Flat Panels at Oblique Angles of Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are actively involved in improving the predictive capabilities of transient finite element computational methods for application to safety issues involving unintended impacts on aircraft and aircraft engine structures. One aspect of this work involves the development of an improved deformation and failure model for metallic materials, known as the Tabulated Johnson-Cook model, or MAT224, which has been implemented in the LS-DYNA commercial transient finite element analysis code (LSTC Corp., Livermore, CA) (Ref. 1). In this model the yield stress is a function of strain, strain rate and temperature and the plastic failure strain is a function of the state of stress, temperature and strain rate. The failure criterion is based on the accumulation of plastic strain in an element. The model also incorporates a regularization scheme to account for the dependency of plastic failure strain on mesh size. For a given material the model requires a significant amount of testing to determine the yield stress and failure strain as a function of the three-dimensional state of stress, strain rate and temperature. In addition, experiments are required to validate the model. Currently the model has been developed for Aluminum 2024 and validated against a series of ballistic impact tests on flat plates of various thicknesses (Refs. 1 to 3). Full development of the model for Titanium 6Al-4V is being completed, and mechanical testing for Inconel 718 has begun. The validation testing for the models involves ballistic impact tests using cylindrical projectiles impacting flat plates at a normal incidence (Ref. 2). By varying the thickness of the plates, different stress states and resulting failure modes are induced, providing a range of conditions over which the model can be validated. The objective of the study reported here was to provide experimental data to evaluate the model

  6. Mutual-induction measurement of the AC penetration depth in HTSC's theory of calibration function for flat samples under axial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klupsch, Th.; Zeisberger, M.

    1995-02-01

    A contribution to find optimum mutual-induction arrangements for investigating the linear AC response properties of the pinned vortices in the mixed state of HTSC is given. In particular, the complex calibration function (mutual-induction coefficient L12 as a function of the complex AC penetration depth λ) is analyzed, strictly axial symmetry and flat sample geometries provided (finite disk and its limiting case of infinite platelet) assuming the radius of at least one induction coil is smaller than the sample radius. Because the sample is positioned transverse to the AC induction B, the mutual inductance becomes, in general, strongly modified by distortions of B around the sample, which results in a strong dependence of L12(λ) upon certain geometry parameters and an enhanced sensitivity to λ for selected |λ| intervals. The analysis is based upon powerful analytic approximation formulae for elementary arrangements derived in a separate paper. Also, formulae to estimate the errors from irregular (eccentric) sample shapes, from the field enhancement near the disk edges as well as from treating the finite-disk problem in the limit of an infinite platelet are given. Except for ultrathin films with thickness much smaller than |λ|, arrangements with both the coils at the same sample side and with the loop radii sufficiently smaller than the disk radius are favored for measurements of small λ with |D/λ| ≳ 1 ( D is the sample thickness), which also includes the possibility of a λ measurement in the bulk limit | D/λ| → ∞.

  7. Positively charged micelles based on a triblock copolymer demonstrate enhanced corneal penetration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguo; Li, Zhanrong; Zhou, Tianyang; Zhang, Junjie; Xia, Huiyun; Li, Heng; He, Jijun; He, Siyu; Wang, Liya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cornea is a main barrier to drug penetration after topical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abilities of micelles generated from a positively charged triblock copolymer to penetrate the cornea after topical application. Methods The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-g-polyethyleneimine was synthesized, and the physicochemical properties of the self-assembled polymeric micelles were investigated, including hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, morphology, drug-loading content, drug-loading efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Using fluorescein diacetate as a model drug, the penetration capabilities of the polymeric micelles were monitored in vivo using a two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy on murine corneas after topical application. Results The polymer was successfully synthesized and confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared. The polymeric micelles had an average particle size of 28 nm, a zeta potential of approximately +12 mV, and a spherical morphology. The drug-loading efficiency and drug-loading content were 75.37% and 3.47%, respectively, which indicates that the polymeric micelles possess a high drug-loading capacity. The polymeric micelles also exhibited controlled-release behavior in vitro. Compared to the control, the positively charged polymeric micelles significantly penetrated through the cornea. Conclusion Positively charged micelles generated from a triblock copolymer are a promising vehicle for the topical delivery of hydrophobic agents in ocular applications. PMID:26451109

  8. Positively charged polypeptide nanogel enhances mucoadhesion and penetrability of 10-hydroxycamptothecin in orthotopic bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Xu, Weiguo; Chen, Jinjin; Yan, Lesan; Ding, Jianxun; Hou, Yuchuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-01-03

    Bladder cancer (BC) has become a serious public health problem due to its continuously rising incidence, high recurrence rate, and poor quality of life. Intravesical instillation of chemotherapy, one of common and important treatment strategy for BC, is restricted partially due to the short residence time and the low penetration ability of current antineoplastic agent formulations in clinic. Herein, a positively charged disulfide-core-crosslinked polypeptide nanogel of poly(l-lysine)-poly(l-phenylalanine-co-l-cystine) (PLL-P(LP-co-LC)) was synthesized. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) was loaded into the core via a facile diffusion to obtain loading nanogel (i.e., NG/HCPT). The reduction-responsive cationic polypeptide nanogel not only showed a high drug-loading efficiency, a prolonged residence time, and an improved tissue penetration capability, but also demonstrated an ability to accurately and rapidly release HCPT in bladder cancer cells. NG/HCPT exhibited superior cytotoxicity against human T24 bladder cancer cells compared to that of free HCPT in vitro. Moreover, the positively charged loading nanogel exhibited significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced side effects toward orthotopic bladder cancer model in vivo. Overall, the smart polypeptide nanogel with enhanced residence and permeability provides a promising drug delivery platform for local chemotherapy of BC.

  9. Dynamics of the reaction between the free end of a tethered self-avoiding polymer and a flat penetrable surface: A renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherayil, Binny J.; Bhattacharyya, Pinaki

    2014-06-01

    The average time τr for one end of a long, self-avoiding polymer to interact for the first time with a flat penetrable surface to which it is attached at the other end is shown here to scale essentially as the square of the chain's contour length N. This result is obtained within the framework of the Wilemski-Fixman approximation to diffusion-limited reactions, in which the reaction time is expressed as a time correlation function of a "sink" term. In the present work, this sink-sink correlation function is calculated using perturbation expansions in the excluded volume and the polymer-surface interactions, with renormalization group methods being used to resum the expansion into a power law form. The quadratic dependence of τr on N mirrors the behavior of the average time τc of a free random walk to cyclize, but contrasts with the cyclization time of a free self-avoiding walk (SAW), for which τr ˜ N2.2. A simulation study by Cheng and Makarov [J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 3321 (2010)] of the chain-end reaction time of an SAW on a flat impenetrable surface leads to the same N2.2 behavior, which is surprising given the reduced conformational space a tethered polymer has to explore in order to react.

  10. Subsurface object position and image correction for standoff ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. J.

    1994-05-01

    Present applications of standoff (airborne) Ground Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) allows objects near the surface to be detected but only provides an approximation for the actual location and image. When single media models are employed the lack of correction for the phase velocity and refractive changes at the air/soil interface result in object distortions. Positional errors and image distortions comparable to the size of the object are possible. Correction is possible, if the media properties are known, by modeling the scene as a two-layer medium and accounting for the propagation effects. The propagation parameters for the lower media are estimated in the migration of observable responses for surface and subsurface objects. This approach allows for corrected images to subsurface objects to be produced after data collection. Surface objects will be distorted as a result of this process. The modeling process, simulations, and results with field data will be discussed. An improvement by a factor of two would enable standoff radar to detect objects at depths of one meter or more benefitting Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and hazardous waste site survey activities.

  11. Do LCDs have a chance to keep a leading position on flat panel display market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Olifierczuk, Marek

    2004-09-01

    A lot of significant discoveries and inventions in the field of technology of displays were made in the latter part of the twentieth century. Apart from well-known CRT, the plasma-, luminescence- and liquid crystal-displays are commercially available. One can notice that a leading position on that flat panel displays market belong to LCD. But the progress in Organic LED materials and devices is impressive. Threshold voltage for light emission have fallen from several thousands V to just 2 - 3 V for today's OLEDs (polymer and small molecule). Luminous efficiency has increased from 0,01 to more than 10 lm/W. These improvements have brought PLED technology to the point where serious consideration is being given to OLED graphic and video display product. The question given some years ago by Dr. M. E. Becker, [Display Metrology and Systems]: "...is the current OLED enthusiasm justified because OLED displays feature significant improvements in visual and ergonomic performance, and because they are much cheaper to manufacture; Or it is just another hope for those who missed the LCD train?...," is trite. During SID Conference in Baltimore in 2003 two companies claiming to have built the largest organic LED. International Display Technology demonstrated a 20 inch display driven by "super amorphous silicon" technology; Sony showed off its 24 inch screen, which consists of a 2x2 tiled array of OLED displays. The presented work will be oriented towards specifying the characteristic features of liquid crystal and electro luminescence organic compounds which make these groups of displays so attractive and prospective among other imagery systems devices existing nowadays.

  12. An Optical Sensor for Measuring the Position and Slanting Direction of Flat Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ta; Huang, Yen-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Automated optical inspection is a very important technique. For this reason, this study proposes an optical non-contact slanting surface measuring system. The essential features of the measurement system are obtained through simulations using the optical design software Zemax. The actual propagation of laser beams within the measurement system is traced by using a homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), the skew-ray tracing method, and a first-order Taylor series expansion. Additionally, a complete mathematical model that describes the variations in light spots on photoelectric sensors and the corresponding changes in the sample orientation and distance was established. Finally, a laboratory prototype system was constructed on an optical bench to verify experimentally the proposed system. This measurement system can simultaneously detect the slanting angles (x, z) in the x and z directions of the sample and the distance (y) between the biconvex lens and the flat sample surface. PMID:27409619

  13. Relationship between habitual occlusal position and flat bite plane induced occlusal position in volunteers with and without temporomandibular joint sounds.

    PubMed

    Torii, Kengo; Chiwata, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds are associated with the difference between the habitual occlusal position (HOP) and the bite plane induced occlusal position (BPOP). Fifteen dental technician school students who had complete natural dentition, normal occlusion and who exhibited TMJ sounds were compared with fifteen healthy control subjects. HOP was recorded by voluntary jaw closing while in an upright position, and BPOP was recorded after wearing an anterior bite plane for a short period of time. Three interocclusal records were obtained in both positions with a vinyl polysiloxane material, and the recorded maxillomandibular relations were analyzed three-dimensionally and compared. Subjects with TMJ sounds had statistically larger differences between HOP and BPOP than controls (p<.05). Within this study population, an association was found between TMJ sounds and the difference between HOP and BPOP.

  14. Ground-penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey, April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Bishop, James M.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-08-04

    Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, and students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa collected sediment cores, sediment surface grab samples, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data from within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge–Holgate Unit located on the southern end of Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in April 2015 (FAN 2015-611-FA). The study’s objective was to identify washover deposits in the stratigraphic record to aid in understanding barrier island evolution. This report is an archive of GPR and DGPS data collected from Long Beach Island in 2015. Data products, including raw GPR and processed DGPS data, elevation corrected GPR profiles, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  15. Study of efficacy in a mercury-free flat discharge fluorescent lamp using a zero-dimensional positive column model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, T.; Pitchford, L. C.; Boeuf, J.-P.; Mikoshiba, S.

    2003-03-01

    A zero-dimensional model of the positive column in Ar/Ne/Xe gas mixtures has been developed to help understand the measured dependence of the efficacy on operating conditions in a mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp in a dielectric barrier geometry. The experimental conditions are such that the radiation from the discharge is homogeneous over most of the discharge voltage. The model uses as input the discharge current waveform from the experiments, and it yields the time variations of the mean electron energy and the species densities. From these quantities we calculate the number of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted by the xenon resonance atoms and excimers during one current pulse and the efficiency for generation of VUV radiation in the positive column, which are compared with the measured luminance and efficacy for various voltages, pulse intervals, and lamp sizes. Over the range of conditions studied, we find that most electrical energy dissipated in xenon excitation is converted to VUV radiation; i.e. the losses of xenon excitation in stepwise and associative ionization processes are small. When the mean electron energy is low, energy dissipation in elastic momentum transfer collisions leads to a decrease in the efficiency. On the other hand, ionization and excitation of argon degrade the efficiency when the mean electron energy is high. To a lesser extent, stepwise excitation of the xenon metastables also decreases the efficiency for high current densities.

  16. Determination of the position and orientation of a flat piezoelectric micro-stage by moving the optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guo-Yuan; Lee, Hau-Wei; Liu, Chien-Hung

    2014-10-01

    A moving optical axis measurement system with six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) is proposed in this study. The system is very simple and can be placed inside a flat piezoelectric micro-stage. The system comprises three two-DOF optical measurement modules, each having a quadrant photo diode (QPD), a lens, and a laser diode. These three modules and the geometric configuration of their installation allow displacement measurements with up to six-DOF to be made. A mathematical model of this system is also presented. By analyzing the sensitivity and relationship between the displacement of the stage and each of the QPD light spots, movement can be observed. Signal feedback enables multi-axis nano-scale positioning control. We also present a new six-DOF nano stage, which uses piezoelectric actuators for displacement. This stage was used to verify the proposed six-DOF measurement system. Linear and angular resolution of the system can be down to 10 nm and 0.1 arcsec. Linear and angular displacement measurement errors of this six-DOF measurement system are in the range of ±70 nm and ±0.65 arcsec.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of a series of heterobiarylamides that are centrally penetrant metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs).

    PubMed

    Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Weaver, C David; Jadhav, Satyawan; Menon, Usha N; Zamorano, Rocio; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R

    2009-07-23

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of heterobiaryl amides as positive allosteric modulators of mGluR4. Compounds 9b and 9c showed submicromolar potency at both human and rat mGluR4. In addition, both 9b and 9c were shown to be centrally penetrant in rats using nontoxic vehicles, a major advance for the mGluR4 field.

  18. SU-C-16A-01: In Vivo Source Position Verification in High Dose Rate (HDR) Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Flat Panel Imager: Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Franich, R; Smith, R; Millar, J; Haworth, A; Taylor, M; McDermott, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We report our initial clinical experience with a novel position-sensitive source-tracking system based on a flat panel imager. The system has been trialled with 4 prostate HDR brachytherapy patients (8 treatment fractions) in this initial study. Methods: The flat panel imaging system was mounted under a customised carbon fibre couch top assembly (Figure 1). Three gold fiducial markers were implanted into the prostate of each patient at the time of catheter placement. X-ray dwell position markers were inserted into three catheters and a radiograph acquired to locate the implant relative to the imaging device. During treatment, as the HDR source dwells were delivered, images were acquired and processed to determine the position of the source in the patient. Source positions measured by the imaging device were compared to the treatment plan for verification of treatment delivery. Results: Measured dwell positions provided verification of relative dwell spacing within and between catheters, in the coronal plane. Measurements were typically within 2.0mm (0.2mm – 3.3mm, s.d. 0.8mm) of the planned positions over 60 dwells (Figure 2). Discrimination between larger dwell intervals and catheter differentiation were clear. This confirms important delivery attributes such as correct transfer tube connection, source step size, relative catheter positions and therefore overall correct plan selection and delivery. The fiducial markers, visible on the radiograph, provided verification of treatment delivery to the correct anatomical location. The absolute position of the dwells was determined by comparing the measured dwell positions with the x-ray markers from the radiograph, validating the programmed treatment indexer length. The total impact on procedure time was less than 5 minutes. Conclusion: The novel, noninvasive HDR brachytherapy treatment verification system was used clinically with minor impact on workflow. The system allows verification of correct treatment

  19. Signal Processing of Ground Penetrating Radar Using Spectral Estimation Techniques to Estimate the Position of Buried Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Shanker Man; Arai, Ikuo

    2003-12-01

    Super-resolution is very important for the signal processing of GPR (ground penetration radar) to resolve closely buried targets. However, it is not easy to get high resolution as GPR signals are very weak and enveloped by the noise. The MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, which is well known for its super-resolution capacity, has been implemented for signal and image processing of GPR. In addition, conventional spectral estimation technique, FFT (fast Fourier transform), has also been implemented for high-precision receiving signal level. In this paper, we propose CPM (combined processing method), which combines time domain response of MUSIC algorithm and conventional IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform) to obtain a super-resolution and high-precision signal level. In order to support the proposal, detailed simulation was performed analyzing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). Moreover, a field experiment at a research field and a laboratory experiment at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, were also performed for thorough investigation and supported the proposed method. All the simulation and experimental results are presented.

  20. Static detection of flat head railways depletion using analysis of laser area and position on rail type R-54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masykuri, Edwin; Juliastuti, Endang; Suprijanto, Suprijanto; Zahra, Naila

    2016-11-01

    Load and age of rails can result in problems such as breakage, depletion, and expansion that can lead to accidents. Rail inspection has been done manually by operator tracing the rails by walking or riding a special inspection vehicle. These methods obviously are inefficient and inaccurate, as operators might be missing some of the defects. In this research depletion detection of rails are conducted by analyzing changes of the area as well as position shifting of laser spot on captured images by utilizing the triangulation principle. Accuracy and efficiency improvement of rail inspection are expected from this method. Prior calibration of the system was conducted using gauge blocks with thickness varying from 19 to 1 mm with 1 mm decrement. Area changes and position shifting of laser spot are later analyzed through image processing. The system was also implemented on R-54 rail type based on the calibration and later be compared to the manual measurement data. It was shown that the system can detect depletion in rail type R-54. The calibration result shows that the deviation percentage of the measurement of laser area are ranging from 11.41% to 13.48% while for the measurement of laser spot position shift is from 6.91% to 8.80%. Implementation on rail type R-54 shows the deviation percentages between proposed method and manual measurement are ranging from 1.52% to 10.04% for the area measurement, while for the position shifting ranged from 1.11% to 12.68%.

  1. Penetration equations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Static penetration resistance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgunoglu, H. T.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Model test results were used to define the failure mechanism associated with the static penetration resistance of cohesionless and low-cohesion soils. Knowledge of this mechanism has permitted the development of a new analytical method for calculating the ultimate penetration resistance which explicitly accounts for penetrometer base apex angle and roughness, soil friction angle, and the ratio of penetration depth to base width. Curves relating the bearing capacity factors to the soil friction angle are presented for failure in general shear. Strength parameters and penetrometer interaction properties of a fine sand were determined and used as the basis for prediction of the penetration resistance encountered by wedge, cone, and flat-ended penetrometers of different surface roughness using the proposed analytical method. Because of the close agreement between predicted values and values measured in laboratory tests, it appears possible to deduce in-situ soil strength parameters and their variation with depth from the results of static penetration tests.

  3. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... symmetrical, but for a variety of reasons the asymmetry becomes less apparent as well. For example, in ... a flattened head does not affect a child's brain growth or cause developmental delays or brain damage. ...

  4. Design study of fiber-composite penetrator cases

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Groves, S.E.; Lyon, R.E.

    1993-10-22

    A design study was conducted to demonstrate the viability of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composites as structural case materials for penetrating warheads. The objective was to conduct well-instrumented experimental studies of composite-body penetrators perforating mild steel plates and quantitatively model these plate penetrations using two- and three-dimensional finite element codes over a wide range of velocities and impact conditions in order to develop predictive capability for composite design and for use in tradeoff studies with existing case materials. Understanding of the failure of composite-body penetrators would be demonstrated by a rational design iteration which significantly improved performance. Initial studies utilized existing 1-degree tapered cylindrical carbon fiber/epoxy composite cases fabricated by wet-filament winding. These sharp-tipped, steel-nose, composite penetrators were strain-gaged, piggy-backed with 57 kilograms, and impacted into steel plates in a velocity-boosted droptower at impact velocities ranging from 3 to 18 meters per second. Load, time, and position data were recorded during the impact event as well as the axial and hoop strains in the composite case. Monolithic 4340 hardened steel penetrators with both sharp- and flat-tip 3-caliber ogive noses were also impacted into mild steel plates. Data from the composite-case and steel penetrators were used to calibrate a multiaxial, rate-dependent, flow and failure model for the mild steel plates in NIKE2D. The authors were then able to successfully predict survival and failure of the composite-case penetrators in normal-incidence droptower tests for different target thickness and velocity combinations.

  5. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  6. Volcanotectonic history of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada, as suggested by new evidence from drill hole USW-VH-1 and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    New evidence for a possible resurgent dome in the caldera related to eruption of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff has been provided by recent drilling of a 762-meter (2,501-foot) hole in central Crater Flat. Although no new volcanic units were penetrated by the drill hole (USW-VH-1), the positive aeromagnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the drill hole appears to result in part from the unusually thick, densely welded tuff of the Bullfrog. Major units penetrated include alluvium, basalt of Crater Flat, Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff, and Prow Pass and Bullfrog Members of the Crater Flat Tuff. In addition, the drill hole provided the first subsurface hydrologic information for the area. The water table in the hole is at about 180 meters (600 feet), and the temperature gradient appears slightly higher than normal for the region.

  7. Volcano-tectonic history of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada, as suggested by new evidence from drill hole USW-VH-1 and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.

    1982-12-31

    New evidence for a possible resurgent dome in the caldera related to eruption of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff has been provided by recent drilling of a 762-meter (2501-foot) hole in central Crater Flat. Although no volcanic units were penetrated by the drill hole (USW-VH-1), the positive aeromagnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the drill hole appears to result in part from the unusually thick, densely welded tuff of the Bullfrog. Major units penetrated include alluvium, basalt of Crater Flat, Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff, and Prow Pass and Bullfrog Members of the Crater Flat Tuff. In addition, the drill hole provided the first subsurface hydrologic information for the area. The water table in the hole is at about 180 meters (600 feet), and the temperature gradient appears slightly higher than normal for the region.

  8. Sensor Lead Wires Positioned on SiC-based Monolithic Ceramic and Fiber- reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composite Subcomponents with Flat and Curved Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, James D.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Lei, Jih-Fen; Martin, Lisa C.

    1999-01-01

    There is strong interest in the development of silicon carbide-based monolithic ceramic and composite materials and components for demanding, high-temperature applications. Thorough characterization of material properties, including high-temperature testing under simulated or actual operating conditions, is a high priority for programs involved in developing these silicon carbide- (SiC) based materials and components. Members of the Sensors and Electronics Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center are developing minimally intrusive methods of measuring the properties (such as the surface temperature, strain, and heat flux characteristics) of components and subelements that are being tested or operated in hostile, high-temperature environments. Their primary goal is to instrument the test article or operating component with durable sensors that have a minimal effect on test conditions such as the gas flow across the surface of the item and the material response (including the through-thickness conduction of heat). Therefore, the main thrust of their work has been the development of thin-film sensors (e.g., thermocouples or strain gauges) for use on various advanced material test articles, including SiC/SiC composite components. There was a need for a better method of securing sensor lead wires on SiC-based components and subelements that would be tested at temperatures to 1000 C (or higher), to enhance the durability of the overall minimally intrusive sensor system. To address this need, Lewis researchers devised an alternative approach for positioning the sensor lead wires (which are connected to the thin-film sensors) on SiC or SiC/SiC components. A reaction-forming method of joining was used to strongly bond hoop-shaped monolithic SiC and SiC/SiC composite attachments of various sizes to both flat and curved surfaces of SiC/SiC composite subelements (see the photos). This approach is based on an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology, named

  9. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  10. Optimizing the position of insulating materials in flat roofs exposed to sunshine to gain minimum heat into buildings under periodic heat transfer conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Saboor; Talanki, Ashok Babu Puttranga Setty

    2016-05-01

    Building roofs are responsible for the huge heat gain in buildings. In the present work, an analysis of the influence of insulation location inside a flat roof exposed directly to the sun's radiation was performed to reduce heat gain in buildings. The unsteady thermal response parameters of the building roof such as admittance, transmittance, decrement factor, and time lags have been investigated by solving a one-dimensional diffusion equation under convective periodic boundary conditions. Theoretical results of four types of walls were compared with the experimental results available in literature. The results reveal that the roof with insulation placed at the outer side and at the center plane of the roof is the most energy efficient from the lower decrement factor point of view and the roof with insulation placed at the center plane and the inner side of the roof is the best from the highest time lag point of view among the seven studied configurations. The composite roof with expanded polystyrene insulation located at the outer side and at the center plane of the roof is found to be the best roof from the lowest decrement factor (0.130) point of view, and the composite roof with resin-bonded mineral wool insulation located at the center plane and at the inner side of the roof is found to be energy efficient from the highest time lag point (9.33 h) of view among the seven configurations with five different insulation materials studied. The optimum fabric energy storage thicknesses of reinforced cement concrete, expanded polystyrene, foam glass, rock wool, rice husk, resin-bonded mineral wool, and cement plaster were computed. From the results, it is concluded that rock wool has the least optimum fabric energy storage thickness (0.114 m) among the seven studied building roof materials.

  11. Penetrating neck traumas

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarski, Jacek; Brzeziński, Daniel; Cieślik-Wolski, Bartosz; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study Aim of the study is to present our own experiences in the treatment of people suffering from penetrating neck traumas. Material and methods In the years 1996-2012, 10 patients with penetrating neck traumas were treated, including 3 women and 7 men. The patients’ age ranged from 16 to 55 (the average age being 40.7 years). In 9 cases the wound was caused by cutting or stabbing, while in one case it was inflicted by a gunshot. In 8 patients it was a single cut wound, while one patient suffered from 34 stab wounds to the neck, chest and stomach. Two cut wounds resulted from a suicide attempt. The remaining injuries were the result of a crime. Results All patients underwent immediate surgery, which involved revision of the neck wounds in 8 cases, one longitudinal sternotomy and one left-sided thoracotomy. The indications for surgery included increased subcutaneous emphysema in 5 patients, bleeding from the wound in 3 patients, and mediastinal hematoma in 2 patients. The damage assessed intraoperatively included tracheal damage in 6 patients, damage to carotid vessels in 3 patients, larynx in 2 patients, thoracic vessels in 2 patients, oesophagus in 1 patient and thyroid gland in 1 patient. In 9 patients, the treatment yielded positive results. The patient with a gunshot wound died during the surgery due to massive bleeding from the aorta. Conclusions In patients with penetrating neck wounds, early and rapid diagnostics allows one to determine the indications for surgery and prevent serious fatal complications. PMID:26336390

  12. Penetration of concrete targets

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Cargile, J.D.; Tzou, R.D.Y.

    1993-08-01

    We developed penetration equations for ogive-nosed projectiles that penetrated concrete targets after normal impact. Our penetration equations predict axial force on the projectile nose, rigid-body motion, and final penetration depth. For target constitutive models, we conducted triaxial material experiments to confining pressures of 600 MPa and curve-fit these data with a linear pressure-volumetric strain relation and with a linear Mohr-Coulomb, shear strength-pressure relation. To verify our penetration equations, we conducted eleven penetration experiments with 0.90 kg, 26.9-mm-diameter, ogive-nosed projectiles into 1.37-m-diameter concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths between 32-40 MPa. Predictions from our penetration equation are compared with final penetration depth measurements for striking velocities between 280--800 m/s.

  13. The effect of welding parameters on penetration in GTA welds

    SciTech Connect

    Shirali, A.A. ); Mills, K.C. )

    1993-07-01

    The effect of various welding parameters on the penetration of GTA welds has been investigated. Increases in welding speed were found to reduce penetration; however, increases in welding current were observed to increase the penetration in high sulfur (HS) casts and decrease penetration in low sulfur (LS) steels. Plots of penetration as a function of increasing linear energy (the heat supplied per unit length of weld) revealed a similar trend with increased penetration in HS casts, but the penetration in LS casts was unaffected by increases in linear energy. These results support the Burgardt-Heiple proposition that changes in welding parameters on penetration can be explained in terms of their effect, sequentially, on the temperature gradient and the Marangoni forces operating in the weld pool. Increases in arc length were found to decrease weld penetration regardless of the sulfur concentration of the steel, and the effects of electrode geometry and welding position on weld penetration were also investigated.

  14. Flat detectors and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Diagnostic and interventional flat detector X-ray systems are penetrating the market in all application segments. First introduced in radiography and mammography, they have conquered cardiac and general angiography and are getting increasing attention in fluoroscopy. Two flat detector technologies prevail. The dominating method is based on an indirect X-ray conversion process, using cesium iodide scintillators. It offers considerable advantages in radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy. The other method employs a direct converter such as selenium which is particularly suitable for mammography. Both flat detector technologies are based on amorphous silicon active pixel matrices. Flat detectors facilitate the clinical workflow in radiographic rooms, foster improved image quality and provide the potential to reduce dose. This added value is based on their large dynamic range, their high sensitivity to X-rays and the instant availability of the image. Advanced image processing is instrumental in these improvements and expand the range of conventional diagnostic methods. In angiography and fluoroscopy the transition from image intensifiers to flat detectors is facilitated by ample advantages they offer, such as distortion-free images, excellent coarse contrast, large dynamic range and high X-ray sensitivity. These characteristics and their compatibility with strong magnetic fields are the basis for improved diagnostic methods and innovative interventional applications.

  15. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  16. Flat feet in children.

    PubMed

    Barry, R J; Scranton, P E

    1983-12-01

    In the assessment of the child with flat feet a sound knowledge of arch and subtalar biomechanics, epidemiology, and etiology is important. The occurrence and natural history of flat feet are presented, and treatment modalities that have withstood the test of time are discussed.

  17. Chemical penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Newton, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Chemical penetration enhancers are utilized in topical preparations as a method for enhancing permeation of drugs across the skin. In particular, they are utilized for transdermal delivery of medications in an attempt to produce a systemic response, to avoid first-pass metabolism, and to decrease the gastrointestinal transit time observed with oral medications. A review of the selection of chemical penetration enhancers, their mechanism of action, the most common chemical penetration enhancers in each class, and alternatives will be discussed in detail.

  18. Sixth-grade Indonesian student explanations of directions on flat maps and globes, of the Earth's rotation to cause night and day, and of the relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun during an eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimyati, Surachman

    The purpose of the study was to elicit and analyze sixth grade students' explanations concerning concepts taught in the national Indonesian sixth grade science curriculum. In this study, students were asked to identify the cardinal directions on flat maps and a globe, to describe what causes night and day on the earth, to identify the direction of the earth's rotation, and to identify the relative positions of the earth, sun, and moon during either a solar or lunar eclipse. The findings in the study can be summarized as follows (1) Eighty out of 88 students (91%) were able to explain what causes night and day. (2) Approximately 50% could identify the direction the earth rotates to cause night and day. (3) Using a solar system model, about 64% of the students could describe the relative position of the earth, sun, and moon during an eclipse. (4) Cultural differences affect student thinking. One student thought that Mecca had to be west of everywhere, not just west of Indonesia. (5) The way teachers teach seems to influence student thinking. It is easy for students to form the misconception that up is north. Most maps in classrooms are hung vertically. (6) Some students were confused by the globe. Teachers need to explain why the globe is tilted. Also, they need to help students understand how to determine the cardinal directions on a globe. More research is needed to determine what is needed to help students truly understand these concepts and to determine whether these concepts are best taught at the elementary level.

  19. Penetration Testing of the OPRA Regolith Penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shafie, A.; Kegege, O.; Barrows, S.; Roe, L.; Ulrich, R.

    2008-03-01

    Our work focuses on the mechanical design and penetration forces for the Optical Probe for Regolith Analysis. This is a spike-shaped probe delivered to a planet, asteroid, or cometary body by a lander to provide IR spectroscopy of the subsurface.

  20. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  1. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  2. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    PubMed

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  3. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  4. Flat-space singletons

    SciTech Connect

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-02-15

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED.

  5. CESAR at Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsiev, D.; Slanger, T. G.; Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomic Research (CESAR) has been sited at Poker Flat Research Range since November 2013, collecting data over two seasons of the nightglow and the aurora. CESAR has operated with a field of view of seven degrees in the zenith direction, with a resolution of 5000, although a resolution three times greater is available. So far, data collection times have been in the range of 20 minutes, while the wavelength range used has been 500-1050 nm. Detailed studies of a number of optical features have been carried out. 1) It is demonstrated that the v = 2 level of the O2(b) state is best studied by using the weak b-X 2-1 band near 697 nm, it being free of auroral contamination. 2) Similarly, the best uncontaminated feature of the N2+ Meinel system is the complex A-X 0-1 band, which has been accurately simulated for the first time [Dubowsky and McCall, private communication, 2014]. 3) The N(2P-2D) quartet of lines near 1040 nm is an important auroral feature, being the N-atom equivalent of the oxygen green line. These lines are uncontaminated in many of our spectra. For lower altitude auroral excitation, there may be some overlap with the N2 First Positive 0-0 band [Pendleton et al, 1989]. 4) Time series on the O+(2P-2D) lines near 732-733 nm have been studied, showing variable background emission in this region depending on auroral type. Information on OH Meinel band lines is available throughout the region studied, and there is substantial evidence from sky spectra (Keck, VLT) that the attempt to extract kinetic temperatures from OH intensity distributions is strongly influenced by non-LTE effects [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al, 2014].

  6. Advanced Penetrator Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    development • Uranium (U-V-X) Alloys • Alternative Matrix (adiabatic shearing) Tungsten Composites • Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Alloys • Severe Deformation...WIDER CHANNEL • MUSHROOM NOSE • LESS DEPTH • REMAINS SHARP • NARROW CHANNEL • DEEPER CAVITY TUNGSTEN HEAVY ALLOY U-3/4 Ti ALLOY U-8Mo ALLOYW-Ni-Fe...martensite (from Staker)(from Staker) • U-V alloys have the potential to maintain penetration capability while reducing penetrator density and mass. Tungsten

  7. Poker Flat improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee approved on September 14 a $10.8 million upgrade to University of Alaska Fairbanks Poker Flat Research Range pending full House and Senate approval. The funding will provide for building design, scientific program planning, and initial road and foundation construction. Senator Ted Stevens (RAK) said, “It is an important recognition of the roles Poker Flat, the Geophysical Institute and this university play in the international science area,“ that the Senate approved the money in a time of budget pressure.Poker Flat's facilities include rocket assembly and launching capabilities, telemetry receiving stations and ground-based diagnostic systems needed for launch decisions for space, aeronomy and atmospheric science experiments.

  8. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  9. Holograms of Flat Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The holographic principle has a concrete realization in the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. If this principle is a true fact about quantum gravity then it must also hold beyond AdS/CFT. In this paper, we address specifically holographic field theory duals of gravitational theories in asymptotically flat spacetimes. We present some evidence of our recent conjecture that three-dimensional (3d) conformal Chern-Simons gravity (CSG) with flat space boundary conditions is dual to an extremal CFT.

  10. Wideband flat frequency response of thermo-acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hanping; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Zedong

    2012-08-01

    Many advantages of thermo-acoustic (TA) ultrasound over the conventional electro-acoustic ultrasound are mainly attributed to its unique nature—constant (flat) amplitude-frequency response over a wide frequency range. However, realization of the TA flat frequency response itself has so far remained unclear due to the lack of theoretical investigation. In this work, using analysis of thermal-mechanical coupling and thermal wave penetration depth for TA emission in gas, the mechanism and regularities of flat frequency response are clarified. The limits of both frequency and space for the existence of flat frequency response of TA ultrasound are revealed. In addition, the performance evaluation and selection techniques for both TA material and its backing are presented. Therefore, the most important feature of TA ultrasound from a technical standpoint is studied more completely.

