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Sample records for penicillium corylophilum dierckx

  1. Biodegradation of glyceryl trinitrate by Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Z; Sundaram, S T; Sharma, A; Brodman, B W

    1997-01-01

    Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx, isolated from a contaminated water wet, double-base propellant, was able to completely degrade glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in a buffered medium (pH 7.0) containing glucose and ammonium nitrate. In the presence of 12 mg of initial fungal inoculum, GTN (48.5 to 61.6 mumol) was quantitatively transformed in a stepwise process to glyceryl dinitrate (GDN) and glyceryl mononitrate (GMN) within 48 h followed by a decrease in the GDN content with a concomitant increase in the GMN level. GDN was totally transformed to GMN within 168 h, and the complete degradation of GMN was achieved within 336 h. The presence of glucose and ammonium nitrate in the growth medium was essential for completion of the degradation of GTN and its metabolites. Complete degradation of GTN by a fungal culture has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:9143106

  2. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    PubMed

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species.

  3. Novel bioactive breviane spiroditerpenoids from Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx.

    PubMed

    Macías, F A; Varela, R M; Simonet, A M; Cutler, H G; Cutler, S J; Dugan, F M; Hill, R A

    2000-12-29

    The structures of four new, naturally occurring bioactive spiroditerpenoids, (+)-breviones B, C, D, and E, potential allelopathic agents, have been determined from extracts of semisolid fermented Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx. The structures display the novel breviane spiroditerpenoid skeleton. Structure elucidation was performed by chemical transformations and by homo- and heteronuclear 2D-NMR spectral data. On the basis of combined studies of the theoretical conformations and NOEDIFF data, their relative stereochemistry is proposed. A mixed biogenesis for this novel family of spiroditerpenoids is tendered. The levels of activity shown by breviones B, C, and E in the etiolated wheat coleoptiles bioassay, especially breviones E (100% inhibition) and C (80% inhibition) both at 10(-4) M, suggest them as lead compounds for new agrochemicals.

  4. Identification of citrinin as the defence metabolite of Penicillium corylophilum stressed with the antagonist fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudia Maria Campinha; da Costa, Gisela Lara; Figueroa-Villar, José Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium corylophilum isolated from mosquitoes was cultivated in liquid media leading to the first reported identification of citrinin (1a) as one metabolic component of this fungus. The produced amount of 1a indicated this compound as the most abundant secondary metabolite of this fungus. Stressing the culture of P. corylophilum with the presence of the antagonistic fungus Beauveria bassiana increased in 65% the production of 1a. Similar results were obtained with the presence of other fungi in the culture media, indicating that citrinin is the main defence metabolite of P. corylophilum. In agreement with this conclusion, citrinin showed a reasonable fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and B. bassiana.

  5. Entomopathogenic effect of Aspergillus giganteus and Penicillium corylophilum on two triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Gisela Lara; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Galvão, Cleber

    2003-01-01

    Two strains, Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus giganteus, of the most frequent species found in a survey of triatomines, were used for bioassays in the second and fourth nymphs stage of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus. Two procedures, bite and pulverization, were used and compared. A. giganteus was most effective, causing mortality in at least 50% of the nymphs of the two species tested with exception of the nymphs of the fourth stage of P. megistus. Variation in entomopathogenic capacity of the fungal species were observed in the experiments. The two procedures used proved effective.

  6. Simple method for determination of patulin production by Penicillium griseofulvum Dierckx.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, M; Sanchis, V; Riba, M; Canela, R

    1986-01-01

    Patulin production by Penicillium griseofulvum was monitored with Sep-Pak cartridges and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Determination and quantification of this metabolite proved to be very simple, and our method saved time and a large amount of organic solvents. PMID:3513700

  7. Modeling red cabbage seed extract effect on Penicillium corylophilum: Relationship between germination time, individual and population lag time.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-10-15

    The inhibitory effect of a red cabbage seed extract on germination time, individual (single spore) and population lag time of Penicillium corylophilum was studied. First, to compare the biological variability of single spore germination and lag times under stressful conditions, data were collected at levels of red cabbage seed extract varying from 0 to 10 mg/g (150 spores observed in each trial of germination, ca 50 spores in each individual lag experiment). Experiments were performed on malt agar at 25 °C, pH 5.2, aw 0.99. The data, without any transformation, were statistically analyzed; several probability distribution functions were used to fit the cumulated germination times and the individual lag times of spores. In both cases, the best fit was obtained with the Normal distribution. In parallel, lag times at the population level (ca 2000 spores per trial) were collected for the same range of plant extract. Not surprisingly, the difference between individual and population lag times could be explained by a stochastic process. More interestingly, it was shown that under stressful conditions, the population lag time did not correspond to the time required for germination of 95% of spores, but to a much longer time. Finally, it was deduced from the statistical analysis, completed by microscopic observations, that the plant extract affected mainly the hyphal elongation (and then the lag time) and not the germination. Next, secondary models were developed to quantify the effect of red cabbage seed extract on the median of germination times, individual and population lag times. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were estimated. It was shown that the red cabbage seed extract MIC for P. corylophilum lag time did not depend on the inoculum load. Application of the secondary models allowed us to conclude that under the conditions of our experiment, the addition of 10 mg/g of red cabbage seed extract enabled extension of lag time to two weeks. Copyright

  8. Inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in mouse lungs exposed to purified toxins from building isolated Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx and P. chrysogenum Thom.

    PubMed

    Rand, Thomas G; Giles, S; Flemming, J; Miller, J David; Puniani, Eva

    2005-09-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that building-associated Penicillium spores and spore extracts can induce significant inflammatory responses in lung cells and animal models of lung disease. However, because spores and spore extracts comprise mixtures of bioactive constituents often including toxins, it is impossible to resolve which constituent mediates inflammatory responses. This study examined dose-response (0.5 nM, 2.5 nM, 5.0 nM, 12.5 nM/g body weight (BW) animal) and time-course (3, 6, 24 and 48 h post instillation (PI)) relationships associated with inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in mouse lungs intratracheally instilled with pure brevianamide A, mycophenolic acid, and roquefortine C. High doses (5.0 nM and/or 12.5 nM/g BW animal) of brevianamide A and mycophenolic acid, the dominant metabolites of P. brevicompactum, and roquefortine C, the dominant metabolite of P. chrysogenum, induced significant inflammatory responses within 6 h PI, expressed as differentially elevated macrophage, neutrophil, MIP-2, TNF, and IL-6 concentrations in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of intratracheally exposed mice. Macrophage and neutrophil numbers were maximal at 24 h PI; responses of the other inflammatory markers were maximal at 6 h PI. Except for macrophage numbers in mycophenolic acid-treatment animals, cells exhibited significant dose-dependent-like responses; for the chemo-/cytokine markers, dose dependency was lacking except for MIP-2 concentration in brevianamide A-treatment animals. It was also found that brevianamide A induced cytotoxicity expressed as significantly increased LDH concentration in mouse BALF, at concentrations of 12.5 nM/g BW animal and at 6 and 24 h PI. Albumin concentrations, measured as a nonspecific marker of vascular leakage, were significantly elevated in the BALF of mice treated with 12.5 nM/g nM brevianamide A/animal from 6 to 24 h PI and in > or =5.0 nM/g mycophenolic acid-treated animals at 6 to 24 h PI. These results

  9. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of lectins from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Jain, P; Kaur, H P

    2013-11-01

    Ten Penicillium sp. were screened for lectin activity for occurrence of lectins. Mycelial extracts from submerged cultures of P. corylophilum, P. expansum and P. purpurogenum showed agglutination against human (A, B, AB and O), goat, sheep, pig and rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment to human blood- type O erythrocytes substantially increased their agglutinability by all the lectins as compared to untreated erythrocytes. Modification of erythrocyte surfaces by protease increased the lectin titre only of P. corylophilum with no effect on other two lectins. P. corylophilum and P. expansum displayed relatively lower titres in mycelial extracts prepared from agar plate cultures as compared to broth cultures. A panel of sugars was tested for inhibition of lectin activity. All the lectins were found to be specific for asialofetuin, bovine submaxillary mucin, porcine stomach mucin, chondroitin-6-sulphate, D-sucrose and D-glucose. P. corylophilum lectin was expressed (Titre 8) by 5 day old cultures, reaching its maximum level (Titre 32) upon 8 days of cultivation, thereafter declin in lectin activity was observed. P. purpurogenum lectin was expressed by 7-10 days old cultures, while in P. expansum maximum lectin activity was elaborated by 5-8 days old cultures. Lectin extracts from all the three species were found to possess antimicrobial activities. Lectin extracts from the three Penicillium species displayed antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  10. Effect of water activity and temperature on growth of three Penicillium species and Aspergillus flavus on a sponge cake analogue.

    PubMed

    Abellana, M; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2001-12-30

    This study compared the effect of temperature and water activity and their interactions on the rate of mycelial growth of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. chrysogenum, P. corylophilum and Aspergillus flavus on a sponge cake analogue. As expected, growth rates showed dependence on a(w), and temperature. However, no significant differences were observed in the growth rates of different isolates. The minimum a(w) values for growth of the Penicillium spp. was 0.85-0.90. A. flavus was able to grow at 0.90 a(w) when the temperature was above 15 degrees C. This study has shown that fungal growth by these species on a sponge cake analogue, with a composition similar to usual bakery products, is prevented if the a(w) is kept at < 0.85.

  11. The presence of Penicillium and Penicillium mycotoxins in food wastes.

    PubMed

    Rundberget, Thomas; Skaar, Ida; Flåøyen, Arne

    2004-01-15

    A total of 97 samples (48 summer and 49 winter) of food waste from private households were investigated for Penicillium and for mycotoxins. Twenty-five Penicillium species were isolated and Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium spinulosum, Penicillium viridicatum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium solitum were, in decreasing order, the most frequently identified species. Mycotoxins produced by several of these species, including mycophenolic acid, roquefortine C, penitrems A-F and thomitrems A and E, were detected. Of the 48 summer samples, 36 were severely infected and contained more than 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Penicillium/g sample. The levels of mycotoxins in these samples were in the range 75-19000 microg/kg mycophenolic acid, 40-920 microg/kg roquefortine C, 35-7500 microg/kg penitrem A, 20-2100 microg/kg thomitrem A and 20-3300 microg/kg thomitrem E. Of the 49 winter samples, only one was found to contain mycophenolic acid (4800 microg/kg) and roquefortine C (190 microg/kg), and this sample was severely infected with P. roqueforti. Thirty samples of food waste collected from the food manufacturing industry were also investigated. The number of Penicillium in these samples was between 10(5) and 10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/g sample. Seven of these samples contained mycophenolic acid ranging from 50 to 600 microg/kg and three of these samples also contained roquefortine C in the range 100-250 microg/kg.

  12. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske; Samson, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T)  = IBT 6005(T)  = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T)  = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate conidiophores with echinulate thick-walled conidia and produce the extrolites asperphenamate, citreoisocoumarin, communesin A and B, asperentin and 5'-hydroxy-asperentin. Penicillium spathulatum is unique in having restricted colonies on Czapek yeast agar (CYA) with an olive grey reverse, good growth on CYA supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception of Penicillium fennelliae, asperphenamate is also produced by all other species in section Brevicompacta (P. tularense, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium bialowiezense, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium astrolabium and Penicillium neocrassum). Both new species have a worldwide distribution. The new species were mainly isolated from indoor environments and food and feedstuffs. The fact that asperphenamate has been found in many widely different plants may indicate that endophytic fungi rather than the plants are the actual producers. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Spierenburg, H.; Seifert, K.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate anamorphic species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species that reside in the same clade. Following the concepts of nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of biotechnological and medical importance, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, are now combined in Talaromyces. Excluded species and taxa that need further taxonomic study are discussed. An appendix lists other generic names, usually considered synonyms of Penicillium sensu lato that

  14. Tremorgenic Mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Takumi; Morooka, Nobuichi; Sawada, Yuzuru; Udagawa, Shun-Ichi

    1976-01-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28°C. PMID:984820

  15. Tremorgenic mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T; Morooka, N; Sawada, Y; Udagawa, S I

    1976-09-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28 degrees C.

  16. Tremorgenic Toxin from Penicillium verruculosum

    PubMed Central

    Cole, R. J.; Kirksey, J. W.; Moore, J. H.; Blankenship, B. R.; Diener, U. L.; Davis, N. D.

    1972-01-01

    A new mycotoxin that produces severe tremors and acute toxicity when administered orally or intraperitoneally (ip) to mice and 1-day-old cockerels was obtained from a strain of Penicillium verruculosum Peyronel isolated from peanuts. The ip 50% lethal dose (LD50) of this tremorgen was 2.4 mg/kg in mice and 15.2 mg/kg in chickens. Orally administered LD50 values for the toxin were 126.7 mg/kg in mice and 365.5 mg/kg in chickens. The trivial name „verruculogen” is proposed for this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Physical and chemical characteristics of the mycotoxin are described. PMID:4341967

  17. Tremorgenic toxin from Penicillium veruculosum.

    PubMed

    Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W; Moore, J H; Blankenship, B R; Diener, U L; Davis, N D

    1972-08-01

    A new mycotoxin that produces severe tremors and acute toxicity when administered orally or intraperitoneally (ip) to mice and 1-day-old cockerels was obtained from a strain of Penicillium verruculosum Peyronel isolated from peanuts. The ip 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of this tremorgen was 2.4 mg/kg in mice and 15.2 mg/kg in chickens. Orally administered LD(50) values for the toxin were 126.7 mg/kg in mice and 365.5 mg/kg in chickens. The trivial name "verruculogen" is proposed for this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Physical and chemical characteristics of the mycotoxin are described.

  18. Fructooligosaccharide production by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Prata, Margarida B; Mussatto, Solange I; Rodrigues, Lígia R; Teixeira, José A

    2010-06-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production by Penicillium expansum was evaluated. In a first stage, the best conditions for P. expansum growth and sporulation were established with potato/dextrose/agar being the most suitable medium at between 22 and 25 degrees C, giving good growth and good sporulation. The inocula from this medium were used for FOS production using shake-flask cultures, and yielded 0.58 g FOS/g sucrose (3.25 g FOS/l.h), demonstrating the potential of this strain for sucrose conversion to FOS.

  19. Penicillium species present in Uruguayan salami.

    PubMed

    Galvalisi, Umberto; Lupo, Sandra; Piccini, Juan; Bettucci, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The surface coverage of certain dry fermented sausages such as Italian salami by some species of Penicillium provides their characteristic flavor and other beneficial properties. One of them is the protective effect by means of a uniform film of white mold against undesirable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to identify and to isolate the fungal species present in mature Italian type of salami and to evaluate if it is possible to obtain some of them as starters. In addition, the effects of temperature (14 °C and 25 °C), water activity (a w) (0.90, 0.95 and 0.995) and 2.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) on fungal growth were determined. Similarly, the proteolytic and lipolytic activity and the ability to produce toxic secondary metabolites were evaluated in order to characterize some possible starter strain. All species found belong to the genus Penicillium, including a performing starter as Penicillium nalgiovense and some potentially toxicogenic species. All the strains showed a higher growth rate at 25 °C. The production of extracellular proteases and lipases was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 14 °C with and without sodium chloride. Only Penicillium expansum produced patulin. On the other hand, Penicillium griseofulvum was the only species that produced ciclopiazonic acid but none of the strains produced penicillin. The species present on salami, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium puberulum were unable to produce any of the evaluated toxins. These findings suggest that some fungal isolates from the surface of salami such as P. nalgiovense are potentially useful as starters in sausage manufacture.

  20. Copper uptake by Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Tsekova, K; Dentcheva, V; Ianis, M

    2001-01-01

    The copper binding properties of Penicillium brevicompactum biomass were influenced by growth phase of mycelium and concentration of copper in reaction mixtures. The efficiency of copper uptake increased with growth time and was largest at the mid-logarithmic growth phase. The time course of copper uptake was biphasic. Double reciprocal plots of absorption velocity of copper vs. copper concentration gave straight lines at concentration between 0.5 to 4 mM. The apparent affinity of copper to the biomass of the stationary growth phase was the same as that of logarithmic growth phase and Km values were about 1.4 mM. Pretreatment of the mycelium with glucose increased the amount of metal uptake about five times in comparison with the controls.

  1. Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed Central

    D'Antonio, D; Violante, B; Farina, C; Sacco, R; Angelucci, D; Masciulli, M; Iacone, A; Romano, F

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of necrotizing pneumonia due to Penicillium chrysogenum in a 57-year-old woman operated on for lung cancer. The residual right lower pulmonary lobe was infiltrated by Penicillium chrysogenum. The patient underwent a second pulmonary right lobectomy and was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pneumonia due to P. chrysogenum. PMID:9399551

  2. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 μm long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 μm diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, β-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and β-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus. Taxonomic novelties: Penicillium argentinense Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. atrofulvum Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. aurantiacobrunneum Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. cairnsense Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. christenseniae Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson

  3. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  4. [HIV-associated Penicillium marneffei infection].

    PubMed

    Kronauer, C M; Schär, G; Barben, M; Bühler, H

    1993-03-06

    We report on an HIV positive patient with a disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection. A 35-year-old Swiss homosexual male with HIV-associated immunodeficiency with a CD4 cell count of 90/mm3 presented with a two-month history of malaise, intermittent fever, loss of weight, unproductive cough and widespread molluscum contagiosum-like skin lesions, mainly on the face. The patient had travelled extensively and had last visited Thailand 19 months before admission. The chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse reticulonodular markings. The diagnosis was suspected in bronchoalveolar lavage, which showed round-to-oval intracellular yeast cells but also elongated sausage-shaped extracellular forms. The diagnosis was confirmed on culture. Penicillium marneffei was further isolated from the following specimens: blood cultures, bone marrow, stool, skin and tracheal mucosa biopsy. Intravenous amphotericin B therapy led to a complete subsidence of all symptoms and the skin lesions healed without leaving a scar. The infection, with its clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnostic problems and therapy is reviewed. We stress that since Penicillium marneffei is an increasingly important pathogen in HIV positive patients in Southeast Asia, this fungus can also be imported to Europe by travellers. If immunocompromised patients have molluscum contagiosum-like skin lesions, pneumonitis and a history of travelling in Southeast Asia, disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection should be considered in differential diagnosis.

  5. Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hillenga, D J; Versantvoort, H J; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1996-01-01

    Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded that the sulfate transport system catalyzes the symport of two protons with one sulfate anion. PMID:8682803

  6. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  7. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Penicillium using Chromogenic Media.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Hwan; Hong, Seung Beom; Ko, Seung Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-09-01

    A total of 106 Penicillium species were tested to examine their ability of degrading cellobiose, pectin and xylan. The activity of β-glucosidase was generally strong in all the Penicillium species tested. P. citrinum, P. charlesii, P. manginii and P. aurantiacum showed the higher ability of producing β-glucosidase than other tested species. Pectinase activity was detected in 24 Penicillium species. P. paracanescens, P. sizovae, P. sartoryi, P. chrysogenum, and P. claviforme showed strong pectinase activity. In xylanase assay, 84 Penicillium species showed activity. Strong xylanase activity was detected from P. megasporum, P. sartoryi, P. chrysogenum, P. glandicola, P. discolor, and P. coprophilum. Overall, most of the Penicillium species tested showed strong β-glucosidase activity. The degree of pectinase and xylanase activity varied depending on Penicillium species.

  8. Diclavatol and tetronic acids from Penicillium griseoroseum.

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Vinicius; Fill, Taicia Pacheco; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2013-01-01

    In our continuous studies on the chemistry of the endophytic fungus Penicillium griseoroseum, an endophyte isolated from fruits of Coffea arabica, we isolated clavatol, a dimethylated tetraketide, and its dimer which appears to be a novel natural compound. The studies also resulted in the identification of two known tetronic acids, viridicatic acid and terrestric acid, found in ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts. Spectroscopic studies using 1-D and 2-D NMR and MS/MS analysis were performed to determine the structures of these compounds, first reported by this Penicillium. Two other tetronic acids congeners were identified through HPLC/MS/MS studies, based on fragmentation pattern of ions produced from ionised tetronic acids, and UV light absorptions.

  9. Gluconic acid production by Penicillium puberulum.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, M A; Megalla, S E

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five Penicillium species isolated from Egyptian soil were examined for their ability to produce gluconic acid in surface culture. Of the eight species capable of producing gluconic acid, Penicillium puberulum gave the maximum yield (91% gluconic acid from glucose after 7 days of fermentation with 3% CaCO3). Peptone was the best nitrogen source for acid fermentation and glucose was superior to sucrose. Addition of low concentrations of KH2PO4 and MgSO4 - 7 H2O stimulated acid production. An initial pH of 6.1 was most favourable for acid accumulation and addition of CaCO3 was necessary for maximum acid production.

  10. Construction of transformation system in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum attracts attention in the food industry and biomass degradation. We expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) with pBPE, a novel vector, and constructed a transformation system for P. purpurogenum. The accumulation of GFP was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. In future, this system may prove useful for the genetic modification of P. purpurogenum. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-03-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies.

