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Sample records for penguin eudyptula minor

  1. Epidemiology and molecular phylogeny of Babesia sp. in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Woehler, Eric J.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vertigan, Peter; Carlile, Nicholas; Priddel, David; Finger, Annett; Dann, Peter; Herrin, Kimberly Vinette; Thompson, Paul; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Braga, Érika M.; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Blood parasites are potential threats to the health of penguins and to their conservation and management. Little penguins Eudyptula minor are native to Australia and New Zealand, and are susceptible to piroplasmids (Babesia), hemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium) and kinetoplastids (Trypanosoma). We studied a total of 263 wild little penguins at 20 sites along the Australian southeastern coast, in addition to 16 captive-bred little penguins. Babesia sp. was identified in seven wild little penguins, with positive individuals recorded in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. True prevalence was estimated between 3.4% and 4.5%. Only round forms of the parasite were observed, and gene sequencing confirmed the identity of the parasite and demonstrated it is closely related to Babesia poelea from boobies (Sula spp.) and B. uriae from murres (Uria aalge). None of the Babesia-positive penguins presented signs of disease, confirming earlier suggestions that chronic infections by these parasites are not substantially problematic to otherwise healthy little penguins. We searched also for kinetoplastids, and despite targeted sampling of little penguins near the location where Trypanosoma eudyptulae was originally reported, this parasite was not detected. PMID:25853053

  2. The pathology and pathogenicity of a novel Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Cannell, B L; Krasnec, K V; Campbell, K; Jones, H I; Miller, R D; Stephens, N

    2013-10-18

    One hundred and thirty four Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) carcases found since 2004 in south west Australia were necropsied. The livers and spleens from ten of the penguins exhibited varying degrees of multifocal, randomly scattered areas of necrosis and varying numbers of parasites were associated with these areas. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were noted in many of these ten cases. Necrosis and parasites were also observed in the cardiac muscle of four of the cases and in the lung tissue in one of the penguins. Using PCR, the parasites were positively identified in four of the cases as Haemoproteus spp. and morphologically identical tissue stage parasites associated with histopathological changes were observed in all ten dead penguins. This is the first study to demonstrate both the in situ presence of the Haemoproteus parasite in any member of the Sphensicidae family and mortality due to its presence. We postulate the involvement of anomalous environmental conditions in a potential increase in local vectors.

  3. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metals and metalloids in Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) prey, blood and faeces.

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Scarpaci, Carol; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D

    2017-04-01

    Piscivorous species like the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) are particularly at risk of being negatively impacted by pollution due to their heightened exposure through aquatic food chains. Therefore, determining the concentration of heavy metals in the fish prey of seabirds is an essential component of assessing such risk. In this study, we report on arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and selenium concentrations in three fish species, which are known to comprise a substantial part of the diet of Little Penguins at the urban colony of St Kilda, Melbourne, Australia. Metal concentrations in the fish sampled were generally within the expected limits, however, arsenic and mercury were higher than reported elsewhere. Anchovy (Engraulis australis) and sandy sprat (Hyperlophus vittatus) contained higher Hg concentrations than pilchard (Sardinops sagax), while sandy sprat and pilchard contained more selenium. We present these findings together with metal concentrations in Little Penguin blood and faeces, sampled within weeks of the fish collection. Mercury concentrations were highest in the blood, while faeces and fish prey species contained similar concentrations of arsenic and lead, suggesting faeces as a primary route of detoxification for these elements. We also investigated paired blood - faecal samples and found a correlation for selenium only. Preliminary data from stable isotope ratios in penguin blood indicate that changes in penguin blood mercury concentrations cannot be explained by trophic changes in their diet alone, suggesting a variation of bioavailable Hg within this semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cases of mortality in little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in New Zealand associated with avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Sijbranda, D C; Hunter, S; Howe, L; Lenting, B; Argilla, L; Gartrell, B D

    2017-08-06

    CASE HISTORY A little penguin (Eudyptula minor) of wild origin, in captivity at Wellington Zoo, became inappetent and lethargic in March 2013. Despite supportive care in the zoo's wildlife hospital, the bird died within 24 hours. CLINICAL FINDINGS Weight loss, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, weakness, increased respiratory effort and biliverdinuria were apparent on physical examination. Microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed intra-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. and a regenerative reticulocytosis in the absence of anaemia. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS Post-mortem findings included reduced body condition, dehydration, pulmonary congestion and oedema, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hydropericardium and subcutaneous oedema. Histopathological findings included protozoal organisms in sections of lung, liver and spleen. A marked, diffuse, sub-acute interstitial histiocytic pneumonia was present. Accumulation of haemosiderin was noted in the Kupffer cells of the liver and in histiocytic-type cells in the spleen. MOLECULAR TESTING DNA was extracted from frozen portions of the liver. Nested PCR results and DNA sequencing confirmed infection of the deceased little penguin with Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum lineage GRW06. DIAGNOSIS Avian malaria due to Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06 RETROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION A retrospective analysis of 294 little penguin cases in the Massey University post-mortem database revealed three other potential avian malaria cases. Analysis of archived tissues using a nested PCR for Plasmodium spp. followed by DNA sequencing revealed that a little penguin which died at Auckland Zoo was infected with P. elongatum GRW06 and two wild little penguins found dead on New Zealand beaches were infected with P. relictum SGS1 and Plasmodium. sp. lineage LINN1. Therefore, the overall frequency of deaths in little penguins associated with avian malaria was 4/295 (1.36%). CLINICAL RELEVANCE Our results suggest that avian malaria is associated with

  6. Influence of biological and ecological factors on hematological values in wild Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor.

    PubMed

    Sergent, N; Rogers, T; Cunningham, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical hematology and biochemistry are recognized as useful aids in health diagnosis in birds. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) is endemic to Australia and numbers are declining due to a number of factors including declining health. This 2-year study on both Bowen and Lion Island populations aimed at assessing the potential causes of their declining health. Blood was collected from a total of 294 adult Little Penguins. R.B.C., Hb, P.C.V., M.C.V., M.C.H., M.C.H.C., W.B.C. and differential counts, thrombocytes and T.P.P. were measured. Multiple regression was used to identify relationships between hematological values and the following predictor variables: site, season, sex, time held prior to sampling and body condition. Values obtained showed some differences compared to the values for other penguin species reported in the literature. P.C.V., R.B.C., Hb, M.C.H.C. and T.P.P. showed major differences in comparison with a previous study on little penguins. Considering the influence of predictor variables, it appeared that: P.C.V., R.B.C., M.C.V., M.C.H., M.C.H.C. varied according to seasons; P.C.V., R.B.C., M.C.H., T.P.P. were correlated to body condition; P.C.V. was higher in birds on Bowen Island compared to birds on Lion Island; and T.P.P. was higher in females. These ecological and biological predictor variables have a strong influence upon hematological values. As a consequence, they must be taken into consideration when interpreting results of future studies.

  7. Colour-producing β-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers

    PubMed Central

    D'Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Clarke, Julia A.; Vinther, Jakob A.; Prum, Richard O.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel β-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barb nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of β-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly. PMID:21307042

  8. Colour-producing [beta]-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers

    SciTech Connect

    D; Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Clarke, Julia A.; Vinther, Jakob A.; Prum, Richard O.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2012-03-26

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel {beta}-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barb nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of {beta}-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly.

  9. Colour-producing β-keratin nanofibres in blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) feathers.

    PubMed

    D'Alba, Liliana; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Clarke, Julia A; Vinther, Jakob A; Prum, Richard O; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2011-08-23

    The colours of living organisms are produced by the differential absorption of light by pigments (e.g. carotenoids, melanins) and/or by the physical interactions of light with biological nanostructures, referred to as structural colours. Only two fundamental morphologies of non-iridescent nanostructures are known in feathers, and recent work has proposed that they self-assemble by intracellular phase separation processes. Here, we report a new biophotonic nanostructure in the non-iridescent blue feather barbs of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) composed of parallel β-keratin nanofibres organized into densely packed bundles. Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and two-dimensional Fourier analysis of electron micrographs of the barb nanostructure revealed short-range order in the organization of fibres at the appropriate size scale needed to produce the observed colour by coherent scattering. These two-dimensional quasi-ordered penguin nanostructures are convergent with similar arrays of parallel collagen fibres in avian and mammalian skin, but constitute a novel morphology for feathers. The identification of a new class of β-keratin nanostructures adds significantly to the known mechanisms of colour production in birds and suggests additional complexity in their self-assembly.

  10. Nonequilibrium Conditions Explain Spatial Variability in Genetic Structuring of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Valautham, Sureen K; Styan, Craig A; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for spatial structuring of population genetic variation are varied, and in many instances there may be no obvious explanations for genetic structuring observed, or those invoked may reflect spurious correlations. A study of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in southeast Australia documented low spatial structuring of genetic variation with the exception of colonies at the western limit of sampling, and this distinction was attributed to an intervening oceanographic feature (Bonney Upwelling), differences in breeding phenology, or sea level change. Here, we conducted sampling across the entire Australian range, employing additional markers (12 microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, 697 individuals, 17 colonies). The zone of elevated genetic structuring previously observed actually represents the eastern half of a genetic cline, within which structuring exists over much shorter spatial scales than elsewhere. Colonies separated by as little as 27 km in the zone are genetically distinguishable, while outside the zone, homogeneity cannot be rejected at scales of up to 1400 km. Given a lack of additional physical or environmental barriers to gene flow, the zone of elevated genetic structuring may reflect secondary contact of lineages (with or without selection against interbreeding), or recent colonization and expansion from this region. This study highlights the importance of sampling scale to reveal the cause of genetic structuring. © The American Genetic Association 2015.

  11. Nonequilibrium Conditions Explain Spatial Variability in Genetic Structuring of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

    PubMed Central

    Peucker, Amanda J.; Valautham, Sureen K.; Styan, Craig A.; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for spatial structuring of population genetic variation are varied, and in many instances there may be no obvious explanations for genetic structuring observed, or those invoked may reflect spurious correlations. A study of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in southeast Australia documented low spatial structuring of genetic variation with the exception of colonies at the western limit of sampling, and this distinction was attributed to an intervening oceanographic feature (Bonney Upwelling), differences in breeding phenology, or sea level change. Here, we conducted sampling across the entire Australian range, employing additional markers (12 microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, 697 individuals, 17 colonies). The zone of elevated genetic structuring previously observed actually represents the eastern half of a genetic cline, within which structuring exists over much shorter spatial scales than elsewhere. Colonies separated by as little as 27 km in the zone are genetically distinguishable, while outside the zone, homogeneity cannot be rejected at scales of up to 1400 km. Given a lack of additional physical or environmental barriers to gene flow, the zone of elevated genetic structuring may reflect secondary contact of lineages (with or without selection against interbreeding), or recent colonization and expansion from this region. This study highlights the importance of sampling scale to reveal the cause of genetic structuring. PMID:25833231

  12. An outbreak of avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare in little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Napier, Julia E; Hinrichs, Steven H; Lampen, Francois; Iwen, Peter C; Wickert, Robert S; Garrett, Jodi L; Aden, Tricia A; Restis, Eva; Curro, Thomas G; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium intracellulare (MIT) was diagnosed postmortem by culture and supporting histopathology in seven birds from a flock of little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) at the Henry Doorly Zoo (HDZ). These birds represented 20% of the deaths in the population over a 4 yr period. Clinical signs in affected birds included severe respiratory distress characterized by open-mouth breathing with chronic debilitation. On exam, plaques were noted in the larynx, trachea, and soft tissue of the caudal oropharynx. Index cases were identified on necropsy in two birds on loan to another institution in 2003. Following a case confirmed antemortem at the HDZ, a three-drug protocol of rifampin (15 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.), ethambutol (15 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.), and clarithromycin (10 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.) was started on this bird in 2004 and extended to the entire flock in 2005. Gastric wash, fecal samples, and throat plaques were obtained antemortem on five birds within the flock, selected because of the presence of oral plaques, and tested by culture followed by a polymerase chain reaction assay. MIT was detected in gastric washes from four birds and in throat plaques from all five. Three more birds died during treatment. After the seventh bird died, antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed in July 2007 indicated that the MIT was now resistant to most antibiotics tested, including rifampin and ethambutol. The treatment regimen was changed to minocycline (10 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (10 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d.). Oral plaques were not seen on monthly rechecks of the flock through November 2008. The proposed mechanism of transmission is exposure to wild birds but the source has not been determined. These cases of avian mycobacteriosis caused by MIT are the first known cases reported in little blue penguins.

  13. Seasonal variation and annual trends of metals and metalloids in the blood of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Orbell, John D; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Scarpaci, Carol

    2016-09-15

    Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) are high-trophic coastal feeders and are effective indicators of bioavailable pollutants in their foraging zones. Here, we present concentrations of metals and metalloids in blood of 157 Little Penguins, collected over three years and during three distinct seasons (breeding, moulting and non-breeding) at two locations: the urban St Kilda colony and the semi-rural colony at Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia. Penguin metal concentrations were foremostly influenced by location (St Kilda>Phillip Island for non-essential elements) and differed among years and seasons at both locations, reflecting differences in seasonal metal bioaccumulation or seasonal exposure through prey. Mean blood mercury concentrations showed an increasing annual trend and a negative correlation with flipper length at St Kilda. Notably, this study is the first to report on blood metal concentrations during the different stages of moult, showing the mechanism of non-essential metal mobilisation and detoxification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganendran, L B; Sidhu, L A; Catchpole, E A; Chambers, L E; Dann, P

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  15. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  16. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  17. Prior exposure to capture heightens the corticosterone and behavioural responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Turner, Emma; Dann, Peter; Harcourt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Studies of physiology can provide important insight into how animals are coping with challenges in their environment and can signal the potential effects of exposure to human activity in both the short and long term. In this study, we measured the physiological and behavioural response of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) that were naïve to human activity over 30 min of capture and handling. We assessed relationships between corticosterone secretion, behaviour, sex and time of day in order to characterize the determinants of the natural stress response. We then compared the response of these naïve penguins with the responses of female little penguins that had been exposed to research activity (bimonthly nest check and weighing) and to both research activity (monthly nest check and weighing) and evening viewing by tourists. We found that corticosterone concentrations increased significantly over 30 min of capture, with naïve penguins demonstrating a more acute stress response during the day than at night. Penguins that had previously been exposed to handling at the research and research/visitor sites showed elevated corticosterone concentrations and consistently more aggressive behaviour after 30 min compared with naïve birds, although there were no significant differences in baseline corticosterone concentrations. Our findings demonstrate that these little penguins have not habituated to routine capture, but rather mount a heightened physiological and behavioural response to handling by humans. Less invasive research monitoring techniques, such as individual identification with PIT tags and automatic recording and weighing, and a reduction in handling during the day should be considered to mitigate some of the potentially negative effects of disturbance. Given the paucity of data on the long-term consequences of heightened stress on animal physiology, our study highlights the need for further investigation of the relationship between the corticosterone

  18. Semivarying coefficient models for capture-recapture data: colony size estimation for the little penguin Eudyptula minor.

    PubMed

    Stoklosa, Jakub; Dann, Peter; Huggins, Richard

    2014-09-01

    To accommodate seasonal effects that change from year to year into models for the size of an open population we consider a time-varying coefficient model. We fit this model to a capture-recapture data set collected on the little penguin Eudyptula minor in south-eastern Australia over a 25 year period using Jolly-Seber type estimators and nonparametric P-spline techniques. The time-varying coefficient model identified strong changes in the seasonal pattern across the years which we further examined using functional data analysis techniques. To evaluate the methodology we also conducted several simulation studies that incorporate seasonal variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual variation and repeatability of corticosterone responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) sampled in two successive years at Oamaru, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F; Candy, E Jane; Barrett, D Paul; Agnew, Philippa; Potter, Murray A

    2017-04-01

    Plasma corticosterone concentrations increase when birds experience a stressor, and plasma corticosterone responses to a capture and handling stressor have been measured in many species of birds. Whilst it is assumed that the reported corticosterone responses reflect the inherent sensitivity of each bird to the stressor, responses of the same birds have rarely been measured at intervals of one or more years. The current study was conducted to measure the repeatability in two successive years of corticosterone responses of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) at Oamaru, New Zealand. There was a wide range of individual corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in 96 little penguins in 2012 and 50 penguins sampled at the same time of year in 2013. There were significant repeatabilities for the ranks of corticosterone at 15, 30 and 60min (r=0.416±0.160, r=0.636±0.115 and r=0.380±0.166 respectively) and for the ranks of integrated corticosterone responses (r=0.594±0.126) for 23 birds sampled in both years. There were no significant relationships between the size of corticosterone responses and age, body weight or condition index. Mean corticosterone concentrations at 60min were 114.22±6.65ng/ml in 2012 and 116.94±6.42ng/ml in 2013. Mean corticosterone responses did not differ between two successive years and were greater than responses of other penguin species. Penguins are well suited to long term studies in which corticosterone responses are measured annually as potential measures of changing marine environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extending the Functionality of Behavioural Change-Point Analysis with k-Means Clustering: A Case Study with the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Perry, George L W; Taylor, Graeme A; Dennis, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple framework for classifying mutually exclusive behavioural states within the geospatial lifelines of animals. This method involves use of three sequentially applied statistical procedures: (1) behavioural change point analysis to partition movement trajectories into discrete bouts of same-state behaviours, based on abrupt changes in the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of movement parameters; (2) hierarchical multivariate cluster analysis to determine the number of different behavioural states; and (3) k-means clustering to classify inferred bouts of same-state location observations into behavioural modes. We demonstrate application of the method by analysing synthetic trajectories of known 'artificial behaviours' comprised of different correlated random walks, as well as real foraging trajectories of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) obtained by global-positioning-system telemetry. Our results show that the modelling procedure correctly classified 92.5% of all individual location observations in the synthetic trajectories, demonstrating reasonable ability to successfully discriminate behavioural modes. Most individual little penguins were found to exhibit three unique behavioural states (resting, commuting/active searching, area-restricted foraging), with variation in the timing and locations of observations apparently related to ambient light, bathymetry, and proximity to coastlines and river mouths. Addition of k-means clustering extends the utility of behavioural change point analysis, by providing a simple means through which the behaviours inferred for the location observations comprising individual movement trajectories can be objectively classified.

  1. Extending the Functionality of Behavioural Change-Point Analysis with k-Means Clustering: A Case Study with the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing; Dennis, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple framework for classifying mutually exclusive behavioural states within the geospatial lifelines of animals. This method involves use of three sequentially applied statistical procedures: (1) behavioural change point analysis to partition movement trajectories into discrete bouts of same-state behaviours, based on abrupt changes in the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of movement parameters; (2) hierarchical multivariate cluster analysis to determine the number of different behavioural states; and (3) k-means clustering to classify inferred bouts of same-state location observations into behavioural modes. We demonstrate application of the method by analysing synthetic trajectories of known ‘artificial behaviours’ comprised of different correlated random walks, as well as real foraging trajectories of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) obtained by global-positioning-system telemetry. Our results show that the modelling procedure correctly classified 92.5% of all individual location observations in the synthetic trajectories, demonstrating reasonable ability to successfully discriminate behavioural modes. Most individual little penguins were found to exhibit three unique behavioural states (resting, commuting/active searching, area-restricted foraging), with variation in the timing and locations of observations apparently related to ambient light, bathymetry, and proximity to coastlines and river mouths. Addition of k-means clustering extends the utility of behavioural change point analysis, by providing a simple means through which the behaviours inferred for the location observations comprising individual movement trajectories can be objectively classified. PMID:25922935

  2. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia.

    PubMed

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Gallagher, Stephen J; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring 'giant penguins' after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia.

  3. New Miocene Fossils and the History of Penguins in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Tomkins, Ellyn; Allan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a fossil record of penguins reaching back to the Eocene, yet today is inhabited by just one breeding species, the little penguin Eudyptula minor. The description of recently collected penguin fossils from the re-dated upper Miocene Port Campbell Limestone of Portland (Victoria), in addition to reanalysis of previously described material, has allowed the Cenozoic history of penguins in Australia to be placed into a global context for the first time. Australian pre-Quaternary fossil penguins represent stem taxa phylogenetically disparate from each other and E. minor, implying multiple dispersals and extinctions. Late Eocene penguins from Australia are closest to contemporaneous taxa in Antarctica, New Zealand and South America. Given current material, the Miocene Australian fossil penguin fauna is apparently unique in harbouring ‘giant penguins’ after they went extinct elsewhere; and including stem taxa until at least 6 Ma, by which time crown penguins dominated elsewhere in the southern hemisphere. Separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Palaeogene, and its subsequent drift north, appears to have been a major event in Australian penguin biogeography. Increasing isolation through the Cenozoic may have limited penguin dispersal to Australia from outside the Australasian region, until intensification of the eastwards-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the mid-Miocene established a potential new dispersal vector to Australia. PMID:27115739

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Labuschagne, Christiaan; Kotzé, Antoinette; Grobler, J Paul; Dalton, Desiré L

    2014-01-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was sequenced. The molecule was sequenced via next generation sequencing and primer walking. The size of the genome is 17,346 bp in length. Comparison with the mitochondrial DNA of two other penguin genomes that have so far been reported was conducted namely; Little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) and the Rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). This analysis made it possible to identify common penguin mitochondrial DNA characteristics. The S. demersus mtDNA genome is very similar, both in composition and length to both the E. chrysocome and E. minor genomes. The gene content of the African penguin mitochondrial genome is typical of vertebrates and all three penguin species have the standard gene order originally identified in the chicken. The control region for S. demersus is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe and all three species of penguins contain two sets of similar repeats with varying copy numbers towards the 3' end of the control region, accounting for the size variance. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence for the mitochondrial genome of the African penguin, S. demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula.

  6. Biological plasticity in penguin heat-retention structures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2012-02-01

    Insulation and vascular heat-retention mechanisms allow penguins to forage for a prolonged time in water that is much cooler than core body temperature. Wing-based heat retention involves a plexus of humeral arteries and veins, which redirect heat to the body core rather than to the wing periphery. The humeral arterial plexus is described here for Eudyptes and Megadyptes, the only extant penguin genera for which wing vascular anatomy had not previously been reported. The erect-crested (Eudyptes sclateri) and yellow-eyed (Megadyptes antipodes) penguins both have a plexus of three humeral arteries on the ventral surface of the humerus. The wing vascular system shows little variation between erect-crested and yellow-eyed penguins, and is generally conserved across the six extant genera of penguins, with the exception of the humeral arterial plexus. The number of humeral arteries within the plexus demonstrates substantial variation and correlates well with wing surface area. Little penguins (Eudyptula minor) have two humeral arteries and a wing surface area of ∼ 75 cm(2) , whereas emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) have up to 15 humeral arteries and a wing surface area of ∼ 203 cm(2) . Further, the number of humeral arteries has a stronger correlation with wing surface area than with sea water temperature. We propose that thermoregulation has placed the humeral arterial plexus under a strong selection pressure, driving penguins with larger wing surface areas to compensate for heat loss by developing additional humeral arteries.

  7. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference.

  8. Influence of Fasting during Moult on the Faecal Microbiota of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Meagan L.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference. PMID:24979619

  9. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  10. Invader or resident? Ancient-DNA reveals rapid species turnover in New Zealand little penguins.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Stefanie; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Anderson, Christian N K; Smith, Ian W G; Scofield, R Paul; Waters, Jonathan M

    2016-02-10

    The expansion of humans into previously unoccupied parts of the globe is thought to have driven the decline and extinction of numerous vertebrate species. In New Zealand, human settlement in the late thirteenth century AD led to the rapid demise of a distinctive vertebrate fauna, and also a number of 'turnover' events where extinct lineages were subsequently replaced by closely related taxa. The recent genetic detection of an Australian little penguin (Eudyptula novaehollandiae) in southeastern New Zealand may potentially represent an additional 'cryptic' invasion. Here we use ancient-DNA (aDNA) analysis and radiocarbon dating of pre-human, archaeological and historical Eudyptula remains to reveal that the arrival of E. novaehollandiae in New Zealand probably occurred between AD 1500 and 1900, following the anthropogenic decline of its sister taxon, the endemic Eudyptula minor. This rapid turnover event, revealed by aDNA, suggests that native species decline can be masked by invasive taxa, and highlights the potential for human-mediated biodiversity shifts.

  11. Invader or resident? Ancient-DNA reveals rapid species turnover in New Zealand little penguins

    PubMed Central

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Anderson, Christian N. K.; Smith, Ian W. G.; Scofield, R. Paul; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of humans into previously unoccupied parts of the globe is thought to have driven the decline and extinction of numerous vertebrate species. In New Zealand, human settlement in the late thirteenth century AD led to the rapid demise of a distinctive vertebrate fauna, and also a number of 'turnover' events where extinct lineages were subsequently replaced by closely related taxa. The recent genetic detection of an Australian little penguin (Eudyptula novaehollandiae) in southeastern New Zealand may potentially represent an additional ‘cryptic’ invasion. Here we use ancient-DNA (aDNA) analysis and radiocarbon dating of pre-human, archaeological and historical Eudyptula remains to reveal that the arrival of E. novaehollandiae in New Zealand probably occurred between AD 1500 and 1900, following the anthropogenic decline of its sister taxon, the endemic Eudyptula minor. This rapid turnover event, revealed by aDNA, suggests that native species decline can be masked by invasive taxa, and highlights the potential for human-mediated biodiversity shifts. PMID:26842575

  12. Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Chiaradia, André; Wasiak, Paula; Renwick, Leanne; Dann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night

  13. Impact of small-scale environmental perturbations on local marine food resources: a case study of a predator, the little penguin.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Kato, Akiko; Chiaradia, André

    2009-12-07

    Although the impact of environmental changes on the demographic parameters of top predators is well established, the mechanisms by which populations are affected remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a reduction in the thermal stratification of coastal water masses between 2005 and 2006 was associated with reduced foraging and breeding success of little penguins Eudyptula minor, major bio-indicators of the Bass Strait ecosystem in southern Australia. The foraging patterns of the penguins suggest that their prey disperse widely in poorly stratified waters, leading to reduced foraging efficiency and poor breeding success. Mixed water regimes resulting from storms are currently unusual during the breeding period of these birds, but are expected to become more frequent due to climate change.

  14. Carry-over body mass effect from winter to breeding in a resident seabird, the little penguin.

    PubMed

    Salton, Marcus; Saraux, Claire; Dann, Peter; Chiaradia, André

    2015-01-01

    Using body mass and breeding data of individual penguins collected continuously over 7 years (2002-2008), we examined carry-over effects of winter body mass on timing of laying and breeding success in a resident seabird, the little penguin (Eudyptula minor). The austral winter month of July consistently had the lowest rate of colony attendance, which confirmed our expectation that penguins work hard to find resources at this time between breeding seasons. Contrary to our expectation, body mass in winter (July) was equal or higher than in the period before ('moult-recovery') and after ('pre-breeding') in 5 of 7 years for males and in all 7 years for females. We provided evidence of a carry-over effect of body mass from winter to breeding; females and males with higher body mass in winter were more likely to breed early and males with higher body mass in winter were likely to breed successfully. Sex differences might relate to sex-specific breeding tasks, where females may use their winter reserves to invest in egg-laying, whereas males use their winter reserves to sustain the longer fasts ashore during courtship. Our findings suggest that resident seabirds like little penguins can also benefit from a carry-over effect of winter body mass on subsequent breeding.

  15. Carry-over body mass effect from winter to breeding in a resident seabird, the little penguin

    PubMed Central

    Salton, Marcus; Saraux, Claire; Dann, Peter; Chiaradia, André

    2015-01-01

    Using body mass and breeding data of individual penguins collected continuously over 7 years (2002–2008), we examined carry-over effects of winter body mass on timing of laying and breeding success in a resident seabird, the little penguin (Eudyptula minor). The austral winter month of July consistently had the lowest rate of colony attendance, which confirmed our expectation that penguins work hard to find resources at this time between breeding seasons. Contrary to our expectation, body mass in winter (July) was equal or higher than in the period before (‘moult-recovery’) and after (‘pre-breeding’) in 5 of 7 years for males and in all 7 years for females. We provided evidence of a carry-over effect of body mass from winter to breeding; females and males with higher body mass in winter were more likely to breed early and males with higher body mass in winter were likely to breed successfully. Sex differences might relate to sex-specific breeding tasks, where females may use their winter reserves to invest in egg-laying, whereas males use their winter reserves to sustain the longer fasts ashore during courtship. Our findings suggest that resident seabirds like little penguins can also benefit from a carry-over effect of winter body mass on subsequent breeding. PMID:26064587

  16. At-sea associations in foraging little penguins.

    PubMed

    Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P Y

    2014-01-01

    Prey distribution, patch size, and the presence of conspecifics are important factors influencing a predator's feeding tactics, including the decision to feed individually or socially. Little is known about group behaviour in seabirds as they spend most of their lives in the marine environment where it is difficult to observe their foraging activities. In this study, we report on at-sea foraging associations of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) during the breeding season. Individuals could be categorised as (1) not associating; (2) associating when departing from and/or returning to the colony; or (3) at sea when travelling, diving or performing synchronised dives. Out of 84 separate foraging tracks, 58 (69.0%) involved associations with conspecifics. Furthermore, in a total of 39 (46.4%), individuals were found to dive during association and in 32 (38.1%), individuals were found to exhibit synchronous diving. These behaviours suggest little penguins forage in groups, could synchronise their underwater movements and potentially cooperate to concentrate their small schooling prey.

  17. Corticosterone stress hormone responses in oil rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated little penguins.

    PubMed

    Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, G; Candy, E J; Sriram, A; Morgan, K J; Cockrem, J F

    2016-12-15

    Whether oiled wildlife should be rehabilitated during an oil spill is internationally debated. Research on little penguins (LP, Eudyptula minor) rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment after the New Zealand C/V Rena grounding oil spill in 2011 found the rehabilitation process was effective at treating and reversing the negative effects of oil-contamination on penguin post-release survival, productivity and diving behaviour. Here we investigated the acute corticosterone stress response of LPs to determine if responses of rehabilitated birds differed from those of "control" birds. Corticosterone responses of LPs two years after an oil spill did not differ between rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated penguins. These results show that the rehabilitation process for LP did not affect their long-term physiological responses to humans. This indicates that wildlife can be rehabilitated and returned to the wild with similar human tolerance levels to non-rehabilitated birds and an absence of habituation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Competition for food resources can result in spatial and dietary segregation among individuals from the same species. Few studies have looked at such segregations with the combined effect of sex and age in species with short foraging ranges. In this study we examined the 3D spatial use of the environment in a species with a limited foraging area. We equipped 26 little penguins (Eudyptula minor) of known age, sex, and breeding output with GPS (location) and accelerometer (body acceleration and dive depth) loggers. We obtained dietary niche information from the isotopic analysis of blood tissue. We controlled for confounding factors of foraging trip length and food availability by sampling adults at guard stage when parents usually make one-day trips. We observed a spatial segregation between old (>11 years old) and middle-aged penguins (between 5 and 11 years old) in the foraging area. Old penguins foraged closer to the shore, in shallower water. Despite observing age-specific spatial segregation, we found no differences in the diving effort and foraging efficiency between age classes and sexes. Birds appeared to target similar prey types, but showed age-specific variation in their isotopic niche width. We hypothesize that this age-specific segregation was primarily determined by a "cohort effect" that would lead individuals sharing a common life history (i.e. having fledged and dispersed around the same age) to forage preferentially together or to share similar foraging limitations.

  19. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics.

  20. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Grace J.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics. PMID:26674073

  1. Penguin Olympics!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how a second grade science unit on penguins became the ideal content to integrate with the physical education curriculum. The movement experiences reinforced the information students learned about penguins and helped students to gain a deeper understanding of penguin behaviors. Together, the physical education teacher and the…

  2. Penguin Olympics!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how a second grade science unit on penguins became the ideal content to integrate with the physical education curriculum. The movement experiences reinforced the information students learned about penguins and helped students to gain a deeper understanding of penguin behaviors. Together, the physical education teacher and the…

  3. Penguin Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  4. Penguin Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  5. Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how Little Penguins maintain body reserves while feeding offspring.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Robinson-Laverick, Sarah M; Le Maho, Yvon; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Chiaradia, André

    2011-10-01

    Breeding animals face important time and energy constraints when caring for themselves and their offspring. For long-lived species, life-history theory predicts that parents should favor survival over current reproductive attempts, thus investing more into their own maintenance than the provisioning of their young. In seabirds, provisioning strategies may additionally be influenced by the distance between breeding sites and foraging areas, and offshore and inshore species should thus exhibit different strategies. Here, we examine the provisioning strategies of an inshore seabird using a long-term data set on more than 200 Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor. They alternated between two consecutive long and several short foraging trips all along chick rearing, a strategy almost never observed for inshore animals. Short trips allowed for regular provisioning of the chicks (high feeding frequency and larger meals), whereas long trips were performed when parent body mass was low and enabled them to rebuild their reserves, suggesting that adult body condition may be a key factor in initiating long trips. Inshore seabirds do use dual strategies of alternating short and long trips, but from our data, on a simpler and less flexible way than for offshore birds.

  6. Departure time influences foraging associations in little penguins.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P Y

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have documented that little penguins (Eudyptula minor) associate at sea, displaying synchronised diving behaviour throughout a foraging trip. However, previous observations were limited to a single foraging trip where only a small number of individuals were simultaneously tracked. Consequently, it is not known whether coordinated behaviour is consistent over time, or what factors influence it. In the present study, breeding adults were concurrently instrumented with GPS and dive behaviour data loggers for at least 2 consecutive foraging trips during guard and post-guard stage at two breeding colonies (London Bridge and Gabo Island, south-eastern Australia) of contrasting population size (approximately 100 and 30,000-40,000, respectively). At both colonies, individuals were sampled in areas of comparable nesting density and spatial area. At London Bridge, where individuals use a short (23 m) common pathway from their nests to the shoreline, > 90% (n = 42) of birds displayed foraging associations and 53-60% (n = 20) maintained temporally consistent associations with the same conspecifics. Neither intrinsic (sex, size or body condition) nor extrinsic (nest proximity) factors were found to influence foraging associations. However, individuals that departed from the colony at a similar time were more likely to associate during a foraging trip. At Gabo Island, where individuals use a longer (116 m) pathway with numerous tributaries to reach the shoreline, few individuals (< 31%; n = 13) from neighbouring nests associated at sea and only 1% (n = 1) maintained associations over subsequent trips. However, data from animal-borne video cameras indicated individuals at this colony displayed foraging associations of similar group size to those at London Bridge. This study reveals that group foraging behaviour occurs at multiple colonies and the pathways these individuals traverse with conspecifics may facilitate opportunistic group formation and resulting in

  7. How do different data logger sizes and attachment positions affect the diving behaviour of little penguins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Knott, Nathan; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko

    2007-02-01

    It is crucial in any bio-logging study to establish the potential effect that attachment of loggers may have on the animal. This ensures that the behaviour monitored by the loggers has a biological relevance, as well as for ethical reasons. Evaluation of the effects of externally attached loggers shows that they increase the drag of swimming animals and increase their energy expenditure. Nevertheless, little research has been done on the effects of size or position of such loggers. In this study, we tested whether the size (i.e. large: 4.9% versus small: 3.4% of the bird's frontal area) or the place of attachment (middle versus lower back) affected the diving behaviour of male and female little penguins ( Eudyptula minor). The positioning of the data logger on the middle or lower section of little penguins' back had little, if no effect, on the diving variables measured in this study. Size of the loggers, however, had strong effects. Birds with large loggers made shorter dives and reached shallower depths than those with small loggers. In addition, birds with large loggers made more dives probably to compensate for the extra cost of carrying a large logger. The measured variables also differed between the sexes, with males diving deeper and longer than females. Logger size had a sex-specific effect on the trip duration and descent speed, with males equipped with large loggers staying longer at sea than those with small loggers, and females with large loggers descending faster than those with small loggers. From our results, it appears that effects of logger position do not exist or are very small in comparison with the effects of logger size. The results of the current study indicate that the effects of size of loggers be evaluated more commonly in bio-logging research into the diving activity of free-ranging birds.

  8. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  9. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  10. Phylogeographic Structure in Penguin Ticks across an Ocean Basin Indicates Allopatric Divergence and Rare Trans-Oceanic Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katherine L; Banks, Sam C; Fraser, Ceridwen I

    2015-01-01

    The association of ticks (Acarina) and seabirds provides an intriguing system for assessing the influence of long-distance dispersal on the evolution of parasitic species. Recent research has focused on host-parasite evolutionary relationships and dispersal capacity of ticks parasitising flighted seabirds. Evolutionary research on the ticks of non-flighted seabirds is, in contrast, scarce. We conducted the first phylogeographic investigation of a hard tick species (Ixodes eudyptidis) that parasitises the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor). Using one nuclear (28S) and two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) markers, we assessed genetic diversity among several populations in Australia and a single population on the South Island of New Zealand. Our results reveal two deeply divergent lineages, possibly representing different species: one comprising all New Zealand samples and some from Australia, and the other representing all other samples from Australian sites. No significant population differentiation was observed among any Australian sites from within each major clade, even those separated by hundreds of kilometres of coastline. In contrast, the New Zealand population was significantly different to all samples from Australia. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the New Zealand and Australian populations are effectively isolated from each other; although rare long-distance dispersal events must occur, these are insufficient to maintain trans-Tasman gene flow. Despite the evidence for limited dispersal of penguin ticks between Australia and New Zealand, we found no evidence to suggest that ticks are unable to disperse shorter distances at sea with their hosts, with no pattern of population differentiation found among Australian sites. Our results suggest that terrestrial seabird parasites may be quite capable of short-distance movements, but only sporadic longer-distance (trans-oceanic) dispersal.

  11. Phylogeographic Structure in Penguin Ticks across an Ocean Basin Indicates Allopatric Divergence and Rare Trans-Oceanic Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine L.; Banks, Sam C.; Fraser, Ceridwen I.

    2015-01-01

    The association of ticks (Acarina) and seabirds provides an intriguing system for assessing the influence of long-distance dispersal on the evolution of parasitic species. Recent research has focused on host-parasite evolutionary relationships and dispersal capacity of ticks parasitising flighted seabirds. Evolutionary research on the ticks of non-flighted seabirds is, in contrast, scarce. We conducted the first phylogeographic investigation of a hard tick species (Ixodes eudyptidis) that parasitises the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor). Using one nuclear (28S) and two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) markers, we assessed genetic diversity among several populations in Australia and a single population on the South Island of New Zealand. Our results reveal two deeply divergent lineages, possibly representing different species: one comprising all New Zealand samples and some from Australia, and the other representing all other samples from Australian sites. No significant population differentiation was observed among any Australian sites from within each major clade, even those separated by hundreds of kilometres of coastline. In contrast, the New Zealand population was significantly different to all samples from Australia. Our phylogenetic results suggest that the New Zealand and Australian populations are effectively isolated from each other; although rare long-distance dispersal events must occur, these are insufficient to maintain trans-Tasman gene flow. Despite the evidence for limited dispersal of penguin ticks between Australia and New Zealand, we found no evidence to suggest that ticks are unable to disperse shorter distances at sea with their hosts, with no pattern of population differentiation found among Australian sites. Our results suggest that terrestrial seabird parasites may be quite capable of short-distance movements, but only sporadic longer-distance (trans-oceanic) dispersal. PMID:26083353

  12. Relics: penguin population programs.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Xie, Z

    2001-01-01

    What has been responsible for the increase in Chinstrap penguin populations during the past 40 years in maritime Antarctica? One view ascribes it to an increase in availability of their prey brought on by the decrease in baleen whale stocks. The contrary opinion, attributes it to environmental warming. This causes a gradual decrease in the frequency of cold years with extensive winter sea ice cover. A number of penguin monitoring programs are in progress and are expected to provide some answers to these questions. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic change since penguins are easily accessible predators of krill and the feeding range of the penguins has almost overlapped with the krill fishery in time and space in the last four decades. Therefore it is important to reconstruct the change of ancient penguin abundance and distribution in the absence of human activity. Many efforts have focused on surveying the abandoned penguin rookeries, but this method has not been able to give a continuous historical record of penguin populations. In several recent studies, ancient penguin excreta was scooped from the penguin relics in the sediments of the lake on penguin rookery, Ardley Island, maritime Antarctica. In these studies, penguin droppings or guano soil deposited in the lake and changes in sediment geochemistry have been used to calculate penguin population changes based upon the geochemical composition of the sediment core. The results suggest that climate change has a significant impact on penguin populations.