  11. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  12. Stereoscopic Flat Panel Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the display of stereo imagery have been demonstrated. Stereoscopic displays typically require the user to wear special headgear. Autostereoscopic ...components and the resulting changes in the encoding algorithm. Keywords: Stereoscopic display, LCD, 3D , polarization encoding, flat panel 1...panel display when viewing non-stereoscopic imagery or data. Remotely operated vehicles do not represent the only potential application for 3D

  13. Flat-cable fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, K. J.

    1982-11-01

    Processes, environment, designs, and materials were reviewed to lower the attrition rate and improve the manufacturing ability of flat, flexible cables. Attrition caused by foreign material, damage, and dents was lowered. A new termination was developed for two cables. An alternative design for Kapton insulated cables reduced notch sensitivity. Alternative methods of cable manufacturing and inspection are investigated.

  14. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  15. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  16. Single wall penetration equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.

  17. Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as...a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo ZL-30) were microencapsulated and tested on

  18. Soil penetrometers and penetrability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil penetrometers are useful tools that measure the penetrability, or strength, of a soil. They can be as simple as a rod or shaft with a blunt or sharp end, or complicated mechanically driven instruments with digital data collection systems. Regardless of their design, soil penetrometers measure s...

  19. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  20. Mathematical treatise on the recovery from a flat spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, R

    1930-01-01

    In this mathematical investigation, made in collaboration with Dr. Wilhelm Schmidt, we interpret the temporary change (due to some disturbance) in the quantities which define the position of the airplane while in a flat spin. We further examine the effect of this change, of the means resorted to to produce the disturbance, and thus reveal the expedients available for recovering from a flat spin.

  1. Experimental investigation into the deep penetration of soft solids by sharp and blunt punches, with application to the piercing of skin.

    PubMed

    Shergold, Oliver A; Fleck, Norman A

    2005-10-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on the penetration of silicone rubbers and human skin in vivo by sharp-tipped and flat-bottomed cylindrical punches. A penetrometer was developed to measure the penetration of human skin in vivo, while a conventional screw-driven testing machine was used to penetrate the silicone rubbers. The experiments reveal that the penetration mechanism of a soft solid depends upon the punch tip geometry: a sharp tipped punch penetrates by the formation and wedging open of a mode I planar crack, while a flat-bottomed punch penetrates by the growth of a mode II ring crack. The planar crack advances with the punch, and friction along the flanks of the punch leads to a rising load versus displacement response. In contrast, the flat-bottomed punch penetrates by jerky crack advance and the load on the punch is unsteady. The average penetration pressure on the shank cross section of a flat-bottomed punch exceeds that for a sharp-tipped punch of the same diameter In addition, the penetration pressure decreases as the diameter of the sharp-tipped punch increases. These findings are in broad agreement with the predictions of Shergold and Fleck [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (in press)] who proposed models for the penetration of a soft solid by a sharp-tipped and flat-bottomed punch.

  2. WFC3 UVIS Detector: Improved Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Mack, J.; Sabbi, E.; WFC3 Team

    2012-01-01

    We describe the improved flat field calibration for a set of UVIS broad-band filters that were delivered to MAST in August 2011. The total change peak-to-peak with respect to the previous pipeline flats ranges from 3.6% to 5.6%, increasing with wavelength. The flat-fields previously used in the pipeline were obtained during ground testing and contained a large reflection ghost (or flare) that affected 40% of the field. A simplified geometric model of the internal light reflections has been used to remove the flare from the ground flats. Residual low-frequency structures caused by differences in the ground-based and in-flight optical paths were then computed using photometry of Omega Centauri, observed at various roll angles and with large dithered steps. Furthermore, photometry in a range of apertures has been used to study the UVIS PSF in detail. For radii smaller than 0.4" (10 pixels) the PSF is strongly dependent on both the detector position and on the telescope focus at the time of observation. Therefore, the new pipeline flat fields have been normalized to "infinite" aperture by applying local aperture corrections to 10 pixels, making them more generally applicable.

  3. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  4. Cognitive Penetration and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Zenon Pylyshyn argues that cognitively driven attentional effects do not amount to cognitive penetration of early vision because such effects occur either before or after early vision. Critics object that in fact such effects occur at all levels of perceptual processing. We argue that Pylyshyn’s claim is correct—but not for the reason he emphasizes. Even if his critics are correct that attentional effects are not external to early vision, these effects do not satisfy Pylyshyn’s requirements that the effects be direct and exhibit semantic coherence. In addition, we distinguish our defense from those found in recent work by Raftopoulos and by Firestone and Scholl, argue that attention should not be assimilated to expectation, and discuss alternative characterizations of cognitive penetrability, advocating a kind of pluralism. PMID:28275358

  5. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  6. Penetration Mechanics of Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    distribution for tensile strength of hollow virgin filaments, based on 128 tests (source: Owens / Corning Fiberglas Corp). 14 1.2 Schematic of split Hopkinson...These were supplied by Owens / Corning Fiberglas Corporation, Granville, Ohio in two forms: 463AA750 (750 yd/lb) roving tow and G150 (1500 yd/lb...penetration of 12.7-mm thick (25-ply) GRP. Targets were fabricated by Owens Corning Fiberglas (OCF) by a licensed process designated HJ1. This complies

  7. Prediction of alumina penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D A

    1993-02-01

    The MESA hydrocode was used to predict two-dimensional tests of L/D 10 and L/D 15 tungsten rods impacting AD 90 alumina with a steel backing. The residual penetration into the steel is the measured quantity in these experiments conducted at the Southwest Research Institute (SWR). The interface velocity as a function of time between an alumina target and a lithium fluoride window, impacted by an alumina disk at velocities between 544 m/s and 2329 m/s, was also predicted. These one-dimensional flyer plate experiments were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories using Coors AD 995 alumina. The material strength and fracture models are important in the prediction of ceramic experiments. The models used in these predictions are discussed. The penetrations in the two-dimensional tests were predicted to 11.4 percent or better. In five of the six experiments, the predicted penetration depth was deeper than the measured value. This trend is expected since the calculation is based on ideal conditions. The results show that good agreement between the 1-D flyer plate data and the MESA predictions exists at the lower impact velocities, but the maximum velocity is overpredicted as the flyer plate velocity increases. At a flyer plate velocity of 2329 m/s the code overpredicted the data by 12.3 percent.

  8. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  9. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  10. Asymptotically flat multiblack lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomizawa, Shinya; Okuda, Taika

    2017-03-01

    We present an asymptotically flat and stationary multiblack lens solution with biaxisymmetry of U (1 )×U (1 ) as a supersymmetric solution in the five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity. We show that the spatial cross section of each degenerate Killing horizon admits different lens space topologies of L (n ,1 )=S3/Zn as well as a sphere S3. Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the higher-dimensional Majumdar-Papapetrou multiblack hole and multi-Breckenridge-Myers-Peet-Vafa (BMPV) black hole spacetime, the metric is smooth on each horizon even if the horizon topology is spherical.

  11. Spectral Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1990-12-01

    The diode to diode variations and photocathode non- uniformities of the FOS detectors were determined in SV for spectra obtained through the single apertures. Additional flat field calibrations will be performed in cycle 1 to verify stability and to extend the calibration to include the paired aperture spectra. In this test, we will obtain spectra of G191-B2B, which is known to have a very smooth, relatively featureless spectrum. The star will be observed in every useful detector/disperser combination through single apertures, and with the most useful dispersers at the photocathode locations corresponding to paired aperture spectra. Spatial scanning in the dispersion direction is used to shift the spectra, so that instrumental and features can be distinguished. The most useful polarizer configurations are also calibrated (excluding red side polarimetry and including blue side polarimetry for POL0-B but not for POL0-A). A second star, BD+28D4211, is also observed in the same manner, about 6 months later, to establish photometric and flat-field stability.

  12. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  13. The deep penetrating nevus.

    PubMed

    Strazzula, Lauren; Senna, Maryanne Makredes; Yasuda, Mariko; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-12-01

    The deep penetrating nevus (DPN), also known as the plexiform spindle cell nevus, is a pigmented lesion that commonly arises on the head and neck in the first few decades of life. Histopathologically, the DPN is wedge-shaped and contains melanocytes that exhibit deep infiltration into the dermis. Given these features, DPN may clinically and histopathologically mimic malignant melanoma, sparking confusion about the appropriate evaluation and management of these lesions. The goal of this review is to summarize the clinical and histopathological features of DPN and to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for dermatologists.

  14. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  15. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  16. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  17. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  18. Penetration in GTA welding

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The size and shape of the weld bead produced in GTA welding depends on the magnitude and distribution of the energy incident on the workpiece surfaces as well as the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece. The input energy is largely controllable through the welding parameters selected, however the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece is less subject to control. Changes in energy dissipation can produce large changes in weld shape or penetration. Heat transport away from the weld pool is almost entirely by conduction, but heat transport in the weld pool is more complicated. Heat conduction through the liquid is an important component, but heat transport by convection (mass transport) is often the dominant mechanism. Convective heat transport is directional and changes the weld pool shape from that produced by conduction alone. Surface tension gradients are often the dominant forces driving fluid flow in GTA weld pools. These gradients are sensitive functions of weld pool chemistry and the energy input distribution to the weld. Experimental and theoretical work conducted primarily in the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of weld pool fluid flow, the forces which drive it, and its effects on weld pool shape. This work is reviewed here. While less common, changes in energy dissipation through the unmelted portion of the workpiece can also affect fusion zone shape or penetration. These effects are also described. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-05-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, nontrivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces nonvanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The noncurvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asymptotic past. Interestingly, for an alternate loop quantization which does not share some of the fine features of the standard quantization, flat Kasner spacetime with expected classical features exists. In this case, even with nontrivial quantum geometric effects, the spacetime curvature vanishes. These examples show that the character of even a flat classical vacuum spacetime can alter in a fundamental way in quantum gravity and is sensitive to the quantization procedure.

  20. Magnetic moment jumps in flat and nanopatterned Nb thin-walled cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsindlekht, M. I.; Genkin, V. M.; Felner, I.; Zeides, F.; Katz, N.; Gazi, Š.; Chromik, Š.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M.

    2017-02-01

    Penetration of magnetic flux into hollow superconducting cylinders is investigated by magnetic moment measurements. The magnetization curves of a flat and a nanopatterned thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross section are reported for the axial field geometry. In the nanopatterned sample, a row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was milled in the film along the cylinder axis. Magnetic moment jumps are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above Hc1, but also in fields lower than Hc1, i. e., in the vortex-free regime. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than Hc1. At temperatures above 0.66Tc and 0.78Tc the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared sample, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference flat Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures.

  1. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  2. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  3. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  4. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  5. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  6. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  7. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats are inundated, wind and wave action may resuspend bottom sediments. Coastal mud flats are exposed...

  8. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  9. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-09

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount.

  10. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei; Wu, Puxun E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  11. Sidewall penetrator for oil wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Penetrator bores horizontal holes in well casing to increase trapped oil drainage. Several penetrators operated by common drive are inserted into well at once. Shaft, made from spiraling cable, rotates and thrusts simultaneously through rigid curvilinear guide tube forcing bit through casing into strata. Device pierces more deeply than armor-piercing bullets and shaped explosive charges.

  12. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  13. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  14. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of ballistic He penetration into W fuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaver, T. P. C.; Nordlund, K.; Morgan, T. W.; Westerhof, E.; Thijsse, B. J.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Results are presented of large-scale Molecular Dynamics simulations of low-energy He bombardment of W nanorods, or so-called ‘fuzz’ structures. The goal of these simulations is to see if ballistic He penetration through W fuzz offers a more realistic scenario for how He moves through fuzz layers than He diffusion through fuzz nanorods. Instead of trying to grow a fuzz layer starting from a flat piece of bulk W, a new approach of creating a fully formed fuzz structure 0.43 µm thick out of ellipsoidal pieces of W is employed. Lack of detailed experimental knowledge of the 3D structure of fuzz is dealt with by simulating He bombardment on five different structures of 15 vol% W and determining the variation in He penetration for each case. The results show that by far the most important factor determining He penetration is the amount of open channels through which He ions can travel unimpeded. For a more or less even W density distribution He penetration into fuzz falls off exponentially with distance and can thus be described by a ‘half depth’. In a 15 vol% fuzz structure, the half depth can reach 0.18 µm. In the far sparser fuzz structures that were recently reported, the half depth might be 1 µm or more. This means that ballistic He penetration offers a more likely scenario than He diffusion through nanorods for how He moves through fuzz and may provide an adequate explanation for how He penetrates through the thickest fuzz layers reported so far. Furthermore, the exponential decrease in penetration with depth would follow a logarithmic dependence on fluence which is compatible with experiments. A comparison of these results and molecular dynamics calculations carried out in the recoil interaction approximation shows that results for W fuzz are qualitatively very different from conventional stopping power calculations on W with a similarly low but homogeneous density distribution.

  16. Flats: Preliminary WFC Data and Plans for Flight Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Hartig, G.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    2000-10-01

    The ACS WFC pixel-to-pixel P-flats with the build-3 detector repeat over a three month time span to a precision of better than 0.1% rms. The shape of the low frequency Lflat field varies with wavelength, where the ratio of the F435W/F814W L-flats differs from unity by - 10% in two patches near opposite corners of the field of view. At ~0.5%, the high frequency pixel-to-pixel structure in the WFC P-flats is about half that of the HRC build-2 and does not increase as much toward shorter wavelengths as the HRC build-2 with the Lesser coating. The amplitude of the fringes for continuum illumination is less than 1%, even in the narrow band ramp filters, while the fringing in monochromatic light is - 10% at 9300 Å. The goals of the laboratory WFC and HRC flat field program are to obtain the set of external flats that fully populates the pipeline database and to archive a baseline of high S/N internal flats for tracking post-launch changes.

  17. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L

    2005-06-21

    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.

  18. Penetrating Neck Trauma: Review of 192 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodie, Mohsen; Sanei, Behnam; Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad; Namgar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background The neck region contains a high density of vital organ structures within a relatively small and unprotected anatomic region, making it one of the most vulnerable areas of the body for all types of injuries. Objectives In this article, we studied penetrating neck trauma cases in Alzahra Hospital over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods In this retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, penetrating neck trauma cases admitted to Alzahra Hospital between April 2000 and April 2010 were analyzed for epidemiology, mechanism of trauma, zone of trauma, therapeutic method, injuries to other organs, complications, and mortality. Results Among 192 penetrating neck injuries, the mean age at the time of injury was 25.08 ± 15.02 years. Of these cases, 96.4% occurred in men. The most common mechanisms of trauma was stab wounds (85.93%). In 56.3% of penetrating neck injuries, zone 2 was involved. Neck exploration was positive in 84.4% of cases, and 52.1% of patients underwent surgery. Vascular exploration was the most common cause of surgery (67.2% of patients). The most common surgical intervention was vein ligation (50.8% of cases). In 11.98% of cases, another organ injury occurred simultaneously, and chest injury was the most common coexisting problem (65.2%). Complications were reported in 9.3% of patients, and the need for intubation was the most common complication (5.2% of patients). Mortality rate was 1.5%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the most common cause of penetrating neck injuries was stab wounds, and the majority of patients were young men, therefore, preventive measures should be implemented. Because of fatal complications associated with neck injuries, we recommend early neck exploration in unstable cases or when injuries are deeper than the platysma. PMID:24719835

  19. Testing flat-conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Report describes characteristics of type of FCC which consists of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with self-extinguishing polyester adhesive.

  20. Novel method for high accuracy figure measurement of optical flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Kewei; Li, Dahai; Yang, Lijie; Guo, Guangrao; Li, Mengyang; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Phase Measuring Deflectometry (PMD) is a non-contact, high dynamic-range and full-field metrology which becomes a serious competitor to interferometry. However, the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of the calibrations, including test geometry, imaging pin-hole camera and digital display. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can measure optical flat surface figure to a high accuracy. We first calibrate the camera using a checker pattern shown on a LCD display at six different orientations, and the last orientation is aligned at the same position as the test optical flat. By using this method, lens distortions and the mapping relationship between the CCD pixels and the subaperture coordinates on the test optical flat can be determined at the same time. To further reduce the influence of the calibration errors on measurements, a reference optical flat with a high quality surface is measured, and then the system errors in our PMD setup can be eliminated by subtracting the figure of the reference flat from the figure of the test flat. Although any expensive coordinates measuring machine, such as laser tracker and coordinates measuring machine are not applied in our measurement, our experimental results of optical flat figure from low to high order aberrations still show a good agreement with that from the Fizeau interferometer.

  1. Gravitational multisoliton solutions on flat space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that, for even n , the n -soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n , the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n -soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n -soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n . It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m , of solitons can be eliminated in a nontrivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n - and [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centered Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

  2. Evaluation of Microencapsulated Penetrant Inspection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    AD-A9b 826 GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OH AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP F/6 IA/2ADG EVALUATION OF MICROENCAPSULATED PENETRANT INSPECTION.(U) DEC 80 J M...4156 ADA096826 EVALUATION OF MICROENCAPSULATED PENETRANT INSPECTION i :I J.M. Portaz Aircraft Engine Group General Electric Company Cincinnati, Ohio... Microencapsulated Penetrant 5 7riJF-Iehica17 = Inspection p un May@84 -1 ---- --- ---- 19AMFGK657j7 7. AiJTHOR(s) nVCWRACT OR GRANT m 𔃻 " JO J.M./Portaz

  3. Trophic relationships in tidal flat areas: To what extent are tidal flats dependent on imported food?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild M.

    In four intertidal areas of 'Königshafen' (island of Sylt, FRG), biomass and production of macrozoobenthos were measured monthly in 1980 and 1984. The areas were characterized by different macrofauna assemblages ( Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed, Arenicola flat and mussel bed). Biomass and production of macrofauna were partitioned with regard to food preference of single species as well as to the food availability within their habitat. In the Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed and the Arenicola flat, most of the secondary production of the macrofauna was formed by grazing animals. Secondary production of mussel beds was nearly 10 times higher than in the other three assemblages. The suspension feeder assemblage depended on planktonic food imported from outside the bay. Considering the secondary production of the total tidal flat area, suspension feeders dominated the other trophic groups, indicating a key position of this group relative to the other macrofaunal assemblages. Mussel beds regulate the seston input to other communities situated further landward. Because of this dominance of the suspension feeder group, the energy and material flow of the total tidal flat is strongly dependent on the seston input from the coastal waters of the North Sea or from other parts of the Wadden Sea.

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  5. Investigations into Monochloramine Biofilm Penetration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct b...

  6. Foldable Instrumented Bits for Ultrasonic/Sonic Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Iskenderian, Theodore; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Linderman, Randel

    2010-01-01

    field, magnetic permeability, temperature, and any other properties that can be measured by fiber-optic sensors. The problem of instrumenting a probe of this type is simplified, relative to the problem of attaching electrodes in a rotating drill bit, in two ways: (1) Unlike a rotating drill bit, a bit of this type does not have flutes, which would compound the problem of ensuring contact between sensors and the side wall of a hole; and (2) there is no need for slip rings for electrical contact between sensor electronic circuitry and external circuitry because, unlike a rotating drill, a tool bit of this type is not rotated continuously during operation. One design for a tool bit of the present type is a segmented bit with a segmented, hinged support structure (see figure). The bit and its ultrasonic/sonic actuator are supported by a slider/guiding fixture, and its displacement and preload are controlled by a motor. For deployment from the folded configuration, a spring-loaded mechanism rotates the lower segment about the hinges, causing the lower segment to become axially aligned with the upper segment. A latching mechanism then locks the segments of the bit and the corresponding segments of the slider/guiding fixture. Then the entire resulting assembly is maneuvered into position for drilling into the ground. Another design provides for a bit comprising multiple tubular segments with an inner alignment string, similar to a foldable tent pole comprising multiple tubular segments with an inner elastic cable connecting the two ends. At the beginning of deployment, all segments except the first (lowermost) one remain folded, and the ultrasonic/sonic actuator is clamped to the top of the lowermost segment and used to drive this segment into the ground. When the first segment has penetrated to a specified depth, the second segment is connected to the upper end of the first segment to form a longer rigid tubular bit and the actuator is moved to the upper end of the second

  7. Discovery of N-(4-methoxy-7-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)isonicatinamide, ML293, as a novel, selective and brain penetrant positive allosteric modulator of the muscarinic 4 (M4) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Salovich, James M.; Vinson, Paige N.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Lamsal, Atin; Utley, Thomas J.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Le, Uyen; Jones, Carrie K.; Wood, Michael R.; Daniels, J. Scott; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe the discovery and development of a novel class of M4 positive allosteric modulators, culminating in the discovery of ML293. ML293 exhibited modest potency at the human M4 receptor (EC50 = 1.3 µM) and excellent efficacy as noted by the 14.6-fold leftward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve. ML293 was also selective versus the other muscarinic subtypes and displayed excellent in vivo PK properties in rat with low IV clearance (11.6 mL/min/kg) and excellent brain exposure (PO PBL, 10 mg/kg at 1 h, [Brain] = 10.3 µM, B:P = 0.85). PMID:22738637

  8. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  9. The revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Sharina, M. E.; Parnovskij, S. L.

    The authors present a new improved and completed version of the Flat Galaxy Catalogue (FGC) named the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue (RFGC) containing 4236 thin edge-on spiral galaxies and covering the whole sky. The Catalogue is intended to study large-scale cosmic streamings as well as other problems of observational cosmology. The dipole moment of distribution of the RFGC galaxies (l = 273°, b = +19°) lies within statistical errors (±10°) in the direction of the Local Group motion towards the Microwave Background Radiation.

  10. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-04-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity (NLG) in 2D spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein’s field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of NLG.

  11. How an Electron Beam (Eventually) Penetrates Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) the effect of an electron beam was investigated on Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. It was anticipated that the cloth would take a static charge that would repel the beam and remain undamaged. It was found that after some seconds the impinging beam penetrated penetrated the cloth. Further, the penetration time went up significantly both at longer and at closer standoff distances. A tentative explanation appears to fit the observed facts. The electrons in the beam generate positive ions by collisions with the contaminant gas molecules in the vacuum chamber. The positive ions transfer a small but significant fraction of the beam power to the cloth. Under the impingement of the positive ions the cloth heats up until sufficient outgassing occurs to initiate arcing. Once arcing occurs the full beam power impinges on the cloth and, almost instantaneously, burns a hole.

  12. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  13. Geology of drill hole USW VH-2, and structure of Crater Flat, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Parrish, L.D.

    1985-12-31

    A 1219 meter (4000 ft) drill hole in Crater Flat shows the absence of buried Pliocene or Quaternary volcanic rocks, and penetrates a section of Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, and the upper part of the Crater Flat Tuffs, similar to that exposed adjacent to Crater Flat. A prominent negative aeromagnetic anomaly between the drill hole and Bare Mountain is attributed to a westward thickening section of a reversely magnetized Miocene basalt. The relatively shallow depth of this basalt in the west-central part of Crater Flat indicates that no large amount of tectonic movement has occurred in approximately the last 10 m.y. Massive brecciated wedges of Paleozoic rocks are penetrated in two stratigraphic intervals in the drill hole; the older one, between the Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, correlates with the time of maximum faulting east of Crater Flat in the Yucca Mountain area. The younger slide masses are correlated with a large slide block of probable late Miocene age exposed along the southwestern rim of Crater Flat. The structural pattern and style buried beneath central and western Crater Flat is deduced to be similar to that exposed at Yucca Mountain, but less developed. The major fault system controlling the steep east face of Bare Mountain, though probably still active, is believed to have developed mainly as a result of caldera collapse between 13 and 14 m.y. ago. Relations between faulting and four episodes of basalt eruption in the Crater Flat area strongly suggest contemporaneity of the two processes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Double-Plate Penetration Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    This report compares seven double-plate penetration predictor equations for accuracy and effectiveness of a shield design. Three of the seven are the Johnson Space Center original, modified, and new Cour-Palais equations. The other four are the Nysmith, Lundeberg-Stern-Bristow, Burch, and Wilkinson equations. These equations, except the Wilkinson equation, were derived from test results, with the velocities ranging up to 8 km/sec. Spreadsheet software calculated the projectile diameters for various velocities for the different equations. The results were plotted on projectile diameter versus velocity graphs for the expected orbital debris impact velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/sec. The new Cour-Palais double-plate penetration equation was compared to the modified Cour-Palais single-plate penetration equation. Then the predictions from each of the seven double-plate penetration equations were compared to each other for a chosen shield design. Finally, these results from the equations were compared with test results performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the different equations predict a wide range of projectile diameters at any given velocity, it is very difficult to choose the "right" prediction equation for shield configurations other than those exactly used in the equations' development. Although developed for various materials, the penetration equations alone cannot be relied upon to accurately predict the effectiveness of a shield without using hypervelocity impact tests to verify the design.

  15. The Role of Subducting Ridges in the Formation of Flat Slabs: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, Sanja; Wagner, Lara; Kumar, Abhash; Beck, Susan; Long, Maureen; Zandt, George; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2015-04-01

    sink, causing the flattening of the slab. Development of the flat slab is further accommodated by the northward motion of the overriding plate and suction between two plates. However, once the flat slab becomes too far away from the buoyant support, it will become unstable in spite of the presence of other factors. The position of the ridge, in particular its orientation with respect to the convergence direction, will dictate the along-strike extent of the flat slab. We find that the inboard extent of the flat slab correlates with the position of the ~10 Ma old slab. We speculate that ~10 Ma represents the period necessary for the slab to be sufficiently eclogitized and become negatively buoyant. Thus, the delayed eclogitization of the overthickened oceanic crust in combination with convergence rate controls the inboard extent of the flat slab. Our findings provide important constraints on the formation and size of flat slabs both past and present.

  16. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Erinc; Kontis, Konstantinos; Saravanan, Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield. PMID:25494348

  17. Mars surface penetrator: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, L. A. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    A point design of a penetrator system for a Mars mission is described. A strawman payload which is to conduct measurements of geophysical and meteorological parameters is included in the design. The subsystems used in the point design are delineated in terms of power, mass, volume, data, and functional modes. The prospects for survival of the rigors of emplacement are described. Data handling and communications plans are presented to allow consideration of the requirements placed by the penetrator on the orbiter and ground operations. The point design is technically feasible and the payload selection scientifically desirable.

  18. Fluconazole Penetration into the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Shrikhande, Shailesh; Friess, Helmut; Issenegger, Claudia; Martignoni, Marcus E.; Yong, Huang; Gloor, Beat; Yeates, Rodney; Kleeff, Jörg; Büchler, Markus W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotizing pancreatitis, the frequency of fungal superinfection in patients with pancreatic necrosis is increasing. In this study we analyzed the penetration of fluconazole into the human pancreas and in experimental acute pancreatitis. In human pancreatic tissues, the mean fluconazole concentration was 8.19 ± 3.38 μg/g (96% of the corresponding concentration in serum). In experimental edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis, 88 and 91% of the serum fluconazole concentration was found in the pancreas. These data show that fluconazole penetration into the pancreas is sufficient to prevent and/or treat fungal contamination in patients with pancreatic necrosis. PMID:10952621

  19. Use of the flat dilatometer (DMT) in landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades we have assisted at a considerable shift from laboratory testing to in situ testing to the point that, today, in situ testing often represent the major part of a geotechnical investigation. Recommendations given in recent State-of-the-Art papers indicate that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Seismic Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) and the Seismic Dilatometer Test (SDMT), are fast and very convenient tests for routine site investigations. The aim of this paper is to describe the use of the flat dilatometer test (DMT) in landslide diagnosis and monitoring. In particular, a method is presented for detecting slip surfaces in overconsolidated clay slopes based on the inspection of the profiles of the horizontal stress index KD from DMT, as developed by Totani et al. (1997). In addition, the relaxation of the in situ horizontal stress σh, estimated from DMT, helps to locate a landslide. The paper illustrates by using different examples the capability of SDMT to identify the shear zones left remoulded by the occurrence of a landslide. Keywords: flat dilatometer, horizontal stress index, in situ horizontal stress References Totani G., Calabrese M., Marchetti S., Monaco, P. (1997). Use of in situ flat dilatometer (DMT) for ground characterization in the stability analysis of slopes. Proceeding of 14th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Hamburg, September 1997, vol. 1, pp. 607-610.

  20. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  1. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    determine the vehicles location when adverse conditions, such as heavy rain or fog , snow-covered roads, or lost GPS signals, hamper the...penetrate rain, fog , dust, and snow. LGPR Methodology For subsurface sensing, GPR is one of the most versatile and prolific sensing modal- ities today

  2. Magnetically-Guided Penetrant Applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Orlando G.

    1990-01-01

    Small wheeled vehicle moved inside nonmagnetic enclosure. Miniature magnetically guided truck uses foam-rubber sponge pads to apply penetrant fluid for inspection of welds in hidden surfaces of nonmagnetic tubes. Risk of explosion less than if electric motor used to drive vehicle. Inexpensive to make and made in range of sizes.

  3. 3. VIEW OF WEST PORTAL. SAME POSITION AS NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST PORTAL. SAME POSITION AS NO. 1 SHOWING RETAINING WALL BELOW ROAD. - Big Oak Flat Road Tunnel No. 1, Through mountain spur on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  5. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  6. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  7. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  8. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats are inundated, wind and wave action may resuspend bottom sediments. Coastal mud flats are exposed...

  9. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1)Y, SU(2)L or SU(3)c gauge couplings, as well as for large enough Yukawa couplings, the fluctuations along the non-flat directions effectively block the fluctuations along the flat directions. The usual expected behaviour langlephi2rangleproptoN, with N the number of e-folds, may be strongly violated, depending on the coupling strengths. As a consequence, those cosmological considerations, which are derived assuming that during inflation flat directions fluctuate freely, should be revised.

  10. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  11. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  12. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  13. Stigmatic flat focal field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, T. M.; Gobeli, G. W.

    Advances in two dimensional detectors have created a need for a spectrograph that can produce high fidelity images. Aberrations that detract from image quality in conventional spectrographs are discussed. Ray trace and experimental results obtained for a unique spectrograph designed for use with array detectors, i.e., designed to produce high fidelity images, are presented. The spectrograph employs toroidal mirrors to achieve stigmatic imaging in a flat focal field.

  14. Nonhost Root Penetration by Soybean Cyst Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 66 plants in 50 species were inoculated with eggs and juveniles of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Roots were stained and observed for penetration and development of the nematode. Twenty-six plants were not penetrated; twenty-three were penetrated, but there was no development of the nematode; eight were penetrated with some nematode development; two were penetrated and had considerable nematode development, but few nematodes, if any, matured; and seven were penetrated with many nematodes maturing. The penetration of nonhosts may imply some susceptibility and that populations eventually would build up on the penetrated plants. Plants not penetrated may be useful as rotation plants because no reproduction would occur. PMID:19290137

  15. Flat beams in the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that ``flat`` beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow these beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to ``flat`` beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following we present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC.

  16. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover. PMID:24292562

  17. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  18. Depth of penetration of bubbles entrained by a plunging water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanet, Christophe; Lasheras, Juan C.

    1997-07-01

    A model is proposed to predict the depth of penetration of the air bubbles entrained by a round water jet impacting into a flat, liquid pool. This depth is shown to be determined only by the initial jet momentum and by the non-monotonic nature of the bubble terminal velocities as a function of their size. The model is shown to be in excellent agreement with measurements of the depth and width of penetration of the bubbles performed over a wide range of jet diameters, velocities, and plunging angles.

  19. A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yawei

    2011-02-01

    Let (M4,g) be a four-dimensional complete noncompact Bach-flat Riemannian manifold with positive Yamabe constant. In this paper, we show that (M4,g) has a constant curvature if it has a nonnegative constant scalar curvature and sufficiently small L2-norm of trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (M4,g) with positive scalar curvature.

  20. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  1. Symmetries in flat space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the following flat spacetimes with a high degree of symmetry are studied. The first part completes the classification of all homogeneous flat spacetimes begun by Wolf. The second part explores classification of flat spacetimes with symmetry groups having codimension one orbits. In this case attention is restricted to spacetimes which model a centrally symmetric gravitational field.

  2. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  3. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  4. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  5. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  6. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  7. Penetration of nanoparticles into human skin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao Wen; Xu, Zhi Ping; Grice, Jeffrey; Zvyagin, Andrei V; Roberts, Michael S; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing with the development of nanotechnology and new applications of NPs in medicine. Safety concerns have sparked debate on the capacity of NPs to penetrate through skin and enter into the body. This article attempts to summarize the recent evidence on whether NPs penetrate human skin and the factors that may affect the penetration. Skin structure and penetration mechanisms are reviewed to provide background information. Size, shape, formulation, surface properties and application methods and their effects on skin penetration are specifically discussed. Finally, the relationship between skin penetration and nanotoxicity is reviewed to further emphasise the importance of the research in this area.

  8. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  9. Flat panel display Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  10. IPMN penetration of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masakazu; Tominaga, Keiichi; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Kanke, Kazunari; Tamano, Masaya; Hiraishi, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    An 83-year old Japanese man was transferred to our hospital due to a 1-week history of melena and signs of disordered awareness. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a villous tumor associated with massive white mucous discharge in the posterior wall of the gastric corpus, where pathologically identified mucin-producing epithelium with nuclear atypia had developed into a papillary form. An abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan demonstrated communication between the dilated main pancreatic duct and the gastric lumen. Based on these findings, we reached a diagnosis of gastric penetration by an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the main pancreatic duct. IPMN is partly characterized by expansive mucinous growth that may result in penetration into adjacent organs.

  11. Numerical simulation of full-penetration laser beam welding of thick aluminium plates with inductive support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Marcel; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional laminar steady-state numerical model was developed to investigate the influence of an alternating current (ac) magnetic field during high-power full-penetration laser welding on the weld pool dynamics and weld cross section of a 20 mm thick aluminium plate in flat position. Three-dimensional heat transfer, fluid dynamics including phase transition and electromagnetic field partial differential equations were solved iteratively with the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics using temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature. Thermocapillary convection at the weld pool surfaces, natural convection and latent heat of solid-liquid phase transition were taken into account in this model. Solidification was modelled by the Carman-Kozeny equation for porous media morphology. The ac magnet was mounted on the root side of the weld specimen. The magnetic field was aligned perpendicular to the welding direction. The flow pattern in the melt and thus also the temperature distribution were significantly changed by the application of oscillating magnetic fields. It was shown that the application of an ac magnetic field to laser beam welding allows for a prevention of the gravity drop-out. The simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. Fragment Penetration Tests of Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-15

    Identify by block numbhr) Provides techniques for evaluating armor resistance to attack by HE projectile fragments. Includes static detonations of shell...DISTRIBUTION D. REFERENCES * . . . ........ . ........... D-1 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes the available techniques for testing armor for resistance to attack by...Projectiles Against Armor Plates ("Yankee Stadium" Test-). 4.1.1 hCjective. The objective is to determine the resistance to penetration of various armor

  13. Jeeps Penetrating a Hostile Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herb

    2009-01-01

    Several jeeps are poised at base camp on the edge of a desert aiming to escort one of them as far as possible into the desert, while the others return to camp. They all have full tanks of gas and share their fuel to maximize penetration. In a friendly desert it is best to leave caches of fuel along the way to help returning jeeps. We solve the…

  14. Computational Model for Armor Penetration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    the penetration calculation with a slide line in the target, the impact velocity was artificially raised to avoid impact of the projectile sides onto...Lagrangian equations governing motion of a continuous medium. The solution technique is called the method of artificial viscosity because of the...fronts, although no discontinuities occur in the computed flow field. With this artificial viscosity method, the equations of continuous flow can be

  15. Stratigraphic and volcano-tectonic relations of Crater Flat Tuff and some older volcanic units, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Orkild, P.P.