  12. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-01-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies. PMID:7041819

  13. Production of feruloyl/rho-coumaroyl esterase activity by Penicillium expansum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, J A; McKay, A M

    1995-12-01

    Extracellular esterase production by Penicillium expansum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Aspergillus niger was determined in both liquid and solid-state culture. Methyl ferulate was used as the main carbon source in liquid culture whereas wheat bran and sugar beet pulp were used in solid-state culture. Extracted enzyme for each fungus showed activity in the presence of ONP butyrate, methyl ferulate, methyl coumarate and two 'natural' feruloylated carbohydrate esters. Higher enzyme recoveries were obtained using wheat bran in solid-state culture. Higher levels of feruloyl esterase activity were recovered from P. expansum on all feruloylated substrates than from P. brevicompactum or A. niger. Using ONP butyrate as substrate the pH and temperature optima for the esterases of both Penicillium spp. were 6.0 and 25-30 degrees C. Aspergillus niger esterase activity showed a broader temperature range with an optimum at 40 degrees C.

  14. Meroterpenoids from the alga-derived fungi Penicillium thomii Maire and Penicillium lividum Westling.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, Olesya I; Sobolevskaya, Maria P; Leshchenko, Elena V; Kirichuk, Natalya N; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Zakharenko, Alexander M; Kim, Natalya Yu; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh

    2014-06-27

    Ten new austalide meroterpenoids (1-10) were isolated from the alga-derived fungi Penicillium thomii KMM 4645 and Penicillium lividum KMM 4663. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with related known compounds. The absolute configurations of some of the metabolites were assigned by the modified Mosher's method and CD data. Compounds 1, 2, 8, and 9 were able to inhibit AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity in JB6 Cl41 cell lines at noncytotoxic concentrations. Austalides 1-5, 8, and 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase from a crystalline stalk of the marine mollusk Pseudocardium sachalinensis.

  15. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled is...

  16. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of isolates genetically similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Penicillium brasilianum MG11

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jörg; Mattern, Derek J.; Walther, Grit; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Penicillium belongs to the phylum Ascomycota and includes a variety of fungal species important for food and drug production. We report the draft genome sequence of Penicillium brasilianum MG11. This strain was isolated from soil, and it was reported to produce different secondary metabolites. PMID:26337871

  18. Differential apple transcriptomic responses to penicillium expansum (pathogen) and penicillium digitatum (non-host pathogen) infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum is the causal agent of blue mould of pome fruits and is responsible for important economical losses during postharvest handling in all producing countries. Although control of this pathogen can be achieved by using chemical fungicides, the appearance of resistant strains and in...

  19. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  20. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  1. Hydrolysis of lignocelluloses by penicillium funiculosum cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Deshpande, V.

    1984-04-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a promising method for the conversion of waste cellulose to glucose. During the past few years, the development of this technology has proceeded rapidly, with significant advances made in enzyme production, pretreatment, and hydrolysis. A variety of fungi are reported to produce cellulases but among these Trichoderma reesei and its mutants are powerful producers of cellulases. However, the search for new and possibly better sources of cellulase is continued due to the low levels of beta-glucosidase of T. reesei. Penicillium funiculosum produces a complete cellulase having endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (15-20 U/mL), exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (1.5-2.0 U/mL), and high beta-glucosidase (8-10 U/mL). The saccharification of alkali-treated cotton and bagasse by P. funiculosum enzyme was 70 and 63%, respectively. It was possible to obtain glucose concentration as high as 30% using 50% bagasse. It is of interest that the percent saccharification of cellulosic substrates with the Penicillium enzyme is comparable to that of T. reesei cellulase when the same amount of filter paper activity is used, although the endo-glucanase activity of the latter is two to three times higher. This communication reports the studies on saccharification of lignocelluloses by P. funiculosum cellulase and certain studies on the kinetic aspects. (Refs. 15).

  2. Species-specific identification of penicillium linked to patulin contamination.

    PubMed

    Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann; McGovern, Amy E

    2007-11-01

    Certain species of Penicillium have been reported to produce the mycotoxin patulin, and research was undertaken to identify these with the use of oligonucleotide primer pairs. Species examined were found in food, plants, and soil and were reported to produce patulin. Penicillium expansum is the most commonly detected species linked to the presence of patulin in apple juice. At least 10 different enzymes are involved in the patulin biosynthetic pathway, including the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene. Based on nucleotide sequences previously determined for the idh gene in Penicillium species, PCR primers were designed for the species-specific detection of patulin-producing species. The 5' primers were based on differences in the second intron of the idh gene. To ensure that the primer pairs produced a PCR product restricted to the species for which it was designed, and not to unrelated species, all of the primer pairs were tested against all of the Penicillium species. With one exception, it was possible to detect a reaction only with the organism of interest. The primer pair for Penicillium griseofulvum also amplified DNA from Penicillium dipodomyicola, a closely related species; however, it was possible to distinguish between these two species by doing a second amplification, with a different primer pair specific only for P. dipodomyicola. Consequently, with different primer sets, it was possible to identify individual patulin-producing species of Penicillium.

  3. Individual and combined effects of vanillin and potassium sorbate on Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum growth.

    PubMed

    Matamoros-León, B; Argaiz, A; López-Malo, A

    1999-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of potassium sorbate and vanillin concentrations on the growth of Penicillium digitatum, P. glabrum, and P. italicum in potato dextrose agar adjusted to water activity 0.98 and pH 3.5 were evaluated. Inhibitory concentrations of potassium sorbate varied from 150 ppm for P. digitatum to 700 ppm for P. glabrum, and for vanillin from 1,100 ppm for P. digitatum and P. italicum and 1,300 ppm for P. glabrum. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) isobolograms show curves deviated to the left of the additive line. Calculated FIC index varied from 0.60 to 0.84. FIC index as well as FIC isobolograms show synergistic effects on mold inhibition when vanillin and potassium sorbate are applied in combination.

  4. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2008-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation Induction of Mutation in Penicillium Claviforme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, June; Jolley, Ray

    1986-01-01

    Cites reasons why Penicillium claviforme is an exceptionally good species for ultraviolet induced mutation experiments. Provides a set of laboratory instructions for teachers and students. Includes a discussion section. (ML)

  6. [Diketopiperazine alkaloids from the fungus Penicillium piscarium Westling].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, A G; Vinokurova, N G; Adanin, V M

    2000-01-01

    Fungi of the species Penicillium piscarium produced diketopiperazine alkaloids (isorugulosuvine, puberuline, verrucosine, prolyltryptophanyldiketopiperazine, 12,13-dehydroprolyltryptophanyldiketopiperazine, fellutanine A, phenylalanylphenylalanyldiketopiperazine, as well as roquefortine and 3,12-dihydroroquefortine whose precursors are tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, proline, and histidine.

  7. Production of Patulin by Penicillium expansum

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Noel F.; Buchanan, Jack R.; Fortlage, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty-seven isolates of Penicillium expansum Lk. ex Thom obtained from Europe, Australia, and North America from seven different fruit hosts all produced patulin in culture. Six isolates were essentially nonpathogenic in apple fruits. In culture, patulin generally accumulated to much higher levels than in apple fruits. At all temperatures permitting fungus growth, patulin was produced. However, only small amounts were observed near the maximal temperature for growth (30 C). At 0 C, patulin accumulated but slowly in culture. Modified atmospheres suppressed both fungus growth and patulin accumulation in apples. After varying incubation periods to obtain similar total growth, the patulin concentration was low in modified atmospheres and high in air. PMID:4425020

  8. Pyran Rings Containing Polyketides from Penicillium raistrickii

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Li, De-Guo; Huang, Yu-Ling; Kang, Hui-Hui; Wang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Five new pyran rings containing polyketides, penicipyrans A–E (1–5), together with the known pestapyrone A (6), were isolated from the saline soil-derived Penicillium raistrickii. Their structures were determined by interpretation of NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of compounds 4 and 5 were established by the modified Mosher’s method and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. These compounds possessed high structural diversity including two α-pyrones (1, 2), three isocoumarins (3, 4, 6), and one dihydropyran derivative (5). Among them, Compound 5 exhibited cytotoxicity against HL-60 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.4 and 8.5 μM, respectively. PMID:28025533

  9. Functional characterization of Penicillium occitanis Pol6 and Penicillium funiculosum GH11 xylanases.

    PubMed

    Driss, Dorra; Berrin, Jean Guy; Juge, Nathalie; Bhiri, Fatma; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2013-08-01

    Xylanases are hemicellulolytic enzymes, which are responsible for the degradation of heteroxylans constituting the lignocellulosic plant cell wall. Xylanases from the GH11 family are considered as true xylanases because of their high substrate specificity. In order to study in depth a crucial difference in the thumb region between two closely related xylanases from Penicillium in terms of kinetic parameters and inhibition sensitivity, the GH11 xylanases from Penicillium occitanis Pol6 (PoXyn3) and from Penicillium funiculosum (PfXynC) were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The PoXyn3 and PfXynC cDNAs encoding mature xylanases were cloned into pGAPZαA vectors and integrated into the genome of P. pastoris X-33 under the control of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase constitutive promoter. PfXynC was expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein and purified from the supernatant homogeneity by a one-step purification protocol using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The recombinant PoXyn3 was purified using a single anion-exchange chromatography. The purified recombinant enzymes were optimally active at 45°C and pH 4.0 for PoXyn3 and 40°C and pH 3.0 for PfXynC. The measured kinetic parameters (k(cat) and Vmax) showed that PfXynC was five times more active than PoXyn3 irrespective of the substrate whereas the apparent affinity (K(m)) was similar. The recombinant enzymes showed distinct sensitivity to the Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor TAXI-I.

  10. Contrasting Genomic Diversity in Two Closely Related Postharvest Pathogens: Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Julca, Irene; Droby, Samir; Sela, Noa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-12-14

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Although host-specific Penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation at the intraspecific level. Here we assessed genome variation across four P. digitatum and seven P. expansum isolates from geographically distant regions. Our results show very high similarity (average 0.06 SNPs [single nucleotide polymorphism] per kb) between globally distributed isolates of P. digitatum pointing to a recent expansion of a single lineage. This low level of genetic variation found in our samples contrasts with the higher genetic variability observed in the similarly distributed P. expansum isolates (2.44 SNPs per kb). Patterns of polymorphism in P. expansum indicate that recombination exists between genetically diverged strains. Consistent with the existence of sexual recombination and heterothallism, which was unknown for this species, we identified the two alternative mating types in different P. expansum isolates. Patterns of polymorphism in P. digitatum indicate a recent clonal population expansion of a single lineage that has reached worldwide distribution. We suggest that the contrasting patterns of genomic variation between the two species reflect underlying differences in population dynamics related with host specificities and related agricultural practices. It should be noted, however, that this results should be confirmed with a larger sampling of strains, as new strains may broaden the diversity so far found in P. digitatum.

  11. Contrasting Genomic Diversity in Two Closely Related Postharvest Pathogens: Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum

    PubMed Central

    Julca, Irene; Droby, Samir; Sela, Noa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Although host-specific Penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation at the intraspecific level. Here we assessed genome variation across four P. digitatum and seven P. expansum isolates from geographically distant regions. Our results show very high similarity (average 0.06 SNPs [single nucleotide polymorphism] per kb) between globally distributed isolates of P. digitatum pointing to a recent expansion of a single lineage. This low level of genetic variation found in our samples contrasts with the higher genetic variability observed in the similarly distributed P. expansum isolates (2.44 SNPs per kb). Patterns of polymorphism in P. expansum indicate that recombination exists between genetically diverged strains. Consistent with the existence of sexual recombination and heterothallism, which was unknown for this species, we identified the two alternative mating types in different P. expansum isolates. Patterns of polymorphism in P. digitatum indicate a recent clonal population expansion of a single lineage that has reached worldwide distribution. We suggest that the contrasting patterns of genomic variation between the two species reflect underlying differences in population dynamics related with host specificities and related agricultural practices. It should be noted, however, that this results should be confirmed with a larger sampling of strains, as new strains may broaden the diversity so far found in P. digitatum. PMID:26672008

  12. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  13. Effect of Penicillium chrysogenum on Lignin Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, A.; Carnicero, A.; Perestelo, F.; de la Fuente, G.; Milstein, O.; Falcón, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Penicillium chrysogenum has been isolated from pine forest soils in Tenerife (Canary Islands). This strain was capable of utilizing hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated aromatic compounds, in particular cinnamic acid, as its sole carbon source. In an optimum medium with high levels of nitrogen (25.6 mM) and low levels of glucose (5.5 mM), it was able to decolorize Poly B-411 and to transform kraft, organosolv, and synthetic dehydrogenative polymerisate lignins. After 30 days of incubation, the amount of recovered kraft lignin was reduced to 83.5 and 91.3% of that estimated for uninoculated controls by spectrophotometry and klason lignin, respectively. At the same time, the pattern of molecular mass distribution of the lignin remaining in cultures was changed. The amount of organosolv lignin recovered from cultures was reduced to 90.1 and 94.6% of the initial amount as evaluated by spectrophotometry and klason lignin, respectively. About 6% of total applied radioactivity of O14CH3-organosolv lignin was recovered as 14CO2 after 30 days of incubation, and 18.5% of radioactivity from insoluble O14CH3-organosolv lignin was solubilized. After 26 days of incubation, 2.9% of 14C-β-dehydrogenative polymerisate and 4.1% of 14C-ring-dehydrogenative polymerisate evolved as 14CO2. PMID:16349361

  14. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed.

  15. Penicillium roqueforti PR toxin gene cluster characterization.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro I; Poirier, Elisabeth; Ullán, Ricardo V; Piqueras, Justine; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika

    2017-03-01

    PR toxin is a well-known isoprenoid mycotoxin almost solely produced by Penicillium roqueforti after growth on food or animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as the most toxic produced by this species. In this study, an in silico analysis allowed identifying for the first time a 22.4-kb biosynthetic gene cluster involved in PR toxin biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. The pathway contains 11 open reading frames encoding for ten putative proteins including the major fungal terpene cyclase, aristolochene synthase, involved in the first farnesyl-diphosphate cyclization step as well as an oxidoreductase, an oxidase, two P450 monooxygenases, a transferase, and two dehydrogenase enzymes. Gene silencing was used to study three genes (ORF5, ORF6, and ORF8 encoding for an acetyltransferase and two P450 monooxygenases, respectively) and resulted in 20 to 40% PR toxin production reductions in all transformants proving the involvement of these genes and the corresponding enzyme activities in PR toxin biosynthesis. According to the considered silenced gene target, eremofortin A and B productions were also affected suggesting their involvement as biosynthetic intermediates in this pathway. A PR toxin biosynthesis pathway is proposed based on the most recent and available data.

  16. Functional diversity within the Penicillium roqueforti species.

    PubMed

    Gillot, Guillaume; Jany, Jean-Luc; Poirier, Elisabeth; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Debaets, Stella; Thierry, Anne; Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika

    2017-01-16

    Penicillium roqueforti is used as a ripening culture for blue cheeses and largely contributes to their organoleptic quality and typical characteristics. Different types of blue cheeses are manufactured and consumed worldwide and have distinct aspects, textures, flavors and colors. These features are well accepted to be due to the different manufacturing methods but also to the specific P. roqueforti strains used. Indeed, inoculated P. roqueforti strains, via their proteolytic and lipolytic activities, have an effect on both blue cheese texture and flavor. In particular, P. roqueforti produces a wide range of flavor compounds and variations in their proportions influence the flavor profiles of this type of cheese. Moreover, P. roqueforti is also characterized by substantial morphological and genetic diversity thus raising the question about the functional diversity of this species. In this context, 55 representative strains were screened for key metabolic properties including proteolytic activity (by determining free NH2 amino groups) and secondary metabolite production (aroma compounds using HS-Trap GC-MS and mycotoxins via LC-MS/Q-TOF). Mini model cheeses were used for aroma production and proteolysis analyses, whereas Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar medium was used for mycotoxin production. Overall, this study highlighted high functional diversity among isolates. Noteworthy, when only P. roqueforti strains isolated from Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) blue cheeses were considered, a clear relationship between genetic diversity, population structure and the assessed functional traits was shown.

  17. Polyketides, toxins and pigments in Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W T; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-30

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus.

  18. Polyketides, Toxins and Pigments in Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus. PMID:26529013

  19. A novel penicillium sp. causes rot in stored sugar beet roots in Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium vulpinum along with a number of other fungi can lead to the rot of stored sugar beet roots. However, Penicillium isolates associated with necrotic lesions on roots from a recent sugar beet storage study were determined to be different from P. vulpinum and other recognized Penicillium sp...

  20. Effect of LED Blue Light on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum Strains.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, María T; Alférez, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies on the antimicrobial properties of light have considerably increased due in part to the development of resistance to actual control methods. This study investigates the potential of light-emitting diodes (LED) blue light for controlling Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. These fungi are the most devastating postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit and cause important losses due to contaminations and the development of resistant strains against fungicides. The effect of different periods and quantum fluxes, delaying light application on the growth and morphology of P. digitatum strains resistant and sensitive to fungicides, and P. italicum cultured at 20°C was examined. Results showed that blue light controls the growth of all strains and that its efficacy increases with the quantum flux. Spore germination was always avoided by exposing the cultures to high quantum flux (700 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ) for 18 h. Continuous light had an important impact on the fungus morphology and a fungicidal effect when applied at a lower quantum flux (120 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ) to a growing fungus. Sensitivity to light increased with mycelium age. Results show that blue light may be a tool for P. digitatum and P. italicum infection prevention during handling of citrus fruits.

  1. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, β-pinene, linalool, and γ-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, γ-terpinene, linalool, and α-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infection capacities in the orange-pathogen relationship: compatible (Penicillium digitatum) and incompatible (Penicillium expansum) interactions.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Jauset, A M; Teixidó, N

    2012-02-01

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are the most devastating pathogens of citrus and pome fruits, respectively. Whereas P. digitatum is a very specific pathogen that only infects Citrus fruits, P. expansum has a broader host range but has not been reported to be infectious in Citrus. To determine the responses of fruits and the infection capacities of both moulds, two varieties of oranges at different maturity stages, different inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were studied. In compatible interactions, no significant differences in rot dynamics among harvests were found with a 10(7) conidia mL(-1) inoculum concentration at both temperatures tested (20 °C and 4 °C). However, at other inoculum concentrations, significant differences in rot dynamics were found, especially in immature fruits. Incompatible interactions showed that P. expansum could infect oranges at commercial maturity in both tested varieties. Decay incidence and severity were higher at 4 °C than at 20 °C. In addition to infection capacity studies, histochemical tests were performed to detect wound-healing compounds for both pathogens. A positive reaction for lignin was detected for both pathogens in immature oranges over a short period (48 h). In all cases, no reactions were found in control samples. Our results indicate that pathogen concentration, host maturity and storage temperature can play important roles in the defence mechanisms of fruit. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates that P. expansum can infect oranges under favourable conditions.

  3. First morphomolecular identification of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum toxicogenic isolates associated with blue mold on apple.

    PubMed

    Moslem, Mohmed; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Yassin, Mohamed; Bahkali, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Postharvest blue mold decay caused by Penicillium spp. is the most important disease of fresh apple fruit in the world, which extend from the field to the store. Two new Penicillium spp. responsible for apple fruit decay were recovered. The morphological and molecular features of Penicillium griseofulvum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum isolated from apple fruits were characterized morphologically and molecularly. Pathogenicity test exhibited that both P. griseofulvum and P. aurantiogriseum were responsible for blue mold decay in storage apple fruits. Lesion diameter indicated that P. aurantiogriseum was more aggressive than P. griseofulvum. All tested isolates were able to synthesize citrinin in addition to patulin. Not all of the isolates belonging to the same species showed the same profile of secondary metabolites. Microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction was able to differentiate these isolates at the species level and divided the analyzed isolates into two genetically different groups. Little intraspecific variability was evident. Microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction analysis proved to be an objective, rapid, and reliable tool to identify Penicillium spp. involved in blue mold of apple. This is the first report of occurrence of P. griseofulvum and P. aurantiogriseum on imported apple fruits in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  5. Penicillium koreense sp. nov., isolated from various soils in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Hyun; Cho, Hye Sun; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Dae-Ho; Houbraken, Jos; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2014-12-28

    During an investigation of the fungal diversity of Korean soils, four Penicillium strains could not be assigned to any described species. The strains formed monoverticillate conidiophores with occasionally a divaricate branch. The conidia were smooth or finely rough-walled, globose to broadly ellipsoidal and 2.5-3.5 × 2.0-3.0 μm in size. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using partial β-tubulin gene sequences and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates belonged to section Lanata- Divaricata and were most closely related to Penicillium raperi. Phenotypically, the strains differed from P. raperi in having longer and thicker stipes and thicker phialides. Strain KACC 47721(T) from bamboo field soil was designated as the type strain of the new species, and the species was named Penicillium koreense sp. nov., as it was isolated from various regions in Korea.