  13. Strolling Penguin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Members of the IceBridge team visited a colony of Magellanic penguins near Punta Arenas on a no-flight day. Credit: NASA/ Maria-Jose Vinas NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Penguin Beach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Members of the IceBridge team visited a colony of Magellanic penguins near Punta Arenas on a no-flight day. Credit: NASA/ Maria-Jose Vinas NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  16. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species

    PubMed Central

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P.; Peucker, Amanda J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region’s coastal ecosystem. PMID:26675310

  17. Modeling huddling penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, Francois; Waters, Aaron; Kim, Arnold

    2012-11-01

    We present a model of the behavior of huddling penguins. We focus on the densest huddles, formed during storms, where penguins may be considered to leave no openings in the interior of the huddle. We compute a temperature distribution around the huddle, accounting for the effects of the wind. The dynamics of the huddle are based on an iterative process where the most exposed penguin relocates to the most sheltered location available. We study the effects of wind strength, number of penguins, and random perturbations. We find that our model produces huddles that agree qualitatively with actual huddles in terms of shape and downwind displacement. Moreover, the exposure to the wind appears to be shared nearly equally among penguins, despite the fact that our model assumes only that each penguin aims to minimize its own heat loss.

  18. Modeling huddling penguins.

    PubMed

    Waters, Aaron; Blanchette, François; Kim, Arnold D

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic and quantitative model of huddling penguins. In this mathematical model, each individual penguin in the huddle seeks only to reduce its own heat loss. Consequently, penguins on the boundary of the huddle that are most exposed to the wind move downwind to more sheltered locations along the boundary. In contrast, penguins in the interior of the huddle neither have the space to move nor experience a significant heat loss, and they therefore remain stationary. Through these individual movements, the entire huddle experiences a robust cumulative effect that we identify, describe, and quantify. This mathematical model requires a calculation of the wind flowing around the huddle and of the resulting temperature distribution. Both of these must be recomputed each time an individual penguin moves since the huddle shape changes. Using our simulation results, we find that the key parameters affecting the huddle dynamics are the number of penguins in the huddle, the wind strength, and the amount of uncertainty in the movement of the penguins. Moreover, we find that the lone assumption of individual penguins minimizing their own heat loss results in all penguins having approximately equal access to the warmth of the huddle.

  19. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  20. Workshop 2 - Penguin Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Trina

    2012-10-01

    Energy conservation is on everyone's mind these days. But just where does it go and what is its source? Here's another toy that will help us trace electrical energy to kinetic energy as the penguins march on.

  1. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  2. Electroweak penguins at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jibo; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are flavour-changing neutral current processes, and are highly suppressed in the Standard Model. They can only proceed via loop diagrams. Such decays may receive contributions from New Physics and change their decay behaviours like decay rate and angular distribution. Studying the properties of these decays thus provides a powerful method to probe for New Physics. In this contribution the most recent LHCb results on electroweak penguin decays are reported.

  3. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  4. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  5. Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.

    PubMed

    Grilo, M L; Vanstreels, R E T; Wallace, R; García-Párraga, D; Braga, É M; Chitty, J; Catão-Dias, J L; Madeira de Carvalho, L M

    2016-08-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however, its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of avian malaria, and provides details on the strategies that can be employed for the diagnostic, treatment and prevention of this disease in captive penguins, discussing possible directions for future research.

  6. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  7. Make a Splash with Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Helen

    1989-01-01

    Several across-the-curriculum activities, with a penguin theme, are described. Research, discussion, science, writing, math, and art activities are listed. Included is a list of resources which gives sources for books and posters. (IAH)

  8. Make a Splash with Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Helen

    1989-01-01

    Several across-the-curriculum activities, with a penguin theme, are described. Research, discussion, science, writing, math, and art activities are listed. Included is a list of resources which gives sources for books and posters. (IAH)

  9. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  10. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  11. Isolation and characterization of macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) microsatellite loci and their utility in other penguin species (Spheniscidae, AVES).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sophia; Hart, Tom; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Trathan, Philip N; Rogers, Alex D

    2009-11-01

    We report the characterization of 25 microsatellite loci isolated from the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus). Thirteen loci were arranged into four multiplex sets for future genetic studies of macaroni penguin populations. All 25 loci were tested separately in each of four other penguin species [Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica), gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)]. Between eight and 12 loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are expected to be useful for studies of population genetic structure in a range of penguin species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  13. Radiative b to d Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtle, P.; /SLAC

    2007-06-13

    This article gives an overview of the recent searches and measurements of b {yields} d penguin transitions with the BaBar experiment. The branching fraction of these decays in the Standard Model (SM) is expected to be a factor of 10 or more lower than the corresponding b {yields} s penguin transitions, but a deviation from the SM prediction would be an equally striking sign of new physics. The exclusive decay B {yields} {pi}{ell}{ell} is searched by BaBar with no excess over the background found. The BaBar measurement of B {yields} ({rho}, {omega}){gamma} provides the first evidence of B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma}, {sup c} is in good agreement with the previous Belle results and provides a measurement of |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}| independent of the one from Bs mixing. No deviation from the SM is found.

  14. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  15. Evidence for a recent origin of penguins.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sankar; Beans-Picón, Gabrielle; Swaminathan, Siva K; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are a remarkable group of birds, with the 18 extant species living in diverse climatic zones from the tropics to Antarctica. The timing of the origin of these extant penguins remains controversial. Previous studies based on DNA sequences and fossil records have suggested widely differing times for the origin of the group. This has given rise to widely differing biogeographic narratives about their evolution. To resolve this problem, we sequenced five introns from 11 species representing all genera of living penguins. Using these data and other available DNA sequences, together with the ages of multiple penguin fossils to calibrate the molecular clock, we estimated the age of the most recent common ancestor of extant penguins to be 20.4 Myr (17.0-23.8 Myr). This time is half of the previous estimates based on molecular sequence data. Our results suggest that most of the major groups of extant penguins diverged 11-16 Ma. This overlaps with the sharp decline in Antarctic temperatures that began approximately 12 Ma, suggesting a possible relationship between climate change and penguin evolution.

  16. Evidence for a recent origin of penguins

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Beans-Picón, Gabrielle; Swaminathan, Siva K.; Millar, Craig D.; Lambert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are a remarkable group of birds, with the 18 extant species living in diverse climatic zones from the tropics to Antarctica. The timing of the origin of these extant penguins remains controversial. Previous studies based on DNA sequences and fossil records have suggested widely differing times for the origin of the group. This has given rise to widely differing biogeographic narratives about their evolution. To resolve this problem, we sequenced five introns from 11 species representing all genera of living penguins. Using these data and other available DNA sequences, together with the ages of multiple penguin fossils to calibrate the molecular clock, we estimated the age of the most recent common ancestor of extant penguins to be 20.4 Myr (17.0–23.8 Myr). This time is half of the previous estimates based on molecular sequence data. Our results suggest that most of the major groups of extant penguins diverged 11–16 Ma. This overlaps with the sharp decline in Antarctic temperatures that began approximately 12 Ma, suggesting a possible relationship between climate change and penguin evolution. PMID:24227045

  17. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  18. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  19. Mercury levels in feathers of Magellanic penguins.

    PubMed

    Frias, Jorgelina E; Gil, Mónica N; Esteves, José L; García Borboroglu, Pablo; Kane, Olivia J; Smith, Jeff R; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-06-01

    Feathers are useful to determine mercury (Hg) contamination. We evaluated the mercury concentration in feathers of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) age 1.5 years to 25 years at Punta Tombo, Argentina before and during their molt. Mercury ranged between <1.4 and 367 ng/g dry weight, with three extreme high values (8996 ng/g, 3011 ng/g and 1340 ng/g) all in young adults. The median concentration was lowest for juveniles and significantly higher for adults but with high variation among older adults. Males and females had similar mercury loads. Compared with other penguin species, concentrations in Magellanic penguins were low. Mercury levels for Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic for older adults averaged 206±98 ng/g, and serve as a baseline for biomonitoring and/or ecotoxicological studies.

  20. Wakata wearing Penguin-3 suit in JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-12

    ISS020-E-019078 (12 July 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, is pictured wearing the Penguin-3 antigravity pressure/stress suit in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, HyoJung

    2010-02-01

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb-1 containing 657 millions BB¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for pododermatitis in penguins.

    PubMed

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Fernandes, Loriê Tukamoto; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Dutra, Gustavo Henrique Pereira; Nascimento, Cristiane Lassálvia

    2014-01-01

    Pododermatitis is currently one of most frequent and important clinical complications in seabirds kept in captivity or in rehabilitation centers. In this study, five Magellanic penguins with previous pododermatitis lesions on their footpad were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). All PDT treated lesions successfully regressed and no recurrence was observed during the 6-month follow-up period. PDT seems to be an inexpensive and effective alternative treatment for pododermatitis in Magellanic penguins encouraging further research on this topic.

  3. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  4. Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Pinho-da-Silva-Filho, Rodolfo; Corrado-Adornes, Andréa; Conte-Sena, Daniella; Velozo, Raquel; Myiaji-Kolesnikovas, Cristiane; Dutra, Gustavo; Maracini, Pryscilla; Carvalho-do-Nascimento, Cláudia; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir; Barbosa, Lupércio; Serra, Sheila

    2010-10-01

    Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000 km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins.

  5. Cholangiocarcinoma with metastasis in a captive Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Renner, M S; Zaias, J; Bossart, G D

    2001-09-01

    A captive male Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), wild caught in 1976, died unexpectedly. Necropsy revealed cholangiocarcinoma with metastases to lung, pancreas, mesentery, and cloaca, the first known case of a penguin hepatic tumor.

  6. Ice Formation Delay on Penguin Feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadehbirjandi, Elaheh; Tavakoli-Dastjerdi, Faryar; St. Leger, Judy; Davis, Stephen H.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic penguins reside in a harsh environment where air temperature may reach -40 °C with wind speed of 40 m/s and water temperature remains around -2.2 °C. Penguins are constantly in and out of the water and splashed by waves, yet even in sub-freezing conditions, the formation of macroscopic ice is not observed on their feathers. Bird feathers are naturally hydrophobic; however, penguins have an additional hydrophobic coating on their feathers to reinforce their non-wetting properties. This coating consists of preen oil which is applied to the feathers from the gland near the base of the tail. The combination of the feather's hydrophobicity and surface texture is known to increase the contact angle of water drops on penguin feathers to over 140 ° and classify them as superhydrophobic. We here develop an in-depth analysis of ice formation mechanism on superhydrophobic surfaces through careful experimentations and development of a theory to address how ice formation is delayed on these surfaces. Furthermore, we investigate the anti-icing properties of warm and cold weather penguins with and without preen oil to further design a surface minimizing the frost formation which is of practical interest especially in aircraft industry.

  7. Hypoxemic and ischemic tolerance in emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savin, T; St Leger, J; Ponganis, P J

    2010-06-01

    Oxygen store depletion and a diving bradycardia in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) expose tissues to critical levels of hypoxemia and ischemia. To assess the prevention of re-perfusion injury and reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage in emperor penguins, superoxide radical production, lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), and antioxidant enzyme activity profiles in biopsy samples from muscle and liver were determined and compared to those in the chicken and 8 species of flighted marine birds (non-divers and plunge divers). In muscle of emperor penguins, superoxide production and TBARS levels were not distinctly different from those in the other species; among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly elevated above all species. In the liver of emperor penguins, TBARS levels were not significantly different from other species; only CAT activity was significantly elevated, although GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were 2-3 times higher than those in other species. The potential for ROS formation and lipid peroxidation is not reduced in the pectoral muscle or liver of the emperor penguin. Scavenging of hydrogen peroxide by CAT and the conjugation of glutathione with reactive intermediates and peroxides by GST and GPX appear to be important in the prevention of ROS damage and re-perfusion injury in these birds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  9. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds.

  10. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  11. A remote sensing analysis of Adelie penguin rookeries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Olson, Charles E., Jr.; Ma, Zhenqui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Dahmer, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) makes up the vast majority of bird biomass in the Antarctic. As a major consumer of krill, these birds play an important role in the Antarctic food web, and they have been proposed as an indicator species of the vitality of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. This study explores the terrestrial habitat of the Adelie penguin as a target for remote sensing reconnaissance. Laboratory and ground-level reflectance measurements of Antarctic materials found in and around penguin rookeries were examined in detail. These analyses suggested data transformations which helped separate penguin rookeries from surrounding areas in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The physical extent of penguin rookeries on Ross and Beaufort Islands, Antarctic, was estimated from the satellite data and compared to published estimates of penguin populations. The results suggest that TM imagery may be used to identify previously undiscovered penguin rookeries, and the imagery may provide a means of developing new population estimation methods for Antarctic ornithology.

  12. A remote sensing analysis of Adelie penguin rookeries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Olson, Charles E., Jr.; Ma, Zhenqui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Dahmer, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) makes up the vast majority of bird biomass in the Antarctic. As a major consumer of krill, these birds play an important role in the Antarctic food web, and they have been proposed as an indicator species of the vitality of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. This study explores the terrestrial habitat of the Adelie penguin as a target for remote sensing reconnaissance. Laboratory and ground-level reflectance measurements of Antarctic materials found in and around penguin rookeries were examined in detail. These analyses suggested data transformations which helped separate penguin rookeries from surrounding areas in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The physical extent of penguin rookeries on Ross and Beaufort Islands, Antarctic, was estimated from the satellite data and compared to published estimates of penguin populations. The results suggest that TM imagery may be used to identify previously undiscovered penguin rookeries, and the imagery may provide a means of developing new population estimation methods for Antarctic ornithology.

  13. Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Hyo Jung

    2010-02-10

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb{sup -1} containing 657 millions BB-bar pairs collected at the UPSILON(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  14. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  15. STUDIES OF RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS AT BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, C

    2003-10-27

    The electromagnetic radiative ''penguin'' decays b {yields} s{gamma}, b {yields} d{gamma} are sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. The authors present recent studies made with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring.

  16. Expedition 36 crew in Penguin suit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-15

    NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy (left), Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg and European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano (right), all Expedition 36 flight engineers, pose for a portrait in their "Penguin" suits in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. Also sent as Twitter message.

  17. Thermoregulation, gas exchange, and ventilation in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Chappell, M A; Souza, S L

    1988-01-01

    Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) experience a wide range of ambient temperatures (Ta) in their natural habitat. We examined body temperature (Tb), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), evaporative water loss (mH2O), and ventilation at Ta from -20 to 30 degrees C. Body temperature did not change significantly between -20 and 20 degrees C (mean Tb = 39.3 degrees C). Tb increased slightly to 40.1 degrees C at Ta = 30 degrees C. Both VO2 and VCO2 were constant and minimal at Ta between -10 and 20 degrees C, with only minor increases at -20 and 30 degrees C. The minimal VO2 of adult penguins (mean mass 4.007 kg) was 0.0112 ml/[g.min], equivalent to a metabolic heat production (MHP) of 14.9 Watt. The respiratory exchange ratio was approximately 0.7 at all Ta. Values of mH2O were low at low Ta, but increased to 0.21 g/min at 30 degrees C, equivalent to 0.3% of body mass/h. Dry conductance increased 3.5-fold between -20 and 30 degrees C. Evaporative heat loss (EHL) comprised about 5% of MHP at low Ta, rising to 47% of MHP at Ta = 30 degrees C. The means of ventilation parameters (tidal volume [VT], respiration frequency [f], minute volume [VI], and oxygen extraction [EO2]) were fairly stable between -20 and 10 degrees C (VT did not change significantly over the entire Ta range). However, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variation in ventilation patterns. At Ta = 20-30 degrees C, f increased 7-fold over the minimal value of 7.6 breaths/min, and VI showed a similar change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  19. Trapping penguins with entangled B mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadisman, Ryan; Gardner, Susan; Yan, Xinshuai

    2016-03-01

    The first direct observation of time-reversal (T) violation in the B B ‾ system has been reported by the BaBar Collaboration, employing the method of Bañuls and Bernabéu. Given this, we generalize their analysis of the time-dependent T-violating asymmetry (AT) to consider different choices of CP tags for which the dominant amplitudes have the same weak phase. As one application, we find that it is possible to measure departures from the universality of sin ⁡ (2 β) directly. If sin ⁡ (2 β) is universal, as in the Standard Model, the method permits the direct determination of penguin effects in these channels. Our method, although no longer a strict test of T, can yield tests of the sin ⁡ (2 β) universality, or, alternatively, of penguin effects, of much improved precision even with existing data sets.

  20. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  1. Trapping penguins with entangled B mesons

    DOE PAGES

    Dadisman, Ryan; Gardner, Susan; Yan, Xinshuai

    2016-01-08

    Our first direct observation of time-reversal (T) violation in the BBsystem was reported by the BaBar Collaboration, employing the method of Bañuls and Bernabéu. Given this, we generalize their analysis of the time-dependent T-violating asymmetry (AT) to consider different choices of CP tags for which the dominant amplitudes have the same weak phase. As one application, we find that it is possible to measure departures from the universality of sin(2β)directly. If sin(2β)is universal, as in the Standard Model, the method permits the direct determination of penguin effects in these channels. This method, although no longer a strict test of T,more » can yield tests of the sin(2β)universality, or, alternatively, of penguin effects, of much improved precision even with existing data sets.« less

  2. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  3. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  4. Glueball production via gluonic penguin decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-03-01

    We study glueball production in gluonic penguin decay , using the next-to-leading order gluonic penguin interaction and effective couplings of a glueball to two perturbative gluons. Subsequent decays of a scalar glueball are described by using techniques of effective chiral Lagrangians to incorporate the interaction between a glueball and pseudoscalar mesons. Mixing effects between the pure glueball with other mesons are considered. Identifying the as a scalar glueball, we find that both the top and the charm penguin are important and obtain a sizable branching ratio for of order , where the effective coupling strength is estimated to be GeV using experimental data for the branching ratio of based on a chiral Lagrangian estimate. An alternative perturbative QCD based estimation of is a factor of 20 larger, which would imply a much enhanced branching ratio. Glueball production from this rare semi-inclusive decay can be probed at the LHCb and Belle II to narrow down the allowed parameter space. A similar branching ratio is expected for the pseudoscalar glueball. We also briefly comment on the case of vector and tensor glueballs.

  5. Lesions associated with drowning in bycaught penguins.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric; Hurtado, Renata; Ewbank, Ana Carolina; Bertozzi, Carolina Pacheco; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-10-27

    Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality that occurs as a result of entanglement in fishing gear, is an important conservation threat to penguins and other seabirds. Identification of entanglement and drowning in beach-cast carcasses of seabirds remains a challenge, as it is still unclear what lesions are to be expected in a bycaught seabird. We necropsied 2 Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus that were entangled and drowned in gillnets. Marked distension of the lungs with foamy red fluid and marked oedema of the dorsal visceral pleura were prominent lesions consistent with those described in cases of 'wet drowning' in humans. On the other hand, the air sacs contained very small quantities of liquid, suggesting that absence of water in the air sacs might not be a reliable sign to exclude drowning. Other relevant findings included cutaneous lacerations and bruising in one bird and cervical and pectoral rhabdomyolysis in both birds. While cutaneous or subcutaneous hematomas may be an indication of bycatch, especially if linear or cross-linear patterns consistent with fishing nets are present, these lesions might not always be discernible and their absence does not suffice to exclude the possibility of entanglement in fishing nets. Additionally, our findings suggest that the histological examination of skeletal muscles, particularly of the neck, may provide additional clues to corroborate the diagnosis of drowning in penguins.

  6. Using Scribe to Select Fonts on the Penguin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    sometimes great distancefs--each fall to their nesting aftes Penguins are clasaifiled in the phylum Chordata . subphylum Vertebrata, clam Ayes,( orer...phylum Chordata , subphylum Vertebrata, class Ayes, order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae. --extracted from The New Columbia Encyclopedia...distances--each fall to their nesting sites. Penguins are classified in the phylum Chordata , subphylum Vertebrata, class Ayes, order Sphenisciformes

  7. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  8. "March of the Penguins": Building Knowledge in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingeret, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author followed a kindergarten class that watched the film and used the book "March of the Penguins" in order to find out how much information the students learned from the film and how the teacher integrated the texts into her unit on penguins in order to maximize their impact. The students were given an oral assessment prior…

  9. "March of the Penguins": Building Knowledge in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingeret, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author followed a kindergarten class that watched the film and used the book "March of the Penguins" in order to find out how much information the students learned from the film and how the teacher integrated the texts into her unit on penguins in order to maximize their impact. The students were given an oral assessment prior…

  10. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  11. Estimating population size of Pygoscelid Penguins from TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Dahmer, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    An estimate was made toward a continent wide population of penguins. The results indicate that Thematic Mapper data can be used to identify penguin rookeries due to the unique reflectance properties of guano. Strong correlations exist between nesting populations and rookery area occupied by the birds. These correlations allow estimation of the number of nesting pairs in colonies. The success of remote sensing and biometric analyses leads one to believe that a continent wide estimate of penguin populations is possible based on a timely sample employing ground based and remote sensing techniques. Satellite remote sensing along the coastline may well locate previously undiscovered penguin nesting sites, or locate rookeries which have been assumed to exist for over a half century, but never located. Observations which found that penguins are one of the most sensitive elements in the complex of Southern Ocean ecosystems motivated this study.

  12. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2011-01-01

    Penguins (Sphenisciformes) inhabit some of the most extreme environments on Earth. The 60+ Myr fossil record of penguins spans an interval that witnessed dramatic shifts in Cenozoic ocean temperatures and currents, indicating a long interplay between penguin evolution and environmental change. Perhaps the most celebrated example is the successful Late Cenozoic invasion of glacial environments by crown clade penguins. A major adaptation that allows penguins to forage in cold water is the humeral arterial plexus, a vascular counter-current heat exchanger (CCHE) that limits heat loss through the flipper. Fossil evidence reveals that the humeral plexus arose at least 49 Ma during a ‘Greenhouse Earth’ interval. The evolution of the CCHE is therefore unrelated to global cooling or development of polar ice sheets, but probably represents an adaptation to foraging in subsurface waters at temperate latitudes. As global climate cooled, the CCHE was key to invasion of thermally more demanding environments associated with Antarctic ice sheets. PMID:21177693

  13. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-07

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna.

  14. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T.; Thomas, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna. PMID:21900330

  15. Genetic diversity in populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    Dranitsina, A S; Telegeev, G D; Maliuta, S S; Bezrukov, V F

    2006-01-01

    RAPD analysis was used to examine the extent of genetic polymorphism in two populations of Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from Antarctic Islands (Petermann and Livingston). The chosen two of three 10 mer oligonucleotide primers accordingly to preliminary results showed different levels of polymorphism in Gentoo penguins at Petermann Island (from 23.53 to 42.86%) and Livingston Island (from 52.94 to 57.14%). Nei's similarity coefficients were in range from 0.5606 (when Gentoo genome profiles were compared with RAPD profiles of two related penguin species: Pygoscelis adeliae (Adelie) and Pygoscelis antarctica (Chinstrep)) to 0.9281 among observed Gentoo penguin populations. Nei's distances values ranged from 0.0746 to 0.5787 among the populations and species. The obtained results will be used for further estimation of genetic diversity of Gentoo penguins and determination of their taxonomic status.

  16. Second generation DNA sequencing of the mitogenome of the Chinstrap penguin and comparative genomics of Antarctic penguins.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sankar; Lingala, Syamala Gowri; Swaminathan, Siva; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David

    2014-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) was sequenced and compared with other penguin mitogenomes. The genome is 15,972 bp in length with the number and order of protein coding genes and RNAs being very similar to that of other known penguin mitogenomes. Comparative nucleotide analysis showed the Chinstrap mitogenome shares 94% homology with the mitogenome of its sister species, Pygoscelis adelie (Adélie penguin). Divergence at nonsynonymous nucleotide positions was found to be up to 23 times less than that observed in synonymous positions of protein coding genes, suggesting high selection constraints. The complete mitogenome data will be useful for genetic and evolutionary studies of penguins.

  17. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  18. Charmless and Penguin Decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Dorigo, Mirco; Collaboration, for the CDF

    2010-12-01

    Penguin transitions play a key role in the search of New Physics hints in the heavy flavor sector. During the last decade CDF has been exploring this opportunity with a rich study of two-body charmless decays of neutral B mesons into charged final-state particles. After briefly introducing the aspects of this physics peculiar to the hadron collision environment, I report on two interesting results: the first polarization measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi} decay and the update of the B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h{prime}{sup -} decays analysis.

  19. Direct Penguin Counting Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C. U.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents an application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to monitor penguin colony in Baton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The area around Narębski Point located on the southeast coast of Barton Peninsula was designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171 (ASPA 171), and Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins inhabit in this area. The UAV images were acquired in a part of ASPA 171 from four flights in a single day, Jan 18, 2014. About 360 images were mosaicked as an image of about 3 cm spatial resolution and then a subset including representative penguin rookeries was selected. The subset image was segmented based on gradient map of pixel values, and spectral and spatial attributes were assigned to each segment. The object based image analysis (OBIA) was conducted with consideration of spectral attributes including mean and minimum values of each segment and various shape attributes such as area, length, compactness and roundness to detect individual penguin. The segments indicating individual penguin were effectively detected on rookeries with high contrasts in the spectral and shape attributes. The importance of periodic and precise monitoring of penguins has been recognized because variations of their populations reflect environmental changes and disturbance from human activities. Utilization of very high resolution imaging method shown in this study can be applied to other penguin habitats in Antarctica, and the results will be able to support establishing effective environmental management plans.

  20. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  1. Enhanced Electroweak Penguin Amplitude in B{yields}VV Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Beneke, M.; Rohrer, J.; Yang, D.

    2006-04-14

    We discuss a novel electromagnetic penguin contribution to the transverse helicity amplitudes in B decays to two vector mesons, which is enhanced by two powers of m{sub B}/{lambda} relative to the standard penguin amplitudes. This leads to unique polarization signatures in penguin-dominated decay modes such as B{yields}{rho}K* similar to polarization effects in the radiative decay B{yields}K*{gamma} and offers new opportunities to probe the magnitude and chirality of flavor-changing neutral current couplings to photons.

  2. Advanced systems data for mapping Emperor Penguin habitats in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial orbital sensor systems combined with other resource data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Civil Applications Program (NCAP) may offer an effective way of mapping Emperor penguin habitats and their response to regional climate change in Antarctica. This project examined these resources to determine their applicability for mapping Emperor penguin habitats to support the National Science Foundation. This work is especially significant to investigate satellite-based imaging as an alternative to intrusive in-the-field enumeration of Emperor penguins and the potential of applying these procedures to support The National Map (TNP).

  3. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature.

  4. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  5. Electroweak penguin diagrams and two-body {ital B} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, M.; Hernandez, O.F.; London, D.; Rosner, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    We discuss the role of electroweak penguin diagrams in {ital B} decays to two light pseudoscalar mesons. We confirm that the extraction of the weak phase {alpha} through the isospin analysis involving {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{pi} decays is largely unaffected by such operators. However, the methods proposed to obtain weak and strong phases by relating {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{pi}, {ital B}{r_arrow}{pi}{ital K}, and {ital B}{r_arrow}{ital K{bar K}} decays through flavor SU(3) will be invalidated if eletroweak penguin diagrams are large. We show that, although the introduction of electroweak penguin contributions introduces no new amplitudes of flavor SU(3), there are a number of ways to experimentally measure the size of such effects. Finally, using SU(3) amplitude relations we present a new way of measuring the weak angle {gamma} which holds even in the presence of electroweak penguin diagrams.

  6. Long-term effects of flipper bands on penguins.

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Clerc, M; Gendner, J P; Ribic, C A; Fraser, W R; Woehler, E J; Descamps, S; Gilly, C; Le Bohec, C; Le Maho, Y

    2004-12-07

    Changes in seabird populations, and particularly of penguins, offer a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of fisheries and climatic variations on marine resources. Such investigations often require large-scale banding to identify individual birds, but the significance of the data relies on the assumption that no bias is introduced in this type of long-term monitoring. After 5 years of using an automated system of identification of king penguins implanted with electronic tags (100 adult king penguins were implanted with a transponder tag, 50 of which were also flipper banded), we can report that banding results in later arrival at the colony for courtship in some years, lower breeding probability and lower chick production. We also found that the survival rate of unbanded, electronically tagged king penguin chicks after 2-3 years is approximately twice as large as that reported in the literature for banded chicks.

  7. Wakata wearing Penguin-3 Antigravity Pressure/Stress Suit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-25

    ISS038-E-035476 (24 Jan. 2014) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, is pictured wearing the Penguin-3 antigravity pressure/stress suit in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. Wakata wearing Penguin-3 Antigravity Pressure/Stress Suit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-25

    ISS038-E-035473 (24 Jan. 2014) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, is pictured wearing the Penguin-3 antigravity pressure/stress suit in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  9. Wakata wearing Penguin-3 Antigravity Pressure/Stress Suit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-24

    ISS038-E-035470 (24 Jan. 2014) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, is pictured wearing the Penguin-3 antigravity pressure/stress suit in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. Long-term effects of flipper bands on penguins.

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier-Clerc, M; Gendner, J P; Ribic, C A; Fraser, W R; Woehler, E J; Descamps, S; Gilly, C; Le Bohec, C; Le Maho, Y

    2004-01-01

    Changes in seabird populations, and particularly of penguins, offer a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of fisheries and climatic variations on marine resources. Such investigations often require large-scale banding to identify individual birds, but the significance of the data relies on the assumption that no bias is introduced in this type of long-term monitoring. After 5 years of using an automated system of identification of king penguins implanted with electronic tags (100 adult king penguins were implanted with a transponder tag, 50 of which were also flipper banded), we can report that banding results in later arrival at the colony for courtship in some years, lower breeding probability and lower chick production. We also found that the survival rate of unbanded, electronically tagged king penguin chicks after 2-3 years is approximately twice as large as that reported in the literature for banded chicks. PMID:15801593

  11. Long-term effects of flipper bands on penguins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier-Clerc, M.; Gendner, J.-P.; Ribic, C.A.; Fraser, William R.; Woehler, Eric J.; Descamps, S.; Gilly, C.; Le, Bohec C.; Le, Maho Y.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in seabird populations, and particularly of penguins, offer a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of fisheries and climatic variations on marine resources. Such investigations often require large-scale banding to identify individual birds, but the significance of the data relies on the assumption that no bias is introduced in this type of long-term monitoring. After 5 years of using an automated system of identification of king penguins implanted with electronic tags (100 adult king penguins were implanted with a transponder tag, 50 of which were also flipper banded), we can report that banding results in later arrival at the colony for courtship in some years, lower breeding probability and lower chick production. We also found that the survival rate of unbanded, electronically tagged king penguin chicks after 2-3 years is approximately twice as large as that reported in the literature for banded chicks. ?? 2004 The Royal Society.

  12. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  13. Charming penguin contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi}

    SciTech Connect

    Isola, C.; Ladisa, M.; Nardulli, G.; Pham, T. N.; Santorelli, P.

    2001-07-01

    We present calculations of the charming-penguin long-distance contributions to B{r_arrow}K{pi} decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. Our calculation is based on the chiral effective Lagrangian for light and heavy mesons, corrected for the hard pion and kaon momenta. We find that the charming-penguin contributions increase significantly the B{r_arrow}K{pi} decay rates in comparison with the short-distance contributions, giving results in better agreement with experimental data.

  14. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins.

  15. A novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal diseases in banded Penguins.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Florian; Schulze, Christoph; König, Patricia; Franzke, Kati; Bock, Sabine; Hlinak, Andreas; Kämmerling, Jens; Ochs, Andreas; Schüle, André; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A novel avian alphaherpesvirus, preliminarily designated sphenicid alphaherpesvirus 1 (SpAHV-1), has been independently isolated from juvenile Humboldt and African penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and Spheniscus demersus) kept in German zoos suffering from diphtheroid oropharyngitis/laryngotracheitis and necrotizing enteritis (collectively designated as penguin-diphtheria-like disease). High-throughput sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequences of the first two SpAHV-1 isolates. SpAHV-1 comprises a class D genome with a length of about 164 kbp, a G+C content of 45.6 mol% and encodes 86 predicted ORFs. Taxonomic association of SpAHV-1 to the genus Mardivirus was supported by gene content clustering and phylogenetic analysis of herpesvirus core genes. The presented results imply that SpAHV-1 could be the primary causative agent of penguin-diphtheria-like fatal diseases in banded penguins. These results may serve as a basis for the development of diagnostic tools in order to investigate similar cases of penguin diphtheria in wild and captive penguins.

  16. Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Dann, Peter; Trathan, Phil; Groscolas, Rene; Smith, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in vertebrate (especially mammals), information on the GI microbiota of seabirds remains incomplete. As with many seabirds, penguins have a unique digestive physiology that enables them to store large reserves of adipose tissue, protein, and lipids. This study used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to characterize the interspecific variations of the GI microbiota of four penguin species: the king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguin. The qPCR results indicated that there were significant differences in the abundance of the major phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. A total of 132,340, 18,336, 6324, and 4826 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified from fecal samples collected from king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins, respectively. A total of 13 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria dominating the composition; however, there were major differences in the relative abundance of the phyla. In addition, this study documented the presence of known human pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Veillonella, Erysipelotrichaceae, Neisseria, and Mycoplasma. However, their role in disease in penguins remains unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of the GI microbiota of penguins. PMID:23349094

  17. Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks.

  18. Radiative And Electroweak Penguin Decays of B

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Jeffrey D.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-11-09

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are flavor-changing-neutral-current processes that provide powerful ways to test the Standard Model at the one-loop level, to search for the effects of new physics, and to extract Standard Model parameters such as CKM matrix elements and quark masses. The large data samples obtained by the B-factory experiments BaBar and Belle, together with an intensive theoretical effort, have led to significant progress towards understanding these rare decays. Recent experimental results include the measurements of the b {yields} d{gamma} decays B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, the observation of B {yields} K(*){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decays (together with studies of the associated kinematic distributions), and improved measurements of the inclusive B {yields} Xs{gamma} rate and photon energy spectrum.

  19. The dark penguin shines light at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primulando, Reinard; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2015-07-01

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For several types of DM-Standard Model couplings, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory, considering simplified models with light mediators. This is especially important in the case of loop-mediated interactions. In this paper we perform the first simplified model study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, by including the one-loop momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling — given by the Dark Penguin — in collider processes. We compute bounds from the monojet, monophoton, and diphoton searches at the 8 and 14 TeV LHC, and compare the results to those of direct and indirect detection experiments. Future searches at the 100 TeV hadron collider and at the ILC are also addressed. We find that the optimal search strategy requires loose cuts on the missing transverse energy, to capture the enhancement of the form factors near the threshold for on-shell production of the mediators. We consider both minimal models and models where an additional state beyond the DM is accessible. In the latter case, under the assumption of anarchic flavor structure in the dark sector, the LHC monophoton and diphoton searches will be able to set much stronger bounds than in the minimal scenario. A determination of the mass of the heavier dark fermion might be feasible using the M T2 variable. In addition, if the Dark Penguin flavor structure is almost aligned with that of the DM mass, a displaced signal from the decay of the heavier dark fermion into the DM and photon can be observed. This allows us to set constraints on the mixings and couplings of the model from an existing search for non-pointing photons.

  20. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype-10 detected in Rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biological, serological and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMV by electron microscopy; however, its vi...

  1. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions.

  2. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming

    PubMed Central

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C.; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-01-01

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26°C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions. PMID:18268328

  3. Spacelike penguin diagram effects in {ital B}{implies}{ital P}{ital P} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Du, D.; Yang, M.; Zhang, D. |

    1996-01-01

    The spacelike penguin diagram contributions to branching ratios and {ital CP} asymmetries in charmless decays of {ital B} to two pseudoscalar mesons are studied using the next-to-leading order low energy effective Hamiltonian. Both the gluonic penguin and the electroweak penguin diagrams are considered. We find that the effects are significant. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Avian Malaria ( Plasmodium spp.) in Captive Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) from Northern Argentina, 2010.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Capellino, Félix; Silveira, Patricia; Braga, Érika M; Rodríguez-Heredia, Sergio Andres; Loureiro, Julio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of lethal avian malaria in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) captive at San Clemente del Tuyú, Argentina, approximately 560 km north of Argentinean breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins. Blood smears revealed both penguins were concurrently infected by Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) sp., and Plasmodium (Novyella) sp.

  5. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

  6. The origin of traveling waves in an emperor penguin huddle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerum, R. C.; Fabry, B.; Metzner, C.; Beaulieu, M.; Ancel, A.; Zitterbart, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Emperor penguins breed during the Antarctic winter and have to endure temperatures as low as -50 °C and wind speeds of up to 200 km h-1. To conserve energy, they form densely packed huddles with a triangular lattice structure. Video recordings from previous studies revealed coordinated movements in regular wave-like patterns within these huddles. It is thought that these waves are triggered by individual penguins that locally disturb the huddle structure, and that the traveling wave serves to remove the lattice defects and restore order. The mechanisms that govern wave propagation are currently unknown, however. Moreover, it is unknown if the waves are always triggered by the same penguin in a huddle. Here, we present a model in which the observed wave patterns emerge from simple rules involving only the interactions between directly neighboring individuals, similar to the interaction rules found in other jammed systems, e.g. between cars in a traffic jam. Our model predicts that a traveling wave can be triggered by a forward step of any individual penguin located within a densely packed huddle. This prediction is confirmed by optical flow velocimetry of the video recordings of emperor penguins in their natural habitat.

  7. Humboldt penguins outmanoeuvring El Niño.

    PubMed

    Culik, B; Hennicke, J; Martin, T

    2000-08-01

    We satellite-tracked five Humboldt penguins during the strong 1997/98 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) from their breeding island Pan de Azúcar (26 degrees 09'S, 70 degrees 40'W) in Northern Chile and related their activities at sea to satellite-derived information on sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), wind direction and speed, chlorophyll a concentrations and statistical data on fishery landings. We found that Humboldt penguins migrated by up to 895 km as marine productivity decreased. The total daily dive duration was highly correlated with SSTA, ranging from 3.1 to 12.5 h when the water was at its warmest (+4 degrees C). Birds travelled between 2 and 116 km every day, travelling further when SSTA was highest. Diving depths (maximum 54 m), however, were not increased with respect to previous years. Two penguins migrated south and, independently of each other, located an area of high chlorophyll a concentration 150 km off the coast. Humboldt penguins seem to use day length, temperature gradients, wind direction and olfaction to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to find suitable feeding grounds. This makes Humboldt penguins biological in situ detectors of highly productive marine areas, with a potential use in the verification of trends detected by remote sensors on board satellites.

  8. Trojan Penguins and Isospin Violation in Hadronic B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, yuval

    1999-09-10

    Some rare hadronic decays of B mesons, such as B {yields} {pi}K, are sensitive to isospin-violating contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model. Although commonly referred to as electroweak penguins, such contributions can often arise through tree-level exchanges of heavy particles, or through strong-interaction loop diagrams. The Wilson coefficients of the corresponding electroweak penguin operators are calculated in a large class of New Physics models, and in many cases are found not to be suppressed with respect to the QCD penguin coefficients. Several tests for these effects using observables in B{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}K decays are discussed, and nontrivial bounds on the couplings of the various New Physics models are derived.

  9. MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN AN AFRICAN PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS).

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristian J; Reavill, Drury; Weldy, Scott H; Bradway, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A 19-yr-old female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. Radiographs revealed soft-tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. The penguin died during the night. Postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. The right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. Histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified Mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. Large numbers of acid fast-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were recognized on tissue staining. Mycobacterium genavense was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the species. Further confirmation of M. genavense was accomplished using PCR with universal Mycobacterium spp. primers followed by sequencing of the amplicon obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycobacteriosis-and specifically M. genavense -in an African penguin. This case also demonstrates the similarities of presentation between the more commonly suspected and encountered aspergillosis and mycobacteriosis.

  10. Onshore energetics in penguins: theory, estimation and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; White, Craig R; Fahlman, Andreas; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-08-01

    Penguins are known to have high pedestrian locomotory costs in comparison to other cursorial birds, but the ecological consequences of this difference have received limited attention. Here we present a method for the accurate estimation of onshore energetics based on measurements of body mass, simple morphometrics and distance moved. The method is shown to be similarly accurate to other field-based estimates of energy expenditure, but has the advantage of logistical simplicity. King penguins spend 30-50% of their time ashore and may walk distances of several kilometres to and from their breeding colonies. However, in such cases the total energetic cost of pedestrian locomotion is estimated to be only 1.0% of the energy expended whilst ashore. Thus, despite a high instantaneous cost, pedestrian locomotion is a small and possibly negligible component of total energy turnover in king penguins.