    1984-12-31

    The Crater Flat Tuff is herein revised to include a newly recognized lowest unit, the Tram Member, exposed at scattered localities in the southwest Nevada Test Site region, and in several drill holes in the Yucca Mountain area. In previous work, the Tram Member was thought to be the Bullfrog Member, and therefore was shown as Bullfrog or as undifferentiated Crater Flat Tuff on published maps. The revised Crater Flat Tuff is stratigraphically below the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and above the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, and is approximately 13.6 m.y. old. Drill holes on Yucca Mountain and near Fortymile Wash penetrate all three members of the Crater Flat as well as an underlying quartz-poor unit, which is herein defined as the Lithic Ridge Tuff from exposures on Lithic Ridge near the head of Topopah Wash. In outcrops between Calico Hills and Yucca Flat, the Lithic Ridge Tuff overlies a Bullfrog-like unit of reverse magnetic polarity that probably correlates with a widespread unit around and under Yucca Flat, referred to previously as Crater Flat Tuff. This unit is here informally designated as the tuff of Yucca Flat. Although older, it may be genetically related to the Crater Flat Tuff. Although the rocks are poorly exposed, geophysical and geologic evidence to date suggests that (1) the source of the Crater Flat Tuff is a caldera complex in the Crater Flat area between Yucca Mountain and Bare Mountain, and (2) there are at least two cauldrons within this complex - one probably associated with eruption of the Tram, the other with the Bullfrog and Prow Pass Members. The complex is named the Crater Flat-Prospector Pass caldera complex. 24 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  16. [Videothoracospy in thoracic trauma and penetrating injuries].

    PubMed

    Lang-Lazdunski, L; Chapuis, O; Pons, F; Jancovici, R

    2003-03-01

    Videothoracoscopy represents a valid and useful approach in some patients with blunt chest trauma or penetrating thoracic injury. This technique has been validated for the treatment of clotted hemothorax or posttraumatic empyema, traumatic chylothorax, traumatic pneumothorax, in patients with hemodynamic stability. Moreover, it is probably the most reliable technique for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury. It is also useful for the extraction of intrathoracic projectiles and foreign bodies. This technique might be useful in hemodynamically stable patients with continued bleeding or for the exploration of patients with penetrating injury in the cardiac area, although straightforward data are lacking to confirm those indications. Thoracotomy or median sternotomy remain indicated in patients with hemodynamic instability or those that cannot tolerate lateral decubitus position or one-lung ventilation. Performing video-surgery in the trauma setting require expertise in both video-assisted thoracic surgery and chest trauma management. The contra-indications to videothoracoscopy and indications for converting the procedure to an open thoracotomy should be perfectly known by surgeons performing video-assisted thoracic surgery in the trauma setting. Conversion to thoracotomy or median sternotomy should be performed without delay whenever needed to avoid blood loss and achieve an adequate procedure.

  17. Investigation of pellicle influence on reticle flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christopher; Racette, Kenneth; Barrett, Monica

    2005-06-01

    In lithography systems, the need for increased resolution requires larger numerical apertures and shorter illumination wavelengths. Both of these requirements cause a reduction in the system"s depth of focus resulting in the need for flatter photomasks with specifications under 0.5 micron. Currently the mask blank substrates are measured after polishing, and all subsequent process steps are assumed to have little or no impact on the final mask flatness. With today"s ever tightening flatness requirements, this assumption can no longer be taken for granted. This paper investigates the distortions seen at the reticle surface induced by the mounting of a standard optical pellicle frame to the photomask and relates these distortions to the pellicle frame flatness. The experiment involves using a set of mask blanks that are better than 0.5 micron flatness with similar form errors before attaching the pellicle. Two groups of pellicles are used to create two distinct frame flatness populations: one set assumed to be within specification as purchased; and a second set of pellicles that are intentionally distorted. Mask flatness is compared before and after mounting the pellicles, and all frames are measured for flatness. Correlation between the frame flatness and form to the measured distortion on the reticle surface are made and discussed, and a practical guideline for selecting an appropriate blank flatness and pellicle flatness to achieve the desired reticle flatness is suggested.

  18. Development of Novel, CNS Penetrant Positive Allosteric Modulators for the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 1 (mGlu1), Based on an N-(3-Chloro-4-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)phenyl)-3-methylfuran-2-carboxamide Scaffold, That Potentiate Wild Type and Mutant mGlu1 Receptors Found in Schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Cho, Hyekyung P; Niswender, Colleen M; Byers, Frank W; Locuson, Charles W; Blobaum, Anna L; Xiang, Zixiu; Rook, Jerri M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2015-10-22

    The therapeutic potential of selective mGlu1 activation is vastly unexplored relative to the other group I mGlu receptor, mGlu5; therefore, our lab has focused considerable effort toward developing mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) suitable as in vivo proof of concept tool compounds. Optimization of a series of mGlu1 PAMs based on an N-(3-chloro-4-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)phenyl)-3-methylfuran-2-carboxamide scaffold provided 17e, a potent (mGlu1 EC50 = 31.8 nM) and highly CNS penetrant (brain to plasma ratio (Kp) of 1.02) mGlu1 PAM tool compound, that potentiated not only wild-type human mGlu1 but also mutant mGlu1 receptors derived from deleterious GRM1 mutations found in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, both electrophysiological and in vivo studies indicate the mGlu1 ago-PAMs/PAMs do not possess the same epileptiform adverse effect liability as mGlu5 ago-PAMs/PAMs and maintain temporal activity suggesting a broader therapeutic window.

  19. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita

  20. Charlie Flats and El Capitan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This mosaic image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows two regions of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The region on the left, dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' was imaged because it contains an assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The region on the right, nicknamed 'El Capitan,' is where Opportunity is parked and is doing work as of Sol 33 of its mission (February 26, 2004).

  1. Behavior of Segmented Rods during Penetration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    full-scale penetrators which had been swaged 24%. The density of this tungsten alloy was 17.2 Mg/m 3. Gold-alloy penetrators were composed of 92Au-4.9Ag...of behavior. Segmented rods of tungsten alloy always penetrated less than the equivalent unitary rod. Successive rod segments were found to...gold-alloy penetrators because unitary rods of this material surpassed the perform- ance of unitary tungsten -alloy rods, while leaving almost no

  2. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  3. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  4. Penetrating skull injury with six inch fence rod

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Kamlesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Das, Shishir

    2012-01-01

    In this study we are describing an unusual case of the boundary fence (6 inch long) penetrating through the skull vault and lodging into the middle cranial fossa. A 10 years old male child fell onto his house fence while playing on the terrace. The metal fence penetrated through the scalp, parietal bone, midbrain and the midface, fracturing the parietal and the midfacial bones. CT-scans were obtained to view the trajectory and the position of the fence. The amount of midbrain injury was also accessed. The degree of morbidity vis-à-vis the type of injury was surprisingly low. Safe access to the fence was made through a bicoronal incision and modified bifrontal craniectomy to retrieve the lodged portion of the fence. These kind of penetrating injuries are rare considering the thickness of the vault. Proper preoperative planning and team approach is required for the safe surgical removal of the objects. PMID:23833500

  5. Flat bands in topological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, T. T.; Kopnin, N. B.; Volovik, G. E.

    2011-10-01

    Topological media are systems whose properties are protected by topology and thus are robust to deformations of the system. In topological insulators and superconductors the bulk-surface and bulk-vortex correspondence gives rise to the gapless Weyl, Dirac or Majorana fermions on the surface of the system and inside vortex cores. Here we show that in gapless topological media, the bulk-surface and bulk-vortex correspondence is more effective: it produces topologically protected gapless fermions without dispersion—the fiat band. Fermion zero modes forming the flat band are localized on the surface of topological media with protected nodal lines [A. P. Schnyder and S. Ryu, Phys. Rev. B 84, 060504(R) (2011); T. T. Heikkil G. E. Volovik, JETP Lett. 93, 59 (2011)] and in the vortex core in systems with topologically protected Fermi points (Weyl points) [G. E. Volovik, JETP Lett. 93, 66 (2011)]. Flat band has an extremely singular density of states, and we show that this property may give rise in particular to surface superconductivity which could exist even at room temperature.

  6. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-02-26

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead.

  7. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Bashforth, Michael B.; Gardner, Duane; Patrick, Douglas; Lewallen, Tricia A.; Nammath, Sharyn R.; Painter, Kelly D.; Vadnais, Kenneth G.

    1996-01-01

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  8. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  9. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  10. RAYWOOD FLAT ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1984-01-01

    The Raywood Flat Roadless Areas are situated adjacent to the San Gorgonio Wilderness in the southeastern San Bernardino Mountains, southern California. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies, together with an investigation of mines and prospects, indicate that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources in the roadless areas. In the eastern part of the roadless areas, a geochemical survey shows slightly anomalous amounts of lead, copper, molybdenum, tin, and bismuth and suggests that there are small and scattered occurrences of these metals in the bedrock. The inferred mineral occurrences lack the characteristics associated with metal concentrations that would identify resources. Marble and other construction materials occur in the area.

  11. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  12. Jet penetration of high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P

    1999-08-11

    It is found that a transition between two flow patterns takes place in thick HE targets. In this case, the jet will initially propagate into the HE at the same rate as into an inert material of the same density. The part of the jet that has stagnated and is flowing nearly co-axially with the incoming jet (but at a much lower speed) is being forced toward the surface of the incoming jet by the pressure of the reaction products but has not as yet made contact. After it makes contact, both axial and perpendicular momentum transfer takes place between the two jet components. After this transition, a new steady state will develop for the propagating jet, with the unperturbed front of the jet propagating at a slower rate than previously. The perturbed front of the jet is still propagating at or near the original rate, having had relatively little axial momentum exchange. However, it has acquired radial momentum and is spreading out as it is propagating; it is therefore becoming less capable of penetrating downstream targets. It is the unperturbed part of the jet that is capable of penetrating downstream targets. A calculational method for predicting this case is presented in this report.

  13. Localization of weakly disordered flat band states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykam, Daniel; Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Flach, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Certain tight binding lattices host macroscopically degenerate flat spectral bands. Their origin is rooted in local symmetries of the lattice, with destructive interference leading to the existence of compact localized eigenstates. We study the robustness of this localization to disorder in different classes of flat band lattices in one and two dimensions. Depending on the flat band class, the flat band states can either be robust, preserving their strong localization for weak disorder W, or they are destroyed and acquire large localization lengths ξ that diverge with a variety of unconventional exponents ν, ξ 1 / W ν .

  14. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  15. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Testing flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    New qualification tests have been developed for flat plate photovoltaic modules. Temperature cycling, cyclic pressure load, and humidity exposure are especially useful for detecting design and fabrication deficiencies. There is positive correlation between many of the observed field effects, such as power loss, and qualification test induced degradation. The status of research efforts for the development of test methodology for field-related problems is reviewed.

  17. Summary of SLAC's SEY Measurement On Flat Accelerator Wall Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen /SLAC

    2007-06-08

    The electron cloud effect (ECE) causes beam instabilities in accelerator structures with intense positively charged bunched beams. Reduction of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the beam pipe inner wall is effective in controlling cloud formation. We summarize SEY results obtained from flat TiN, TiZrV and Al surfaces carried out in a laboratory environment. SEY was measured after thermal conditioning, as well as after low energy, less than 300 eV, particle exposure.

  18. Optical identifications of flat-spectrum radio sources

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, J.J.; Condon, M.A.; Broderick, J.J.; Davis, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of radio sources with S> or =0.3 Jy at 1400 MHz, +24/sup 0/position coincidence alone. Nearly all sources with ''flat'' high-frequency spectra ..cap alpha..(2695, 8085)<+0.5 are identified, and most of the identifications are QSO candidates. Those sources with flat low-frequency spectra but ..cap alpha..(2695, 8085)> or =+0.5 are usually in empty fields. The lower limits that can be assigned to the radio-optical spectral indices ..cap alpha../sub RO/ of these sources are significantly higher than the median ..cap alpha../sub RO/ of the sources with flat high-frequency spectra, so the optical characteristics of the two classes of radio source are intrinsically different. The radio and optical fluxes of flat-spectrum QSO's appear to be correlated, at least when averaged over 10/sup 2/--10/sup 3/ yr.

  19. Investigation of substituted 6-aminohexanoates as skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Brychtova, Katerina; Dvorakova, Lenka; Opatrilova, Radka; Raich, Ivan; Kacerova, Sandra; Placek, Lukas; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R; Jampilek, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Skin penetration enhancers are compounds used to facilitate the transdermal delivery of drugs that are otherwise not sufficiently permeable. Through a synthetic route implementing two series of esters, we generated transdermal penetration enhancers by a multi-step reaction with substituted 6-aminohexanoic acid. We present the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds here with structural confirmation accomplished by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy (MS). The lipophilicity (logk) of all compounds was determined via RP-HPLC and their hydrophobicity (logP/ClogP) was also calculated using two commercially available programs. Ab initio calculations of geometry and molecular dynamic simulations were employed to investigate the 3-dimensional structures of selected compounds. The transdermal penetration-enhancing activity of all the synthesized esters were examined in vitro and demonstrated higher enhancement ratios than oleic acid. Compounds 2e (C(10) ester chain) and 2f (C(11) ester chain) exhibited the highest enhancement ratios. It can be concluded that the series non-substituted at the C((2)) position by a ω-lactam ring showed significantly higher activity than those with azepan-2-one. None of the prepared compounds penetrated through the skin. All of the investigated agents demonstrated minimal anti-proliferative activity using the SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cell line (IC(50)>6.25μM), suggesting these analogs would have a low cytotoxic profile when administered in vivo as chemical penetration enhancers. The correlation between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and their lipophilicity is discussed in regards to transdermal penetration-enhancing activity.

  20. Characterization of Pressure Distribution in Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Severe impacts to the head commonly lead to localized brain damage. Such impacts may also give rise to temporary pressure changes that produce secondary injuries in brain volumes distal to the impact site. Monitoring pressure changes in a clinical setting is difficult; detailed studies into the effect of pressure changes in the brain call for the development and use of animal models. The aim of this study is to characterize the pressure distribution in an animal model of penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI). This data may be used to validate mathematical models of the animal model and to facilitate correlation studies between pressure changes and pathology. Pressure changes were measured in rat brains while subjected to pTBI for a variety of different probe velocities and shapes; pointy, blunt, and flat. Experiments on ballistic gel samples were carried out to study the formation of any temporary cavities. In addition, pressure recordings from the gel experiments were compared to values recorded in the animal experiments. The pTBI generated short lasting pressure changes in the brain tissue; the pressure in the contralateral ventricle (CLV) increased to 8 bar followed by a drop to 0.4 bar when applying flat probes. The pressure changes in the periphery of the probe, in the Cisterna Magna, and the spinal canal, were significantly less than those recorded in the CLV or the vicinity of the skull base. High-speed videos of the gel samples revealed the formation of spherically shaped cavities when flat and spherical probes were applied. Pressure changes in the gel were similar to those recorded in the animals, although amplitudes were lower in the gel samples. We concluded cavity expansion rate rather than cavity size correlated with pressure changes in the gel or brain secondary to probe impact. The new data can serve as validation data for finite element models of the trauma model and the animal and to correlate physical measurements with secondary injuries

  1. A lightweight ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S.K.; Allen, C.M.; Gardner, D.; Wong, H.R.

    1998-12-31

    The detection of buried objects, particularly unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the US in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing humanitarian concern. The application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. Bechtel Nevada, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) has developed several frequency modulated, continuous wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units for the US Department of Energy since 1984. To meet these new technical requirements for high resolution data and UXO detection, STL is moving forward with advances to GPR technology, signal processing, and imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery operated unit that does not require surface contact and can be operated by a novice user.

  2. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry K.; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  3. Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

  4. ENAM Mutations with Incomplete Penetrance

    PubMed Central

    Seymen, F.; Lee, K.-E.; Koruyucu, M.; Gencay, K.; Bayram, M.; Tuna, E.B.; Lee, Z.H.; Kim, J.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

  5. How is WFPC flat field made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J.-C.; Ritchie, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm developed by the WFPC IDT to generate flat fields from Earth streak exposures is now implemented in STSDAS. We explain in detail how this algorithm works and possible deficiencies. We also present two associated tools which can be used to modify the flat field obtained from the standard procedure.

  6. Inverted flat plate solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1981-08-26

    Construction and testing of an inverted flat plate solar collector are described. Heat transfer and economic analysis were performed to optimize the collector design. The newly designed collector was tested against two other flat plate collectors and the results and comparison of efficiencies are presented. (BCS)

  7. Scattering and absorption by thin flat aerosols.

    PubMed

    Weil, H; Chu, C M

    1980-06-15

    An integral equation method is used to study spectral and polarization effects for the scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation incident on arbitrarily oriented flat disk aerosols of major dimension comparable to the wavelength of the radiation. Numerical results for flat plate ice crystals are presented.

  8. Nonperturbative decay of supersymmetric flat directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guemruekcueoglu, A. Emir; Peloso, Marco; Sexton, Matthew; Olive, Keith A.

    2008-09-15

    We compute the nonperturbative decay of supersymmetric flat directions due to their D-term potential. Flat directions can develop large vacuum expectation values during inflation, and, if they are long-lived, this can strongly affect the reheating and thermalization stages after the inflation. We study a generic system of two U(1) or SU(2) flat directions which are cosmologically evolving after inflation. After proper gauge fixing, we show that the excitations of the fields around this background can undergo exponential amplification, at the expense of the energy density of the flat directions. We compute this effect for several values of the masses and the initial vacuum expectation values of the two flat directions, through a combination of analytical methods and extensive numerical simulations.

  9. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. [Association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicines by data mining method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-guo; Chen, Jun; Liu, Pei; Jiang, Qiu-dong; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To study the association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicines. Through literature research, 34 kinds of essential oils with the penetration enhancement effect were collected. The methods of frequency analysis and variable crosstab were used for intuitive analysis and association analysis. The association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties (four natures, five flavors, channel tropism) were analyzed by a general linear model. According to the findings, the essential oils with penetration enhancement effect were all sourced from acrid traditional Chinese medicines, because their positive drug nature contributed to the enhancement of the penetration effect of essential oil; five flavors had little effect on penetration enhancement (P = 0.6982), but four natures and channel tropism showed significant effects (P = 0.011, 0.077). In conclusion, there were obvious association and regularity between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Cosmology in Conformally Flat Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endean, Geoffrey

    1997-04-01

    A possible solution to cosmological age and redshift-distance difficulties has recently been proposed by applying the appropriate conformally flat spacetime (CFS) coordinates to the standard solution of the field equations in a standard dust model closed universe. Here it is shown that CFS time correctly measures the true age of the universe, thus answering a major theoretical objection to the proposal. It is also shown that the CFS interpretation leads to a strong Copernican principle and is in all other respects wholly self-consistent. The deceleration parameter q0 is related to t0, the present age of the universe divided by L, the scale length of its curvature (an absolute constant). The values of q0 and L are approximately 5/6 and 9.2 × 109 yr, respectively. It is shown that the universe started everywhere simultaneously, with no recession velocity until the effects of its closed topology became significant. Conclusions to the contrary in standard theory (the big bang) stem from a different definition of recession velocity. The theoretical present cosmological mass density is quantified as 4.4 × 10-27 kg m-3 approximately, thus greatly reducing, in a closed universe, the observational requirement to find hidden mass. It is also shown that the prediction of standard theory, for a closed universe, of collapse toward a big crunch termination, will not in fact take place.

  13. Closed-loop power and focus control of laser welding for full-penetration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Fabrice; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M; Collin, Olivier; Aubry, Pascal; Dubois, Thierry; Högström, Mats; Nylen, Per; Jonsson, Peter; Jones, Julian D C; Hand, Duncan P

    2005-01-01

    We describe a closed-loop control system ensuring full penetration in welding by controlling the focus position and power of a 4-kW Nd:YAG laser. A focus position monitoring system was developed based on the chromatic aberration of the focusing optics. With the laser power control system we can determine the degree of penetration by analyzing the keyhole image intensity profile. We demonstrate performance in bead-on-plate welding of Inconel 718 and titanium. The focus control system maintained a focal position on tilted and nonflat workpieces, and the penetration monitoring technique successfully controlled the laser power to maintain the full-penetration regime in the presence of linear and step changes of thickness. Finally we discuss the performances and the limits of the systems when applied to a realistic complex aerospace component.

  14. Time constants of flat superconducting cables

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, S.; Yamamoto, J.

    1997-06-01

    The frequency dependence of coupling losses is calculated for flat superconducting cables, including the electromagnetic coupling between different current loops on the cable. It is shown that there are two characteristic time constants for both parallel and transverse coupling losses. The values of these time constants {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1} are calculated by introducing effective inductances for the current loops. In both cases, {tau}{sub 1} is considerably smaller than {tau}{sub 0}. As the most important methods of determining {tau}{sub 0} from AC losses - namely, the limiting slope of loss/cycle at zero frequency and the position of the maximum loss/cycle vs. frequency - estimate {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1}, respectively, the results are important for practical measurements and evaluation of time constants from AC losses. At larger frequencies, the losses are more likely to those in normal conductors (skin effect). The calculation schemes can be applied to cables with closely wound strands (like the cable-in-conduit conductors), too. However, several other effects should be considered being different and/or more important with respect to other cable types (demagnetization factor of strands and cables, larger regions near the cable edges, smaller number of strands and subcables, etc.).

  15. Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Stark, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic impacting penetrators (USIPs) are recent additions to the series of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). A USIP enables a rod probe to penetrate packed soil or another substance of similar consistency, without need to apply a large axial force that could result in buckling of the probe or in damage to some buried objects. USIPs were conceived for use in probing and analyzing soil to depths of tens of centimeters in the vicinity of buried barrels containing toxic waste, without causing rupture of the barrels. USIPs could also be used for other purposes, including, for example, searching for pipes, barrels, or other hard objects buried in soil; and detecting land mines. USDCs and other apparatuses based on USDCs have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The ones reported previously were designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. As shown in the figure, a basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, a backing and a horn connected to the stack, a free mass (free in the sense that it can slide axially a short distance between the horn and the shoulder of tool bit), and a tool bit, i.e., probe for USIP. The piezoelectric stack is driven at the resonance frequency of the stack/horn/backing assembly to create ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. To prevent fracture during operation, the piezoelectric stack is held in compression by a bolt. The bouncing of the free mass between the horn and the tool bit at sonic frequencies generates hammering actions to the bit that are more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations in ordinary ultrasonic drills. The hammering actions

  16. Flat parlog: a basis for comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Taylor, S.

    1987-04-01

    Three similar parallel logic programming languages have been proposed; Parlog, Flat Concurrent Prolog, and Guarded Horn Clauses. Quantitative comparison of the languages has not previously been possible since they employ different execution models and implementation techniques. In order to uncover the effects of semantic differences on efficiency, a common basis is required for experimentation. This paper presents a subset of the language Parlog called Flat Parlog which provides a basis for quantitative comparison. The language combines the directional semantics of Parlog with the simple execution model of Flat Concurrent Prolog. A performance comparison between Flat Parlog and Flat Concurrent Prolog based on new implementations of both languages is presented. These new implementations are identical except for optimizations that are possible by virtue of semantic differences. Benchmark results indicate that Flat Parlog is more efficient; experiments have been able to quantify and explain this performance differential. A detailed description of the abstract machine for Flat Parlog is presented to illustrate the simplicity of the language.

  17. What really causes flat slab subduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Manea, M.

    2014-12-01

    How flat slab geometries are generated has been long debated. It has been suggested thattrenchward motion of thick cratons in some areas of South America and Cenozoic NorthAmerica progressively closed the asthenospheric wedge and induced flat subduction. Here wedevelop time-dependent numerical experiments to explore how trenchward motion of thickcratons may result in flat subduction. We find that as the craton approaches the trench andthe wedge closes, two opposite phenomena control slab geometry: the suction between oceanand continent increases, favoring slab flattening, while the mantle confined within the closingwedge dynamically pushes the slab backward and steepens it. When the slab retreats, as inthe Peru and Chile flat slabs, the wedge closure rate and dynamic push are small and suctionforces generate, in some cases, flat subduction. We model the past 30 m.y. of subduction in theChilean flat slab area and demonstrate that trenchward motion of thick lithosphere, 200-300km, currently ~700-800 km away from the Peru-Chile Trench, reproduces a slab geometrythat fits the stress pattern, seismicity distribution, and temporal and spatial evolution ofdeformation and volcanism in the region. We also suggest that varying trench kinematics mayexplain some differing slab geometries along South America. When the trench is stationaryor advances, the mantle flow within the closing wedge strongly pushes the slab backward andsteepens it, possibly explaining the absence of flat subduction in the Bolivian orocline.

  18. [Canon's flat-panel detector].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masao; Sumida, Iori; Ideguchi, Tadamitsu; Kawaji, Yasuyuki; Himuro, Kazuhiko

    2002-01-01

    We measured and evaluated digital, pre-sampling and overall imaging properties (characteristic curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), Wiener spectrum (WS), noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) ) for Cannon's flat-panel detector (FPD), Fuji computed radiography (FCR) and screen-film (S/F) systems, respectively. First, the digital and overall characteristic curves of FPD and FCR systems were more wide dynamic range than that of the S/F system. Second, the pre-sampling and overall MTF of FPD system were better than those of FCR system a little at lower spatial frequencies than 0.8 mm(-1), but the overall MTF of FPD and FCR systems were worse than that of S/F system a little at all spatial frequencies. Third, the digital and overall WS of FPD system were similar or better than those of FCR system, but the overall WS of FPD and FCR systems were worse than that of S/F system. Fourth, the pre-sampling and overall NEQ of FPD system were better than those of FCR system a little at lower spatial frequencies than 1.6 mm(-1), but the overall NEQ of FPD and FCR systems were worse than that of S/F system at all spatial frequencies. Comparison of chest phantom images showed that the FPD produced images with quality comparable to or higher than those of the FCR system. From these results, we can expect that the FPD is useful machine by using digital image processing and so on in the radiology department.

  19. [Hologic's Flat-Panel Detector].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masao; Suekane, Koji

    2002-01-01

    We measured and evaluated digital, pre-sampling and overall imaging properties (characteristic curve, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Wiener spectrum (WS), Noise Equivalent Quanta (NEQ) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE)) for Hologic's direct type and Cannon's indirect type of Flat-Panel Detector (FPD). First, the digital and overall characteristic curves of both types of FPD were more wide dynamic range than that of the S/F system. Second, the pre-sampling and overall MTF of the direct-type FPD system were superior to those of the indirect-type FPD system. Third, for identical exposures, the digital and overall WS of the direct-type FPD system were similar or worse than those of the indirect-type FPD system, and for larger exposure, the digital WS of the both types of FPD system were smaller, but the overall WS of the both types of FPD systems were larger. Fourth, the digital and overall NEQ and DQE of the direct-type FPD system were worse than those of the indirect-type FPD system at lower spatial frequencies than 1.75 - 2.0 mm(-1), but were worse at higher spatial frequencies than 1.75 - 2.0 mm(-1). We show radiographs made with the direct type of FPD system. Radiographs of square wave chart show the difference in MTF and contrast of the both types of FPD systems. As the result of evaluation of radiographs of chest phantom in point of noise by radiologists and radiological technologists, the direct type of FPD system needed double or more exposure dose than own standard condition, this dose was same as the indirect-type FPD system. And radiologists evaluated radiographs of human body, spatial resolution was very good, but contrast was much more likely to high at standard parameter. Therefore we have to consider exposure condition and image processing for the direct type of FPD system.

  20. Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments.

    PubMed

    Kosoglu, Mehmet A; Hood, Robert L; Chen, Ye; Xu, Yong; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Rylander, Christopher G

    2010-09-01

    Shallow light penetration in tissue has been a technical barrier to the development of light-based methods for in vivo diagnosis and treatment of epithelial carcinomas. This problem can potentially be solved by utilizing minimally invasive probes to deliver light directly to target areas. To develop this solution, fiber optic microneedles capable of delivering light for either imaging or therapy were manufactured by tapering step-index silica-based optical fibers employing a melt-drawing process. Some of the microneedles were manufactured to have sharper tips by changing the heat source during the melt-drawing process. All of the microneedles were individually inserted into ex vivo pig skin samples to demonstrate the feasibility of their application in human tissues. The force on each microneedle was measured during insertion in order to determine the effects of sharper tips on the peak force and the steadiness of the increase in force. Skin penetration experiments showed that sharp fiber optic microneedles that are 3 mm long penetrate through 2 mm of ex vivo pig skin specimens. These sharp microneedles had a minimum average diameter of 73 mum and a maximum tip diameter of 8 mum. Flat microneedles, which had larger tip diameters, required a minimum average diameter of 125 mum in order to penetrate through pig skin samples. Force versus displacement plots showed that a sharp tip on a fiber optic microneedle decreased the skin's resistance during insertion. Also, the force acting on a sharp microneedle increased more steadily compared with a microneedle with a flat tip. However, many of the sharp microneedles sustained damage during skin penetration. Two designs that did not accrue damage were identified and will provide a basis of more robust microneedles. Developing resilient microneedles with smaller diameters will lead to transformative, novel modes of transdermal imaging and treatment that are less invasive and less painful for the patient.

  1. FRACTIONAL PENETRATION OF PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of fractional penetration curves for liquid droplet penetration of overspray arrestors for discrete droplet diameters from 0.3 to 10 micrometers. (NOTE: Fine particulates are particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less.) These data poin...

  2. Social Penetration: A Description, Research, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Nicole J.

    Social penetration has been described by S.W. Littlejohn (1992) as "the process of increasing disclosure and intimacy in a relationship." The phrase "social penetration" originated with I. Altman and D. Taylor, the foremost researchers in this area. From other theories, Altman and Taylor developed a unified theory which…

  3. Parametric study on mass loss of penetrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Ling; Chen, Xiao-Wei; He, Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Earth penetration weapon (EPW) is applicable for attacking underground targets protected by reinforced concrete and rocks. With increasing impact velocity, the mass loss/abrasion of penetrator increases, which significantly decreases the penetration efficiency due to the change of nose shape. The abrasion may induce instability of the penetrator, and lead to failure of its structure. A common disadvantage, i.e. dependence on corresponding experimental results, exists in all the available formulae, which limits their ranges of application in estimating the mass loss of penetrator. In this paper, we conduct a parametric study on the mass loss of penetrator, and indicate that the mass loss of penetrator can be determined by seven variables, i.e., the initial impact velocity, initial nose shape, melting heat, shank diameter of projectile and density and strength of target as well as the aggregate hardness of target. Further discussion on factors dominant in the mass abrasion of penetrator are given, which may be helpful for optimizing the target or the projectile for defensive or offensive objectives, respectively.

  4. [Secondary productivity of macrobenthos in intertidal flat of Luoyuan Bay, Fujian Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Yong-fen, Du; Shu, Gao; Zi-shan, Yu; Dan-dan, Wang; Qi, Ran

    2012-07-01

    Based on the survey data of macrobenthos in the intertidal flat of Luoyuan Bay in 2009, and by using Brey' s empirical formula, this paper estimated the macrobenthos secondary productivity, production/biomass (P/B) ratio, and their spatiotemporal distribution patterns in the flat. The annual secondary productivity and P/B ratio of the macrobenthos in the flat were estimated as 18.58 g AFDM (ash free dry mass) x m(-2) x a(-1) and 0.97, respectively, and the secondary productivity in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of the upper intertidal flat (8.97g AFDM x m(-2) a(-1)) was much lower than that in the bare flat of the lower intertidal zone (28.19 g AFDM x m(-2) x a(-1)). Since the introduction of S. alterniflora by the end of the 1980s, the secondary productivity of the macrobenthos in the flat had increased about 4 folds. Musculus senhousei, which inhabited in the lower bare flat, contributed 66.4% of the total macrobenthos secondary productivity in the entire intertidal flat. If the contribution from M. senhousei was not taken into account, the macrobenthos secondary productivity in the salt marshes would be significantly higher than that in the bare flat, and the macrobenthos secondary productivity in the intertidal flat would have less change. The successful colonization of M. senhousei was partly attributed to the changes of sediment composition enhanced by S. alterniflora due to its capability in trapping fine-grained materials; this species' feeding activities result in a remarkable increase of sediment chlorophyll a content. There was a significant positive correlation between the secondary productivity of macrobenthos and the sediment chlorophyll a and/or organic matter contents. These findings suggested that salt marshes had effects on the coastal wetland ecosystem via a number of physical and biological mechanisms.

  5. Penetrating Wounds of Great Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Symbas, P. N.; Kourias, E.; Tyras, D. H.; Hatcher, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with penetrating wounds of the great vessels treated at Grady Memorial Hospital during a 7-year period were reviewed. In more than 50% of the cases, diagnosis of the injury was made at the time of emergency thoracotomy for massive bleeding. In the remaining patients the diagnosis was suspected: 1) when the pulse distal to the vascular injury was absent or weak; 2) when the patient had symptoms and signs of impaired central nervous system perfusion; 3) when the missile had traversed the mediastinum and there was roentgenographic evidence of widening of the mediastinal shadow; or, 4) when a new murmur appeared. In all suspected cases with great vessel injury, the diagnosis was confirmed arteriographically. Arteriography in such patients should be performed to define the type and site of vascular injury so that its repair can be properly planned. Twenty-nine patients recovered from their injury, 6 succumbed as a result of it and 1 required midforearm amputation following repair of a subclavian artery and vein injury. Most of these patients underwent autotransfusion which greatly contributed to their successful outcome. Local temporary shunt was used for protection of the spinal cord and/or brain when impairment of their perfusion was required for the repair of the vascular wounds. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:17859862

  6. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  7. Grepafloxacin: pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration.

    PubMed

    Wise, Richard

    1998-03-01

    Pharmacokinetic and tissue penetration studies of grepafloxacin, a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, show that it has useful properties for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Grepafloxacin has a volume of distribution that is larger than those of many of the other fluoroquinolones and is concentrated in alveolar macrophages, bronchial mucosa and epithelial lining fluid to a greater extent than are certain other fluoroquinolones. Grepafloxacin concentrations achieved in plasma after a 400-mg oral dose are well in excess of those required to inhibit the respiratory pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Streptococcus pneumoniae is also covered for most of the dosing interval, but at normal dose levels grepafloxacin might not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The maximum plasma concentrations and area under the concentration---time curve achieved with grepafloxacin suggest that it will be effective for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The pharmacokinetics of fluoroquinolones are among their most useful properties. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate whether the differences between grepafloxacin and the other fluoroquinolones are of therapeutic significance.