  6. Antifungal Activity of Eugenol against Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-06-01

    The antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Emericella nidulans), penicilli (Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum), and fusaria (Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. Minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. The effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter represented a critical value for P. expansum, P. glabrum, P. italicum, A. niger, and E. nidulans because a further increase of eugenol resulted in fungistatic activity. The radial growth of A. terreus and F. avenaceum was inhibited at 140 mg/liter, and growth of F. oxysporum was completely inhibited at 150 mg/liter.

  7. Novel Penicillium cellulases for total hydrolysis of lignocellulosics.

    PubMed

    Marjamaa, Kaisa; Toth, Karolina; Bromann, Paul Andrew; Szakacs, George; Kruus, Kristiina

    2013-05-10

    The (hemi)cellulolytic systems of two novel lignocellulolytic Penicillium strains (Penicillium pulvillorum TUB F-2220 and P. cf. simplicissimum TUB F-2378) have been studied. The cultures of the Penicillium strains were characterized by high cellulase and β-glucosidase as well moderate xylanase activities compared to the Trichoderma reesei reference strains QM 6a and RUTC30 (volumetric or per secreted protein, respectively). Comparison of the novel Penicillium and T. reesei secreted enzyme mixtures in the hydrolysis of (ligno)cellulose substrates showed that the F-2220 enzyme mixture gave higher yields in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and similar yields in hydrolysis of pre-treated spruce and wheat straw than enzyme mixture secreted by the T. reesei reference strain. The sensitivity of the Penicillium cellulase complexes to softwood (spruce) and grass (wheat straw) lignins was lignin and temperature dependent: inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of wheat straw lignin was minor at 35°C while at 45°C by spruce lignin a clear inhibition was observed. The two main proteins in the F-2220 (hemi)cellulase complex were partially purified and identified by peptide sequence similarity as glycosyl hydrolases (cellobiohydrolases) of families 7 and 6. Adsorption of the GH7 enzyme PpCBH1 on cellulose and lignins was studied showing that the lignin adsorption of the enzyme is temperature and pH dependent. The ppcbh1 coding sequence was obtained using PCR cloning and the translated amino acid sequence of PpCBH1 showed up to 82% amino acid sequence identity to known Penicillium cellobiohydrolases.

  8. Three new records of penicillium species isolated from insect specimens in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Naeimi, Shahram; Adhikari, Mahesh; Yadav, Dil Raj; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2013-06-01

    Three Penicillium species have been isolated from insect specimens in Korea; Penicillium sp., P. steckii, and P. polonicum. Penicillium sp. (KNU12-3-2) was isolated from Lixus imperessiventris, while P. polonicum (KNU12-1-8) and Penicillium steckii (KNU12-2-9) were isolated from Muljarus japonicas and Meloe proscarabaeus, respectively. The identification was based on the morphological characteristics of the fungi and in internal transcribed spacer analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these three species of Penicillium from insects in Korea.

  9. Visual clone identification of Penicillium commune isolates.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Lund, Flemming; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-02-01

    A method for visual clone identification of Penicillium commune isolates was developed. The method is based on images of fungal colonies acquired after growth on a standard medium and involves a high degree of objectivity, which in future studies will make it possible for non-experts to perform a qualified identification of different species as well as clones within a species. A total of 77 P. commune isolates from a cheese dairy were 3-point inoculated on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. After incubation, the isolates were classified into groups containing the same genotype determined by DNA fingerprinting (AFLP). Each genotype also has a specific phenotype such as different colony colours. By careful image acquisition, colours were measured in a reproducible way. Prior to image analysis, each image was corrected with respect to colour, geometry and self-illumination, thereby gaining a set of directly comparable images. A method for automatic extraction of a given number of concentric regions was used. Using the positions of the regions, a number of relevant features--capturing colour and colour-texture from the surface of the fungal colonies--was extracted for further analysis. We introduced the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM) distance between the feature distributions to express the similarity between regions in two colonies, and to evaluate the overall (weighted) similarity. The nearest neighbour (NN) classification rule was used. On a dataset from 137 isolates, we obtained a "leave-one-out" cross-validation identification rate of approximately 93-98% compared with the result of DNA fingerprinting.

  10. Cell response of Antarctic and temperate strains of Penicillium spp. to different growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Gocheva, Yana G; Krumova, Ekaterina Tz; Slokoska, Lyudmila S; Miteva, Jeny G; Vassilev, Spassen V; Angelova, Maria B

    2006-11-01

    The effect of growth temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C) on the cell response was compared between two Antarctic Penicillium sp. strains (Penicillium sp. p14 and Penicillium sp. m12) and a European temperate strain, Penicillium sp. t35. According to the temperature profiles, Penicillium sp. p14 was identified as psychrophilic, while Penicillium sp. m12 and Penicillium sp. t35 as mesophilic fungi, respectively. The results demonstrated that the growth at low temperature does clearly induce oxidative stress events in all strains tested. Decreases in growth temperature below the optimal coincided with markedly enhanced protein carbonyl content, an indicator of oxidatively damaged proteins. Also, the cellular response to growth temperature in terms of reserve carbohydrate was determined. In the mesophilic strains there was essentially no enhancement of glycogen content. This was in contrast to the psychrophilic Penicillium sp. p14, which gradually accumulated glycogen in response to cold (10 degrees C) during the exponential phase. In addition, elevated endogenous levels of trehalose upon low-temperature stress were exhibited by all model microorganisms. Compared with temperate mesophilic Penicillium sp. t35, Antarctic strains (psychrophilic Penicillium sp. p14 and mesophilic Penicillium sp. m12) demonstrated a marked rise in activities of protective enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase at decreasing temperatures. The results suggested that low-temperature resistance is partially associated with enhanced scavenging systems.

  11. Synergistic effect of fungicides on resistant strains of Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Díaz Borrás, A; Vila Aguilar, R; Hernández Giménez, E

    1988-08-01

    In vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to study the inhibitory effect of mixtures of sodium orthophenylphenate, methyl-1-(butyl-carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole ('Benomyl') and sodium orthophenylphenate, 2-(4-thiazolil)-benzimidazole ('Thiabendazole') on growth of strains of Penicillium italicum and P. digitatum resistant to sodium orthophenylphenate, 'Benomyl' and 'Thiabendazole'. 'In vitro' tests showed a synergistic effect of the mixtures; 10 ppm of sodium orthophenylphenate and 10 ppm of the benzimidazolic compound in most cases resulted in complete growth inhibition. Navel oranges inoculated with P. italicum spores showed no damage after 7 days of incubation at 25 degrees C and 80-90% relative humidity when treated with a mixture of 100 ppm of sodium orthophenylphenate and 100 ppm of Thiabendazole.

  12. Sargassopenillines A–G, 6,6-Spiroketals from the Alga-Derived Fungi Penicillium thomii and Penicillium lividum

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravleva, Olesya I.; Sobolevskaya, Maria P.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Denisenko, Vladimir A.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Yurchenko, Ekaterina A.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2014-01-01

    Seven new 6,6-spiroketals, sargassopenillines A–G (1–7) were isolated from the alga-derived fungi Penicillium thomii KMM 4645 and Penicillium lividum KMM 4663. The structures of these metabolites were determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 5 and 6 were assigned by the modified Mosher’s method and by CD data. Sargassopenilline C (3) inhibited the transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factor AP-1 with an IC50 value of 15 µM. PMID:25501795

  13. Acidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N

    2014-05-16

    New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications.

  14. Biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hua; Li, Juan; Xu, Gong; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Yang-Guang; Yin, Ye-Lin; Liu, Hong-Min

    2010-12-12

    Microbial transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1) using Penicillium griseopurpureum Smith and Penicillium glabrum (Wehmer) Westling has been investigated. Neither fungi had been examined previously for steroid biotransformation. One novel metabolic product of DHEA (1) transformed with P. griseopurpureum Smith, 15α-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (5), was reported for the first time. The steroid products were assigned by interpretation of their spectral data such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and HR-MS spectroscopy. P. griseopurpureum Smith was proven to be remarkably efficient in oxidation of the DHEA (1) into androst-4-en-3,17-dione (2). The strain was also observed to yield different monooxygenases to introduce hydroxyl groups at C-7α, -14α, and -15α positions of steroids. Preference for Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to lactonize D ring and oxidation of the 3β-alcohol to the 3-ketone were observed in both incubations. The strain of P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling catalyzed the steroid 1 to generate both testololactone 3, and d-lactone product with 3β-hydroxy-5-en moiety 8. In addition, the strain promoted hydrogenation of the C-5 and C-6 positions, leading to the formation of 3β-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-5α-androstan-3,17-dione (9). The biotransformation pathways of DHEA (1) with P. glabrum (Wehmer) Westling and P. griseopurpureum Smith have been investigated, respectively. Possible metabolic pathways of DHEA (1) were proposed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  16. In-hospital source of airborne Penicillium species spores.

    PubMed Central

    Streifel, A J; Stevens, P P; Rhame, F S

    1987-01-01

    Between 16 July and 1 October 1984, prospectively monitored corridor air samples from a bone marrow transplant station revealed a marked increase in airborne thermotolerant Penicillium spores. Simultaneous cultures of outside air showed lower spore counts, which were unchanged before, during, and after the corridor outburst, establishing that the source was within the hospital. Although the corridor was equipped with recirculating high-efficiency particulate air filtration units which provided 16 air changes per h, the mean corridor air count rose to 64.4 thermotolerant Penicillium CFU/m3 during the outburst period. The in-hospital source was ultimately traced to rotting cabinet wood enclosing a sink with leaking pipes in the medication room. It produced approximately 5.5 X 10(5) thermotolerant Penicillium CFU/h. In a patient room supplied by corridor air, an in-room recirculating high-efficiency particulate air filter reduced the mean thermotolerant Penicillium count to 2.2 CFU/m3. No patient illness or colonization occurred as a result of this event, although the cabinet wood, after sterilization, was shown to sustain abundant growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Wet organic substrates should be avoided in hospital areas with immunosuppressed patients. Images PMID:3539981

  17. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  18. Antigen detection assay for identification of Penicillium marneffei infection.

    PubMed

    Chaiyaroj, Sansanee C; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Sirisinha, Stitaya; Watkins, Pramuan; Srinoulprasert, Yuttana

    2003-01-01

    Two recently produced monoclonal antibodies were used to develop an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei. The method was evaluated with 53 patients with culture-confirmed penicilliosis and 240 controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ELISA were 92.45, 97.5, and 96.59%, respectively.

  19. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  20. Use of chemosensitization to overcome fludioxonil resistance in Penicillium expansum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum mutants (FR2 and FR3) resistant to fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide, became susceptible through chemosensitization mediated by natural phenolics. Increased sensitivity of FR3 to oxidizing agents, compared to its parental strain (W2), indicated the oxidative stress respons...

  1. Mycophenolic acid production by Penicillium brevicompactum in two media.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, D L; Bartman, C D; Campbell, I M

    1979-08-01

    Penicillium brevicompactum produces mycophenolic acid as it grows vegetatively, not only on a simple medium where growth is slow but also on a richer medium where growth is less restricted. The implications of this finding on the association of fungal secondary metabolism with the idiophase in liquid and solid culture are discussed.

  2. [Regulation of the biosynthesis of extracellular phosphohydrolases in Penicillium brevicompactum].

    PubMed

    Ezhov, V A; Bezborodova, S I; Santsevich, N I

    1978-01-01

    The effect of certain metabolites of Penicillium brevi-compactum on the biosynthesis of exocellular ribonucleases and phosphomonoesterase was studied. Their synthesis was found to be inhibited by RNA and AMP, as well as by high concentrations of these enzymes in the medium. The mechanism which regulates the biosynthesis of exocellular phosphohydrolases by both phosphate and the enzymes is discussed.

  3. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  4. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  5. Formation of Diketopiperazines by Penicillium italicum Isolated from Oranges

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter M.; Kennedy, Barry P. C.; Harwig, Joost; Chen, Y-K.

    1974-01-01

    Prolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine and 12,13-dehydroprolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine, known metabolites of Aspergillus ustus, were produced in low yield by Penicillium italicum in liquid culture and on unsterilized orange peel. PMID:4441068

  6. HEMOLYSIN, CHRYSOLYSIN FROM PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM PROMOTES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some strains of Penicillium chrysogenum produce a proteinaceous hemolysin, chrysolysin, when incubated on sheep's blood agar at 37 �C but not at 23 �C. Chrysolysin is an aggregating protein composed of approximately 2 kDa monomers, contains one cysteine amino acid, and has an is...

  7. (GTG)5 microsatellite regions in citrinin-producing Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Di Conza, José Alejandro; Nepote, Andrea Fabiana; González, Ana María; Lurá, María Cristina

    2007-03-01

    Morphological and cultural characteristics, as well as biochemical properties, are the main criteria used in fungal taxonomy and in the standard description of fungi species. Sometimes, however, this criterion is difficult to apply due to fungal phenotypic variations. This is particularly true in the genus Penicillium. The aims of this work were to determine (GTG)5 microsatellite sequence in potentially citrinin-producing Penicillium strains and to investigate if this sequence could be useful to characterize such fungi. Penicillium citrinum Thom and Penicillium chrysogenum Thom were isolated from different foods. The identification of the isolates at species level was carried out according to classical taxonomy. The production of citrinin was determined by thin layer chromatography. This study proved that microsatellite regions exist as short repeated sequences in all tested strains. The patterns were very similar for all P. citrinum isolates and it was possible to group them in function of the quantity of citrinin produced. Yet, not similar clusters were obtained when P. chrysogenum isolates were analyzed.

  8. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.

  9. Penicillium menonorum, a new species related to P. pimiteouiense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium menonorum is described as a new monoverticillate, non-vesiculate species that resembles P. restrictum and P. pimiteouiense. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from four loci, P. menorum occurs in a clade with P. pimiteouiense, P. vinaceum, P. guttulosum, E. rubidurum,...

  10. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  11. Identification of geosmin as a volatile metabolite of Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed Central

    Mattheis, J P; Roberts, R G

    1992-01-01

    Cultures of Penicillium expansum produce a musty, earthy odor. Geosmin [1,10-trans-dimethyl-trans(9)-decalol] was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from headspace samples of P. expansum cultures. Olfactory comparison of P. expansum cultures with a geosmin standard indicated geosmin is the primary component of the odor associated with P. expansum. PMID:1444431

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Penicillium solitum NJ1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Hua, Sui Sheng T.; Yu, Jiujiang; Guo, Anping; Liu, Zhixin; Bennett, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium solitum is one of the most prevalent species causing postharvest decay of pomaceous fruits during storage. Here, we report the draft genome of P. solitum strain NJ1, received as a transfer of a strain originally identified as P. griseofulvum by classical means. PMID:27881535

  13. Diversity and enzyme activity of Penicillium species associated with macroalgae in Jeju Island.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Seobihn; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Ga Youn; Lim, Young Woon

    2016-10-01

    A total of 28 strains of 19 Penicillium species were isolated in a survey of extracellular enzyme-producing fungi from macroalgae along the coast of Jeju Island of Korea. Penicillium species were identified based on morphological and β-tubulin sequence analyses. In addition, the halo-tolerance and enzyme activity of all strains were evaluated. The diversity of Penicillium strains isolated from brown algae was higher than the diversity of strains isolated from green and red algae. The commonly isolated species were Penicillium antarcticum, P. bialowiezense, P. brevicompactum, P. crustosum, P. oxalicum, P. rubens, P. sumatrense, and P. terrigenum. While many strains showed endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and protease activity, no alginase activity was detected. There was a positive correlation between halo-tolerance and endoglucanase activity within Penicillium species. Among 19 Penicillium species, three species-P. kongii, P. olsonii, and P. viticola-have not been previously recorded in Korea.

  14. Patulin Accumulation In Apples During Storage by Penicillium Expansum and Penicillium Griseofulvum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Welke, Juliane Elisa; Hoeltz, Michele; Dottori, Horacio Alberto; Noll, Isa Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin accumulation. PMID:24031618

  15. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2012-10-09

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A)) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  16. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2008-11-11

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  17. [Study of splitting dinucleoside monophosphates by Penicillium brevicompactum RNAse].

    PubMed

    Krupianko, V I; Bezborodova, S I

    1976-08-01

    In studies of splitting of transferase substrates cytidylyl-(3' leeds to 5')-adenosine and adenylyl-(3'leds to to 5')-cytidine by Penicillium brevicompactum RNAase the pH-optimum activity of enzyme has been found to fall within the range of 4.7 +/- 0;1; temperature optimum--within 41 degrees--43 degrees C; adenine-nucleotides, their constituent components and polyphosphates display the properties of competitive inhibitors on splitting substrates and that amino-acid residues (presumably weakly- and strongly-protonated imidasole groups) function in the active site of this enzyme (pK 5.88 +/- 0,1 AND 6.6 +/- 0.1). A comparison of some physico-chemical and kinetic parameters of Penicillium breviocompactum RNAse to those of other nonspecific RNAses of fungi is made.

  18. Surface hydrophobicity of culture and water biofilm of Penicillium spp.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Virginia; Lima, Nelson

    2012-02-01

    Fungal surface hydrophobicity is involved in several functions in fungal growth and development. Water contact angles measurement has been used as a direct and simple approach for its characterisation in solid cultures. Microsphere adhesion assay is said to be the best method to assess cell hydrophobicity of filamentous fungi. This study aimed to apply these two methods to study hydrophobicity of Penicillium expansum and Penicillium brevicompactum grown as mycelial mats in solid culture, liquid culture and water biofilms. As result, both species in solid cultures were classified as hydrophobic with contact angles ≥90º, but in liquid cultures and water biofilms showed different levels of hydrophobicity when microsphere adhesion assay was applied. In addition, was found that biofilms have specific hydrophobic hyphae which may be involved in fungal ecological functions.

  19. Aspergillus and Penicillium identification using DNA sequences: barcode or MLST?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Stephen W

    2012-07-01

    Current methods in DNA technology can detect single nucleotide polymorphisms with measurable accuracy using several different approaches appropriate for different uses. If there are even single nucleotide differences that are invariant markers of the species, we can accomplish identification through rapid DNA-based tests. The question of whether we can reliably detect and identify species of Aspergillus and Penicillium turns mainly upon the completeness of our alpha taxonomy, our species concepts, and how well the available DNA data coincide with the taxonomic diversity in the family Trichocomaceae. No single gene is yet known that is invariant within species and variable between species as would be optimal for the barcode approach. Data are published that would make an MLST approach to isolate identification possible in the most well-studied clades of Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  20. Expanding the Species and Chemical Diversity of Penicillium Section Cinnamopurpurea

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Jurjević, Željko; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against human lung tumors. These isolates could provide leads in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25853891

  1. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2008-11-11

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  2. Isolation and properties of xyloglucanases of Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Sinitsyna, O A; Fedorova, E A; Pravilnikov, A G; Rozhkova, A M; Skomarovsky, A A; Matys, V Yu; Bubnova, T M; Okunev, O N; Vinetsky, Yu P; Sinitsyn, A P

    2010-01-01

    Using chromatographic technique, xyloglucanase (XG) A (25 kDa, pI 3.5, 12th glycosyl hydrolase family) was isolated from the enzyme complex secreted by the mycelial fungus Penicillium canescens, and xyloglucanases XG 25 (25 kDa, pI 4.1, 12th glycosyl hydrolase family) and XG 70 (70 kDa, pI 3.5, 74th glycosyl hydrolase family) were isolated from the enzyme complex of Penicillium verruculosum. Properties of the isolated enzymes (substrate specificity, optimal ranges of pH and temperature for enzyme activity and stability, effect of metal ions on catalytic activity) were compared with the properties of xyloglucanases XG 32 of Aspergillus japonicus, XG 78 of Chrysosporium lucknowense, and XG of Trichoderma reesei. The gene xegA encoding XG A of P. canescens was isolated, and the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein was determined.

  3. [Continuous cultivation of Penicillium brevicompactum that forms extracellular ribonucleases].

    PubMed

    Ezhov, V A; Luzina, I E

    1978-01-01

    Conditions for continuous cultivation of Penicillium brevi-compactum producing extra-cellular ribonucleases were studied. The two-step process of fermentation in the course of which the flow of the medium in the first fermenter was maintained at 0.054 hr-1, and in the second fermenter at 0.0527 hr-1, made it possible to produce 3--4 times more enzymes as compared to the batch culture.

  4. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, S; Houbraken, J; Samson, R A; Frisvad, J C; Christensen, M; Tuthill, D E; Koutaniemi, S; Hatakka, A; Lankinen, P

    2013-06-01

    Inulin is a reserve carbohydrate in about 15 % of the flowering plants and is accumulated in underground tubers of e.g. chicory, dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke. This carbohydrate consists of linear chains of β-(2,1)-linked fructose attached to a sucrose molecule. Inulinases hydrolyse inulin into fructose and glucose. To find efficient inulin degrading fungi, 126 fungal strains from the Fungal Biotechnology Culture Collection (FBCC) at University of Helsinki and 74 freshly isolated strains from soil around Jerusalem artichoke tubers were screened in liquid cultures with inulin as a sole source of carbon or ground Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which contains up to 19 % (fresh weight) inulin. Inulinase and invertase activities were assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and a freshly isolated Penicillium strain originating from agricultural soil (FBCC 1632) was the most efficient inulinase producer. When it was cultivated at pH 6 and 28 °C in 2 litre bioreactors using inulin and Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source, inulinase and invertase activities were on day 4 7.7 and 3.1 U mL(-1), respectively. The released sugars analysed by TLC and HPLC showed that considerable amounts of fructose were released while the levels of oligofructans were low, indicating an exoinulinase type of activity. Taxonomic study of the inulinase producing strain showed that this isolate represents a new species belonging in Penicillium section Lanata-divaricata. This new species produces a unique combination of extrolites and is phenotypically and phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium pulvillorum. We propose the name Penicillium subrubescens sp. nov. (CBS 132785(T) = FBCC 1632(T)) for this new species.