  11. Diving Simulation concerning Adélie Penguin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shinichiro; Harada, Masanori

    Penguins are sea birds that swim using lift and drag forces by flapping their wings like other birds. Although diving data can be obtained using a micro-data logger which has improved in recent years, all the necessary diving conditions for analysis cannot be acquired. In order to determine all these hard-to-get conditions, the posture and lift and drag forces of penguins were theoretically calculated by the technique used in the analysis of the optimal flight path of aircrafts. In this calculation, the actual depth and speed of the dive of an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) were utilized. Then, the calculation result and experimental data were compared, and found to be in good agreement. Thus, it is fully possible to determine the actual conditions of dive by this calculation, even those that cannot be acquired using a data logger.

  12. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-11-25

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p < 0.01); this indicated that historical penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800-2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400-1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today.

  13. [Book review] Skua and penguin: Predator and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The skua and penguin with title billing in this book are specifically the South Polar Skua (Catharacta maccormicki) and the Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), More specifically, they are the populations of those two species that breed at Cape Bird on Ross Island, Antarctica (77°14'S, 16628'E), where the author and his students and colleagues conducted research during 1965-1970, Young presents the results of that research (with apologies for the long delay), using later research conducted by others on these species to help evaluate and interpret the findings from his program,

  14. Store Separation Simulation of the Penguin Missile from Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    controls azimuth and pitch since the missile is constantly rolling in flight due to fixed roll tabs on the wings . The...the Penguin wings has been modified to allow for a fold line and fold angle. For all panels, control points for the vortex lattice system are located...Angle of Attack S id e Fo rc e C oe ffi ci en t -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Figure 12.- Lateral-plane characteristics of the Penguin missile with wings

  15. Discospondylitis in a yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Bergen, David J; Gartrell, Brett D

    2010-03-01

    A 1-year-old female yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) was diagnosed with chronic discospondylitis on the basis of clinical signs and results of hematologic tests, radiography, and computed tomography. Despite significant destruction of the affected vertebral bodies and gross malformation of the spine, neurologic function was unaffected. Treatment with antibiotics, antifungals, and swimming physiotherapy was attempted, but the bird died after 40 days of hospitalization. Histopathologic lesions observed at necropsy were severe chronic discospondylitis, chronic granulomatous tracheitis, proventricular ulceration, and adrenal hemorrhage. The suspected inciting cause of the discospondylitis was a reported population-wide oral stomatitis that affects yellow-eyed penguin chicks.

  16. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia A.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stucchi, Marcelo; Urbina, Mario; Giannini, Norberto; Bertelli, Sara; Narváez, Yanina; Boyd, Clint A.

    2007-01-01

    New penguin fossils from the Eocene of Peru force a reevaluation of previous hypotheses regarding the causal role of climate change in penguin evolution. Repeatedly it has been proposed that penguins originated in high southern latitudes and arrived at equatorial regions relatively recently (e.g., 4–8 million years ago), well after the onset of latest Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and increases in polar ice volume. By contrast, new discoveries from the middle and late Eocene of Peru reveal that penguins invaded low latitudes >30 million years earlier than prior data suggested, during one of the warmest intervals of the Cenozoic. A diverse fauna includes two new species, here reported from two of the best exemplars of Paleogene penguins yet recovered. The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude ≈14°S) regions during greenhouse earth conditions. One new species, Perudyptes devriesi, is among the deepest divergences within Sphenisciformes. The second, Icadyptes salasi, is the most complete giant (>1.5 m standing height) penguin yet described. Both species provide critical information on early penguin cranial osteology, trends in penguin body size, and the evolution of the penguin flipper. PMID:17601778

  17. Sex identification of four penguin species using locus-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun; Han, Jiabo; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Junxin; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for sex identification are not applicable to sexually monomorphic species, leading to difficulties in the management of their breeding programs. To identify sex in sexually monomorphic birds, molecular methods have been established. Two established primer pairs (2550F/2718R and p8/p2) amplify the CHD1 gene region from both the Z and W chromosomes. Here, we evaluated the use of these primers for sex identification in four sexually monomorphic penguin species: king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). For all species except rockhopper penguins, primer pair 2550F/2718R resulted in two distinct CHD1Z and CHD1W PCR bands, allowing for sex identification. For rockhopper penguins, only primer pair p8/p2 yielded different CHD1Z and CHD1W bands, which were faint and similar in size making them difficult to distinguish. As a result, we designed a new primer pair (PL/PR) that efficiently determined the gender of individuals from all four penguin species. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed that they were from the CHD1 gene region. Primer pair PL/PR can be evaluated for use in sexing other penguin species, which will be crucial for the management of new penguin breeding programs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Stucchi, Marcelo; Urbina, Mario; Giannini, Norberto; Bertelli, Sara; Narváez, Yanina; Boyd, Clint A

    2007-07-10

    New penguin fossils from the Eocene of Peru force a reevaluation of previous hypotheses regarding the causal role of climate change in penguin evolution. Repeatedly it has been proposed that penguins originated in high southern latitudes and arrived at equatorial regions relatively recently (e.g., 4-8 million years ago), well after the onset of latest Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and increases in polar ice volume. By contrast, new discoveries from the middle and late Eocene of Peru reveal that penguins invaded low latitudes >30 million years earlier than prior data suggested, during one of the warmest intervals of the Cenozoic. A diverse fauna includes two new species, here reported from two of the best exemplars of Paleogene penguins yet recovered. The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude approximately 14 degrees S) regions during greenhouse earth conditions. One new species, Perudyptes devriesi, is among the deepest divergences within Sphenisciformes. The second, Icadyptes salasi, is the most complete giant (>1.5 m standing height) penguin yet described. Both species provide critical information on early penguin cranial osteology, trends in penguin body size, and the evolution of the penguin flipper.

  19. Osteology of Icadyptes salasi, a giant penguin from the Eocene of Peru.

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; DeVries, Thomas J; Urbina, Mario

    2008-08-01

    We present the first detailed description of the giant Eocene penguin Icadyptes salasi. The species is characterized by a narrow skull with a hyper-elongate spear-like beak, a robust cervical column and a powerful flipper. The bony beak tip of Icadyptes is formed by fusion of several elements and is unique among penguins, differing markedly from previously described giant penguin beaks. Vascular canal patterning similar to that of boobies, frigatebirds and albatrosses suggests I. salasi may have had a thin, sheet-like rhamphotheca unlike the thick rugose rhamphotheca of modern penguins. Together, these features suggest a novel ecology for I. salasi, most likely involving the capture of larger prey items via spearing. As the first described giant penguin specimen to preserve a complete wing skeleton, the I. salasi holotype yields significant insight into the shape, proportions and orientation of the wing in giant penguins. In articulation, the forelimb of I. salasi is straighter, permitting less manus and antibrachium flexion, than previous depictions of giant penguin wings. Cross-sections of the humerus and ulna reveal a level of osteosclerosis equalling or surpassing that of extant penguins. Based on ontogenetic data from extant penguins and the morphology of the carpometacarpus of I. salasi, we infer the retention of a free alular phalanx in basal penguins. Previously, the status of this element in penguins was disputed. Differences in the proportions of the manual phalanges contribute to a more abruptly tapering wingtip in I. salasi compared with crown penguins. Fossils from Peru, including the I. salasi holotype specimen, document that penguins expanded to nearly the whole of their extant latitudinal range early in their evolutionary history and during one of the warmest intervals in the Cenozoic.

  20. Osteology of Icadyptes salasi, a giant penguin from the Eocene of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; DeVries, Thomas J; Urbina, Mario

    2008-01-01

    We present the first detailed description of the giant Eocene penguin Icadyptes salasi. The species is characterized by a narrow skull with a hyper-elongate spear-like beak, a robust cervical column and a powerful flipper. The bony beak tip of Icadyptes is formed by fusion of several elements and is unique among penguins, differing markedly from previously described giant penguin beaks. Vascular canal patterning similar to that of boobies, frigatebirds and albatrosses suggests I. salasi may have had a thin, sheet-like rhamphotheca unlike the thick rugose rhamphotheca of modern penguins. Together, these features suggest a novel ecology for I. salasi, most likely involving the capture of larger prey items via spearing. As the first described giant penguin specimen to preserve a complete wing skeleton, the I. salasi holotype yields significant insight into the shape, proportions and orientation of the wing in giant penguins. In articulation, the forelimb of I. salasi is straighter, permitting less manus and antibrachium flexion, than previous depictions of giant penguin wings. Cross-sections of the humerus and ulna reveal a level of osteosclerosis equalling or surpassing that of extant penguins. Based on ontogenetic data from extant penguins and the morphology of the carpometacarpus of I. salasi, we infer the retention of a free alular phalanx in basal penguins. Previously, the status of this element in penguins was disputed. Differences in the proportions of the manual phalanges contribute to a more abruptly tapering wingtip in I. salasi compared with crown penguins. Fossils from Peru, including the I. salasi holotype specimen, document that penguins expanded to nearly the whole of their extant latitudinal range early in their evolutionary history and during one of the warmest intervals in the Cenozoic. PMID:18564073

  1. African penguins follow the gaze direction of conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Trincas, Egle

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur. In this article, we investigated how African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) respond to gaze cues of conspecifics using a naturalistic setup in a zoo environment. Our results provide evidence that members of the family Spheniscidae follow gaze of conspecifics into distant space. However, further tests are necessary to examine if the observed behaviour serves solely one specific function (e.g. predator detection) or is displayed in a broader context (e.g. eavesdropping on relevant stimuli in the environment). In addition, our findings can serve as a starting point for future cross-species comparisons with other members of the penguin family, to further explore the role of aerial predation and social structure on gaze following in social species. Overall, we also suggest that zoo-housed animals represent an ideal opportunity to extend species range and to test phylogenetic families that have not been in the focus of animal cognitive research. PMID:28626619

  2. Studies of Radiative Penguin B Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier

    2003-05-14

    We summarize results on a number of observations of penguin dominated radiative decays of the B meson. Such decays are forbidden at tree level and proceed via electroweak loops. As such they may be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. The observations have been made at the BaBar experiment at PEPII, the asymmetric B factory at SLAC.

  3. Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Reyes, Laura; Rebstock, Ginger A; Griot, Karen; Rodrigues Heredia, Sergio; Adornes, Andrea Corrado; da Silva, Rodolfo Pinho

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum pollution is a problem for seabirds along the Southwest Atlantic coast. Twenty-five groups from Salvador, Brazil (12 degrees 58'S) to San Antonio Oeste, Argentina (40 degrees 43'S) survey or rehabilitate sick or oiled seabirds. Four groups, one each in Brazil and Uruguay, and two in Argentina, kept counts of birds found alive and in need of rehabilitation. An average of 63.7% of the seabirds found were Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), with 3869 reported since 1987. Mainly adult penguins were found in Argentina (1605 of 2102 penguins of known age class) and Uruguay (158 of 197). Juveniles were most common in Brazil (234 of 325). Oil fouling was the most frequent cause of injury or sickness. The number of oiled penguins reported in their wintering range has greatly increased since the early 1990s and is strongly correlated with petroleum exports from Argentina. Our results show that chronic petroleum pollution is a problem for wildlife from Southern Brazil through Northern Argentina, and regulations and enforcement are failing to protect living resources.

  4. Haematological findings in captive Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) with bumblefoot.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Samour, H J; Henderson, G M; Hart, M G

    1985-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 14 healthy adult Gentoo penguins and on 14 birds with bumblefoot. Compared with healthy birds, individuals with severe bumblefoot showed heterophilia and hyperfibrinogenaemia. These changes probably typify the response of the blood to inflammatory and infectious agents in the species.

  5. Seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jamie L; McCutchan, Thomas F; Vargas, F Hernan; Deem, Sharon L; Cruz, Marilyn; Hartman, Daniel A; Parker, Patricia G

    2013-10-01

    A parasite species of the genus Plasmodium has recently been documented in the endangered Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Avian malaria causes high mortality in several species after initial exposure and there is great concern for the conservation of the endemic Galapagos penguin. Using a Plasmodium spp. circumsporozoite protein antigen, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test the level of exposure in this small population, as indicated by seroprevalence. Sera from adult and juvenile Galapagos penguins collected between 2004 and 2009 on the Galapagos archipelago were tested for the presence of anti- Plasmodium spp. antibodies. Penguins were also tested for the prevalence of avian malaria parasite DNA using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. Total seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in this sample group was 97.2%, which suggests high exposure to the parasite and low Plasmodium-induced mortality. However, total prevalence of Plasmodium parasite DNA by PCR screening was 9.2%, and this suggests that parasite prevalence may be under-detected through PCR screening. Multiple detection methods may be necessary to measure the real extent of Plasmodium exposure on the archipelago.

  6. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear primarily adapted for a marine existence, they remain dependent on land for breeding, rearing young, and moulting. Here we describe and compare the breeding cycle of all the penguin species, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation. We also focus on the breeding cycle of the genus Aptenodytes, since it largely differs from the breeding cycle of most of the other penguin species. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    PubMed

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  8. Semen collection and characterization in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

    PubMed

    Waldoch, Jennifer; Root, Tammy; Ramer, Jan; Proudfoot, Jeffry

    2007-03-01

    Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates was collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (+/- 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (+/- .31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 10(6) sperm/ml (+/- 48.7 x 10(6) sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x 10(6) (+/- 4.2 x 10(6)). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (+/- 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (+/- 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (+/- 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of rockhopper penguins.

  9. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.

  10. Fossil evidence for evolution of the shape and color of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Altamirano, Ali J; Shawkey, Matthew D; D'Alba, Liliana; Vinther, Jakob; DeVries, Thomas J; Baby, Patrice

    2010-11-12

    Penguin feathers are highly modified in form and function, but there have been no fossils to inform their evolution. A giant penguin with feathers was recovered from the late Eocene (~36 million years ago) of Peru. The fossil reveals that key feathering features, including undifferentiated primary wing feathers and broad body contour feather shafts, evolved early in the penguin lineage. Analyses of fossilized color-imparting melanosomes reveal that their dimensions were similar to those of non-penguin avian taxa and that the feathering may have been predominantly gray and reddish-brown. In contrast, the dark black-brown color of extant penguin feathers is generated by large, ellipsoidal melanosomes previously unknown for birds. The nanostructure of penguin feathers was thus modified after earlier macrostructural modifications of feather shape linked to aquatic flight.

  11. Adélie Penguin Foraging Location Predicted by Tidal Regime Switching

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A.; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator. PMID:23383091

  12. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  13. Adélie penguin foraging location predicted by tidal regime switching.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Matthew J; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator.

  14. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630–24,662 bp and 35.5–35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9–39.3% (amino acid, 32.1–47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008–2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  15. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-Keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population.

  16. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants.

    PubMed

    Santamans, Anna C; Boluda, Rafael; Picazo, Antonio; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Tejedo, Pablo; Pertierra, Luis R; Benayas, Javier; Camacho, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins' faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa dominance in the

  17. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (p<0.005) and a species-specific difference was found between the two species of penguins (p<0.005). In our study we found a mean concentration of PFOS in seal muscle and liver samples of 1.3 ng/g and 9.4 ng/g wet wt, respectively, and a mean concentration in Gentoo and Adélie penguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  19. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cassondra L.; Hagelin, Julie C.; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below −40°C and forage in −1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. PMID:26490794

  20. Vocal individuality and species divergence in the contact calls of banded penguins.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gili, Claudia; Da Rugna, Cristiano; Gnone, Guido; Fissore, Chiara; Sanchez, Daniel; McElligott, Alan G; Gamba, Marco; Pessani, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 acoustic parameters from each vocalisation. These included temporal (duration), source-related (fundamental frequency, f0), and filter-related (formants) parameters. They were then used to carry out a series of stepwise discriminant function analyses (with cross-validation) and General Linear Model comparisons. We showed that contact calls allow individual discrimination in two additional species of the genus Spheniscus. We also found that calls can be classified according to species in a manner far greater than that attributable by chance, even though there is limited genetic distance among African, Humboldt, and Magellanic penguins. Our results provide further evidence that the source-filter theory is a valuable framework for investigating the biologically meaningful information contained in bird vocalisations. Our findings also provide novel insights into penguin vocal communication and suggest that contact calls of the penguin family are affected by selection for individuality.

  1. Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin.

    PubMed

    Bost, C A; Thiebot, J B; Pinaud, D; Cherel, Y; Trathan, P N

    2009-08-23

    Although penguins are key marine predators from the Southern Ocean, their migratory behaviour during the inter-nesting period remains widely unknown. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the winter foraging movements and feeding habits of a penguin species by using geolocation sensors fitted on penguins with a new attachment method. We focused on the macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus at Kerguelen, the single largest consumer of marine prey among all seabirds. Overall, macaroni penguins performed very long winter trips, remaining at sea during approximately six months within the limits of the Southern Ocean. They departed from Kerguelen in an eastward direction and distributed widely, over more than 3.10(6) km(2). The penguins spent most of their time in a previously unrecognized foraging area, i.e. a narrow latitudinal band (47-49 degrees S) within the central Indian Ocean (70-110 degrees E), corresponding oceanographically to the Polar Frontal Zone. There, their blood isotopic niche indicated that macaroni penguins preyed mainly upon crustaceans, but not on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, which does not occur at these northern latitudes. Such winter information is a crucial step for a better integrative approach for the conservation of this species whose world population is known to be declining.

  2. First Results in Inclusive Radiative Penguin Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, Colin P

    2000-11-17

    We present a preliminary measurement of the branching fraction of the exclusive penguin decay B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sub {gamma}}{sup 0} using (8.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} decays B(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sub {gamma}}{sup 0}) = (5.42 {+-} 0.82(stat.) {+-} 0.47(sys.)) x 10{sup -5}. In addition they search for the related penguin decays with a lepton pair in the final state, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  3. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, D. J.; Gilbert, C.; Thierry, A.-M.; Currie, J.; Le Maho, Y.; Ancel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40′ S 140° 01′ E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate. PMID:23466479

  5. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits endangered penguin.

    PubMed

    Pichegru, L; Grémillet, D; Crawford, R J M; Ryan, P G

    2010-08-23

    No-take zones may protect populations of targeted marine species and restore the integrity of marine ecosystems, but it is unclear whether they benefit top predators that rely on mobile pelagic fishes. In South Africa, foraging effort of breeding African penguins decreased by 30 per cent within three months of closing a 20 km zone to the competing purse-seine fisheries around their largest colony. After the fishing ban, most of the penguins from this island had shifted their feeding effort inside the closed area. Birds breeding at another colony situated 50 km away, whose fishing grounds remained open to fishing, increased their foraging effort during the same period. This demonstrates the immediate benefit of a relatively small no-take zone for a marine top predator relying on pelagic prey. Selecting such small protected areas may be an important first conservation step, minimizing stakeholder conflicts and easing compliance, while ensuring benefit for the ecosystems within these habitats.

  6. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits endangered penguin

    PubMed Central

    Pichegru, L.; Grémillet, D.; Crawford, R. J. M.; Ryan, P. G.

    2010-01-01

    No-take zones may protect populations of targeted marine species and restore the integrity of marine ecosystems, but it is unclear whether they benefit top predators that rely on mobile pelagic fishes. In South Africa, foraging effort of breeding African penguins decreased by 30 per cent within three months of closing a 20 km zone to the competing purse-seine fisheries around their largest colony. After the fishing ban, most of the penguins from this island had shifted their feeding effort inside the closed area. Birds breeding at another colony situated 50 km away, whose fishing grounds remained open to fishing, increased their foraging effort during the same period. This demonstrates the immediate benefit of a relatively small no-take zone for a marine top predator relying on pelagic prey. Selecting such small protected areas may be an important first conservation step, minimizing stakeholder conflicts and easing compliance, while ensuring benefit for the ecosystems within these habitats. PMID:20147313

  7. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  8. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet

    PubMed Central

    Willener, Astrid S. T.; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G.; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin’s walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins. PMID:26886216

  9. Electroweak Penguin and Leptonic Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, F.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-08-26

    Recent BABAR results on electroweak penguin and leptonic decays are reviewed. In particular, the measurements of B {yields} K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} and the preliminary results on B {yields} X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} are presented. Also summarized are the preliminary limits on B{sup +} {yields} l{sup +}{nu} (l = e,{mu}) and B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  10. Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution.

    PubMed

    Slack, Kerryn E; Jones, Craig M; Ando, Tatsuro; Harrison, G L Abby; Fordyce, R Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur; Penny, David

    2006-06-01

    Testing models of macroevolution, and especially the sufficiency of microevolutionary processes, requires good collaboration between molecular biologists and paleontologists. We report such a test for events around the Late Cretaceous by describing the earliest penguin fossils, analyzing complete mitochondrial genomes from an albatross, a petrel, and a loon, and describe the gradual decline of pterosaurs at the same time modern birds radiate. The penguin fossils comprise four naturally associated skeletons from the New Zealand Waipara Greensand, a Paleocene (early Tertiary) formation just above a well-known Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary site. The fossils, in a new genus (Waimanu), provide a lower estimate of 61-62 Ma for the divergence between penguins and other birds and thus establish a reliable calibration point for avian evolution. Combining fossil calibration points, DNA sequences, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis, the penguin calibrations imply a radiation of modern (crown group) birds in the Late Cretaceous. This includes a conservative estimate that modern sea and shorebird lineages diverged at least by the Late Cretaceous about 74 +/- 3 Ma (Campanian). It is clear that modern birds from at least the latest Cretaceous lived at the same time as archaic birds including Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and the diverse Enantiornithiformes. Pterosaurs, which also coexisted with early crown birds, show notable changes through the Late Cretaceous. There was a decrease in taxonomic diversity, and small- to medium-sized species disappeared well before the end of the Cretaceous. A simple reading of the fossil record might suggest competitive interactions with birds, but much more needs to be understood about pterosaur life histories. Additional fossils and molecular data are still required to help understand the role of biotic interactions in the evolution of Late Cretaceous birds and thus to test that the mechanisms of microevolution are sufficient to explain

  11. Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).

    PubMed

    Bollmer, Jennifer L; Vargas, F Hernán; Parker, Patricia G

    2007-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome, likely due to balancing selection acting to maintain alleles over time. Lack of MHC variability has been attributed to factors such as genetic drift in small populations and relaxed selection pressure. The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is the only penguin that occurs on the equator. It relies upon cold, nutrient-rich upwellings and experiences severe population declines when ocean temperatures rise during El Niño events. These bottlenecks, occurring in an already small population, have likely resulted in reduced genetic diversity in this species. In this study, we used MHC class II exon 2 sequence data from a DRB1-like gene to characterize the amount of genetic variation at the MHC in 30 Galápagos penguins, as well as one Magellanic penguin (S. magellanicus) and two king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and compared it to that in five other penguin species for which published data exist. We found that the Galápagos penguin had the lowest MHC diversity (as measured by number of polymorphic sites and average divergence among alleles) of the eight penguin species studied. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Galápagos penguin MHC sequences are most closely related to Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) sequences, its putative sister species based on other loci. An excess of non-synonymous mutations and a pattern of trans-specific evolution in the neighbor-joining tree suggest that selection is acting on the penguin MHC.

  12. Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F; Potter, Murray A; Barrett, D Paul; Candy, E Jane

    2008-03-01

    Birds respond to capture, handling and restraint with increased secretion of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone that helps birds adjust to stressful situations. Hoods are reported to calm birds, but possible effects of hoods on corticosterone responses have not been reported for any bird. Corticosterone responses to restraint in Adelie penguins held by their legs with their head covered by a hood were markedly lower than responses of penguins restrained in a mesh bag inside a cardboard box (corticosterone at 30 min 15.69+/-1.72 cf. 28.32+/-2.75 ng/ml). The birds restrained by the two methods were sampled at the same location but in different years, so the differences in corticosterone responses cannot unequivocally be ascribed to an effect of hoods to reduce corticosterone responses. Corticosterone responses have been measured in some penguins, but not in the largest, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). The relationship between body mass and corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in penguins was examined in emperor penguins captured on sea ice in McMurdo Sound and Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) captured at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica. Total integrated corticosterone responses were higher in the emperor than the Adelie penguins, but corrected integrated corticosterone responses, which represent the increase in corticosterone from initial concentrations and hence the corticosterone response to restraint, were the same. The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins.

  13. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Santamans, Anna C.; Boluda, Rafael; Picazo, Antonio; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Tejedo, Pablo; Pertierra, Luis R.; Benayas, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins’ faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa dominance in the

  14. Two Antarctic penguin genomes reveal insights into their evolutionary history and molecular changes related to the Antarctic environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Zhang, Yong; Li, Jianwen; Kong, Lesheng; Hu, Haofu; Pan, Hailin; Xu, Luohao; Deng, Yuan; Li, Qiye; Jin, Lijun; Yu, Hao; Chen, Yan; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Yongshan; Xia, Jinquan; He, Weiming; Shi, Qiong; Subramanian, Sankar; Millar, Craig D; Meader, Stephen; Rands, Chris M; Fujita, Matthew K; Greenwold, Matthew J; Castoe, Todd A; Pollock, David D; Gu, Wanjun; Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans; Ho, Simon Yw; Burt, David W; Ponting, Chris P; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Lambert, David M; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-01-01

    Penguins are flightless aquatic birds widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The distinctive morphological and physiological features of penguins allow them to live an aquatic life, and some of them have successfully adapted to the hostile environments in Antarctica. To study the phylogenetic and population history of penguins and the molecular basis of their adaptations to Antarctica, we sequenced the genomes of the two Antarctic dwelling penguin species, the Adélie penguin [Pygoscelis adeliae] and emperor penguin [Aptenodytes forsteri]. Phylogenetic dating suggests that early penguins arose ~60 million years ago, coinciding with a period of global warming. Analysis of effective population sizes reveals that the two penguin species experienced population expansions from ~1 million years ago to ~100 thousand years ago, but responded differently to the climatic cooling of the last glacial period. Comparative genomic analyses with other available avian genomes identified molecular changes in genes related to epidermal structure, phototransduction, lipid metabolism, and forelimb morphology. Our sequencing and initial analyses of the first two penguin genomes provide insights into the timing of penguin origin, fluctuations in effective population sizes of the two penguin species over the past 10 million years, and the potential associations between these biological patterns and global climate change. The molecular changes compared with other avian genomes reflect both shared and diverse adaptations of the two penguin species to the Antarctic environment.

  15. A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-05-07

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  16. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks.

  17. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak

    PubMed Central

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak. PMID:17148195

  18. Fine-scale dietary changes between the breeding and non-breeding diet of a resident seabird

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Nicole D.; Chiaradia, André; Preston, Tiana J.; Reina, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike migratory seabirds with wide foraging ranges, resident seabirds forage in a relatively small range year-round and are thus particularly vulnerable to local shifts in prey availability. In order to manage their populations effectively, it is necessary to identify their key prey across and within years. Here, stomach content and stable isotope analyses were used to reconstruct the diet and isotopic niche of the little penguin (Eudyptula minor). Across years, the diet of penguins was dominated by anchovy (Engraulis australis). Within years, during winter, penguins were consistently enriched in δ15N and δ13C levels relative to pre-moult penguins. This was probably due to their increased reliance on juvenile anchovies, which dominate prey biomass in winter months. Following winter and during breeding, the δ13C values of penguins declined. We suggest this subtle shift was in response to the increased consumption of prey that enter the bay from offshore regions to spawn. Our findings highlight that penguins have access to both juvenile fish communities and spawning migrants across the year, enabling these seabirds to remain in close proximity to their colony. However, annual fluctuations in penguin isotopic niche suggest that the recruitment success and abundance of fish communities fluctuate dramatically between years. As such, the continued monitoring of penguin diet will be central to their ongoing management. PMID:26064628

  19. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  20. Activity Time Budget during Foraging Trips of Emperor Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8±4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5±2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9±8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8±7.4% and 69.2±7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9±3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2±1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25±0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3±4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7±4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea. PMID:23185608

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Boessenkool, S; King, T M; Seddon, P J; Waters, J M

    2008-09-01

    Twelve microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) using enriched genomic libraries. Polymorphic loci revealed two to eight alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.21 to 0.77. These loci will be suitable for assessing current and historical patterns of genetic variability in yellow-eyed penguins.

  2. Quark- and gluon-condensate contributions to penguin four-Fermi operators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmady, Mohammad R.; Elias, Victor

    1999-10-04

    The nonperturbative content of the QCD vacuum permits the occurrence of QCD-vacuum condensate contributions to penguin amplitudes. We calculate the dimension-4 and <{alpha}{sub s}G{sup 2}> contributions to the effective Wilson coefficients for penguin four-Fermi operators, and discuss how such contributions may contribute to nonleptonic B decays.

  3. Save the Penguins: Teaching the Science of Heat Transfer through Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittka, Christine; Bell, Randy; Richards, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Engineers, scientists, and environmental groups around the globe are hard at work finding solutions to mitigate or halt global warming. One major goal of the curriculum described here, Save the Penguins, is to help students recognize that what we do at home can affect how penguins fare in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, students learn how…

  4. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Strauss, Venessa; Ryan, Peter G

    2008-10-01

    Although it is well established that certain procellariiform seabirds use odour cues to find prey, it is not clear whether penguins use olfactory cues to forage. It is commonly assumed that penguins lack a sense of smell, yet they are closely related to procellariiforms and forage on similar types of prey in similar areas to many procellariiforms. Such regions are characterized by having high levels of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) a scented compound that many marine animals use to locate foraging grounds. If penguins can smell, DMS may be a biologically relevant scented compound that they may be sensitive to in nature. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) could detect DMS using two separate experiments. We tested wild penguins on Robben Island, South Africa, by deploying mumolar DMS solutions in the colonies, and found that birds slowed down their walking speeds. We also tested captive penguins in a Y-maze. In both cases, our data convincingly demonstrate that African penguins have a functioning sense of smell and are attracted to DMS. The implication of this work is that the detection of changes in the odour landscape (DMS) may assist penguins in identifying productive areas of the ocean for foraging. At-sea studies are needed to investigate this issue further.

  5. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-03-25

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments.

  6. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xijie

    2016-09-15

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540-2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540-1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition.

  7. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus Forster, 1781)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northwards up to Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from 3 zoos and 2 rehabilitation centres in Brazil were assayed for the pre...

  8. Save the Penguins: Teaching the Science of Heat Transfer through Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittka, Christine; Bell, Randy; Richards, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Engineers, scientists, and environmental groups around the globe are hard at work finding solutions to mitigate or halt global warming. One major goal of the curriculum described here, Save the Penguins, is to help students recognize that what we do at home can affect how penguins fare in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, students learn how…

  9. The Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) Rete Tibiotarsale - A supreme biological heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Kazas, Shaked; Benelly, Moran; Golan, Saar

    2017-07-01

    Humans are unable to survive low temperature environments without custom designed clothing and support systems. In contrast, certain penguin species inhabit extremely cold climates without losing substantial energy to self-heating (emperor penguins ambient temperature plummets to as low as -45°C). Penguins accomplish this task by relying on distinct anatomical, physiological and behavioral adaptations. One such adaptation is a blood vessel heat exchanger called the 'Rete Tibiotarsale' - an intermingled network of arteries and veins found in penguins' legs. The Rete existence results in blood occupying the foot expressing a lower average temperature and thus the penguin loosing less heat to the ground. This study examines the Rete significance for the species thermal endurance. The penguin anatomy (leg and main blood vessels) is reconstructed using data chiefly based on the Humboldt species. The resulting model is thermally analyzed using finite element (COMSOL) with the species environment used as boundary conditions. A human-like blood vessel configuration, scaled to the penguin's dimensions, is used as a control for the study. Results indicate that the Rete existence facilitates upkeep of 25-65% of the species total metabolic energy production as compared with the human-like configuration; thus making the Rete probably crucial for penguin thermal endurance. Here, we quantitatively link for the first time the function and structure of this remarkable physiological phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME) AND MACARONI PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUS): EVALUATION OF INFLUENCING FACTORS.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd; Aquino, Susette

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoos and aquaria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using rebound tonometry while penguins were held in two different body positions. Correlations between IOP and factors including age, body position, eye pathology, and housing parameters were evaluated. Normal macaroni penguins had a mean IOP of 42.0 ± 9.7 mm Hg. Normal rockhopper penguins had a mean IOP of 32.9 ± 6.2 mm Hg. Neither species had significantly different IOP between sexes or between left and right eyes of the same penguin. In both species, there was a negative linear correlation between age and IOP. In the macaroni population, IOP was significantly higher when IOP measurement was performed before ophthalmic exam; this was not true in rockhoppers. In both species, IOP measured in a horizontal body position was significantly higher than IOP measured in a vertical body position. In both species, eyes with corneal lesions had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In the macaroni penguin, eyes with rubeosis iridis had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In macaroni penguins, eyes with cataracts had significantly lower mean IOP than normal eyes; this was not true for rockhoppers.

  11. Silent Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beth, Ed.

    Discussed in the booklet are approaches for citizens to use in helping the silent minority--mentally retarded (MR) children and adults--attain their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The MR person is described to be one of 6 million retarded Americans, to benefit from education although his ability to learn is limited, to have…

  12. Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, S; Christmann, S; Silva, L M R; Hirzmann, J; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A

    2014-11-01

    In general, the knowledge on parasites infecting Antarctic birds is scarce. The present study intends to extend the knowledge on gastrointestinal parasites of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica. Fecal samples of 50 individual Emperor Penguins were collected at the Atka Bay and analyzed using the sodium-acetate-formaldehyde (SAF) method for the identification of intestinal helminth eggs and/or protozoan parasite stages. In addition, coproantigen ELISAs were performed to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections. Overall, 13 out of 50 penguins proved parasitized (26%). The following stages of gastrointestinal parasites were identified: One Capillaria sp. egg, Tetrabothrius spp. eggs, Diphyllobothrium spp. eggs, and proglottids of the cestode Parorchites zederi. The recorded Capillaria infection represents a new host record for Emperor Penguins. All coproantigen ELISAs for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were negative. This paper provides current data on parasites of the Emperor Penguin, a protected endemic species of the Antarctica.

  13. Which penguin is this? Attributing false beliefs about object identity at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; Baillargeon, Renée

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends to false beliefs about object identity. Infants watched events involving an agent and 2 toy penguins; 1 penguin could be disassembled (2-piece penguin) and 1 could not (1-piece penguin). Infants realized that outdated contextual information could lead the agent to falsely believe she was facing the 1-piece rather than the 2-piece penguin, suggesting that 18-month-olds can attribute false beliefs about the identity of objects and providing new evidence for SS2 reasoning in the 2nd year of life.

  14. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Paul Scofield, R

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  15. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Paul Scofield, R.

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  16. Climate Change Increases Reproductive Failure in Magellanic Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, P. Dee; Rebstock, Ginger A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is causing more frequent and intense storms, and climate models predict this trend will continue, potentially affecting wildlife populations. Since 1960 the number of days with >20 mm of rain increased near Punta Tombo, Argentina. Between 1983 and 2010 we followed 3496 known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks at Punta Tombo to determine how weather impacted their survival. In two years, rain was the most common cause of death killing 50% and 43% of chicks. In 26 years starvation killed the most chicks. Starvation and predation were present in all years. Chicks died in storms in 13 of 28 years and in 16 of 233 storms. Storm mortality was additive; there was no relationship between the number of chicks killed in storms and the numbers that starved (P = 0.75) or that were eaten (P = 0.39). However, when more chicks died in storms, fewer chicks fledged (P = 0.05, R2 = 0.14). More chicks died when rainfall was higher and air temperature lower. Most chicks died from storms when they were 9–23 days old; the oldest chick killed in a storm was 41 days old. Storms with heavier rainfall killed older chicks as well as more chicks. Chicks up to 70 days old were killed by heat. Burrow nests mitigated storm mortality (N = 1063). The age span of chicks in the colony at any given time increased because the synchrony of egg laying decreased since 1983, lengthening the time when chicks are vulnerable to storms. Climate change that increases the frequency and intensity of storms results in more reproductive failure of Magellanic penguins, a pattern likely to apply to many species breeding in the region. Climate variability has already lowered reproductive success of Magellanic penguins and is likely undermining the resilience of many other species. PMID:24489663

  17. Climate change increases reproductive failure in Magellanic penguins.

    PubMed

    Boersma, P Dee; Rebstock, Ginger A

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is causing more frequent and intense storms, and climate models predict this trend will continue, potentially affecting wildlife populations. Since 1960 the number of days with >20 mm of rain increased near Punta Tombo, Argentina. Between 1983 and 2010 we followed 3496 known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks at Punta Tombo to determine how weather impacted their survival. In two years, rain was the most common cause of death killing 50% and 43% of chicks. In 26 years starvation killed the most chicks. Starvation and predation were present in all years. Chicks died in storms in 13 of 28 years and in 16 of 233 storms. Storm mortality was additive; there was no relationship between the number of chicks killed in storms and the numbers that starved (P = 0.75) or that were eaten (P = 0.39). However, when more chicks died in storms, fewer chicks fledged (P = 0.05, R(2) = 0.14). More chicks died when rainfall was higher and air temperature lower. Most chicks died from storms when they were 9-23 days old; the oldest chick killed in a storm was 41 days old. Storms with heavier rainfall killed older chicks as well as more chicks. Chicks up to 70 days old were killed by heat. Burrow nests mitigated storm mortality (N = 1063). The age span of chicks in the colony at any given time increased because the synchrony of egg laying decreased since 1983, lengthening the time when chicks are vulnerable to storms. Climate change that increases the frequency and intensity of storms results in more reproductive failure of Magellanic penguins, a pattern likely to apply to many species breeding in the region. Climate variability has already lowered reproductive success of Magellanic penguins and is likely undermining the resilience of many other species.

  18. Husbandry and enclosure influences on penguin behavior and conservation breeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew R; Deere, Nicolas J; Little, Holly A; Snipp, Ross; Goulder, Jackie; Mayer-Clarke, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Multi-zoo comparisons of animal welfare are rare, and yet vital for ensuring continued improvement of zoo enclosures and husbandry. Methods are not standardized for the development of zoo enclosures based on multiple indicators, and case study species are required. This study compares behavior and breeding success to various enclosure and husbandry parameters for the Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, for the development of improved enclosure design. Behavioral sampling was completed at Flamingo Land over a period of 8 months. Further data on behavior, enclosure design, and breeding success were collected via questionnaires, visits to zoos, and literature review. Breeding success was primarily influenced by colony age and number of breeding pairs, suggesting an important social influence on reproduction. Across zoos, there was also significant variation in behavior. The proportion of time spent in water varied between zoos (2-23%) and was used as an indicator of physical activity and natural behavior. Regression models revealed that water-use was best predicted by total enclosure area per penguin, followed by land area, with some evidence for positive influence of pool surface area per penguin. Predominantly linear/curvilinear increases in our biological indicators with enclosure parameters suggest that optimal conditions for S. humboldti were not met among the selected zoos. We propose revised minimum conditions for S. humboldti enclosure design, which exceed those in the existing husbandry guidelines. We present a framework for the evaluation of zoo enclosures and suggest that a rigorous scientific protocol be established for the design of new enclosures, based on multivariate methods. Zoo Biol. 35:385-397, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. DNA sexing in Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) from feather samples.

    PubMed

    Costantini, V; Guaricci, A C; Laricchiuta, P; Rausa, F; Lacalandra, G M

    2008-06-01

    Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) show little sexual dimorphism, and although males are usually heavier and larger than females, sexing by direct observation may be difficult, especially in young subjects. In this paper we evaluate the utility of the molecular approach, for sexing impuberal Humboldt Penguins from feathers. Firstly, a PCR test was used employing primers that amplify the homologous region of the CHD-W gene, unique in female, and the CHD-Z gene, occurring in the two sexes. The analysis of the PCR products showed a band of 370 bp in males and two bands of 370 and 380 bp in females. Additionally, to confirm these results, the PCR products were digested with HaeIII and Asp700 for RFLP analysis. Male PCR products showed two bands (310 and 60 bp) after digestion with HaeIII, and a unique band (370 bp) using Asp700, while all fragments obtained from females resolved into three bands using both HaeIII (380, 310 and 60 bp) and Asp700 (370, 270 and 110 bp), confirming the previous PCR sex determination. Results from these two different DNA-based tests were in accordance, in all cases, with sexes checked by preliminary cloacoscopy. Thus, it was found that the PCR method from feather samples alone is sufficient, reliable and without any risks for a rapid sexing in Humboldt Penguin. This non-invasive sexing technique can be useful at any age to verify the sex ratio in field populations and for gender identification in ex situ conservation programs.