  8. SBC Internal Lamp P-flat Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, R. J.; Chiaberge, M.; Bohlin, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a Cycle 23 calibration program to monitor the status of the SBC P-flat. We find random pixel to pixel changes to be small, with only 2% of pixels having changed by more than 3. There are coherent changes that we measure to be above the poisson errors, in some regions as high as 4% peak to peak. We recommend that the ACS team obtain new observations in order to create a new P-flat. We also measured the degradation of the deuterium lamp used to create internal flats. The brightness of the lamp is currently 65% of its initial level, the degradation being dependent on lifetime usage.

  9. Flat warts undergoing involution: histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Berman, A; Winkelmann, R K

    1977-09-01

    Patients with multiple flat warts were observed during the period of involution, shortly before regression of the warts. The histopathological process was characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration around subpapillary blood vessels, exocytosis of mononuclear cells into the epidermis, and a spectrum of degenerative epidermal changes that culminated in focal areas of necrosis within the epidermis. Lesions near the end stage of involution did not show the histopathologic features of flat warts. The mononuclear cell-associated injury to the epidermis resembles that seen in delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity responses and suggests that regression of flat warts may be due to a cell-mediated rejection reaction.

  10. Penetration of aflatoxins through isolated human epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.T.; Kemppainen, B.W.; Norred, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could penetrate through isolated human epidermis (stratum corneum plus viable epidermis). ( UC)AFB1 (7.5-9.3 micrograms) was applied to the stratum corneum of epidermal disks mounted in Teflon diffusion cells. ( UC)AFB1 penetrated chemically unaltered through the isolated epidermis. Chloroform-extractable radioactivity accounted for 82.5 +/- 3.7% of the total penetrating radioactivity in the receptor fluid of the diffusion cells. The rate of penetration was very slow when experiments were conducted under nonoccluded conditions, but was approximately 40 times greater under conditions of occlusion. Penetration after 46 h was less than 0.05% and 3.41% of the applied dose under nonoccluded and occluded conditions, respectively. Total recovery expressed as a percentage of the applied radioactivity was 98.6 +/- 6.4%.

  11. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  12. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. EFFECT OF NOSE SHAPE ON LONG ROD PENETRATION INTO DRY SAND

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Adam; Addiss, John; Proud, William

    2009-12-28

    Flat, hemispherical and ogive-2 nosed mild steel projectiles (10 mm diameter, 100 mm length) were fired at 200 m s{sup -1} into the end face of cylindrically confined dry sand (100 mm diameter, 150 mm length). Projectiles were tracked through the sand using flash radiography and high speed photography. By seeding a horizontal plane of randomly dispersed lead shot (<1.5 mm diameter) across the centre of the cylinder, the displacement field induced by the impact was mapped using Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR). By imaging at successive time intervals, a temporal history of the penetration was generated. DSR reveals a cone of displacement emanating from the impact point in all cases, leaving areas unmoved during the early stages of penetration. The magnitude and extent of the displacement cone is observed to be greatest in the flat nosed case. Initial rapid deceleration is seen in all nose cases, relaxing to an approximately steady velocity as the projectile reaches the end of the target. Ogive nosed projectiles suffer the least initial deceleration, and perforate the target with greatest speed. This combined behaviour is attributed to the blunt projectiles transferring more energy into movement of sand in the early stages of penetration, and hence experiencing more effective drag. Following this, the projectile moves through a moving body of sand at approximately constant velocity.

  14. Stratigraphic and volcano-tectonic relations of Crater Flat Tuff and some older volcanic units, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Orkild, P.P.

    1986-12-31

    The Crater Flat Tuff is herein revised to include a newly recognized lowest unit, the Tram Member, exposed at scattered localities in the southwest Nevada Test Site region, and in several drill holes in the Yucca Mountain area. The overlying Bullfrog and Prow Pass Members are well exposed at the type locality of the formation near the southeast edge of Crater Flat, just north of US Highway 95. In previous work, the Tram Member was thought to be the Bullfrog Member, and therefore was shown as Bullfrog or as undifferentiated Crater Flat Tuff on published maps. The revised Crater Flat Tuff is statigraphically below the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and above the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff and is approximately 13.6 m.y. old. Drill holes on Yucca Mountain and near Fortymile Wash penetrate all three members of the Crater Flat as well as an underlying quartz-poor unit. Although the rocks are poorly exposed, geophysical and geologic evidence to date suggests that (1) the source of the Crater Flat Tuff is a caldera complex in the Crater Flat area between Yucca Mountain and Bare Mountain, and (2) there are at least two cauldrons within this complex - one probably associated with eruption of the Tram, the other with the Bullfrog and Prow Pass Members. The complex is named the Crater Flat-Prospector Pass caldera complex. The northern part of the Yucca Mountain area is suggested as the general location of the source of pre-Crater Flat tuffs, but a caldera related to the Lithic Ridge Tuff has not been specifically identified. 23 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Flat device for heat concentration or dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.; Sabol, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    Device provides low-cost unit for efficiently transferring heat between, either to or from, flat surface and central point or region. It is based upon vapor heat transfer principle and therefore, extends applicability of heat pipe.

  16. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  17. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  18. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  19. Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced Nipples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced ...

  20. The manufacture of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The major techniques are described for fabricating flat conductor cable (FCC). Various types of FCC, including unshielded, shielded, power, and signal, in both existing and conceptual constructions, are covered.

  1. High efficiency flat plate solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. F.

    1985-04-30

    A concentrating flat plate collector for the high efficiency collection of solar energy. Through an arrangement of reflector elements, incoming solar radiation, either directly or after reflection from the reflector elements, impinges upon both surfaces of a collector element.

  2. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Orvis, William J.; Caporaso, George J.; Wieskamp, Ted F.

    1996-01-01

    A device which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density.

  3. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.; Orvis, W.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1996-04-16

    A device is disclosed which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density. 6 figs.

  4. High performance flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  5. Spontaneous transition from flat to cylindrical solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Frycz, P.; Infeld, E. )

    1989-07-24

    Flat, cylindrical, and spherical soliton solutions to various model equations are known. Many of these exact solutions have been seen in numerical simulations. However, there are few simulations that actually show that exact flat solitons can break up into an array of exact cylindrical or spherical solitons and follow this on a step by step basis. This Letter presents the first of these two kinds of transition for the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation governing ion acoustic solitons in strongly magnetized plasmas.

  6. Compact programmable ground-penetrating radar system for roadway and bridge deck characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioc, Dan; Xia, Tian; Venkatachalam, Anbu; Huston, Dryver; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

    2011-04-01

    A compact, high-performance, programmable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system is described based on an impulse generator transmitter, a full waveform sampling single shot receiver, and high directivity antennas. The digital programmable pulse generator is developed for the transmitter circuit and both the pulse width and pulse shape are tunable to adjust for different modes of operation. It utilizes a step-recovery diode (SRD) and short-circuited microstrip lines to produce sub-nanosecond wide ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses. Sharp step signals are generated by periodic clock signals that are connected to the SRD's input node. Up to four variable width pulses (0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.1 ns) are generated through a number of PIN switches controlling the selection of different microstrip lengths. A schottky diode is used as a rectifier at the output of the SRD in order to pass only the positive part of the Gaussian pulses while another group of short-circuit microstrips are used to generate amplitude-reversed Gaussian pulses. The addition of the two pulses results in a Gaussian monocycle pulse which is more energy efficient for emission. The pulse generator is connected to a number of UWB antennas. Primarily, a UWB Vivaldi antenna (500 MHz to 5 GHz) is used, but a number of other high-performance GPR-oriented antennas are investigated as well. All have linear phase characteristic, constant phase center, constant polarization and flat gain. A number of methods including resistive loading are used to decrease any resonances due to the antenna structure and unwanted reflections from the ground. The antennas exhibit good gain characteristics in the design bandwidth.

  7. A new optical flat surface measurement method based on machine vision and deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewei, E.; Li, Dahai; Yang, Lijie; Guo, Guangrao; Li, Mengyang; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Phase Measuring Deflectometry(PMD) is a non-contact, high dynamic-range and full-field metrology which becomes a serious competitor to interferometry. However, the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of the calibrations. Our paper presents a calibration-based PMD method to test optical flat surface with a high accuracy. In our method, a pin-hole camera was set next to the LCD screen which is used to project sinusoidal fringes to the test flat. And the test flat was placed parallel to the direction of the LCD screen, which makes the geometry calibration process are simplified. The photogrammetric methods used in computer vision science was used to calibrate the pin-hole camera by using a checker pattern shown on another LCD display at six different orientations, the intrinsic parameters can be obtained by processing the obtained image of checker patterns. Further, by making the last orientation of checker pattern is aligned at the same position as the test optical flat, the algorithms used in this paper can obtain the mapping relationship between the CCD pixels and the subaperture coordinates on the test optical flat. We test a optical flat with a size of 50mm in diameter using our setup and algorithm. Our experimental results of optical flat figure from low to high order aberrations show a good agreement with that from the Fizeau interferometer.

  8. Experience in designing and using a flat structure in a multi-project research organization

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; Gardner, E.J.; Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In early 1986, the organization of the Management Systems Laboratories (MSL) was changed from a standard matrix to a flat organization. The flat organization contributed more negative influences on the organization and its goals than positive ones. One year later, the flat organization was changed to a standard hierarchy and most negative influences were overcome. Before, during, and after the flat organization, MSL saw significant growth in funding and in its resource needs. This paper is an account of an experience with a type of flat organization, why we changed to that organization, what worked and what didn't, why we changed away from that organization, what we learned from the experience, and what we would recommend for research organizations considering flat organizations. The authors include the founder and director of MSL, a senior manager during the experience who informally served as historian, and a manager in the organization that sponsored much of MSL's research during MSL's experience with a flat organization. 1 fig.

  9. Isolation and characterization of flat cells, a subpopulation of the embryonic chick retina.

    PubMed

    Li, H P; Sheffield, J B

    1984-01-01

    When the embryonic neutral retina is dissociated into single cells which are maintained in stationary culture, the neuronal cells associate on the surfaces of a second population which we refer to as flat cells. The flat cells appear in the culture in significant numbers after 2 days and are required for neuronal cell attachment. We have been able to isolate pure flat cells from early cultures of mixed retina cells and have identified several antigens which support the concept that these cells are related to the glia. The cells have been tested by immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein and have been found positive. Cell surfaces were labeled by transfer of tritiated galactose from UDP-galactose to endogenous acceptors in the presence of exogenous galactosyl transferase. After SDS-PAGE and fluorography, the surface glycoproteins of flat cells were seen to be significantly different from those of the original retina, and from chick fibroblasts. Immunoelectron microscope studies of detergent-extracted flat cells have demonstrated a complex network of intermediate filaments and actin fibers. We conclude that the flat cells are derived from the glia subpopulation of the retina and have adapted to the tissue culture environment by assuming this configuration. The unique surface properties of flat cells may be related to their role as an intermediate substrate between the neuronal cells and the tissue culture dish.

  10. Investigation of the Penetration on an Air Jet Directed Perpendicularly to an Air Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E; Ruggeri, Robert S

    1948-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the penetration of a circular air Jet directed perpendicularly to an air stream as a function of Jet density, Jet velocity, air-stream density, air-stream velocity, Jet diameter, and distance downstream from the Jet. The penetration was determined for nearly constant values of air-stream density at two tunnel velocities, four Jet diameters, four positions downstream of the Jet, and for a large range of Jet velocities and densities. An equation for the penetration was obtained in terms of the Jet diameter, the distance downstream from the jet, and the ratios of Jet and air-stream velocities and densities.

  11. Topological properties of flat electroencephalography's state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken, Tan Lit; Ahmad, Tahir bin; Mohd, Mohd Sham bin; Ngien, Su Kong; Suwa, Tohru; Meng, Ong Sie

    2016-02-01

    Neuroinverse problem are often associated with complex neuronal activity. It involves locating problematic cell which is highly challenging. While epileptic foci localization is possible with the aid of EEG signals, it relies greatly on the ability to extract hidden information or pattern within EEG signals. Flat EEG being an enhancement of EEG is a way of viewing electroencephalograph on the real plane. In the perspective of dynamical systems, Flat EEG is equivalent to epileptic seizure hence, making it a great platform to study epileptic seizure. Throughout the years, various mathematical tools have been applied on Flat EEG to extract hidden information that is hardly noticeable by traditional visual inspection. While these tools have given worthy results, the journey towards understanding seizure process completely is yet to be succeeded. Since the underlying structure of Flat EEG is dynamic and is deemed to contain wealthy information regarding brainstorm, it would certainly be appealing to explore in depth its structures. To better understand the complex seizure process, this paper studies the event of epileptic seizure via Flat EEG in a more general framework by means of topology, particularly, on the state space where the event of Flat EEG lies.

  12. [Penetrating trauma by foreign body in the left heart ventricle].

    PubMed

    García-Lledó, J A; Moya Mur, J L; Balaguer Recena, J; Novo García, E; Sancho Piedras, J M; Sáiz Beneit, R; Rubio Cantarero, C; Epeldegui Torre, A; Oliva de Anquín, E

    1997-02-01

    We present the case of a patient who suffered a cardiac penetrating trauma due to a 6-cm long steel splinter. He was self-admitted to the emergency room and was asymptomatic. Cardiac trauma was diagnosed by the presence of a foreign body in his chest X-ray. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography showed pericardial effusion and a dense foreign body that crossed the left ventricle from upside down and forward to back. The patient underwent cardiac surgery under extracorporal circulation. A shooting wound was seen on the left ventricular free wall. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed during surgery in order to define the position of the foreign body and to discard lesions due to multidirectional injury. Lesions were repaired and the patient was discharged with no complications. This case report illustrates the possibility of survival after cardiac penetrating trauma, and the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis and surgical repair of this type of trauma.

  13. Modeling pollutant penetration across building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, De-Ling; Nazaroff, William W.

    2001-04-01

    As air infiltrates through unintentional openings in building envelopes, pollutants may interact with adjacent surfaces. Such interactions can alter human exposure to air pollutants of outdoor origin. We present modeling explorations of the proportion of particles and reactive gases (e.g., ozone) that penetrate building envelopes as air enters through cracks and wall cavities. Calculations were performed for idealized rectangular cracks, assuming regular geometry, smooth inner crack surface and steady airflow. Particles of 0.1-1.0 {micro}m diameter are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or larger, assuming a pressure difference of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles are significantly removed by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. In addition to crack geometry, ozone penetration depends on its reactivity with crack surfaces, as parameterized by the reaction probability. For reaction probabilities less than {approx}10{sup -5}, penetration is complete for cracks heights greater than 1 mm. However, penetration through mm scale cracks is small if the reaction probability is {approx}10{sup -4} or greater. For wall cavities, fiberglass insulation is an efficient particle filter, but particles would penetrate efficiently through uninsulated wall cavities or through insulated cavities with significant airflow bypass. The ozone reaction probability on fiberglass fibers was measured to be 10{sup -7} for fibers previously exposed to high ozone levels and 6 x 10{sup -6} for unexposed fibers. Over this range, ozone penetration through fiberglass insulation would vary from >90% to {approx}10-40%. Thus, under many conditions penetration is high; however, there are realistic circumstances in which building envelopes can provide substantial pollutant removal. Not enough is yet known about the detailed nature of pollutant penetration

  14. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  15. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand.

    PubMed

    Marston, J O; Vakarelski, I U; Thoroddsen, S T

    2012-08-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  16. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, I. U.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  17. Penetrating Orbital Injury From a Needlefish.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kyle E; Coan, Erin B

    2016-08-01

    Orbital penetrating injuries are an unfortunately common occurrence; however, those from marine animals are rare. Injuries from marine animals can be quite profound and there are no known reports of complete visual recovery after an orbital penetrating injury. Complications range from secondary infection to a carotid-cavernous fistula, which can complicate the management of these patients. We report a case of penetrating orbital injury from a needlefish with complete return of visual function after surgical removal of foreign debris and an extended course of antibiotics.

  18. Aqueous marker penetration into ion irradiated polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Müller, M.; Petrov, A.; Klett, R.; Palmetshofer, L.; Hnatowicz, V.; Vacik, J.; Cervena, J.; Chadderton, L. T.

    2002-05-01

    The penetration of aqueous 6Li + markers into low energy ion irradiated polyimide (PI) foils was examined by the neutron depth profiling technique in combination with a modified tomographic approach. The ion irradiation always leads to an enhancement in marker uptake. After irradiation at low fluence the marker profiles follow the nuclear damage distribution even in three dimensions. At elevated fluences saturation in the marker uptake is clearly seen. The polymer's penetrant uptake can be described well by regular diffusion, with nuclear damage centres acting as saturable traps. These observations are strikingly different from the marker penetration into high-energy heavy-ion irradiated PI.

  19. Earthquakes induced by deep penetrating bombing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassanian, Serguei Y.

    2005-11-01

    The data of M≥5 earthquakes occurred in one year before and after 4 deep penetrating bombs in the region within 500 km and 1 000 km from the shooting site are presented. The 4 bombs are those happened in 1999 Kosovo of Yugoslavia, the 1991 Baghdad of Iraq, the 2001 Tora Bora of Afghanistan, and the 2003 Kirkuk of Iraq, respectively. The data indicate that the deep penetrating bombs may have remotely triggered some earthquakes. The deep penetrating bombs in seismically active regions should be forbidden.

  20. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  1. Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Prothro

    2008-03-01

    The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

  2. Impact response of graphite-epoxy flat laminates using projectiles that simulate aircraft engine encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, J. L., Jr.; Cook, T. S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the response of a graphite-epoxy material to foreign object impact was made by impacting spherical projectiles of gelatin, ice, and steel normally on flat panels. The observed damage was classified as transverse (stress wave delamination and cracking), penetrative, or structural (gross failure): the minimum, or threshold, velocity to cause each class of damage was established as a function of projectile characteristics. Steel projectiles had the lowest transverse damage threshold, followed by gelatin and ice. Making use of the threshold velocities and assuming that the normal component of velocity produces the damage in nonnormal impacts, a set of impact angles and velocities was established for each projectile material which would result in damage to composite fan blades. Analysis of the operating parameters of a typical turbine fan blade shows that small steel projectiles are most likely to cause delamination and penetration damage to unprotected graphite-epoxy composite fan blades.

  3. The use of footprint contact index II for classification of flat feet in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Didia, B C; Omu, E T; Obuoforibo, A A

    1987-04-01

    The objective index as developed by Qaura, Deodhar, and Jit, in 1980 was used to estimate the incidence of flat foot (pes planus) in 990 school pupils (532 females and 458 males) between the ages of 5 and 14 years. The ratio of contact area to the total area of the middle of the footprint (contact index 1) (4/10), usually measured with a planimeter, is accepted as the true representative of the condition of arches. In this field study, contact index II (ratio of contact width to the total width of the foot) which is simple, reliable, and correlates with contact index I has been used to assess flat foot. The mean for the contact index and standard deviation have been calculated. Feet have been considered as normal up to 1 SD around the mean value of the index and values greater or lesser than this have been considered abnormal. Furthermore, mean +/- 1 SD to 2 SD has been considered as possible flat foot, whereas mean +/- 3 SD and above has been taken as definite flat foot. On the whole, bilateral flat foot is not common among children of school age in Port Harcourt (0.60%). It is, however, more common in females (0.75%) than males (0.44%). Unilateral flat foot (2.22%) is found to be more common than bilateral flat foot. Early introduction to the use of shoes may predispose to flat foot. We were not in a position to say if any of the subjects found with flat foot would have a painful foot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F.; Leong, K.H.; Gartner, M.

    1997-10-01

    Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

  5. AXAF Alignment Test System Autocollimating Flat Error Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Timothy S.

    1995-01-01

    The alignment test system for the advanced x ray astrophysics facility (AXAF) high-resolution mirror assembly (HRMA) determines the misalignment of the HRMA by measuring the displacement of a beam of light reflected by the HRMA mirrors and an autocollimating flat (ACF). This report shows how to calibrate the system to compensate for errors introduced by the ACF, using measurements taken with the ACF in different positions. It also shows what information can be obtained from alignment test data regarding errors in the shapes of the HRMA mirrors. Simulated results based on measured ACF surface data are presented.

  6. Thermodynamics of flat FLRW universe in Rastall theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradpour, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, after referring to the Rastall theory, we address some of its cosmological consequences. Moreover, bearing the Clausius relation in mind, using Friedman equations in Rastall theory and the Cai-Kim temperature, we obtain a relation for the apparent horizon entropy of a flat FLRW universe. In addition, we impose the entropy positivity condition on the obtained relation for the horizon entropy, to find some constraints on the Rastall parameters. Moreover, we investigate the second and generalized second laws of thermodynamics. The results of considering a dominated prefect fluid of constant state parameter are also addressed helping us familiarize with the Rastall theory.

  7. Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.

    1988-10-01

    Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.

  8. Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B. G.; Shaw, R. S.; Vella, M. C.

    1981-07-01

    We investigate magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Lastly, strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.

  9. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  10. Estimating Consequences of MMOD Penetrations on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H.; Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.

    2017-01-01

    The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.

  11. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Harris, Anita G.; Wahl, Ronald R.

    1997-01-01

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site.All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre- Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting.This new interpretation has implications

  12. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications

  13. New criteria expected from East Flat project

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    The East Flat in-situ combustion project began in June 1979 in the isolated East Flat area of the North Ward-Estes field and is expected to provide Gulf with a new set of criteria for in-situ fireflooding. The East Flat area is a small, separate and isolated Queen sand reservoir. Conditions in East Flat are expected to give more control to the combustion process, primarily because of the size and homogeneity of the reservoir. The East Flat project was initiated in an old caustic pilot, which was started in 1973 to determine the effect of a caustic slug injected early in the life of a waterflood. The caustic pilot consisted of 4 injection wells drilled around a single producer to form a 5-arce regular 5-spot pattern. In the combustion project, the in-situ fire was started in the center producing well after its being converted to air injection. As the burn approaches the observation wells, small amounts of water will be injected into them to project the casing from the corrosive gases caused by high temperatures.

  14. Instability of flat space at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1982-01-15

    The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature.

  15. Flat inductors for human motion energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blums, Juris; Terlecka, Galina; Gornevs, Ilgvars; Vilumsone, Ausma

    2013-05-01

    The human motion energy harvesting is under investigation. The aim of this investigation: to develop electromagnetic human motion energy harvester that will consist only from flat elements and is integrable into the apparel. Main parts of the developed human motion energy harvester are flat, spiral-shaped inductors. Voltage pulses in such flat inductors can be induced during the motion of a permanent magnet along it. Due to the flat structure, inductors can be completely integrated into the parts of the clothes and it is not necessary to keep empty place for the movement of the magnet, as in usual electromagnetic harvesters. The prototype of the clothing, jacket with integrated electromagnetic human motion energy harvester with flat inductors is tested. The theoretical model for the induction of the electromotive force due to the magnet's movement is created for the basic shapes (round, rhombic, square) of the inductive elements and the results (shape of voltage pulse and generated energy) of the calculations are in a good qualitative and quantitative coincidence with an experimental research.

  16. Optically modified fiber tips penetrate only when "dirty"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Jansen, E. Duco; Holstege, F. C.; Borst, Cornelius

    1990-07-01

    Optically modified fiber tips are under investigation ox already in use clinically for the recanalization of totallyocciuded arteries. It has not been determined to what extent their mechanism of action is optical, thermal and mechanical. We studied a 2.2 mm diameter, rounded Sapphire Contact Probe (SLT, MTR 1.5) and a 1.5 mm diameter ball-shaped fiber (ACS) coupled to a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser using 1 second pulses. The probes were positioned perpendicular to homogeneous porcine fatty tissue samples in plasma using preset axial forces. Penetration depth per pulse and temperature of the collar of the probes were measured in relation to the force. Starting with new, clean probes no tissue penetration was achieved using forces up to the equivalent of 105 gr and powers up to 25 W for 10 s. On purpose, the probes where exposed to high powers in plasma until a coagulum was formed on the tip. After cleaning, a ring of carbonized particles deposited on the surface of the probe bordered the exit window of the beam on the tip. The power absorbed by the probes increased from 5 to 32 %. Tissue penetration with 'dirty' probes was force dependent. For sapphire contact probes it was 1.2 - 2.9 mm/pulse (1 mm diameter spot, 15 W, 1 s) in the force range of 23 - 105 gr. For the ball shaped fibers it was 2.7 10 mm/pulse (0.4 mm diameter spot, 10 W, 1 s) in force range of 23 - 35 gr. The optically modified fiber tips studied did not penetrate tissue by absorption of the Nd-YAG beam by the tissue only. Tissue penetration started when part of the laser beam was absorbed by pollution on the surface of the probe creating a 'hot tip'. Tissue penetration was force dependent due to the smaller diameter of the ablative beam in comparison to the diameter of the probe. Thus, the recanalization mechanism of both probes is partly mechanical.

  17. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules. PMID:25383343

  18. Enthalpy-driven interactions with sulfated glycosaminoglycans promote cell membrane penetration of arginine peptides.

    PubMed

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Nadai, Ryo; Kimura, Hitoshi; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Uchimura, Kenji; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko; Kawakami, Kohsaku; Shigenaga, Akira; Kawakami, Toru; Otaka, Akira; Hojo, Hironobu; Sakashita, Naomi; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The first step of cell membrane penetration of arginine peptides is thought to occur via electrostatic interactions between positive charges of arginine residues and negative charges of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the cell surface. However, the molecular interaction of arginine peptides with GAG still remains unclear. Here, we compared the interactions of several arginine peptides of Tat, R8, and Rev and their analogues with heparin in relation to the cell membrane penetration efficiency. The high-affinity binding of arginine peptides to heparin was shown to be driven by large favorable enthalpy contributions, possibly reflecting multidentate hydrogen bondings of arginine residues with sulfate groups of heparin. Interestingly, the lysine peptides in which all arginine residues are substituted with lysine residues exhibited negligible binding enthalpy despite of their considerable binding to heparin. In CHO-K1 cells, arginine peptides exhibited a great cell-penetrating ability whereas their corresponding lysine peptides did not penetrate into cells. The degree of cell penetration of arginine peptides markedly decreased by the chlorate treatment of cells which prevents the sulfation of GAG chains. Significantly, the cell penetration efficiency of arginine peptides was found to be correlated with the favorable enthalpy of binding to heparin. These results suggest that the enthalpy-driven strong interaction with sulfated GAGs such as heparan sulfate plays a critical role in the efficient cell membrane penetration of arginine peptides.

  19. An improved method for flat-field correction of flat panel x-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Alexander L C; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2006-02-01

    In this Technical Note, the effects of different flat-field techniques are examined for a cesium iodide flat panel detector, which exhibited a slightly nonlinear exposure response. The results indicate that the variable flat-field correction method with the appropriate polynomial fit provides excellent correction throughout the entire exposure range. The averaged normalized variation factor, used to assess the nonuniformity of the flat-field correction, decreased from 30.76 for the fixed correction method to 4.13 for the variable flat-field correction method with a fourth-order polynomial fit for the 60 kVp spectrum, and from 16.42 to 3.97 for the 95 kVp spectrum.

  20. Test results on dual resonant power supply with flat top and flat bottom current

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.

    1987-01-01

    An alternative to the linear increase and decrease of current through the magnets of a circular ring is a dual resonant frequency power supply that can maintain flat bottom and flat top currents in the magnets. This paper deals with the experimental results obtained by operating a model of such a power supply and observing the results of changes in various parameters. The model is first operated in a single-pulse mode starting from an equilibrium dc condition of the magnet flat bottom current. The effects of the circuit losses and the method of replacing energy in the system will be presented. When operating the power supply in continuous mode, it will be shown that the magnet flat bottom current and magnet flat top current can be controlled.

  1. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  2. Flat early cancers of the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, S; Oohara, T

    1989-08-15

    From January 1976 to December 1987, 37 early colorectal cancers of the flat type were treated. Thirty-four of them (91.9%) were not accompanied by adenoma, and were thought to have arisen de novo. There is indeed a de novo route of cancer development in the human large intestine, and cancers de novo merely show polypoid growth. Flat type cancers arising de novo tend to reach deeper layers at an earlier stage than polypoid-type carcinomas in adenoma. Of those with a diameter of less than 10 mm, only 40% stayed in the mucosa. Consequently, advanced cancers cannot be prevented by snare polypectomy alone. More attention should be directed to the discovery of small, flat, nonpolypoid cancers.

  3. Analysis of boiling flat-plate collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed model for use with TRNSYS, capable of modelling a wide range of boiling collector types, was used to analyze boiling flat-plate collector systems. This model can account for a subcooled liquid entering the collector, heat losses in the vapor and the liquid return line, pressure drops due to friction in the collector and piping, and pressure drops due to the hydrostatic head of the fluid. The model has been used to determine the yearly performance of boiling flat-plate solar collector systems. A simplified approach was also developed which can be used with the f-Chart method to predict yearly performance of boiling flat-plate collector systems.

  4. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil... duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon quality steel flat products (hot-rolled steel) from Brazil. The review covers four producers/exporters of hot-rolled steel from Brazil, all...

  5. Lift evaluation of a two-dimensional pitching flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.

    2013-09-01

    Several previous experimental and theoretical studies have shown that a leading edge vortex (LEV) on an airfoil or wing can provide lift enhancement. In this paper, unsteady two-dimensional (2D) potential flow theory is employed to model the flow field of a pitching flat plate wing. A multi-vortices model is developed to model both the leading edge and trailing edge vortices (TEVs), which offers improved accuracy compared with using only single vortex at each separation location. The lift is obtained by integrating the unsteady Blasius equation. It is found that the motion of vortices contributes significantly to the overall aerodynamic force on the flat plate. A Kutta-like condition is used to determine the vortex intensity and location at the leading edge for large angle of attack cases; however, it is proposed to relax this condition for small angle of attack cases and apply a 2D shear layer model to calculate the circulation of the new added vortex. The results of the simulation are then compared with classical numerical, theoretical, and experimental data for canonical unsteady flat plat problems. Good agreement with these data is observed. Moreover, these results suggested that the leading edge vortex shedding for small angles of attack should be modeled differently than that for large angles of attack. Finally, the results of vortex motion vs. lift indicate that the slow convection of the LEV creates less negative lift while the rapid shedding of the TEV creates more positive lift. The difference between these two contributions of lift results in a total positive lift that lasts for about two chord-length travel of the plate. It is therefore concluded that the lift enhancement during the LEV "stabilization" above the wing is a combined effect of both the LEV and TEV motion. This also provides the insights for future active flow control of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) that the formation and shedding process of LEVs and TEVs can be manipulated to provide lift

  6. Holography and entanglement in flat spacetime.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2011-04-08

    We propose a holographic correspondence of the flat spacetime based on the behavior of the entanglement entropy and the correlation functions. The holographic dual theory turns out to be highly nonlocal. We argue that after most part of the space is traced out, the reduced density matrix gives the maximal entropy and the correlation functions become trivial. We present a toy model for this holographic dual using a nonlocal scalar field theory that reproduces the same property of the entanglement entropy. Our conjecture is consistent with the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes in asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  7. DNA electrophoresis on a flat surface.

    PubMed

    Pernodet, N; Samuilov, V; Shin, K; Sokolov, J; Rafailovich, M H; Gersappe, D; Chu, B

    2000-12-25

    We report a new approach for performing DNA electrophoresis. Using experimental studies and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that a perfectly flat silicon wafer, without any surface features, can be used to fractionate DNA in free solution. We determine that the ability of a flat surface to separate DNA molecules results from the local friction between the surface and the adsorbed DNA segments. We control this friction by coating the Si surface with silane monolayer films and show that it is possible to systematically change the size range of DNA that can be separated.

  8. Cosmological implications of models with flat directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The author investigates the cosmological implications of models with flat directions. By using the physically sensible method of Vilenkin to regularize the theory, he computes the quantum fluctuations of a non-self-interacting but unstable scalar field or arbitrary mass during the period of inflation. He finds that in some models with flat direction in the low-energy effective potential, residual F-terms appear after heavy fields of the full theory have been integrated out. He considers the effects of the scalar field fluctuations and the residual F-terms on the baryon asymmetry of the universe in the Affleck-Dine mechanism for baryogenesis.

  9. Primary "flat" melanoma of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Cho, H; Som, M

    1977-02-01

    A 47-yr-old woman, complaining of shortness of breath, had a chest X-ray showing a right parahilar mass and bronchoscopic examination disclosed a bluish flat lesion on the posterior wall of the trachea at the level of the fifth and sixth rings. Histological examination of the resected segment of trachea and an adjacent lymph-node revealed a primary tracheal melanoma with lymph-node metastasis. Review of five reported cases and of the literature on mucosal melanomas disclosed that the flat configuration of the tumour and the abundance of melanophages observed in the present case were unique. Possible relationships to mucosal melanosis and squamous metaplasia were briefly discussed.

  10. Flat carcinoma in Situ of bladder.

    PubMed

    Riddle, P R; Chisholm, G D; Trott, P A; Pugh, R C

    1975-01-01

    36 patients with flat carcinoma in situ of the bladder have been reviewed. Those with widespread disease usually presented with dysuria or obstructive outflow tract symptoms and radical surgery appeared to give better results than radiotherapy. However, when the lesion was confined to small areas of the bladder mucosa, haematuria or pain were the main presenting symptoms and a conservative approach seemed justified. It is suggested that the term flat carcinoma in situ be used for this lesion whose behavior differs significantly from that of the commoner papillary or invasive tumours. The pathological appearances are to be reported elsewhere in full.

  11. Mega-earthquakes rupture flat megathrusts.

    PubMed

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M; Rempel, Alan W; Karlstrom, Leif; Sladen, Anthony; De Barros, Louis

    2016-11-25

    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquakes highlighted gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution: A fast convergence rate and young buoyant lithosphere are not required to produce mega-earthquakes. We calculated the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world, showing that mega-earthquakes preferentially rupture flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that heterogeneity in shear strength increases with curvature. Shear strength on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous, and hence more likely to be exceeded simultaneously over large areas, than on highly curved faults.

  12. Integrating planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles into a flat-plate photobioreactor to improve light distribution and microalgae growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun; Zheng, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Industrially manufactured planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles, which can dilute and redistribute the intense incident light within microalgae suspension more uniformly, were introduced into a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) with a width of 25cm to alleviate the adverse effect of poor light penetrability on microalgae growth. Compared with the flat-plate PBR without waveguides, the illumination surface area per unit volume in the proposed PBR was increased by 10.3 times. During the whole cultivation period, the illuminated volume fractions in the proposed PBR were 21.4-410% higher than those in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Consequently, attributed to the optimized light distribution in the proposed PBR, a 220% improvement in biomass production was obtained relative to that in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Furthermore, higher light output intensities emitted from the planar waveguide surfaces and increased microalgae growth rates were achieved by decreasing the length of planar waveguides.

  13. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic

  14. Penetrating Dust Tori in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canalizo, G.; Max, C.; Antonucci, R.; Whysong, D.; Stockton, A.; Lacy, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary results from high resolution (~ 0.05") adaptive optics observations of Cygnus A. The images show a bi-conic structure strongly suggestive of an obscuring torus around a quasar nucleus. A bright (K'=18.5) point source is found near the expected position of the nucleus. We interpret this source as the hot inner rim of the torus seen through the opening of the torus. Using high angular resolution K-band spectroscopy, we measure the ratio of molecular to recombination hydrogen lines as a function of distance to the center of the putative torus. These measurements place constraints on the properties of the torus and indicate a projected diameter of ~600 pc.