  5. Marine natural products sourced from marine-derived Penicillium fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Guang; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Marine micro-organisms have been proven to be a major source of marine natural products (MNPs) in recent years, in which filamentous fungi are a vital source of bioactive natural products for their large metagenomes and more complex genetic backgrounds. This review highlights the 390 new MNPs from marine-derived Penicillium fungi during 1991 to 2014. These new MNPs are categorized based on the environment sources of the fungal hosts and their bioactivities are summarized.

  6. Production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium roqueforti strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lafont, P; Debeaupuis, J P; Gaillardin, M; Payen, J

    1979-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Penicillium roqueforti Thom, isolated from blue-molded cheeses, were studied. In vitro, all of these strains produced mycophenolic acid, some on the order of 0.8 to 4 mg/g od dry culture. The greatest yields were obtained after 10 days of incubation of cultures at 15 degrees C. However, under some experimental conditions, mycophenolic acid was not alone responsible for the toxicity of culture extracts to chicken embryos. PMID:453818

  7. Characterization of allergens of Penicillium and Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Han, S H

    1998-09-01

    Penicillium and Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been identified to be important causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. However, little was known about allergens of these ubiquitous fungal species. Results from a survey conducted by us showed that P. citrinum was the most prevalent Penicillium species in the Taipei area. Characterization of allergens by SDS-PAGE-immunoblotting using sera from asthmatic patients showed that there was an IgE cross-reactivity among the 33 KDa group major allergens of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum. Results obtained from N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis suggest that the 33 KDa major allergens of P. citrinum and P. brevicompactum may be the alkaline serine proteinase of individual Penicillium species. In addition, our results suggest that the 34 KDa major allergen of A. oryzae is also an alkaline serine proteinase. IgE cross-reactivity between the major serine proteinase allergens of A. oryzae and P. citrinum has also been detected. Furthermore, results from cDNA cloning suggest that the 68 KDa allergen of P. notatum is a beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase. Lastly, a heat shock protein in the hsp70 family has also been identified as an allergen of P. citrinum. Results obtained in these studies will provide important basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of mould allergy.

  8. Production of multifunctional lipases by Penicillium verrucosum and Penicillium brevicompactum under solid state fermentation of babassu cake and castor meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marceli Fernandes; Freire, Denise M G; de Castro, Aline Machado; Di Luccio, Marco; Mazutti, Marcio A; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; Oliveira, Débora

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this work was to optimize lipase production, in terms of hydrolytic and esterification activities, by Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium verrucosum in solid state fermentation using agroindustrial residues as raw material. Maxima hydrolytic activities of 48.6 and 87.7 U/g were achieved when P. brevicompactum was cultured in babassu cake and castor meal, respectively. Higher esterification activities (around 244 U/g) were achieved when P. brevicompactum was used as microorganism and babassu cake as raw material. Different experimental conditions led to these promising values, clearly showing that no correlation can be attributed between hydrolytic and esterification activities. In spite of the several applications of lipases which are capable of catalyze synthesis reactions, only few works in this subject are presented in the literature, especially when low cost raw materials are used.

  9. Role of Penicillic Acid in the Phytotoxicity of Penicillium cyclopium and Penicillium canescens to the Germination of Corn Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Keromnes, Jacqueline; Thouvenot, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Penicillium cyclopium and Penicillium canescens cultures inhibited the germination of corn. The phytotoxic compound was isolated by solvent extraction and thin-layer chromatography on silica gel. The phytotoxin was identified as penicillic acid by mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy. Gas-liquid chromatography on a capillary glass column separated the two epimeric forms of penicillic acid. The maximum production of penicillic acid was obtained with P. cyclopium cultures grown at 25°C. The phytotoxicity of penicillic acid was manifested by its ability to alter the germination of corn. The percent inhibition of germination was directly proportional to the logarithm of the penicillic acid concentration. Growth of the main root was reduced 50% by concentrations of 500 μg/ml. Images PMID:16346759

  10. A high density COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array for identification and detection of species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Seifert, K A; Lévesque, C A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array based on 358 sequences, including 58 known and two new species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium, and 12 allied species. The array was robotically spotted at near microarray density on membranes. Species and clade-specific oligonucleotides were selected using the computer programs SigOli and Array Designer. Robotic spotting allowed 768 spots with duplicate sets of perfect match and the corresponding mismatch and positive control oligonucleotides, to be printed on 2 × 6 cm(2) nylon membranes. The array was validated with hybridizations between the array and digoxigenin (DIG)-labelled COX1 polymerase chain reaction amplicons from 70 pure DNA samples, and directly from environmental samples (cheese and plants) without culturing. DNA hybridization conditions were optimized, but undesired cross-reactions were detected frequently, reflecting the relatively high sequence similarity of the COX1 gene among Penicillium species. Approximately 60% of the perfect match oligonucleotides were rejected because of low specificity and 76 delivered useful group-specific or species-specific reactions and could be used for detecting certain species of Penicillium in environmental samples. In practice, the presence of weak signals on arrays exposed to amplicons from environmental samples, which could have represented weak detections or weak cross reactions, made interpretation difficult for over half of the oligonucleotides. DNA regions with very few single nucleotide polymorphisms or lacking insertions/deletions among closely related species are not ideal for oligonucleotide-based diagnostics, and supplementing the COX1-based array with oligonucleotides derived from additional genes would result in a more robust hierarchical identification system.

  11. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Filamentous Fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum 113, Isolated after Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Hua, Sui Sheng T.; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Liu, Zhixin; Bennett, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium sclerotiorum is a distinctive species within the genus Penicillium that usually produces vivid orange to red colonies, sometimes with colorful sclerotia. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of P. sclerotiorum strain 113, isolated in 2013 in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy from a flooded home in New Jersey. PMID:27881534

  12. PCPPI: a comprehensive database for the prediction of Penicillium-crop protein-protein interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold, is one of the most prevalent postharvest pathogens infecting a wide range of crops after harvest. In response, crops have evolved various defense systems to protect themselves against this and other pathogens. Penicillium-crop interaction is a m...

  13. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  14. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis, sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections caused by Penicillium spp. are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resoluti...

  15. Genome, transcriptome, and functional analyses of Penicillium expansum provide new insights into secondary metabolism and pathogenicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between secondary metabolism and infection in pathogenic fungi has remained largely elusive. Penicillium comprises a group of plant pathogens with varying host specificities and with the ability to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. The genomes of three Penicillium exp...

  16. Elucidation of the biochemical basis of specificity and pathogenicity of Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum is the most damaging postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. This Penicillium species is specific to citrus fruit and do not cause progressive decay in any other fresh fruit or vegetable crops. While the etiology of P. digitatum is well understood, the phys...

  17. Genome Sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1, Which Causes Postharvest Apple Decay

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangxi; Jurick, Wayne M.; Gaskins, Verneta L.; Yin, Yanbin; Bennett, Joan W.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium species cause postharvest decay, commonly known as blue mold, in pome fruits, such as apples and pears. To devise novel strategies to prevent and reduce economic losses during storage, the genome sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1 is reported here for the first time. PMID:27174276

  18. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Postharvest Fungus Penicillium expansum R21

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuliang; Hua, Sui Sheng T.; Yu, Jiujiang; Bu, Lijing; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Bennett, Joan W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears, and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium. This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, which was isolated from a red delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsylvania. PMID:28209811

  19. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Postharvest Fungus Penicillium expansum R21.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Yuliang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Yu, Jiujiang; Bu, Lijing; Pennerman, Kayla K; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Bennett, Joan W

    2017-02-16

    Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears, and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, which was isolated from a red delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsylvania.

  20. Multi-Locus Analysis of a Citreoviridin-Producing Isolate Previously Identified as Penicillium NRRL 13013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cole et al (1981) reported a citreoviridin-producing isolate of Penicillium charlesii (NRRL 13013) from molded pecans. Wicklow later identified it as a variant of Penicillium citreoviride, noting that it produced sclerotia, although the species as a whole is not known to do so. We sequenced the IT...

  1. Augmenting antifungal activity of oxidizing agent with kojic acid: Control of Penicillium strains infecting crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative treatment is a strategy for preventing Penicillium contamination in foods or crops. Antifungal efficacy of oxidant [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], biotic effector [kojic acid (KA)] and abiotic stress (heat), alone or in combination, was investigated in Penicillium. The levels of antifungal int...

  2. Genetic and Morphological Diversity of the Genus Penicillium From Mazandaran and Tehran Provinces, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abastabar, Mahdi; Mirhendi, Hossein; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Shokohi, Tahereh; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Badali, Hamid; Moazeni, Maryam; Haghani, Iman; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Akhtari, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The genus Penicillium contains a large number of ubiquitous environmental taxa, of which some species are clinically important. Identification of Penicillium down to the species level is currently based on polyphasic criteria, including phenotypic features and genetic markers. Biodiversity of the genus Penicillium from Mazandaran and Tehran provinces has not been described. Objectives: The current paper focused on the environmental biodiversity of Penicillium isolates within some areas of Mazandaran and Tehran provinces, based on morphological traits and the molecular data from partial sequence of the β-tubulin (BT2) gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 strains were isolated from the environment and investigated using morphological tests and sequencing of BT2, in order to characterize the spectrum of the Penicillium species. Results: Sequence analysis of BT2 and morphological criteria of 20 strains representative of 10 species showed that Penicillium chrysogenum was the most prevalent species (n = 6), followed by P. polonicum (n = 3), P. glabrum (n = 2), P. palitans (n = 2), P. melanoconidium (n = 2), and other species, including P. expansum, P. canescense, P. griseofulvum, P. italicum, and P. raistrickii with one case each. Conclusions: It was shown that partial β-tubulin sequence, as a reliable genetic target, supported specific morphological criteria for identification of the Penicillium species. Like other assessments throughout the world, P. chrysogenum remains the most frequent environmental Penicillium species in Mazandaran and Tehran Provinces. PMID:27099684

  3. Genome sequencing and analyses of the postharvest fungus Penicillium expansum R21

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium. This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, a strain isolated from a Red Delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsy...

  4. Blue mold to genomics and beyond: Insights into the biology and virulence of phytopathogenic Penicillium species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pomes, mainly apples and pears, are economically important fruits produced and consumed worldwide. The United States is the second largest producer of pome fruit in the world behind China. Penicillium expansum and other Penicillium spp. are the most common fungal plant pathogens that cause blue mold...

  5. Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Stephen W; Pérez, Jeanneth; Vega, Fernando E; Infante, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and large subunit rDNA were sequenced and compared to determine the phylogenetic position of this species. It is most closely related to Penicillium adametzii. Penicillium brocae has only been found in association with the coffee berry borer and is one of several fungi that grow in coffee berry borer galleries. Penicillium brocae may provide the exogenous sterols necessary for the coffee berry borer's development and thus be mutualistically associated with the insect.

  6. A taxonomic and phylogenetic revision of the Penicillium sclerotiorum complex

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, K.G.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological concept of Penicillium sclerotiorum (subgenus Aspergilloides) includes strains with monoverticillate, vesiculate conidiophores, and vivid orange to red colony colours, with colourful sclerotia sometimes produced. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), β-tubulin (benA), translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α), and calmodulin (cmd), reveal that the P. sclerotiorum morphospecies is a complex of seven phylogenetically distinct species, three of which were recently described, namely P. guanacastense, P. mallochii, and P. viticola. Three previously unidentified species are described here as P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. johnkrugii. The phylogenetic species are morphologically similar, but differ in combinations of colony characters, sclerotium production, conidiophore stipe roughening and branching, and conidial shape. Ecological characters and differences in geographical distribution further characterise some of the species, but increased sampling is necessary to confirm these differences. The fungal DNA barcode, the ITS, and the animal DNA barcode, cox1, have lower species resolving ability in our phylogenetic analyses, but still allow identification of all the species. Tef1-α and cmd were superior in providing fully resolved, statistically well-supported phylogenetic trees for this species complex, whereas benA resolved all species but had some issues with paraphyly. Penicillium adametzioides and P. multicolor, considered synonyms of P. sclerotiorum by some previous authors, do not belong to the P. sclerotiorum complex. Taxonomic novelties: New species: Penicillium cainii K.G. Rivera, Malloch & Seifert, P. jacksonii K.G. Rivera, Houbraken & Seifert, P. johnkrugii K.G. Rivera, Houbraken & Seifert. PMID:22308047

  7. Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium brevicompactum on Solid Media

    PubMed Central

    Bartman, C. D.; Doerfler, D. L.; Bird, B. A.; Remaley, A. T.; Peace, J. N.; Campbell, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    When grown on Czapek-Dox agar, Penicillium brevicompactum produced mycophenolic acid after a vegetative mycelium had been formed and as aerial hyphae were developing. Nutrients were still plenteous in the agar when the synthesis began. If aerial hyphal development was prevented by placing a dialysis membrane over the growing fungus, no mycophenolic acid was produced. When the dialysis membrane was peeled back and, as a consequence, production of aerial hyphae began, mycophenolic acid biosynthesis was observed. We concluded that mycophenolic acid was produced only by P. brevicompactum colonies that possessed an aerial mycelium. PMID:16345733

  8. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Marta R; Larsen, Thomas O; Peterson, Bent O; Duus, Jens O; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2002-10-23

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES). Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus fruits. Their structural elucidation is described on the basis of their spectroscopic data, including those from 2D NMR experiments. The analysis of the biomass sterols led to the identification of 8-12. Fungal infection on the natural substrates induced the release of citrus monoterpenes together with fungal volatiles. The host-pathogen interaction in nature and the possible biological role of citrus volatiles are also discussed.

  9. Production of verruculogen by Penicillium estinogenum in stirred fermenters.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G; Shaw, B I

    1980-04-01

    A spectrofluorometric assay for the estimation of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen in crude mycelial extract has been devised and used to determine concentrations as low as 0.2 microgram ml-1. Verruculogen production by Penicillium estinogenum has been extended from surface culture to submerged culture in 60 1 stirred fermenters, in which the maximum cell-associated mycotoxin yield [5 mg (100 ml culture)-1] was obtained within 7 d. It was found necessary to supplement the medium (Czapek Dox broth plus 0.5% yeast extract) with calcium chloride (2%) to induce profuse sporulation (2 X 10(7) conidia ml-1).

  10. An antifungal tetrapeptide from the culture of Penicillium canescens.

    PubMed

    Bertinetti, Brenda V; Peña, Nora I; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2009-08-01

    A new tetrapeptide D-Phe-L-Val-D-Val-L-Tyr (1), along with three known diketopiperazines and pseurotin A, were isolated from the culture of Penicillium canescens, collected from pollen from beehives, in a screening for new antimicrobial products from unexplored sources. The structure of the tetrapeptide, which exhibits antifungal activity comparable with that of the commercial product benomyl against the soybean phytopathogen Fusarium virguliforme, was determined by spectroscopic (2D-NMR, and MS and MS/MS) and chemical methods, and the sequence was confirmed by comparison with authentic synthetic isomeric peptides.

  11. [Biological activity of Penicillium sp. 10-51 exometabolites].

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ia I; Zaĭchenko, A M; Tsyganenko, E S

    2012-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography (silica gel "L" II kind of activity 100/160 mkm) of the chloroform extract from the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. 10-51 gave two fractions (chloroform and chloroform-acetone, 5:1) having biological activity. Recrystallization yielded two compounds. On the basis of physico-chemical and spectral data these compounds were identified as curvularin and hydroxycurvularin, which have a large spectrum of biological action as to bacteria, yeast, blue-green algae and phytopathogenic micromycetes.

  12. Cyclohexanone derivatives with cytotoxicity from the fungus Penicillium commune.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-zhi; Ren, Jin-wei; Tang, Jin-shan; Liu, Xing-zhong; Che, Yong-sheng; Yao, Xin-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Four new cyclohexanone derivatives (2-5) and one known analog, (-)-Palitantin (1) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Penicillium commune, a fungal strain of low-temperature habitats. The structures of 2-5 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of 2 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that 3-5 were deduced via the CD data. Cytotoxicities of 2-5 against five human carcinoma cell lines (Hela, A549, MCF7, HCT116, T24) were evaluated.

  13. Production of Naphthoquinone Mycotoxins and Taxonomy of Penicillium viridicatum

    PubMed Central

    Ciegler, A.; Lee, L. S.; Dunn, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Groups I and II of Penicillium viridicatum were further differentiated on the basis of synthesis of two mycotoxins, xanthomegnin and viomellein. Strains previously classified as group II produced these pigments, whereas those in group I did not. These napthoquinone pigments were quantitated by thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography. A new mobile phase of toluene and acetic acid effected a baseline separation of the two components. It is proposed that such biochemical distinctions be incorporated into an artificial taxonomic scheme of use to nontaxonomists. Images PMID:16345843

  14. Penicillium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, J C; Samson, R A; Rassing, B R; van der Horst, M I; van Rijn, F T; Stark, J

    1997-08-01

    The new species Penicillium discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol, cyclopeptin, dehydrocyclopeptin, viridicatin and viridicatol. It also produces the mouldy smelling compounds geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol, and a series of specific orange to red pigments on yeast extract sucrose agar, hence the epithet discolor. P. discolor resembles P. echinulatum morphologically but on basis of the secondary metabolites is also related to P. expansum, P. solitum and P. crustosum.

  15. Selective cytotoxic eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes from Penicillium citreonigrum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Hua; Goto, Masuo; Hsieh, Kan-Yen; Yuan, Bo; Zhao, Yu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    One new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene (1, citreopenin) was isolated from Penicillium citreonigrum (HQ738282), and the structure was elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation (CCDC 1030588). Compound 1 showed weak activity against KB-VIN (IC50 = 11.0 ± 0.156 μM), while the known compound 3 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (IC50 = 5.42 ± 0.167 μM).

  16. Dihydroisocoumarins from the Mangrove-Derived Fungus Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Lei; Zhou, Xue-Ming; Bai, Meng; Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhao, Yan-Lei; Luo, You-Ping; Niu, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Guang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Three new dihydroisocoumarin penicimarins G–I (1–3), together with one known dihydroisocoumarin (4) and three known meroterpenoids (5–7), were obtained from a fungus Penicillium citrinum isolated from the mangrove Bruguiera sexangula var. rhynchopetala collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were determined by comparison of their circular dichroism (CD) spectra with the literature. All compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities and cytotoxic activities. PMID:27735855

  17. Genetics of ergoline alkaloid formation in Penicillium roquefortii.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S L; Robbers, J E

    1985-01-01

    Auxotrophic, spore color, and alkaloid biosynthetic mutants of Penicillium roquefortii were selected after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment. Diploids were obtained via protoplast fusion techniques, and the segregants from a diploid were genetically analyzed. The data demonstrated the potential of parasexual recombination in this organism. Evidence was obtained which suggests that the his and sts (sensitivity to Sulfatase) genes may be linked. The genetic information obtained in this study can serve as a starting point for further mapping of genes in P. roquefortii, and indications are that this organism may serve as a promising vehicle for the genetic study of the formation of ergoline alkaloids. PMID:4073893

  18. Detection of Penicillium expansum by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Marek, Patrick; Annamalai, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2003-12-31

    Penicillium expansum is a major causative agent of postharvest decay in a variety of fruits, including apples, peaches, nectarines, and cherries. It causes significant economic losses to the fruit industry and is also of potential public health significance, since it produces patulin, a mycotoxin known to cause harmful effects in animals. Rapid and specific detection of P. expansum is important for ensuring microbiological quality and safety of fruits and fruit juices. The traditional methods for identification of P. expansum are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, we report a polymerase chain reaction utilizing primers based on the polygalacturonase gene of P. expansum. The PCR amplified a 404-bp DNA product from all the P. expansum isolates tested, but not in other common foodborne Penicillium species and Escherichia coli. Experiments to determine the sensitivity of the PCR indicated that it can detect the DNA equivalent from as low as 25 spores of P. expansum. The PCR could potentially be used as a rapid tool for screening fruits for the presence of P. expansum.