  20. Sea ice cover and its influence on Adélie Penguin reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and ice is well established, with sea ice influencing penguin populations through a variety of processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. To further explain the relationship between sea ice and Adélie Penguin reproductive performance, we investigated the relative importance of various measures of sea ice cover on breeding success at Béchervaise Island, East Antarctica. Our results show a clear distinction in the response of penguins to different types of ice, as well as to the timing of the presence of sea ice. Nearshore sea ice, which is composed primarily of fast ice during the guard stage of the breeding season, had an overwhelmingly strong and negative impact on penguin reproductive performance. The influence of winter and offshore guard-stage ice was only evident in conjunction with nearshore ice. Predicting Adélie Penguin population growth in relation to changes in the sea ice environment may be complicated because penguin-ice interactions vary according to the type of sea ice present, the season in which it is present, and the processes contributing to population growth that are influenced by sea ice.

  1. Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ainley, David G; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M

    2006-08-01

    An apparent trophic cascade that appears during summer in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, explains why the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) there becomes cannibalistic; its principal prey, crystal krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) becomes scarce; and the diatom community is minimally grazed compared to adjacent areas. The krill is the major grazer of diatoms. On the basis of fieldwork at Ross Island, we suggest that the cascade results from foraging by unusually numerous Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis), and fish-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca). These species and other top predators apparently deplete the krill and silverfish. In drawing our conclusions, we were aided by two "natural experiments." In one "experiment," large, grounded icebergs altered the seasonal pattern of change in regional sea-ice cover, but not the seasonal change in penguin diet and foraging behavior that was also detected during the pre-iceberg era. In the other "experiment," a short-term polynya (opening in the ice) brought penguins and whales together in a confined area, this time altering both penguin diet and foraging behavior. We conclude that the foraging of penguins and whales, and not a formerly hypothesized seasonal decrease in sea-ice cover, explains (1) the annual switch in the penguins' prey from krill to silverfish, (2) the subsequent lengthening of penguin foraging trips, and (3) a marked decline of cetaceans in the area later in the season. Reduction in the middle-trophic-level prey is expressed in the relaxed grazing pressure on phytoplankton.

  2. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg−1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  3. An improved model of heat transfer through penguin feathers and down.

    PubMed

    Du, Ning; Fan, Jintu; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2007-10-21

    Penguins, mostly live in the extremely cold Antarctic, are known to have feathers and down, which are light weight, compact and extremely efficient in preventing heat loss. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of heat transfer through the penguin feathers and down, and how the unique characteristics of penguin feathers and down make them such good thermal insulators are not fully understood. In this paper, an integrated model of heat transfer through the penguin feathers and down is developed and computed using finite volume method, with the geometrical structure of the barbules being considered. Monte-Carlo method is adopted to determine the radiative absorption and emission constant in the integrated model. The effective thermal conductance of penguin feathers and down computed from our model compared well with the experimentally measured value reported in the literature. Three models (penguin model, random fibre model (fibre radius=3microm) and random fibre model (fibre radius=10microm)) are further simulated and compared. Results showed that the relative small radius of the barbules of penguin feather and their geometrical structure are responsible for the reduction of heat loss in cold environment.

  4. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-11-14

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

  5. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  6. Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; McGraw, Kevin J.; James, Helen F.; Madden, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed ‘spheniscin’, is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm−1. Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds. PMID:23516063

  7. Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins. © 2013 SETAC.

  8. General lower bounds for b{yields}d penguin processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    For the exploration of flavor physics, b{yields}d penguin processes are an important aspect, with the prominent example of B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0}. We recently derived lower bounds for the CP-averaged branching ratio of this channel in the standard model; they were found to be very close to the corresponding experimental upper limits, thereby suggesting that B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}K{sup 0} should soon be observed. In fact, the BABAR Collaboration subsequently announced the first signals of this transition. Here we point out that it is also possible to derive lower bounds for B{yields}{rho}{gamma} decays, which are again surprisingly close to the current experimental upper limits. We show that these bounds are realizations of a general bound that holds within the standard model for b{yields}d penguin processes, allowing further applications to decays of the kind B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sup (}*{sup ){+-}}K{sup (}*{sup )} and B{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}, {rho}{sup {+-}}l{sup +}l{sup -}.

  9. Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b {yields} s Penguins

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.

    2006-07-11

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}(1020)K{sup 0}, {eta}'K{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980)K{sub S}{sup 0}, {omega}(782)K{sub S}{sup 0} and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0} decays based on a sample of 386 x 106BB(bar sign) pairs collected at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider. These decays are dominated by the b {yields} s gluonic penguin transition and are sensitive to new CP-violating phases from physics beyond the standard model. One neutral meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays. We also perform measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{gamma} decay that is dominated by the b {yields} s radiative penguin.

  10. Right Heart Failure in an African Penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ).

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lara; Field, Cara; McDermott, Alexa; Pogue, Brandon; Clauss, Tonya; Bossart, Gregory; Camus, Alvin

    2016-09-01

    A 19-year-old male African penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was presented with coelomic distention after a 6-week history of lethargy and decreased appetite. Results of radiographs showed loss of coelomic detail, and ultrasound and computed tomography results revealed coelomic fluid and dilated hepatic veins. Echocardiography revealed moderate right atrial enlargement. Findings were consistent with right-sided cardiac disease. Treatment with furosemide initially reduced ascites, but the clinical condition worsened weeks later and enalapril, pimobendan, and sildenafil were added to the medical therapy. At 12 weeks after presentation, results of an echocardiogram revealed persistent right atrioventricular valve regurgitation, moderate ascites, and dilation of hepatic veins. Clinical signs of right heart failure were managed through adjustments in medical therapy and coelomic fluid aspiration, but the bird died 18 weeks after initial presentation. Gross and microscopic findings were consistent with valvular insufficiency and right-sided heart failure. To our knowledge, this case is the first documented report of cardiac disease in an African penguin.

  11. Early diving behaviour in juvenile penguins: improvement or selection processes

    PubMed Central

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-01-01

    The early life stage of long-lived species is critical to the viability of population, but is poorly understood. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether juveniles are less efficient foragers than adults as has been hypothesized. We measured changes in the diving behaviour of 17 one-year-old king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at Crozet Islands (subantartic archipelago) during their first months at sea, using miniaturized tags that transmitted diving activity in real time. We also equipped five non-breeder adults with the same tags for comparison. The data on foraging performance revealed two groups of juveniles. The first group made shallower and shorter dives that may be indicative of early mortality while the second group progressively increased their diving depths and durations, and survived the first months at sea. This surviving group of juveniles required the same recovery durations as adults, but typically performed shallower and shorter dives. There is thereby a relationship between improved diving behaviour and survival in young penguins. This long period of improving diving performance in the juvenile life stage is potentially a critical period for the survival of deep avian divers and may have implications for their ability to adapt to environmental change. PMID:27484650

  12. Early diving behaviour in juvenile penguins: improvement or selection processes.

    PubMed

    Orgeret, Florian; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-08-01

    The early life stage of long-lived species is critical to the viability of population, but is poorly understood. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether juveniles are less efficient foragers than adults as has been hypothesized. We measured changes in the diving behaviour of 17 one-year-old king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at Crozet Islands (subantartic archipelago) during their first months at sea, using miniaturized tags that transmitted diving activity in real time. We also equipped five non-breeder adults with the same tags for comparison. The data on foraging performance revealed two groups of juveniles. The first group made shallower and shorter dives that may be indicative of early mortality while the second group progressively increased their diving depths and durations, and survived the first months at sea. This surviving group of juveniles required the same recovery durations as adults, but typically performed shallower and shorter dives. There is thereby a relationship between improved diving behaviour and survival in young penguins. This long period of improving diving performance in the juvenile life stage is potentially a critical period for the survival of deep avian divers and may have implications for their ability to adapt to environmental change. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Occurrence of Magellanic penguins along the Northeast Brazilian coast during 2008 Austral winter.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A S; Lentini, Carlos A D; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  14. The Penguin: a Low Reynolds Number Powered Glider for Station Keeping Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, J. K.; Greene, D. W.; Lee, T. T.; Matier, P. T.; Mccarthy, T. R.; Mcguire, R. J.; Schuette, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Penguin is a low Reynolds number (approx. 100,000) remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). It was designed to fly three laps indoors around two pylons in a figure-eight course while maximizing loiter time. The Penguin's low Reynolds number mission is an important one currently being studied for possible future flights in the atmospheres of other planets and for specialized military missions. Although the Penguin's mission seemed quite simple at first, the challenges of such low Reynolds number flight have proven to be quite unique. In addition to the constraint of low Reynolds number flight, the aircraft had to be robust in its control, highly durable, and it had to carry a small instrument package. The Penguin's flight plan, concept, performance, aerodynamic design, weight estimation, structural design, propulsion, stability and control, and cost estimate is detailed.

  15. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A. S.; Lentini, Carlos A. D.; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P. Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R.

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters. PMID:22649308

  16. [Book review] Skua and penguin: Predator and prey, by Euan Young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Review of: Skua and Penguin: Predator and Prey. Euan Young. 1994. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. xvi + 452 pp., 53 line diagrams, 44 half-tones. ISBN 0-521-32251-0. $99.95 cloth

  17. Proliferation of East Antarctic Adélie penguins in response to historical deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jane; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Lelliott, Patrick; Miller, Karen

    2015-11-18

    Major, long-term environmental changes are projected in the Southern Ocean and these are likely to have impacts for marine predators such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). Decadal monitoring studies have provided insight into the short-term environmental sensitivities of Adélie penguin populations, particularly to sea ice changes. However, given the long-term nature of projected climate change, it is also prudent to consider the responses of populations to environmental change over longer time scales. We investigated the population trajectory of Adélie penguins during the last glacial-interglacial transition to determine how the species was affected by climate warming over millennia. We focussed our study on East Antarctica, which is home to 30 % of the global population of Adélie penguins. Using mitochondrial DNA from extant colonies, we reconstructed the population trend of Adélie penguins in East Antarctica over the past 22,000 years using an extended Bayesian skyline plot method. To determine the relationship of East Antarctic Adélie penguins with populations elsewhere in Antarctica we constructed a phylogeny using mitochondrial DNA sequences. We found that the Adélie penguin population expanded 135-fold from approximately 14,000 years ago. The population growth was coincident with deglaciation in East Antarctica and, therefore, an increase in ice-free ground suitable for Adélie penguin nesting. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that East Antarctic Adélie penguins share a common ancestor with Adélie penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Arc, with an estimated age of 29,000 years ago, in the midst of the last glacial period. This finding suggests that extant colonies in East Antarctica, the Scotia Arc and the Antarctic Peninsula were founded from a single glacial refuge. While changes in sea ice conditions are a critical driver of Adélie penguin population success over decadal and yearly timescales, deglaciation appears to have

  18. Adélie penguin survival: age structure, temporal variability and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2011-12-01

    The driving factors of survival, a key demographic process, have been particularly challenging to study, especially for winter migratory species such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). While winter environmental conditions clearly influence Antarctic seabird survival, it has been unclear to which environmental features they are most likely to respond. Here, we examine the influence of environmental fluctuations, broad climatic conditions and the success of the breeding season prior to winter on annual survival of an Adélie penguin population using mark-recapture models based on penguin tag and resight data over a 16-year period. This analysis required an extension to the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber model by incorporating age structure in recapture and survival sub-models. By including model covariates, we show that survival of older penguins is primarily related to the amount and concentration of ice present in their winter foraging grounds. In contrast, fledgling and yearling survival depended on other factors in addition to the physical marine environment and outcomes of the previous breeding season, but we were unable to determine what these were. The relationship between sea-ice and survival differed with penguin age: extensive ice during the return journey to breeding colonies was detrimental to survival for the younger penguins, whereas either too little or too much ice (between 15 and 80% cover) in the winter foraging grounds was detrimental for adults. Our results demonstrate that predictions of Adélie penguin survival can be improved by taking into account penguin age, prior breeding conditions and environmental features.

  19. Two-loop current-current operator contribution to the non-leptonic QCD penguin amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Huber, T.; Li, Xin-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    The computation of direct CP asymmetries in charmless B decays at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD is of interest to ascertain the short-distance contribution. Here we compute the two-loop penguin contractions of the current-current operators Q1,2 and provide a first estimate of NNLO CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated b → s transitions.

  20. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  1. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Michael J.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  2. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the southern Indian Ocean: geographical and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Cherel, Yves; Jaeger, Audrey; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-06-01

    Penguins have been recently identified as useful bioindicators of mercury (Hg) transfer to food webs in the Southern Ocean over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, feather Hg concentrations were measured in adults and chicks of all the seven penguin species breeding in the southern Indian Ocean, over a large latitudinal gradient spanning Antarctic, subantarctic and subtropical sites. Hg was also measured in feathers of museum specimens of penguins collected at the same sites in the 1950s and 1970s. Our aim was to evaluate geographical and historical variations in Hg transfer to penguins, while accounting for feeding habits by using the stable isotope technique (δ(13)C, habitat; δ(15)N, diet/trophic level). Adult feather Hg concentrations in contemporary individuals ranged from 0.7 ± 0.2 to 5.9 ± 1.9 μg g(-1) dw in Adélie and gentoo penguins, respectively. Inter-specific differences in Hg accumulation were strong among both adults and chicks, and mainly linked to feeding habits. Overall, penguin species that feed in Antarctic waters had lower feather Hg concentrations than those that feed in subantarctic and subtropical waters, irrespective of age class and dietary group, suggesting different Hg incorporation into food webs depending on the water mass. While accounting for feeding habits, we detected different temporal variations in feather Hg concentrations depending on species. Notably, the subantarctic gentoo and macaroni penguins had higher Hg burdens in the contemporary rather than in the historical sample, despite similar or lower trophic levels, respectively. Whereas increases in Hg deposition have been recently documented in the Southern Hemisphere, future monitoring is highly needed to confirm or not this temporal trend in penguins, especially in the context of actual changing Hg emission patterns and global warming.

  3. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  4. Responding to Climate Change: Adelie Penguins Confront Astronomical and Ocean Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Trathan, Phil N.

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Ad lie penguin spans 22 deg. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adelies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a 3-yr period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated migratory routes and characteristics and wintering locations of Adelie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 Geolocation Sensors affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12,760 km, with the longest being 17,600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75-85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 hr with sun greater than 6 below horizon). We review how Adelie Penguin migration has likely changed since withdrawal of the West Antarctic Ice 35 Sheet across the Ross Sea beginning 12,000 yBP. If sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases, as predicted by climate models, we can expect change in wintering areas, the location of which ultimately may be limited more by the availability of adequate light for visual foraging than by the availability of suitable pack-ice.

  5. An Emperor Penguin Population Estimate: The First Global, Synoptic Survey of a Species from Space

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; LaRue, Michelle A.; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J.; Fleming, Andrew H.; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm. We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ∼238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000–175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ∼595,000 adult birds. There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research. PMID:22514609

  6. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Megan A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species’ geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century. PMID:27352849

  7. Pond use by captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.

    PubMed

    Ozella, Laura; Favaro, Livio; Carnovale, Irene; Pessani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. However, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of African penguins housed in an exhibit where their pond habitat was adjacent to a swimming pool. Observations were carried out on 7 penguins in the summer of 2009. Data were collected during 3 time periods (Time 1 [T1] = opening of the swimming season, Time 2 [T2] = core of the season, Time 3 [T3] = late season) of 14 days each. The human disturbance caused by bathers strongly reduced the pond use by penguins at T1 and T2, especially when there were large numbers of visitors. However, at T3, we observed that the overall use of the pond by penguins increased, and the average duration of their diving was no longer dependent on the number of visitors.

  8. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Haddrath, Oliver P; Edge, Kerri-Anne

    2006-01-07

    Classic problems in historical biogeography are where did penguins originate, and why are such mobile birds restricted to the Southern Hemisphere? Competing hypotheses posit they arose in tropical-warm temperate waters, species-diverse cool temperate regions, or in Gondwanaland approximately 100 mya when it was further north. To test these hypotheses we constructed a strongly supported phylogeny of extant penguins from 5851 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Using Bayesian inference of ancestral areas we show that an Antarctic origin of extant taxa is highly likely, and that more derived taxa occur in lower latitudes. Molecular dating estimated penguins originated about 71 million years ago in Gondwanaland when it was further south and cooler. Moreover, extant taxa are inferred to have originated in the Eocene, coincident with the extinction of the larger-bodied fossil taxa as global climate cooled. We hypothesize that, as Antarctica became ice-encrusted, modern penguins expanded via the circumpolar current to oceanic islands within the Antarctic Convergence, and later to the southern continents. Thus, global cooling has had a major impact on penguin evolution, as it has on vertebrates generally. Penguins only reached cooler tropical waters in the Galapagos about 4 mya, and have not crossed the equatorial thermal barrier.

  9. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Allan J; Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Haddrath, Oliver P; Edge, Kerri-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Classic problems in historical biogeography are where did penguins originate, and why are such mobile birds restricted to the Southern Hemisphere? Competing hypotheses posit they arose in tropical–warm temperate waters, species-diverse cool temperate regions, or in Gondwanaland ∼100 mya when it was further north. To test these hypotheses we constructed a strongly supported phylogeny of extant penguins from 5851 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Using Bayesian inference of ancestral areas we show that an Antarctic origin of extant taxa is highly likely, and that more derived taxa occur in lower latitudes. Molecular dating estimated penguins originated about 71 million years ago in Gondwanaland when it was further south and cooler. Moreover, extant taxa are inferred to have originated in the Eocene, coincident with the extinction of the larger-bodied fossil taxa as global climate cooled. We hypothesize that, as Antarctica became ice-encrusted, modern penguins expanded via the circumpolar current to oceanic islands within the Antarctic Convergence, and later to the southern continents. Thus, global cooling has had a major impact on penguin evolution, as it has on vertebrates generally. Penguins only reached cooler tropical waters in the Galapagos about 4 mya, and have not crossed the equatorial thermal barrier. PMID:16519228

  10. An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci in an outdoor colony of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Jencek, Jacqueline E; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N; Garner, Michael M; Dunker, Freeland H; Baszler, Timothy V

    2012-12-01

    An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci occurred in an outdoor colony of 63 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at the San Francisco Zoo. Affected penguins presented with inappetence, lethargy, and light green urates. Hematologic and serum biochemical findings were consistent with chronic inflammation. Penguins did not respond to initial supportive and antimicrobial therapy, and 3 died. Necropsy results of the 3 birds revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and histologic lesions included necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and vasculitis. Chlamydophila psittaci infection was confirmed by results of Gimenez staining, immunohistochemistry, and tissue polymerase chain reaction assay. As additional birds continued to present with similar clinical signs, the entire colony of penguins was prophylactically treated with a 30-day minimum course of doxycycline, administered orally or intramuscularly or as a combination of both. Despite treatment, 9 additional penguins died during a 3-month period. Pathologic results from these birds revealed renal and visceral gout (n = 4), cardiac insufficiency (n = 2), sepsis from a suspected esophageal perforation (n = 2), and no gross lesions (n = 1). During the outbreak, 4 birds presented with seizures, 5 developed dermatitis, and nearly 90% of birds in the colony showed severe keratoconjunctivitis, believed to be related to drug therapy with doxycycline. We report the clinical and pathologic features of Chlamydophila psittaci infection in an outdoor colony of penguins and the associated challenges of treatment.

  11. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  12. Two different avipoxviruses associated with pox disease in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Claudia; Favero, Cíntia M; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Bhering, Renata C C; Brandão, Paulo; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2013-12-01

    A novel avipoxvirus caused diphtheritic lesions in the oesophagus of five and in the bronchioli of four Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) and also cutaneous lesions in eight Magellanic penguins housed in outdoor enclosures in a Rehabilitation Centre at Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. At the same time, another avipoxvirus strain caused cutaneous lesions in three Magellanic penguins at a geographically distinct Rehabilitation Centre localized at Vila Velha, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology and use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical signs in the penguins included cutaneous papules and nodules around eyelids and beaks, depression and restriction in weight gain. The most common gross lesions were severely congested and haemorrhagic lungs, splenomegaly and cardiomegaly. Histological examination revealed Bollinger inclusion bodies in cutaneous lesions, mild to severe bronchopneumonia, moderate periportal lymphocytic hepatitis, splenic lymphopenia and lymphocytolysis. Other frequent findings included necrotizing splenitis, enteritis, oesophagitis, dermatitis and airsacculitis. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen within oesophageal epithelial cells in five birds and in epithelial cells of the bronchioli in four penguins. DNA from all samples was amplified from skin tissue by PCR using P4b-targeting primers already described in the literature for avipoxvirus. The sequences showed two different virus strains belonging to the genus Avipoxvirus of the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, one being divergent from the penguinpox and avipoxviruses already described in Magellanic penguins in Patagonia, but segregating within a clade of canarypox-like viruses implicated in diphtheritic and respiratory disease.

  13. AN EVALUATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF BUMBLEFOOT (PODODERMATITIS) IN PENGUINS.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Torgerson-White, Lauri L; Allard, Stephanie M; Schneider, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography as a noninvasive screening tool for detection of pododermatitis during the developing and active stages of disease in three species of penguins: king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) , macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). In total, 67 penguins were examined every 3 mo over a 15-mo period. At each exam, bumblefoot lesions were characterized and measured, and a timed series of thermal images were collected over a 4-min period. Three different methods were compared for analysis of thermograms. Feet with active lesions that compromise the surface of the foot were compared to feet with inactive lesions and no lesions. The hypothesis was that feet with active lesions would have warmer surface temperatures than the other conditions. Analysis of the data showed that although feet with active bumblefoot lesions are warmer than feet with inactive or no lesions, the variability seen in each individual penguin from one exam day to the next and the overlap seen between temperatures from each condition made thermal imaging an unreliable tool for detection of bumblefoot in the species studied.

  14. A reversal of fortunes: climate change 'winners' and 'losers' in Antarctic Peninsula penguins.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Gemma V; Dunn, Michael J; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J; Pybus, Oliver G; Rogers, Alex D; Hart, Tom

    2014-06-12

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces 'winners', species that benefit from these events and 'losers', species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a 'reversal of fortunes' as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change 'winners', while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change 'losers'.

  15. Long-term fasting decreases mitochondrial avian UCP-mediated oxygen consumption in hypometabolic king penguins

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Benjamin; Halsey, Lewis G.; Dolmazon, Virginie; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J.; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, may contribute to the ability of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to withstand fasting for several weeks. After 20 days of fasting, king penguins showed a reduced rate of whole animal oxygen consumption (V̇o2; −33%) at rest, together with a reduced abundance of avUCP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1-α) mRNA in pectoralis muscle (−54%, −36%, respectively). These parameters were restored after the birds had been refed for 3 days. Furthermore, in recently fed, but not in fasted penguins, isolated muscle mitochondria showed a guanosine diphosphate-inhibited, fatty acid plus superoxide-activated respiration, indicating the presence of a functional UCP. It was calculated that variation in mitochondrial UCP-dependent respiration in vitro may contribute to nearly 20% of the difference in resting V̇o2 between fed or refed penguins and fasted penguins measured in vivo. These results suggest that the lowering of avUCP activity during periods of long-term energetic restriction may contribute to the reduction in metabolic rate and hence the ability of king penguins to face prolonged periods of fasting. PMID:18495832

  16. Epidemiology and pathology of avian malaria in penguins undergoing rehabilitation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; da Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane Kiyomi Miyaji; Bhering, Renata Cristina Campos; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Amaku, Marcos; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-03-13

    Seabird rehabilitation is a valuable strategy to mitigate the impacts of oil pollution and other anthropogenic factors, and can significantly contribute to the conservation of penguins. However, infectious diseases such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) can hamper the success of rehabilitation efforts. We combined morphological and molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the epidemiology and pathology of Plasmodium in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at rehabilitation centers along 2500 km of the coastline of Brazil. True prevalence of malarial parasites was estimated between 6.6% and 13.5%. We identified five species, three of which had not been described infecting penguins (P. cathemerium, P. nucleophilum, P. unalis); an additional five distinct Plasmodium lineages were also distinguished, and albeit unidentified these clearly correspond to species that also have not yet been reported in penguins. Our results indicate that the diversity of plasmodia that may infect these birds is greater than previously recognised. Considering the well-defined seasonality observed in this study, it is clear that rehabilitation centers could benefit by narrowing their preventative efforts on penguins maintained or admitted during the Austral spring-summer, particularly by preventing mosquitoes from coming into contact with penguins.

  17. Long-term fasting decreases mitochondrial avian UCP-mediated oxygen consumption in hypometabolic king penguins.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Halsey, Lewis G; Dolmazon, Virginie; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-07-01

    In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, may contribute to the ability of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to withstand fasting for several weeks. After 20 days of fasting, king penguins showed a reduced rate of whole animal oxygen consumption (Vo2; -33%) at rest, together with a reduced abundance of avUCP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1-alpha) mRNA in pectoralis muscle (-54%, -36%, respectively). These parameters were restored after the birds had been refed for 3 days. Furthermore, in recently fed, but not in fasted penguins, isolated muscle mitochondria showed a guanosine diphosphate-inhibited, fatty acid plus superoxide-activated respiration, indicating the presence of a functional UCP. It was calculated that variation in mitochondrial UCP-dependent respiration in vitro may contribute to nearly 20% of the difference in resting Vo2 between fed or refed penguins and fasted penguins measured in vivo. These results suggest that the lowering of avUCP activity during periods of long-term energetic restriction may contribute to the reduction in metabolic rate and hence the ability of king penguins to face prolonged periods of fasting.

  18. Diversity in the Toll-Like Receptor Genes of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré Lee; Vermaak, Elaine; Roelofse, Marli; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to the drastic reduction in population numbers over the last 20 years. To date, the only studies on immunogenetic variation in penguins have been conducted on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It was shown in humans that up to half of the genetic variability in immune responses to pathogens are located in non-MHC genes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are now increasingly being studied in a variety of taxa as a broader approach to determine functional genetic diversity. In this study, we confirm low genetic diversity in the innate immune region of African penguins similar to that observed in New Zealand robin that has undergone several severe population bottlenecks. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity across TLRs varied between ex situ and in situ penguins with the number of non-synonymous alterations in ex situ populations (n = 14) being reduced in comparison to in situ populations (n = 16). Maintaining adaptive diversity is of vital importance in the assurance populations as these animals may potentially be used in the future for re-introductions. Therefore, this study provides essential data on immune gene diversity in penguins and will assist in providing an additional monitoring tool for African penguin in the wild, as well as to monitor diversity in ex situ populations and to ensure that diversity found in the in situ populations are captured in the assurance populations. PMID:27760133

  19. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Sara; Xavier, José C.; Tavares, Sílvia; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman; Paiva, Vitor H.; Medeiros, Renata; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3–5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W). Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7–96.7%). This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins’ moult. PMID:26352664

  20. Continental-Scale Mapping of Adelie Penguin Colonies from Landsat Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breeding distribution of the Adlie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, was surveyed with Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data in an area covering approximately 330 of longitude along the coastline of Antarctica.An algorithm was designed to minimize radiometric noise and to retrieve Adlie penguin colony location and spatial extent from the ETM+data. In all, 9143 individual pixels were classified as belonging to an Adlie penguin colony class out of the entire dataset of 195 ETM+ scenes, where the dimension of each pixel is 30 m by 30 m,and each scene is approximately 180 km by 180 km. Pixel clustering identified a total of 187 individual Adlie penguin colonies, ranging in size from a single pixel (900 sq m) to a maximum of 875 pixels (0.788 sq km). Colony retrievals have a very low error of commission, on the order of 1% or less, and the error of omission was estimated to be 3% to 4% by population based on comparisons with direct observations from surveys across east Antarctica. Thus, the Landsat retrievals successfully located Adlie penguin colonies that accounted for 96 to 97% of the regional population used as ground truth. Geographic coordinates and the spatial extent of each colony retrieved from the Landsat data are available publically. Regional analysis found several areas where the Landsat retrievals suggest populations that are significantly larger than published estimates. Six Adlie penguin colonies were found that are believed to be previously unreported in the literature.

  1. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females.

  2. Diversity in the Toll-Like Receptor Genes of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré Lee; Vermaak, Elaine; Roelofse, Marli; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to the drastic reduction in population numbers over the last 20 years. To date, the only studies on immunogenetic variation in penguins have been conducted on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It was shown in humans that up to half of the genetic variability in immune responses to pathogens are located in non-MHC genes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are now increasingly being studied in a variety of taxa as a broader approach to determine functional genetic diversity. In this study, we confirm low genetic diversity in the innate immune region of African penguins similar to that observed in New Zealand robin that has undergone several severe population bottlenecks. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity across TLRs varied between ex situ and in situ penguins with the number of non-synonymous alterations in ex situ populations (n = 14) being reduced in comparison to in situ populations (n = 16). Maintaining adaptive diversity is of vital importance in the assurance populations as these animals may potentially be used in the future for re-introductions. Therefore, this study provides essential data on immune gene diversity in penguins and will assist in providing an additional monitoring tool for African penguin in the wild, as well as to monitor diversity in ex situ populations and to ensure that diversity found in the in situ populations are captured in the assurance populations.

  3. Gillnet fisheries as a major mortality factor of Magellanic penguins in wintering areas.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luis Gustavo; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia Luciano; Haimovici, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    The incidental capture in fisheries is probably the main conservation problem affecting seabirds. While the capture of albatrosses and petrels on longline hooks is well-known worldwide, the bycatch of diving seabirds in gillnets is an overlooked conservation problem. During a winter coastal fishing trip, the capture of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) was recorded in driftnet and bottom setnet fisheries for the first time in southern Brazil. The highest captures rates were found in driftnets, from 146.5 to 545.5 penguins/km² of net and a total of 56 dead penguins were recorded. In the bottom gillnet, a total of 12 birds were killed and the capture rates varied from 41.7 to 125.0 penguins/km² of net. Although preliminary, the results presented in this paper were consistent between sets. If we consider the magnitude of driftnet and setnet fishing fleets, and that most dead penguins were adults, the impact upon Magellanic penguin populations is probably significant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Megan A; Lynch, Heather J; Saba, Vincent S; Oliver, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species' geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century.

  5. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, Megan A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species’ geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century.

  6. Do blood parasites infect Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the wild? Prospective investigation and climatogeographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Uhart, Marcela; Rago, Virginia; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-01-11

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods. We examined blood smears of 284 Magellanic penguins from the Argentinean coast and tested their blood samples with nested polymerase chain reaction tests targeting Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Babesia. No blood parasites were detected. Analysing the sampling effort of previous studies and the climatogeography of the region, we found there is strong basis to conclude that haemosporidians do not infect wild Magellanic penguins on the Argentinean coast. However, at present it is not possible to determine whether such parasites occur on the Chilean coast and at the Falkland Islands. Furthermore, it is troubling that the northward distribution expansion of Magellanic penguins and the poleward distribution shift of vectors may lead to novel opportunities for the transmission of blood parasites.

  7. Krill ( Euphausia superba) abundance and Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding performance in the waters off the Béchervaise Island colony, East Antarctica in 2 years with contrasting ecological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, S.; Clarke, J.; Romaine, S. J.; Kawaguchi, S.; Williams, G.; Hosie, G. W.

    2008-02-01

    In 2001 and 2003 small-scale acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) distribution and abundance were conducted offshore from an East Antarctic colony of Adelie penguins on Bechervaise Island (67°35'S, 62°49'E) that has been monitored for 15 years. Although the distribution of krill was similar between the two summers, their abundance in 2001 was estimated to be 3 times higher than in 2003. This biomass difference was reflected in the breeding performance of the penguins at the monitored colony. Significant differences were observed between the two seasons in foraging trip duration during chick rearing, breeding success, meal mass and dietary composition. Penguins travelled further to forage in 2003 than 2001, stayed away longer and brought back smaller meals. Fish (mostly Pleuragramma antarcticum) contributed significantly to the diet in 2003 but were only a minor component in 2001. Differences between years were particularly apparent during the late guard to early crèche stages of chick rearing, coinciding with the timing of the krill survey. Chick mortality peaked during this period also. Krill demographics showed little difference between the 2 years. Oceanographically, the two summers differed; in 2003 the mixed layer was fresher and shallower, indicating a delayed melting of sea-ice in the study area when compared to 2001. Satellite observations indicated that the pack-ice directly offshore from the Mawson coast broke out earlier in 2001 and the perennial fast-ice along the coast persisted later in 2003.

  8. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CATARACT IN CAPTIVE MACARONI (EUDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUS) AND ROCKHOPPER PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME).

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 Macaroni penguins ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) and 90 Rockhopper penguins ( Eudyptes chrysocome ) at eight North American zoological institutions. Cataract prevalence in the Macaroni population was 46.5% (n = 74) of penguins and 42.3% (135/319) of eyes. Cataract prevalence in the Rockhopper population was 45.5% (n = 40) of penguins and 40.6% (73/180) of eyes. The mean age of Macaroni penguins without ocular disease was 7.4 ± 5.8 yr, while that of Rockhoppers was 9.8 ± 6.4 yr. Risk factors for cataract were examined through husbandry surveys completed by each institution and by evaluation of light intensity and ultraviolet (UV) light measurements acquired in each penguin exhibit. Risk factors associated with cataract in Macaroni penguins included age, dietary smelt, hand-feeding, and fluorescent exhibit lighting. Risk factors associated with cataract in Rockhopper penguins included age, dietary capelin, increasing population density, and increasing length of minimum photoperiod. Factors associated with decreased odds of cataract in Macaroni penguins included saltwater pool, monitoring of water quality for salinity, pH, and alkalinity; use of water additives; presence of pool filtration and sterilization systems; use of metal halide lightbulbs; increasing light intensity; and UV spectrum lighting. Factors associated with decreased odds of cataract in Rockhoppers included dietary herring and krill, increasing exhibit land area, pool temperature monitoring, increasing maximum photoperiod, and increasing minimum UV light.

  9. Penguins with charm and quark-hadron duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneke, M.; Buchalla, G.; Neubert, M.; Sachrajda, C. T.

    2009-06-01

    The integrated branching fraction of the process B→ X s l + l - is dominated by resonance background from narrow charmonium states, such as B→ X s ψ→ X s l + l -, which exceeds the non-resonant charm-loop contribution by two orders of magnitude. The origin of this fact is discussed in view of the general expectation of quark-hadron duality. The situation in B→ X s l + l - is contrasted with charm-penguin amplitudes in two-body hadronic B decays of the type B→ π π, for which it is demonstrated that resonance effects and the potentially non-perturbative cbar{c} threshold region do not invalidate the standard picture of QCD factorization. This holds irrespective of whether the charm quark is treated as a light or a heavy quark.

  10. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin

    PubMed Central

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N.; Whittington, Jason D.; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory. PMID:27296726

  11. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin.

    PubMed

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N; Whittington, Jason D; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-06-14

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory.

  12. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  13. Glucose regulates lipid metabolism in fasting king penguins.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Servane F; Orvoine, Jord; Groscolas, René

    2003-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether glucose intervenes in the regulation of lipid metabolism in long-term fasting birds, using the king penguin as an animal model. Changes in the plasma concentration of various metabolites and hormones, and in lipolytic fluxes as determined by continuous infusion of [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitate, were examined in vivo before, during, and after a 2-h glucose infusion under field conditions. All the birds were in the phase II fasting status (large fat stores, protein sparing) but differed by their metabolic and hormonal statuses, being either nonstressed (NSB; n = 5) or stressed (SB; n = 5). In both groups, glucose infusion at 5 mg.kg-1.min-1 induced a twofold increase in glycemia. In NSB, glucose had no effect on lipolysis (maintenance of plasma concentrations and rates of appearance of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids) and no effect on the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAG), glucagon, insulin, or corticosterone. However, it limited fatty acid (FA) oxidation, as indicated by a 25% decrease in the plasma level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB). In SB, glucose infusion induced an approximately 2.5-fold decrease in lipolytic fluxes and a large decrease in FA oxidation, as reflected by a 64% decrease in the plasma concentration of beta-OHB. There were also a 35% decrease in plasma TAG, a 6.5- and 2.8-fold decrease in plasma glucagon and corticosterone, respectively, and a threefold increase in insulinemia. These data show that in fasting king penguins, glucose regulates lipid metabolism (inhibition of lipolysis and/or of FA oxidation) and affects hormonal status differently in stressed vs. nonstressed individuals. The results also suggest that in birds, as in humans, the availability of glucose, not of FA, is an important determinant of the substrate mix (glucose vs. FA) that is oxidized for energy production.

  14. Long-term breeding phenology shift in royal penguins

    PubMed Central

    Hindell, Mark A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W; Fordham, Damien A; Kerry, Knowles; Hull, Cindy; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's climate is undergoing rapid warming, unprecedented in recent times, which is driving shifts in the distribution and phenology of many plants and animals. Quantifying changes in breeding phenology is important for understanding how populations respond to these changes. While data on shifts in phenology are common for Northern Hemisphere species (especially birds), there is a dearth of evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, and even fewer data available from the marine environment. Surface air temperatures at Macquarie Island have increased by 0.62°C during the 30-year study period (0.21°C decade−1) and royal penguins (Eudyptes schlegeli) commenced egg laying on average three days earlier in the 1990s than during the 1960s. This contrasts with other studies of Southern Ocean seabirds; five of nine species are now breeding on average 2.1 days later than during the 1950s. Despite the different direction of these trends, they can be explained by a single underlying mechanism: resource availability. There was a negative relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and median laying date of royal penguins, such that low-productivity (low SAM) years delayed laying date. This accords with the observations of other seabird species from the Antarctic, where later laying dates were associated with lower sea ice and lower spring productivity. The unifying factor underpinning phenological trends in eastern Antarctica is therefore resource availability; as food becomes scarcer, birds breed later. These changes are not uniform across the region, however, with resource increases in the subantarctic and decreases in eastern Antarctica. PMID:22957162

  15. Long-term breeding phenology shift in royal penguins.

    PubMed

    Hindell, Mark A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W; Fordham, Damien A; Kerry, Knowles; Hull, Cindy; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-07-01

    The Earth's climate is undergoing rapid warming, unprecedented in recent times, which is driving shifts in the distribution and phenology of many plants and animals. Quantifying changes in breeding phenology is important for understanding how populations respond to these changes. While data on shifts in phenology are common for Northern Hemisphere species (especially birds), there is a dearth of evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, and even fewer data available from the marine environment. Surface air temperatures at Macquarie Island have increased by 0.62°C during the 30-year study period (0.21°C decade(-1)) and royal penguins (Eudyptes schlegeli) commenced egg laying on average three days earlier in the 1990s than during the 1960s. This contrasts with other studies of Southern Ocean seabirds; five of nine species are now breeding on average 2.1 days later than during the 1950s. Despite the different direction of these trends, they can be explained by a single underlying mechanism: resource availability. There was a negative relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and median laying date of royal penguins, such that low-productivity (low SAM) years delayed laying date. This accords with the observations of other seabird species from the Antarctic, where later laying dates were associated with lower sea ice and lower spring productivity. The unifying factor underpinning phenological trends in eastern Antarctica is therefore resource availability; as food becomes scarcer, birds breed later. These changes are not uniform across the region, however, with resource increases in the subantarctic and decreases in eastern Antarctica.

  16. Use Of Chitinase Gene As Biomarker To Reflect Penguin Population Change In History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Yin, X.; Lin, J.; Sun, L.; You, Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, F.