  15. Proposed classification for topographic patterns seen after penetrating keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Karabatsas, C.; Cook, S.; Sparrow, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To create a clinically useful classification for post-keratoplasty corneas based on corneal topography.
METHODS—A total of 360 topographic maps obtained with the TMS-1, from 95 eyes that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), were reviewed independently by two examiners in a masked fashion, and were categorised according to a proposed classification scheme.
RESULTS—A high interobserver agreement (88% in the first categorisation) was achieved. At 12 months post-PKP, a regular astigmatic pattern was observed in 20/85 cases (24%). This was subclassified as oval in three cases (4%), oblate symmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), prolate asymmetric bow tie in six cases (7%), and oblate asymmetric bow tie in five cases (6%). An irregular astigmatic pattern was observed in 61/85 cases (72%), subclassified as prolate irregular in five cases (6%), oblate irregular in four cases (5%), mixed in seven cases (8%), steep/flat in 11 cases (13%), localised steepness in 16 cases (19%), and triple pattern in three cases (4%). Regular astigmatic patterns were associated with significantly higher astigmatism measurements. The surface asymmetry index was significantly lower in the regular astigmatic patterns.
CONCLUSIONS—In post-PKP corneas, the prevalence of irregular astigmatism is about double that of regular astigmatism, with a trend for increase of the irregular patterns over time.

 Keywords: keratoplasty; corneal topography; astigmatism PMID:10434860

  16. Half-flat vs. atomically flat: Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(100) and Si(111) have very similar structure, density, and chemical stability.

    PubMed

    DeBenedetti, William J I; Li, Thomas L; Hines, Melissa A

    2017-02-07

    Chemists have long preferred the Si(111) surface for chemical functionalization, as a simple aqueous etch can be used to produce ideal, atomically flat H/Si(111) surfaces for subsequent reactions. In contrast, industry-standard etches produce rough H/Si(100) surfaces terminated by nanohillocks. The recent discovery of an aqueous etch that produces morphologically controlled H/Si(100) surfaces with a near atomically flat or "half-flat" morphology challenges the assumption that Si(111) is an inherently preferable starting point for chemical functionalization. This study shows that alkyl functionalization of morphologically controlled, "half-flat" Si(100) surfaces by terminal alkenes produces dense, tightly packed monolayers that are essentially identical to those on atomically flat Si(111). The striking similarity between the infrared spectra on these two surfaces - in terms of absolute absorbance, line shape and position, and polarization dependence - strongly suggests that alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) have essentially identical structures. The principle difference between the two surfaces is the amount of residual H at the Si/organic interface, a difference that is dictated by the structure of the Si(100) surface. Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces were shown to be equally resistant to harsh oxidants. As a result, there appears to be no chemical reason to prefer one surface over the other, at least for functionalization with terminal alkenes.

  17. Half-flat vs. atomically flat: Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(100) and Si(111) have very similar structure, density, and chemical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBenedetti, William J. I.; Li, Thomas L.; Hines, Melissa A.

    2017-02-01

    Chemists have long preferred the Si(111) surface for chemical functionalization, as a simple aqueous etch can be used to produce ideal, atomically flat H/Si(111) surfaces for subsequent reactions. In contrast, industry-standard etches produce rough H/Si(100) surfaces terminated by nanohillocks. The recent discovery of an aqueous etch that produces morphologically controlled H/Si(100) surfaces with a near atomically flat or "half-flat" morphology challenges the assumption that Si(111) is an inherently preferable starting point for chemical functionalization. This study shows that alkyl functionalization of morphologically controlled, "half-flat" Si(100) surfaces by terminal alkenes produces dense, tightly packed monolayers that are essentially identical to those on atomically flat Si(111). The striking similarity between the infrared spectra on these two surfaces — in terms of absolute absorbance, line shape and position, and polarization dependence — strongly suggests that alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) have essentially identical structures. The principle difference between the two surfaces is the amount of residual H at the Si/organic interface, a difference that is dictated by the structure of the Si(100) surface. Alkyl monolayers on morphologically controlled Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces were shown to be equally resistant to harsh oxidants. As a result, there appears to be no chemical reason to prefer one surface over the other, at least for functionalization with terminal alkenes.

  18. Experiments to investigate lift production mechanisms on pitching flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, P. R. R. J.; Babinsky, H.

    2017-01-01

    Pitching flat plates are a useful simplification of flapping wings, and their study can provide useful insights into unsteady force generation. Non-circulatory and circulatory lift producing mechanisms for low Reynolds number pitching flat plates are investigated. A series of experiments are designed to measure forces and study the unsteady flowfield development. Two pitch axis positions are investigated, namely a leading edge and a mid-chord pitch axis. A novel PIV approach using twin laser lightsheets is shown to be effective at acquiring full field of view velocity data when an opaque wing model is used. Leading-edge vortex (LEV) circulations are extracted from velocity field data, using a Lamb-Oseen vortex fitting algorithm. LEV and trailing-edge vortex positions are also extracted. It is shown that the circulation of the LEV, as determined from PIV data, approximately matches the general trend of an unmodified Wagner function for a leading edge pitch axis and a modified Wagner function for a mid-chord pitch axis. Comparison of experimentally measured lift correlates well with the prediction of a reduced-order model for a LE pitch axis.

  19. Dopant penetration studies through Hf silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.; Visokay, M. R.; Chambers, J. J.; Bevan, M. J.; LiFatou, A.; Colombo, L.; Kim, M. J.; Gnade, B. E.; Wallace, R. M.

    2005-02-01

    We present a study of the penetration of B, P, and As through Hf silicate (HfSixOy) and the effect of N incorporation in Hf silicate (HfSixOyNz) on dopant penetration from doped polycrystalline silicon capping layers. The extent of penetration through Hf silicate was found to be dependent upon the thermal annealing budget for each dopant investigated as follows: B(T⩾950°C/60s), P(T⩾1000°C/20s), and As (T⩾1050°C/60s). We propose that the enhanced diffusion observed for these dopants in HfSixOy, compared with that of SiO2 films, is related to grain boundary formation resulting from HfSixOy film crystallization. We also find that, as in the case of SiO2, N incorporation inhibits dopant (B, P, and As) diffusion through the Hf silicate and thus penetration into the underlying Si substrate. Only B penetration is clearly observed through HfSiON films for anneals at 1050 °C for durations of 10 s or longer. The calculated B diffusivity through the HfSixOyNz layer is D0=5.2×10-15cm2/s.

  20. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    SciTech Connect

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  1. Emergence of flat cells from glia in stationary cultures of embryonic chick neural retina.

    PubMed

    Moyer, M; Bullrich, F; Sheffield, J B

    1990-11-01

    When embryonic retina is dissociated into a single cell suspension and maintained in stationary culture, a population of flat cells is found on the culture dish. We have carried out a morphologic and immunologic study of the emergence of this population in vitro. Ten- and fourteen-day-old chick embryo retinas were dissociated with trypsin, seeded on glass cover slips for various times, and prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence (IF) for Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein. SEM indicates that the characteristic flat cell morphology is initiated in some cells in as little as 30 min after the start of the culture. Not all of the cells that attach flatten. As incubation proceeds, small clusters of cells that had formed in suspension attach to the substrate, and flat cells emerge from them. The flattened cells are positive for Vimentin by IF within 10 min of attachment. The percent of fluorescent cells found on the substrate is constant during the time in culture. This suggests that flat cells do not attach first, followed by neural cells, but that the neural cells and flat cells attach to the dish at the same rate. When aggregates that had formed in suspension attach to the substrate, they are anchored by flat cells that migrate out of the aggregate. Since Vimentin appears in the cultured cells within 10 min, it is unlikely that it has been newly synthesized. Thus, the same cells that contained Vimentin in the retina now express it as flat cells. This supports the hypothesis that flat cells derive from the same cells in the retina that give rise to Müller cells. We have also observed the emergence of a population of cells with short (0.5 micron) microvilli that appear within 8 h of culture. They seem to be a distinct subpopulation of the cells on the upper portion of attached clusters.

  2. Geodynamics of flat subduction: Seismicity and tomographic constraints from the Andean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, Marc-André; Spakman, Wim; Bijwaard, Harmen; Engdahl, E. Robert

    2000-10-01

    The cause and geodynamic impact of flat subduction are investigated. First, the 1500 km long Peru flat slab segment is examined. Earthquake hypocenter data image two morphologic highs in the subducting Nazca Plate which correlate with the positions of subducted oceanic plateaus. Travel time tomographic images confirm the three-dimensional slab geometry and suggest a lithospheric tear may bound the NW edge of the flat slab segment, with possible slab detachment occurring down dip as well. Other flat slab regions worldwide are discussed: central Chile, Ecuador, NW Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, southern Alaska, SW Japan, and western New Guinea. Flat subduction is shown to be a widespread phenomenon, occuring in 10% of modern convergent margins. In nearly all these cases, as a spatial and temporal correlation is observed between subducting oceanic plateaus and flat subduction, we conclude that flat subduction is caused primarily by (1) the buoyancy of thickened oceanic crust of moderate to young age and (2) a delay in the basalt to eclogite transition due to the cool thermal structure of two overlapping lithospheres. A statistical analysis of seismicity along the entire length of the Andes demonstrates that seismic energy release in the upper plate at a distance of 250-800 km from the trench is on average 3-5 times greater above flat slab segments than for adjacent steep slab segments. We propose this is due to higher interplate coupling and the cold, strong rheology of the overriding lithosphere which thus enables stress and deformation to be transmitted hundreds of kilometers into the heart of the upper plate.

  3. Penetrators (penetrating sondes) and new possibilities for study of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davydov, V. D.; Skuridin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fields of possible use of penetrators in space research are considered. A survey of the condition of development and plans for use of penetrators abroad is presented and an analysis is given of the significance of scientific problems when probing planets.

  4. Mass Distributions Implying Flat Galactic Rotation Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    The rotational speeds of stars in the disc of a spiral galaxy are virtually independent of the distances of the stars from the centre of the galaxy. In common parlance, the stellar speed versus distance plot known as a galactic rotation curve is by observation typically nearly flat. This observation provides strong evidence that most galactic…

  5. UVIS 2.0: Ultraviolet Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, J.

    2017-03-01

    Improved UV flat fields were delivered on February 23, 2016 for the four bluest WFC3 filters. These new reference files correct for sensitivity residuals in a crosshatch pattern on spatial scales of 50-100 pixels. The residuals are a result of in-flight temperature differences affecting the detector's spatial response, which was derived from ground test data at a warmer operating temperature. Photometry of white dwarf standards stepped across the UVIS detector shows a linear correlation between the flat field response and the measured flux residual, which is used to model the correction. With the 2016 flats, the photometric repeatability is now 3.0% peak-to-peak (0.7% rms) compared to 6.7% peak-to-peak (1.8% rms) with the original 2011 flats, excluding the left edge of the detector (x<300 pixels) in F275W where photometry is 1% higher than the rest of the frame. The UV filters have color terms of several percent, and the new chip-dependent calibration is intended to produce uniform count rate across the two chips for blue sources. When using the inverse sensitivity values delivered in February 2016, offsets in the UV count rate between chips of up to 2% are found for hot stars, and even more for cool stars. A revised calibration delivered in November 2016 corrects the offset for blue sources, allowing for more accurate drizzled data products when combining pixels from different UVIS chips.

  6. Fast Flat Fields from Moving Extended Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalrymple, N. E.; Bianda, M.

    2002-05-01

    A person wearing dirty spectacles corrects images by observing an extended object and moving his or her head. Details that do not appear to move with the observed object must be due to optical imperfections. In the same manner, the relative pixel gains of a CCD camera observing through a movable optical system can be calculated. The result is a flat field table that may be used repeatedly to correct subsequent images. A fast flat fielding algorithm has been developed for solar observations that uses only two exposures to compute a flat field. During each exposure the source image is linearly scanned across the field of view. The two images are then mated together. The method is valid in cases where the intensity of the observed source changes slowly with respect to the camera exposure time, where the optical configuration remains constant during the scans, and where the path of motion is known or can be deduced from the images. For a camera with 2048x2048 pixels the computation requires about 30 s of processing time on a Sun 450 and yields a result that is comparable to a Kuhn-Lin flat field, which requires one hour of processing time on the same system.

  7. Promoting Employability in a "Flat" World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Polly

    2008-01-01

    T. L. Friedman (2005) described a "flat" world platform where competition and collaboration take place in real time among people all over the planet. Implications exist for people to assume responsibility for managing their own careers and ensuring their own security in a global economy. This article addresses those challenges from both the…

  8. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. FDA allows label health claims for food containing 11 g and 51% whole grains. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain products. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads were prepared with cor...

  9. Superconducting transitions in flat-band systems

    DOE PAGES

    Iglovikov, V. I.; Hébert, F.; Grémaud, B.; ...

    2014-09-11

    The physics of strongly correlated quantum particles within a flat band was originally explored as a route to itinerant ferromagnetism and, indeed, a celebrated theorem by Lieb rigorously establishes that the ground state of the repulsive Hubbard model on a bipartite lattice with unequal number of sites in each sublattice must have nonzero spin S at half-filling. Recently, there has been interest in Lieb geometries due to the possibility of novel topological insulator, nematic, and Bose-Einstein condensed (BEC) phases. In this paper, we extend the understanding of the attractive Hubbard model on the Lieb lattice by using Determinant Quantum Montemore » Carlo to study real space charge and pair correlation functions not addressed by the Lieb theorems. Specifically, our results show unusual charge and charge transfer signatures within the flat band, and a reduction in pairing order at ρ = 2/3 and ρ = 4/3, the points at which the flat band is first occupied and then completely filled. Lastly, we compare our results to the case of flat bands in the Kagome lattice and demonstrate that the behavior observed in the two cases is rather different.« less

  10. Superconducting transitions in flat-band systems

    SciTech Connect

    Iglovikov, V. I.; Hébert, F.; Grémaud, B.; Batrouni, G. G.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2014-09-11

    The physics of strongly correlated quantum particles within a flat band was originally explored as a route to itinerant ferromagnetism and, indeed, a celebrated theorem by Lieb rigorously establishes that the ground state of the repulsive Hubbard model on a bipartite lattice with unequal number of sites in each sublattice must have nonzero spin S at half-filling. Recently, there has been interest in Lieb geometries due to the possibility of novel topological insulator, nematic, and Bose-Einstein condensed (BEC) phases. In this paper, we extend the understanding of the attractive Hubbard model on the Lieb lattice by using Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo to study real space charge and pair correlation functions not addressed by the Lieb theorems. Specifically, our results show unusual charge and charge transfer signatures within the flat band, and a reduction in pairing order at ρ = 2/3 and ρ = 4/3, the points at which the flat band is first occupied and then completely filled. Lastly, we compare our results to the case of flat bands in the Kagome lattice and demonstrate that the behavior observed in the two cases is rather different.

  11. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    ScienceCinema

    Neal Lane

    2016-07-12

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  12. Evacuated flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, P.G.

    1981-09-15

    A structural support system is disclosed for use in an evacuated, flat-plate, solar collector to eliminate the problem of stress fractures in a glass cover plate. Nonlinearly spaced supports are used within the collector to dampen vibrations in the glass cover and to prevent overdeflection before buckling or stress fractures occur.

  13. Flat panel displays in an underwater cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, Kenneth E.

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on a highly unusual application of flat panel displays in a cockpit. The cockpit is found in a mini- submarine of the Advanced SEAL Delivery System (ASDS), a state-of-the-art military platform designed to deliver U.S. Navy SEALs, and other special forces, to their mission locations. For security reasons, the presentation details are intentionally kept minimal.

  14. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    SciTech Connect

    Neal Lane

    2006-09-12

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  15. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EARTH PENETRATION

    DOEpatents

    Adams, W.M.

    1963-12-24

    A nuclear reactor apparatus for penetrating into the earth's crust is described. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical nuclear core operating at a temperature that is higher than the melting temperature of rock. A high-density ballast member is coupled to the nuclear core such that the overall density of the core-ballast assembly is greater than the density of molten rock. The nuclear core is thermally insulated so that its heat output is constrained to flow axially, with radial heat flow being minimized. In operation, the apparatus is placed in contact with the earth's crust at the point desired to be penetrated. The heat output of the reactor melts the underlying rock, and the apparatus sinks through the resulting magma. The fuel loading of the reactor core determines the ultimate depth of crust penetration. (AEC)

  16. Sunshot Initiative High Penetration Solar Portal

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the installed cost of solar energy systems by about 75% will drive widespread large-scale adoption of this renewable energy and restore U.S. leadership in the global clean energy race. The High Penetration Solar Portal was created as a resource to aggregate the most relevant and timely information related to high penetration solar scenarios and integrating solar into the grid. The site is designed so that utilities, grant awardees, regulators, researchers, and other solar professionals can easily share data, case studies, lessons learned, and demonstration project findings. [from https://solarhighpen.energy.gov/about_the_high_penetration_solar_portal

  17. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, Roberta; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick) and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm-1) concealed behind them.

  18. Laser reflections from relatively flat specular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W J

    1989-05-01

    A major element in laser range control procedures has been the control of stray reflections from glass reflectors which may be near the laser target. These hazardous reflections have been thought to extend as far as the direct beam for near grazing angles of incidence. Modern military laser rangefinders and designators can be hazardous to the unaided eye to distances of 10 km or even greater. For this reason, many square kilometers of laser range area have been necessary to conduct laser tests when flat specular reflectors may be present on targets. Fortunately, sophisticated pointing systems have been developed with these laser systems to ensure that the direct beam is confined to the immediate target area. In most cases, flat specular reflectors also have been eliminated from the immediate target area. In some instances, however, specular reflectors still exist near or on laser targets. For these special cases, a more definitive mathematical treatment of hazardous laser reflections is desired. The divergence of a laser beam which has been reflected from a flat specular surface is dependent on the size of the reflector, the divergence of the laser creating the reflection, and the curvature of the reflecting surface. It can be shown mathematically that the curvature of even an optical flat, a reference surface used to compare the flatness of other surfaces, will produce a significant additional beam spread, thereby reducing the hazards of reflected beams. The natural curvature of plate glass or window glass is much greater, reducing the hazards even further. The extent of the hazards for reflections of various types of lasers and reflecting surfaces is discussed.

  19. FREEFALL: A seabed penetrator flight code

    SciTech Connect

    Hickerson, J.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents a one-dimensional model and computer program for predicting the motion of seabed penetrators. The program calculates the acceleration, velocity, and depth of a penetrator as a function of time from the moment of launch until the vehicle comes to rest in the sediment. The code is written in Pascal language for use on a small personal computer. Results are presented as printed tables and graphs. A comparison with experimental data is given which indicates that the accuracy of the code is perhaps as good as current techniques for measuring vehicle performance. 31 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Mechanics of Penetration: Analysis and Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    essentially a 6 MeV x - ray source capable of shining through six inches of steel. It is invaluable for penetration studies since for the first time...data obtained with standard 150-300 KeV x - ray facilities.) Figures 7 and 8 show EPIC3 results for the same situation and Figure 9 depicts results for...for penetration and ricochet have been reviewed by ■p 03 CD CD ■P CO c ■H Xi H bO ■H •H u ■p co o oi X o 0) •p bo B E2 0) 3

  1. Explosive shaped charge penetration into tuff rock

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    Analysis and data for the use of Explosive Shaped Charges (ESC) to generate holes in tuff rock formation is presented. The ESCs evaluated include Conical Shaped Charges (CSC) and Explosive Formed Projectiles (EFP). The CSCs vary in size from 0.158 to 9.1 inches inside cone diameter. The EFPs were 5.0 inches in diameter. Data for projectile impact angles of 30 and 90 degrees are presented. Analytically predicted depth of penetration data generally compared favorably with experimental data. Predicted depth of penetration versus ESC standoff data and hole profile dimensions in tuff are also presented. 24 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Corrosion Penetration in Crevices of Dental Amalgam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-07

    AD-AC59 301 LOCKHEED MISSILES AND SPACE CO INC PALO ALTO CALIF PA-ETC F/6 A/S .9 CORROSION PENETRATION IN CREVICES OF DENTAL AMALGAM. (U) SEP 78 T...OF RE;-ORT & PERIOD COVERED ./CORROSION PENETRATION IN CREVICES OF _. Itm . / DENTAL AMALGAM, - . .... ,,, T 7 AUTHOR(s) / L S i DG3t1 , T. Katan and...identify by block number) amalgam corrosion, crevice corrosion, dental amalgam. 20.- ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by

  3. Penetrating eye injury from a metal wedge.

    PubMed

    Kozielec, G F; To, K

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe a patient with a penetrating ocular injury from a metal wedge, a common hand tool used by road service technicians for the purpose of opening a locked car door. The patient had a penetrating eye injury from a metal wedge when its sharp end released from a car door lock and retracted upward, striking the right eye. No report exists of ocular injury using a metal wedge for its intended purpose of opening a car door lock. The use of polycarbonate lenses might afford some protection.

  4. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  5. Single And Multiple Jet Penetration Experiments Into Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklo, R; Murphy, M J; Rambur, T A; Switzer, L L; Summers, M A

    2003-12-19

    This paper presents the results of experiments that investigate the effect of single and multiple jet penetration into geologic materials. In previous studies of jet penetration into concrete targets, we demonstrated that an enhanced surface crater could be created by the simultaneous penetration of multiple shaped charge jets and that an enhanced target borehole could be created by the subsequent delayed penetration of a single shaped charge jet. This paper describes an extension of the multiple jet penetration research to limestone and granite.

  6. Necessity of the Ridge for the Flat Slab Subduction: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Long, M. D.; Zandt, G.; Tavera, H.

    2014-12-01

    Flattening of the subducting plate has been linked to the formation of various geological features, including basement-cored uplifts, the cessation of arc volcanism, ignimbrite flare-ups, and the formation of high plateaus and ore deposits [Humphreys et al., 2003; Gutscher et al., 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2005]. However, the mechanism responsible for the slab flattening is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the Peruvian flat slab, where the Nazca plate starts to bend at ~80 km depth and travels horizontally for several hundred kilometers, at which point steep subduction resumes. Based on a 1500 km long volcanic gap and intermediate depth seismicity patterns, the Peruvian flat slab appears to have the greatest along-strike extent and, therefore, has been suggested as a modern analogue to the putative flat slab during the Laramide orogeny in the western United States (~80-55 Ma). Combining 3D shear wave velocity structure and Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy between ~10° and 18° S, we find that the subducting Nazca plate is not uniformly flat along the entire region, but fails to the north of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Our results show that, in combination with trench retreat, rapid overriding plate motion, and/or presence of a thick cratonic root, the subduction of buoyant overthickened oceanic crust, such as the Nazca Ridge, is necessary for the formation and sustainability of flat slabs. This finding has important implications for the formation of flat slabs both past and present.

  7. Subsurface investigation with ground penetrating radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data was collected on a small test plot at the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research & Education Facility in Columbus, Ohio. This test plot was built to USGA standards for a golf course green, with a constructed sand layer just beneath the surface overlying a gravel layer, that i...

  8. Good penetration of moxifloxacin into human abscesses.

    PubMed

    Sauermann, Robert; Karch, Rudolf; Kjellsson, Maria C; Feurstein, Thomas; Püspök, Andreas; Langenberger, Herbert; Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Jäger, Walter; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Abscesses are often treated with antibiotics in addition to incision or when incision is unfeasible, but accurate information about antibiotic abscess penetration in humans is missing. This study aimed at evaluating the penetration of moxifloxacin into human abscesses. After administration of a single dose of 400 mg moxifloxacin, drug concentrations were measured in 10 differently located abscesses at incision, and in plasma over 8 h. At incision performed 0.9-4.8 h after administration, moxifloxacin concentrations in abscesses ranged from ≤0.01 to 9.2 mg/l (1.9 ± 3.4 mg/l), indicating pronounced drug accumulation in some abscesses. The degree of abscess penetration could not be explained by covariates like the ratio of surface area to volume or pH of abscesses, or by moxifloxacin plasma concentrations. Concluding, moxifloxacin was detectable in most abscesses and may be a useful antibiotic for this indication. However, antibiotic abscess penetration was highly variable and unpredictable, suggesting surgical abscess incision whenever possible.

  9. On the penetration of fast charged particles.

    PubMed

    Perry, D J

    1988-07-01

    We pursue Yang's multiple scattering analysis and develop a wave description of electron penetration which permits the calculation of spatial distributions under realistic conditions. We give special emphasis to the longitudinal part of the problem and illustrate with sample calculations of particular interest to medical physicists.

  10. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease.

  11. Sealing Penetrating Eye Injuries Using Photoactivated Bonding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    skin requires specialized training to precisely place hair- fine sutures and requires long surgery time. Cyanoacrylate glues can complicate further... cyanoacrylate glues can cause damage upon removal and interfere with subsequent surgery. In Year 2 (Kochever) we established that lacerations in thin... glue was not competitive with PTB for sealing is amnion over penetrating cornea injuries, determined that two potential adverse effects

  12. Investigations of a flat-panel detector for quality assurance measurements in ion beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Bernadette; Telsemeyer, Julia; Huber, Lucas; Ackermann, Benjamin; Jäkel, Oliver; Martišíková, Mária

    2012-01-07

    Increased accuracy in radiation delivery to a patient provided by scanning particle beams leads to high demands on quality assurance (QA). To meet the requirements, an extensive quality assurance programme has been implemented at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center. Currently, high-resolution radiographic films are used for beam spot position measurements and homogeneity measurements for scanned fields. However, given that using this film type is time and equipment demanding, considerations have been made to replace the radiographic films in QA by another appropriate device. In this study, the suitability of the flat-panel detector RID 256 L based on amorphous silicon was investigated as an alternative method. The currently used radiographic films were taken as a reference. Investigations were carried out for proton and carbon ion beams. The detectors were irradiated simultaneously to allow for a direct comparison. The beam parameters (e.g. energy, focus, position) currently used in the daily QA procedures were applied. Evaluation of the measurements was performed using newly implemented automatic routines. The results for the flat-panel detector were compared to the standard radiographic films. Additionally, a field with intentionally decreased homogeneity was applied to test the detector's sensitivities toward possible incorrect scan parameters. For the beam position analyses, the flat-panel detector results showed good agreement with radiographic films. For both detector types, deviations between measured and planned spot distances were found to be below 1% (1 mm). In homogeneously irradiated fields, the flat-panel detector showed a better dose response homogeneity than the currently used radiographic film. Furthermore, the flat-panel detector is sensitive to field irregularities. The flat-panel detector was found to be an adequate replacement for the radiographic film in QA measurements. In addition, it saves time and equipment because no post

  13. Archival of Poker Flat MST radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, A. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Gage, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Poker Flat MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar has operated from early 1979 to 1985. The data recorded during that time resides on some 1100 magnetic tapes. A second set containing only the derived parameters of velocity, width and signal to noise of the primary echo at each height, plus the noise spectra, occupies another 250 tapes. While processing to generate the compressed data set does correct some known errors, no attempt has been made to identify or remove spurious echoes. Because the Poker Flat data set is such a unique and valuable resource, a proposal is made to archive the data in forms more useful for analysis. The archived data set would contain only the parameters for significant echoes with contamination from airplanes, unwanted ionospheric returns, frequently aliased Doppler signals and other sources removed. The archived set should be as good or better than the example shown and may occupy only 25 to 50 tapes.

  14. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  15. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.; Turner, Michael S.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  16. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-02-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references.

  17. WFC3 SS IR Flat Field Uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    2012-10-01

    Part of side switch activities.We will assess the uniformity and stability of the low-frequency flat fields on the IR detector. This will be accomplished using observations of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae {NGC104} at multiple pointings with multiple filters. By placing the same star at multiple locations on the detector and measuring the relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine spatial variations in the response of the detector. Based on previous work with other instruments, a set of 9 pointings should be sufficient to characterize the stability of the flat field. For each filter to be tested, this set of 9 pointings will form an 3x3 box pattern on the detector, with steps of 20% of the FOV in the x and y directions between observations. The complement of filters to be tested will be F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W.ID: WF40

  18. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  19. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  20. 10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 20. View of Mormon Flat Dam, power plant, and reservoir. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Mormon Flat Dam, power plant, and reservoir. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 6. Intake of flume under construction at Mormon Flat. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Intake of flume under construction at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, October 2, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is still in operation. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage Top, Mast House Top, Upper Deck, Flat House Tops, Forecastle Deck, Main Deck - American Racer, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. 4. Osgood steam shovel excavating roadway at Mormon Flat. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Osgood steam shovel excavating roadway at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 2. General view of Mormon Flat looking upstream. Construction activity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Mormon Flat looking upstream. Construction activity is visible at center right. Photographer unknown, September 30, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 28. Mormon Flat spillway gates and superstructure. Photographer Mark Durben, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Mormon Flat spillway gates and superstructure. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 27. Original Mormon Flat hydroelectric unit showing crane above. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Original Mormon Flat hydroelectric unit showing crane above. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 24. Mormon Flat reservoir, or Canyon Lake. Photographer Mark Durben, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Mormon Flat reservoir, or Canyon Lake. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 19. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Power plant is nearing completion. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  13. 29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING IDAHO-SHAPED ROCKS FLANKING ENTRANCE TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  14. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  15. Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Li, Juntao; White, Thomas P; O'Faolain, Liam; Gomez-Iglesias, Alvaro; Krauss, Thomas F

    2008-04-28

    We present a systematic procedure for designing "flat bands" of photonic crystal waveguides for slow light propagation. The procedure aims to maximize the group index - bandwidth product by changing the position of the first two rows of holes of W1 line defect photonic crystal waveguides. A nearly constant group index - bandwidth product is achieved for group indices of 30-90 and as an example, we experimentally demonstrate flat band slow light with nearly constant group indices of 32.5, 44 and 49 over 14 nm, 11 nm and 9.5 nm bandwidth around 1550 nm, respectively.

  16. Clipping prevents perforation in large, flat polyps

    PubMed Central

    Luba, Daniel; Raphael, Mona; Zimmerman, Dayna; Luba, Joseph; Detka, Jon; DiSario, James

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine if prophylactic clipping of post-polypectomy endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) mucosal defects of large, flat, right sided polyps prevents perforations. METHODS IRB approved review of all colonoscopies, and prospective data collection of grasp and snare EMR performed by 2 endoscopists between January 1, 2010 and March 31, 2014 in a community ambulatory endoscopy center. The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, all right-sided, flat polyps greater than or equal to 1.2 cm in size were removed using the grasp and snare technique. Clipping was done at the discretion of the endoscopist. In the second phase, all mucosal defects were closed using resolution clips. Phase 2 of the study was powered to detect a statistically significant difference in perforation rate with 148 EMRs, if less than or equal to 2 perforations occurred. RESULTS In phase 1 of the study, 2121 colonoscopies were performed. Seventy-five patients had 95 large polyps removed. There were 4 perforations in 95 polypectomies (4.2%). The perforations occurred in polyps ranging in size from 1.5 cm to 2.5 cm. In phase 2, there were 2464 colonoscopies performed. One hundred and sixteen patients had 151 large polyps removed, and all mucosal defects were clipped. There were no perforations (P = 0.0016). There were no post-polypectomy hemorrhages in either phase. An average of 2.15 clips were required to close the mucosal defects. The median time to perform the polypectomy and clipping was 13 min, and the median procedure duration was 40 min. Five percent of all patients undergoing colonoscopy in our community based, ambulatory endoscopy center had flat, right sided polyps greater than or equal to 1.2 cm in size. CONCLUSION Prophylactic clipping of the mucosal resection defect of large, right-sided, flat polyps reduces the incidence of perforation. PMID:28360975

  17. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  18. Transverse flat plate heat pipe experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a Shuttle-launched flight experiment to evaluate the performance of a transverse flat plate heat pipe that serves as an integral temperature control/mounting panel for electronic equipment. A transverse heat pipe is a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe that can handle relatively large thermal loads. An experiment designed to flight test the concept over a 6-9 month period is self-sufficient with respect to electrical power, timing sequences, and data storage.

  19. Status Update: Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N.; Schubert, A.

    2003-02-25

    Safely closing Rocky Flats by December 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy (DOE), Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees and taxpayers across the country. This paper will: provide a status of the Closure Project to date; describe important accomplishments of the past year; describe some of the closure-enhancing technologies enabling acceleration; and discuss the remaining challenges ahead.

  20. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  1. Pressurized-Flat-Interface Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.; Howell, H. R.; Winkler, R. V.

    1990-01-01

    High thermal conductance obtained without leakage between loops. Heat-exchanger interface enables efficient transfer of heat between two working fluids without allowing fluids to intermingle. Interface thin, flat, and easy to integrate into thermal system. Possible application in chemical or pharmaceutical manufacturing when even trace contamination of process stream with water or other coolant ruins product. Reduces costs when highly corrosive fluids must be cooled or heated.

  2. Conformally flat solution with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.; Dutta Choudhury, S. B.; Bhui, B. K.

    1989-07-15

    It is shown that the spherically symmetric solution previously given by Maiti is not the most general conformally flat solution for a shear-free and rotation-free fluid with heat flux. We have presented a more general solution for such a distribution and have considered the conditions of fit at the boundary of a simple spherically symmetric model with heat flux across the boundary with the exterior Vaidya metric.

  3. Quantum deformations of the flat space superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachoł, Anna; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a quantum deformation of the Green-Schwarz superstring on flat space, arising as a contraction limit of the corresponding deformation of AdS5×S5 . This contraction limit turns out to be equivalent to a previously studied limit that yields the so-called mirror model—the model obtained from the light cone gauge fixed AdS5×S5 string by a double Wick rotation. Reversing this logic, the AdS5×S5 superstring is the double Wick rotation of a quantum deformation of the flat space superstring. This quantum deformed flat space string realizes symmetries of the timelike κ -Poincaré type and is T dual to dS5×H5, indicating interesting relations between symmetry algebras under T duality. Our results directly extend to AdS2×S2×T6 and AdS3×S3×T4 and beyond string theory to many (semi)symmetric space coset sigma models, such as a deformation of the four-dimensional Minkowski sigma model with timelike κ -Poincaré symmetry. We also discuss possible null and spacelike deformations.

  4. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  5. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds>=|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  6. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    PubMed Central

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper–Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition. PMID:26586543

  7. Flat, Branched and Split Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koombhongse, Sureeporn; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2001-03-01

    The electrospinning process uses electrical force to overcome the force from surface tension. As the electric field increases, the surface of a droplet becomes nearly conical and a charged jet flows from the vertex. The charged jet moves along a straight line for some distance and then begins a spiraling path, which is triggered by a bending instability.[1] The charged jet solidifies as it dries and electrospun nanofibers are collected. The electrospinning process normally produces cylindrical fibers, but sometimes the fibers are flat, branched or split. Flat fibers were electrospun from polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) solution. Flat fibers were formed by the collapse of a tube. Branched fibers of HEMA, PS and poly(vinylidene fluoride) were observed. The thinner branch was usually perpendicular to the axis of the primary jet. Branched fibers are formed by a smaller secondary jet ejected from the surface of the primary jet. The charged jet can split apart into two smaller jets to reduce the charge per unit surface area. Split fibers of HEMA, in which two smaller jets run parallel to the axis of the primary jet were observed. 1. D.H. Reneker, A.L. Yarin, H. Fong, and S. Koombhongse, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4531 (2000).