  19. Production and catabolite repression of Penicillium italicum beta-glucanases.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, T; Villanueva, J R; Nombela, C

    1977-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium italicum, grown in a defined liquid medium, produced beta-1,3-glucanase, which remained essentially bound to the cells, and beta-1,6-glucanase, an essentially extracellular enzyme. When glucose was depleted from the medium, when a limited concentration of glucose (0.2%) was maintained, or when the carbon source was galactose (3%) or lactose (3%), a significant increase in the specific activity of beta-1,3-glucanase, in cell extracts, took place. This was paralleled by a very slow rate of growth, and under glucose limitation, the appearance of beta-1,3-glucanase in the medium was also observed. On the other hand, when an excess of glucose, fructose, or sucrose was present, the specific activity remained constant and active growth was promoted. Laminarin, cellobiose, gentiobiose, and isolated Penicillium italicum walls were not capable of significantly inducing beta-1,3-glucanase synthesis to a level beyond that attained by glucose limitation. A similar behavior was observed for beta-1,6-glucanase. beta-1,3-Glucanase and beta-1,6-glucanase are therefore constitutive enzymes subjected to catabolite repression. The results are discussed in the context of the possible functions that have been suggested for glucanases and related enzymes. PMID:830646

  20. Molecular basis for mycophenolic acid biosynthesis in Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Regueira, Torsten Bak; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mortensen, Uffe H; Hertweck, Christian; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active ingredient in the increasingly important immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals CellCept (Roche) and Myfortic (Novartis). Despite the long history of MPA, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis has remained enigmatic. Here we report the discovery of a polyketide synthase (PKS), MpaC, which we successfully characterized and identified as responsible for MPA production in Penicillium brevicompactum. mpaC resides in what most likely is a 25-kb gene cluster in the genome of Penicillium brevicompactum. The gene cluster was successfully localized by targeting putative resistance genes, in this case an additional copy of the gene encoding IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We report the cloning, sequencing, and the functional characterization of the MPA biosynthesis gene cluster by deletion of the polyketide synthase gene mpaC of P. brevicompactum and bioinformatic analyses. As expected, the gene deletion completely abolished MPA production as well as production of several other metabolites derived from the MPA biosynthesis pathway of P. brevicompactum. Our work sets the stage for engineering the production of MPA and analogues through metabolic engineering.

  1. Penicillium species endophytic in coffee plants and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Posada, Francisco; Peterson, Stephen W; Gianfagna, Thomas J; Chaves, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Tissues from Coffea arabica, C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. liberica collected in Colombia, Hawaii and at a local plant nursery in Maryland were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized tissues including roots, leaves, stems and various berry parts were plated on yeast-malt agar. DNA was extracted from a set of isolates visually recognized as Penicillium, and the internal transcribed spacer region and partial LSU-rDNA was amplified and sequenced. Comparison of DNA sequences with GenBank and unpublished sequences revealed the presence of 11 known Penicillium species: P. brevicompactum, P. brocae, P. cecidicola, P. citrinum, P. coffeae, P. crustosum, P. janthinellum, P. olsonii, P. oxalicum, P. sclerotiorum and P. steckii as well as two possibly undescribed species near P. diversum and P. roseopurpureum. Ochratoxin A was produced by only four isolates, one isolate each of P. brevicompactum, P. crustosum, P. olsonii and P. oxalicum. The role these endophytes play in the biology of the coffee plant remains enigmatic.

  2. Massive gene swamping among cheese-making Penicillium fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Aguileta, Gabriela; de Vienne, Damien M.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfers (HGT), i.e., the transmission of genetic material between species not directly attributable to meiotic gene exchange, have long been acknowledged as a major driver of prokaryotic evolution and is increasingly recognized as an important source of adaptation in eukaryotes. In fungi in particular, many convincing examples of HGT have been reported to confer selective advantages on the recipient fungal host, either promoting fungal pathogenicity on plants or increasing their toxicity by the acquisition of secondary metabolic clusters, resulting in adaptation to new niches and in some cases eventually even in speciation. These horizontal gene transfers involve single genes, complete metabolic pathways or even entire chromosomes. A recent study has uncovered multiple recent horizontal transfers of a 575 kb genomic island in cheese Penicillium fungi, representing ca. 2% of the Penicillium roqueforti’s genome, that may confer selective advantage in the competing cheese environment where bacteria and fungi occur. Novel phylogenomic methods are being developed, revealing massive HGT among fungi. Altogether, these recent studies indicate that HGT is a crucial mechanism of rapid adaptation, even among eukaryotes.

  3. New promoters for strain engineering of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Polli, Fabiola; Meijrink, Ben; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2016-04-01

    Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium are widely used as hosts for the industrial products such as proteins and secondary metabolites. Although filamentous fungi are versatile in recognizing transcriptional and translational elements present in genes from other filamentous fungal species, only few promoters have been applied and compared in performance so far in Penicillium chrysogenum. Therefore, a set of homologous and heterologous promoters were tested in a reporter system to obtain a set of potential different strengths. Through in vivo homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, twelve Aspergillus niger and P. chrysogenum promoter-reporter pathways were constructed that drive the expression of green fluorescent protein while concurrent expression of the red fluorescent protein was used as an internal standard and placed under control of the PcPAF promoter. The pathways were integrated into the genome of P. chrysogenum and tested using the BioLector system for fermentation. Reporter gene expression was monitored during growth and classified according to promoter strength and expression profile. A set of novel promoters was obtained that can be used to tune the expression of target genes in future strain engineering programs.

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the adhesion time of Penicillium spores to cedar wood surface.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Elabed; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Abdellah, Houari; Hassan, Latrache

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the adhesion of 4 Penicillium strains (Penicillium granulatum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune and Penicillium chrysogenum) on cedar wood was examined qualitatively and quantitatively by using the extended DLVO (XDLVO) approach and the environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM) technique. A comparison between the XDLVO theories and the ESEM technique was also investigated. The adhesion tests revealed that P. chrysogenum was not able to adhere on the cedar wood substrata, as predicted by the XDLVO approach. We have also found by ESEM that the three Penicillium strains (P. granulatum, P. crustosum, P. commune) adhered on wood, as not predicted theoretically. Moreover, the time of adhesion (3 h and 24 h) was used not only to compare the capacity of adhesion according to contact time but also to explain the discrepancies between the XDLVO approach prediction and the adhesion experiments. A positive relationship between the XDLVO approach and adhesion experiments has been observed after 3h of adhesion. In contrast, a contradiction between the XDLVO predictions and the adhesion test results has been noted after 24h of adhesion of Penicillium strains to the wood surface.

  5. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro.

  6. Penicillium kongii, a new terverticillate species isolated from plant leaves in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    A new Penicillium species isolated from plant leaves, characterized by restricted growth, terverticillate penicilli, ovoid to ellipsoidal conidia and a red soluble pigment on yeast extract sucrose agar is reported here. Penicillium kongii sp. nov. belongs to subgenus Penicillium section Brevicompacta and is morphologically similar to P. bialowiezense and P. brevicompactum. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from calmodulin gene, β-tubulin gene and rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 show that P. kongii forms a distinctive clade.

  7. Production of Penicillin by Fungi Growing on Food Products: Identification of a Complete Penicillin Gene Cluster in Penicillium griseofulvum and a Truncated Cluster in Penicillium verrucosum

    PubMed Central

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martín, Juan F.

    2002-01-01

    Mycobiota growing on food is often beneficial for the ripening and development of the specific flavor characteristics of the product, but it can also be harmful due to the production of undesirable compounds such as mycotoxins or antibiotics. Some of the fungi most frequently isolated from fermented and cured meat products such as Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium nalgiovense are known penicillin producers; the latter has been shown to be able to produce penicillin when growing on the surface of meat products and secrete it to the medium. The presence of penicillin in food must be avoided, since it can lead to allergic reactions and the arising of penicillin resistance in human-pathogenic bacteria. In this article we describe a study of the penicillin production ability among fungi of the genus Penicillium that are used as starters for cheese and meat products or that are frequently isolated from food products. Penicillium griseofulvum was found to be a new penicillin producer and to have a penicillin gene cluster similar to that of Penicillium chrysogenum. No other species among the studied fungi were found to produce penicillin or to possess the penicillin biosynthetic genes, except P. verrucosum, which contains the pcbAB gene (as shown by hybridization and PCR cloning of fragments of the gene) but lacks pcbC and penDE. Antibacterial activities due to the production of secondary metabolites other than penicillin were observed in some fungi. PMID:11872470

  8. Production of penicillin by fungi growing on food products: identification of a complete penicillin gene cluster in Penicillium griseofulvum and a truncated cluster in Penicillium verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martín, Juan F

    2002-03-01

    Mycobiota growing on food is often beneficial for the ripening and development of the specific flavor characteristics of the product, but it can also be harmful due to the production of undesirable compounds such as mycotoxins or antibiotics. Some of the fungi most frequently isolated from fermented and cured meat products such as Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium nalgiovense are known penicillin producers; the latter has been shown to be able to produce penicillin when growing on the surface of meat products and secrete it to the medium. The presence of penicillin in food must be avoided, since it can lead to allergic reactions and the arising of penicillin resistance in human-pathogenic bacteria. In this article we describe a study of the penicillin production ability among fungi of the genus Penicillium that are used as starters for cheese and meat products or that are frequently isolated from food products. Penicillium griseofulvum was found to be a new penicillin producer and to have a penicillin gene cluster similar to that of Penicillium chrysogenum. No other species among the studied fungi were found to produce penicillin or to possess the penicillin biosynthetic genes, except P. verrucosum, which contains the pcbAB gene (as shown by hybridization and PCR cloning of fragments of the gene) but lacks pcbC and penDE. Antibacterial activities due to the production of secondary metabolites other than penicillin were observed in some fungi.

  9. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The taxonomic history of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting its relationship to Talaromyces. The phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was studied by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ...

  10. Molecular identification of species from the Penicillium roqueforti group associated with spoiled animal feed.

    PubMed

    Boysen, M E; Jacobsson, K G; Schnürer, J

    2000-04-01

    The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from Sweden, previously identified by morphology as P. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Identities were confirmed with random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and secondary metabolite profiles. Of these isolates, 48 were P. roqueforti, 2 were P. paneum, and 2 were Penicillium expansum. No P. carneum isolates were found. The three species produce different mycotoxins, but no obvious relationship between mold and animal disease was detected, based on medical records. P. roqueforti appears to dominate in silage, but the ecological and toxicological importance of P. carneum and P. paneum as feed spoilage fungi is not clear. This is the first report of P. expansum in silage.

  11. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth.

  12. [Nitrogen-containing mycotoxins of fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species infesting grain and its products].

    PubMed

    Reshetilova, T A; Vinokurova, N G; L'vova, L S

    1993-01-01

    The review summarizes the literature data on distribution of nitrogen-containing mycotoxins (alkaloids) among Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi infesting grain and products of grain processing. Particular attention in given to clavins (ergotalkaloids) and tremorgens (roquefortine, verruculogen, penitrems).

  13. Dominant selectable markers for Penicillium spp. transformation and gene function studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium spp. has been genetically manipulated and gene function studies have utilized single gene deletion strains for phenotypic analysis. Fungal transformation experiments have relied on hygromycin and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as the main dominant selectable marker (DSM) system in P...

  14. Toxicity to Chicks of Aspergillus and Penicillium Species Isolated from Moldy Pecans 1

    PubMed Central

    Doupnik, Ben; Bell, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus chevalieri, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, and Penicillium funiculosum and complexes of P. citrinum-P. implicatum isolated from moldy pecan meats were toxic to chicks. PMID:5564681

  15. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Penicillium expansum in a home environment.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Jung, K S; Kim, S O; Kim, S J

    1994-04-01

    An episode of fever, cough, shortness of breath and leucocytosis developed in a 31-year-old atopic housewife from mould exposure in her home environment is evaluated. A chest radiograph revealed diffuse tiny nodular infiltrations in both whole lung fields. Spirometry revealed a severe restrictive type of ventilation impairment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed an increased lymphocyte count with reversed CD4+/CD8+ ratio and transbronchial lung biopsy showed markedly increased lymphocytic infiltration in alveolar septa. Fungal cultures in the air of her home were positive for Penicillium expansum and other fungi. Double immunodiffusion test with the patient's serum showed two precipitin bands to P. expansum antigens. Her symptoms, abnormal findings of radiograph, and spirometric abnormalities disappeared after 2 months' avoidance. The serum precipitin disappeared after 1 month's avoidance. This study indicates that the patient had hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) on exposure to P. expansum in her home environment.

  16. Molecular identification of Penicillium marneffei using rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiufeng; Najafzadeh, M J; Zhang, Junmin; Vicente, V A; Xi, Liyan; de Hoog, G S

    2011-11-01

    Penicillium marneffei is the aetiological agent of a severe systemic disease in immunocompromised hosts in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we evaluated an identification method based on rolling circle amplification (RCA) enabling rapid and specific detection of single nucleotide differences. Three padlock probes were designed on the basis of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS) of the rRNA operon. One of these (PmPL1) allowed specific amplification of P. marneffei DNA within one working day using a newly conceived protocol, while no cross-reactivity was observed with other fungi including related biverticillate penicillia. Amplification products can be detected by electrophoresis on agarose gel. The method provides a powerful tool for a rapid specific identification of P. marneffei in the clinical laboratory and has potential for ecological studies.

  17. Kinetically controlled drug resistance: how Penicillium brevicompactum survives mycophenolic acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin E; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-11-25

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E-XMP*. P. brevicompactum (Pb) contains two MPA-resistant IMPDHs, PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B, which are 17- and 10(3)-fold more resistant to MPA than typically observed. Surprisingly, the active sites of these resistant enzymes are essentially identical to those of MPA-sensitive enzymes, so the mechanistic basis of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate.

  18. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  19. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  20. Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by Penicillium biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Niu; Xue Shu Xu; Jian Hua Wang . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Volesky, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-09-05

    The removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption on nonliving Penicillium chrysogenum biomass was studied. Biosorption of the Pb[sup +2] ion was strongly affected by pH. Within a pH range of 4 to 5, the saturated sorption uptake of Pb[sup +2] was 116 mg/g dry biomass, higher than that of activated charcoal and some other microorganisms. At pH 4.5, P. chrysogenum biomass exhibited selectivity for Pb[sup +2] over other metal ions such as Cd[sup +2], Cu[sup +2], Zn [sup +2], and As[sub +3]. Sorption preference for metals decreased in the following order: Pb > Cd > Cu > Zn > As. The sorption uptake of Pb[sup +2] remained unchanged in the presence of Cu[sup +2] and As [sup +3], it decreased in the presence of Zn[sup +2], and increased in the presence of Cd[sup +2].

  1. Oxidation mechanism of Penicillium digitatum spores through neutral oxygen radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores through neutral oxygen species, the spores were treated with an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source and observed in-situ using a fluorescent confocal-laser microscope. The treated spores were stained with two fluorescent dyes, 1,1‧-dioctadecyl-3,3,Y,3‧-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). The intracellular organelles as well as the cell membranes in the spores treated with the oxygen radical source were stained with DiI without a major morphological change of the membranes. DPPP staining revealed that the organelles were oxidized by the oxygen radical treatment. These results suggest that neutral oxygen species, especially atomic oxygen, induce a minor structural change or functional inhibition of cell membranes, which leads to the oxidation of the intracellular organelles through the penetration of reactive oxygen species into the cell.

  2. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-06-20

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

  3. The paf gene product modulates asexual development in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Sigl, Claudia; Zadra, Ivo; Pócsi, Istvan; Marx, Florentine

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum.

  4. Compartmentalization in penicillin G biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum PQ-96.

    PubMed

    Kurzątkowski, Wiesław; Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of organelles in the sub-apical productive non-growing vacuolated hyphal cells of the high- and the low-penicillin-pro- ducing strains Penicillium chrysogenum was compared using transmission electron microscopy. In the productive cells of the high-yielding strain the endoplasmic reticulum and the polyribosomes with associated peroxisomes are frequently arranged at the periphery of the cytoplasm and around the vacuoles. At the high activity of penicillin G biosynthesis the immuno-label of the cytosolic isopenicillin N synthase is concentrated at the polyribosomes arranged in the peripheral cytoplasm and along the tonoplast as well as around the peroxisomes. On the basis of the obtained results the compartmentalization of the pathway of penicillin G biosymthesis is discussed. The obtained results support the phenylacetic acid detoxification hypothesis of penicillin G biosynthesis.

  5. Autophagy deficiency promotes beta-lactam production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Kiel, Jan A K W; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the significance of autophagy in the production of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin (PEN) by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. In this fungus PEN production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. We demonstrate that under PEN-producing conditions significant amounts of cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins are degraded via autophagy. Morphological analysis, based on electron and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that this phenomenon might contribute to progressive deterioration of late subapical cells. We show that deletion of the P. chrysogenum ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serine-threonine kinase atg1 results in impairment of autophagy. In P. chrysogenum atg1 cells, a distinct delay in cell degeneration is observed relative to wild-type cells. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the enzyme levels of the PEN biosynthetic pathway and enhanced production levels of this antibacterial compound.

  6. Improving penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by glyoxalase overproduction.

    PubMed

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2013-07-01

    Genetic engineering of fungal cell factories mainly focuses on manipulating enzymes of the product pathway or primary metabolism. However, despite the use of strong promoters or strains containing the genes of interest in multiple copies, the desired strongly enhanced enzyme levels are often not obtained. Here we present a novel strategy to improve penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum by reducing reactive and toxic metabolic by-products, 2-oxoaldehydes. This was achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding glyoxalase I and II, which resulted in a 10% increase in penicillin titers relative to the control strain. The protein levels of two key enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, were increased in the glyoxalase transformants, whereas their transcript levels remained unaltered. These results suggest that directed intracellular reduction of 2-oxoaldehydes prolongs the functional lifetime of these enzymes.

  7. Simulated microgravity inhibits cell wall regeneration of Penicillium decumbens protoplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z. C.; Rong, L.; Zhuang, F. Y.; Fan, Y. B.

    2010-09-01

    This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 × 10 5 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel mycovirus from Penicillium digitatum

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingfu; Zhu, Ying; Yuan, Yongze; Wang, Shengqiang; Liu, Jing; Liu, Deli

    2016-07-15

    A novel double-stranded RNA virus designated Penicillium digitatum virus 1 (PdV1) was isolated from the citrus fruit rot pathogen P. digitatum (HS-RH1). The full-length cDNA sequence of the dsRNA/PdV1 (5211 bp) possesses two partially overlapping open reading frames, which encode a coat protein (CP) and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of the RdRp and CP indicated that PdV1 tentatively belongs to the genus Victorivirus in the Totiviridae family. Electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles purified from the peak fraction of sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed spherical particles ~35 nm in diameter. Transfection experiments with purified virions indicated that PdV1 could reduce the vegetative growth and virulence of P. digitatum strain HS-F6. In summary, we report the first isolation and characterization of a mycovirus from P. digitatum that contributes to the hypovirulence phenotypes of the host strain. - Highlights: • A novel victorivirus designated Penicillium digitatum virus 1 (PdV1) was isolated fromP. digitatum. • The dsRNA genome of PdV1 are 5211 bp long, two ORFs encoding CP and RdRp, and are encased in virions of ~35 nm in diameter. • PdV1 infection led to hypovirulent effect on P. digitatum. PdV1 may potentially be used for citrus green mold biocontrol. • Our study provides a research basis for establishing a model system for the study of P. digitatum–mycovirus interactions.

  9. Penicillium populations in dry-cured ham manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Paola; Pietri, V Amedeo; Giorni, Paola; Formenti, Silvia; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Toscani, Tania; Virgili, Roberta; Kozakiewicz, Zofia

    2007-04-01

    Seven ham manufacturing plants were sampled for 1 year to assess the mycoflora present in the air and on hams, with special attention given to potential mycotoxin producers. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in the ripening rooms. Maturing rooms held hams from 2 to 3 through 6 to 7 ripening months, and aging rooms held hams for the following 6 to 7 months, until the 14-month ripening point, when they were ready for the market. Mean temperatures and relative humidities registered during the study were 14.9 degrees C and 62.4%, respectively, in maturing rooms and 16.3 degrees C and 57.6% in aging rooms. Aspergilli and penicillia, potential mycotoxin producers, were isolated in all the plants from the air and the ham. Aspergilli represented 5% of the isolates, while penicillia were largely dominant, with Penicillium nalgiovense being the most represented species (around 60% of the penicillia), followed by Penicillium nordicum, with 10 and 26% of the penicillia isolated, respectively, from the air or the ham. Ochratoxin A production ability, checked in vitro at 250C, was observed in 50% of the P. nordicum isolates obtained both from the air and the ham. Air and ham surface contamination by penicillia was greater in the ripening rooms, where higher temperatures were registered. A certain correlation was also observed between air and ham surface contamination. On the basis of this study, P. nordicum, the ochratoxin A producer that is notable on proteinaceous substrates, is normally present in ham manufacturing plants in Italy, even though not a dominant species. Further studies are necessary to clarify and ensure if dry-curing conditions minimize the potential risk of ochratoxin A formation in the product.