    2005-12-01

    Penguins are studied as bio-model to understand how climate change has influenced the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This certainly needs to exclude anthropogenic influences from natural variables. Ancient penguin excreta was found ideal material to study historically the impacts of climate change on penguin population excluding the influences of human beings and other secondary factors. In this study, a sediment core, spanning approximately 1600 yrs, collected from a lake on Ardley Island, Antarctica, was studied by a combination of geochemical and molecular microbiological methods. The sediment core had been greatly influenced by penguin guano. Chitinase gene was chosen and tested as a new bio-molecular marker to reflect possible penguin population change in history. Using quantitative competitive-polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR), chitinase gene copies in each 1cm section of the whole sediment column were quantified. It was found that the chitinase gene copies coincide with the temperature history record: a low chitinase gene number in the column occurred around 600yrs B.P., the little ice age; high chitinase gene copies occurred around 1,400yrs B.P., the Medieval warm time period. Along the column, significant correlation was found between chitinase gene copies, P2O5 and TOC concentrations which were served as the geochemical monitor of penguin droppings, demonstrating that the variation of the bacterial chitinase gene number is another reliable proxy to reconstruct Antarctic penguin population change in history. Most of the chitinase genes cloned from the historic sediment core were novel. Analyzing the chitinase gene diversity in selected sediment layers and in the fresh penguin deposits indicated frequent shifts in the chitinolytic bacterial community over time, which suggested the penguin species change in the population and/or their diet change in history. Our results for the first time indicated that the chitinase gene probe is a suitable bio

  17. Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Grant; Toniolo, Viola; Ainley, David G; Parkinson, Claire L; Arrigo, Kevin R; Trathan, Phil N

    2010-07-01

    Long-distance migration enables many organisms to take advantage of lucrative breeding and feeding opportunities during summer at high latitudes and then to move to lower, more temperate latitudes for the remainder of the year. The latitudinal range of the Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) spans approximately 22 degrees. Penguins from northern colonies may not migrate, but due to the high latitude of Ross Island colonies, these penguins almost certainly undertake the longest migrations for the species. Previous work has suggested that Adélies require both pack ice and some ambient light at all times of year. Over a three-year period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated characteristics of migratory routes and wintering locations of Adélie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin. We acquired data from 3-16 geolocation sensor tags (GLS) affixed to penguins each year at both Cape Royds and Cape Crozier in 2003-2005. Migrations averaged 12760 km, with the longest being 17 600 km, and were in part facilitated by pack ice movement. Trip distances varied annually, but not by colony. Penguins rarely traveled north of the main sea-ice pack, and used areas with high sea-ice concentration, ranging from 75% to 85%, about 500 km inward from the ice edge. They also used locations where there was some twilight (2-7 h with sun < 6 degrees below the horizon). We report the present Adélie Penguin migration pattern and conjecture on how it probably has changed over the past approximately 12000 years, as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet withdrew southward across the Ross Sea, a situation that no other Adélie Penguin population has had to confront. As sea ice extent in the Ross Sea sector decreases in the near future, as predicted by climate models, we can expect further changes in the migration patterns of the Ross Sea penguins.

  18. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p < 0.0001) in accordance with this hypothesis. δ15N values are more variable among modern localities and probably were so in the past as well. Although we found a weak but significant decrease in δ15N (0.3 ‰) in modern versus fossil eggshell values, we do not consider this to be an adequate signal for a dietary shift. Our data also indicate that the decrease in δ13C values in Gentoo Penguins is not as large as that previously observed in Adélie Penguins (a 4-6 ‰ decrease in δ13C values). This weaker signal for the dietary shift in Gentoo Penguins probably results from a greater and more consistent reliance on fish, past and present, in this species compared to the Adélie Penguin. Emslie, S. D. and W. P. Patterson. 2007. Abrupt recent shift in δ13C and δ15N values in Adélie Penguin eggshell in Antarctica

  19. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  20. Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  1. Climate-driven Sympatry does not Lead to Foraging Competition Between Adélie and Gentoo Penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, M. A.; Moline, M. A.; Fraser, W.; Patterson-Fraser, D.; Oliver, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Climate-driven sympatry may lead to competition for food resources between species, population shifts and changes in ecosystem structure. Rapid warming in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is coincident with increasing gentoo penguin and decreasing Adélie penguin populations, suggesting that competition for food may exacerbate the Adélie penguin decline. At Palmer Station, we tested for foraging competition between these species by comparing their prey, Antarctic krill, distributions and penguin foraging behaviors on fine scales. To study these predator-prey dynamics, we simultaneously deployed penguin satellite transmitters, and a REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle that acoustically detected krill aggregations and measured physical and biological properties of the water column. We detected krill aggregations within the horizontal and vertical foraging ranges of Adélie and gentoo penguin. In the upper 100 m of the water column, the distribution of krill aggregations were mainly associated with CHL and light, suggesting that krill selected for habitats that balance the need to consume food and avoid predation. Adélie and gentoo penguins mainly had spatially segregated foraging areas but in areas of overlap, gentoo penguins switched foraging behavior by foraging at deeper depths, a strategy which limits competition with Adélie penguins. This suggests that climate-driven sympatry does not necessarily result in competitive exclusion. Contrary to a recent theory, which suggests that increased competition for krill is the major driver of Adélie penguin population declines, we suggest that declines in Adélie penguins along the WAP are more likely due to direct and indirect climate impacts on their life histories.

  2. Variability in krill biomass links harvesting and climate warming to penguin population changes in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Trivelpiece, Wayne Z.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Miller, Aileen K.; Reiss, Christian S.; Trivelpiece, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and adjacent Scotia Sea support abundant wildlife populations, many of which were nearly extirpated by humans. This region is also among the fastest-warming areas on the planet, with 5–6 °C increases in mean winter air temperatures and associated decreases in winter sea-ice cover. These biological and physical perturbations have affected the ecosystem profoundly. One hypothesis guiding ecological interpretations of changes in top predator populations in this region, the “sea-ice hypothesis,” proposes that reductions in winter sea ice have led directly to declines in “ice-loving” species by decreasing their winter habitat, while populations of “ice-avoiding” species have increased. However, 30 y of field studies and recent surveys of penguins throughout the WAP and Scotia Sea demonstrate this mechanism is not controlling penguin populations; populations of both ice-loving Adélie and ice-avoiding chinstrap penguins have declined significantly. We argue in favor of an alternative, more robust hypothesis that attributes both increases and decreases in penguin populations to changes in the abundance of their main prey, Antarctic krill. Unlike many other predators in this region, Adélie and chinstrap penguins were never directly harvested by man; thus, their population trajectories track the impacts of biological and environmental changes in this ecosystem. Linking trends in penguin abundance with trends in krill biomass explains why populations of Adélie and chinstrap penguins increased after competitors (fur seals, baleen whales, and some fishes) were nearly extirpated in the 19th to mid-20th centuries and currently are decreasing in response to climate change. PMID:21482793

  3. Finding food in the open ocean: foraging strategies in Humboldt penguins.

    PubMed

    Culik, B

    2001-01-01

    Penguins are excellent "model" organisms allowing us to study the behaviour of marine homeotherms at sea. Penguins regularly return to their breeding colonies, enabling biologists to equip them with remote sensing devices such as physiological or behavioural data-loggers, radio- or satellite transmitters. Foraging trips at sea can last from days to weeks and after return of the birds to their breeding sites, the devices can easily be removed for analysis of on-board stored data, yielding a wealth of information. Investigation of penguin behaviour at sea becomes particularly revealing when other sources of information can be matched to the data set, such as satellite data on wind, temperature, ice cover, and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Penguins and other marine homeotherms are true inhabitants of the high seas. Depending on the season, the marine behaviour varies: during reproduction, penguins are central-place foragers, and must return regularly to their nest to feed their chicks. During the remainder of the year, there are no constraints and the birds travel large distances at sea. Breeding Humboldt penguins react to climatic change by varying their daily foraging range and dive duration. Similar to other representatives of the family Spheniscidae, Humboldt penguins avoid food shortages by migrating into more productive marine areas. Navigational clues such as daylength, sea surface temperature, local wind direction and olfaction might provide important aids in finding patchily distributed prey in the open ocean. DMS, a chemical compound produced by decaying algae, seems to be a further clue that indirectly points the way to feeding areas.

  4. Variability in krill biomass links harvesting and climate warming to penguin population changes in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Hinke, Jefferson T; Miller, Aileen K; Reiss, Christian S; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M

    2011-05-03

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and adjacent Scotia Sea support abundant wildlife populations, many of which were nearly extirpated by humans. This region is also among the fastest-warming areas on the planet, with 5-6 °C increases in mean winter air temperatures and associated decreases in winter sea-ice cover. These biological and physical perturbations have affected the ecosystem profoundly. One hypothesis guiding ecological interpretations of changes in top predator populations in this region, the "sea-ice hypothesis," proposes that reductions in winter sea ice have led directly to declines in "ice-loving" species by decreasing their winter habitat, while populations of "ice-avoiding" species have increased. However, 30 y of field studies and recent surveys of penguins throughout the WAP and Scotia Sea demonstrate this mechanism is not controlling penguin populations; populations of both ice-loving Adélie and ice-avoiding chinstrap penguins have declined significantly. We argue in favor of an alternative, more robust hypothesis that attributes both increases and decreases in penguin populations to changes in the abundance of their main prey, Antarctic krill. Unlike many other predators in this region, Adélie and chinstrap penguins were never directly harvested by man; thus, their population trajectories track the impacts of biological and environmental changes in this ecosystem. Linking trends in penguin abundance with trends in krill biomass explains why populations of Adélie and chinstrap penguins increased after competitors (fur seals, baleen whales, and some fishes) were nearly extirpated in the 19th to mid-20th centuries and currently are decreasing in response to climate change.

  5. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    PubMed

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  6. Ocular findings and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome).

    PubMed

    Bliss, Cassandra D; Aquino, Susette; Woodhouse, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To describe ophthalmic examination findings and standard diagnostic test results in 2 penguin species. Macaroni & Southern Rockhopper Penguins. Complete ophthalmic examinations including Schirmer tear test (STT), modified phenol red thread test (PTT), tonometry, and echobiometry were performed on penguins housed at the Detroit Zoo. Mean and standard deviation of ophthalmic tests are reported and compared for significance using two sample t-tests with significance set at P < 0.05. Correlations between variables were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Cataracts were the most common finding, present in 64% of Macaroni Penguins, and 68% of Rockhopper Penguins. There were anterior segment anomalies in all eyes with cataracts consistent with lens-induced uveitis. The mean modified PTT for the Macaronis was 24.7 ± 6.37 mm/15 s and 25.1 ± 7.07 mm/15 s in the Rockhoppers. The mean STT value for the Macaronis was 12.1 ± 5.43 mm/min and 11.0 ± 3.96 mm/min in the Rockhoppers. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) for the Macaronis was 21.9 ± 7.05 mmHg measured by applanation tonometry and 29.1 ± 7.16 mmHg using rebound tonometry. The Rockhoppers had a mean IOP of 20.0 ± 5.77 mmHg and 24.1 ± 5.09 mmHg for applanation and rebound tonometry, respectively. In both populations, there was a significant difference in IOP measurement between the two instruments. In the Macaroni penguins, the presence of cataracts correlated significantly with increased age and lower IOP readings. Anterior chamber distance and axial globe length were significantly greater in males than in females in both penguin species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  8. The energy assimilation efficiency of emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri, fed a diet of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, R; Robertson, G

    1997-01-01

    Captive emperor penguins in Antarctica hand-fed Antarctic krill assimilated an average of 70.5% +/- 1.7% (n = 3) of the energy in the diet. Water intake estimated by tritiated water turnover was 9.4% +/- 2.4% less than that measured gravimetrically. Tritium took 1.5 h from injection to equilibrate with the penguins' body water pools.

  9. Analysis of the sequence variations in the Mhc DRB1-like gene of the endangered Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Eri F; Tsuda, Tomi T; Naruse, Taeko K; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Michio; Kurita, Masanori; Murata, Koichi; Wilson, Rory P; LeMaho, Yvon; Tsuda, Michio; Kulski, Jerzy K; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2005-04-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) genomic region of many vertebrates is known to contain at least one highly polymorphic class II gene that is homologous in sequence to one or other of the human Mhc DRB1 class II genes. The diversity of the avian Mhc class II gene sequences have been extensively studied in chickens, quails, and some songbirds, but have been largely ignored in the oceanic birds, including the flightless penguins. We have previously reported that several penguin species have a high degree of polymorphism on exon 2 of the Mhc class II DRB1-like gene. In this study, we present for the first time the complete nucleotide sequences of exon 2, intron 2, and exon 3 of the DRB1-like gene of 20 Humboldt penguins, a species that is presently vulnerable to the dangers of extinction. The Humboldt DRB1-like nucleotide and amino acid sequences reveal at least eight unique alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of all the available avian DRB-like sequences showed that, of five penguin species and nine other bird species, the sequences of the Humboldt penguins grouped most closely to the Little penguin and the mallard, respectively. The present analysis confirms that the sequence variations of the Mhc class II gene, DRB1, are useful for discriminating among individuals within the same penguin population as well those within different penguin population groups and species.

  10. Malignant melanoma in the penguin: characterization of the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of malignant melanoma in 10 individuals from three species of penguin.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Smedley, Rebecca; Anthony, Simon; Garner, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Malignant melanomas are aggressive neoplasms that are relatively common in penguins compared to other avian species. In this study, the clinical and pathologic characteristics of melanocytic neoplasms in five macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus), three rock hopper (Eudyptes chrysocome), and two Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins are described. Tumors most commonly occurred in the skin of the foot or hock, and were seen in the subcutaneous muscle, especially near the beak/oral cavity. Gross lesions were usually heavily pigmented, becoming raised and ulcerated over time. Humboldt penguins had a unique presentation, forming variably pigmented, cornified lesions in the inguinal area. Original case materials were obtained from all but two cases, and were assessed to define the characteristics of malignancy, evaluate four immunohistochemical markers for melanoma, and look for factors useful to informing prognosis and clinical decisions. Diagnosis was made histologically, based on morphologic features and pigmentation. Though not necessary for diagnosis, PNL-2 was found to be a useful immunohistochemical marker. HMB-45 showed unreliable positive labelling and S-100, Melan-A and Ki67 were not useful. Several factors were associated with prognosis, including gross surface dimension, mitotic index, depth of neoplastic cell invasion, and degree of surface ulceration. Metastatic spread occurred to the liver, lung, adrenal gland, brain, and bone; all lesions showed positive labelling to PNL-2. The average survival after diagnosis was 7 mo, though complete surgical excision of tumors less than 2.0 cm was curative in two cases and radiation therapy prolonged survival in one penguin. The underlying pathogenesis associated with the high prevalence of melanocytic neoplasms in captive penguins could not be identified. Three different molecular methods were performed to look for viral particles and results were negative. Advanced age is the most probable associated risk factor

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes.

  12. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured.

  13. Detection of paramyxoviruses in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) on the Brazilian tropical coast.

    PubMed

    Fornells, Luz Alba M G; Silva, Tatiane F; Bianchi, Iliani; Travassos, Carlos E P F; Liberal, Maíra H T; Andrade, Claúdio M; Petrucci, Melissa P; Veiga, Venicio F; Vaslin, Maite F S; Couceiro, José Nelson S S

    2012-05-04

    Aquatic migratory birds are a major vectors by which influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses are spread in nature. Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are usually present on the southern shores of South America and can swim as far as the southern coast of Brazil in winter. In 2008, however, several Magellanic penguins were observed on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Paramyxoviruses were isolated from Magellanic penguins on the Espírito Santo state coast, approximately 4000 km from their breeding colonies, although influenza viruses were not detected. Among the paramyxoviruses, five Avulavirus isolates belonging to serotype APMV-2 and the serotype APMV-10, which was proposed by Miller et al. (2010), were identified. These results highlight the risks associated with the spread of paramyxoviruses between natural to non-natural habitats by birds exhibiting unusual migration patterns, and they document for the first time the presence of the APMV-2 and APMV-10 serotypes on penguins in Brazil. The local avifauna may become infected with these viruses through close contact between migratory and resident birds. Continued surveillance of virus incidence in these migratory populations of penguins is necessary to detect and prevent the potential risks associated with these unusual migration patterns.

  14. Constraining charming penguins in charmless B → ππ, πK and KK decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Zhuang, Ci

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the correlations induced by the charming penguin contributions to B → ππ, πK and KK modes in the flavor SU(3) diagrammatic approach. Strong constraints are found from the measurements of the direct CP asymmetries, especially that of πK modes. We make global fits to the latest data, and show that only a relatively small charming penguin is allowed. In the presence of the charming penguin, the size of color-suppressed tree amplitude (C) relative to that of tree amplitude (T) still remains large C/T ~= 0.6, which disfavors the possibility of a large charming penguin alone as an explanation for the ππ puzzle. We find that this conclusion remains unchanged for various SU(3) breaking schemes. Nevertheless, together with an enhanced annihilation-type W-exchange diagram (E) which is allowed by the current data, the ratio C/T can be reduced to ~0.4. We show that a small charming penguin amplitude can still have significant contribution to the time-dependent CP asymmetry in the KSKS mode.

  15. Telomeres shorten and then lengthen before fledging in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Cerchiara, Jack A.; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Kane, Olivia J.; Dee Boersma, P.

    2017-01-01

    For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks every 15 days during the species’ growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age. Magellanic penguins continue to grow after fledging so we also sampled a set of 1-year-old juvenile penguins, and adults aged 5 years. Telomeres were significantly shorter on day 15 than on hatch day but returned to their initial length by 30 days old and remained at that length through 60 days of age. The length of telomeres of newly hatched chicks, chicks aged 30, 45 and 60 days, juveniles, and adults aged 5 years were similar. Chicks that fledged and those that died had similar telomere lengths. We show that while telomeres shorten during growth, Magellanic penguins elongate telomeres to their length at hatch, which may increase adult life span and reproductive opportunities. PMID:28186493

  16. Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Barbraud, Christophe; Lormée, Hervé; Prud'homme, François; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-04-01

    The function and causes of kidnapping juveniles are little understood because individuals sustain some breeding costs to rear an unrelated offspring. Here we focus on the proximal causes of this behaviour in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), whose failed breeders often kidnap chicks. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that kidnapping behaviour was the result of high residual levels of prolactin (PRL), a hormone involved in parental behaviour. Penguins with artificially decreased PRL levels by bromocriptine administration kidnapped chicks less often than control penguins. Within the bromocriptine treated group, kidnapping behaviour was not totally suppressed and the probability of kidnapping a chick was positively correlated to PRL levels measured before treatment. During breeding, emperor penguins have to forage in remote ice-free areas. In these birds, PRL secretion is poorly influenced by chick stimuli and has probably evolved to maintain a willingness to return to the colony after a long absence at sea. Therefore, penguins that have lost their chick during a foraging trip still maintain high residual PRL levels and this, combined with colonial breeding, probably facilitates kidnapping. We suggest that kidnapping in non-cooperative systems may result from a hormonal byproduct of a reproductive adaptation to extreme conditions.

  17. Past penguin colony responses to explosive volcanism on the Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Stephen J.; Monien, Patrick; Foster, Louise C.; Loftfield, Julia; Hocking, Emma P.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Fretwell, Peter; Ireland, Louise; Ochyra, Ryszard; Haworth, Anna R.; Allen, Claire S.; Moreton, Steven G.; Davies, Sarah J.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c. 1,000 years. The colony experienced five population maxima during the Holocene. Overall, we find no consistent relationships with local-regional atmospheric and ocean temperatures or sea-ice conditions, although the colony population maximum, c. 4,000–3,000 years ago, corresponds with regionally elevated temperatures. Instead, at least three of the five phases of penguin colony expansion were abruptly ended by large eruptions from the Deception Island volcano, resulting in near-complete local extinction of the colony, with, on average, 400–800 years required for sustainable recovery. PMID:28398353

  18. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Past penguin colony responses to explosive volcanism on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Stephen J.; Monien, Patrick; Foster, Louise C.; Loftfield, Julia; Hocking, Emma P.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Fretwell, Peter; Ireland, Louise; Ochyra, Ryszard; Haworth, Anna R.; Allen, Claire S.; Moreton, Steven G.; Davies, Sarah J.; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c. 1,000 years. The colony experienced five population maxima during the Holocene. Overall, we find no consistent relationships with local-regional atmospheric and ocean temperatures or sea-ice conditions, although the colony population maximum, c. 4,000-3,000 years ago, corresponds with regionally elevated temperatures. Instead, at least three of the five phases of penguin colony expansion were abruptly ended by large eruptions from the Deception Island volcano, resulting in near-complete local extinction of the colony, with, on average, 400-800 years required for sustainable recovery.

  20. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  1. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    PubMed

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  3. From sea to land: assessment of the bio-transport of phosphorus by penguins in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xianyan; Sun, Liguang; Blais, Jules M.; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Tao; Huang, Wen; Xie, Zhouqing

    2014-01-01

    In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem is dynamically interrelated with the terrestrial ecosystem. An example of the link between these two ecosystems is the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus. Biovectors, such as penguins, transport phosphorus from sea to land, play a key role in this cycle. In this paper, we selected three colonies of penguins, the most important seabirds in Antarctica, and computed the annual quantity of phosphorus transferred from sea to land by these birds. Our results show that adult penguins from colonies at Ardley Island, the Vestfold Hills, and Ross Island could transfer phosphorus in the form of guano at up to 12 349, 167 036, and 97 841 kg/a, respectively, over their breeding period. These quantities are equivalent to an annual input of 3.96×109-1.63×1010 kg of seawater to the land of Antarctica. Finally, we discuss the impact of phosphorus on the ice-free areas of the Antarctica.

  4. The use of medroxyprogesterone acetate to induce molting in chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    PubMed

    Reidarson, T H; McBain, J F; Denton, D

    1999-06-01

    Molt was successfully induced with a progestational compound, medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera), in six of six previously nonmolting chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica). The initial treatment consisted of five sequential weekly injections of 30 mg/kg Depo-Provera beginning in early September. Four weeks after completing the injections, the penguins had gained an average of 23% body weight, but none had molted. Beginning early November, five weekly injections were resumed, which initiated molt in all individuals within 34 days following the last injection. Molt was completed by mid-January, nearly 2 wk later. In the following years, nonmolting chinstrap penguins were given a single series of five weekly injections beginning in early November, 2 mo prior to the normal molting period.

  5. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times

    PubMed Central

    Heupink, Tim H.; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction. PMID:22357937

  6. Adélie penguins and temperature changes in Antarctica: a long-term view.

    PubMed

    Millar, Craig D; Subramanian, Sankar; Heupink, Tim H; Swaminathan, Siva; Baroni, Carlo; Lambert, David M

    2012-06-01

    During the summer months, Adélie penguins represent the dominant biomass of terrestrial Antarctica. Literally millions of individuals nest in ice-free areas around the coast of the continent. Hence, these modern populations of Adélie penguins have often been championed as an ideal biological indicator of ecological and environmental changes that we currently face. In addition, Adélie penguins show an extraordinary record of sub-fossil remains, dating back to the late Pleistocene. At this time, temperatures were much lower than now. Hence, this species offers unique long-term information, at both the genomic and ecological levels, about how a species has responded to climate change over more than 40 000 years. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  7. Testing optimal foraging theory in a penguin-krill system.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Ito, Motohiro; Takahashi, Akinori

    2014-03-22

    Food is heterogeneously distributed in nature, and understanding how animals search for and exploit food patches is a fundamental challenge in ecology. The classic marginal value theorem (MVT) formulates optimal patch residence time in response to patch quality. The MVT was generally proved in controlled animal experiments; however, owing to the technical difficulties in recording foraging behaviour in the wild, it has been inadequately examined in natural predator-prey systems, especially those in the three-dimensional marine environment. Using animal-borne accelerometers and video cameras, we collected a rare dataset in which the behaviour of a marine predator (penguin) was recorded simultaneously with the capture timings of mobile, patchily distributed prey (krill). We provide qualitative support for the MVT by showing that (i) krill capture rate diminished with time in each dive, as assumed in the MVT, and (ii) dive duration (or patch residence time, controlled for dive depth) increased with short-term, dive-scale krill capture rate, but decreased with long-term, bout-scale krill capture rate, as predicted from the MVT. Our results demonstrate that a single environmental factor (i.e. patch quality) can have opposite effects on animal behaviour depending on the time scale, emphasizing the importance of multi-scale approaches in understanding complex foraging strategies.

  8. Determining the sign of the Z-penguin amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Haisch, Ulrich; Weiler, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    We point out that the precision measurements of the pseudo observables R{sub b}{sup 0}, A{sub b}, and A{sub FB}{sup 0,b} performed at the CERN LEP and the Stanford Linear Collider suggest that in models with minimal-flavor violation the sign of the Z-penguin amplitude is identical to the one present in the standard model. We determine the allowed range for the nonstandard contribution to the Inami-Lim function C and show, by analyzing possible scenarios with positive and negative interference of standard model and new physics contributions, that the derived bound holds in each given case. Finally, we derive lower and upper limits for the branching ratios of K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}, K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu}, K{sub L}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, B{yields}X{sub d,s}{nu}{nu}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} within constrained minimal-flavor violation, making use of the wealth of available data collected at the Z pole.

  9. Of Penguins, Pinnipeds, and Poisons: Anesthesia on Elephant Island.

    PubMed

    Firth, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3.8 mmHg), it would have been feasible to induce anesthesia at a low temperature. However, given the potentially lethal hazards of a light chloroform anesthetic, an adequate and constant depth of anesthesia was essential. The pharmacokinetics of the volatile anesthetic, administered via the open-drop technique in the frigid environment, would have been unfamiliar to the occasional anesthetist. To facilitate vaporization of the chloroform, the team burned penguin skins and seal blubber under overturned lifeboats to increase the ambient temperature from -0.5° to 26.6°C. Chloroform degrades with heat to chlorine and phosgene, but buildup of these poisonous gases did not occur due to venting of the confined space by the stove chimney. The anesthetic went well, and the patient-and all the ship's crew-survived to return home.

  10. Robotic penguin-like propulsor with novel spherical joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel; Noca, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    We have designed and manufactured an innovative spherical joint mechanism with three actuated degrees of freedom, aimed at mimicking a penguin shoulder and enabling a potential propulsion technology with high efficiency and maneuverability. In addition, the mechanism might also lead to propellers with directional thrusting capability. A parallel architecture was chosen for this type of mechanism in order to ensure rigidity as well high actuation frequencies and amplitudes. Indeed, as the motors are fixed, inertial forces are lower than for a serial robot. The resulting spherical parallel mechanism (SPM) with coaxial shafts was designed and manufactured with the following specifications: fixed center of rotation (spherical joint); working frequency of 2.5 Hz under charge; unlimited rotation about main axis; and arbitrary motion within a cone of 60 degrees. The equations for the inverse kinematics of the mechanism have been established and can yield the trajectories of each actuator for any desired motion applied to the oar or blade. The technology will be illustrated with preliminary experiments in a hydrodynamic channel at the University of Applied Sciences - hepia - Switzerland.

  11. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age. PMID:25052413

  12. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    PubMed

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance.

  13. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd

    PubMed Central

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles—the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast—continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultaneously. We studied the behaviour of four pairs before laying. Temperature and light intensity measurements allowed us to precisely detect the occurrence of huddling episodes and to determine the surrounding temperature. The four pairs huddled simultaneously for only 6 per cent of the time when weather conditions were harshest. Despite this asynchrony, the huddling behaviour and the resulting benefits were similar between pairs. By contrast, the huddling behaviour of mates was synchronized for 84 per cent of events. By coordinating their huddling behaviour during courtship despite the apparent confusion within a huddle and its ever-changing structure, both individuals save energy while securing their partnership. PMID:19324739

  14. Emperor penguin mates: keeping together in the crowd.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Le Maho, Yvon; Gilbert, Caroline

    2009-06-22

    As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated. Huddles-the key to saving energy in the cold and the long breeding fast-continuously form and break up, but not all birds are involved simultaneously. We studied the behaviour of four pairs before laying. Temperature and light intensity measurements allowed us to precisely detect the occurrence of huddling episodes and to determine the surrounding temperature. The four pairs huddled simultaneously for only 6 per cent of the time when weather conditions were harshest. Despite this asynchrony, the huddling behaviour and the resulting benefits were similar between pairs. By contrast, the huddling behaviour of mates was synchronized for 84 per cent of events. By coordinating their huddling behaviour during courtship despite the apparent confusion within a huddle and its ever-changing structure, both individuals save energy while securing their partnership.

  15. Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, T.; Jouventin, P.

    1998-01-01

    The king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeds without a nest in colonies of several thousands of birds. To be fed, the chick must recognize the parents in a particularly noisy environment using only vocal cues. The call an adult makes when seeking the chick is emitted at a high amplitude level. Nevertheless, it is transmitted in a colonial context involving the noise generated by the colony and the screening effect of the bodies, both factors reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the adult call is masked by a background noise with similar amplitude and spectral and temporal characteristics, enhancing the difficulty for the chick in finding its parents. We calculate that the maximum distance from the caller at which its signal can be differentiated from the background noise (signal-to-noise ratio equal to 1) should not exceed 8 to 9 m in a feeding area. But our tests show that, in fact, chicks can discriminate between the parental call and calls from other adults at a greater distance, even when call intensity is well below that of the noise of simultaneous calls produced by other adults. This capacity to perceive and extract the call of the parent from the ambient noise and particularly from the calls of other adults, termed the 'cocktail-party effect' in speech intelligibility tests, enhances the chick's ability to find its parents.

  16. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  17. Age-Related Differences in the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Andrés; Balagué, Vanessa; Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Ana; Benzal, Jesús; Motas, Miguel; Diaz, Julia I; Mira, Alex; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is known to play very important roles in the well being of animals. It is a complex community composed by hundreds of microbial species interacting closely among them and with their host, that is, a microbial ecosystem. The development of high throughput sequencing techniques allows studying the diversity of such communities in a realistic way and considerable work has been carried out in mammals and some birds such as chickens. Wild birds have received less attention and in particular, in the case of penguins, only a few individuals of five species have been examined with molecular techniques. We collected cloacal samples from Chinstrap penguins in the Vapour Col rookery in Deception Island, Antarctica, and carried out pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA in samples from 53 individuals, 27 adults and 26 chicks. This provided the first description of the Chinstrap penguin gastrointestinal tract microbiota and the most extensive in any penguin species. Firmicutes, Bacteoridetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components. There were large differences between chicks and adults. The former had more Firmicutes and the latter more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In addition, adults had richer and more diverse bacterial communities than chicks. These differences were also observed between parents and their offspring. On the other hand, nests explained differences in bacterial communities only among chicks. We suggest that environmental factors have a higher importance than genetic factors in the microbiota composition of chicks. The results also showed surprisingly large differences in community composition with other Antarctic penguins including the congeneric Adélie and Gentoo penguins.

  18. At-sea distribution and habitat use in king penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island.

    PubMed

    Pistorius, Pierre; Hindell, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Makhado, Azwianewi; Dyer, Bruce; Reisinger, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences. Uniquely among adult king penguins, individuals by and large headed out against the prevailing Antarctic Circumpolar Current, foraging to the west and southwest of the island. On average, individuals ventured a maximum distance of 1,600 km from the colony, with three individuals foraging close to, or beyond, 3,500 km west of the colony. Birds were mostly foraging south of the Antarctic Polar Front and north of the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Habitat preferences were assessed using boosted regression tree models which indicated sea surface temperate, depth, and chorophyll a concentration to be the most important predictors of habitat selection. Interestingly, king penguins rapidly transited the eddy-rich area to the west of Marion Island, associated with the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, which has been shown to be important for foraging in other marine top predators. In accordance with this, the king penguins generally avoided areas with high eddy kinetic energy. The results from this first study into the behavioral ecology and at-sea distribution of king penguins at Marion Island contribute to our broader understanding of this species.

  19. Age-Related Differences in the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Ana; Benzal, Jesús; Motas, Miguel; Diaz, Julia I.; Mira, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiota is known to play very important roles in the well being of animals. It is a complex community composed by hundreds of microbial species interacting closely among them and with their host, that is, a microbial ecosystem. The development of high throughput sequencing techniques allows studying the diversity of such communities in a realistic way and considerable work has been carried out in mammals and some birds such as chickens. Wild birds have received less attention and in particular, in the case of penguins, only a few individuals of five species have been examined with molecular techniques. We collected cloacal samples from Chinstrap penguins in the Vapour Col rookery in Deception Island, Antarctica, and carried out pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA in samples from 53 individuals, 27 adults and 26 chicks. This provided the first description of the Chinstrap penguin gastrointestinal tract microbiota and the most extensive in any penguin species. Firmicutes, Bacteoridetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components. There were large differences between chicks and adults. The former had more Firmicutes and the latter more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. In addition, adults had richer and more diverse bacterial communities than chicks. These differences were also observed between parents and their offspring. On the other hand, nests explained differences in bacterial communities only among chicks. We suggest that environmental factors have a higher importance than genetic factors in the microbiota composition of chicks. The results also showed surprisingly large differences in community composition with other Antarctic penguins including the congeneric Adélie and Gentoo penguins. PMID:27055030

  20. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins.

    PubMed

    Trathan, Phil N; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, Dee; Bost, Charles-André; Crawford, Robert J M; Crossin, Glenn T; Cuthbert, Richard J; Dann, Peter; Davis, Lloyd Spencer; De La Puente, Santiago; Ellenberg, Ursula; Lynch, Heather J; Mattern, Thomas; Pütz, Klemens; Seddon, Philip J; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Wienecke, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative human impacts across the world's oceans are considerable. We therefore examined a single model taxonomic group, the penguins (Spheniscidae), to explore how marine species and communities might be at risk of decline or extinction in the southern hemisphere. We sought to determine the most important threats to penguins and to suggest means to mitigate these threats. Our review has relevance to other taxonomic groups in the southern hemisphere and in northern latitudes, where human impacts are greater. Our review was based on an expert assessment and literature review of all 18 penguin species; 49 scientists contributed to the process. For each penguin species, we considered their range and distribution, population trends, and main anthropogenic threats over the past approximately 250 years. These threats were harvesting adults for oil, skin, and feathers and as bait for crab and rock lobster fisheries; harvesting of eggs; terrestrial habitat degradation; marine pollution; fisheries bycatch and resource competition; environmental variability and climate change; and toxic algal poisoning and disease. Habitat loss, pollution, and fishing, all factors humans can readily mitigate, remain the primary threats for penguin species. Their future resilience to further climate change impacts will almost certainly depend on addressing current threats to existing habitat degradation on land and at sea. We suggest protection of breeding habitat, linked to the designation of appropriately scaled marine reserves, including in the High Seas, will be critical for the future conservation of penguins. However, large-scale conservation zones are not always practical or politically feasible and other ecosystem-based management methods that include spatial zoning, bycatch mitigation, and robust harvest control must be developed to maintain marine biodiversity and ensure that ecosystem functioning is maintained across a variety of scales.

  1. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  2. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen

  3. Penguins use the two-voice system to recognize each other.

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, T; Jouventin, P; Hildebrand, C

    2000-01-01

    The sound-producing structure in birds is the syrinx, which is usually a two-part organ located at the junction of the bronchi. As each branch of the syrinx produces sound independently, many birds have two acoustic sources. Thirty years ago, we had anatomical, physiological and acoustical evidence of this two-voice phenomenon but no function was known. In songbirds, often these two voices with their respective harmonics are not activated simultaneously but they are obvious in large penguins and generate a beat pattern which varies between individuals. The emperor penguin breeds during the Antarctic winter, incubating and carrying its egg on its feet. Without the topographical cue of a nest, birds identify each other only by vocal means when switching duties during incubation or chick rearing. To test whether the two-voice system contains the identity code, we played back the modified call of their mate to both adults and also the modified call of their parents to chicks. Both the adults and the chicks replied to controls (two voices) but not to modified signals (one voice being experimentally suppressed). Our experiments demonstrate that the beat generated by the interaction of these two fundamental frequencies conveys information about individual identity and also propagates well through obstacles, being robust to sound degradation through the medium of bodies in a penguin colony. The two-voice structure is also clear in the call of other birds such as the king penguin, another non-nesting species, but not in the 14 other nesting penguins. We concluded that the two-voice phenomenon functions as an individual recognition system in species using few if any landmarks to meet. In penguins, this coding process, increasing the call complexity and resisting sound degradation, has evolved in parallel with the loss of territoriality. PMID:10885512

  4. Patterns of respiration in diving penguins: is the last gasp an inspired tactic?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; Simeone, Alejandro; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Steinfurth, Antje; Jackson, Sue; Fahlman, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in captivity and free-living Magellanic penguins S. magellanicus were fitted with loggers to determine beak angles during breathing. The Humboldt penguins were also fitted with masks for determining rates of air flow during breathing. During periods of higher gas exchange requirement, Humboldt penguins opened their beaks during inspiration, where tidal volume was linearly correlated with both change in beak angle and maximum beak angle, closed them slightly during the final stages of inspiration and finally closed them during expiration. Substantial differences were apparent between individuals. Contrary to the condition proposed for most birds, our data suggest that expiration is passive during periods of high respiratory tidal volumes, and that the increased resistance of the respiratory pathway serves to slow air flow so as to maximize gas exchange in the lungs. During foraging, Magellanic penguins at the surface between dives showed similar breathing patterns but maximum beak angles were much higher and breath cycle time shorter, as would be expected for animals attempting to maximize gas exchange. Both maximum beak angle per breath and breath frequency changed systematically over the surface pause; both were initially high, then decreased to a low before rising again to a maximum just before diving. Based on known changes in tidal volume with beak angle derived from Humboldt penguins, a simple model is proposed to examine rates of gas exchange over the surface pause. This indicates that the observed patterns do not maximize the rate of transfer of oxygen over the whole of the surface pause but are rather concerned with an initial rapid accumulation of oxygen in the tissues followed by effective carbon dioxide release.

  5. The challenges of detecting subtle population structure and its importance for the conservation of emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jane L; Clucas, Gemma V; Kao, Damian; Rogers, Alex D; Gharbi, Karim; Hart, Tom; Miller, Karen J

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the boundaries of breeding populations is of great importance for conservation efforts and estimates of extinction risk for threatened species. However, determining these boundaries can be difficult when population structure is subtle. Emperor penguins are highly reliant on sea ice, and some populations may be in jeopardy as climate change alters sea-ice extent and quality. An understanding of emperor penguin population structure is therefore urgently needed. Two previous studies have differed in their conclusions, particularly whether the Ross Sea, a major stronghold for the species, is isolated or not. We assessed emperor penguin population structure using 4,596 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), characterized in 110 individuals (10-16 per colony) from eight colonies around Antarctica. In contrast to a previous conclusion that emperor penguins are panmictic around the entire continent, we find that emperor penguins comprise at least four metapopulations, and that the Ross Sea is clearly a distinct metapopulation. Using larger sample sizes and a thorough assessment of the limitations of different analytical methods, we have shown that population structure within emperor penguins does exist and argue that its recognition is vital for the effective conservation of the species. We discuss the many difficulties that molecular ecologists and managers face in the detection and interpretation of subtle population structure using large SNP data sets, and argue that subtle structure should be taken into account when determining management strategies for threatened species, until accurate estimates of demographic connectivity among populations can be made. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  7. Minor planets: the discovery of minor satellites.

    PubMed

    Binzel, R P; VAN Flandern, T C

    1979-03-02

    The recent confirmation of the discovery of a satellite of the minor planet 532 Herculina indicates that other similar anomalous sightings are probably also due to satellites, which must therefore be numerous and commonplace. There are now 23 candidate satellites for eight minor planets, and no one of these minor planets occulting a star has failed to show evidence of at least one secondary event. Such companions are gravitationally stable but apparently have rapid tidal evolution rates.

  8. Redescription and genetic characterization of selected Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from various hosts in Australia.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Norman, Richard; Gasser, Robin; Beveridge, Ian

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, five species of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry 1912 (Nematoda: Ascaridida), including Contracaecum bancrofti, Contracaecum microcephalum, Contracaecum variegatum, Contracaecum eudyptulae, and Contracaecum ogmorhini, were redescribed using light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, in order to elucidate their taxonomic status, first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of each morphospecies were characterized. Analyses of sequence and morphological data sets suggested that C. bancrofti, infecting the Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus, is a valid species and is distinct from C. micropapillatum reported from pelicans in the northern hemisphere. C. microcephalum from cormorants Phalacrocorax melanoleucos and C. variegatum from the darter Anhinga melanogaster and from P. conspicillatus as well as C. eudyptulae from the little penguin Eudyptula minor were also considered as distinct species, which can be differentiated from one another morphologically based on the lengths of spicules and genetically based on the sequences of ITS-1 and ITS-2. Comparison of sequence data of ITS-1 and ITS-2 for the members of C. ogmorhini sensu lato from pinnipeds with those of previous studies suggested that only ITS-2 can be used for differentiation between C. ogmorhini sensu stricto and Contracaecum margolisi, occurring in the southern and northern hemispheres, respectively. Analyses of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequence data of Contracaecum spp. in the present study supported the distinction among species of Contracaecum based on morphological data and were useful in confirming the taxonomic status of individual species in Australia.