  8. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Energy cost of walking with flat feet.

    PubMed

    Otman, S; Basgöze, O; Gökce-Kutsal, Y

    1988-08-01

    A comparative study has been conducted to assess the effects of arch support on oxygen consumption in 20 subjects with flat feet who were generally complaining about fatigue, and also to explore whether their feeling of weariness was objective or not. The resting, walking and final recovery heart rates, blood pressures, and walking oxygen consumption values of the patients with flat feet were measured and calculated and compared to a control group using treadmill and oxygen consumption devices. In stage one the patients did not wear any arch support. Then suitable arch supports were prepared for each patient and in stage two they wore these arch supports. The results did not show any significant difference between the resting heart rates, blood pressure and oxygen consumptions. However, differences in walking heart rate, systolic blood pressure, final recovery heart rate, oxygen consumption, and energy cost values were found to be significant between stage one and two of the test in the patient group. The difference in walking diastolic blood pressure values without and with arch support were found to be insignificant. It may therefore be deduced that oxygen consumption during walking is decreased when a suitable arch support is applied to patients with flat feet.

  11. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  12. [Present state and future of flat panel detector in Japan].

    PubMed

    Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    In our country, the introduction of flat panel detector is carried out in the diagnosis region since before several years. In flat panel detector with the high image characteristic, large expectation is being placed. In this paper, image characteristic of flat panel detector and effectiveness of clinical application were reviewed. It is anticipated that flat panel detector with the excellent image characteristic gives large effect in the radiological diagnosis.

  13. Evidence of lower-mantle slab penetration phases in plate motions.

    PubMed

    Goes, Saskia; Capitanio, Fabio A; Morra, Gabriele

    2008-02-21

    It is well accepted that subduction of the cold lithosphere is a crucial component of the Earth's plate tectonic style of mantle convection. But whether and how subducting plates penetrate into the lower mantle is the subject of continuing debate, which has substantial implications for the chemical and thermal evolution of the mantle. Here we identify lower-mantle slab penetration events by comparing Cenozoic plate motions at the Earth's main subduction zones with motions predicted by fully dynamic models of the upper-mantle phase of subduction, driven solely by downgoing plate density. Whereas subduction of older, intrinsically denser, lithosphere occurs at rates consistent with the model, younger lithosphere (of ages less than about 60 Myr) often subducts up to two times faster, while trench motions are very low. We conclude that the most likely explanation is that older lithosphere, subducting under significant trench retreat, tends to lie down flat above the transition to the high-viscosity lower mantle, whereas younger lithosphere, which is less able to drive trench retreat and deforms more readily, buckles and thickens. Slab thickening enhances buoyancy (volume times density) and thereby Stokes sinking velocity, thus facilitating fast lower-mantle penetration. Such an interpretation is consistent with seismic images of the distribution of subducted material in upper and lower mantle. Thus we identify a direct expression of time-dependent flow between the upper and lower mantle.

  14. Evaluation of nano- and submicron particle penetration through ten nonwoven fabrics using a wind-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Jaques, Peter A; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Shepherd, Angie; Eimer, Benjamin C; Yang, Mengshi; Miller, Adam; Gupta, Bhupender; Shaffer, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Existing face mask and respirator test methods draw particles through materials under vacuum to measure particle penetration. However, these filtration-based methods may not simulate conditions under which protective clothing operates in the workplace, where airborne particles are primarily driven by wind and other factors instead of being limited to a downstream vacuum. This study was focused on the design and characterization of a method simulating typical wind-driven conditions for evaluating the performance of materials used in the construction of protective clothing. Ten nonwoven fabrics were selected, and physical properties including fiber diameter, fabric thickness, air permeability, porosity, pore volume, and pore size were determined. Each fabric was sealed flat across the wide opening of a cone-shaped penetration cell that was then housed in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel. The flow rate naturally driven by wind through the fabric was measured, and the sampling flow rate of the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer used to measure the downstream particle size distribution and concentrations was then adjusted to minimize filtration effects. Particle penetration levels were measured under different face velocities by the wind-driven method and compared with a filtration-based method using the TSI 3160 automated filter tester. The experimental results show that particle penetration increased with increasing face velocity, and penetration also increased with increasing particle size up to about 300 to 500 nm. Penetrations measured by the wind-driven method were lower than those obtained with the filtration method for most of the fabrics selected, and the relative penetration performances of the fabrics were very different due to the vastly different pore structures.

  15. Effect of gravity and capillarity on human saliva penetration in coronally unsealed obturated root canals

    PubMed Central

    Karamifar, Kasra; Khayat, Akbar; Mogharrabi, Sara; Rajaei, Yasaman; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gravity and capillarity on penetration of human salivary bacteria into the entire length of obturated root canals, and to demonstrate the dye penetration configuration. Materials and methods Fifty single-rooted premolars were decoronated, prepared to a standardized length of 15 mm, instrumented, and randomly divided into two groups (A and B) of 25 teeth each. Each group consisted of experimental (15 samples) and negative and positive controls (five samples each). The experimental groups were obturated with gutta-percha and root canal sealer. The positive control groups were obturated with a single cone of gutta-percha and root canal sealer. The outer surfaces (except for the apical 2 mm) were covered with two layers of nail varnish. An apparatus containing Brain Heart Infusion broth was designed, in which the teeth were placed. The samples in Group A were placed upside down, while Group B was placed normally. The coronal portions of the samples were placed in contact with fresh saliva. The number of days required for bacteria to penetrate the entire length of canals was determined. The samples were then immersed in India ink to determine the dye penetration configuration. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results The extent of dye penetration was significantly greater in Group B compared to Group A, and they were in a pattern rather than linear form. Conclusions Gravity and capillarity insignificantly affected bacterial leakage. Although gravity and capillarity did not affect bacterial penetration when applied to the coronal access of endodontically treated teeth, it seems that they can promote penetration of India ink into the canal after the bacterial test on the same tooth. PMID:23960545

  16. Circles-in-the-sky searches and observable cosmic topology in a flat universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, B.; Rebouças, M. J.; Tavakol, R.

    2010-05-01

    In a universe with a detectable nontrivial spatial topology, the last scattering surface contains pairs of matching circles with the same distribution of temperature fluctuations—the so-called circles-in-the-sky. Searches for nearly antipodal circles-in-the-sky in maps of cosmic microwave background radiation have so far been unsuccessful. This negative outcome, along with recent theoretical results concerning the detectability of nearly flat compact topologies, is sufficient to exclude a detectable nontrivial topology for most observers in very nearly flat positively and negatively curved universes, whose total matter-energy density satisfies 0<|Ωtot-1|≲10-5. Here, we investigate the consequences of these searches for observable nontrivial topologies if the Universe turns out to be exactly flat (Ωtot=1). We demonstrate that in this case, the conclusions deduced from such searches can be radically different. We show that, although there is no characteristic topological scale in the flat manifolds, for all multiply-connected orientable flat manifolds, it is possible to directly study the action of the holonomies in order to obtain a general upper bound on the angle that characterizes the deviation from antipodicity of pairs of matching circles associated with the shortest closed geodesic. This bound is valid for all observers and all possible values of the compactification length parameters. We also show that in a flat universe, there are observers for whom the circles-in-the-sky searches already undertaken are insufficient to exclude the possibility of a detectable nontrivial spatial topology. It is remarkable how such small variations in the spatial curvature of the Universe, which are effectively indistinguishable geometrically, can have such a drastic effect on the detectability of cosmic topology. Another important outcome of our results is that they offer a framework with which to make statistical inferences from future circles-in-the-sky searches on

  17. Lagrangian finite element analysis of the penetration of earth penetrating weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinsky, R.W.

    1985-11-22

    Buried targets, such as hardened missile silos, that are resistant to the effects of air blast from above-ground or surface-burst explosions may be vulnerable to the effects of ground motion produced by nearby underground explosions. An earth penetrating weapon (EPW) is being developed to exploit this phenomena. To design the EPW system, loads on the weapon due to the penetration event must be determined. This paper presents the methodology for performing Lagrangian finite-element analysis of the penetration event in two and three dimensions. In order to describe the methodology, results from analyses done for a particular EPW impacting a particular target medium are presented. The results for impacts with nonzero angles of incidence and nonzero angles of attack show the importance of being able to calculate three dimensional penetration loads. 62 figs.

  18. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... included new deflection standards, previously applicable only to automation flats, for all commercial flat... should be eligible for full-service IMb pricing. If automation prices are denied, pieces that are... standards are not currently eligible for any automation flats prices, including full- service...

  19. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. Was there a Laramide "flat slab"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Slab-continent interactions drive most non-collisional orogenies; this has led us to usually anticipate that temporal changes or spatial variations in orogenic style are related to changes in the slab, most especially in the slab's dip. This is most dramatically evident for orogenies in the foreland, well away from the trench, such as the Laramide orogeny. However, the physical means of connecting slab geometry to crustal deformation remain obscure. Dickinson and Snyder (1978) and Bird (1984) laid out a conceptually elegant means of creating foreland deformation from shear between a slab and overriding continental lithosphere, but such strong shear removed all of the continental lithosphere in the western U.S. when included in a numerical simulation of flat slab subduction (Bird, 1988), a removal in conflict with observations of volcanic rocks and xenoliths in many locations. Relying on an increase in edge normal stresses results, for the Laramide, in requiring the little-deformed Colorado Plateau to either be unusually strong or to have risen rapidly enough and high enough to balance edge stresses with body forces. Early deformation in the Plateau rules out unusual strength, and the accumulation and preservation of Late Cretaceous near-sea level sedimentary rocks makes profound uplift unlikely (though not impossible). Relying on comparisons with the Sierras Pampeanas is also fraught with problems: the Sierras are not separated from the Andean fold-and-thrust belt by several hundred kilometers of little-deformed crust, nor were they buried under kilometers of marine muds as were large parts of the Laramide foreland. We have instead suggested that some unusual interactions of an obliquely subducting plate with a thick Archean continental root might provide a better explanation than a truly flat slab (Jones et al., 2011). From this, and given that several flat-slab segments today are not associated with foreland orogenesis and noting that direct evidence for truly

  1. Discovery and Characterization of a New Cell-Penetrating Protein

    PubMed Central

    Simeon, Rudo L.; Chamoun, Ana Maria; McMillin, Thomas; Chen, Zhilei

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new cell-penetrating protein, B1, capable of delivering conjugated proteins and nucleic acids into mammalian cells. B1 is a 244-amino-acid product of a single-base frameshift in the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). The molecule has a net positive charge of 43 and a very high charge-to-mass ratio of 1.5. eGFP-fused B1 potently penetrates both adherent and suspension cells with >80% of cells taking up the protein when exposed to concentrations as low as 1 μM. The protein was found to cluster in the paranuclear region of TZM-bl cells. Most importantly, we show that B1 not only facilitates cellular uptake, but allows biomolecular cargo to reach sites of biological relevance. For example, baby hamster kidney cells underwent DNA recombination when exposed to B1-tagged Cre recombinase at protein concentrations as low as 2.5 μM, indicating potent nuclear delivery of functional protein cargos. Additionally, B1 delivers non-covalently conjugated RNA and DNA across the cell membrane to cytosolic and nuclear sites accessible to the cellular translation and transcription machinery, as gauged by detection of encoded reporter functions, with efficiency comparable to commercially available cationic lipid reagents. B1 appears to utilize cell-surface glycans and multiple competing endocytic pathways to enter and traffic through cells. These studies provide both a new tool for intracellular delivery of biomolecules and insights that could aid in the design of more effective cell penetrating proteins. PMID:24047285

  2. Hydrogen peroxide induces premature acrosome reaction in rat sperm and reduces their penetration of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, P C; Hsu, C C; Guo, Y L

    1999-11-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian sperm are capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that this activity is significantly accelerated in subfertile subjects. The observed decrease in penetration of zona-intact oocyte might be explained by chemical-induced ROS-related early onset of capacitation and premature acrosome reaction, but the mechanism is not clear. We determine whether zona-intact oocyte penetration capability in rat epididymal sperm was affected by premature acrosome reaction in rat sperm treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ionophore A23187 or H2O2 and lysophosphatidyl choline. Chlortetracycline fluorescence assay was used to study the status of acrosome reaction on epididymal sperm. The sperm-oocyte binding and penetration assay was used to evaluate the capability for zona pellucida penetration. There was a positive linear correlation between the frequency of acrosome-reacted sperm and capability of sperm-oocyte binding and penetration in zona-free oocytes. In the zona-intact oocytes, the sperm-oocyte penetration rate was suppressed as the proportions of acrosome-reacted sperm increased. In summary, this study showed that premature acrosome reaction reduced rat sperm's capability of penetrating zona-intact oocytes. However, this reduction is not seen in zona-free oocytes. These findings may provide a basis for understanding the effects of sperm ROS generation on zona pellucida penetration in male reproductive toxicology.

  3. The geometry, controllability, and flatness property of the n-bar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shun-Jie; Respondek, Witold

    2011-05-01

    We propose a kinematic model of a system moving in an (m + 1)-dimensional euclidean space and consisting of n rigid bars attached successively to each other and subject to the nonholonomic constraints that the instantaneous velocity of the source point of each bar is parallel to that bar. We prove that the associated control system is controllable and feedback equivalent to the m-chained form around any regular configuration. As a consequence, we deduce that the n-bar system is flat and show that the Cartesian position of the source point of the last (from the top) bar is a flat output. The n-bar system is a natural generalisation of the n-trailer system and we provide a comparison of flatness properties of both systems.

  4. Flat and self-trapping photonic bands through coupling of two unidirectional edge modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; He, Han-Qing; Hu, Jian-xia; Chen, Lin-kun; Wen, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    We find a flat band and a self-trapping band through the coupling of two unidirectional edge modes, which was originally achieved by Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013905 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.013905; Nature 461, 772 (2009), 10.1038/nature08293] in two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals. We break up a square-lattice yttrium-iron-garnet photonic crystal forming a waveguide and two edges. Given a proper interval of the two edges, two unidirectional edge modes with opposite group velocity directions can be coupled. The coupling leads to a wide flat band in which the group velocity is near zero, and a self-trapping band in which light is totally localized around the source. The position of the flat band and the group velocity can be adjusted by the external magnetic field. Numerical simulations and theoretical analysis both demonstrate the two interesting band structures.

  5. Heterologous ovum penetration by human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tyler, J P; Pryor, J P; Collins, W P

    1981-11-01

    An evaluation of a method utilizing zona-free hamster ova to test the fertility of human spermatozoa has shown that (i) the induction of superovulation in immature animals provides the most convenient method of obtaining mature ova for study; (ii) motile spermatozoa are best prepared by the technique of layering; (iii) an 18 h incubation at 37 degrees C (which is associated with capacitation) in an atmosphere of air (pH of medium 8.2) is preferable to one of 5% CO2 (pH of medium 7.2); (iv) the incubation and insemination densities of spermatozoa should be greater than 1 X 10(6) and less than 10 X 10(6)/ml; (v) spermatozoa do not remain motile, or capable of binding to or penetrating ova, after about 30 h in culture; and (vi) intra- and inter-assay variations are acceptable. The spermatozoa from 15 healthy men of proven fertility and 15 subfertile patients with normal spermiograms were evaluated for their ability to bind to and penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Of the 476 ova inseminated with spermatozoa from the fertile men greater than 5 spermatozoa/ovum consistently bound to the vitelline membrane and 284 ova (59.7%) had swollen sperm heads to pronuclei (still with tails attached) in their ooplasm. The range of individual penetration rates was 23.5-88.9%. Of the 586 ova tested with spermatozoa from the infertile subjects only 11 (1.9%) showed any evidence of penetration (range of individual penetration rates 0-8.7%) and binding to the vitelline membrane was poor (0 or less than 5 spermatozoa/ovum). Spermatozoa from a further 9 infertile men who had abnormal spermiograms also gave poor penetration rates (4/300 ova, 1.3%). It is concluded that this bioassay has a useful role as an additional test to the classic spermiogram, but that its routine use is best reserved for selected cases of unexplained infertility.

  6. Flat adenoma and flat mucosal carcinoma (IIb type)--a new precursor of colorectal carcinoma? Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Muto, T; Morioka, Y; Ikenaga, T; Hara, M

    1988-03-01

    Two flat adenomas and a flat mucosal carcinoma of the colon were reported in patients with synchronous and metachronous colonic carcinomas. These lesions were almost flat and were not detected by preoperative endoscopic examinations. Colonoscopists should be aware of the presence of flat adenomas, which can be easily missed, and recognize them as lesions that play an important role in the "adenoma-carcinoma sequence."

  7. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L) r = -0.186 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.194 (p < 0.05), waist girth (FPI (L) r = -0.213 (p < 0.05), FPI(R) r = -0.228 (p < 0.01) and BMI (FPI (L) r = -0.243 (p < 0.01), FPI(R) r = -0.263 (p < 0.01) was identified, but was both weak and inverse. Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction. PMID:21513507

  8. Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-04-02

    High rates of wave-induced erosion along salt marsh boundaries challenge the idea that marsh survival is dictated by the competition between vertical sediment accretion and relative sea-level rise. Because waves pounding marshes are often locally generated in enclosed basins, the depth and width of surrounding tidal flats have a pivoting control on marsh erosion. Here, we show the existence of a threshold width for tidal flats bordering salt marshes. Once this threshold is exceeded, irreversible marsh erosion takes place even in the absence of sea-level rise. This catastrophic collapse occurs because of the positive feedbacks among tidal flat widening by wave-induced marsh erosion, tidal flat deepening driven by wave bed shear stress, and local wind wave generation. The threshold width is determined by analyzing the 50-y evolution of 54 marsh basins along the US Atlantic Coast. The presence of a critical basin width is predicted by a dynamic model that accounts for both horizontal marsh migration and vertical adjustment of marshes and tidal flats. Variability in sediment supply, rather than in relative sea-level rise or wind regime, explains the different critical width, and hence erosion vulnerability, found at different sites. We conclude that sediment starvation of coastlines produced by river dredging and damming is a major anthropogenic driver of marsh loss at the study sites and generates effects at least comparable to the accelerating sea-level rise due to global warming.

  9. Gratings Fabricated on Flat Surfaces and Reproduced on Non-Flat Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David; Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    A method has been developed for fabricating gratings on flat substrates, and then reproducing the groove pattern on a curved (concave or convex) substrate and a corresponding grating device. First, surface relief diffraction grating grooves are formed on flat substrates. For example, they may be fabricated using photolithography and reactive ion etching, maskless lithography, holography, or mechanical ruling. Then, an imprint of the grating is made on a deformable substrate, such as plastic, polymer, or other materials using thermoforming, hot or cold embossing, or other methods. Interim stamps using electroforming, or other methods, may be produced for the imprinting process or if the same polarity of the grating image is required. The imprinted, deformable substrate is then attached to a curved, rigid substrate using epoxy or other suitable adhesives. The imprinted surface is facing away from the curved rigid substrate. As an alternative fabrication method, after grating is imprinted on the deformable substrate as described above, the grating may be coated with thin conformal conductive layer (for example, using vacuum deposition of gold). Then the membrane may be mounted over an opening in a pressured vessel in a manner of a membrane on a drum, grating side out. The pressure inside of the vessel may be changed with respect to the ambient pressure to produce concave or convex membrane surface. The shape of the opening may control the type of the surface curvature (for example, a circular opening would create spherical surface, oval opening would create toroidal surface, etc.). After that, well-known electroforming methods may be used to create a replica of the grating on the concave or convex membrane. For example, the pressure vessel assembly may be submerged into an electro-forming solution and negative electric potential applied to the metal coated membrane using an insulated wire. Positive electric potential may be then applied to a nickel or other metal

  10. [Cell penetrating peptides in cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao; Liu, Ya-Wei; Jiang, Yong

    2007-10-01

    The genomic information obtained through the human genome project has been accelerating the analysis of the functions of various disease relevant genes. The high molecular weight biomolecules becomes increasingly important for the development of molecular therapies. However, the usage of such therapeutic macromolecules has been limited by the poor permeability across the lipid bilayer of the cellular plasma membrane. In order to overcome this barrier, several chemical and physical methods have been developed, such as electroporation and cationic lipids/liposomes. The drawbacks of these methods are the unwanted cellular effects and their limitation to in vitro applications. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) is a group of oligopeptides that could penetrate the cell membrane via a receptor-independent and non-endocytotic process with various conjungated bioactive molecules. Such ability makes them outstanding transmembrane vectors for various therapuetic biomolecules. In this review, we will introduce several representative strategies to develop antitumor macromolecules using CPPs.

  11. Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D.

    1993-11-29

    Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like embedded reinforcing bars, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to quickly locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without resorting to destructive methods. In this paper, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept (Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar, GPIR) and present results from experiments designed to simulate the concept.

  12. Penetrating Heart Injury due to Screwdriver Assault

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263

  13. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.F.; Sale, K. ); Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C. )

    1991-06-10

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry. 18 refs.

  14. Flat RF coils in static field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Stork, H; Gädke, A; Nestle, N; Fujara, F

    2009-10-01

    The use of flat RF coils allows considerable gains in the sensitivity of static field gradient (SFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. In this article, this effect is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. Additionally, the flat coil geometry has been studied theoretically depending on magnetic field gradient, pulse sequence and amplifier power. Moreover, detecting the signal directly from the free induction decay (FID) turned out to be quite attractive for STRAFI-like microimaging experiments, especially when using flat coils. In addition to wound rectangular flat coils also spiral flat coils have been developed which can be manufactured by photolithography from printed circuit boards.

  15. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  16. Engineering and Design: Standard Penetration Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Penetration TestDe Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name...jsfi I I US* of drlXXi~ mucl -r*ueusiog In I Decrm8e8 hcrea8ea Zither Increases Increases Increeses Decrea8es lncreeaes Increases Increeaes Zither &creases DecrU8e* nem8*s hcruses Xnt-ses tieee Utber k~ee Enclosure 2

  17. Efficient Calculation of Earth Penetrating Projectile Trajectories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    seconds and stable trajectories are solved in less than three seconds. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 119 14 . SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic, Penetration, Simulation...Bottom Half of Weapon from 2 Degree Angle of Attack ............... 14 Figure 9. Moment on Top Half of Weapon from a 2 Degree Angle of Attack... 14 Figure 10. Forces on Bottom Half of Weapon from 2 Degree Angle of Attack ...............15 Figure 11. Additional Areas of Stress Due to

  18. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  19. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material.

    PubMed

    Kouraytem, N; Thoroddsen, S T; Marston, J O

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ=0.5D_{0} and δ=7D_{0}, which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H=h+δ, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d_{s}∼O(30) μm] were added to the larger particles [d_{l}∼O(200-500) μm], with a size ratio, ε=d_{l}/d_{s}, larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  20. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraytem, N.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Marston, J. O.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between δ =0.5 D0 and δ =7 D0 , which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H =h +δ , as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [ds˜O (30 ) μ m ] were added to the larger particles [dl˜O (200 -500 ) μ m ] , with a size ratio, ɛ =dl/ds , larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  1. Ballistic penetration response of intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K.S.; DiPietro, M.S. )

    1995-03-01

    Titanium aluminides and their composites exhibit about the same density as alumina, are tougher and can be produced by conventional casting and powder metallurgy techniques; further, they can be ground and machined more easily than alumina and lend themselves to better microstructural manipulation via heat treatments. Graded composite tiles with a high refractory reinforcement content on the outside and a lower amount on the inside may provide the desired abrasion resistance and toughness to effectively stop an incoming projectile. Likewise, alternating layers of hard and soft materials (e.g. Ti foils and TiAl) suitably graded in their spacings can serve as an effective armor tile. Testing of these materials gave the following conclusions: (1) Titanium aluminide composites are comparable to alumina in ballistic penetration resistance (for BS-41 and M-61 AP threats, and from the work of Chin and Woolsey, to long-rod penetrators) with perhaps improved resistance to shattering. (2) Incorporation of a residual compressive stress in the titanium aluminide composite tile significantly improved its penetration resistance. This concept could be utilized to decrease the required minimum tile thickness and hence, overall system weight.

  2. Temperature matching of multilayer insulation to penetrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Plachta, D. W.; Rhys, N. O.; Kelly, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    To accurately predict the heat load into a cryogenic tank or cold mass which includes multilayer insulation (MLI), heat loads other than just through the pristine MLI must be accounted for. One such type of heat load is the integration of the MLI system around penetrations. While a number of different methods that have been developed, the ideal solution would be one in which there are zero thermal losses due to the integration. Theoretically, the be st method to achieving zero integration losses is to match the individual MLI temperature layers with the corresponding penetration location having the same temperature; this method is known as temperature matching. Recently, NASA has employed temperature matching integration of multilayer insulation systems onto several different cryogenic tanks with different structural elements and attachments. T esting included the Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control testing at Glenn Research Center, the CRYOTE Ground Test Article testing at Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Penetration Calorimetery work done at Kennedy Space Center. Each test was instrumented to determine the effects of temperature matching within MLI and each system was designed in a different manner. The testing showed that temperature matching can indeed produce nearly zero thermal losses. However, our findings show that there are many practical limitations to this approach. Temperature matching integration schemes were found to be very sensitive to thermal environmental changes and even tank liquid level changes. The approach is therefore considered useful only for a select few cases and not useful for most engineering applications.

  3. Deep penetration of light into biotissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearden, Edward D.; Wilson, James D.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study of deep (several centimeters) light penetration into biological tissue are presented in order to estimate its significance to potentially photosensitive structures and processes including the fetal eyes. In order to accomplish this goal, samples of various tissues (fat, muscle, and uterus) from surgical patients and autopsies were examined with a double integrating sphere arrangement to determine their optical properties. The results were implemented in a Monte Carlo modeling program. Next, optical fiber probes were inserted into the uterus and abdominal wall of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The fibers were couples to a photomultiplier tube with intervening filters allowing measurements of light penetration at various wavelengths. To determine the feasibility of stimulation in utero, a xenon lamp and waveguide were used to transilluminate the abdomen of several labor patients. Light in the range of 630 to 670 nm where the eye sensitivity and penetration depth are well matched, will likely provide the best chance of visual stimulation. Fetal heart rate, fetal movement, and fetal magnetoencephalography (SQUID) and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed in different studies to determine if stimulation has occurred. Since internal organs and the fetus are completely dark adapted, the amount of light required to simulate in our opinion could be on the order of 10(superscript -8 Watts.

  4. Value of storage with increased renewable penetration.

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert; Roach, Jesse Dillon

    2010-10-01

    The problem statement for this project is: (1) Renewable energy portfolio standards - (a) high penetration of intermittent and variable renewable generation on the grid, (b) utilities constrained by NERC Control Performance Standards, (c) requires additional resources to match generation with load; and (2) mitigation of impacts with energy storage - at what level of renewable penetration does energy storage become an attractive value proposition. Use a simplified, yet robust dispatch model that: (a) incorporates New Mexico Balance Area load and wind generation data, (b) distributes the load among a suite of generators, (c) quantifies increased generation costs with increased penetration of intermittent and variable renewable generation - fuel, startup, shut down, ramping, standby, etc., (d) tracks and quantifies NERC pentalties and violations, and (e) quantifies storage costs. Dispatch model has been constructed and it: (a) accurately distributes a load among a suite of generators, (b) quantifies duty cycle metrics for each of the generators - cumulative energy production, ramping and non ramping duration, spinning reserves, number of start-ups, and shut down durations, etc., (c) quantifies energy exchanges - cumulative exchanges, duration, and number of exchanges, (d) tracks ACE violations.

  5. Penetrating chest wound of the foetus.

    PubMed

    Wandaogo, Albert; Tapsoba, Toussaint Wendlamita; Ouédraogo, Isso; Béré, Bernadette; Ouédraogo, S F; Bandré, E

    2016-01-01

    Traumas of the foetus caused by stabbings are rare but actually life-threatening for both the foetus and the mother. We report a case of penetrating chest wound on a baby taken from the obstetrics unit to the paediatric surgical department. His mother was assaulted by his father, a mentally sick person with no appropriate follow-up. The foetus did not show any sign of vital distress. Surgical exploration of the wound has revealed a section of the 10 th rib, a laceration of the pleura and a tearing of the diaphragm. A phrenorraphy and a pleural drainage were performed. The new-born and its mother were released from hospital after 5 days and the clinical control and X-ray checks 6 months later showed nothing abnormal. We insisted a medical, psychiatric follow-up be initiated for the father. As regards pregnant women with penetrating wounds, the mortality rate of the foetus is 80%. The odds are good for our newborn due to the mild injuries and good professional collaboration of the medical staff. Penetrating transuterine wounds of the foetus can be very serious. The health care needed should include many fields due to the mother and the foetus' lesions extreme polymorphism. In our case, it could have prevented by a good psychiatric followed up of the offender.

  6. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  7. The role of testosterone in trichloroethylene penetration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, K.; Abdel-Rahman, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Sex differences are known to exist in the metabolism and bioavailability of trichloroethylene (TCE). This study revealed that dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE in vitro was twofold greater in untreated female than in untreated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Since testosterone has been shown to mediate a wide variety of sex differences, its role in dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE was investigated. Penetration was measured by using an in vitro evaporation-penetration cell with a 10-hour collection period. Depriving male rats of testosterone (by castration) resulted in increased values for total penetration, area under the curve (AUC), and penetration slopes compared to those found in the female control group. Administration of testosterone to female animals produced values for total penetration, AUC, and penetration slopes significantly lower than those of the female control group.

  8. Deploying High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M. H.; Baca, D.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system capacity penetration, or simply 'penetration,' is often defined as the rated power output of the aggregate PV systems on a distribution circuit segment divided by the peak load of that circuit segment. Industry experts agree that a single value defining high penetration is not universally applicable. However, it is generally agreed that a conservative value to designate high penetration is the condition when the ratio of aggregate PV systems ratings to peak load exceeds 15%. This case study illustrates the case of a distribution feeder which is able to accommodate a traditional capacity penetration level of 47%, and perhaps more. New maximum penetration levels need to be defined and verified and enhanced definitions for penetration on a distribution circuit need to be developed. The new penetration definitions and studies will help utility engineers, system developers, and regulatory agencies better agree what levels of PV deployment can be attained without jeopardizing the reliability and power quality of a circuit.

  9. PET/CT imaging of abdominal aorta with intramural hematomas, penetrating ulcer, and saccular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vien X; Nguyen, Ba D

    2014-05-01

    Acute aortic syndromes, encompassing intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer, and pseudoaneurysm, are best demonstrated by angiographic CT and magnetic resonance imaging. These imaging modalities provide an accurate evaluation and allow timely therapies of these frequently symptomatic lesions, thus reducing their morbidity and mortality. The inflammatory pathogenesis of these acute aortic syndromes may exhibit positive PET findings predictive of prognosis and outcomes of these vascular events. The authors present a case of PET/CT imaging showing asymptomatic intramural hematomas with penetrating ulcer and saccular pseudoaneurysm of the proximal abdominal aorta.

  10. Jet screech reduction with perforated flat reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Tawhidul Islam; Teramoto, Kenbu; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2008-09-01

    In the present experimental study, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new control technique of jet screech with different perforated flat reflectors. Mainly two types of porous flat reflectors had been used in the experiment. One reflector (reflector-V) designed for placing the reflector surface vertical to the jet axis, when, another type of reflector (reflector-H) designed for placing the reflecting surface horizontal to the jet axis. In both cases the reflectors had been placed at the nozzle (base tube with uniform cross-sectional area) exit. The diameter of the reflector-V was 15D when the diameter of the reflector-H was 10D. The porous area of the reflector-V was 6D and 4.5D for reflector-H where D indicated the diameter of the nozzle exit. The placement of the reflector at the exit of the nozzle reduces the sound pressure at the nozzle exit. Thus the muted sound can not excite the unstable disturbance at the nozzle exit and the loop of the feedback mechanism disappeared, finally, the generation of jet screech be cancelled. The suction space located at the back side of the porous surface of the reflector-V improves the efficiency of the screech control technique. However, in the case of reflector-H, the receptivity process of feedback loop had been controlled by reducing the disturbances at the effective shock fronts as well as at the nozzle exit. The performance of the proposed method was verified with a flat reflector concept and good performance in jet screech suppression has been confirmed in the case of porous reflector.

  11. Capillary Penetration into Inclined Circular Glass Tubes.

    PubMed

    Trabi, Christophe L; Ouali, F Fouzia; McHale, Glen; Javed, Haadi; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2016-02-09

    The spontaneous penetration of a wetting liquid into a vertical tube against the force of gravity and the imbibition of the same liquid into a horizontal tube (or channel) are both driven by capillary forces and described by the same fundamental equations. However, there have been few experimental studies of the transition from one orientation to the other. We report systematic measurements of capillary penetration of polydimethylsiloxane oils of viscosities 9.6, 19.2, and 48.0 mPa·s into glass capillary tubes. We first report the effect of tube radii R between 140 and 675 μm on the dynamics of spontaneous imbibition. We show that the data can be fitted using the exact numerical solution to the governing equations and that these are similar to fits using the analytical viscogravitational approximation. However, larger diameter tubes show a rate of penetration slower than expected using an equilibrium contact angle and the known value of liquid viscosity. To account for the slowness, an increase in viscosity by a factor (η/ρ)(scaling) is needed. We show full agreement with theory requires the ratio R/κ(-1) ∼ 0.1 or less, where κ(-1) is the capillary length. In addition, we propose an experimental method that enables the determination of the dynamic contact angle during imbibition, which gives values that agree with the literature values. We then report measurements of dynamic penetration into the tubes of R = 190 and 650 μm for a range of inclination angles to the horizontal, φ, from 5 to 90°. We show that capillary penetration can still be fitted using the viscogravitational solution, rather than the Bosanquet solution which describes imbibition without gravity, even for inclination angles as low as 10°. Moreover, at these low angles, the effect of the tube radius is found to diminish and this appears to relate to an effective capillary length, κ(-1)(φ) = (γ(LV)/ρg sin φ)(1/2).

  12. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  13. Ice Particle Impacts on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Ruggeri, Charles; Struk, Peter M.; Pereira, Mike; Revilock, Duane; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted at the Ballistic Laboratory of NASA Glenn Research Center to study the impact of ice particles on a stationary flat surface target set at 45 degrees with respect to the direction of motion of the impinging particle (Figure 1). The experiment is part of NASA efforts to study the physics involved in engine power-loss events due to ice-crystal ingestion and ice accretion formation inside engines. These events can occur when aircraft encounter high-altitude convective weather.

  14. Plume impingement forces on inclined flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, H.

    Plume impingement from spacecraft control thrusters on vehicles in space is simulated in wind tunnel scale experiments. Pressure and shear stress are measured on flat plates inclined to the plume axis between 0 and 90 deg. In addition to a nozzle of a 0.5N thruster, a free jet from a thin plate orifice was used, by which the flow regime from nearly free molecular flow to continuum flow was covered. Simple pressure and shear stress laws are given by which the impingement pressure and shear stress can be estimated for engineering applications.