  10. A New record of four Penicillium species isolated from Agarum clathratum in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Seobihn; Lim, Young Woon

    2017-04-01

    Agarum clathratum, brown algae, play important ecological roles in marine ecosystem, but can cause secondary environment pollution when they pile up on the beach. In order to resolve the environment problem by A. clathratum, we focus to isolate and identify Penicillium because many species are well known to produce extracellular enzymes. A total of 32 Penicillium strains were isolated from A. clathratum samples that collected from 13 sites along the mid-east coast of Korea in summer. They were identified based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis using β-tubulin DNA sequences as well as a combined dataset of β-tubulin and calmodulin. A total of 32 strains were isolated and they were identified to 13 Penicillium species. The commonly isolated species were Penicillium citrinum, P. roseomaculatum, and Penicillium sp. Among 13 Penicillium species, four species - P. bilaiae, P. cremeogriseum, P. madriti, and P. roseomaculatum - have not been previously recorded in Korea. For these four new species records to Korea, we provide morphological characteristics of each strain.

  11. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  12. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species.

  13. Marine-derived Penicillium in Korea: diversity, enzyme activity, and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Sohn, Jae Hak; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-08-01

    The diversity of marine-derived Penicillium from Korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, β-tubulin gene, and RNA polymerase subunit II gene. In addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. We tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusarium oxysporum). A total of 184 strains of 36 Penicillium species were isolated, with 27 species being identified. The most common species were Penicillium polonicum (19.6 %), P. rubens (11.4 %), P. chrysogenum (11.4 %), and P. crustosum (10.9 %). The diversity of Penicillium strains isolated from soil (foreshore soil and sand) and marine macroorganisms was higher than the diversity of strains isolated from seawater. While many of the isolated strains showed alginase and β-glucosidase activity, no endoglucanase activity was found. More than half the strains (50.5 %) showed antifungal activity against at least one of the plant pathogens tested. Compared with other strains in this study, P. citrinum (strain SFC20140101-M662) showed high antifungal activity against both plant pathogens. The results reported here expand our knowledge of marine-derived Penicillium diversity. The relatively high proportion of strains that showed antifungal and enzyme activity demonstrates that marine-derived Penicillium have great potential to be used in the production of natural bioactive products for pharmaceutical and/or industrial use.

  14. High throughput de novo RNA sequencing elucidates novel responses in Penicillium chrysogenum under microgravity.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Krishnaraj, Chandran; Rajagopal, Kalyanaraman; Sen, Dwaipayan; Lee, Yang Soo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the transcriptional alterations in Penicillium chrysogenum under simulated microgravity conditions were analyzed for the first time using an RNA-Seq method. The increasing plethora of eukaryotic microbial flora inside the spaceship demands the basic understanding of fungal biology in the absence of gravity vector. Penicillium species are second most dominant fungal contaminant in International Space Station. Penicillium chrysogenum an industrially important organism also has the potential to emerge as an opportunistic pathogen for the astronauts during the long-term space missions. But till date, the cellular mechanisms underlying the survival and adaptation of Penicillium chrysogenum to microgravity conditions are not clearly elucidated. A reference genome for Penicillium chrysogenum is not yet available in the NCBI database. Hence, we performed comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum grown under microgravity versus normal gravity. In addition, the changes due to microgravity are documented at the molecular level. Increased response to the environmental stimulus, changes in the cell wall component ABC transporter/MFS transporters are noteworthy. Interestingly, sustained increase in the expression of Acyl-coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase (Acyltransferase) under microgravity revealed the significance of gravity in the penicillin production which could be exploited industrially.

  15. Influence of storage temperature on growth of Penicillium polonicum and Penicillium glabrum and potential for deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Saccomori, Fernanda; Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Bernardi, Angélica Olivier; Alcano-González, María de Jesús; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2015-05-04

    The practice of freezing food is one of the main processes used by the industry to prolong the shelf life of foods. Its use has expanded in recent years due to the increased consumption of convenience products, many of which are sold in frozen form. The temperature at which these foods are maintained during marketing in supermarkets or stored in the consumer's home is critical to ensure microbiological stability of products. Temperature abuse can allow microbial growth, especially growth of filamentous psychrophilic fungi. Besides economic losses in the industrial sector due to the return of products and loss of confidence by consumers, the development of fungi in foods is a public health problem due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to assess the growth at temperatures of 5, 0, -5 and -18°C for two species of fungi involved in the deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets, Penicillium polonicum (33/12 NGT) and Penicillium glabrum (29/12 NGT), inoculated both in culture medium and in the food. The results demonstrated that P. polonicum was able to form microcolonies on potato dextrose agar plates at 0°C and form visible colonies on the surface of the frozen chicken nuggets kept at -5°C for 120 days, regardless of brand. For P. glabrum the limiting growth temperature was 5°C in the culture medium and 0°C on frozen chicken nuggets, regardless of the brand analyzed. Thus, it is essential to adhere to the storage temperatures recommended to ensure the stability and safety of this food product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inactivation of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum under in vitro and in vivo conditions by using UV-C light.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Gülten Tıryakı; Pazir, Fikret

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-C on two of the main wound pathogens of citrus fruits, Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, were investigated with different inoculation methods in vitro and on oranges. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated onto the surface of potato dextrose agar or oranges using spread, spot, wound, and piercing inoculation methods. UV-C treatment for 1 min from a working distance of 8 cm reduced the numbers of P. italicum and P. digitatum by about 3.9 and 5.3 log units, respectively, following spread inoculation under in vitro conditions. Significant reductions were obtained after 1-min UV-C treatments of the tested fungi following inoculation using the spread and spot methods. With inoculation by the wound and piercing methods, the tested spores were not inactivated completely even after 10- and 20-min treatment times, respectively. The application of UV-C (7.92 kJ m(-2)) on oranges reduced the percentage of oranges infected at least threefold compared with the rate of infection in the untreated control samples. UV-C irradiation could effectively inactivate spores of P. italicum and P. digitatum inoculated by the spread plate and spot inoculation methods under in vitro and in vivo conditions. On the other hand, because of the low penetration ability of UV-C light, the tested fungi were not completely inactivated following inoculation with the wound and piercing methods. UV-C treatment has potential for use in surface decontamination of citrus fruits.

  17. PCR-RFLP of ITS rDNA for the rapid identification of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium species.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Jöelle; Dennetière, Bruno; Jacquet, Claire; Dupont, Marie France

    2006-09-01

    RFLP of ITS rDNA is proposed as a useful tool for molecular identification of the most common species of biverticillate penicillia. 60 isolates were analysed representing 13 species and 21 unique sequences were produced. The combination of five restriction enzymes was successful in separating 12 species. However, the variety Penicillium purpurogenum var. rubrisclerotium remained indistinguishable from Penicillium funiculosum. P. funiculosum appeared as the most confused species, being mis-identified with Penicillium miniolutum and Penicillium pinophilum, which were originally part of the species, and with P. purpurogenum perhaps because of the common production of red pigment. Penicillium variabile was difficult to investigate as introns were found on half of the isolates. Penicillium piceum, Penicillium rugulosum, Penicillium loliense, Penicillium erythromellis and P. purpurogenum were homogeneous from molecular and morphological positions and corresponded to a well circumscribed taxon. Furthermore, intraspecific variability was evidenced within P. pinophilum and P. funiculosum. The ex-type isolate of P. funiculosum produced a unique pattern. The method is sensitive, rapid and inexpensive and can be used for isolate identification of the biverticillate species. It is recommended particularly when many isolates have to be authentificated prior to analysis for phylogenetic assessment or population genetics.

  18. Allergenic components in three different species of Penicillium: crossreactivity among major allergens.

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Tsai, J J; Liaw, S F; Han, S H

    1996-04-01

    Penicillium species have been considered as important causative agents of extrinsic bronchial asthma. However, little is known about the allergens of these ubiquitous airborne fungal species. This study compares the allergenic profiles and allergenic crossreactivity among allergens of three prevalent airborne Penicillium species. IgE-binding Penicillium components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-immunoblotting using sera from 67 asthmatic patients. The presence of allergenic crossreactivity was analysed by immunoblot inhibition. Among the 67 serum samples tested, 15, 14 and 11 samples showed IgE reactivity to components of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum, respectively. All 15 P. citrinum-positive serum samples showed IgE-binding to a 33 kDa extract component of this species. Thirteen (93%) of the 14 P. notatum-positive serum samples and 10 (91%) of the 11 P. brevicompactum-positive sera also showed IgE reactivity to components with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa in individual Penicillium species. All of the 10 P. brevicompactum 33 kDa component-positive serum samples showed IgE reactivity to the 33 kDa components of the other two Penicillium species tested. Dose-dependent inhibition of IgE-binding to these major allergens was observed when the positive serum sample was absorbed with different amounts of individual allergenic extract as well as with different amounts of extracts prepared from the other two Penicillium species. Although different allergenic profiles were observed in the three different Penicillium species tested, results showed that there was an IgE crossreactivity among the 33 kDa group major allergens of P. citrinum, P. notatum and P. brevicompactum.

  19. Penicillium salamii, a new species occurring during seasoning of dry-cured meat.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Samson, Robert A; Frisvad, Jens C; Susca, Antonia; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Epifani, Filomena; Houbraken, Jos

    2015-01-16

    Fungi have an important role in the production of dry-cured meat products, especially during the seasoning period. In general, both industrially and handmade salami are quickly colonized by a composite mycobiota during seasoning, often with a strong predominance of Penicillium species. These species are involved in the improvement of the characteristics and taste, and in the prevention of the growth of pathogenic, toxigenic or spoilage fungi. During the survey of fungal species occurring on the salami surface and in the air of the seasoning and storage areas of a salami plant (Calabria, Italy), two Penicillium species were predominantly present. One species was identified as Penicillium nalgiovense, and the other was related to, but distinct from, Penicillium olsonii. Further molecular and biochemical analyses showed that this strain has high homology with the not yet described species named "Penicillium milanense" isolated in Denmark and Slovenia on cured meats. The taxonomic position of these strains in Penicillium was investigated using calmodulin, β tubulin and ITS sequences, phenotypic characters and extrolite patterns, and resulted in the discovery of a new Penicillium species, described here as P. salamii. A literature search showed that this species occurs on (cured) meat products worldwide. In our study, P. salamii predominated the salami and capocollo surface in levels similar to the commonly known starter culture P. nalgiovense, irrespective of the room or age of seasoning. Preliminary inoculation trials with P. salamii showed that it was able to colonize salami during seasoning, indicating that this species could be used as a fungal starter for dry-cured meat.

  20. Fatal pneumonia caused by Penicillium digitatum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Penicillium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and are usually considered non-pathogenic to humans. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. Penicillium digitatum is a plant pathogen that commonly causes a postharvest fungal disease of citrus called green mould; it very rarely causes systemic mycosis in humans. Here, we report a case of fatal pneumonia due to P. digitatum infection, as confirmed by repeated examination of cultured sputum. Case presentation A cavity was found in the left upper lung on routine chest X-ray in a 78-year-old undernourished male who had been diagnosed at age 66 with bronchial asthma and pulmonary emphysema. No increased sputum production was present. The presence of antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to Aspergillus flavus and P. digitatum was confirmed in the patient’s serum and also later pleural fluid by using Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion testing with A. flavus and P. digitatum antigens. The patient was treated over a period of months with itraconazole, micafungin, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and antibacterials. However, the cavity enlarged, the pleural effusion increased, and the patient began producing purulent sputum. He died from progressive renal failure. From sputum culture only one fungus was isolated repeatedly on potato-dextrose agar in large quantities. This fungus was confirmed to be P. digitatum by molecular identification. Partial sequences of the beta-tubulin gene were determined by using the primers Bt2a and Bt2b for PCR amplification and sequencing and underwent a BLAST search at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, these results confirmed that the isolated fungus was P. digitatum. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary infection with P. digitatum. Our patient had pulmonary emphysema and was elderly, and undernourished. These factors might have facilitated the infection. In

  1. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic

  2. A taxonomic and phylogenetic revision of Penicillium section Aspergilloides

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Visagie, C.M.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Busby, P.E.; Pitt, J.I.; Seifert, K.A.; Louis-Seize, G.; Demirel, R.; Yilmaz, N.; Jacobs, K.; Christensen, M.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Species belonging to Penicillium section Aspergilloides have a world-wide distribution with P. glabrum, P. spinulosum and P. thomii the most well-known species of this section. These species occur commonly and can be isolated from many substrates including soil, food, bark and indoor environments. The taxonomy of these species has been investigated several times using various techniques, but species delimitation remains difficult. In the present study, 349 strains belonging to section Aspergilloides were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) sequences. Section Aspergilloides is subdivided into 12 clades and 51 species. Twenty-five species are described here as new and P. yezoense, a species originally described without a Latin diagnosis, is validated. Species belonging to section Aspergilloides are phenotypically similar and most have monoverticillate conidiophores and grow moderately or quickly on agar media. The most important characters to distinguish these species were colony sizes on agar media, growth at 30 °C, ornamentation and shape of conidia, sclerotium production and stipe roughness. PMID:25492984

  3. Insights into Penicillium roqueforti Morphological and Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gillot, Guillaume; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Monika; Le Floch, Gaétan; Debaets, Stella; Ropars, Jeanne; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana; Coton, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Fungi exhibit substantial morphological and genetic diversity, often associated with cryptic species differing in ecological niches. Penicillium roqueforti is used as a starter culture for blue-veined cheeses, being responsible for their flavor and color, but is also a common spoilage organism in various foods. Different types of blue-veined cheeses are manufactured and consumed worldwide, displaying specific organoleptic properties. These features may be due to the different manufacturing methods and/or to the specific P. roqueforti strains used. Substantial morphological diversity exists within P. roqueforti and, although not taxonomically valid, several technological names have been used for strains on different cheeses (e.g., P. gorgonzolae, P. stilton). A worldwide P. roqueforti collection from 120 individual blue-veined cheeses and 21 other substrates was analyzed here to determine (i) whether P. roqueforti is a complex of cryptic species, by applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition criterion (GC-PSR), (ii) whether the population structure assessed using microsatellite markers correspond to blue cheese types, and (iii) whether the genetic clusters display different morphologies. GC-PSR multi-locus sequence analyses showed no evidence of cryptic species. The population structure analysis using microsatellites revealed the existence of highly differentiated populations, corresponding to blue cheese types and with contrasted morphologies. This suggests that the population structure has been shaped by different cheese-making processes or that different populations were recruited for different cheese types. Cheese-making fungi thus constitute good models for studying fungal diversification under recent selection. PMID:26091176

  4. [Penicillium marneffei isolated from a Thai AIDS patient with fungemia].

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masae; Sano, Ayako; Yarita, Kyoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Haketa, Makio; Ide, Kyoko; Nagai, Keiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2008-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei was isolated from three blood cultures of a Thai woman with AIDS and then identified as such. The patient, 41 a year-old female from northeast Thailand came to Japan 10 years ago and married a Japanese man. She was reportedly the third patient infected with this fungal species in Japan, and considered to be the first case from whom the causative fungus was successfully cultured, which led to the diagnosis of penicilliosis marneffei. The colony of the isolate, which was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 25-27 degrees C, was initially white and pannose, gradually turned in color from yellow to yellow-green, and diffused a deep red pigment into the medium. Conidial heads were divergent, and chains of conidia were formed from phialides. Colonies of the isolate, which was cultured on brain-heart infusion agar at 35 degrees C, had a grayish white, membranous yeast-like form with fine plicae and microscopically consisted of short hyphae. Furthermore, 560 bases of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene including the 5.8S region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) (DDBJ accession number AB298970) were sequenced and allowed an unequivocal species identification.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel phytase from Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Y H; Fang, T J; Tseng, S M

    2000-01-01

    Eighty-three isolates from different soil samples exhibited the potential for producing active extracellular phytase. The most active fungal isolate with phytase activity was identified as Penicillium simplicissimum. In shaking culture with enrichment medium, the highest extracellular phytase activity of the producing strain was 3.8 U/mL. The crude enzyme filtrate was purified to homogeneity using ultrafiltration. IEC and gel filtration chromatography. The molar mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The saccharide identification with periodic acid-Schiff reagent (PAS) and activity recognition by 1-naphthyl phosphate was all positive. The isoelectric point of the enzyme, as deduced by isoelectric focusing, was pH 5.8, the optimum pH and temperature being pH 4.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The purified enzyme revealed broad substrate specificity and was strongly inhibited by Fe2+, Fe3+ and Zn2+; however, no inhibition was found by EDTA and PMSF. Phytase activity was inhibited when 2 mmol/L of dodecasodium phytate was added and the Km for it was determined to be 813 mmol/L.

  6. Prenyl Ethers: Novel Fungal Volatiles Formed by Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Frey, Peter; Meier, Roberto; Baumann, Heidi; Tanner, Miriam; Gassenmeier, Klaus F

    2014-10-01

    Prenyl ethyl ether (PEE) was previously described as the cause for a solvent-like off-note in ground hazelnuts, but its origin remained unclear. Investigations were carried out by analytical groups of Coop and Givaudan over four years to elucidate this phenomenon. From mouldy citrus fruits a strain of Penicillium digitatum was isolated and found to form PEE. Formation on citrus and other fruits was prominent and contributed to the particular smell of decayed fruits. Several strains of P. digitatum formed PEE, while other fungal species did not. In contrast to citrus fruit, prenyl methyl ether (PME) was formed as dominant prenyl ether on hazelnuts while only small amounts of PEE were found. PME has not been previously described as volatile metabolite of fungi or as a food-taint. Spiking experiments with deuterated ethanol showed that the ethyl group is likely incorporated into PEE via the aldehyde form. On hazelnuts strongly decayed by P. digitatum yet another prenyl ether was tentatively identified: Prenyl isopropyl ether. Prenyl ethers present a novel group of volatile metabolites of P. digitatum. They are likely typical for this species and have not been described before. Prenyl ethers seem to play a significant role in the smell of food decayed by P. digitatum and should be considered in cases of off-notes and taints.

  7. Growth and metabolites production by Penicillium brevicompactum in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Ndagijimana, M; Chaves-López, C; Corsetti, A; Tofalo, R; Sergi, M; Paparella, A; Guerzoni, M E; Suzzi, G

    2008-10-31

    Penicillium brevicompactum, commonly encountered in the indoor air, is known to produce a mycotoxin, mycophenolic acid (MPA). This mould has been isolated from a wide range of foods; considering that we had previously isolated this species from contaminated yoghurt, in this study we have evaluated its growth in yoghurt sweetened with sucrose, fructose and fructose added with fruit pieces. Fungal growth was evaluated monitoring CO(2) production in the headspace during yoghurt storage at 4+/-1, 8+/-1 and 10+/-1 degrees C throughout 21 days. P. brevicompactum grew well in the samples sweetened with fructose at 8 and 10 degrees C. The addition of sucrose influenced the growth negatively, particularly at 4 degrees C. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and MPA production was determined at 8 degrees C in inoculated and uninoculated yoghurt, as well as in liquid malt extract. Differences in VOC profiles and in MPA production were correlated with the age of the fungus and with the growth medium. This study points out for the first time the early qualitative changes in volatile production patterns of a common indoor mould, grown in yoghurt, as well as the production of MPA during storage at refrigeration temperatures.

  8. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  9. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  10. Insights into Penicillium roqueforti Morphological and Genetic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Gillot, Guillaume; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Monika; Le Floch, Gaétan; Debaets, Stella; Ropars, Jeanne; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana; Coton, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Fungi exhibit substantial morphological and genetic diversity, often associated with cryptic species differing in ecological niches. Penicillium roqueforti is used as a starter culture for blue-veined cheeses, being responsible for their flavor and color, but is also a common spoilage organism in various foods. Different types of blue-veined cheeses are manufactured and consumed worldwide, displaying specific organoleptic properties. These features may be due to the different manufacturing methods and/or to the specific P. roqueforti strains used. Substantial morphological diversity exists within P. roqueforti and, although not taxonomically valid, several technological names have been used for strains on different cheeses (e.g., P. gorgonzolae, P. stilton). A worldwide P. roqueforti collection from 120 individual blue-veined cheeses and 21 other substrates was analyzed here to determine (i) whether P. roqueforti is a complex of cryptic species, by applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition criterion (GC-PSR), (ii) whether the population structure assessed using microsatellite markers correspond to blue cheese types, and (iii) whether the genetic clusters display different morphologies. GC-PSR multi-locus sequence analyses showed no evidence of cryptic species. The population structure analysis using microsatellites revealed the existence of highly differentiated populations, corresponding to blue cheese types and with contrasted morphologies. This suggests that the population structure has been shaped by different cheese-making processes or that different populations were recruited for different cheese types. Cheese-making fungi thus constitute good models for studying fungal diversification under recent selection.

  11. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  12. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  13. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  14. Inhibition of Penicillium expansum by an oxidative treatment.