  9. Gelidivirgula Patagoniensis Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., A Novel Psychrotolerant, Sporeforming Anaerobe Isolated from Magellanic Penguin Guano in Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, psychrotrophic bacterium, strain PPP2(sup T), was isolated from guano of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Patagonia, Chile. The Gram-positive, sporeforming, straight rods with sizes 0.6-0.9 x 3.0-5.0 microns, are motile by peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH x), and temperature range 2-28 C (optimum 20 C). The novel isolate does not require NaCl for growth, but is halotolerant and growth was observed between 0 and 7 % NaCl (w/v) with optimum at 0.5 % (w/v). The new isolate is a catalase negative chemoorganohetherotroph with fermentative metabolism and uses as substrates: peptone, Bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids, and yeast extract. The major metabolic products are: acetate, butyrate, ethanol, and hydrogen is a minor gas product.. Strain PPP2 was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, kanamycin, and gentamycin. The G+C content of the DNA is 43.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain PPP2(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-755(sup T) = JSM ...(sup T)) is assigned to the new genus Gelidivirgula gen. nov., as a representative of the new species, Gelidivirgula patagonensis sp. nov.

  10. Gelidivirgula Patagoniensis Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., A Novel Psychrotolerant, Sporeforming Anaerobe Isolated from Magellanic Penguin Guano in Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Tang, Jane; Krader, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, psychrotrophic bacterium, strain PPP2(sup T), was isolated from guano of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Patagonia, Chile. The Gram-positive, sporeforming, straight rods with sizes 0.6-0.9 x 3.0-5.0 microns, are motile by peritrichous flagella. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH x), and temperature range 2-28 C (optimum 20 C). The novel isolate does not require NaCl for growth, but is halotolerant and growth was observed between 0 and 7 % NaCl (w/v) with optimum at 0.5 % (w/v). The new isolate is a catalase negative chemoorganohetherotroph with fermentative metabolism and uses as substrates: peptone, Bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids, and yeast extract. The major metabolic products are: acetate, butyrate, ethanol, and hydrogen is a minor gas product.. Strain PPP2 was sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, kanamycin, and gentamycin. The G+C content of the DNA is 43.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the strain PPP2(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-755(sup T) = JSM ...(sup T)) is assigned to the new genus Gelidivirgula gen. nov., as a representative of the new species, Gelidivirgula patagonensis sp. nov.

  11. A Case of endoscopic retrieval of a long bamboo stick from a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Ko, Minho; Cho, Hyun Kee; Kang, Byung-Jae; Choi, Jung Hoon; Chung, Jin-Young

    2017-02-28

    An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps. A long bamboo stick (29 × 1 cm) was removed from the stomach, and the penguin fully recovered.

  12. Electro-Weak Penguin and Leptonic Decays in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lodovico, F.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2005-09-08

    Electro-weak penguin and leptonic decays provide an indirect probe for physics beyond the Standard Model and contribute to the determination of Standard Model parameters. Copious quantities of B mesons produced at the B-Factories permit precision measurements of the electro-weak penguin decays and searches for leptonic decays. We review the current experimental status of b {yields} s(d){gamma}, B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{gamma}, b {yields} s{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and finally B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays at BABAR.

  13. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  14. Penguin response to the Eocene climate and ecosystem change in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    Eocene Antarctic penguins are known solely from the La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, James Ross Basin). They are most numerous and taxonomically diverse (at least ten species present) within strata formed at the end of this epoch, which is concomitant with a significant cooling trend and biotic turnover prior to the onset of glaciation. Moreover, all newly appeared taxa were small-bodied, and most probably evolved in situ. Interestingly, some chemical proxies suggest enhanced nutrient upwelling events that coincided with obvious changes in the record of La Meseta penguins.

  15. [Use of energy reserves during the breeding fast of the emperor penguin, Aptenodvtes forsteri].

    PubMed

    Groscolas, R; Clément, C

    1976-01-19

    During the breeding fasting of the emperor penguin, the lipid and protein stores are steadily used to meet the metabolic needs; they represent respectively 93 and 7% of the energy production in the animal. The role of the glucid stores are quantitively negligible. Loss of tissue water represents 35,3% of body weight loss. Increased weight loss below 20 kg a "critical weight", is associated with a conversion to protein catabolism when lipid supplies are exhausted. These results allow the estimation of the metabolism when the body weight loss is considered in this antartic penguin.

  16. A Case of endoscopic retrieval of a long bamboo stick from a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, Woo-Sung; KO, Minho; CHO, Hyun Kee; KANG, Byung-Jae; CHOI, Jung Hoon; CHUNG, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps. A long bamboo stick (29 × 1 cm) was removed from the stomach, and the penguin fully recovered. PMID:27990010

  17. Temporal fractals in seabird foraging behaviour: diving through the scales of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, Andre; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Animal behaviour exhibits fractal structure in space and time. Fractal properties in animal space-use have been explored extensively under the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis, but studies of behaviour change itself through time are rarer, have typically used shorter sequences generated in the laboratory, and generally lack critical assessment of their results. We thus performed an in-depth analysis of fractal time in binary dive sequences collected via bio-logging from free-ranging little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across full-day foraging trips (216 data points; 4 orders of temporal magnitude). Results from 4 fractal methods show that dive sequences are long-range dependent and persistent across ca. 2 orders of magnitude. This fractal structure correlated with trip length and time spent underwater, but individual traits had little effect. Fractal time is a fundamental characteristic of penguin foraging behaviour, and its investigation is thus a promising avenue for research on interactions between animals and their environments.

  18. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life.

  19. Specialist Individuals, Generalist Populations, and Gentoo Penguin Foraging Ecology Across the Scotia Arc During a Time of Rapid Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R.; Polito, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), have increased in the Scotia arc in the last four decades, while sister species such as Chinstrap (P. antarctics) and Adélie penguins (P. adeliae) have experienced substantial declines in numbers. Previous dietary analyses suggest Gentoo penguins have a generalist foraging niche, which may help buffer them from recent climate-driven declines in key prey species, such as Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Ecological theory indicates that generalist populations fall under two different categories: Type A generalist populations exhibit large variation within individuals, and little variation between individuals, where Type B generalist populations are comprised of individual specialists, with large variation between individuals. It is important to identify which type of generalist population Gentoo penguins fall under, as these strategies impart differing ecological and evolutionary ramifications under times of environmental change. We conducted stable isotope analysis using tail feathers from Gentoo penguins at four breeding sites across the Scotia arc, including the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, the South Shetland Islands, and the Western Antarctic Peninsula, to assess individual variation in winter diets and determine the type of generalist strategies that Gentoo penguins utilize. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of individual specialization within the four geographically distinct breeding colonies, suggesting that individual resilience to further shifts in food availability may vary within Gentoo penguin populations.

  20. INCIDENCE DENSITY, PROPORTIONATE MORTALITY, AND RISK FACTORS OF ASPERGILLOSIS IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS IN A REHABILITATION CENTER FROM BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Silva Filho, Rodolfo Pinho da; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Ruoppolo, Valéria; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés; Adornes, Andréa Corrado; Cabana, Ângela Leitzke; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis, an opportunistic mycosis caused by the Aspergillus genus, affects mainly the respiratory system and is considered one of the most significant causes of mortality in captive penguins. This study aimed to examine a 6-yr period of cases of aspergillosis in penguins at the Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG), Rio Grande, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the institution's records of penguins received from January 2004 to December 2009. Animals were categorized according to the outcome "aspergillosis," and analyzed by age group, sex, oil fouling, origin, prophylactic administration of itraconazole, period in captivity, body mass, hematocrit, and total plasma proteins. A total of 327 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) was studied, 66 of which died of aspergillosis. Proportionate mortality by aspergillosis was 48.5%, and incidence density was 7.3 lethal aspergillosis cases per 100 penguins/mo. Approximately 75% of the aspergillosis cases occurred in penguins that had been transferred from other rehabilitation centers, and this was considered a significant risk factor for the disease. Significant differences were also observed between the groups in regard to the period of time spent in captivity until death, hematocrit and total plasma proteins upon admission to the center, and body mass gain during the period in captivity. The findings demonstrate the negative impacts of aspergillosis on the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins, with a high incidence density and substantial mortality.

  1. Ocular bacterial flora, tear production, and intraocular pressure in a captive flock of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Swinger, Robert L; Langan, Jennifer N; Hamor, Ralph

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine normal ocular surface bacterial flora, tear production, and intraocular pressure in a captive flock of Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti. Twenty-eight healthy penguins were studied and equally divided between fresh- and saltwater habitats. The population consisted of 15 female and 13 male penguins, ranging from 3-20 years of age. Following complete ophthalmic exam, 4 penguins with cataracts were removed from the study. Eight penguins from each habitat were randomly selected for ocular surface aerobic bacterial culture. Corynebacterium spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were the most common isolates. Twenty-five organisms consisting of 17 species, and 15 organisms consisting of 9 species, were identified in fresh- and saltwater groups, respectively. Tear production and intraocular pressures were evaluated on 24 penguins with normal ocular exams. The range and mean (+/- standard deviation) tear production, measured with the Schirmer tear test, was 1-12 mm/min and 6.45 mm/min +/- 2.9, respectively. The mean tear production for penguins housed in the freshwater habitat was greater (8.5 mm/min) than those in saltwater (4.8 mm/min). The range and mean (+/- standard deviation) intraocular pressure, measured by applanation tonometry using a Tono-Pen XL tonometer, was 10-27 mmHg and 20.36 mmHg +/- 4.1, respectively. This data should be utilized as a reliable resource for those involved in avian and zoo medicine.

  2. Penguin population dynamics over the past 1500 years in response to climate change in the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Nie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Several ornithogenic sediment profiles were collected from lakes and catchments near penguin colonies in the ice-free areas of the Ross Sea region. According to the analysis on elemental and isotopic geochemistry, As, Cd, Cu, P, S, Se and Zn were identified as bio-elements for the input of penguin droppings into the sediments. The 210Pb-137Cs and AMS14C dating results showed the chronology of these determined sediment profiles covered the different time spans from 1500 to 200 cal yr BP. Factor analysis on these bio-elements can be used to reconstruct historical change of penguin population, and the result showed that the penguin population, which was reconstructed from the shorter profiles (younger than 500 years) at Cape Crozier and Beaufort Island of Ross Sea region, displayed clear peaks in the recent decades of years. This finding is in accordance with global warming and modern observation data. The penguin population reconstructed from the longer sediment profiles excavated from Cape Bird showed more fluctuations. Two sediment profiles, collected from the lower terrain of mid Cape Bird, recorded higher penguin density between 1000 and 600 cal. yr BP and then decreased sharply. However, one sediment profile on higher terrain in mid Cape Bird recorded a sudden increase in penguin population from around 600 yr BP. We believed the population peaks recorded in the different sediments profiles was indicative of a migration within the penguin colonies of Cape Bird, from lower terrain to higher terrain. This migration was likely driven by the severe climate fluctuation during the Little Ice Age in the study region. Our results clearly showed the change of penguin ecology can sensitively indicate climate change in the East Antarctica.

  3. Penguin Mediated B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Mancinelli, Giampiero

    2002-09-19

    The authors report on preliminary results of searches for penguin mediated B decays based on 20.7 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) peak with the BABAR detector at PEP-II. The following branching fractions have been measured: {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K{sup +}) = (7.7{sub -1.4}{sup +1.6} {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0}) = (8.1{sub -2.5}{sup +3.1} {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K*{sup +}) = (9.7{sub -3.4}{sup +4.2} {+-} 1.7) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K*{sup 0}) = (8.7{sub -2.1}{sup +2.5} {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{pi}{sup +}) = (6.6{sub -1.8}{sup +2.1} {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B {yields} {eta}K*{sup 0}) = (19.8{sub -5.6}{sup +6.5} {+-} 1.7) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. For several other modes they report upper limits on their branching fractions; for example for the following flavor-changing neutral current decays, {Beta}(B {yields} Kl{sup +}l{sup -}) < 0.6 x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B {yields} K*l{sup +}l{sup -}) < 2.5 x 10{sup -6}, at 90% Confidence Level (C.L.).

  4. Aerial Photography Estimation of CH4 and N2O Emissions from Adelie Penguins During 1983-2012 in Victoria Land, Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.

    2016-12-01

    Sea animals are the "bio-indicators" of the climate change in the Antarctic. The abundant nutrient components in their excreta such as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) promote the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Adélie Penguins are important sea animals, their colonies therefore become the potential "hotspots" of the GHGs emissions. Some field observations have been carried out to study the penguin excreta on CH4 and N2O emissions in the Antarctic peninsula. However, due to the lacking of the penguin population data, the total emissions of GHGs have not been estimated at regional scale. This study aimed to extract penguin information from two period aerial photographs respectively in 1983 and 2012 using object-oriented method in Victoria Land, Antarctic, and then estimate the Adélie penguin populations on Inexpressible Island combined with the shadow analysis. Meanwhile, a GHGs model was developed to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions from Adelie penguins based on the CH4 and N2O fluxes of penguin guanos, the number of penguins, and the fresh weight of penguin guanos and so on. The results indicated that object-oriented method was effective in penguin information extraction from high-resolution images, and there were 17120 and 21183 Adélie penguins respectively in 1983 and 2012, respectively. The main reasons for the increase in penguin populations from 1983 to 2012 might be explained from physical environment and biological environment, such as the rising temperatures and reduced Antarctic toothfishes. And the total CH4 and N2O emissions from penguins on Inexpressible Island during breeding season were 246 kg CH4 and 2.67 kg N2O in 1983, and 304 kg CH4 and 3.31 kg N2O in 2012. Our study aimed to provide important reference value for the estimation of GHG budget in Antarctic.

  5. Prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp, in the endangered yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes.

    PubMed

    Hill, A G; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D; Alley, M R

    2010-09-01

    Yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island were identified with a Leucocytozoon spp. of a novel lineage in association with a high regional incidence of chick mortality (n=32, 100% mortality) during the November 2006 to January 2007 breeding season. Fourteen chicks from Stewart Island were examined post-mortem and histologically for Leucocytozoon infection. In addition, a survey of blood to detect Leucocytozoon spp. infections using PCR was performed on 107 yellow-eyed penguins from 4 distinct nesting areas on the South Island (Oamaru, Otago Peninsula, and Catlins) (n=95), and Stewart Island (n=12). The results of the study revealed that 2 of the 14 (14%) chicks necropsied showed severe, disseminated megaloschizont formation in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney and other tissues characteristic of leucocytozoonosis. Eighty-three percent (83%) of blood samples collected from Stewart Island penguins contained Leucocytozoon DNA, whereas samples from the 3 other nesting areas were negative for the blood parasite. Leucocytozoon spp. DNA sequences isolated from blood and tissues of adults (n=10) and chicks (n=7) were similar and grouped with other published Leucocytozoon spp. sequences but in a distinct cluster together with closely related isolates from a Western march harrier (Circus aerginosus) and common loon (Gavia immer). These findings suggest that yellow-eyed penguins on Stewart Island are infected with a regionally isolated, host-specific Leucocytozoon spp. which may contribute to the high chick mortality observed during this period.

  6. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins.

  7. Health evaluation of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; Schaefer, Adam M; Vanstreels, Ralph E T

    2016-09-20

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre. There were 68 penguins that were seropositive for at least one of seven pathogens tested: avian encephalomyelitis virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. All samples were seronegative for avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The apparent prevalence of Babesia sp. and Borrelia sp. in blood smears was consistent with previous studies. Babesia-infected individuals had a regenerative response of the erythrocytic lineage, an active inflammatory response and hepatic function impairment. These findings indicate that African penguins may be exposed to conservation-significant pathogens in the wild and encourage further studies aiming for the direct detection and/or isolation of these microorganisms.

  8. Hand-Rearing, Release and Survival of African Penguin Chicks Abandoned Before Independence by Moulting Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sherley, Richard B.; Waller, Lauren J.; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G.; Parsons, Nola J.

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an ‘Endangered’ conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds. PMID:25337698

  9. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Everett, Jason D; Harcourt, Robert; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian

    2016-02-29

    The world's oceans are undergoing rapid, regionally specific warming. Strengthening western boundary currents play a role in this phenomenon, with sea surface temperatures (SST) in their paths rising faster than the global average. To understand how dynamic oceanography influences food availability in these ocean warming "hotspots", we use a novel prey capture signature derived from accelerometry to understand how the warm East Australian Current shapes foraging success by a meso-predator, the little penguin. This seabird feeds on low trophic level species that are sensitive to environmental change. We found that in 2012, prey capture success by penguins was high when SST was low relative to the long-term mean. In 2013 prey capture success was low, coincident with an unusually strong penetration of warm water. Overall there was an optimal temperature range for prey capture around 19-21 °C, with lower success at both lower and higher temperatures, mirroring published relationships between commercial sardine catch and SST. Spatially, higher SSTs corresponded to a lower probability of penguins using an area, and lower prey capture success. These links between high SST and reduced prey capture success by penguins suggest negative implications for future resource availability in a system dominated by a strengthening western boundary current.

  10. Rare Hadronic and Radiative Penguin B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Willocq, Stephane

    2002-02-07

    We report recent results in the study of rare hadronic and radiative penguin decays of B mesons. These results are based on a sample of 23 million BB pairs collected by the BaBar Collaboration at the SLAC PEP-II e+e- B Factory.

  11. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal categories. Moreover, we used a principal component analysis, followed by signal classification with a discriminant function analysis, for statistical validation of the vocalisation types. In addition, we identified the behavioural contexts in which calls were uttered. The results show that four basic vocalisations can be found in the vocal repertoire of adult African Penguin, namely a contact call emitted by isolated birds, an agonistic call used in aggressive interactions, an ecstatic display song uttered by single birds, and a mutual display song vocalised by pairs, at their nests. Moreover, we identified two distinct vocalisations interpreted as begging calls by nesting chicks (begging peep) and unweaned juveniles (begging moan). Finally, we discussed the importance of specific acoustic parameters in classifying calls and the possible use of the source-filter theory of vocal production to study penguin vocalisations.

  12. Purposes for Literacy in Children's Use of the Online Virtual World "Club Penguin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the purposes for literacy discernible in young children's use of the virtual world, "Club Penguin." Twenty-six children aged between 5 and 11 took part in semi-structured interviews in which their use of virtual worlds was explored. Further, three 11-year-old children were filmed using "Club…

  13. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Large electroweak penguin contribution in B{yields}K{pi} and {pi}{pi} decay modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    We discuss a possibility of large electroweak penguin contribution in B{yields}K{pi} and {pi}{pi} from recent experimental data. The experimental data may be suggesting that there are some discrepancies between the data and theoretical estimation in the branching ratios of them. In B{yields}K{pi} decays, to explain it, a large electroweak penguin contribution and large strong phase differences seem to be needed. The contributions should appear also in B{yields}{pi}{pi}. We show, as an example, a solution to solve the discrepancies in both B{yields}K{pi} and B{yields}{pi}{pi}. However the magnitude of the parameters and the strong phase estimated from experimental data are quite large compared with the theoretical estimations. It may be suggesting some new physics effects are included in these processes. We will have to discuss about the dependence of the new physics. To explain both modes at once, we may need large electroweak penguin contribution with new weak phases and some SU(3) breaking effects by new physics in both QCD and electroweak penguin-type processes.

  15. Monitoring trace elements in Antarctic penguin chicks from South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Jerez, Silvia; Motas, Miguel; Benzal, Jesús; Diaz, Julia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2013-04-15

    The concentration of human activities in the near-shore ecosystems from the northern Antarctic Peninsula area can cause an increasing bioavailability of pollutants for the vulnerable Antarctic biota. Penguin chicks can reflect this potential impact in the rookeries during the breeding season. They also can reflect biomagnification phenomena since they are on the top of the Antarctic food chain. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were measured by ICP-MS in samples of liver, kidney, muscle, bone, feather and stomach content of gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguin chicks (n=15 individuals) collected opportunistically in the Islands of King George and Deception (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The detected levels of some trace elements were not as low as it could be expected in the isolated Antarctic region. Penguin chicks can be useful indicators of trace elements abundance in the study areas. Carcasses of Antarctic penguin chicks were used to evaluate the bioavailability of trace elements in the Islands of King George and Deception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Waller, Lauren J; Strauss, Venessa; Geldenhuys, Deon; Underhill, Les G; Parsons, Nola J

    2014-01-01

    The African penguin Spheniscus demersus has an 'Endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. Following abandonment, 841 African penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to SANCCOB (Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. Of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. There were veterinary concerns about avian malaria, airsacculitis and pneumonia, feather-loss and pododermatitis (bumblefoot). Post-release juvenile (0.32, s.e.  = 0.08) and adult (0.76, s.e.  = 0.10) survival rates were similar to African penguin chicks reared after oil spills and to recent survival rates recorded for naturally-reared birds. By December 2012, 12 birds had bred, six at their colony of origin, and the apparent recruitment rate was 0.11 (s.e.  = 0.03). Hand-rearing of abandoned penguin chicks is recommended as a conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. The feasibility of conservation translocations for the creation of new colonies for this species using hand-reared chicks warrants investigation. Any such programme would be predicated on adequate disease surveillance programmes established to minimise the risk of disease introduction to wild birds.

  17. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Three Species of Antarctic Penguins in Different Geographic Locations.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Llorente, M T; Serrano, T; Ruano, M J; Belliure, J; Benzal, J; Herrera-León, S; Vidal, V; D'Amico, V; Pérez-Boto, D; Barbosa, A

    2017-03-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua)], and six colonies were rarely visited [Devil's Point, Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island (P. papua); Cierva Cove, Antarctic Peninsula (P. papua); Rongé Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Yalour Island (P. adeliae); and Avian Island (P. adeliae)]. A total of 23 strains were isolated from penguins from nine different rookeries. Campylobacter lari subsp. lari was isolated from eight samples (seven from P. papua and one from P. adeliae); C. lari subsp. concheus from 13 (ten from P. adeliae and three from P. antarctica) and C. volucris from two samples (both from P. papua). We did not find any significant differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. between the populations in highly and rarely visited areas. This is the first report of C. lari subsp. concheus and C. volucris isolation from penguins in the Antarctic region.

  18. Comparative genome-wide polymorphic microsatellite markers in Antarctic penguins through next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Juliana A.; Noll, Daly; Mura-Jornet, Isidora; Valenzuela-Guerra, Paulina; González-Acuña, Daniel; Navarro, Cristell; Loyola, David E.; Dantas, Gisele P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Microsatellites are valuable molecular markers for evolutionary and ecological studies. Next generation sequencing is responsible for the increasing number of microsatellites for non-model species. Penguins of the Pygoscelis genus are comprised of three species: Adélie (P. adeliae), Chinstrap (P. antarcticus) and Gentoo penguin (P. papua), all distributed around Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic. The species have been affected differently by climate change, and the use of microsatellite markers will be crucial to monitor population dynamics. We characterized a large set of genome-wide microsatellites and evaluated polymorphisms in all three species. SOLiD reads were generated from the libraries of each species, identifying a large amount of microsatellite loci: 33,677, 35,265 and 42,057 for P. adeliae, P. antarcticus and P. papua, respectively. A large number of dinucleotide (66,139), trinucleotide (29,490) and tetranucleotide (11,849) microsatellites are described. Microsatellite abundance, diversity and orthology were characterized in penguin genomes. We evaluated polymorphisms in 170 tetranucleotide loci, obtaining 34 polymorphic loci in at least one species and 15 polymorphic loci in all three species, which allow to perform comparative studies. Polymorphic markers presented here enable a number of ecological, population, individual identification, parentage and evolutionary studies of Pygoscelis, with potential use in other penguin species. PMID:28898354

  19. SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS FORSTER, 1781).

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Cláudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor C L; Dias, Ricardo A; Ribeiro, Jéssica D; Lassalvia, Cristiane; Maracini, Pryscilla; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Mayorga, Luis F S P; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-03-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northward as far as Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from three zoos and two rehabilitation centers (RCs) in Brazil were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off ≥ 20). The penguins were categorized as young (≤4 yr old) or adults (≥4 yr old) and sexed (male, female, or not identified), and data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 28% of penguins: 25.8% males, 27.8% females, 30.3% unknown sex, 25.4% young, and 31.1% adults. Statistical analyses did not find any difference (P > 0.05) with respect to age, sex, or source of birds. This is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in S. magellanicus.

  20. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica. PMID:26113152

  1. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Gemma; Everett, Jason D.; Harcourt, Robert; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are undergoing rapid, regionally specific warming. Strengthening western boundary currents play a role in this phenomenon, with sea surface temperatures (SST) in their paths rising faster than the global average. To understand how dynamic oceanography influences food availability in these ocean warming “hotspots”, we use a novel prey capture signature derived from accelerometry to understand how the warm East Australian Current shapes foraging success by a meso-predator, the little penguin. This seabird feeds on low trophic level species that are sensitive to environmental change. We found that in 2012, prey capture success by penguins was high when SST was low relative to the long-term mean. In 2013 prey capture success was low, coincident with an unusually strong penetration of warm water. Overall there was an optimal temperature range for prey capture around 19–21 °C, with lower success at both lower and higher temperatures, mirroring published relationships between commercial sardine catch and SST. Spatially, higher SSTs corresponded to a lower probability of penguins using an area, and lower prey capture success. These links between high SST and reduced prey capture success by penguins suggest negative implications for future resource availability in a system dominated by a strengthening western boundary current. PMID:26923901

  2. Purposes for Literacy in Children's Use of the Online Virtual World "Club Penguin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the purposes for literacy discernible in young children's use of the virtual world, "Club Penguin." Twenty-six children aged between 5 and 11 took part in semi-structured interviews in which their use of virtual worlds was explored. Further, three 11-year-old children were filmed using "Club…

  3. Behavioral responses of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) (Foster) to saltwater versus freshwater.

    PubMed

    Reisfeld, Laura; Moraes, Kaue; Spaulussi, Lygia; Cardoso, Ricardo Cesar; Ippolito, Laura; Gutierrez, Rafael; Silvatti, Bruna; Pizzutto, Cristiane Schilbach

    2013-01-01

    The most common penguin species found along the coast of Brazil is the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). These penguins spend most of their time foraging for food in the oceans. This information is vital to the maintenance of this species in captivity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavioral response of a group of Magellanic Penguins (S. magellanicus) in two different conditions of water--fresh and salt. The work was divided into two phases. First, animals were kept in enclosures with access to freshwater. Then they were housed with access to saltwater. Behaviors were recorded by scan sampling per interval of time, totaling 7,200 records for each animal. The results show that the use of saltwater for this group of animals kept in captivity was more effective for increasing the time the animals spent in the water, increasing foraging behavior, stimulating swimming, and providing display of typical behaviors of the species, showing that access to a saltwater environment is an important tool in trying to provide well-being for this species in captivity.

  4. THE PASSAGE AND DURATION OF ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI).

    PubMed

    Cushing, Andrew C; Dubovi, Edward; Erb, Hollis N; Georoff, Timothy A; Abou-Madi, Noha

    2017-03-01

    West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) outbreaks and mortality events have been documented in both wild and captive avian species, including penguins. Serologic response to vaccination in avian species has varied and appears to be largely species dependent; however, Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) previously showed excellent rates of seroconversion. The goal of this study was to determine virus neutralization titers of 17 Humboldt penguin hens and their subsequent eggs, chicks, or both following vaccination with a killed West Nile vaccine. Chicks were also vaccinated at 56, 70, and 84 days old. Titers were measured from 10-346 days prior to lay as well as serially in seven chicks. Data collected showed positive rank correlation between maternal titers and yolk titers (ρ = 0.90, P < 0.0001, n = 14) but no association between booster vaccination and yolk titers. All seven chicks had detectable antibody on days 14 and 28, and antibody levels had increased (relative to day 56) in 3 of 6 chicks (50%; 95% confidence interval 14-86%) by day 112. Further information is provided on a suggested vaccination schedule for Humboldt penguin chicks based on a time-dependent decline in maternal antibody titers. Cell-mediated immunity and experimental challenge following vaccination have not yet been investigated in this species.

  5. Comparative genome-wide polymorphic microsatellite markers in Antarctic penguins through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Juliana A; Noll, Daly; Mura-Jornet, Isidora; Valenzuela-Guerra, Paulina; González-Acuña, Daniel; Navarro, Cristell; Loyola, David E; Dantas, Gisele P M

    Microsatellites are valuable molecular markers for evolutionary and ecological studies. Next generation sequencing is responsible for the increasing number of microsatellites for non-model species. Penguins of the Pygoscelis genus are comprised of three species: Adélie (P. adeliae), Chinstrap (P. antarcticus) and Gentoo penguin (P. papua), all distributed around Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic. The species have been affected differently by climate change, and the use of microsatellite markers will be crucial to monitor population dynamics. We characterized a large set of genome-wide microsatellites and evaluated polymorphisms in all three species. SOLiD reads were generated from the libraries of each species, identifying a large amount of microsatellite loci: 33,677, 35,265 and 42,057 for P. adeliae, P. antarcticus and P. papua, respectively. A large number of dinucleotide (66,139), trinucleotide (29,490) and tetranucleotide (11,849) microsatellites are described. Microsatellite abundance, diversity and orthology were characterized in penguin genomes. We evaluated polymorphisms in 170 tetranucleotide loci, obtaining 34 polymorphic loci in at least one species and 15 polymorphic loci in all three species, which allow to perform comparative studies. Polymorphic markers presented here enable a number of ecological, population, individual identification, parentage and evolutionary studies of Pygoscelis, with potential use in other penguin species.

  6. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-06-26

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in South America.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, P; Taniguchi, S; Gallo, H; Maranho, A; Kolesnikovas, C; Amorim, D B; Mansilla, M; Navarro, R M; Tabeira, L C; Bicego, M C; Montone, R C

    2016-04-01

    Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, are the most abundant penguins living in temperate regions of South America and are good indicators of environmental pollution in the region. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were detected in the liver of Magellanic penguins found debilitated or dead on the beaches of Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) between 2008 and 2012 as well as in Uruguay and Chile in 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were more prevalent than organochlorine pesticides (DDTs ∼ HCB ∼ Drins) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Among PCBs, penta-, hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners were predominant. Concentrations of POPs were similar between the Pacific and Atlantic penguin populations, except for PCBs, which were relatively higher in the Pacific population. During the study years (2008-2012), large variations were found in organochlorine pesticides and PCBs tended to decline. Overall, the southern portion of South America has low concentrations of POPs, with either a constant trend or evidence of decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatially integrated assessment reveals widespread changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather J; Naveen, Ron; Trathan, Philip N; Fagan, William F

    2012-06-01

    As important marine mesopredators and sensitive indicators of Antarctic ecosystem change, penguins have been a major focus of long-term biological research in the Antarctic. However, the vast majority of such studies have been constrained by logistics and relate mostly to the temporal dynamics of individual breeding populations from which regional trends have been inferred, often without regard for the complex spatial heterogeneity of population processes and the underlying environmental conditions. Integrating diverse census data from 70 breeding sites across 31 years in a robust, hierarchical analysis, we find that trends from intensely studied populations may poorly reflect regional dynamics and confuse interpretation of environmental drivers. Results from integrated analyses confirm that Pygoscelis adeliae (Adélie Penguins) are decreasing at almost all locations on the Antarctic Peninsula. Results also resolve previously contradictory studies and unambiguously establish that P. antarctica (Chinstrap Penguins), thought to benefit from decreasing sea ice, are instead declining regionally. In contrast, another open-water species, P. papua (Gentoo Penguin), is increasing in abundance and expanding southward. These disparate population trends accord with recent mechanistic hypotheses of biological change in the Southern Ocean and highlight limitations of the influential but oversimplified "sea ice" hypothesis. Aggregating population data at the regional scale also allows us to quantify rates of regional population change in a way not previously possible.

  9. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yaguang; Sun, Liguang; Liu, Xiaodong; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-06-01

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this region. The succession was most obviously marked by a sand layer lasting from 1400 to 1900 AD in one of the analyzed profiles. Multiple physical/chemical parameters indicated this sand layer was not formed in a lacustrine environment, but was marine-derived. Both isostatic subsidence and frequent storms under the colder climatic condition of the Little Ice Age were presumed to have caused the abandonment of the colonies, and we believe the penguins migrated from the coastal area of mid Cape Bird northward and to higher ground as recorded in the other sediment profiles. This migration was an ecological response to global climate change and possible subsequent geological effects in Antarctica.

  10. High sea surface temperatures driven by a strengthening current reduce foraging success by penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, G.; Everett, J. D.; Harcourt, R.; Slip, D.; Jonsen, I.

    2016-02-01

    The world's oceans are undergoing rapid, regionally specific warming. Strengthening western boundary currents play a significant role in this phenomenon, with sea surface temperatures (SST) in their paths rising faster than the global average. To understand how dynamic oceanography influences food availability in these ocean warming "hotspots", we use a novel prey capture signature derived from accelerometry to understand how the warm East Australian Current shapes foraging success by a meso-predator, the little penguin. This seabird feeds on low-trophic level species that are sensitive to environmental change. We found that in 2012, prey capture success by penguins was high when SST was low relative to the long-term mean. In 2013 prey capture success was low, coincident with an unusually strong penetration of warm water. Overall there was an optimal temperature range for prey capture around 19-21oC, with lower success at both lower and higher temperatures, mirroring published relationships between commercial sardine catch and SST. Spatially, higher SSTs corresponded to a lower probability of penguins using an area, and lower prey capture success. These links between high SST and reduced prey capture success by penguins suggest negative implications for future resource availability in a system dominated by a strengthening western boundary current.

  11. Determination of Tear Production and Intraocular Pressure With Rebound Tonometry in Wild Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Julie D; Adkesson, Michael J; Allender, Matthew C; Jankowski, Gwen; Langan, Jennifer; Cardeña, Marco; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana

    2017-03-01

    Tear production and intraocular pressures (IOPs) were determined in 38 and 102 wild Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), respectively, from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area in Ica, Peru. Tear production was measured by Schirmer tear test, and IOP was measured with a TonoVet rebound tonometer. Adult (n = 90) and chick (n = 12) penguins were sampled from 2 different beaches (north and south facing) during 2 sampling years (2010 and 2011). Results showed a mean ± SD (range) of 9 ± 4 (2-20) mm/min for tear production and 28 ± 9 (3-49) mm Hg for IOP. Tear production in penguins differed between beach and sex, whereas IOP differed between age, year, and beach. The IOPs were negatively correlated with packed cell volume. Tear production and IOP values had greater variation in this population than it has in other avian species. Previous investigations of IOP and tear production in Spheniscus species were conducted with birds housed under professional care in artificial marine and freshwater environments. This is the first study, to our knowledge, investigating tear production and IOP in wild penguins and establishes valuable reference intervals for this species.

  12. Characterization of transcriptome and identification of biomineralization genes in winged pearl oyster (Pteria penguin) mantle tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Haimei; Liu, Baosuo; Huang, Guiju; Fan, Sigang; Zhang, Bo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Dahui

    2017-03-01

    The winged pearl oyster Pteria penguin is a commercially important marine pearl oyster species, with pearls that are quite different from those of other pearl oysters. Among such species, mantle tissue is the main organ responsible for shell and pearl formation, a biomineralization process that is regulated by a series of genes, most of which remain unknown. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of P. penguin mantle tissue using the HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 93,204 unique transcripts were assembled from 51,580,076 quality reads, with a mean length of 608bp, and 40,974 unigenes were annotated. The sequence data enabled the identification of 79,702 potential single nucleotide polymorphism loci and 4345 putative simple sequence repeat loci. A total of 71 unique transcripts were identified homologous to known biomineralization genes, including mantle gene, nacrein, pearlin, pif, chitinase, and shematrin, of which only 3 were previously reported in P. penguin. qPCR analysis indicated that 10 randomly selected biomineralization genes were much more highly expressed in mantle tissue than in the other tissues. In addition, 30 unique sequences were identified as highly expressed, with FPKM values of >3000, and most of these were biomineralization-related genes, including shematrin family genes, a jacalin-related lectin synthesis gene, calponin-2, and paramyosin. These findings will be useful for future studies of biomineralization in P. penguin, as well as in other Pteria species.

  13. Health evaluation of penguins (Sphenisciformes) following mortality in the Falklands (South Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Keyme, I F; Malcolm, H M; Hunt, A; Horsley, D T

    2001-08-02

    In the Falklands, heavy mortality of rock-hopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome occurred during the 1985-86 breeding season. Starvation was diagnosed as the primary cause of death, possibly caused by a shortage of euphausiid crustaceans (krill) due to unusual meterological conditions. 'Puffinosis' may possibly have been a contributory factor; otherwise no conclusive evidence of infectious disease or toxicosis was found and also no evidence of radioactive contamination. In the 1986-87 breeding season no unusual mortality occurred, but 99 apparently healthy penguins were examined, i.e., rockhoppers Eudyptes chrysocome syn E. crestatus, gentoos Pygoscelis papua and Magellanics Spheniscus magellanicus. Full necropsies were carried out on 54. Tissue examinations were made for cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, lead and zinc. High tissue cadmium concentrations found in healthy birds in 1987 were similar to those in penguins which died in 1986, and therefore not considered to be of pathological significance. Although there has been no repetition of the unusually hot 1985-86 breeding season in the Falklands, penguins and other seabirds have had fluctuating breeding successes since then. The precise cause, including the roles of meteorological conditions and overexploitation of some forms of prey species, is unclear.

  14. Environmental variability drives shifts in the foraging behaviour and reproductive success of an inshore seabird.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Reina, Richard D; Preston, Tiana J; Chiaradia, André

    2015-08-01

    Marine animals forage in areas that aggregate prey to maximize their energy intake. However, these foraging 'hot spots' experience environmental variability, which can substantially alter prey availability. To survive and reproduce animals need to modify their foraging in response to these prey shifts. By monitoring their inter-annual foraging behaviours, we can understand which environmental variables affect their foraging efficiency, and can assess how they respond to environmental variability. Here, we monitored the foraging behaviour and isotopic niche of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), over 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2012) of climatic and prey variability within Port Phillip Bay, Australia. During drought (2008), penguins foraged in close proximity to the Yarra River outlet on a predominantly anchovy-based diet. In periods of heavy rainfall, when water depth in the largest tributary into the bay (Yarra River) was high, the total distance travelled, maximum distance travelled, distance to core-range, and size of core- and home-ranges of penguins increased significantly. This larger foraging range was associated with broad dietary diversity and high reproductive success. These results suggest the increased foraging range and dietary diversity of penguins were a means to maximize resource acquisition rather than a strategy to overcome local depletions in prey. Our results demonstrate the significance of the Yarra River in structuring predator-prey interactions in this enclosed bay, as well as the flexible foraging strategies of penguins in response to environmental variability. This plasticity is central to the survival of this small-ranging, resident seabird species.

  15. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Minority Women's Health This section of womenshealth.gov takes a ... Health email updates. Enter email address Submit Minority Women's Health news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link ...

  16. Office of Minority Health

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Office of Minority Health A A A En Español Newsroom Contact Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data ... Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff State Minority Health Contacts Offices of Minority Health at HHS ...

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  18. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  19. Minorities and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lawrence; Petty, Reginald

    This publication explores needed changes in the career preparation and education for minorities and examines the implications of career education emphases for minorities in the U.S. Contents include: (1) "An Overview of Minorities and Career Education" by L. Davenport and R. Petty, (2) "Public Schools, Public Policy, and Public Problems: Some…

  20. Project CONVERGE: Impacts of local oceanographic processes on Adélie penguin foraging ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, J. T.; Bernard, K. S.; Fraser, W.; Oliver, M. J.; Statscewich, H.; Patterson-Fraser, D.; Winsor, P.; Cimino, M. A.; Miles, T. N.

    2016-02-01

    During the austral summer of 2014-2015, project CONVERGE deployed a multi-platform network to sample the Adélie penguin foraging hotspot associated with Palmer Deep Canyon along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The focus of CONVERGE was to assess the impact of prey-concentrating ocean circulation dynamics on Adélie penguin foraging behavior. Food web links between phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and penguin behavior were examined to better understand the within-season variability in Adélie foraging ecology. Since the High Frequency Radar (HFR) network installation in November 2014, the radial component current data from each of the three sites were combined to provide a high resolution (0.5 km) surface velocity maps. These hourly maps have revealed an incredibly dynamic system with strong fronts and frequent eddies extending across the Palmer Deep foraging area. A coordinated fleet of underwater gliders were used in concert with the HFR fields to sample the hydrography and phytoplankton distributions associated with convergent and divergent features. Three gliders mapped the along and across canyon variability of the hydrography, chlorophyll fluorescence and acoustic backscatter in the context of the observed surface currents and simultaneous penguin tracks. This presentation will highlight these synchronized measures of the food web in the context of the observed HFR fronts and eddies. The location and persistence of these features coupled with ecological sampling through the food web offer an unprecedented view of the Palmer Deep ecosystem. Specific examples will highlight how the vertical structure of the water column beneath the surface features stack the primary and secondary producers relative to observed penguin foraging behavior. The coupling from the physics through the food web as observed by our multi-platform network gives strong evidence for the critical role that distribution patterns of lower trophic levels have on Adélie foraging.