  15. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  16. Neutrinos from flat-spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannheim, K.; Stanev, T.; Biermann, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The GRO observation (Hartman et al., 1992) of a very strong flux of gamma rays with an energy index close to 2 from the distant quasar 3C279 and other extragalactic flat-spectrum radio sources is in very good agreement with models that advocate the important role of very high energy protons and nuclei in the energy transport in AGN. Protons and nuclei cool by interactions on the nonthermal fields in the nuclear jet of the AGN and generate gamma ray and neutrino fluxes. Ultra high energy neutrinos could be observed with sensitive air shower experiments in outbursts as powerful as the one seen by GRO.

  17. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Orion and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partners have chosen to use frangible joints for certain separation events. The joints currently available are zero failure tolerant and will be used in mission safety applications. The goal is to further develop a NASA designed redundant frangible joint that will lower flight risk and increase reliability. FY16 testing revealed a successful design in subscale straight test specimens that gained efficiency and supports Orion load requirements. Approach / Innovation A design constraint is that the redundant joint must fit within the current Orion architecture, without the need for additional vehicle modification. This limitation required a design that changed the orientation of the expanding tube assemblies (XTAs), by rotating them 90deg from the standard joint configuration. The change is not trivial and affects the fracture mechanism and structural load paths. To address these changes, the design incorporates cantilevered arms on the break plate. The shock transmission and expansion of the XTA applies force to these arms and creates a prying motion to push the plate walls outward to the point of structural failure at the notched section. The 2014 test design revealed that parts could slip during functioning wasting valuable energy needed to separate the structure with only a single XTA functioning. Dual XTA functioning fully separated the assembly showing a discrepancy can be backed up with redundancy. Work on other fully redundant systems outside NASA is limited to a few patents that have not been subjected to functionality testing Design changes to prevent unwanted slippage (with ICA funding in 2015) showed success with a single XTA. The main goal for FY 2016 was to send the new Flat H RFJ to WSTF where single XTA test failures occurred back in 2014. The plan was to gain efficiency in this design by separating the Flat H RFJ with thicker ligaments with dimensions baselined in 2014. Other modifications included geometry

  18. Evolution of multidimensional flat anisotropic cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, A. ); Demianski, M. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics , Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, Rome ); Ivanov, P.; Polnarev, A.G. )

    1993-07-15

    We study the dynamics of a flat multidimensional anisotropic cosmological model filled with an anisotropic fluidlike medium. By an appropriate choice of variables, the dynamical equations reduce to a two-dimensional dynamical system. We present a detailed analysis of the time evolution of this system and the conditions of the existence of spacetime singularities. We investigate the conditions under which violent, exponential, and power-law inflation is possible. We show that dimensional reduction cannot proceed by anti-inflation (rapid contraction of internal space). Our model indicates that it is very difficult to achieve dimensional reduction by classical means.

  19. Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.

  20. Verifying Removal Of Red Penetrant Dye From Inspected Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torkelson, Jan R.

    1996-01-01

    Clean surface assured for more sensitive inspection with fluorescent penetrant dye. Simple procedure devised to ensure visible (red) penetrant dye used to identify flaws in welded surface completely removed from surface. Consists in applying reversible penetrant developer to surface to be inspected.

  1. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants.

    PubMed

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Holt, R B; Pugh, T D; Grondzik, W A; de Meijer, R J

    1997-10-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains. Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure differences controlled throughout the deltaP = 0 to 60 Pa range. Diffusion coefficients (deltaP = 0) initially averaged 6.5 x 10(-8) m2 s(-1) among nine slabs with only 8% standard deviation, but increased due to drying by 0.16% per day over a 2-y period to an average of 2.0 x 10(-7) m2 s(-1). An asphalt coating reduced diffusion sixfold but an acrylic surface sealant had no effect. Diffusion was 42 times higher in solid masonry blocks than in concrete and was not affected by small cracks. Advective transport (deltaP < or = 60 Pa) was negligible for the slabs (10(-16) m2 permeability), pipe penetrations, and caulked gaps, but was significant for cracks, disturbed pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, and concrete under tensile stress. Crack areas calculated to be as small as 10(-7) m2 significantly increased radon advection. Algebraic expressions predict air velocity and effective crack width from enhanced radon transport and air pressures. Masonry blocks, open cracks, and slab cold joints enhance radon penetration but stressed slabs, undisturbed pipe penetrations, and sealed cracks may not.

  2. Penetrating ballistic-like frontal brain injury caused by a metallic rod.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J M; Navas, M; Carrasco, R

    2009-06-01

    Penetrating non-missile intracranial injuries caused by metallic foreign bodies are very rare among the civilian population. We present a unique instance of a severe, high-energy, penetrating orbitocranial injury caused by a solid metallic rod that corresponded to the spray valve lever handle of a kitchen sink pre-rinse spray tap, which was fractured and projected at high speed for an unknown reason. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high-energy, penetrating brain injury caused by such an object. After careful radiological evaluation of the shape and position of the foreign object, a combined right frontal craniotomy and supraorbital osteotomy was performed in order to achieve safe removal of the metal bar. Successful surgical treatment of an orbitocranial injury caused by a similar object has not previously been reported.

  3. Transition from slab stagnation to penetration beneath the northwestern Pacific and South America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Y.; Obayashi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Subducting slabs tend to once deflect horizontally in the transition zone as stagnant slabs and then to penetrate into the lower mantle across the 660-km discontinuity. Here we present the detailed tomographic images of transition from stagnant-slab mode to penetrating-slab mode, based on the global ISC travel time data to which regional network data and long-term array observation data including ocean bottom data are added. The targets are the subducted slabs beneath South America and the northwestern Pacific. In South America the transition occurs across the northeastward extension of the sharp bend of the Peru-Chili trench. The slab to the south of this extension is stagnant above the 660, and to the north it plunges into the lower mantle across the 660. The transition is sharp as if the originally flat slab in the northern part was rotated into the present configuration by hinge faulting along the extension. We suspect that this hinge faulting either triggered the northward propagation of or truncated the southward propagation of the plunging motion of the slab into the lower mantle. Along the Kurile arc, the slab is flattened above the 660 in the southwest, penetrating in the northeast, with a transitional feature in between. In southern Kurile the flattened part has a deepest bottom near the junction with the dipping part. Such an along-arc change of slab configuration is indicative of a process of transition from stagnant-slab mode to penetrating-slab mode: the flattened part and dipping part of the slab begin to sink into the lower mantle at their junction so that the horizontal part is progressively dragged to and is eventually united to the dipping part as a penetrating slab. Along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, the slab is flattened above the 660 in the north (Izu-Bonin) and is penetrating the 660 in the south (Mariana) leaving the horizontal part in the transition zone. In the Izu-Bonin the flattened part has a deepest bottom near the junction with

  4. Pathophysiology of penetrating captive bolt stunning in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Whitehead, Claire; Taylor, Rebecca; Sykes, Olivia; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the behavioural and cranial/spinal responses of alpacas culled by captive bolt shooting and the resulting pathophysiology of captive bolt injury. Ninety-six alpacas were shot (103 shots) in a range of locations with a penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG). Ten (9.8%) alpacas were incompletely concussed following the first shot. No animals required more than two shots. Incorrectly placed shots accounted for all of the animals that displayed signs of sensibility. Damage to the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla, cerebellum, parietal and occipital lobes were significantly associated with decreasing odds of incomplete concussion. In conclusion, the study confirmed that CBG stunning can induce insensibility in alpacas and suggests that the top of the head (crown) position maximises damage to structures of the thalamus and brainstem.

  5. Mask image position correction for double patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu; Ikenaga, Osamu; Ishigo, Kazutaka

    2008-05-01

    Application of double patterning technique has been discussed for lithography of HP 3X nm device generation. In this case, overlay budget for lithography becomes so hard that it is difficult to achieve it with only improvement of photomask's position accuracy. One of the factors of overlay error will be induced by distortion of photomask after chucking on the mask stage of exposure tool, because photomasks are bended by the force of vacuum chucking. Recently, mask flatness prediction technique was developed. This technique is simulating the surface shape of mask when it is on the mask stage by using the flatness data of free-standing state blank and the information of mask chucking stage. To use this predicted flatness data, it is possible to predict a pattern position error after exposed and it is possible to correct it on the photomask. A blank supplier developed the flatness data transfer system to mask vender. Every blanks are distinguished individually by 2D barcode mark on blank which including serial number. The flatness data of each blank is linked with this serial number, and mask vender can use this serial number as a key code to mask flatness data. We developed mask image position correction system by using 2D barcode mark linked to predicted flatness data, and position accuracy assurance system for these masks. And with these systems, we made some masks actually.

  6. Fixed points and FLRW cosmologies: Flat case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel

    2013-05-01

    We use a phase space approach to study possible consequences of fixed points in a single fluid flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models with pressure p(H), where H is the Hubble parameter. One of these consequences is that a fluid with a differentiable pressure, i.e., a finite adiabatic speed of sound, reaches a fixed point in an infinite time and has no finite-time singularities of types I, II, and III described by Nojiri, Odintsov, and Tsujikawa [Phys. Rev. D 71, 063004 (2005)]. It is impossible for such a fluid to cross the phantom divide in a finite time. We show that a divergent dp/dH, or the speed of sound, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for phantom crossing. We use pressure properties, such as asymptotic behavior and fixed points, to qualitatively describe the entire behavior of a solution in flat FLRW models. We discuss FLRW models with bulk viscosity η˜ρr, in particular, solutions for r=1 and r=1/4 cases, which can be expressed in terms of the Lambert-W function. The last solution behaves as either a nonsingular phantom fluid or a unified dark fluid. Using causality and stability constraints, we show that the universe must end as a de Sitter space. Relaxing the stability constraint leads to a de Sitter universe, an empty universe, or a turnaround solution that reaches a maximum size and then recollapses.

  7. Electrically thin flat lenses and reflectors.

    PubMed

    Ruphuy, Miguel; Siddiqui, Omar; Ramahi, Omar M

    2015-09-01

    We introduce electrically thin dielectric lenses and reflectors that focus a plane wave based on the principles of phase compensation and constructive wave interference. Phase compensation is achieved by arranging thin rectangular slabs having different dielectric permittivity according to a permittivity profile obtained through analytic design equations. All incident rays parallel to the optical axis converge to a focal point with equalized optical paths resulting in constructive interference. Plane wave simulations indicate strong focusing, even in the presence of impedance mismatch between free space and the dielectric layers composing the lens. We demonstrate focusing at 9.45 GHz using a lens fabricated with commercially available dielectric materials. In addition to focusing, the flat lens proposed here demonstrates relatively high power gain at the focal point. We also present a flat reflector based on the same concept. We believe that the proposed dielectric lens and reflector are strong candidates to replace heavy metallic dishes and reflectors used in a variety of applications, especially satellites.

  8. Asymptotically flat space-times: an enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2016-07-01

    We begin by emphasizing that we are dealing with standard Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell theory—absolutely no new physics has been inserted. The fresh item is that the well-known asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell theory are transformed to a new coordinate system with surprising and (seemingly) inexplicable results. We begin with the standard description of (Null) asymptotically flat space-times described in conventional Bondi-coordinates. After transforming the variables (mainly the asymptotic Weyl tensor components) to a very special set of Newman-Unti (NU) coordinates, we find a series of relations totally mimicking standard Newtonian classical mechanics and Maxwell theory. The surprising and troubling aspect of these relations is that the associated motion and radiation does not take place in physical space-time. Instead these relations takes place in an unusual inherited complex four-dimensional manifold referred to as H-space that has no immediate relationship with space-time. In fact these relations appear in two such spaces, H-space and its dual space \\bar{H}.

  9. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  10. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  11. Spectra of Flat Top & nearby soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The first color panorama returned by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after Mars Pathfinder's landing included several larger, gray rocks, bright red dust on a flat-topped rock and the ground between the rocks, and darker red soil exposed where Pathfinder's landing dislodged a small rock. The rock dubbed 'Flat Top' is at the low center of the images. The less red color and low reflectance of the rocks is consistent with the iron minerals found in igneous rocks, whereas the fine, bright drift has a spectrum indicative of a weathering product. The strength of the bend, or 'kink', in the spectrum is related to the abundance and particle size of specific crustalline, ferric weathering products. In the false color image, the blue areas have a weak kink and are relatively unweathered, whereas the red areas' strong kink indicates an abundance of ferric iron minerals.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. Role of Thrombospondin-1 in Repair of Penetrating Corneal Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Mezquita, José Tomás; Hutcheon, Audrey E. K.; Zieske, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) has been suggested as a corneal wound-healing modulator. Therefore, we compromised the integrity of the cornea to elucidate the role of THBS1. Methods. Full-thickness penetrating corneal incisions (1.5 mm) were created in wild type (WT, 129S2/SvPas) and THBS1-deficient mice (Thbs1−/−, 129S2/SvPas-Thbs1tm1Hyn/Thbs1tm1Hyn), and allowed to heal up to 1 month, while being monitored by slit-lamp and intravital corneal examinations. Corneas also were examined by transmission electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence. To determine how THBS1 was involved in the healing process, we examined THBS1 and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), a marker of myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells. Results. In WT mice by 1 month, corneas appeared transparent with a thin scar, and endothelium and Descemet's membrane (DM) were restored. In contrast, Thbs1−/− corneas exhibited chronic edema and persistent opacity after wounding. The DM and endothelium were not restored, and wound contraction was impaired. The THBS1 was localized in epithelial cells at early stages of the healing process, and in the stroma and endothelial cells during later stages. The SMA-positive epithelial cells and myofibroblasts were observed within the healing area at day 4, peaked at day 14, and disappeared at day 30. The SMA-positive cells were reduced greatly in Thbs1−/− mice. Conclusions. In the current study, we demonstrated that corneal restoration is strikingly compromised by a penetrating incision in Thbs1−/− mice. The wound results in persistent edema and wound gaping. This appears to be the result of the lack of endothelial migration and DM restoration. In addition, myofibroblast formation is compromised, resulting in the lack of wound contraction. PMID:23963165

  13. Benchmark experiments on neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall penetrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistoni, P.; Conroy, S.; Lilley, S.; Naish, J.; Obryk, B.; Popovichev, S.; Stamatelatos, I.; Syme, B.; Vasilopoulou, T.; contributors, JET

    2015-05-01

    Neutronics experiments are performed at JET for validating in a real fusion environment the neutronics codes and nuclear data applied in ITER nuclear analyses. In particular, the neutron fluence through the penetrations of the JET torus hall is measured and compared with calculations to assess the capability of state-of-art numerical tools to correctly predict the radiation streaming in the ITER biological shield penetrations up to large distances from the neutron source, in large and complex geometries. Neutron streaming experiments started in 2012 when several hundreds of very sensitive thermo-luminescence detectors (TLDs), enriched to different levels in 6LiF/7LiF, were used to measure the neutron and gamma dose separately. Lessons learnt from this first experiment led to significant improvements in the experimental arrangements to reduce the effects due to directional neutron source and self-shielding of TLDs. Here we report the results of measurements performed during the 2013-2014 JET campaign. Data from new positions, at further locations in the South West labyrinth and down to the Torus Hall basement through the air duct chimney, were obtained up to about a 40 m distance from the plasma neutron source. In order to avoid interference between TLDs due to self-shielding effects, only TLDs containing natural Lithium and 99.97% 7Li were used. All TLDs were located in the centre of large polyethylene (PE) moderators, with natLi and 7Li crystals evenly arranged within two PE containers, one in horizontal and the other in vertical orientation, to investigate the shadowing effect in the directional neutron field. All TLDs were calibrated in the quantities of air kerma and neutron fluence. This improved experimental arrangement led to reduced statistical spread in the experimental data. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to calculate the air kerma due to neutrons and the neutron fluence at detector positions, using a JET model validated up to the

  14. Surface penetrators for planetary exploration: Science rationale and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Reynolds, R. T.; Blanchard, M. B.; Clanton, U. S.

    1981-01-01

    Work on penetrators for planetary exploration is summarized. In particular, potential missions, including those to Mars, Mercury, the Galilean satellites, comets, and asteroids are described. A baseline penetrator design for the Mars mission is included, as well as potential instruments and their status in development. Penetration tests in soft soil and basalt to study material eroded from the penetrator; changes in the structure, composition, and physical properties of the impacted soil; seismic coupling; and penetrator deflection caused by impacting rocks, are described. Results of subsystem studies and tests are given for design of entry decelerators, high-g components, thermal control, data acquisition, and umbilical cable deployment.

  15. Thermospheric Gravity Wave Characteristics Obtained Using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negale, M.; Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M. J.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in atmospheric circulation through momentum deposition in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region (~80 - 110 km). Over the past decade, modeling and observational studies have shown that these waves can penetrate to high altitudes and play similar roles in the thermospheric region (~110 - 400 km). Several case studies have revealed their presence in the thermosphere, but the distributions and variability of thermospheric gravity wave parameters are currently unknown. Using methods developed by Nicolls and Heinselman (2007), we present new high-latitude thermospheric wave characteristic distributions obtained using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) during a one year period from August 2010 - July 2011. Their winter season distributions (January 2010 - April 2011) are compared to recent results obtained using a co-located all sky airglow imager measuring the MLT gravity wave field.

  16. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis; Avery, James E.; Minkin, Leonid M; Maxey, L Curt; Gehl, Anthony C; Hurt, Rick A; Boehm, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  17. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  18. A novel approach to penetrator calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Budge, K.G.

    1998-08-01

    The author presents a novel method for calculating the penetration of soft targets by hard projectiles by using a combination of ALE and contact surface techniques. This method allows the bifurcation in the softer material (at the point of the projectile) to be represented without sacrificing the Lagrangian representation of either the harder material or the contact interface. A series of calculations using this method show good agreement with the experimental data of Forrestal et al. This method may prove useful for a range of semi-fluid/structure interactions with friction, including simulations of manufacturing processes.

  19. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    PubMed

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed.

  20. Magnetic flux penetration into superconducting thin films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, G. E.; Meservey, R.

    1972-01-01

    The quantum-interference technique developed by Meservey (1965) is used to measure directly the absolute value of the penetration depth in lead in tin superconducting thin films. The technique assumes that the change in phase of the superconducting wave function around any contour within the superconductor must be 2 pi n, where n is a nonnegative integer. Results show that the critical current of a superconducting interferometer with two parallel junctions is not strictly periodic in the applied magnetic flux with a period equal to the flux quantum because of the magnetic field dependence of the critical currents of the junctions.

  1. Penetrating oil and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, C.A.

    1987-03-10

    A penetrating oil is described comprising: (a) from about 1 part to about 5 parts of a formula oil comprising a lubricating oil and surface active agents, the lubricating oil having a viscosity of from between about 135 to about 220 SSU at 100/sup 0/F; (b) from about 20 parts to about 30 parts of a hydrocarbon-based viscosity controller having a viscosity of from between about 75 to 200 SSU 100/sup 0/F; and, (c) from about 65 to about 80 parts of a hydrocarbon-based volatility controller having a viscosity of from between about 32 to about 45 SSU 100/sup 0/F.

  2. [Penetrating ocular trauma with intraocular foreign body].

    PubMed

    Musat, O; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Gutu, Tatiana; Cristescu, T R; Coman, Corina

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 65 years old pacient which was admitted for the sudden decrease of visual acuity in the left eye, accompanied by ocular pain and conjunctival hiperemia, simptoms appeared after an ocular trauma. After the clinical and paraclinical examination we determined the diagnosis of OS: Penetrating ocular trauma with retention of a foreign body; posttraumatic cataract. Surgical treatement was warrented and we performed OS : Facoemulsification + PFK implant in sulcus + 23 Ga posterior vitrectomy + peeling of the posterior hyaloid membrane + extraction of the foreign body + LASER endofotocoagulation + transscleral cryotherapy + SF6 gas injection. The post-operatory evolution was favorable.

  3. Space station integrated wall design and penetration damage control. Task 3: Theoretical analysis of penetration mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, M. D.; Geiger, J. D.; Wilhelm, E. E.

    1987-01-01

    The efforts to provide a penetration code called PEN4 version 10 is documented for calculation of projectile and target states for the impact of 2024-T3 aluminum, R sub B 90 1018 steel projectiles and icy meteoroids onto 2024-T3 aluminum plates at impact velocities from 0 to 16 km/s. PEN4 determines whether a plate is perforated by calculating the state of fragmentation of projectile and first plate. Depth of penetration into the second to n sup th plate by fragments resulting from first plate perforation is determined by multiple cratering. The results from applications are given.

  4. Re-Examination of Globally Flat Space-Time

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    In the following, we offer a novel approach to modeling the observed effects currently attributed to the theoretical concepts of “dark energy,” “dark matter,” and “dark flow.” Instead of assuming the existence of these theoretical concepts, we take an alternative route and choose to redefine what we consider to be inertial motion as well as what constitutes an inertial frame of reference in flat space-time. We adopt none of the features of our current cosmological models except for the requirement that special and general relativity be local approximations within our revised definition of inertial systems. Implicit in our ideas is the assumption that at “large enough” scales one can treat objects within these inertial systems as point-particles having an insignificant effect on the curvature of space-time. We then proceed under the assumption that time and space are fundamentally intertwined such that time- and spatial-translational invariance are not inherent symmetries of flat space-time (i.e., observable clock rates depend upon both relative velocity and spatial position within these inertial systems) and take the geodesics of this theory in the radial Rindler chart as the proper characterization of inertial motion. With this commitment, we are able to model solely with inertial motion the observed effects expected to be the result of “dark energy,” “dark matter,” and “dark flow.” In addition, we examine the potential observable implications of our theory in a gravitational system located within a confined region of an inertial reference frame, subsequently interpreting the Pioneer anomaly as support for our redefinition of inertial motion. As well, we extend our analysis into quantum mechanics by quantizing for a real scalar field and find a possible explanation for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within the framework of these redefined inertial systems. PMID:24250790

  5. Re-Examination of Globally Flat Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michael R.

    2013-11-01

    In the following, we offer a novel approach to modeling the observed effects currently attributed to the theoretical concepts of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." Instead of assuming the existence of these theoretical concepts, we take an alternative route and choose to redefine what we consider to be inertial motion as well as what constitutes an inertial frame of reference in flat space-time. We adopt none of the features of our current cosmological models except for the requirement that special and general relativity be local approximations within our revised definition of inertial systems. Implicit in our ideas is the assumption that at "large enough" scales one can treat objects within these inertial systems as point-particles having an insignificant effect on the curvature of space-time. We then proceed under the assumption that time and space are fundamentally intertwined such that time- and spatial-translational invariance are not inherent symmetries of flat space-time (i.e., observable clock rates depend upon both relative velocity and spatial position within these inertial systems) and take the geodesics of this theory in the radial Rindler chart as the proper characterization of inertial motion. With this commitment, we are able to model solely with inertial motion the observed effects expected to be the result of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." In addition, we examine the potential observable implications of our theory in a gravitational system located within a confined region of an inertial reference frame, subsequently interpreting the Pioneer anomaly as support for our redefinition of inertial motion. As well, we extend our analysis into quantum mechanics by quantizing for a real scalar field and find a possible explanation for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within the framework of these redefined inertial systems.

  6. Re-examination of globally flat space-time.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    In the following, we offer a novel approach to modeling the observed effects currently attributed to the theoretical concepts of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." Instead of assuming the existence of these theoretical concepts, we take an alternative route and choose to redefine what we consider to be inertial motion as well as what constitutes an inertial frame of reference in flat space-time. We adopt none of the features of our current cosmological models except for the requirement that special and general relativity be local approximations within our revised definition of inertial systems. Implicit in our ideas is the assumption that at "large enough" scales one can treat objects within these inertial systems as point-particles having an insignificant effect on the curvature of space-time. We then proceed under the assumption that time and space are fundamentally intertwined such that time- and spatial-translational invariance are not inherent symmetries of flat space-time (i.e., observable clock rates depend upon both relative velocity and spatial position within these inertial systems) and take the geodesics of this theory in the radial Rindler chart as the proper characterization of inertial motion. With this commitment, we are able to model solely with inertial motion the observed effects expected to be the result of "dark energy," "dark matter," and "dark flow." In addition, we examine the potential observable implications of our theory in a gravitational system located within a confined region of an inertial reference frame, subsequently interpreting the Pioneer anomaly as support for our redefinition of inertial motion. As well, we extend our analysis into quantum mechanics by quantizing for a real scalar field and find a possible explanation for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter within the framework of these redefined inertial systems.

  7. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  8. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for ... same time may also choose this position. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — ...

  9. Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2015-04-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  10. Completion Report for the Well ER-6-2 Site Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat - Climax Mine

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-03-01

    Well ER-6-2 and its satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1, were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Well ER-6-2 was drilled in two stages in 1993 and 1994; the satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled nearby in 1993 but was abandoned. The wells were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit Number 97, in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. The wells are located in Yucca Flat, within Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site. The wells provided information regarding the radiological and hydrogeological environment in a potentially down-gradient position from tests conducted in northern and central Yucca Flat. Construction of Well ER-6-2 began with a 1.2-meter-diameter surface conductor hole, which was drilled and cased off to a depth of 30.8 meters below the surface. A 50.8-centimeter diameter surface hole was then rotary drilled to the depth of 578.5 meters and cased off to the depth of 530.4 meters. The hole diameter was then reduced to 27.0 centimeters, and the borehole was advanced to a temporary depth of 611.4 meters. The borehole was conventionally cored to a total depth of 1,045 meters with a diameter of 14.0 centimeters. Borehole sloughing required cementing and re-drilling of several zones. The open-hole completion accesses the lower carbonate aquifer, the CP thrust fault, and the upper clastic confining unit. A fluid level depth of 543.2 meters was most recently measured in the open borehole in September 2007. No radionuclides were encountered during drilling. The satellite hole Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled approximately 15.2 meters north of Well ER-6-2 on the same drill pad. This was planned to be used as an observation well during future hydrologic testing at Well ER-6-2; however, the satellite hole was abandoned at

  11. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  12. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  13. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch; Donald Sweetkind; Bethany L. Burton; Erin L. Wallin

    2009-02-10

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  14. Creation Of Constructed Tidal Flats Using Ocean Dredged Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yi, B.; Lee, I.; Sung, K.

    2007-12-01

    The enforcement of London dumping convention (1972) and protocols (1996) which are comprehensive assessment system for ocean dumping wastes needs environmentally sound treatment and/or reuse of dredged sediment. Creation of constructed tidal flats using dredged sediments could be one of the useful alternatives among other dredged sediment treatments. In this study, the pilot-scale constructed tidal flats with 4 different mixing ratio of ocean dredged sediment were constructed in Nakdong river estuary, Korea. The reed was transplanted from the adjacent reed community after construction, and then the survival and growth rate of the planted reed was measured. Also the changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ignition loss (IL), and the heterotrophic microbial numbers were monitored. The survival rate of the planted reed decreased as the mixing ratio of dredged sediment increased. The survival rate of reed in the constructed tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment was 54% while that in the tidal flat with 0% dredged sediment (original soil of Nakdong river estuary) was 90%. There was little difference of length and diameter of the reed shoot among the 4 different constructed tidal flats. 30% of COD and 9% of IL in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment decreased after 202 day, however, the consistent tendency in the change of COD and IL in the other tidal flats was not found possibly due to the open system. It was suggested that the construction of tidal flats using ocean dredged sediment can be possible considering the growth rate of transplanted reeds and the contaminated ocean dredged sediment might be biologically remediated considering the results of decrease of organic matter and increased heterotrophic microbial number in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment. However, the continuous monitoring on the vegetation and various environmental factors in the constructed tidal flats should be necessary to evaluate the success of creation of constructed flats using

  15. A review of the Victoria, Australia granny flat program.

    PubMed

    Lazarowich, N M

    1990-04-01

    The 10-year-old Victoria, Australia granny flat program has about 3000 units in place. Granny flats, designed as standardized units using panels, offer privacy yet proximity to family members. There are suggestions they be considered as affordable housing for younger people. This review of the Victoria program suggests that state initiatives are more successful than local ones, and that decentralized administration is associated with increased ability to delivery the granny flat units.

  16. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-07-01

    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL{sub 2} invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs.

  17. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  18. Ground penetrating radar for asparagus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a promising technique for detection of buried objects. Recently, radar has more and more been identified to provide benefits for a plurality of applications, where it can increase efficiency of operation. One of these fields is the industrial automatic harvesting process of asparagus, which is performed so far by cutting the soil ridge at a certain height including all the asparagus spears and subsequently sieving the latter out of the soil. However, the height where the soil is cut is a critical parameter, since a wrong value leads to either damage of the roots of the asparagus plants or to a reduced crop yield as a consequence of too much biomass remaining in the soil. In this paper we present a new approach which utilizes ground penetrating radar for non-invasive sensing in order to obtain information on the optimal height for cutting the soil. Hence, asparagus spears of maximal length can be obtained, while keeping the roots at the same time undamaged. We describe our radar system as well as the subsequent digital signal processing steps utilized for extracting the information required from the recorded radar data, which then can be fed into some harvesting unit for setting up the optimal cutting height.

  19. Tissue penetration and pulmonary disposition of tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, T; Novelli, A; De Lalla, F; Mini, E; Periti, P

    1995-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tobramycin, including the penetration into suction blister fluid (SBF), has been investigated in 12 patients with a mean age of 69.8 +/- 4.6 yrs, after a single i.m. administration of either 150 or 300 mg. Tobramycin demonstrated a concentration-independent pharmacokinetics and a high diffusion into the extravascular compartment with a penetration index (obtained by the SBF and serum AUC ratio) of 135% with no significant differences between the two groups of patients. Tobramycin was also administered as a single or multiple i.m. dose of 300 mg in 10 intensive care patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy for diagnostic purposes. The aminoglycoside mean concentration 6h after the single or last administration ranged from 5.3 to 5.5 mg/l and from 3.0 to 3.3 mg/l in alveolar lining fluid (ALF) and macrophages (AM), respectively, thus demonstrating that the once-daily dosage schedule leads to high and persistent levels in the bronchial alveolar tree, exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentrations in vitro for susceptible respiratory pathogens.

  20. Penetration of projectiles into granular targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2013-06-01

    Energetic collisions of subatomic particles with fixed or moving targets have been very valuable to penetrate into the mysteries of nature. But the mysteries are quite intriguing when projectiles and targets are macroscopically immense. We know that countless debris wandering in space impacted (and still do) large asteroids, moons and planets; and that millions of craters on their surfaces are traces of such collisions. By classifying and studying the morphology of such craters, geologists and astrophysicists obtain important clues to understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System. This review surveys knowledge about crater phenomena in the planetary science context, avoiding detailed descriptions already found in excellent papers on the subject. Then, it examines the most important results reported in the literature related to impact and penetration phenomena in granular targets obtained by doing simple experiments. The main goal is to discern whether both schools, one that takes into account the right ingredients (planetary bodies and very high energies) but cannot physically reproduce the collisions, and the other that easily carries out the collisions but uses laboratory ingredients (small projectiles and low energies), can arrive at a synergistic intersection point.

  1. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  2. EFFECTS OF PENETRATIVE CONVECTION ON SOLAR DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Masada, Youhei; Yamada, Kohei; Kageyama, Akira

    2013-11-20

    Spherical solar dynamo simulations are performed. A self-consistent, fully compressible magnetohydrodynamic system with a stably stratified layer below the convective envelope is numerically solved with a newly developed simulation code based on the Yin-Yang grid. The effects of penetrative convection are studied by comparing two models with and without the stable layer. The differential rotation profile in both models is reasonably solar-like with equatorial acceleration. When considering the penetrative convection, a tachocline-like shear layer is developed and maintained beneath the convection zone without assuming any forcing. While the turbulent magnetic field becomes predominant in the region where the convective motion is vigorous, mean-field components are preferentially organized in the region where the convective motion is less vigorous. Particularly in the stable layer, the strong, large-scale field with a dipole symmetry is spontaneously built up. The polarity reversal of the mean-field component takes place globally and synchronously throughout the system regardless of the presence of the stable layer. Our results suggest that the stably stratified layer is a key component for organizing the large-scale strong magnetic field, but is not essential for the polarity reversal.

  3. Asbestos penetration test system for clothing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.D.; Stampfer, J.F.; Sandoval, A.N.; Heath, C.A.; Cooper, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    For hazardous work such as asbestos abatement, there is a need to assess protective clothing fabrics and seam constructions to assure an adequate barrier against hazardous material. The penetration of aerosols through fabrics usually is measured by challenging fabric samples with an aerosol stream at a constant specified airflow. To produce the specified airflow, pressure differentials across the samples often are higher than exist in a work environment. This higher airflow results in higher aerosol velocities through the fabric and, possibly, measured penetration values not representative of those actually experienced in the field. The objective of the reported work was to develop a test method that does not require these higher airflows. The authors have designed and fabricated a new system that tests fabric samples under a low, constant, specified pressure differential across the samples. This differential is adjustable from tenths of a mm Water Gauge (hundredths of an in WG) to over 25-mm WG (1-in WG). The system operates at a pressure slightly lower than its surroundings. Although designed primarily for asbestos, the system is equally applicable to the testing of other aerosols by changing the aerosol generator and detector. Through simple modification of the sample holders, the test apparatus would be capable of evaluating seam and closure constructions.

  4. Loop Quantum Gravity and Asymptotically Flat Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnsdorf, Matthias

    2002-12-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the field of non-perturbative (loop) quantum gravity in the last decade or so and it is now a rigorously defined kinematical theory (c.f. [5] for a review and references). We are now at the stage where physical applications of loop quantum gravity can be studied and used to provide checks for the consistency of the quantisation programme. Equally, old fundamental problems of canonical quantum gravity such as the problem of time or the interpretation of quantum cosmology need to be reevaluated seriously. These issues can be addressed most profitably in the asymptotically flat sector of quantum gravity. Indeed, it is likely that we should obtain a quantum theory for this special case even if it is not possible to quantise full general relativity. The purpose of this summary is to advertise the extension of loop quantum gravity to this sector that was developed in [1]...

  5. A FLINN Station at Pinon Flat Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr; Wyatt, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives are: (1) To develop Pinon Flat Observatory (PFO) as a prototype 'integrated' FLINN station: one from which many types of data are collected, combined, and made available to the DOSE program to enhance studies of local and regional strains; (2) To develop the theoretical framework and methods to integrate the various types of auxiliary data which are to be collected by NASA at space-geodetic sites of the FLINN network, with the aim of learning as much as possible about the nature of earth deformation; (3) To develop procedures for the efficient and useful storage and retrieval of such auxiliary data so that they may be efficiently utilized by DOSE investigators; (4) To investigate the stability of ground monumentation now used in space-geodetic measurements, including the field testing of existing and new monument designs.

  6. Flat tensile specimen design for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthem, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element analyses of flat, reduced gage section tensile specimens with various transition region contours were performed. Within dimensional constraints, such as maximum length, tab region width, gage width, gage length, and minimum tab length, a transition contour radius of 41.9 cm produced the lowest stress values in the specimen transition region. The stresses in the transition region were not sensitive to specimen material properties. The stresses in the tab region were sensitive to specimen composite and/or tab material properties. An evaluation of stresses with different specimen composite and tab material combinations must account for material nonlinearity of both the tab and the specimen composite. Material nonlinearity can either relieve stresses in the composite under the tab or elevate them to cause failure under the tab.