    PubMed

    Cerioni, Luciana; Lazarte, María de Los Ángeles; Villegas, Josefina María; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa; Volentini, Sabrina Inés

    2013-04-01

    Several oxidizing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are used to control postharvest decay in fresh fruit due to their antimicrobial effects. Here, we applied these compounds in vitro, in the presence of CuSO(4), against Penicillium expansum, causal agent of apple blue mold. MICs were 50 mg L(-1) and 400 mmol L(-1) for NaClO and H(2)O(2), respectively, when these compounds were individually applied to conidia suspensions during 2 min. A combined oxidative treatment (OT) consisting on an incubation with 1 mg L(-1) NaClO and 200 mmol L(-1) H(2)O(2), in the presence of 6 mmol L(-1) CuSO(4), inhibited growth, conidial germination and fungal infectivity on apple. The fractional inhibitory concentration index for the interaction between NaClO and H(2)O(2) in the OT was 0.52 indicating a synergistic effect of the oxidizing compounds. These results suggest that the OT could be an interesting alternative for apple diseases postharvest control.

  15. Ecophysiological characterization of Penicillium expansum population in lleida (Spain).

    PubMed

    Morales, Hector; Marín, Sonia; Obea, Laura; Patiño, Belén; Doménech, Miriam; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente

    2008-03-20

    Penicillium expansum, a patulin producer fungus, is the most important fungus causing decay in cold stored both apples and pears. This can lead to patulin contaminated by-products. The aim of this assay was to evaluate the phenotypical and physiological variability in the population of P. expansum that cause fruit spoilage in post-harvest stages in Lleida (Spain). In total, 101 isolates of P. expansum from the 2004 and the 2005 seasons were obtained from decayed fruits. Significant differences were found in the observations from both seasons. Variability of the isolates in each season seemed to be partially explained by differences in growth in media, patulin accumulation and resistance to fungicides. Patulin production was detected in almost 100% of the isolates. Variability existing in P. expansum population could not be totally explained, but the above mentioned variables explained up to 74% of the diversity in some cases. The results obtained point to the existence of different populations of P. expansum in each season and may explain the differences in fungicide resistance observed between both seasons. The capacity to colonize apple flesh and some variables involved in fruit colonization were not a source of variation neither in each season nor when both seasons were compared. As storage rooms are cleaned and disinfected each season, this suggests that each season, the populations in storage rooms develop only from strains capable to colonize apple flesh. This may lead to rapid sporulation and spreading of spores.

  16. Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation. PMID:19440525

  17. Choline Derivatives Involved in Osmotolerance of Penicillium fellutanum†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Il; Gander, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Penicillium fellutanum is osmotolerant and xerotolerant when cultured in a low-phosphate medium containing 3 M NaCl. Glycerol and erythritol accumulated in cultures with NaCl concentrations up to 2 M; glycerol was the only detectable polyol in cultures containing 3 M NaCl. In cultures with 3 M NaCl, the intracellular levels of glycine betaine and choline-O-sulfate were 22- and 2.6-fold greater (70 and 46 mM), respectively, than those of cultures without added NaCl. The levels of glycine betaine and glycerol decreased in mycelia transferred from a medium containing 3 M NaCl into a fresh medium without added NaCl. NaCl at 3 M inhibited mycelial mass accumulation; this inhibition was partially corrected by supplementation of cultures with glycine betaine (2 mM) or choline-O-sulfate (10 mM). The presence of exogenous choline chloride (2 mM) in plate cultures protected the cells from stress from 3 M NaCl. The data suggest that glycine betaine and choline-O-sulfate are secondary osmoprotectants which are effective at the point that the cell is incapable of synthesizing more glycerol. PMID:16349488

  18. Safety evaluation of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Okado, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazushige; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Lynch, Barry S; Vo, Trung D; Roberts, Ashley S

    2016-02-01

    Nuclease P1 has been widely used in the food industry to enhance or create flavor. One commercial source of this enzyme is Penicillium citrinum, an anamorphic mesophilic fungus with a long history of safe use in Europe and Asia as a fermentation organism used in the production of ribonucleases. Given the intended use in food for human consumption, and noting its potential presence at trace levels in finished products, a series of safety studies including an in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo rat erythrocyte micronucleus assay and a 90-day oral toxicity study in rats were conducted. No mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames assay. Equivocal activity in the chromosome aberration assay was not replicated in the micronucleus assay at doses of up to 1007 mg total organic solids (TOS)/kg body weight (bw)/day. Following oral administration of nuclease P1 at dosages of 10.1, 101 or 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day to Sprague-Dawley rats, no adverse effects on any study parameter were observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day. The results of the genotoxicity studies and subchronic rat study support the safe use in food production of nuclease P1 produced from P. citrinum.

  19. Zosteropenillines: Polyketides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium thomii

    PubMed Central

    Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Leshchenko, Elena V.; Berdyshev, Dmitrii V.; Sobolevskaya, Maria P.; Antonov, Alexandr S.; Denisenko, Vladimir A.; Popov, Roman S.; Pivkin, Mikhail V.; Udovenko, Anatoly A.; Pislyagin, Evgeny A.; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2017-01-01

    Twelve new polyketides, zosteropenillines A–L (1–12), together with known polyketide pallidopenilline A (13), were isolated from the ethylacetate extract of the fungus Penicillium thomii associated with the seagrass Zostera marina. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of zosteropenilline A (1) as 4R, 5S, 8S, 9R, 10R, and 13S was determined by a combination of the modified Mosher’s method, X-ray analysis, and NOESY data. Absolute configurations of zosteropenillines B–D (2–4) were determined by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of ECD spectra. The effect of compounds 1–3, 7, 8, 10, and 11 on the viability of human drug-resistant prostate cancer cells PC3 as well as on autophagy in these cancer cells and inhibitory effects of compounds 1, 2, and 8–10 on NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were examined. PMID:28218691

  20. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries.

  1. Production of mycotoxins by Penicillium expansum inoculated into apples.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mitsuru

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the production of mycotoxins in apple fruits inoculated with spores of 40 strains of apple blue mold, Penicillium expansum. Patulin and citrinin contents in the extracts from apples stored at 25 degrees C for 12 days after inoculation were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with UV and fluorescence detection. Patulin and citrinin were produced by 90% (36) and 80% (32) of the 40 strains, indicating that P. expansum is a consistent producer of these mycotoxins. The patulin content in the extracts was substantially higher than the citrinin content. Other mycotoxins whose production in pure culture has been reported were simultaneously detected with high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis with the positive ion mode of electrospray ionization. Along with patulin and citrinin, expansolides A and B were identified based on the HPLC and LC-MS spectral data and detected in 88% (35) of the extracts. The results indicate that P. expansum is a consistent producer of expansolides A and B in rotten areas of apple fruits. The findings raise the possibility that products from decayed apples might contain expansolides A and B in addition to patulin and citrinin.

  2. Photodynamic inactivation of Penicillium chrysogenum conidia by cationic porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria C; Woranovicz-Barreira, Sandra M; Faustino, Maria A F; Fernandes, Rosa; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Tomé, João P C

    2011-11-01

    This work reports the photophysical and biological evaluation of five cationic porphyrins as photosensitizers (PS) for the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Penicillium chrysogenum conidia. Two different cationic porphyrin groups were synthesized from 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphyrin and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin. The photostability and singlet oxygen generation studies showed that these molecules are photostable and efficient singlet oxygen generators. PDI experiments of P. chrysogenum conidia conducted with 50 μmol L(-1) of photosensitiser under white light at a fluence rate of 200 mW cm(-2) over 20 min showed that the most effective PS caused a 4.1 log reduction in the concentration of viable conidia. The present results show that porphyrins 1a and 1b are more efficient PSs than porphyrin 2a while porphyrins 1c and 2b show no inactivation of P. chrysogenum. It is also clear that the effectiveness of the molecule as PS for antifungal PDI is strongly related with the porphyrin substituent groups, and consequently their solubility in physiological media. The average amount of PS adsorbed per viable conidium was a determining factor in the photoinactivation efficiency and varied between the different studied PSs. Cationic PSs 1a and 1b might be promising anti-fungal PDI agents with potential applications in phytosanitation, biofilm control, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment.

  3. A cold-adapted endo-arabinanase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, T; Ihara, H; Kozaki, S; Kawasaki, H

    2003-12-05

    Previously, three arabinan-degrading enzymes were isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum 31B. Here we describe another arabinan-degrading enzyme, termed Abnc, from the culture filtrate of the same organism. Analysis of the reaction products of debranched arabinan by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) revealed that Abnc cleaved the substrate in an endo manner and that the final major product was arabinotriose. The molecular mass of Abnc was estimated to be 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme activity of Abnc was highest at pH 6.0 to 7.0. The enzyme was stable up to 30 degrees C and showed optimum activity at 30 to 40 degrees C. Compared with a mesophilic counterpart from Aspergillus niger, Abnc exhibited a lower thermal stability and optimum enzyme activity at lower temperatures. Production of Abnc in P. chrysogenum was found to be strongly induced by arabinose-containing polymers and required a longer culture time than did other arabinanase isozymes in this strain.

  4. Measurement of autolysis in submerged batch cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    McNeil, B; Berry, D R; Harvey, L M; Grant, A; White, S

    1998-02-05

    The process of cellular autolysis was studied in an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum by a range of methods, including assessment of biomass decline, NH+4 release, changes in culture apparent viscosity, and by means of a quantitative assessment of changes in micromorphology using a computerized image analysis system. The pattern of total intracellular proteolytic and beta-1, 3-glucanolytic activity in the culture was also examined. The overall aim was to identify a suitable method, or methods, for examining the extent of autolysis in fungal cultures. Autolysis was studied in submerged batch processes, where DOT was maintained above 40% saturation (non-O2-limited), and, under O2-limited conditions. Both N and O2 limitation promoted extensive culture autolysis. Image analysis techniques were perhaps the most sensitive method of assessing the progress of autolysis in the culture. Autolytic regions within some hyphae were apparent even during growth phase, but became much more widespread as the process proceeded. The early stages of autolysis involved continued energy source consumption, increased carbon dioxide evolution rate, degradation of penicillin, and decreased broth filterability. Later stages involved widespread mycelial fragmentation, with some regrowth (cryptic growth) occurring in non-O2-limited cultures. Intracellular proteolytic activity showed two peaks, one during the growth phase, and the other during autolysis. Autolysis was also associated with a distinct peak in beta-1,3-glucanolytic activity, indicating that degradation of cell wall matrix polymers may be occurring during autolysis in this strain of P. chrysogenum.

  5. Kinetics of biofilm formation by drinking water isolated Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Simões, Lúcia Chaves; Simões, Manuel; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on drinking water (DW) biofilms has been obtained mainly from studies on bacterial biofilms. Very few reports on filamentous fungi (ff) biofilms are available, although they can contribute to the reduction in DW quality. This study aimed to assess the dynamics of biofilm formation by Penicillium expansum using microtiter plates under static conditions, mimicking water flow behaviour in stagnant regions of drinking water distribution systems. Biofilms were analysed in terms of biomass (crystal violet staining), metabolic activity (resazurin, fluorescein diacetate and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) and morphology (epifluorescence [calcofluor white M2R, FUN-1, FDA and acridine orange] and bright-field microscopies). Biofilm development over time showed the typical sigmoidal curve with noticeable different phases in biofilm formation (induction, exponential, stationary, and sloughing off). The methods used to assess metabolic activity provided similar results. The microscope analysis allowed identification of the involvement of conidia in initial adhesion (4 h), germlings (8 h), initial monolayers (12 h), a monolayer of intertwined hyphae (24 h), mycelial development, hyphal layering and bundling, and development of the mature biofilms (≥48 h). P. expansum grows as a complex, multicellular biofilm in 48 h. The metabolic activity and biomass of the fungal biofilms were shown to increase over time and a correlation between metabolism, biofilm mass and hyphal development was found.

  6. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.

  7. New insights into the isopenicillin N transport in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aguado, M; Martín, J F; Rodríguez-Castro, R; García-Estrada, C; Albillos, S M; Teijeira, F; Ullán, R V

    2014-03-01

    In Penicillium chrysogenum the beta-lactam biosynthetic pathway is compartmentalized. This fact forces the occurrence of transport processes of penicillin-intermediate molecules across cell membranes. Many aspects around this molecular traffic remain obscure but are supposed to involve transmembrane transporter proteins. In the present work, an in-depth study has been developed on a Major Facilitator-type secondary transporter from P. chrysogenum named as PenM. The reduction of penM expression level reached by penM targeted silencing, leads to a decrease in benzylpenicillin production in silenced transformants, especially in SilM-35. On the contrary, the penM overexpression from a high efficiency promoter increases the benzylpenicillin production and the expression of the biosynthetic genes. Moreover, when the silenced strain SilM-35 is cultured under penicillin production conditions with 6-aminopenicillanic acid supplementation, an increase in the benzylpenicillin production proportional to the 6-aminopenicillanic acid availability is observed. By this phenomenon, it can be concluded that due to the penM silencing the benzylpenicillin transport remains intact but the peroxisomal isopenicillin N import results affected. As a culminating result, obtained by the expression of the fluorescent recombinant PenM-DsRed protein, it was determined that PenM is naturally located in P. chrysogenum peroxisomes. In summary, our experimental results suggest that PenM is involved in penicillin production most likely through the translocation of isopenicillin N from the cytosol to the peroxisomal lumen across P. chrysogenum peroxisomal membrane.

  8. Peroxisomes are required for efficient penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Wiebe H; Gidijala, Loknath; Fekken, Susan; Kiel, Jan A K W; van den Berg, Marco A; Lascaris, Romeo; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-09-01

    In the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, penicillin (PEN) production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. Here we show that intact peroxisomes that contain the two final enzymes of PEN biosynthesis, acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-amino penicillanic acid acyltransferase (AT) as well as the side-chain precursor activation enzyme phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL), are crucial for efficient PEN synthesis. Moreover, increasing PEN titers are associated with increasing peroxisome numbers. However, not all conditions that result in enhanced peroxisome numbers simultaneously stimulate PEN production. We find that conditions that lead to peroxisome proliferation but simultaneously interfere with the normal physiology of the cell may be detrimental to antibiotic production. We furthermore show that peroxisomes develop in germinating conidiospores from reticule-like structures. During subsequent hyphal growth, peroxisome proliferation occurs at the tip of the growing hyphae, after which the organelles are distributed over newly formed subapical cells. We observed that the organelle proliferation machinery requires the dynamin-like protein Dnm1.

  9. Safety evaluation of glucose oxidase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tetsuya; Aoshima, Takuya; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Choi, Sharon S H; Roberts, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Glucose oxidase (β-d-glucose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.2.3.4) is used in the food and beverage industry as a preservative and stabilizer and is commonly derived from the fungus Aspergillus niger. Although the safety of glucose oxidase preparations from A. niger is well-established, the use of preparations derived from other fungal species is of interest; however, an assessment of their safety is warranted. Here, we report on the safety of a glucose oxidase preparation derived from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (designated as PGO) for commercial use in food processing, as well as an ingredient in food. In a repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study conducted in rats, PGO was without compound-related adverse effects at doses of up to 15,600U/kg body weight/day, equivalent to 193mg total organic solids/kg body weight/day. In addition, PGO was non-genotoxic in a series of genotoxicity tests, including a bacterial reverse mutation test, an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and a combined in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test and comet assay. The results of these studies support the safe use of PGO in food for human consumption.

  10. Scale-down of penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Lodewijk P; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; ten Pierick, Angela; Deshmukh, Amit; Zhao, Zheng; Kiel, Jan A K W; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2011-08-01

    In large-scale production reactors the combination of high broth viscosity and large broth volume leads to insufficient liquid-phase mixing, resulting in gradients in, for example, the concentrations of substrate and oxygen. This often leads to differences in productivity of the full-scale process compared with laboratory scale. In this scale-down study of penicillin production, the influence of substrate gradients on process performance and cell physiology was investigated by imposing an intermittent feeding regime on a laboratory-scale culture of a high yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. It was found that penicillin production was reduced by a factor of two in the intermittently fed cultures relative to constant feed cultivations fed with the same amount of glucose per hour, while the biomass yield was the same. Measurement of the levels of the intermediates of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, along with the enzyme levels, suggested that the reduction of the flux through the penicillin pathway is mainly the result of a lower influx into the pathway, possibly due to inhibitory levels of adenosine monophosphate and pyrophosphate and lower activating levels of adenosine triphosphate during the zero-substrate phase of each cycle of intermittent feeding.

  11. Genomic and secretomic analyses reveal unique features of the lignocellulolytic enzyme system of Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Xiaomin; Zou, Gen; Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species.

  12. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Penicillium-Like Fungi from Clinical Samples in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Sutton, Deanna A.; García, Dania; Martin-Vicente, Adela; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium species are some of the most common fungi observed worldwide and have an important economic impact as well as being occasional agents of human and animal mycoses. A total of 118 isolates thought to belong to the genus Penicillium based on morphological features were obtained from the Fungus Testing Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio (United States). The isolates were studied phenotypically using standard growth conditions. Molecular identification was made using two genetic markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a fragment of the β-tubulin gene. In order to assess phylogenetic relationships, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference assessments were used. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2 for nine antifungal drugs. The isolates were identified within three genera, i.e., Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Rasamsonia. The most frequent species in our study were Penicillium rubens, P. citrinum, and Talaromyces amestolkiae. The potent in vitro activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and terbinafine (TRB) and of the echinocandins against Penicillium and Talaromyces species might offer a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi. PMID:27280422

  13. Cellulases from two Penicillium sp. strains isolated from subtropical forest soil: production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Picart, P; Diaz, P; Pastor, F I J

    2007-07-01

    To isolate new fungal strains from subtropical soils and to identify those that produce high cellulase activity. To select microbial strains producing thermostable cellulases with potential application in industry. The new strains Penicillium sp. CR-316 and Penicillium sp. CR-313 have been identified and selected because they secreted a high level of cellulase in media supplemented with rice straw. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focussing and zymography showed that the studied strains secreted multiple enzymes that hydrolyse cellulose. Cellulase activity of Penicillium sp. CR-316, the strain showing higher production, was analysed. Optimum temperature and pH of carboxymethyl cellulase activity were 65 degrees C and pH 4.5, respectively. Activity remained stable after incubation at 60 degrees C and pH 4.5 for 3 h. Fungal strains that secrete high levels of cellulase activity have been characterized and selected from soil. The isolated strains have complex sets of enzymes for cellulose degradation. Crude cellulase produced by Penicillium sp. CR-316 showed activity and stability at high temperature. Two fungal strains with biotechnological potential have been isolated. The strains secrete high levels of cellulase, and one of them, Penicillium sp. CR-316, produces a thermostable cellulase, that makes it a good candidate for industrial applications.

  14. Identification of Penicillium marneffei in Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Using Nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hanxiang; Li, Xiqing; Chen, Xiejie; Zhang, Junmin; Sun, Jiufeng; Xie, Zhi; Xi, Liyan

    2009-07-01

    Penicillium marneffei is one of the unique thermally dimorphic fungi in Penicillium species that causes a disseminated, progressive and life threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of Penicilliosis marneffei depends on culture that may delay the treatment due to the time-consuming process. In the present study, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of nested PCR to identify Penicillium marneffei from paraffin-embedded tissue. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers were derived from the sequence of 18S rRNA of Penicillium marneffei. The outer primers (RRF1 and RRH1) were specific to fungi. The inner primers (Pm1 and Pm2) were specific to Penicillium marneffei. The specific fragment of approximately 400 bp was amplified from all paraffin-embedded tissues from 14 patients with Penicilliosis marneffei and 10 bamboo rats. The detectable DNA concentration of single PCR and nested PCR were 14 pg/microl and 14 fg/microl, respectively. Further studies are required in order to use nested PCR for early diagnosis of the disease.

  15. Antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and fungitoxic metabolite production by some Penicillium isolates.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, R; De Stefano, M; De Stefano, S; Trincone, A; Marziano, F

    2004-11-01

    A number of Penicillium isolates were recovered in association to Rhizoctonia solani strains pathogenic on tobacco and from soil on plates pre-colonized by the pathogen itself. Their antagonism toward R. solani AG-2-1 was evaluated in dual cultures in vitro. Inhibition of growth was evident to some extent in most pairings, while hyphal interactions referable to mycoparasitic relationships were not observed. However, the occurrence of plasmolysis and/or vacuolisation and the induction of monilioid cells were indicative of the release of bioactive compounds. Therefore, production of fungitoxic metabolites was tested by adding concentrated culture filtrates of each Penicillium isolate to the growth medium of R. solani. Complete and lasting inhibition was incited by culture filtrates of some isolates belonging to P. brevicompactum, P. expansum, and P. pinophilum. Three purified compounds, respectively mycophenolic acid, patulin and 3-O-methylfunicone, which were extracted from culture filtrates, were able to inhibit R. solani in vitro. Their production was also detected in dual cultures of the same Penicillium strains with R. solani prepared in sterilized soil and when the Penicillium strains were cultured directly on R. solani mycelium harvested from liquid cultures. The possible role of such metabolites in antagonism of the above-mentioned Penicillium species against R. solani is discussed.

  16. Genomic and Secretomic Analyses Reveal Unique Features of the Lignocellulolytic Enzyme System of Penicillium decumbens

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species. PMID:23383313

  17. Improvement of strain Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH190 for tannase production by induced mutation.