  1. How Much Is Too Much? Assessment of Prey Consumption by Magellanic Penguins in Patagonian Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Juan E.; Wilson, Rory P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles (‘wiggles’) for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 42–49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific ‘prey type’. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives. PMID:23251554

  2. Evaluation of oral itraconazole administration in captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Bunting, Elizabeth M; Abou-Madi, Noha; Cox, Sherry; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Fox, Henry; Kollias, George V

    2009-09-01

    Aspergillus spp. fungal infections are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins. Itraconazole has been the drug of choice for both therapeutic and prophylactic treatment; however, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters can be highly variable in different species, and it has not been evaluated in penguins. In this study, four preliminary steady-state trials were performed to compare two oral formulations of itraconazole (commercial capsules compared with generic bulk compounded powder) at two different dosages (6 or 12 mg/kg once a day) administered in fish to small groups of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Building on this data, a final steady-state trial was performed with the use of a 7 mg/kg oral dosage twice a day of commercial capsules given in fish to a group of 15 penguins. With sparse sampling, blood was drawn for testing from small subsets of each treatment group at 4-7 time points in the 24-hr period after the final dose of itraconazole on day 14. Steady-state plasma concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole, the major metabolite, were determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Treatment with the generic bulk compounded product resulted in plasma levels of itraconazole that were undetectable for 26 out of 30 blood samples, compared with seven out of 20 blood samples for the commercial product at the same dosage. On the basis of study results, an estimated oral dosage of either 8.5 mg/kg twice a day or 20 mg/kg once a day of the commercial itraconazole capsules given in fish would produce adequate steady-state therapeutic blood levels in Humboldt penguins.

  3. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus dermersus).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre, Elisa M; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Caro-Vadillo, Alicia; Rodriguez-Alvaro, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    To determine the central corneal thickness (CCT) by ultrasonic pachymetry and the effect of these values on the measurements of intraocular pressures (IOP) with rebound tonometry (TonoVet(®) ) in a captive flock of black-footed penguins (Spheniscus dermersus). Variations in CCT by age and weight, and variations in IOP by age were compared. Both eyes of 18 clinically normal black-footed penguins (Spheniscus dermersus) were used. The IOP was measured by the TonoVet(®) in both eyes of all the penguins. CTT measurements were performed 5 min later in all eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. The mean IOP values ± SD were 31.77 ± 3.3 mm Hg (range of mean value: 24-38). The mean CCT values were 384.08 ± 30.9 μm (range of mean value: 319-454). There was no correlation between IOP and CCT values (P = 0.125). There was no difference in CCT measurements by age (P = 0.122) or weight (P = 0.779). A correlation was observed (P = 0.032) between IOP values and age. The coefficient of correlation was negative (ρ = -0.207). Ultrasound pachymetry has shown to be a reliable and easy technique to measure CCT in penguins. No correlation was observed between IOP and CCT values in this study. IOP showed a significant but weak decrease as age increased in the black-footed penguin. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. How much is too much? Assessment of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins in Patagonian colonies.

    PubMed

    Sala, Juan E; Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles ('wiggles') for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 42-49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific 'prey type'. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.

  5. Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguins.

    PubMed

    Kahl, L Alex; Schofield, Oscar; Fraser, William R

    2010-12-01

    Despite their strong dependence on the pelagic environment, seabirds and other top predators in polar marine ecosystems are generally studied during their reproductive phases in terrestrial environments. As a result, a significant portion of their life history is understudied which in turn has led to limited understanding. Recent advances in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technologies have allowed satellite-tagged Adélie penguins to guide AUV surveys of the marine environment at the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Near real-time data sent via Iridium satellites from the AUVs to a centralized control center thousands of miles away allowed scientists to adapt AUV sampling strategies to meet the changing conditions of the subsurface. Such AUV data revealed the water masses and fine-scale features associated with Adélie penguin foraging trips. During this study, the maximum concentration of chlorophyll was between 30 and 50 m deep. Encompassing this peak in the chlorophyll concentration, within the water-column, was a mixture of nutrient-laden Upper Circumpolar Deep (UCDW) and western Antarctic Peninsula winter water (WW). Together, data from the AUV survey and penguin dives reveal that 54% of foraging by Adélie penguins occurs immediately below the chlorophyll maximum. These data demonstrate how bringing together emerging technologies, such as AUVs, with established methods such as the radio-tagging of penguins can provide powerful tools for monitoring and hypothesis testing of previously inaccessible ecological processes. Ocean and atmosphere temperatures are expected to continue increasing along the western Antarctic Peninsula, which will undoubtedly affect regional marine ecosystems. New and emerging technologies such as unmanned underwater vehicles and individually mounted satellite tracking devices will provide the tools critical to documenting and understanding the widespread ecological change

  6. Measurements of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in b->s Penguin Dominated Hadronic B Decays at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Biassoni, Pietro

    2010-02-10

    We report measurements of Time-Dependent CP asymmetries in several b->s penguin dominated hadronic B decays, where New Physics contributions may appear. We find no significant discrepancies with respect to the Standard Model expectations.

  7. Survival and movements of Magellanic penguins rehabilitated from oil fouling along the coast of South America, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Woehler, Eric J; Heredia, Sergio Andres Rodríguez; Adornes, Andréa Corrado; da Silva-Filho, Rodolfo Pinho; Matus, Ricardo; Poleschi, Carla; Griot, Karen; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K Miyaji; Serafini, Patrícia

    2012-07-01

    Oil pollution is a significant conservation concern. We examined data from six institutions along the coast of South America: Emergency Relief Team of the International Fund for Animal Welfare, Fundación Mundo Marino, Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos, Natura Patagonia, Associação R3 Animal, and Mar del Plata Aquarium and data from resightings in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Falkland/Malvinas Islands. From 2000 to 2010, 2183 oiled Magellanic penguins were rehabilitated as part of the routine activities of these institutions or during emergency responses to eight oil spills in which they were involved; all rehabilitated penguins were flipper banded and released. Since their release, 41 penguins were resighted until 31 December 2011. The results demonstrate that, when combined with other prevention strategies, the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins is a strategy that contributes to the mitigation of adverse effects of oil spills and chronic pollution to the species.

  8. International Polar Year (IPY): Thinking Beyond Polar Bears and Penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P.; Austin, S.; Johnson, L.; Walter, D.

    2008-12-01

    The mention of an International Polar Year (IPY) to most of our university students evokes images of polar bears, penguins, perhaps some concepts of polar exploration in previous centuries. IPY provides an unusual opportunity to incorporate various aspects of polar research into the classroom, research opportunities as well as outreach activities. The subject areas that can be incorporated into classroom and undergraduate research activities would include astrobiology, atmospheric sciences, glaciation past and present. Astrobiology, in particular geomicrobiology in relation to the pursuit of life on other planets, is dependent on an understanding of extremophile organisms and the identifying signatures that can be chemical or morphological. Atmospheric studies using balloons with attached instruments enable us to understand the role of an atmosphere in providing a habitable world and filtering damaging rays from the Sun. L. Agassiz studied the patterns of glaciation and their alteration of the crustal surface today and the information enabled us to identify similar patterns in Earth's past and today are important for identifying polar glaciation on Mars. The wide variation of scientific opportunities and research information are also important for developing partnership and outreach programs whether elements are used for planetarium shows, exhibits at museums, hands-on activities, or leading students to pursue atmospheric studies. Each and every one of the components provides different avenues and the potential partnerships are limited only by one's creativity. One example of an effective partnership is the January NASA Space Day at the University of Texas at Brownsville, Texas. The event reaches over 600 primarily Hispanic students from the entire Rio Grande Valley. In January, 2009, the topic will be IPY and the popular Polar Palooza. The event will include exhibits, talks, and the new planetarium show Ice Worlds. The partners for this event include Johnson Space

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Avian Malaria in Wild Breeding Colonies of Humboldt and Magellanic Penguins in South America.

    PubMed

    Sallaberry-Pincheira, Nicole; Gonzalez-Acuña, Daniel; Herrera-Tello, Yertiza; Dantas, Gisele P M; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Frere, Esteban; Valdés-Velasquez, Armando; Simeone, Alejandro; Vianna, Juliana A

    2015-06-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of the genera Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium. It affects hundreds of bird species, causing varied clinical signs depending on the susceptibility of the host species. Although high mortality has been reported in captive penguins, limited epidemiological studies have been conducted in wild colonies, and isolated records of avian malaria have been reported mostly from individuals referred to rehabilitation centers. For this epidemiological study, we obtained blood samples from 501 adult Humboldt and 360 adult Magellanic penguins from 13 colonies throughout South America. To identify malaria parasitaemia, we amplified the mtDNA cytochrome b for all three parasite genera. Avian malaria was absent in most of the analyzed colonies, with exception of the Punta San Juan Humboldt penguin colony, in Peru, where we detected at least two new Haemoproteus lineages in three positive samples, resulting in a prevalence of 0.6% for the species. The low prevalence of avian malaria detected in wild penguins could be due to two possible causes: A low incidence, with high morbidity and mortality in wild penguins or alternatively, penguins sampled in the chronic stage of the disease (during which parasitaemia in peripheral blood samples is unlikely) would be detected as false negatives.

  10. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Darren A; Duchamp, Claude; Rey, Benjamin; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Brand, Martin D

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile king penguins develop adaptive thermogenesis after repeated immersion in cold water. However, the mechanisms of such metabolic adaptation in birds are unknown, as they lack brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. We used three different groups of juvenile king penguins to investigate the mitochondrial basis of avian adaptive thermogenesis in vitro. Skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from penguins that had never been immersed in cold water showed no superoxide-stimulated proton conductance, indicating no functional avian UCP. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from penguins that had been either experimentally immersed or naturally adapted to cold water did possess functional avian UCP, demonstrated by a superoxide-stimulated, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance across their inner membrane. This was associated with a markedly greater abundance of avian UCP mRNA. In the presence (but not the absence) of fatty acids, these mitochondria also showed a greater adenine nucleotide translocase-catalysed proton conductance than those from never-immersed penguins. This was due to an increase in the amount of adenine nucleotide translocase. Therefore, adaptive thermogenesis in juvenile king penguins is linked to two separate mechanisms of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria: increased proton transport activity of avian UCP (dependent on superoxide and inhibited by GDP) and increased proton transport activity of the adenine nucleotide translocase (dependent on fatty acids and inhibited by carboxyatractylate).

  11. A reversal of fortunes: climate change ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in Antarctic Peninsula penguins

    PubMed Central

    Clucas, Gemma V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Dyke, Gareth; Emslie, Steven D.; Levy, Hila; Naveen, Ron; Polito, Michael J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Rogers, Alex D.; Hart, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Antarctic ecosystems are no exception. Investigating past species responses to climatic events can distinguish natural from anthropogenic impacts. Climate change produces ‘winners’, species that benefit from these events and ‘losers’, species that decline or become extinct. Using molecular techniques, we assess the demographic history and population structure of Pygoscelis penguins in the Scotia Arc related to climate warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three pygoscelid penguins responded positively to post-LGM warming by expanding from glacial refugia, with those breeding at higher latitudes expanding most. Northern (Pygoscelis papua papua) and Southern (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) gentoo sub-species likely diverged during the LGM. Comparing historical responses with the literature on current trends, we see Southern gentoo penguins are responding to current warming as they did during post-LGM warming, expanding their range southwards. Conversely, Adélie and chinstrap penguins are experiencing a ‘reversal of fortunes’ as they are now declining in the Antarctic Peninsula, the opposite of their response to post-LGM warming. This suggests current climate warming has decoupled historic population responses in the Antarctic Peninsula, favoring generalist gentoo penguins as climate change ‘winners’, while Adélie and chinstrap penguins have become climate change ‘losers’. PMID:24865774

  12. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Darren A; Duchamp, Claude; Rey, Benjamin; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Brand, Martin D

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile king penguins develop adaptive thermogenesis after repeated immersion in cold water. However, the mechanisms of such metabolic adaptation in birds are unknown, as they lack brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. We used three different groups of juvenile king penguins to investigate the mitochondrial basis of avian adaptive thermogenesis in vitro. Skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from penguins that had never been immersed in cold water showed no superoxide-stimulated proton conductance, indicating no functional avian UCP. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from penguins that had been either experimentally immersed or naturally adapted to cold water did possess functional avian UCP, demonstrated by a superoxide-stimulated, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance across their inner membrane. This was associated with a markedly greater abundance of avian UCP mRNA. In the presence (but not the absence) of fatty acids, these mitochondria also showed a greater adenine nucleotide translocase-catalysed proton conductance than those from never-immersed penguins. This was due to an increase in the amount of adenine nucleotide translocase. Therefore, adaptive thermogenesis in juvenile king penguins is linked to two separate mechanisms of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria: increased proton transport activity of avian UCP (dependent on superoxide and inhibited by GDP) and increased proton transport activity of the adenine nucleotide translocase (dependent on fatty acids and inhibited by carboxyatractylate). PMID:15146050

  13. 75 FR 59645 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the African...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... between Spheniscus and Eudyptula from the basal lineage Aptenodytes (the ``great penguins,'' emperor and... to occur--Seal, North Long, North Reef, and Albatross Islands in Namibia, and Jacobs Reef, Quoin, and... from exposure to oil pollution, which can immobilize penguins and impair the feather barrier and make...

  14. Penguin Contributions to C P Phases in Bd ,s Decays to Charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Philipp; Nierste, Ulrich; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The precision of the C P phases 2 β and 2 βs determined from the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ KS and Bs→J /ψ ϕ , respectively, is limited by the unknown long-distance contribution of a penguin diagram involving up quarks. The penguin contribution is expected to be comparable in size to the precision of the LHCb and Belle II experiments and, therefore, limits the sensitivity of the measured quantities to new physics. We analyze the infrared QCD structure of this contribution and find that all soft and collinear divergences either cancel between different diagrams or factorize into matrix elements of local four-quark operators up to terms suppressed by ΛQCD/mψ , where mψ denotes the J /ψ mass. Our results, which are based on an operator product expansion, allow us to calculate the penguin-to-tree ratio P /T in terms of the matrix elements of these operators and to constrain the penguin contribution to the phase 2 β as |Δ ϕd|≤0.68 ° . The penguin contribution to 2 βs is bounded as |Δ ϕs0|≤0.97 ° , |Δ ϕs∥|≤1.22 ° , and |Δ ϕs⊥|≤0.99 ° for the case of longitudinal, parallel, and perpendicular ϕ and J /ψ polarizations, respectively. Further, we place bounds on |Δ ϕd| for Bd→ψ (2 S )KS and the polarization amplitudes in Bd→J /ψ K* . In our approach, it is further possible to constrain P /T for decays in which P /T is Cabibbo unsuppressed, and we derive upper limits on the penguin contribution to the mixing-induced C P asymmetries in Bd→J /ψ π0, Bd→J /ψ ρ0, Bs→J /ψ KS, and Bs→J /ψ K* . For all studied decay modes, we also constrain the sizes of the direct C P asymmetries.

  15. Ecological sexual dimorphism and environmental variability within a community of antarctic penguins (Genus Pygoscelis).

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kristen B; Williams, Tony D; Fraser, William R

    2014-01-01

    Sexual segregation in vertebrate foraging niche is often associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e., ecological sexual dimorphism. Although foraging behavior of male and female seabirds can vary markedly, differences in isotopic (carbon, δ13C and nitrogen, δ15N) foraging niche are generally more pronounced within sexually dimorphic species and during phases when competition for food is greater. We examined ecological sexual dimorphism among sympatric nesting Pygoscelis penguins asking whether environmental variability is associated with differences in male and female pre-breeding foraging niche. We predicted that all Pygoscelis species would forage sex-specifically, and that higher quality winter habitat, i.e., higher or lower sea ice coverage for a given species, would be associated with a more similar foraging niche among the sexes. P2/P8 primers reliably amplified DNA of all species. On average, male Pygoscelis penguins are structurally larger than female conspecifics. However, chinstrap penguins were more sexually dimorphic in culmen and flipper features than Adélie and gentoo penguins. Adélies and gentoos were more sexually dimorphic in body mass than chinstraps. Only male and female chinstraps and gentoos occupied separate δ15N foraging niches. Strong year effects in δ15N signatures were documented for all three species, however, only for Adélies, did yearly variation in δ15N signatures tightly correlate with winter sea ice conditions. There was no evidence that variation in sex-specific foraging niche interacted with yearly winter habitat quality. Chinstraps were most sexually size dimorphic followed by gentoos and Adélies. Pre-breeding sex-specific foraging niche was associated with overall SSD indices across species; male chinstrap and gentoo penguins were enriched in δ15N relative to females. Our results highlight previously unknown trophic pathways that link Pygoscelis penguins with variation in Southern Ocean sea ice suggesting that

  16. Ecological Sexual Dimorphism and Environmental Variability within a Community of Antarctic Penguins (Genus Pygoscelis)

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Kristen B.; Williams, Tony D.; Fraser, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual segregation in vertebrate foraging niche is often associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e., ecological sexual dimorphism. Although foraging behavior of male and female seabirds can vary markedly, differences in isotopic (carbon, δ13C and nitrogen, δ15N) foraging niche are generally more pronounced within sexually dimorphic species and during phases when competition for food is greater. We examined ecological sexual dimorphism among sympatric nesting Pygoscelis penguins asking whether environmental variability is associated with differences in male and female pre-breeding foraging niche. We predicted that all Pygoscelis species would forage sex-specifically, and that higher quality winter habitat, i.e., higher or lower sea ice coverage for a given species, would be associated with a more similar foraging niche among the sexes. Results P2/P8 primers reliably amplified DNA of all species. On average, male Pygoscelis penguins are structurally larger than female conspecifics. However, chinstrap penguins were more sexually dimorphic in culmen and flipper features than Adélie and gentoo penguins. Adélies and gentoos were more sexually dimorphic in body mass than chinstraps. Only male and female chinstraps and gentoos occupied separate δ15N foraging niches. Strong year effects in δ15N signatures were documented for all three species, however, only for Adélies, did yearly variation in δ15N signatures tightly correlate with winter sea ice conditions. There was no evidence that variation in sex-specific foraging niche interacted with yearly winter habitat quality. Conclusion Chinstraps were most sexually size dimorphic followed by gentoos and Adélies. Pre-breeding sex-specific foraging niche was associated with overall SSD indices across species; male chinstrap and gentoo penguins were enriched in δ15N relative to females. Our results highlight previously unknown trophic pathways that link Pygoscelis penguins with variation in Southern

  17. Multiple choice minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, F. K.; Chau, H. F.

    2003-03-01

    Minority game is a model of heterogeneous players who think inductively. In this game, each player chooses one out of two alternatives every turn and those who end up in the minority side wins. It is instructive to extend the minority game by allowing players to choose one out of many alternatives. Nevertheless, such an extension is not straight-forward due to difficulties in finding a set of reasonable, unbiased and computationally feasible strategies. Here, we propose a variation of the minority game where every player has more than two options. Results of numerical simulations agree with the expectation that our multiple choices minority game exhibits similar behavior as the original two-choice minority game.

  18. The Trojan minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  19. O2 store management in diving emperor penguins

    PubMed Central

    Ponganis, P. J.; Stockard, T. K.; Meir, J. U.; Williams, C. L.; Ponganis, K. V.; Howard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In order to further define O2 store utilization during dives and understand the physiological basis of the aerobic dive limit (ADL, dive duration associated with the onset of post-dive blood lactate accumulation), emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) were equipped with either a blood partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) recorder or a blood sampler while they were diving at an isolated dive hole in the sea ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Arterial PO2 profiles (57 dives) revealed that (a) pre-dive PO2 was greater than that at rest, (b) PO2 transiently increased during descent and (c) post-dive PO2 reached that at rest in 1.92±1.89 min (N=53). Venous PO2 profiles (130 dives) revealed that (a) pre-dive venous PO2 was greater than that at rest prior to 61% of dives, (b) in 90% of dives venous PO2 transiently increased with a mean maximum PO2 of 53±18 mmHg and a mean increase in PO2 of 11±12 mmHg, (c) in 78% of dives, this peak venous PO2 occurred within the first 3 min, and (d) post-dive venous PO2 reached that at rest within 2.23±2.64 min (N=84). Arterial and venous PO2 values in blood samples collected 1–3 min into dives were greater than or near to the respective values at rest. Blood lactate concentration was less than 2 mmol l–1 as far as 10.5 min into dives, well beyond the known ADL of 5.6 min. Mean arterial and venous PN2 of samples collected at 20–37 m depth were 2.5 times those at the surface, both being 2.1±0.7 atmospheres absolute (ATA; N=3 each), and were not significantly different. These findings are consistent with the maintenance of gas exchange during dives (elevated arterial and venous PO2 and PN2 during dives), muscle ischemia during dives (elevated venous PO2, lack of lactate washout into blood during dives), and arterio-venous shunting of blood both during the surface period (venous PO2 greater than that at rest) and during dives (arterialized venous PO2 values during descent, equivalent arterial and venous PN2 values during

  20. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Suzuta, Fumiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Urakawa, Ryo; Kusuda, Yukio; Tanaka, Shogo; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Haritani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis.

  1. Pulmonary dystrophic oxalosis and its possible relation to fibrosis in an aged Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua).

    PubMed

    Wijesundera, Kavindra Kumara; Izawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Nakao, Tatsuko; Maezono, Yuko; Ito, Shu; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old Gentoo penguin was found dead with a clinical history of inappetence and dyspnoea. At necropsy, the lungs showed severe congestion/hemorrhage and atelectasis. Histopathologically, fibrosis was observed exclusively around parabronchi with severe collagen deposition. In fibrotic lesions, there were numerous depositions of crystalline structures accompanied by epithelioid cells and multinucleated giant cells (foreign body type). In addition to irregularly lamellar structures as the morphology, the crystals were demonstrated calcium oxalate (CaOx) by the Alizarin red S staining with and without polarized light and von Kossa's staining. Myocobacteria and fungi were not found by special and immuohistochemical stainings. Pulmonary dystrophic oxalosis is a very rare lesion in Gentoo penguin.

  2. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to epsilon-prime / epsilon

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N.H.; Dawson, C.; Laiho, J.W.; Noaki, J.; Li, S.; Soni, A.; /Brookhaven

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q8 contribution to {epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReAP{sub 2} and thus, the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  3. Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin.

  4. Systematic effects of the quenched approximation on the strong penguin contribution to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Christ, N. H.; Li, S.; Dawson, C.; Noaki, J.; Laiho, J. W.; Soni, A.

    2006-08-01

    We discuss the implementation and properties of the quenched approximation in the calculation of the left-right, strong penguin contributions (i.e. Q{sub 6}) to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}. The coefficient of the new chiral logarithm, discovered by Golterman and Pallante, which appears at leading order in quenched chiral perturbation theory is evaluated using both the method proposed by those authors and by an improved approach which is free of power divergent corrections. The result implies a large quenching artifact in the contribution of Q{sub 6} to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon}. This failure of the quenched approximation affects only the strong penguin operators and so does not affect the Q{sub 8} contribution to {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} nor ReA{sub 0}, ReA{sub 2} and thus, the {delta}I=1/2 rule at tree level in chiral perturbation theory.

  5. A consistent picture for large penguins in D → π + π -, K + K -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brod, Joachim; Grossman, Yuval; Kagan, Alexander L.; Zupan, Jure

    2012-10-01

    A long-standing puzzle in charm physics is the large difference between the D 0 → K + K - and D 0 → π + π - decay rates. Recently, the LHCb and CDF collaborations reported a surprisingly large difference between the direct CP asymmetries, Δ A CP, in these two modes. We show that the two puzzles are naturally related in the Standard Model via s- and d-quark "penguin contractions". Their sum gives rise to Δ A CP, while their difference contributes to the two branching ratios with opposite sign. Assuming nominal SU(3) breaking, we perform a U-spin based fit to the D 0 → K + π -, π + K - , π + π - , K + K - decay rates, which yields large penguin contractions that naturally explain Δ A CP. Expectations for the individual CP asymmetries are also discussed.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites in Chinstrap Penguins from Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Vidal, V; Ortiz, J; Diaz, J I; de Ybañez, M R Ruiz; Amat, M T; Palacios, M J; Benzal, J; Valera, F; de la Cruz, C; Motas, M; Barbosa, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge about parasites of Antarctic birds is fragmented and scarce. The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) from Deception Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 64 fresh dead individuals (61 chicks and three adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2009 and examined for macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: two Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi and Tetrabothrius pauliani) and one Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes). Also, immature acanthocephalans (Corynosoma sp.) were found in one penguin. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of the host species. False negatives were found in coprological studies.

  7. A non-marine source of variability in Adélie Penguin demography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    A primary research objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has been to identify and understand the factors that regulate the demography of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). In this context, our work has been focused on variability in the marine environment on which this species depends for virtually all aspects of its life history (Ainley, 2002). As we show here, however, there are patterns evident in the population dynamics of Adélie penguins that are better explained by variability in breeding habitat quality rather than by variability in the marine system. Interactions between the geomorphology of the terrestrial environment that, in turn, affect patterns of snow deposition, drive breeding habitat quality.

  8. Supervised accelerometry analysis can identify prey capture by penguins at sea.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gemma; Slip, David; Jonsen, Ian; Harcourt, Rob

    2014-12-15

    Determining where, when and how much animals eat is fundamental to understanding their ecology. We developed a technique to identify a prey capture signature for little penguins from accelerometry, in order to quantify food intake remotely. We categorised behaviour of captive penguins from HD video and matched this to time-series data from back-mounted accelerometers. We then trained a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the penguins' behaviour at 0.3 s intervals as either 'prey handling' or 'swimming'. We applied this model to accelerometer data collected from foraging wild penguins to identify prey capture events. We compared prey capture and non-prey capture dives to test the model predictions against foraging theory. The SVM had an accuracy of 84.95±0.26% (mean ± s.e.) and a false positive rate of 9.82±0.24% when tested on unseen captive data. For wild data, we defined three independent, consecutive prey handling observations as representing true prey capture, with a false positive rate of 0.09%. Dives with prey captures had longer duration and bottom times, were deeper, had faster ascent rates, and had more 'wiggles' and 'dashes' (proxies for prey encounter used in other studies). The mean (±s.e.) number of prey captures per foraging trip was 446.6±66.28. By recording the behaviour of captive animals on HD video and using a supervised machine learning approach, we show that accelerometry signatures can classify the behaviour of wild animals at unprecedentedly fine scales.

  9. Differing foraging strategies influence mercury (Hg) exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Brasso, Rebecka L; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Karnovsky, Nina; Patterson, William P; Emslie, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Seabirds are ideal model organisms to track mercury (Hg) through marine food webs as they are long-lived, broadly distributed, and are susceptible to biomagnification due to foraging at relatively high trophic levels. However, using these species as biomonitors requires a solid understanding of the degree of species, sexual and age-specific variation in foraging behaviors which act to mediate their dietary exposure to Hg. We combined stomach content analysis along with Hg and stable isotope analyses of blood, feathers and common prey items to help explain inter and intra-specific patterns of dietary Hg exposure across three sympatric Pygoscelis penguin species commonly used as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Antarctic marine ecosystem. We found that penguin tissue Hg concentrations differed across species, between adults and juveniles, but not between sexes. While all three penguins species diets were dominated by Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and to a lesser extent fish, stable isotope based proxies of relative trophic level and krill consumption could not by itself sufficiently explain the observed patterns of inter and intra-specific variation in Hg. However, integrating isotopic approaches with stomach content analysis allowed us to identify the relatively higher risk of Hg exposure for penguins foraging on mesopelagic prey relative to congeners targeting epipelagic or benthic prey species. When possible, future seabird biomonitoring studies should seek to combine isotopic approaches with other, independent measures of foraging behavior to better account for the confounding effects of inter and intra-specific variation on dietary Hg exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of sin2{beta} at BABAR with charmonium and penguin decays

    SciTech Connect

    George, Katherine

    2006-07-11

    This article summarises measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to charmonium, open-charm and gluonic penguin-dominated charmless final states. Unless otherwise stated, these measurements are based on a sample of approximately 230 million {upsilon}(4S){yields} BB(bar sign) decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B -factory.

  11. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Measurements of sin2beta at BaBar with Charmonium and Penguin Decays

    SciTech Connect

    George, Katherine A.; /Liverpool U.

    2005-12-14

    This article summarizes measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to charmonium, open-charm and gluonic penguin-dominated charmless final states. Unless otherwise stated, these measurements are based on a sample of approximately 230 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B-factory.

  13. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Naveen, R; Emslie, Steven D

    2012-11-15

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adélie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell δ(15)N or δ(13)C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources.

  14. A Mathematica package for calculation of one-loop penguins in FCNC processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednyakov, Alexander Vadimovich; Tanyıldızı, Şükrü Hanif

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a Mathematica package Peng4BSM@LO which calculates the contributions to the Wilson Coefficients of certain effective operators originating from the one-loop penguin Feynman diagrams. Both vector and scalar external legs are considered. The key feature of our package is the ability to find the corresponding expressions in almost any New Physics model which extends the SM and has no flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) transitions at the tree level.

  15. Is fledging in king penguin chicks related to changes in metabolic or endocrinal status?

    PubMed

    Corbel, Hélène; Morlon, Francis; Groscolas, René

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the possibility that metabolic or endocrinal factors initiate fledging in the king penguin, a semi-altricial seabird species breeding a single chick on the ground. Chick fledging (departure to sea) occurred 5d after completion of the molt. It was preceded by a 16d fasting period and by a 7-fold increase in locomotor activity. From the measurement of the plasma concentration of metabolites and of glucagon and insulin, pre-fledging king penguin chicks were found to adapt to fasting in a classical way, i.e. by sparing body protein and mobilizing fat stores. At fledging, chicks were in phase II of fasting and their departure to sea was not stimulated by reaching critical energy depletion (phase III), in contrast to that which has been reported in breeding-fasting adults. The plasma level of corticosterone remained unchanged throughout the whole pre-fledging period, providing no support for a role of this stress-hormone in the facilitation of fledging. Thus, king penguin fledglings did not appear to be environmentally or nutritionally stressed. The plasma levels of thyroid hormones were elevated during the pre-fledging molt, in accordance with their key role in molt control in adult penguins. These levels declined by the time of the molt end, the plasma level of T4 thereafter being directly related to the time left before fledging. These results do not support the view that chronically elevated levels of thyroid hormones are required for the energy-demanding transition between being ashore and in cold water, but they suggest that the maintenance of high T4 levels may delay fledging.

  16. Master integrals for the two-loop penguin contribution in non-leptonic B-decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Guido; Huber, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    We compute the master integrals that arise in the calculation of the leading penguin amplitudes in non-leptonic B-decays at two-loop order. The application of differential equations in a canonical basis enables us to give analytic results for all master integrals in terms of iterated integrals with rational weight functions. It is the first application of this method to the case of two different internal masses.

  17. Fluoride content in bones of Adelie penguins and environmental media in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang

    2003-12-01

    Fluoride (F) distribution and its effects (fluorosis) were investigated in Antarctica. Droppings (L) excreta selected of aquatic birds, lake water, soil and moss (Polytrichum alpinum) showed a high F concentration. Although bones of Adelie penguin (Pygiscelis adeliae) and skua (Catharacta maccormicki) showed exceptionally very high F concentration in the range of 832 to 7187 mg kg(-1), their radiographs did not show any evidence of skeletal fluorosis. The possible reason and geochemical aspects of F in Antarctica region are discussed.

  18. PHARMACOKINETICS OF ORALLY ADMINISTERED VORICONAZOLE IN AFRICAN PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) AFTER SINGLE AND MULTIPLE DOSES.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Hope, William W; Stott, Katharine E

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Single and once daily multiple oral doses of 5 mg/kg voriconazole were evaluated with a 4-mo washout period between trials. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data was modeled using 3-compartamental population methodologies that supported first-order elimination. Observed mean peak concentration (1.89 μg/ml) after single dosing PK analysis was determined within the first hour following voriconazole administration. In the multiple-dose trial average plasma voriconazole concentrations were significantly higher on days 4 and 7 as compared with day 2. The mean estimates for volume of distribution (V/F) and clearance (Cl/F) for the multiple-dose study were 3.34 L and 0.18 L/hr, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations determined the median area under the curve (AUC0-24) at 84 hr was 37.7 μg·h/ml. As this assessment was comparable with the average AUC in humans receiving the recommended human oral dosage 200 mg b.i.d., it suggests that 5 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. could be a safe and effective regimen in African penguins for treatment of aspergillosis. However, due to potential drug accumulation and subsequent toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring with dosage adjustments is recommended to individualize dosing.

  19. Integrated population modeling reveals the impact of climate on the survival of juvenile emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Fitsum; Barbraud, Christophe; Gimenez, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Early-life demographic traits are poorly known, impeding our understanding of population processes and sensitivity to climate change. Survival of immature individuals is a critical component of population dynamics and recruitment in particular. However, obtaining reliable estimates of juvenile survival (i.e., from independence to first year) remains challenging, as immatures are often difficult to observe and to monitor individually in the field. This is particularly acute for seabirds, in which juveniles stay at sea and remain undetectable for several years. In this work, we developed a Bayesian integrated population model to estimate the juvenile survival of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), and other demographic parameters including adult survival and fecundity of the species. Using this statistical method, we simultaneously analyzed capture-recapture data of adults, the annual number of breeding females, and the number of fledglings of emperor penguins collected at Dumont d'Urville, Antarctica, for the period 1971-1998. We also assessed how climate covariates known to affect the species foraging habitats and prey [southern annular mode (SAM), sea ice concentration (SIC)] affect juvenile survival. Our analyses revealed that there was a strong evidence for the positive effect of SAM during the rearing period (SAMR) on juvenile survival. Our findings suggest that this large-scale climate index affects juvenile emperor penguins body condition and survival through its influence on wind patterns, fast ice extent, and distance to open water. Estimating the influence of environmental covariates on juvenile survival is of major importance to understand the impacts of climate variability and change on the population dynamics of emperor penguins and seabirds in general and to make robust predictions on the impact of climate change on marine predators. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Past Penguin Colony Linkages to Climate Change and Catastrophic Volcanism on the Northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Monien, P.; Foster, L. C.; Loftfield, J.; Schnetger, B.; Pearson, E. J.; Hocking, E. P.; Fretwell, P.; Ireland, L.; Ochyra, R.; Haworth, A.; Allen, C. S.; Brumsack, H. J.; Bentley, M.; Hodgson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent warming and reductions in sea-ice in some parts of Antarctica are thought to be having a negative impact on populations of `ice-dependent' penguin species (e.g., Emperor, Adélie) that feed at the sea-ice edge because populations of `ice-avoiding'/more `adaptable' species (e.g., Gentoo, Chinstrap) have remained stable or increased, and some Adélie colonies located in areas of sea-ice expansion have increased. This hypothesis is based on short observational records and limited subfossil evidence, but has not been tested over longer, mid-late Holocene, timescales on the Antarctic Peninsula. Between 1950-1997, the northern Antarctic Peninsula was one of the most rapidly warming regions in the Southern Hemisphere and, over the last 30 years, the largest breeding population of Gentoo penguins in Antarctica on Ardley Island, north-western Antarctic Peninsula, has increased. We tracked past changes in the Ardley Island penguin colony size by comparing detailed biogeochemical analysis of an 8,500-year Ardley Lake sediment profile with past records of penguin presence, climate and sea-ice extent across the Antarctic Peninsula and found that the colony also responded positively during some local-regionally warmer parts of the late Holocene. However, at least three large volcanic eruptions from nearby Deception Island had a devastating impact on the colony between 7000-2000 years ago, with colony recovery taking up to 800 years following the most disruptive period of volcanic activity c. 5500-5000 years ago.

  1. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Beaune, David; Park, Young-Hyang; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Stenseth, Nils C; Le Maho, Yvon

    2011-01-13

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 41% [corrected] fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16 percentage points [corrected] lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper

  2. High-throughput gender identification of penguin species using melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chao-Neng; Chang, Yung-Ting; Chiu, Hui-Tzu; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Ming-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-04-03

    Most species of penguins are sexual monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to visually identify their genders for monitoring population stability in terms of sex ratio analysis. In this study, we evaluated the suitability using melting curve analysis (MCA) for high-throughput gender identification of penguins. Preliminary test indicated that the Griffiths's P2/P8 primers were not suitable for MCA analysis. Based on sequence alignment of Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-W and CHD-Z genes from four species of penguins (Pygoscelis papua, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Spheniscus magellanicus, and Eudyptes chrysocome), we redesigned forward primers for the CHD-W/CHD-Z-common region (PGU-ZW2) and the CHD-W-specific region (PGU-W2) to be used in combination with the reverse Griffiths's P2 primer. When tested with P. papua samples, PCR using P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 primer sets generated two amplicons of 148- and 356-bp, respectively, which were easily resolved in 1.5% agarose gels. MCA analysis indicated the melting temperature (Tm) values for P2/PGU-ZW2 and P2/PGU-W2 amplicons of P. papua samples were 79.75°C-80.5°C and 81.0°C-81.5°C, respectively. Females displayed both ZW-common and W-specific Tm peaks, whereas male was positive only for ZW-common peak. Taken together, our redesigned primers coupled with MCA analysis allows precise high throughput gender identification for P. papua, and potentially for other penguin species such as A. patagonicus, S. magellanicus, and E. chrysocome as well.

  3. Evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Dunn, J Lawrence; Camp, Tracy; Macha, Laurie; Mazzaro, Lisa; Tuttle, Allison D

    2012-01-01

    Bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. Although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. These factors include substrate, body weight, and lack of exercise. The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate variables potentially contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), including sex, weight, age, season, exhibit activity, and territory substrate. Results indicate that males develop significantly more plantar lesions than females. Penguins weighing between 3.51 and 4.0 kg develop plantar lesions significantly more often than penguins weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, and because male African penguins ordinarily weigh significantly more than females, weight is likely a contributing factor in the development of lesions in males compared with females. Significantly more plantar lesions were observed in penguins standing for greater than 50% of their time on exhibit than swimming. Penguins occupying smooth concrete territories developed more plantar lesions compared with penguins occupying grate territories. Recommendations for minimizing bumblefoot in African penguins include training penguins for monthly foot examinations for early detection of plantar lesions predisposing for the disease, encouraging swimming activity, and replacing smooth surfaces on exhibit with surfaces providing variable degrees of pressure and texture on the feet. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gerontology Training for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Pill Jay

    The Grambling State University Minority Management Internship in Aging program described in this report was designed to provide internships to social work students to aid the minority elderly. The status of the elderly in the United States and the personnel and agencies that assist them are discussed in the following chapters: (1)…

  5. Minority Leadership Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Harry, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Potential sources of resistance to minority managers include issues of perceived competence, leader-follower fit, and supervision of same-race subordinates. Awareness of these issues can guide the preprofessional preparation of minority managers and training and support once they enter the workplace. (SK)

  6. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  7. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  8. Testing Linguistic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that psychological and educational testing of members of linguistic minority groups should take into account the diverse social, political, and economic realities moderated by educational opportunities, which in turn are closely linked to standardized testing. Discusses conceptual and operational issues in the area of minority group…

  9. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  10. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  11. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  12. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  13. Women and Minority Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Betty M.

    1975-01-01

    Offers statistics on the numbers of women and members of minority groups in the sciences. Suggests if women and members of minority groups are to be encouraged to prepare for scientific careers, they must be given the same incentives as offered to men. (CP)

  14. Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-10-01

    Inter-annual variation in tissue mercury concentrations in birds can result from annual changes in the bioavailability of mercury or shifts in dietary composition and/or trophic level. We investigated potential annual variability in mercury dynamics in the Antarctic marine food web using Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshell membrane, chick down, and adult feathers were collected from three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins during the austral summers of 2006/2007-2010/2011. To evaluate the hypothesis that mercury concentrations in penguins exhibit significant inter-annual variation and to determine the potential source of such variation (dietary or environmental), we compared tissue mercury concentrations with trophic levels as indicated by δ(15)N values from all species and tissues. Overall, no inter-annual variation in mercury was observed in adult feathers suggesting that mercury exposure, on an annual scale, was consistent for Pygoscelis penguins. However, when examining tissues that reflected more discrete time periods (chick down and eggshell membrane) relative to adult feathers, we found some evidence of inter-annual variation in mercury exposure during penguins' pre-breeding and chick rearing periods. Evidence of inter-annual variation in penguin trophic level was also limited suggesting that foraging ecology and environmental factors related to the bioavailability of mercury may provide more explanatory power for mercury exposure compared to trophic level alone. Even so, the variable strength of relationships observed between trophic level and tissue mercury concentrations across and within Pygoscelis penguin species suggest that caution is required when selecting appropriate species and tissue combinations for environmental biomonitoring studies in Antarctica.