  7. Conceptual Hierarchies in a Flat Attractor Network

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Cree, George S.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The structure of people’s conceptual knowledge of concrete nouns has traditionally been viewed as hierarchical (Collins & Quillian, 1969). For example, superordinate concepts (vegetable) are assumed to reside at a higher level than basic-level concepts (carrot). A feature-based attractor network with a single layer of semantic features developed representations of both basic-level and superordinate concepts. No hierarchical structure was built into the network. In Experiment and Simulation 1, the graded structure of categories (typicality ratings) is accounted for by the flat attractor-network. Experiment and Simulation 2 show that, as with basic-level concepts, such a network predicts feature verification latencies for superordinate concepts (vegetable ). In Experiment and Simulation 3, counterintuitive results regarding the temporal dynamics of similarity in semantic priming are explained by the model. By treating both types of concepts the same in terms of representation, learning, and computations, the model provides new insights into semantic memory. PMID:19543434

  8. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D.; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  9. Normal pressure tests on unstiffened flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, Richard M; Sechler, Ernest J

    1944-01-01

    Flat sheet panels of aluminum alloy (all 17S-T except for two specimens of 24S-T) were tested under normal pressures with clamped edge supports in the structures laboratory of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The thicknesses used ranged from 0.010 to 0.080 inch; the panel sizes ranged from 10 by 10 inches to 10 by 40 inches; and the pressure range was from 0 to 60-pounds-per-square-inch gage. Deflection patterns were measured and maximum tensile strains in the center of the panel were determined by electric strain gages. The experimental data are presented by pressure-strain, pressure-maximum-deflection, and pressure-deflection curves. The results of these tests have been compared with the corresponding strains and deflections as calculated by the simple membrane theory and by large deflection theories.

  10. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing.

  11. Flat conductor cable connectors with individually sealed contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Information is presented on flat conductor cable connectors, a series with individually sealed contacts. Data are concerned with connector historical development, design requirements, and testing and costs.

  12. Partially coherent flat-topped beam and its propagation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Di; Cai, Yangjian; Lin, Qiang

    2004-08-20

    A partially coherent beam with flat-topped profile is proposed. The cross-spectral density of this beam can be expressed as a finite series of the cross-spectral density of partially coherent Gaussian-Schell-model beams with different parameters. Analytical propagation formulas for partially coherent flat-topped beams are derived through aligned and misaligned optical systems. The propagation property of partially coherent flat-topped beams in free space is illustrated numerically. The fractional Fourier transform of partially coherent fiat-topped beams is also studied. Our method provides a convenient way to describe partially coherent flat-topped beams and treat their propagation and transformation.

  13. Fate of supersymmetric flat directions and their role in reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco

    2006-11-15

    We consider the role of supersymmetric flat directions in reheating the Universe after inflation. One or more flat directions can develop large vevs during inflation, which can potentially affect reheating by slowing down scattering processes among inflaton decay products or by coming to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Both effects occur only if flat directions are sufficiently long-lived. The computation of their perturbative decay rate, and a simple estimate of their nonperturbative decay have led to the conclusion that this is indeed the case. In contrast, we show that flat directions can decay quickly through nonperturbative channels in realistic models. The mass matrix for minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) excitations around flat directions has nondiagonal entries, which vary with the phase of the (complex) flat directions. The quasiperiodic motion of the flat directions results in a strong parametric resonance, leading to the rapid depletion of the flat direction within its first few rotations. This may preclude any significant role for the flat directions in reheating the Universe after inflation in models in which the inflaton decays perturbatively.

  14. Pseudophakic flat anterior chamber following retinal detachment repair.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B C; Winslow, R L

    1981-09-01

    Flat anterior chambers were caused by varying mechanisms in 10 of 70 consecutive pseudophakic eyes operated on for retinal detachment. With iris or capsular implant fixation, three of 46 (7%) developed flat anterior chambers, and with anterior chamber lenses, the occurrence was seven of 24 (29%). Events initiating flat chambers included wound leak, pupillary block, and choroidal detachment. In eyes with flat anterior chambers, the retina could not be reattached in one case, extensive peripheral anterior synechia with persistent intraocular pressure elevation occurred in another case, and bullous keratopathy remained in two additional instances. Endothelial cell densities were obtained in eight eyes and were low on an age-related basis.

  15. Assessment of Intra-articular Screw Penetration During Radial Head and Olecranon Locking Plate Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Dizdarevic, Ismar; Eden, Claire M.; Bengard, Matthew; Barron, O. Alton; Catalano, Louis W.; Glickel, Steven Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of radiographic and clinical exams in predicting screw penetration into the proximal radioulnar joint and ulnohumeral joint during open reduction and internal fixation of the radial head and proximal ulna. Methods: Olecranon and radial head plates were applied to 15 cadaveric elbows. Screws were assessed for intra-articular joint penetration using both clinical exam and radiographic evaluation. Clinical exam consisted of evaluation for crepitus. Radiographs demonstrating screws positioned near the joint surface were evaluated for penetration by 3 fellowship trained hand surgeons. Elbows were disarticulated and screw prominence was determined and recorded using standardized calipers. The ability of clinical and radiographic exams to correctly predict a breach in the articular surface was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Consideration was given to screw position. Results: The sensitivity of crepitus was 81.1% for screws in the radial head plate and 72.6% for screws in the olecranon plate. The sensitivity of radiographs was 72.4% for the screws in the radial head plate and 55.0% for screws in the olecranon plate. Correct radiographic assessment of penetration varied but position o-2 on the olecranon plate consistently resulted in the lowest sensitivity of 30.3%. Conclusions: The study evaluates sensitivity and specificity of clinical and radiographic means when assessing for articular penetration of screws during olecranon and radial head locking plate fixation. Certain screw locations are more difficult to evaluate than others and may go undetected by standard means of assessment used in a surgical setting. PMID:27418892

  16. Electrical stimulation with a penetrating optic nerve electrode array elicits visuotopic cortical responses in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiliang; Yan, Yan; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming

    2013-06-01

    Objective. A visual prosthesis based on penetrating electrode stimulation within the optic nerve (ON) is a potential way to restore partial functional vision for blind patients. We investigated the retinotopic organization of ON stimulation and its spatial resolution. Approach. A five-electrode array was inserted perpendicularly into the ON or a single electrode was advanced to different depths within the ON (˜1-2 mm behind the eyeball, 13 cats). A sparse noise method was used to map ON electrode position and the visual cortex. Cortical responses were recorded by a 5 × 6 array. The visuotopic correspondence between the retinotopic position of the ON electrode was compared with the visual evoked cortical map and the electrical evoked potentials elicited in response to ON stimulation. Main results. Electrical stimulation with penetrating ON electrodes elicited cortical responses in visuotopographically corresponding areas of the cortex. Stimulation of the temporal side of the ON elicited cortical responses corresponding to the central visual field. The visual field position shifted from the lower to central visual field as the electrode penetrated through the depth of the ON. A spatial resolution of ˜ 2° to 3° within a limited cortical visuotopic representation could be obtained by this approach. Significance. Visuotopic electrical stimulation with a relatively fine spatial resolution can be accomplished using penetrating electrodes implanted at multiple sites and at different depths within the ON just behind the globe. This study also provides useful experimental data for the design of electrode density and the distribution of penetrating ON electrodes for a visual prosthesis.

  17. Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a flat interface subjected to a rippled shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liyong; Liu, Jinhong; Liao, Shenfei; Zheng, Xianxu; Zhai, Zhigang; Luo, Xisheng

    2017-01-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of a nominally flat interface (N2/SF6 ) subjected to a rippled shock, as the counterpart of a corrugated interface interacting with a planar shock, is studied experimentally in a vertical shock tube using both schlieren photography and fog visualization diagnostics. The nonplanar incident shock wave is produced by a planar shock diffracting around a rigid cylinder, and the flat interface is created by a membraneless technique. Three different distances η (the ratio of spacing from cylinder to interface over cylinder diameter) are considered. Schlieren images indicate that the nonplanar incident shock can be divided into three different segments separated by two triple points. Fog visualization pictures show the formation of overall "Λ " shaped interface structures and a N2 cavity at the center and two interface steps at both sides. With the increase of the dimensionless time, the dimensionless interface amplitude increases as well as the penetration depth of the cavity, and both curves exhibit reasonable collapse for different η numbers. Through equating the preinterface perturbation of the rippled shock with a preshock perturbation of a corrugated interface, the growth rate of this instability is found to be noticeably smaller than that of the standard RM instability.

  18. Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a flat interface subjected to a rippled shock wave.

    PubMed

    Zou, Liyong; Liu, Jinhong; Liao, Shenfei; Zheng, Xianxu; Zhai, Zhigang; Luo, Xisheng

    2017-01-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of a nominally flat interface (N_{2}/SF_{6}) subjected to a rippled shock, as the counterpart of a corrugated interface interacting with a planar shock, is studied experimentally in a vertical shock tube using both schlieren photography and fog visualization diagnostics. The nonplanar incident shock wave is produced by a planar shock diffracting around a rigid cylinder, and the flat interface is created by a membraneless technique. Three different distances η (the ratio of spacing from cylinder to interface over cylinder diameter) are considered. Schlieren images indicate that the nonplanar incident shock can be divided into three different segments separated by two triple points. Fog visualization pictures show the formation of overall "Λ" shaped interface structures and a N_{2} cavity at the center and two interface steps at both sides. With the increase of the dimensionless time, the dimensionless interface amplitude increases as well as the penetration depth of the cavity, and both curves exhibit reasonable collapse for different η numbers. Through equating the preinterface perturbation of the rippled shock with a preshock perturbation of a corrugated interface, the growth rate of this instability is found to be noticeably smaller than that of the standard RM instability.

  19. Evaluation of the mechanical stability of a megavoltage imaging system using a new flat panel positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, O.; Chen, J.; Aubin, M.; Pouliot, J.

    2005-04-01

    Mega-Voltage systems are used in radiation oncology both for external radiation delivery and patient positioning prior to treatment. A pair of portal images compared with digitally reconstructed radiographs is currently the gold standard for positioning but new developments have made possible the use of Mega-Voltage Cone Beam CT for better 3D setup. The non-ideal imaging geometry of the treatment unit has a direct impact on both methods. It led to the use of a reticule attachment as reference for the scale and the isocenter position on the portal images. The reticule has limited precision and occasionally super-imposes anatomical information. As for Cone Beam, the image quality crucially depends on the knowledge of the scan geometry during the acquisition. The reproducibility of the detector position at each angle will affect the image reconstruction and determine how frequently geometrical calibration must be performed. The objectives of this study are to measure the flex of the detector and evaluate its reproducibility. A RID 1640 Perkin Elmer a-Si Flat Panel is installed on a Siemens Primus linear accelerator with a positioner similar the the one used in the Oncor product. Three original methods are used to investigate the behavior in space and time of the imaging system. A reticule and a Plumb Bob tip are placed along the line formed by the isocenter and the source. Their positions projected on the flat panel for different gantry positions are used to calculate the mechanical flex. Projection matrices obtained in a geometrical Cone Beam calibration are also used to quantify the flat panel sagging. Six full sets of data were acquired over a period of 5 months and recorded overall mechanical flexes of 1 and 3 mm for the transversal and longitudinal directions respectively. The absolute magnitude of the flat panel displacement varies slightly with the method used but the discrepancy stays within the laser precision used for alignment. The small standard deviations

  20. A review of the geodynamic evolution of flat slab subduction in Mexico, Peru, and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, V. C.; Manea, M.; Ferrari, L.; Orozco-Esquivel, T.; Valenzuela, R. W.; Husker, A.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Subducting plates around the globe display a large variability in terms of slab geometry, including regions where smooth and little variation in subduction parameters is observed. While the vast majority of subduction slabs plunge into the mantle at different, but positive dip angles, the end-member case of flat-slab subduction seems to strongly defy this rule and move horizontally several hundreds of kilometers before diving into the surrounding hotter mantle. By employing a comparative assessment for the Mexican, Peruvian and Chilean flat-slab subduction zones we find a series of parameters that apparently facilitate slab flattening. Among them, trench roll-back, as well as strong variations and discontinuities in the structure of oceanic and overriding plates seem to be the most important. However, we were not able to find the necessary and sufficient conditions that provide an explanation for the formation of flat slabs in all three subduction zones. In order to unravel the origin of flat-slab subduction, it is probably necessary a numerical approach that considers also the influence of surrounding plates, and their corresponding geometries, on 3D subduction dynamics.

  1. Neural Activity Propagation in an Unfolded Hippocampal Preparation with a Penetrating Micro-electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Reyes, Luis E.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for preparing a new in vitro flat hippocampus preparation combined with a micro-machined array to map neural activity in the hippocampus. The transverse hippocampal slice preparation is the most common tissue preparation to study hippocampus electrophysiology. A longitudinal hippocampal slice was also developed in order to investigate longitudinal connections in the hippocampus. The intact mouse hippocampus can also be maintained in vitro because its thickness allows adequate oxygen diffusion. However, these three preparations do not provide direct access to neural propagation since some of the tissue is either missing or folded. The unfolded intact hippocampus provides both transverse and longitudinal connections in a flat configuration for direct access to the tissue to analyze the full extent of signal propagation in the hippocampus in vitro. In order to effectively monitor the neural activity from the cell layer, a custom made penetrating micro-electrode array (PMEA) was fabricated and applied to the unfolded hippocampus. The PMEA with 64 electrodes of 200 µm in height could record neural activity deep inside the mouse hippocampus. The unique combination of an unfolded hippocampal preparation and the PMEA provides a new in-vitro tool to study the speed and direction of propagation of neural activity in the two-dimensional CA1-CA3 regions of the hippocampus with a high signal to noise ratio. PMID:25868081

  2. Temporal discrimination, a cervical dystonia endophenotype: penetrance and functional correlates.

    PubMed

    Kimmich, Okka; Molloy, Anna; Whelan, Robert; Williams, Laura; Bradley, David; Balsters, Joshua; Molloy, Fiona; Lynch, Tim; Healy, Daniel G; Walsh, Cathal; O'Riordan, Seán; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenesis of adult-onset primary dystonia remains poorly understood. There is variable age-related and gender-related expression of the phenotype, the commonest of which is cervical dystonia. Endophenotypes may provide insight into underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT)-the shortest time interval at which two separate stimuli can be detected as being asynchronous-is abnormal both in patients with cervical dystonia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that putaminal activation positively correlates with the ease of temporal discrimination between two stimuli in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination would exhibit similar age-related and gender-related penetrance as cervical dystonia and that unaffected relatives with an abnormal TDT would have reduced putaminal activation during a temporal discrimination task. TDTs were examined in a group of 192 healthy controls and in 158 unaffected first-degree relatives of 84 patients with cervical dystonia. In 24 unaffected first-degree relatives, fMRI scanning was performed during a temporal discrimination task. The prevalence of abnormal TDTs in unaffected female relatives reached 50% after age 48 years; whereas, in male relatives, penetrance of the endophenotype was reduced. By fMRI, relatives who had abnormal TDTs, compared with relatives who had normal TDTs, had significantly less activation in the putamina and in the middle frontal and precentral gyri. Only the degree of reduction of putaminal activity correlated significantly with worsening of temporal discrimination. These findings further support abnormal temporal discrimination as an endophenotype of cervical dystonia involving disordered basal ganglia circuits.

  3. Bioactive glass fillers reduce bacterial penetration into marginal gaps for composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Khvostenko, D.; Hilton, T. J.; Ferracane, J. L.; Mitchell, J. C.; Kruzic, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bioactive glass (BAG) is known to possess antimicrobial and remineralizing properties; however, the use of BAG as a filler for resin based composite restorations to slow recurrent caries has not been studied. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 15 wt% BAG additions to a resin composite on bacterial biofilms penetrating into marginal gaps of simulated tooth fillings in vitro during cyclic mechanical loading. Methods Human molars were machined into approximately 3 mm thick disks of dentin and 1.5–2 mm deep composite restorations were placed. A narrow 15–20 micrometer wide dentin-composite gap was allowed to form along half of the margin by not applying dental adhesive to that region. Two different 72 wt% filled composites were used, one with 15 wt% BAG filler (15BAG) and the balance silanated strontium glass and one filled with OX-50 and silanated strontium glass without BAG (0BAG – control). Samples of both groups had Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown on the surface and were tested inside a bioreactor for two weeks while subjected to periods of cyclic mechanical loading. After post-test biofilm viability was confirmed, each specimen was fixed in glutaraldehyde, gram positive stained, mounted in resin and cross-sectioned to reveal the gap profile. Depth of biofilm penetration for 0BAG and 15BAG was quantified as the fraction of gap depth. The data were compared using a Student’s t-test. Results The average depth of bacterial penetration into the marginal gap for the 15BAG samples was significantly smaller (~61%) in comparison to 0BAG, where 100% penetration was observed for all samples with the biofilm penetrating underneath of the restoration in some cases. Significance BAG containing resin dental composites reduce biofilm penetration into marginal gaps of simulated tooth restorations. This suggests BAG containing composites may have the potential to slow the development and propagation of secondary tooth

  4. The Effects of Hygrothermal Aging on the Impact Penetration Resistance of Triaxially Braided Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Miller, Sandi G.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the effects of long term hygrothermal aging on the impact penetration resistance of triaxially braided polymer composites. Flat panels of three different materials were subjected to repeated cycles of high and low temperature and high and low humidity for two years. Samples of the panels were periodically tested under impact loading during the two year time period. The purpose of the study was to identify and quantify any degradation in impact penetration resistance of these composites under cyclic temperature and humidity conditions experienced by materials in the fan section of commercial gas turbine engines for a representative aircraft flight cycle. The materials tested consisted of Toray ® T700S carbon fibers in a 2D triaxial braid with three different resins, Cycom® PR520, a toughened resin, Hercules® 3502, an untoughened resin and EPON 862, intermediate between the two. The fiber preforms consisted of a quasi-isotropic 0/+60/-60 braid with 24K tows in the axial direction and 12K tows in the bias directions. The composite panels were manufactured using a resin transfer molding process producing panels with a thickness of 0.125 inches. The materials were tested in their as-processed condition and again after one year and two years of aging (1.6 years in the case of E862). The aging process involved subjecting the test panels to two cycles per day of high and low temperature and high and low humidity. A temperature range of -60degF to 250degF and a humidity range of 0 to 85% rh was used to simulate extreme conditions for composite components in the fan section of a commercial gas turbine engine. Additional testing was conducted on the as-processed PR520 composite under cryogenic conditions. After aging there was some change in the failure pattern, but there was no reduction in impact penetration threshold for any of the three systems, and in the case of the 3502 system, a significant increase in penetration

  5. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Physical controls on signal penetration and subsurface scattering in the Eastern Sahara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interpretation of Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) images by McCauley et al. (1982) dramatically changed previous concepts of the role that fluvial processes have played over the past 10,000 to 30 million years in shaping this now extremely flat, featureless, and hyperarid landscape. In the present paper, the near-surface stratigraphy, the electrical properties of materials, and the types of radar interfaces found to be responsible for different classes of SIR-A tonal response are summarized. The dominant factors related to efficient microwave signal penetration into the sediment blanket include (1) favorable distribution of particle sizes, (2) extremely low moisture content and (3) reduced geometric scattering at the SIR-A frequency (1.3 GHz). The depth of signal penetration that results in a recorded backscatter, here called 'radar imaging depth', was documented in the field to be a maximum of 1.5 m, or 0.25 of the calculated 'skin depth', for the sediment blanket. Radar imaging depth is estimated to be between 2 and 3 m for active sand dune materials. Diverse permittivity interfaces and volume scatterers within the shallow subsurface are responsible for most of the observed backscatter not directly attributable to grazing outcrops. Calcium carbonate nodules and rhizoliths concentrated in sandy alluvium of Pleistocene age south of Safsaf oasis in south Egypt provide effective contrast in premittivity and thus act as volume scatterers that enhance SIR-A portrayal of younger inset stream channels.

  6. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  7. The full penetration hole as a stochastic process: controlling penetration depth in keyhole laser-welding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blug, A.; Abt, F.; Nicolosi, L.; Heider, A.; Weber, R.; Carl, D.; Höfler, H.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2012-07-01

    Although laser-welding processes are frequently used in industrial production the quality control of these processes is not satisfactory yet. Until recently, the "full penetration hole" was presumed as an image feature which appears when the keyhole opens at the bottom of the work piece. Therefore it was used as an indicator for full penetration only. We used a novel camera based on "cellular neural networks" which enables measurements at frame rates up to 14 kHz. The results show that the occurrence of the full penetration hole can be described as a stochastic process. The probability to observe it increases near the full penetration state. In overlap joints, a very similar image feature appears when the penetration depth reaches the gap between the sheets. This stochastic process is exploited by a closed-loop system which controls penetration depth near the bottom of the work piece ("full penetration") or near the gap in overlap joints ("partial penetration"). It guides the welding process at the minimum laser power necessary for the required penetration depth. As a result, defects like spatters are reduced considerably and the penetration depth becomes independent of process drifts such as feeding rate or pollution on protection glasses.

  8. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  9. First principles cable braid electromagnetic penetration model

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William A.

    2016-01-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also set up in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multi-poles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. Furthermore, this is used to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  10. First principles cable braid electromagnetic penetration model

    DOE PAGES

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also set up in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multi-poles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinitemore » periodic planar geometry. Furthermore, this is used to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.« less

  11. Processing depleted uranium quad alloy penetrator rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bokan, S.L.

    1987-02-19

    Two depleted uranium (DU) quad alloys were cast, extruded and rolled to produce penetrator rods. The two alloy combinations were (1) 1 wt % molybdenum (Mo), 1 wt % niobium (Nb), and 0.75 wt % titanium (Ti); and (2) 1 wt % tantalum (Ta), 1 wt % Nb, and 0.75 wt % Ti. This report covers the processing and results with limited metallographic information available. The two alloys were each vacuum induction melted (VIM) into an 8-in. log, extruded into a 3-in. log, then cut into 4 logs and extruded at 4 different temperatures into 0.8-in. bars. From the 8 conditions (2 alloys, 4 extrusion temperatures each), 10 to 13 16-in. rods were cut for rolling and swaging. Due to cracking problems, the final processing changed from rolling and swaging to limited rolling and heat treating. The contracted work was completed with the delivery of 88 rods to Dr. Zabielski. 28 figs.

  12. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  13. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  14. Estimation of penetrance from twin data.

    PubMed

    Praxedes, L A; Otto, P A

    2000-12-01

    A simple method for estimating the gene frequency p and the penetrance value K from data on polymorphic monogenic characteristics on monozygotic twin pairs is presented. In spite of the method here presented having limited value because the results it yields cannot be evaluated on their own, the estimates of p and K it provides can be indirectly tested by comparing them to the ones obtained in familial aggregates through classical segregation analysis or by using the latter to calculate the expected proportions of dominant-dominant, dominant-recessive and recessive-recessive monozygotic twin pairs. When the method is applied to data on tongue-rolling ability published in the literature, a good agreement is observed between twin and familial estimates, thus indicating that the method is reliable and that it can be used as an ancillary way of corroborating or otherwise evidence of monogenic autosomal dominant mechanism inferred from the analysis of familial data.

  15. Penetration of surfactant solutions into hydrophobic capillaries.

    PubMed

    Bain, Colin D

    2005-08-21

    The initial rise velocity of surfactant solutions in hydrophobic capillaries is independent of time (F. Tiberg, B. Zhmud, K. Hallstensson and M. von Bahr, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2000, 2, 5189). By analogy with the hydrodynamics of an overflowing cylinder, we present a steady-state solution for capillary penetration in which the velocity is determined by the adsorption kinetics at the air-water interface. Good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data of Tiberg and coworkers is obtained for the non-ionic surfactant C10E6 under the assumption of diffusion-controlled adsorption. The longer chain homologue, C14E6, shows evidence of kinetic barriers to adsorption.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and inflammatory fluid penetration of sparfloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J H; Cooper, M A; Andrews, J M; Wise, R

    1992-01-01

    A single 400-mg oral dose of sparfloxacin was given to each of six healthy male volunteers, and the concentrations of the drug were measured in plasma, cantharides-induced inflammatory fluid, and urine over the subsequent 52 h. The mean peak concentration in plasma of 1.6 micrograms/ml was attained at a mean time of 2.7 h postdose. The mean peak concentration in inflammatory fluid of 1.3 micrograms/ml was attained at a mean time of 5 h postdose. The mean elimination half-life in plasma was 17.6 h, and that in inflammatory fluid was 19.7 h. The overall penetration into inflammatory fluid was 117%. Urinary recovery within the first 52 h postdose was 8.8% of the administered dose. Our results indicate that a once-daily dosage of sparfloxacin should be adequate to treat systemic infections caused by most common bacterial pathogens. PMID:1336947

  17. Penetration of chlorhexidine into human skin.

    PubMed

    Karpanen, T J; Worthington, T; Conway, B R; Hilton, A C; Elliott, T S J; Lambert, P A

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated a model of skin permeation to determine the depth of delivery of chlorhexidine into full-thickness excised human skin following topical application of 2% (wt/vol) aqueous chlorhexidine digluconate. Skin permeation studies were performed on full-thickness human skin using Franz diffusion cells with exposure to chlorhexidine for 2 min, 30 min, and 24 h. The concentration of chlorhexidine extracted from skin sections was determined to a depth of 1,500 microm following serial sectioning of the skin using a microtome and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Poor penetration of chlorhexidine into skin following 2-min and 30-min exposures to chlorhexidine was observed (0.157 +/- 0.047 and 0.077 +/- 0.015 microg/mg tissue within the top 100 microm), and levels of chlorhexidine were minimal at deeper skin depths (less than 0.002 microg/mg tissue below 300 microm). After 24 h of exposure, there was more chlorhexidine within the upper 100-microm sections (7.88 +/- 1.37 microg/mg tissue); however, the levels remained low (less than 1 microg/mg tissue) at depths below 300 microm. There was no detectable penetration through the full-thickness skin. The model presented in this study can be used to assess the permeation of antiseptic agents through various layers of skin in vitro. Aqueous chlorhexidine demonstrated poor permeation into the deeper layers of the skin, which may restrict the efficacy of skin antisepsis with this agent. This study lays the foundation for further research in adopting alternative strategies for enhanced skin antisepsis in clinical practice.

  18. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  19. Two-step LASIK after penetrating keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kollias, Aris N; Schaumberger, Markus M; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Ulbig, Michael W; Lackerbauer, Carlo A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The point of interest of this retrospective case review is to study refractive changes caused by the hinged lamellar keratotomy and the refractive outcome after laser ablation in a second step within the scope of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in patients with penetrating keratoplasty. Methods: Data from eight patients obtained before lamellar keratotomy, before laser ablation, and three months later were evaluated. Keratotomies were performed with the Moria® LSK one and the Amadeus® 2 microkeratome, laser ablation was performed with the Schwind® Keratome I and the Wavelight® Allegretto WaveEyeQ. Results: Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) improved significantly from 1 [logMar] to 0.4 [logMar] at the last visit. Median gain of UCVA was 7.38 ± 2.96 Snellen lines. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity did not change significantly. Preoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent decreased from −4.02 ± 4.77 diopters (D) to −1.11 ± 2.45 D after laser ablation. Mean preoperative manifest astigmatism was −7.27 ± 3.65 D, after lamellar keratotomy −6.72 ± 3.68 D, and after laser ablation −2.08 ± 1.80 D. Manifest astigmatism did not change significantly after the keratotomy. Conclusions: Lamellar keratotomy causes biomechanical changes to the cornea. We favor a two-step LASIK in penetrating keratoplasty patients in order to improve precision and predictability of the refractive outcome. PMID:19898662

  20. Geohydrology of volcanic tuff penetrated by test well UE-25b#1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahoud, R.G.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Whitfield, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Test well UE-25bNo1, located on the east side of Yucca Mountain in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled to a total depth of 1,220 meters and hydraulically tested as part of a program to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a nuclear-waste repository. The well penetrated almost 46 meters of alluvium and 1,174 meters of Tertiary volcanic tuffs. The composite hydraulic head for aquifers penetrated by the well was 728.9 meters above sea level (471.4 meters below land surface) with a slight decrease in loss of hydraulic head with depth. Average hydraulic conductivities for stratigraphic units determined from pumping tests, borehole-flow surveys, and packer-injection tests ranged from less than 0.001 meter per day for the Tram Member of the Crater Flat Tuff to 1.1 meters per day for the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff. The small values represented matrix permeability of unfractured rock; the large values probably resulted from fracture permeability. Chemical analyses indicated that the water is a soft sodium bicarbonate type, slightly alkaline, with large concentrations of dissolved silica and sulfate. Uncorrected carbon-14 age dates of the water were 14,100 and 13,400 years. (USGS)

  1. Cercarial Penetration Studies. Steps toward Chemoprophylaxis in Schistosomiasis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-15

    is increased at slightly acidic pH when compared to slightly alkaline pH. 3. The Effect of Ibuprofen and Esculetin on Cercarial Penetration...Transformation and Eicosanoid Production (in vitro). Ibuprofen has no effect on cercarial penetration or transformation rates at concentrations as high as lOm...Cercarial Eicosanoid Production. -7 3. The Effect of Ibuprofen and Esculetin on Cercarial Penetration, Trans- formation and Eicosanoid Production (in vitro

  2. Study of Comet Nucleus Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Penetration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. L.; Amundsen, R. J.; Beardsley, R. W.; Cash, R. H.; Clark, B. C.; Knight, T. C. D.; Martin, J. P.; Monti, P.; Outteridge, D. A.; Plaster, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A penetrator system has been suggested as an approach for making in situ measurements of the composition and physical properties of the nucleus of a comet. This study has examined in detail the feasibility of implementing the penetrator concept. The penetrator system and mission designs have been developed and iterated in sufficient detail to provide a high level of confidence that the concept can be implemented within the constraints of the Mariner Mark 2 spacecraft.

  3. Fast magnetic field penetration into low resistivity plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchtman, Amnon

    2017-02-01

    Penetration of a magnetic field into plasma that is faster than resistive diffusion can be induced by the Hall electric field in a non-uniform plasma. This mechanism explained successfully the measured velocity of the magnetic field penetration into pulsed plasmas. Major related issues have not yet been resolved. Such is the theoretically predicted, but so far not verified experimentally, high magnetic energy dissipation, as well as the correlation between the directions of the density gradient and of the field penetration.

  4. Fire Resistance Testing of Bulkhead and Deck Penetrations. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    thick steel plate. All sample 12 construction was representative of Class A-0 construction. The UL staff secured insulation ( rockwool batts) to the...designated side of the steel plates and penetrants for testing as Class A-60 deck assemblies. The rockwool batts complied with the Class A-60...insulated with rockwool batts and tested for a Class A-60 rating. This group consisted of one steel penetration, eight copper penetrations, four PVC

  5. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-07-19

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [(14)C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  6. Sensor emplacement testing at Poker Flat, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, A.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. E.; Azevedo, S.; Carothers, L.; Love, M.; Miller, P. E.; Parker, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Slad, G.; Thomas, D.; Aderhold, K.

    2013-12-01

    PASSCAL provides equipment and support for temporary seismic projects. Speed and efficiency of deployments are essential. A revised emplacement technique of putting broadband sensors directly into soil (aka direct burial) is being tested. The first phase (fall 2011 to spring 2013) comparing data quality and sensor stability between the direct burial and the traditional 1 m deep temporary PASSCAL-style vault in a wet and noisy site near San Antonio, NM is complete. Results suggest there is little or no difference in sensor performance in the relatively high-noise environment of this initial test. The second phase was started in November 2012 with the goal of making the same comparison, but at Poker Flat, Alaska, in a low-noise, high-signal, cold and wet environment, alongside a Transportable Array (TA) deployment to be used as a performance control. This location is in an accessible and secure area with very low site noise. In addition to benefiting future worldwide PASSCAL deployments, the Poker Flat experiment serves a secondary purpose of testing modifications necessary to successfully deploy and recover broadband stations in a cold environment with the limited logistics anticipated for remote Flexible Array (FA) and PASSCAL Program deployments in Alaska. Developing emplacement techniques that maintain high data quality and data return while minimizing logistics is critical to enable principle investigators to effectively and efficiently co-locate within the future TA Alaska footprint. Three Nanometrics sensors were installed in November 2012 in power-augered holes 76 cm in depth: a Trillium Compact Posthole (PH) and two Trillium 120PH units (one standard PH and one enhanced PHQ). The installations took less than 8 hours in -30°C conditions with 4 hours of usable daylight. The Compact PH and the 120PHQ are delivering data in realtime, while the 120PH is testing standalone power and data collection systems. Preliminary results compare favorably to each other as

  7. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  8. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  10. Tom Friedman on Education in the "Flat World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman describes that the real world is becoming "flat." He describes how 10 forces are "flattening" the 21st century--making it easier for people in India, China and around the world to compete with Americans and others who had triumphed the century before. This article presents an interview…

  11. 23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. The Salt River, downstream, from atop Mormon Flat Dam. HEFU generator deck is at center bottom. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

  13. 12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER 38 YEARS, WEAPONS PRODUCTION CEASED IN 1989. IN 1992, THE PLANT MISSION CHANGED FROM WEAPONS PRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN UP AND RESTORATION. BY 1995, THE SITE HAD BEGUN TO BE DISMANTLED (6/27/95). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 21. Mormon Flat Dam and reservoir. HEFU penstock and unit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Mormon Flat Dam and reservoir. HEFU penstock and unit are at center. The original power house is located behind the HEFU penstock. Transformer equipment is located at center right. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 22. Close up view of Mormon Flat Dam, original power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Close up view of Mormon Flat Dam, original power house and HEFU upgrades. Spillway lip, at center, is part of the approach road. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 8. Upstream face of Mormon Flat, both concrete placement tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Upstream face of Mormon Flat, both concrete placement tower and 105 foot derrick are visible. Photographer unknown, June 8, 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. The Psycholinguistics of Literacy in a Flat World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    2009-01-01

    If Friedman is right that the world is "flat," we need to understand the linguistic implications of that claim. In this increasingly flat world, classical critical literacy is both urgently needed and poorly understood from a linguistic perspective. Three claims based on research on reading can improve both the understanding of the common…

  18. All-reflecting Baker-Schmidt flat-field telescopes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, D J

    1978-01-01

    The theory of the Baker-Schmidt flat-field telescope with tilted reflecting corrector and an analysis of the performance of several different all-reflecting Baker-Schmidt systems is presented. A comparison is given between the performance of a flat-field Baker-Schmidt and an all-reflecting Schmidt telescope of similar focal ratio.

  19. Tibialis posterior tendon rupture: a cause of rheumatoid flat foot.

    PubMed

    Downey, D J; Simkin, P A; Mack, L A; Richardson, M L; Kilcoyne, R F; Hansen, S T

    1988-03-01

    Flat foot, a major cause of foot pain and disability, may result from rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon. We describe 2 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed flat feet secondary to surgically confirmed tendon rupture, and we discuss the anatomy and diagnosis of this condition. In the second patient, we also present the results of tendon imaging with both magnetic resonance and ultrasound.

  20. 18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on parapet contains the operating mechanisms for the penstock gates. Power house is not yet under construction. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