  15. Sperm structure and sperm motility of the African and Rockhopper penguins with special reference to multiple axonemes of the flagellum.

    PubMed

    Mafunda, Patrick Siyambulela; Maree, Liana; Kotze, Antoinette; van der Horst, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the semen of two penguin species from separate genera with reference to unique features in sperm structure using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ejaculates from African penguin (n = 51) and Rockhopper penguin (n = 9) contained on average more than 60% motile spermatozoa and a sperm concentration of 3274 × 10(6)/ml and 1423 × 10(6)/ml, respectively. The percentage progressive motility was similar for the two species as well as all the kinematics parameters. The sperm morphology of these two penguin species is almost identical and largely resembles that of non-passerine birds in terms of the filiform head, small acrosome and mid-piece containing 13 spherical mitochondria, arranged around the proximal and distal centrioles in a single helix. Apart from a shorter mid-piece, penguin sperm morphometrics were similar to other non-passerine birds. The ultrastructure of the sperm principal piece revealed the typical 9 + 2 microtubular arrangement without any outer dense fibres. An unusual feature in both African and Rockhopper penguin spermatozoa was the occurrence of multiple axonemes contained in one plasmalemma in 4% of spermatozoa. These double, triple and quadruple axonemal arrangements have not been described previously albeit multiple tails were reported in other bird species. It is unclear whether such a unique structural feature will be of any advantage for sperm motility and might rather be a result of the absence of sperm competition. Multiple axonemes found in penguin flagella could be an apomorphism that distinguish them from other bird spermatozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J; Worthy, Trevor H; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2009-03-07

    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events.

  17. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  18. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study

    PubMed Central

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-01-01

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-l-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators. PMID:22357259

  19. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-09-30

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ¹⁵N (ratio of ¹⁵N/¹⁴N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ¹⁵N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans.

  20. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ15N (ratio of 15N/14N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ15N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans. PMID:24076768

  1. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Satellite data identify decadal trends in the quality of Pygoscelis penguin chick-rearing habitat.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Megan A; Fraser, William R; Irwin, Andrew J; Oliver, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Pygoscelis penguins are experiencing general population declines in their northernmost range whereas there are reported increases in their southernmost range. These changes are coincident with decadal-scale trends in remote sensed observations of sea ice concentrations (SIC) and sea surface temperatures (SST) during the chick-rearing season (austral summer). Using SIC, SST, and bathymetry, we identified separate chick-rearing niche spaces for the three Pygoscelis penguin species and used a maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) to spatially and temporally model suitable chick-rearing habitats in the Southern Ocean. For all Pygoscelis penguin species, the MaxEnt models predict significant changes in the locations of suitable chick-rearing habitats over the period of 1982-2010. In general, chick-rearing habitat suitability at specific colony locations agreed with the corresponding increases or decreases in documented population trends over the same time period. These changes were the most pronounced along the West Antarctic Peninsula where there has been a rapid warming event during at least the last 50 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G

    2015-11-25

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species.

  4. Acoustic correlates of body size and individual identity in banded penguins

    PubMed Central

    Gamba, Marco; Gili, Claudia; Pessani, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Animal vocalisations play a role in individual recognition and mate choice. In nesting penguins, acoustic variation in vocalisations originates from distinctiveness in the morphology of the vocal apparatus. Using the source-filter theory approach, we investigated vocal individuality cues and correlates of body size and mass in the ecstatic display songs the Humboldt and Magellanic penguins. We demonstrate that both fundamental frequency (f0) and formants (F1-F4) are essential vocal features to discriminate among individuals. However, we show that only duration and f0 are honest indicators of the body size and mass, respectively. We did not find any effect of body dimension on formants, formant dispersion nor estimated vocal tract length of the emitters. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract do not correlate with body size in penguins. Our results add important information to a growing body of literature on the role of the different vocal parameters in conveying biologically meaningful information in bird vocalisations. PMID:28199318

  5. Probing new physics in electroweak penguins through Bd and Bs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Lars; Scherer, Dominik; Vernazza, Leonardo

    2011-12-01

    An enhanced electroweak penguin amplitude due to the presence of unknown new physics can explain the discrepancies found between theory and experiment in the B → πK decays, in particular in ACP(B- → π0K-) - ACP(bar B0 → π+K-), but the current precision of the theoretical and experimental results does not allow to draw a firm conclusion. We argue that the bar Bs → phiρ0 and bar Bs → phiπ0 decays offer an additional tool to investigate this possibility. These purely isospin-violating decays are dominated by electroweak penguins and we show that in presence of a new physics contribution their branching ratio can be enhanced by about an order of magnitude, without violating any constraints from other hadronic B decays. This makes them very interesting modes for LHCb and future B factories. In [1] we have performed both a model-independent analysis and a study within realistic New Physics models such as a modified-Z0-penguin scenario, a model with an additional Z' boson and the MSSM. In this article we summarise the most important results of our study.

  6. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  7. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population

    PubMed Central

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Holland, Marika; Strœve, Julienne; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Studies have reported important effects of recent climate change on Antarctic species, but there has been to our knowledge no attempt to explicitly link those results to forecasted population responses to climate change. Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) is projected to shrink as concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase, and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are extremely sensitive to these changes because they use sea ice as a breeding, foraging and molting habitat. We project emperor penguin population responses to future sea ice changes, using a stochastic population model that combines a unique long-term demographic dataset (1962–2005) from a colony in Terre Adélie, Antarctica and projections of SIE from General Circulation Models (GCM) of Earth's climate included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report. We show that the increased frequency of warm events associated with projected decreases in SIE will reduce the population viability. The probability of quasi-extinction (a decline of 95% or more) is at least 36% by 2100. The median population size is projected to decline from ≈6,000 to ≈400 breeding pairs over this period. To avoid extinction, emperor penguins will have to adapt, migrate or change the timing of their growth stages. However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth. PMID:19171908

  8. Identification of an avian polyomavirus associated with Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Porzig, Elizabeth L; Jennings, Scott; Kraberger, Simona; Farkas, Kata; Julian, Laurel; Massaro, Melanie; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about viruses associated with Antarctic animals, although they are probably widespread. We recovered a novel polyomavirus from Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faecal matter sampled in a subcolony at Cape Royds, Ross Island, Antarctica. The 4988 nt Adélie penguin polyomavirus (AdPyV) has a typical polyomavirus genome organization with three ORFs that encoded capsid proteins on the one strand and two non-structural protein-coding ORFs on the complementary strand. The genome of AdPyV shared ~60 % pairwise identity with all avipolyomaviruses. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the large T-antigen (T-Ag) amino acid sequences showed that the T-Ag of AdPyV clustered with those of avipolyomaviruses, sharing between 48 and 52 % identities. Only three viruses associated with Adélie penguins have been identified at a genomic level, avian influenza virus subtype H11N2 from the Antarctic Peninsula and, respectively, Pygoscelis adeliae papillomavirus and AdPyV from capes Crozier and Royds on Ross Island.

  9. Acoustic correlates of body size and individual identity in banded penguins.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Gili, Claudia; Pessani, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Animal vocalisations play a role in individual recognition and mate choice. In nesting penguins, acoustic variation in vocalisations originates from distinctiveness in the morphology of the vocal apparatus. Using the source-filter theory approach, we investigated vocal individuality cues and correlates of body size and mass in the ecstatic display songs the Humboldt and Magellanic penguins. We demonstrate that both fundamental frequency (f0) and formants (F1-F4) are essential vocal features to discriminate among individuals. However, we show that only duration and f0 are honest indicators of the body size and mass, respectively. We did not find any effect of body dimension on formants, formant dispersion nor estimated vocal tract length of the emitters. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract do not correlate with body size in penguins. Our results add important information to a growing body of literature on the role of the different vocal parameters in conveying biologically meaningful information in bird vocalisations.

  10. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in a Group of Captive Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    PubMed

    Widmer, Dimitri; Ziemssen, Eva; Schade, Benjamin; Kappe, Eva; Schmitt, Ferdinand; Kempf, Hermann; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2016-06-01

    Nine Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ), between 1 and 1.5 years old and kept at Zoo Dresden, developed local and systemic infections with various opportunistic pathogens within a period of 4 months. Affected birds died peracutely without preceding symptoms or showed various clinical signs, including separation from conspecifics, reduced food intake, lethargy, dyspnea, swelling of the salt glands, and ocular discharge. One bird showed central nervous signs, including seizures. Pathologic examination of deceased birds revealed severe necrotizing inflammation of the mucous membranes and deep structures of the glottis, trachea, nasal sinus, and conchae and granulomatous inflammation of the salt glands. Further findings were airsacculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, and myositis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen in 7 cases. Six penguins died or were euthanatized, whereas 3 penguins that received systemic antibiotic treatment with tobramycin (10 mg/kg IM q24h for 10 days) showed rapid clinical improvement. Insufficient turnover rate of the filtration system, biofilm formation on pipe surfaces, and other factors are assumed to have promoted pathogen buildup in the pool water and subsequent infection.

  12. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Karnovsky, Nina J; Ng, Elizabeth; Patterson, William P; Emslie, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    Stomach content analysis (SCA) and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA) integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and Gentoo (P. papua) penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1) selecting appropriate prey sources, 2) weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3) refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models.

  13. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Holland, Marika; Stroeve, Julienne; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2009-02-10

    Studies have reported important effects of recent climate change on Antarctic species, but there has been to our knowledge no attempt to explicitly link those results to forecasted population responses to climate change. Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) is projected to shrink as concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase, and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are extremely sensitive to these changes because they use sea ice as a breeding, foraging and molting habitat. We project emperor penguin population responses to future sea ice changes, using a stochastic population model that combines a unique long-term demographic dataset (1962-2005) from a colony in Terre Adélie, Antarctica and projections of SIE from General Circulation Models (GCM) of Earth's climate included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report. We show that the increased frequency of warm events associated with projected decreases in SIE will reduce the population viability. The probability of quasi-extinction (a decline of 95% or more) is at least 36% by 2100. The median population size is projected to decline from approximately 6,000 to approximately 400 breeding pairs over this period. To avoid extinction, emperor penguins will have to adapt, migrate or change the timing of their growth stages. However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth.

  14. Contrasting patterns of selection between MHC I and II across populations of Humboldt and Magellanic penguins.

    PubMed

    Sallaberry-Pincheira, Nicole; González-Acuña, Daniel; Padilla, Pamela; Dantas, Gisele P M; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Frere, Esteban; Valdés-Velásquez, Armando; Vianna, Juliana A

    2016-10-01

    The evolutionary and adaptive potential of populations or species facing an emerging infectious disease depends on their genetic diversity in genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In birds, MHC class I deals predominantly with intracellular infections (e.g., viruses) and MHC class II with extracellular infections (e.g., bacteria). Therefore, patterns of MHC I and II diversity may differ between species and across populations of species depending on the relative effect of local and global environmental selective pressures, genetic drift, and gene flow. We hypothesize that high gene flow among populations of Humboldt and Magellanic penguins limits local adaptation in MHC I and MHC II, and signatures of selection differ between markers, locations, and species. We evaluated the MHC I and II diversity using 454 next-generation sequencing of 100 Humboldt and 75 Magellanic penguins from seven different breeding colonies. Higher genetic diversity was observed in MHC I than MHC II for both species, explained by more than one MHC I loci identified. Large population sizes, high gene flow, and/or similar selection pressures maintain diversity but limit local adaptation in MHC I. A pattern of isolation by distance was observed for MHC II for Humboldt penguin suggesting local adaptation, mainly on the northernmost studied locality. Furthermore, trans-species alleles were found due to a recent speciation for the genus or convergent evolution. High MHC I and MHC II gene diversity described is extremely advantageous for the long-term survival of the species.

  15. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events. PMID:19019791

  16. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species. PMID:26602001

  17. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  18. How accurately can we estimate energetic costs in a marine top predator, the king penguin?

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Fahlman, Andreas; Handrich, Yves; Schmidt, Alexander; Woakes, Anthony J; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) are one of the greatest consumers of marine resources. However, while their influence on the marine ecosystem is likely to be significant, only an accurate knowledge of their energy demands will indicate their true food requirements. Energy consumption has been estimated for many marine species using the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption (f(H) - V(O2)) technique, and the technique has been applied successfully to answer eco-physiological questions. However, previous studies on the energetics of king penguins, based on developing or applying this technique, have raised a number of issues about the degree of validity of the technique for this species. These include the predictive validity of the present f(H) - V(O2) equations across different seasons and individuals and during different modes of locomotion. In many cases, these issues also apply to other species for which the f(H) - V(O2) technique has been applied. In the present study, the accuracy of three prediction equations for king penguins was investigated based on validity studies and on estimates of V(O2) from published, field f(H) data. The major conclusions from the present study are: (1) in contrast to that for walking, the f(H) - V(O2) relationship for swimming king penguins is not affected by body mass; (2) prediction equation (1), log(V(O2) = -0.279 + 1.24log(f(H) + 0.0237t - 0.0157log(f(H)t, derived in a previous study, is the most suitable equation presently available for estimating V(O2) in king penguins for all locomotory and nutritional states. A number of possible problems associated with producing an f(H) - V(O2) relationship are discussed in the present study. Finally, a statistical method to include easy-to-measure morphometric characteristics, which may improve the accuracy of f(H) - V(O2) prediction equations, is explained.

  19. Effects of climate change on an emperor penguin population: analysis of coupled demographic and climate models.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Holland, Marika; Stroeve, Julienne; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Serreze, Mark; Caswell, Hal

    2012-09-01

    Sea ice conditions in the Antarctic affect the life cycle of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). We present a population projection for the emperor penguin population of Terre Adélie, Antarctica, by linking demographic models (stage-structured, seasonal, nonlinear, two-sex matrix population models) to sea ice forecasts from an ensemble of IPCC climate models. Based on maximum likelihood capture-mark-recapture analysis, we find that seasonal sea ice concentration anomalies (SICa ) affect adult survival and breeding success. Demographic models show that both deterministic and stochastic population growth rates are maximized at intermediate values of annual SICa , because neither the complete absence of sea ice, nor heavy and persistent sea ice, would provide satisfactory conditions for the emperor penguin. We show that under some conditions the stochastic growth rate is positively affected by the variance in SICa . We identify an ensemble of five general circulation climate models whose output closely matches the historical record of sea ice concentration in Terre Adélie. The output of this ensemble is used to produce stochastic forecasts of SICa , which in turn drive the population model. Uncertainty is included by incorporating multiple climate models and by a parametric bootstrap procedure that includes parameter uncertainty due to both model selection and estimation error. The median of these simulations predicts a decline of the Terre Adélie emperor penguin population of 81% by the year 2100. We find a 43% chance of an even greater decline, of 90% or more. The uncertainty in population projections reflects large differences among climate models in their forecasts of future sea ice conditions. One such model predicts population increases over much of the century, but overall, the ensemble of models predicts that population declines are far more likely than population increases. We conclude that climate change is a significant risk for the emperor

  20. Use of Anthropomorphic Brand Mascots for Student Motivation and Engagement: A Promotional Case Study with Pablo the Penguin at the University of Portsmouth Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David E.; Thompson, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A case study demonstrating how an online narrative featuring the adventures of a cuddly toy penguin, Pablo Penguin (@uoppenguin on Twitter) has been introduced at the University of Portsmouth Library to build trust and engagement between university students and library services and facilities. Evidence for the benefits of anthropomorphic brand…

  1. Use of Anthropomorphic Brand Mascots for Student Motivation and Engagement: A Promotional Case Study with Pablo the Penguin at the University of Portsmouth Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David E.; Thompson, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A case study demonstrating how an online narrative featuring the adventures of a cuddly toy penguin, Pablo Penguin (@uoppenguin on Twitter) has been introduced at the University of Portsmouth Library to build trust and engagement between university students and library services and facilities. Evidence for the benefits of anthropomorphic brand…

  2. Aerial photography based census of Adélie Penguin and its application in CH4 and N2O budget estimation in Victoria Land, Antarctic.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Cheng, Xiao; Li, Xianglan; Zhu, Renbin; Hui, Fengming; Wu, Wenhui; Zhao, Tiancheng; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-10-11

    Penguin guano provides favorable conditions for production and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Many studies have been conducted to determine the GHG fluxes from penguin colonies, however, at regional scale, there is still no accurate estimation of total GHG emissions. We used object-based image analysis (OBIA) method to estimate the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) population based on aerial photography data. A model was developed to estimate total GHG emission potential from Adélie penguin colonies during breeding seasons in 1983 and 2012, respectively. Results indicated that OBIA method was effective for extracting penguin information from aerial photographs. There were 17,120 and 21,183 Adélie penguin breeding pairs on Inexpressible Island in 1983 and 2012, respectively, with overall accuracy of the estimation of 76.8%. The main reasons for the increase in Adélie penguin populations were attributed to increase in temperature, sea ice and phytoplankton. The average estimated CH4 and N2O emissions tended to be increasing during the period from 1983 to 2012 and CH4 was the main GHG emitted from penguin colonies. Total global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions was 5303 kg CO2-eq in 1983 and 6561 kg CO2-eq in 2012, respectively.

  3. Morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with Plasmodium DNA detected in captive black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Landau, Irène; Snounou, Georges; Petit, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    A morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of Plasmodium infections at La Palmyre Zoo (France). Each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from April to November. Although Plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild Eurasian magpies (Pica pica) and carrion crows (Corvus corone) sampled at the same time in the study area. These parasites consisted of several Plasmodium spp. (P. lenoblei, P. dorsti, P bioccai, P. relictum, P. dherteae, P. beaucournui, P. maior, P. tranieri, and P. snounoui), Parahaemoproteus spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. On the other hand, nested polymerase chain reaction enabled detection of Plasmodium DNA in 28/44 (64%) penguins, 15/25 (60%) magpies, and 4/9 (44%) crows. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the parasite DNA amplified from the penguins, magpies, and crows were similar. Magpies and crows could therefore act as a reservoir for penguin Plasmodium infections, which may be more prevalent than previously thought. Morphologic characterization of the Plasmodium spp. detected in the penguins, as well as further biological and epidemiologic studies, are needed to fully understand the transmission of Plasmodium parasites to captive penguins.

  4. Minor Planet Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Brian G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the Minor Planet Center for the year of 1998. The main product of this center is the Minor Planet Circulars, augmented by the Minor Planet Circulars Supplement which is a new series introduced in 1997 to include the actual observations, which are now only summarized MPC. The introduction of the Daily Orbit Update (DOU) lists all the orbits computed and identification found since the previous issue. There has been a fivefold increase in the reported Near Earth Objects, which includes the addition of 55 potentially hazardous asteroids.

  5. Stroke in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Brian; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Minorities in the United States have higher stroke risks, stroke occurrence at an earlier age, and for some groups, more severe strokes than non-Hispanic whites. Factors contributing to this disparity are explored. Characteristics of African American, Hispanic, and Native American stroke risk and incidence are reviewed. We mention recent interventions to raise the awareness of stroke risk factors and symptoms in minorities. The importance of the problem is discussed, and we suggest ways stroke in minorities may be reduced. PMID:19026907

  6. Genetic isolation and divergence in sexual traits: evidence for the northern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes moseleyi being a sibling species.

    PubMed

    Jouventin, P; Cuthbert, R J; Ottvall, R

    2006-10-01

    The taxonomic status of populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) is still enigmatic. Northern populations differ from southern ones in breeding phenology, song characteristics and head ornaments used as mating signals. We conducted a molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequencing to test if there is a gene flow barrier between northern (subtropical) populations and southern (subantarctic) populations in relation to the Subtropical Convergence, a major ecological boundary for marine organisms. Sequences of the control region and the ND2 gene were analysed in rockhopper penguins and in the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), a closely related species. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses showed a clear split into three clades, two rockhopper clades and the macaroni penguin. Moreover, Theta(ST) and gene flow estimates also suggested genetic structuring within the northern rockhoppers. Our results add further support to the notion that the two rockhopper penguin taxa, often considered as two subspecies, can be recognized as two species E. chrysocome and E. moseleyi. The divergence in mating signals found between these two taxa seems to have occurred recently and relatively rapidly. Thus, the behavioural changes may have been enough to isolate these taxa without the need for morphological differentiation. The findings have important conservational implications, since E. moseleyi is far less abundant than E. chrysocome, but more populations may warrant an uplisting to endangered status if full species status should be recognized for more subpopulations.

  7. West Nile virus seroconversion in penguins after vaccination with a killed virus vaccine or a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Johnson, Yvette J; Ritchie, Branson W; Van Bonn, William

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the serologic response of penguins to West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines, four species of exclusively indoor-housed penguins, negative for WNV by serology, were evaluated: Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus), Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), and Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysoscome) penguins. Birds were inoculated with either a killed virus vaccine or a plasmid-mediated DNA WNV vaccine, and postinoculation serology was evaluated. Both vaccines induced seroconversion in all four species, and no adverse reactions were noted. Postvaccination serology results varied across species and vaccine types. However, in all four species, the killed virus vaccine resulted in a greater seroconversion rate than the DNA vaccine and in a significantly shorter time period. Additionally, the duration of the seropositive titer was significantly longer in those birds vaccinated with the killed virus vaccine compared with those vaccinated with the DNA vaccine. A subset of unvaccinated penguins serving as negative controls remained negative throughout the duration of the study despite the presence of WNV in the geographic locations of the study, suggesting that indoor housing may minimize exposure to the virus and may be an additional means of preventing WNV infection in penguins.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of IgM and IgY Antibodies from Plasma of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Bizelli, Camila C; Silva, A Sandriana R; da Costa, Jessica D; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Atzingen, Marina V; Santoro, Marcelo L; Fernandes, Irene; Catão-Dias, José L; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases such as aspergillosis, avian malaria, and viral infections are significant threats to the conservation of penguins, leading to morbidity and mortality of these birds both in captivity and in the wild. The immune response to such infectious diseases is dependent on different mechanisms mediated by cells and soluble components such as antibodies. Antibodies or immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that have many structural and functional features that mediate distinct effector immune functions. Three distinct classes of antibodies have been identified in birds: immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin Y (IgY). In this study we aim to establish an efficient laboratory method to obtain IgM and IgY antibodies from plasma samples of healthy adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). The protocol was developed combining plasma delipidation, sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate, and size-exclusion chromatography. The efficiency of the protocol and the identity of the purified IgM and IgY antibodies were confirmed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and lectin binding assay. Structural and physicochemical properties of IgM and IgY from Magellanic penguins were consistent with those of other avian species. This purification protocol will allow for more detailed studies on the humoral immunity of penguins and for the development of high specificity serologic assays to test Magellanic penguins for infectious pathogens.

  9. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763

  10. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  11. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  12. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  13. Neptune: Minor Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  14. Stable isotopes reveal Holocene changes in the diet of Adélie penguins in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony E; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) modern and fossil eggshells and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils in Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea) were processed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios with the aim of detecting past penguin dietary changes. A detailed and greatly expanded Adélie penguin dietary record dated back to 7,200 years BP has been reconstructed for the investigated area. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7,200 to 2,000 years BP, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2,000 years BP, when the δ(13)C values reveal a change in the penguin feeding behavior. Modern eggshell and guano samples reveal a major dietary contribution of krill but not a krill-dominated diet, since δ(13)C values remain much too high if krill prevail in the diet. According to the Holocene environmental background attested for Victoria Land, Adélie penguin dietary shifts between fish and krill seem to reflect penguin paleoecological responses to different paleoenvironmental settings with different conditions of sea-ice extension and persistence. Furthermore, Adélie penguin diet appears to be particularly affected by environmental changes in a very specific period within the breeding season, namely the egg-laying period when penguin dietary and feeding habit shifts are clearly documented by the δ(13)C of eggshell carbonate.

  15. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Transport of nutrients and contaminants from ocean to island by emperor penguins from Amanda Bay, East Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Wang, Yuhong; Chu, Zhuding; Qin, Xianyan; Yang, Lianjiao

    2014-01-15

    Penguins play important roles in the biogeochemical cycle between Antarctic Ocean and land ecosystems. The roles of emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, however, are usually ignored because emperor penguin breeds in fast sea ice. In this study, we collected two sediment profiles (EPI and PI) from the N island near a large emperor penguin colony at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic and performed stable isotope and element analyses. The organic C/N ratios and carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggested an autochthonous source of organic materials for the sediments of EPI (C/N = 10.21 ± 0.28, n = 17; δ(13)C = -13.48 ± 0.50‰, δ(15)N = 8.35 ± 0.55‰, n = 4) and an allochthonous source of marine-derived organic materials for the sediments of PI (C/N = 6.15 ± 0.08, δ(13)C = -26.85 ± 0.11‰, δ(15)N = 21.21 ± 2.02‰, n = 20). The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), selenium (Se), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) in PI sediments were much higher than those in EPI, the concentration of copper (Cu) in PI was a little lower, and the concentration of element lead (Pb) showed no difference. As measured by the geoaccumulation indexes, Zn, TP, Hg and Se were from moderately to very strongly enriched in PI, relative to local mother rock, due to the guano input from juvenile emperor penguins. Because of its high trophic level and transfer efficiency, emperor penguin can transport a large amount of nutrients and contaminants from ocean to land even with a relatively small population, and its roles in the biogeochemical cycle between ocean and terrestrial environment should not be ignored. © 2013.

  17. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    PubMed Central

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  18. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-02-02

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  19. Diagnosis of Retrobulbar Round Cell Neoplasia in a Macaroni Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) Through Use of Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rose, Michelle; Desjardins, Danielle R; Agnew, Dalen W

    2015-03-01

    A 25-year-old female macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) was diagnosed with exophthalmos secondary to retrobulbar neoplasia through use of computed tomography (CT). Histopathologic examination of the mass supported a diagnosis of malignant round cell neoplasia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling was applied to determine cell origin; the neoplastic cells did not label with T-cell marker CD3 or B-cell marker BLA.36 and could not be further characterized. The scleral ossicles precluded evaluation of the retrobulbar space by ultrasonography; therefore, CT scanning is recommended for examination of intraorbital structures in penguin and other avian species.

  20. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  1. Greenhouse gas fluxes influenced by a penguin colony on Bird Island/Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewer, Julia; Tang, Sim; Anderson, Margaret; Braban, Christine; Dragosits, Ulrike; Skiba, Ute

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reactive nitrogen (Nr) emissions from a penguin colony on local greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was investigated on the remote sub-Antarctic Bird Island (54° 00'S, 38° 03'W) in November and December 2010 (8 weeks). Bird Island has a hilly topography and a maximum elevation of 350 m. Winds predominate from the west, however, due to the local topography there were expected to be a significant influences from the local marine environment and local fauna such as seabirds (40,000 pairs of Macaroni penguins at the colony, and other more disperse species) and seals who ranged over the area. Measurements of N2O and CH4 were made using static chambers along a transect with sampling points at a distance of 23, 36, 70, 143 and 338 m downwind from the penguin colony. Gas samples were taken in 3 ml pre-evacuated exetainers and sent back to the UK for analysis on GC-ECD/FID. In addition, parameters including soil moisture, soil respiration, soil and air temperature, total C/N in vegetation and soil, and NO3/NH4 in soil were measured. Mean air temperature was 3.1 ° C with minimum and maximum of -1.9 and 9 ° C. Laboratory incubations were carried out on soil cores taken from the chambers at the end of the measurement campaign. Soils were very shallow and cores collected close to the colony were a mixture of decomposing litter and soil, whereas further inland they consisted of organic soils. Cores were defrosted very slowly to simulate spring warming to 2 oC for 5 days, then to 5 ° C for 3 days and subsequently to 10 ° C for 2 days. Soil moisture was kept constant during this time to investigate the influence of temperature on NO and GHG emissions. After 10 days soils were left to dry out. Mean CH4 fluxes from 8 different days in the field were in the range of -5.5 to 245 μg m-2 h-1,with minimum and maximum fluxes of -83 and 4065 μg m-2 h-1. Mean N2O fluxes ranged from 7 to 23 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, with minimum and maximum fluxes of -0.6 and 226 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1

  2. Exogenous corticosterone mimics a late fasting stage in captive Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Spée, Marion; Marchal, Lorène; Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Chastel, Olivier; Enstipp, Manfred; Le Maho, Yvon; Beaulieu, Michaël; Raclot, Thierry

    2011-05-01

    Fasting is part of penguin's breeding constraints. During prolonged fasting, three metabolic phases occur successively. Below a threshold in body reserves, birds enter phase III (PIII), which is characterized by hormonal and metabolic shifts. These changes are concomitant with egg abandonment in the wild and increased locomotor activity in captivity. Because corticosterone (CORT) enhances foraging activity, we investigated the variations of endogenous CORT, and the effects of exogenous CORT on the behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic responses of failed breeder Adélie penguins. Untreated and treated captive male birds were regularly weighed and sampled for blood while fasting, and locomotor activity was recorded daily. Treated birds were implanted with various doses of CORT during phase II. Untreated penguins entering PIII had increased CORT (3.5-fold) and uric acid (4-fold; reflecting protein catabolism) levels, concomitantly with a rise in locomotor activity (2-fold), while prolactin (involved in parental care in birds) levels declined by 33%. In CORT-treated birds, an inverted-U relationship was obtained between CORT levels and locomotor activity. The greatest increase in locomotor activity was observed in birds implanted with a high dose of CORT (C100), locomotor activity showing a 2.5-fold increase, 4 days after implantation to a level similar to that of birds in PIII. Moreover, uric acid levels increased three-fold in C100-birds, while prolactin levels declined by 30%. The experimentally induced rise in CORT levels mimicked metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral changes, characterizing late fasting, thus supporting a role for this hormone in the enhanced drive for refeeding occurring in long-term fasting birds.

  3. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  4. Ecophysiological response of Adelie penguins facing an experimental increase in breeding constraints.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, M; Spée, M; Lazin, D; Ropert-Coudert, Y; le Maho, Y; Ancel, A; Raclot, T

    2010-01-01

    Foraging strategies play a key role in breeding effort. Little is known, however, about their connection with hormonal and nutritional states, especially when breeding constraints vary. Here, we experimentally increased foraging costs and thus breeding constraints by handicapping Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) with dummy devices representing 3-4% of the penguins' cross-sectional area. We examined food-related stress (via plasma corticosterone concentration) and nutritional state (via metabolite levels). Concurrently, we investigated the use of ecological niches via the isotopic signature of red blood cells indicating the trophic position (delta(15)N) and the spatial distribution (delta(13)C) of penguins. Handicapped birds performed approximately 70% longer foraging trips and lost approximately 60% more body mass than controls and their partners. However, corticosterone levels and the nutritional state were unchanged. The isotopic signature revealed that males and females differed in their foraging behaviour: upper trophic levels contributed more in the males' diet, who foraged in more pelagic areas. Handicapped and partner birds adopted the same strategy at sea: a shift towards higher delta(13)C values suggested that they foraged in more coastal areas than controls. This change in foraging decisions may optimize feeding time by decreasing travelling time. This may partly compensate for the presumed lower foraging efficiency of handicapped birds and for the energetic debt of their partners who had to fast approximately 70% longer on the nest. We propose that this flexible use of ecological niches may allow birds facing increased breeding constraints to avoid chronic stress and to minimize the impact on their body condition.

  5. A space oddity: geographic and specific modulation of migration in Eudyptes penguins.

    PubMed

    Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yves; Crawford, Robert J M; Makhado, Azwianewi B; Trathan, Philip N; Pinaud, David; Bost, Charles-André

    2013-01-01

    Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual's migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality's paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals' wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World's seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators) and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands) and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures) when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of subsequent migration

  6. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  7. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.

  8. Chicks produced in the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) after cloacal insemination of frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Justine Kellie; Steinman, Karen J; Montano, Gisele A; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro and in vivo functionality of cryopreserved spermatozoa was examined over two breeding seasons in a zoological colony of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Frozen-thawed semen was inseminated into five anesthetized females, over a total of eight egg production cycles, with a different male used for each artificial insemination (AI) within each season. Females were maintained within the colony in cordoned nest sites to prevent copulation with their paired male, and were inseminated every 3-10 days until the first oviposition. Semen frozen from seven males using a straw method retained 39.8%, 25.7%, 74.0%, and 52.1% of its initial total motility, progressive motility, average path velocity, and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Normal morphology of motile cells was reduced (P < 0.05) during freeze-thawing from 76.7% immediately prior to freezing to 65.3% post-thawing. Conceptive females received 1.6 ± 0.2 inseminations before the first oviposition, with 19.2 ± 1.6 × 10(6) motile, morphologically normal spermatozoa per insemination. Overall fertility was 53.3% (8/15 eggs), hatchability was 50.0% (4/8), and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by the AI male. Fertile eggs were laid at 4.0-12.1 days after AI, indicating that frozen-thawed spermatozoa resided in the female reproductive tract for up to ∼7.2 days prior to fertilization. Results demonstrate that frozen-thawed Magellanic penguin spermatozoa are fully functional in vivo and support the use of genome banking and AI as tools for managing the sustainability of zoological penguin populations. Zoo Biol. 35:326-338, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Studying Seabird Diet through Genetic Analysis of Faeces: A Case Study on Macaroni Penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus)

    PubMed Central

    Deagle, Bruce E.; Gales, Nick J.; Evans, Karen; Jarman, Simon N.; Robinson, Sarah; Trebilco, Rowan; Hindell, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Determination of seabird diet usually relies on the analysis of stomach-content remains obtained through stomach flushing; this technique is both invasive and logistically difficult. We evaluate the usefulness of DNA-based faecal analysis in a dietary study on chick-rearing macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Heard Island. Conventional stomach-content data was also collected, allowing comparison of the approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings Prey-specific PCR tests were used to detect dietary DNA in faecal samples and amplified prey DNA was cloned and sequenced. Of the 88 faecal samples collected, 39 contained detectable DNA from one or more of the prey groups targeted with PCR tests. Euphausiid DNA was most commonly detected in the early (guard) stage of chick-rearing, and detection of DNA from the myctophid fish Krefftichthys anderssoni and amphipods became more common in samples collected in the later (crèche) stage. These trends followed those observed in the penguins' stomach contents. In euphausiid-specific clone libraries the proportion of sequences from the two dominant euphausiid prey species (Euphausia vallentini and Thysanoessa macrura) changed over the sampling period; again, this reflected the trend in the stomach content data. Analysis of prey sequences in universal clone libraries revealed a higher diversity of fish prey than identified in the stomachs, but non-fish prey were not well represented. Conclusions/Significance The present study is one of the first to examine the full breadth of a predator's diet using DNA-based faecal analysis. We discuss methodological difficulties encountered and suggest possible refinements. Overall, the ability of the DNA-based approach to detect temporal variation in the diet of macaroni penguins indicates this non-invasive method will be generally useful for monitoring population-level dietary trends in seabirds. PMID:17786203

  10. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  11. Metapopulation Tracking Juvenile Penguins Reveals an Ecosystem-wide Ecological Trap.

    PubMed

    Sherley, Richard B; Ludynia, Katrin; Dyer, Bruce M; Lamont, Tarron; Makhado, Azwianewi B; Roux, Jean-Paul; Scales, Kylie L; Underhill, Les G; Votier, Stephen C

    2017-02-20

    Climate change and fisheries are transforming the oceans, but we lack a complete understanding of their ecological impact [1-3]. Environmental degradation can cause maladaptive habitat selection, inducing ecological traps with profound consequences for biodiversity [4-6]. However, whether ecological traps operate in marine systems is unclear [7]. Large marine vertebrates may be vulnerable to ecological traps [6], but their broad-scale movements and complex life histories obscure the population-level consequences of habitat selection [8, 9]. We satellite tracked postnatal dispersal in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from eight sites across their breeding range to test whether they have become ecologically trapped in the degraded Benguela ecosystem. Bayesian state-space and habitat models show that penguins traversed thousands of square kilometers to areas of low sea surface temperatures (14.5°C-17.5°C) and high chlorophyll-a (∼11 mg m(-3)). These were once reliable cues for prey-rich waters, but climate change and industrial fishing have depleted forage fish stocks in this system [10, 11]. Juvenile penguin survival is low in populations selecting degraded areas, and Bayesian projection models suggest that breeding numbers are ∼50% lower than if non-impacted habitats were used, revealing the extent and effect of a marine ecological trap for the first time. These cascading impacts of localized forage fish depletion-unobserved in studies on adults-were only elucidated via broad-scale movement and demographic data on juveniles. Our results support suspending fishing when prey biomass drops below critical thresholds [12, 13] and suggest that mitigation of marine ecological traps will require matching conservation action to the scale of ecological processes [14]. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Marked phylogeographic structure of Gentoo penguin reveals an ongoing diversification process along the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Juliana A; Noll, Daly; Dantas, Gisele P M; Petry, Maria Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés; González-Acuña, Daniel; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Poulin, Elie

    2017-02-01

    Two main hypotheses have been debated about the biogeography of the Southern Ocean: (1) the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), acting as a barrier between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic provinces, and (2) the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), promoting gene flow among sub-Antarctic areas. The Gentoo penguin is distributed throughout these two provinces, separated by the APF. We analyzed mtDNA (HVR1) and 12 microsatellite loci of 264 Gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, from 12 colonies spanning from the Western Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands (WAP) to the sub-Antarctic Islands (SAI). While low genetic structure was detected among WAP colonies (mtDNA ФST=0.037-0.133; microsatellite FST=0.009-0.063), high differentiation was found between all SAI and WAP populations (mtDNA ФST=0.678-0.930; microsatellite FST=0.110-0.290). These results suggest that contemporary dispersal around the Southern Ocean is very limited or absent. As predicted, the APF appears to be a significant biogeographical boundary for Gentoo penguin populations; however, the ACC does not promote connectivity in this species. Our data suggest demographic expansion in the WAP during the last glacial maximum (LGM, about 20kya), but stability in SAI. Phylogenetic analyses showed a deep divergence between populations from the WAP and those from the SAI. Therefore, taxonomy should be further revised. The Crozet Islands resulted as a basal clade (3.57Mya), followed by the Kerguelen Islands (2.32Mya) as well as a more recent divergence between the Falkland/Malvinas Islands and the WAP (1.27Mya). Historical isolation, local adaptation, and past climate scenarios of those Evolutionarily Significant Units may have led to different potentials to respond to climate changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying seabird diet through genetic analysis of faeces: a case study on macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus).

    PubMed

    Deagle, Bruce E; Gales, Nick J; Evans, Karen; Jarman, Simon N; Robinson, Sarah; Trebilco, Rowan; Hindell, Mark A

    2007-09-05

    Determination of seabird diet usually relies on the analysis of stomach-content remains obtained through stomach flushing; this technique is both invasive and logistically difficult. We evaluate the usefulness of DNA-based faecal analysis in a dietary study on chick-rearing macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Heard Island. Conventional stomach-content data was also collected, allowing comparison of the approaches. Prey-specific PCR tests were used to detect dietary DNA in faecal samples and amplified prey DNA was cloned and sequenced. Of the 88 faecal samples collected, 39 contained detectable DNA from one or more of the prey groups targeted with PCR tests. Euphausiid DNA was most commonly detected in the early (guard) stage of chick-rearing, and detection of DNA from the myctophid fish Krefftichthys anderssoni and amphipods became more common in samples collected in the later (crèche) stage. These trends followed those observed in the penguins' stomach contents. In euphausiid-specific clone libraries the proportion of sequences from the two dominant euphausiid prey species (Euphausia vallentini and Thysanoessa macrura) changed over the sampling period; again, this reflected the trend in the stomach content data. Analysis of prey sequences in universal clone libraries revealed a higher diversity of fish prey than identified in the stomachs, but non-fish prey were not well represented. The present study is one of the first to examine the full breadth of a predator's diet using DNA-based faecal analysis. We discuss methodological difficulties encountered and suggest possible refinements. Overall, the ability of the DNA-based approach to detect temporal variation in the diet of macaroni penguins indicates this non-invasive method will be generally useful for monitoring population-level dietary trends in seabirds.

  14. A Space Oddity: Geographic and Specific Modulation of Migration in Eudyptes Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yves; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Makhado, Azwianewi B.; Trathan, Philip N.; Pinaud, David; Bost, Charles-André

    2013-01-01

    Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual’s migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality’s paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals’ wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World’s seabirds.