    PubMed

    Zakipour-Molkabadi, E; Hamidi-Esfahani, Z; Sahari, M A; Azizi, M H

    2013-11-01

    In the search for an efficient producer of tannase, Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH190 was subjected to mutagenesis using heat treatment and strain EZ-ZH290 was isolated. The maximum tannase in this mutant strain was 4.32 U/mL with an incubation period of 84 h as compared to wild strain EZ-ZH190 where the incubation period was 96 h with a maximum enzyme activity of 4.33 U/mL. Also, the Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH290 tannase had a maximum activity at 40 °C and pH 5.5. Then, the spores of strain EZ-ZH290 were subjected to γ irradiation mutagenesis and strain EZ-ZH390 was isolated. Strain EZ-ZH390 exhibited higher tannase activity (7.66 U/mL) than the parent strain EZ-ZH290. It was also found that Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390 tannase had an optimum activity at 35 °C and a broad pH profile with an optimum at pH 5.5. The tannase pH stability of Penicillium sp. EZ-ZH390 and its maximum production of tannase followed the same trend for five generations confirming the occurrence of stable mutant. This paper is shown that γ irradiation can mutate the Penicillium sp. leading to increase the tannase production.

  18. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Penicillium-Like Fungi from Clinical Samples in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; García, Dania; Martin-Vicente, Adela; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa

    2016-08-01

    Penicillium species are some of the most common fungi observed worldwide and have an important economic impact as well as being occasional agents of human and animal mycoses. A total of 118 isolates thought to belong to the genus Penicillium based on morphological features were obtained from the Fungus Testing Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio (United States). The isolates were studied phenotypically using standard growth conditions. Molecular identification was made using two genetic markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a fragment of the β-tubulin gene. In order to assess phylogenetic relationships, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference assessments were used. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2 for nine antifungal drugs. The isolates were identified within three genera, i.e., Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Rasamsonia The most frequent species in our study were Penicillium rubens, P. citrinum, and Talaromyces amestolkiae The potent in vitro activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and terbinafine (TRB) and of the echinocandins against Penicillium and Talaromyces species might offer a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi.

  19. Molecular characterization of patulin producing and non-producing Penicillium species in apples from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rharmitt, Sanae; Hafidi, Majida; Hajjaj, Hassan; Scordino, Fabio; Giosa, Domenico; Giuffrè, Letterio; Barreca, Davide; Criseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-18

    The isolation of patulin-producing Penicillia in apples collected in different markets in four localities in Morocco is reported. Fungi were identified by β-tubulin sequencing and further characterized using a specific PCR-based method targeting the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (IDH) gene to discriminate between patulin-producing and non-producing strains. Production of patulin was also evaluated using standard cultural and biochemical methods. Results showed that 79.5% of contaminant fungi belonged to the genus Penicillium and that Penicillium expansum was the most isolated species (83.9%) followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (~9.7%) and Penicillium crustosum (~6.4%). Molecular analysis revealed that 64.5% of the Penicillium species produced the expected IDH-amplicon denoting patulin production in these strains. However, patulin production was not chemically confirmed in all P. expansum strains. The isolation of IDH(-)/patulin(+) strains poses the hypothesis that gentisylaldehyde is not a direct patulin precursor, supporting previous observations that highlighted the importance of the gentisyl alcohol in the production of this mycotoxin. Total agreement between IDH-gene detection and cultural/chemical methods employed was observed in 58% of P. expansum strains and for 100% of the other species isolated. Overall the data reported here showed a substantial genetic variability within P. expansum population from Morocco.

  20. Patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived Penicillium strains.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Blanchet, Elodie; Fossi Tankoua, Olivia; Robiou Du Pont, Thibaut; Joubert, Yolaine; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno; Frisvad, Jens C; Pouchus, Yves François; Grovel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Genus Penicillium represents an important fungal group regarding to its mycotoxin production. Secondary metabolomes of eight marine-derived strains belonging to subgenera Furcatum and Penicillium were investigated using dereplication by liquid chromatography (LC)-Diode Array Detector (DAD)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Each strain was grown on six different culture media to enhance the number of observable metabolites. Thirty-two secondary metabolites were detected in crude extracts with twenty first observations for studied species. Patulin, a major mycotoxin, was classically detected in extracts of Penicillium expansum, and was also isolated from Penicillium antarcticum cultures, whose secondary metabolome is still to be done. These detections constituted the first descriptions of patulin in marine strains of Penicillium, highlighting the risk for shellfish and their consumers due to the presence of these fungi in shellfish farming areas. Patulin induced acute neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae, indicating the interest of this bioassay as an additional tool for detection of this major mycotoxin in crude extracts.

  1. Secondary Metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, A Starter for the Production of Gorgonzola Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Giardini, Alberto; Soncini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP) label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product), such as Gorgonzola cheese. PMID:27800360

  2. UV-C light inactivation kinetics of Penicillium expansum on pear surfaces: Influence on physicochemical and sensory quality during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postharvest quality and storage life of fresh pear are often limited by fungal growth caused by Penicillium expansum. Ultraviolet-C light (UV-C 254 nm) is a promising alternative disinfestation method to reduce fruit spoilage by fungi. In this study, UV-C inactivation kinetic data of Penicillium exp...

  3. Species-specific PCR to describe local-scale distributions of four cryptic species in the Penicillium chrysogenum complex☆

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Alexander G.P.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a ubiquitous airborne fungus detected in every sampled region of the Earth. Owing to its role in Alexander Fleming's serendipitous discovery of Penicillin in 1928, the fungus has generated widespread scientific interest; however its natural history is not well understood. Research has demonstrated speciation within P. chrysogenum, describing the existence of four cryptic species. To discriminate the four species, we developed protocols for species-specific diagnostic PCR directly from fungal conidia. 430 Penicillium isolates were collected to apply our rapid diagnostic tool and explore the distribution of these fungi across the London Underground rail transport system revealing significant differences between Underground lines. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple type isolates confirms that the ‘Fleming species’ should be named Penicillium rubens and that divergence of the four ‘Chrysogenum complex’ fungi occurred about 0.75 million yr ago. Finally, the formal naming of two new species, Penicillium floreyi and Penicillium chainii, is performed. PMID:24179477

  4. Species-specific PCR to describe local-scale distributions of four cryptic species in the Penicillium chrysogenum complex.

    PubMed

    Browne, Alexander G P; Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2013-10-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a ubiquitous airborne fungus detected in every sampled region of the Earth. Owing to its role in Alexander Fleming's serendipitous discovery of Penicillin in 1928, the fungus has generated widespread scientific interest; however its natural history is not well understood. Research has demonstrated speciation within P. chrysogenum, describing the existence of four cryptic species. To discriminate the four species, we developed protocols for species-specific diagnostic PCR directly from fungal conidia. 430 Penicillium isolates were collected to apply our rapid diagnostic tool and explore the distribution of these fungi across the London Underground rail transport system revealing significant differences between Underground lines. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple type isolates confirms that the 'Fleming species' should be named Penicillium rubens and that divergence of the four 'Chrysogenum complex' fungi occurred about 0.75 million yr ago. Finally, the formal naming of two new species, Penicillium floreyi and Penicillium chainii, is performed.

  5. Penicillium species as a rare isolate in tracheal granulation tissue: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Premjit S; Nouraei, SA Reza; Howard, David J; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Petrou, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Granulation tissue formation is a major problem complicating the treatment of upper airway stenosis. We present two cases of recurrent tracheal granulation tissue colonisation by Penicillium species in patients undergoing laryngotracheal reconstructive surgery for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. We believe that although most Penicillium species do not cause invasive disease they can be a contributory factor to the occurrence of upper airway stenosis. Case presentation A microbiological and mycological study of tracheal granulation tissue in two patients with recurrent laryngotracheal stenosis was carried out. Penicillium species was seen microscopically and cultured from tracheal granulation tissue. Neither patient grew any bacteria known to be associated with airway granulation tissue formation. Amphotericin B, itraconazole, flucytosine voriconazole and caspofungin were highly active against both isolates. Conclusion A search for a fungal cause should form part of the investigation for recurrent tracheal granulation tissue during laryngotracheal reconstruction. PMID:18346276

  6. Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples.

    PubMed

    Dayalan, S Anto Jeya; Darwin, Pramod; Prakash, S

    2011-01-01

    To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPLC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth of Penicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichia coli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPLC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research focuses on various unexplored sources of

  7. [Establishment of a genetic transformation system for Penicillium brevicompactum to produce mycophenolic acid].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhihong; Su, Caiyun; Yan, Jing; Dai, Meng; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Hongyi; Dai, Mingwei; Zhang, Jia

    2013-11-04

    We established a genetic transformation system for Penicillium brevicompactum to produce mycophenolic acid. We developed protoplast transformation methods mediated by Polyethylene glycol, using phleomycin resistance gene (Sh ble) as a dominant selection marker. The frequency of transformation was up to 2 - 3 transformants per microg DNA; analysis of the transformants by PCR showed that the foreign DNA had been integrated into the host genome. The transformants retained stable after generation. The establishment of the genetic transformation system of Penicillium brevicompactum could serve as the basis for the research of molecular biology and the breeding of gene engineering of the fungus.

  8. Gibberellins in Penicillium strains: Challenges for endophyte-plant host interactions under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Enguita, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is one of the most versatile "mycofactories", comprising some species able to produce gibberellins, bioactive compounds that can modulate plant growth and development. Although plants have the ability to synthesize gibberellins, their levels are lower when plants are under salinity stress. It has been recognized that detrimental abiotic conditions, such as saline stress, have negative effects on plants, being the availability of bioactive gibberellins a critical factor for their growth under this conditions. This review summarizes the interplay existing between endophytic Penicillium strains and plant host interactions, with focus on bioactive gibberellins production as a fungal response that allows plants to overcome salinity stress.

  9. Time course production of indole alkaloids by an endophytic strain of Penicillium brasilianum cultivated in rice.

    PubMed

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; Asenha, Heloísa Briganti Rodrigues; Marques, Anna Silvia; Ferreira, Antônio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2013-01-01

    During our studies concerning endophytic fungi, two indole alkaloids were co-produced with verruculogen by Penicillium brasilianum isolated from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae). The compounds were isolated by the use of combined chromatographic procedures and identified by physical methods, mainly 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. This article also describes the production of verruculogen TR-2, first described for this species of Penicillium, and a verruculogen TR-2C-11 epimer, that is a novel fungal natural product. The kinetic production of verruculogen and verruculogen TR-2 produced by P. brasilianum were evaluated in order to understand the involvement of verruculogen TR-2 in verruculogen biosynthesis.

  10. [Progress in Proteomic Study of the Penicillin Producer---Penicillium Chrysogenum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun; Wang, Peihong; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Ruichang

    2015-12-01

    Penicillin is a kind of β-lactam drug which has been applied in the clinical treatment firstly in the world, and it has still been widely used at present. The synthesis and regulation mechanism of Penicillium chrysogenum, which is used to produce penicillin, has been studied quite maturely, but its proteomics research started relatively late and fewer reports were published. This paper reviews the synthesis and application of penicillin, transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum, and the research progress of its proteomics. On this basis, the study highlights the advantages of proteomics in the research of protein expression.

  11. Proteome Analysis of the Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Barreiro, Carlos; García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by “blue silver” colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin

  12. The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for Andrastin A in Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Aedo, Juan F; Gil-Durán, Carlos; Del-Cid, Abdiel; Valdés, Natalia; Álamos, Pamela; Vaca, Inmaculada; García-Rico, Ramón O; Levicán, Gloria; Tello, Mario; Chávez, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Penicillium roqueforti is a filamentous fungus involved in the ripening of several kinds of blue cheeses. In addition, this fungus produces several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound andrastin A, a promising antitumoral compound. However, to date the genomic cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of this compound in P. roqueforti has not been described. In this work, we have sequenced and annotated a genomic region of approximately 29.4 kbp (named the adr gene cluster) that is involved in the biosynthesis of andrastin A in P. roqueforti. This region contains ten genes, named adrA, adrC, adrD, adrE, adrF, adrG, adrH, adrI, adrJ and adrK. Interestingly, the adrB gene previously found in the adr cluster from P. chrysogenum, was found as a residual pseudogene in the adr cluster from P. roqueforti. RNA-mediated gene silencing of each of the ten genes resulted in significant reductions in andrastin A production, confirming that all of them are involved in the biosynthesis of this compound. Of particular interest was the adrC gene, encoding for a major facilitator superfamily transporter. According to our results, this gene is required for the production of andrastin A but does not have any role in its secretion to the extracellular medium. The identification of the adr cluster in P. roqueforti will be important to understand the molecular basis of the production of andrastin A, and for the obtainment of strains of P. roqueforti overproducing andrastin A that might be of interest for the cheese industry.

  13. Modeling Penicillium expansum resistance to thermal and chlorine treatments.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Beatriz C M; Churey, John J; Aragão, Gláucia M F; Worobo, Randy W

    2009-12-01

    Apples and apple products are excellent substrates for Penicillium expansum to produce patulin. In an attempt to avoid excessive levels of patulin, limiting or reducing P. expansum contamination levels on apples designated for storage in packinghouses and/or during apple juice processing is critical. The aim of this work was (i) to determine the thermal resistance of P. expansum spores in apple juice, comparing the abilities of the Bigelow and Weibull models to describe the survival curves and (ii) to determine the inactivation of P. expansum spores in aqueous chlorine solutions at varying concentrations of chlorine solutions, comparing the abilities of the biphasic and Weibull models to fit the survival curves. The results showed that the Bigelow and Weibull models were similar for describing the heat inactivation data, because the survival curves were almost linear. In this case, the concept of D- and z-values could be used, and the D-values obtained were 10.68, 6.64, 3.32, 1.14, and 0.61 min at 50, 52, 54, 56, and 60 degrees C, respectively, while the z-value was determined to be 7.57 degrees C. For the chlorine treatments, although the biphasic model gave a slightly superior performance, the Weibull model was selected, considering the parsimony principle, because it has fewer parameters than the biphasic model has. In conclusion, the typical pasteurization regimen used for refrigerated apple juice (71 degrees C for 6 s) is capable of achieving a 6-log reduction of P. expansum spores.

  14. Immobilization and Stabilization of Beta-Xylosidases from Penicillium janczewskii.

    PubMed

    Terrasan, César Rafael Fanchini; Romero-Fernández, Maria; Orrego, Alejandro H; Oliveira, Sandro Martins; Pessela, Benevides Costa; Carmona, Eleonora Cano; Guisan, José Manuel

    2017-05-01

    β-Xylosidases are critical for complete degradation of xylan, the second main constituent of plant cell walls. A minor β-xylosidase (BXYL II) from Penicillium janczewskii was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation) followed by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography in pH 6.5 and elution with KCl. The enzyme presented molecular weight (MW) of 301 kDa estimated by size exclusion chromatography. Optimal activity was observed in pH 3.0 and 70-75 °C, with higher stability in pH 3.0-4.5 and half-lives of 11, 5, and 2 min at 65, 70, and 75 °C, respectively. Inhibition was moderate with Pb(+2) and citrate and total with Cu(+2), Hg(+2), and Co(+2). Partially purified BXYL II and BXYL I (the main β-xylosidase from this fungus) were individually immobilized and stabilized in glyoxyl agarose gels. At 65 °C, immobilized BXYL I and BXYL II presented half-lives of 4.9 and 23.1 h, respectively, therefore being 12.3-fold and 33-fold more stable than their unipuntual CNBr derivatives (reference mimicking soluble enzyme behaviors). During long-term incubation in pH 5.0 at 50 °C, BXYL I and BXYL II glyoxyl derivatives preserved 85 and 35% activity after 25 and 7 days, respectively. Immobilized BXYL I retained 70% activity after 10 reuse cycles of p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside hydrolysis.

  15. Subcellular localization of the homocitrate synthase in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, O; Casqueiro, J; Steidl, S; Gutiérrez, S; Brakhage, A; Martín, J F

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the cellular localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and filamentous fungi of homocitrate synthase, the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway. The homocitrate synthase (HS) gene (lys1) of Penicillium chrysogenum was disrupted in three transformants (HS(-)) of the Wis 54-1255 pyrG strain. The three mutants named HS1(-), HS2(-) and HS3(-) all lacked homocitrate synthase activity and showed lysine auxotrophy, indicating that there is a single gene for homocitrate synthase in P. chrysogenum. The lys1 ORF was fused in frame to the gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Homocitrate synthase-deficient mutants transformed with a plasmid containing the lys1-GFP fusion recovered prototrophy and showed similar levels of homocitrate synthase activity to the parental strain Wis 54-1255, indicating that the hybrid protein retains the biological function of wild-type homocitrate synthase. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the HS-GFP fusion protein is maintained intact and does not release the GFP moiety. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the transformants showed that homocitrate synthase was mainly located in the cytoplasm in P. chrysogenum; in S. cerevisiae the enzyme is targeted to the nucleus. The control nuclear protein StuA was properly targeted to the nucleus when the StuA (targeting domain)-GFP hybrid protein was expressed in P. chrysogenum. The difference in localization of homocitrate synthase between P. chrysogenum and S. cerevisiae suggests that this protein may play a regulatory function, in addition to its catalytic function, in S. cerevisiae but not in P. chrysogenum.

  16. Uptake of phenylacetic acid by two strains of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, S H; Soderblom, T B; Jensen, B; Olsen, J

    1998-11-05

    Uptake of phenylacetic acid, the side-chain precursor of benzylpenicillin, was studied in Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 and in a strain yielding high levels of penicillin. In penicillin fermentations with the high-yielding strain, 100% recovery of phenylacetic acid in benzylpenicillin was found, whereas in the Wisconsin strain only 17% of the supplied phenylacetic acid was incorporated into benzylpenicillin while the rest was metabolized. Accumulation of total phenylacetic acid-derived carbon in the cells was nonsaturable in both strains at high external concentrations of phenylacetic acid (250-3500 microM), and in the high-yielding strain at low phenylacetic acid concentrations (2. 8-100 microM), indicating that phenylacetic acid enters the cells by simple diffusion, as concluded earlier for P. chrysogenum by other authors. However, at low external concentrations of phenylacetic acid saturable accumulation appeared in the Wisconsin strain. HPLC-analyses of cell extracts from the Wisconsin strain showed that phenylacetic acid was metabolized immediately after entry into the cells and different [14C]-labeled metabolites were detected in the cells. Up to approximately 50% of the accumulated phenylacetic acid was metabolized during the transport-assay period, the conversion having an impact on the uptake experiments. Nevertheless, accumulation of free unchanged phenylacetic acid in the cells showed saturation kinetics, suggesting the possible involvement of a high-affinity carrier in uptake of phenylacetic acid in P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255. At high concentrations of phenylacetic acid, contribution to uptake by this carrier is minor in comparison to simple diffusion and therefore, of no importance in the industrial production of penicillin.

  17. Penicillin production by wild isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajjad-Ur-Rahman; Rasool, Muhammad Hidayat; Rafi, Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring the native wild isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum series in terms of their penicillin production potential. Apart from the standard medium, the efforts were made to utilize suitable agro-industrial wastes for the maximum yield of penicillin. Two series of P. chrysogenum were isolated from local sources and named as P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The native series were found to possess better penicillin production potential than the already reported series of P. chrysogenum. However, P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 was found to be the best candidate for high yield of penicillin starting at 100 hour as compared to P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 which produced the highest yield of penicillin at 150 hours for a shorter period of time. Addition of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) to the fermentation medium resulted in the production of 1.20g/L penicillin by P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2. The fermentation medium in which Sugar Cane Bagasse (SCB) was replaced with CSL resulted in the highest yield of penicillin (1.92g/L) by both native series of P. chrysogenum. The penicillin production was increased by 62.5% in medium with SCB as compared to that with CSL. The penicillin yield of medium containing lactose and phenyl acetate was higher than that of control medium. Overall results revealed that P. chrysogenum series UAF R1 and P. chrysogenum series UAF R2 may be recommended for better yield of natural penicillin and this efficiency may be further enhanced by utilizing SCB as substrate in the growth medium.

  18. Characterization of an autoinducer of penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jorge; García-Estrada, Carlos; Rumbero, Angel; Recio, Eliseo; Albillos, Silvia M; Ullán, Ricardo V; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2011-08-15

    Filamentous fungi produce an impressive variety of secondary metabolites; many of them have important biological activities. The biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites is frequently induced by plant-derived external elicitors and appears to also be regulated by internal inducers, which may work in a way similar to that of bacterial autoinducers. The biosynthesis of penicillin in Penicillium chrysogenum is an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms of control of gene expression due to a good knowledge of the biochemistry and molecular genetics of β-lactam antibiotics and to the availability of its genome sequence and proteome. In this work, we first developed a plate bioassay that allows direct testing of inducers of penicillin biosynthesis using single colonies of P. chrysogenum. Using this bioassay, we have found an inducer substance in the conditioned culture broths of P. chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. No inducing effect was exerted by γ-butyrolactones, jasmonic acid, or the penicillin precursor δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine. The conditioned broth induced penicillin biosynthesis and transcription of the pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE genes when added at inoculation time, but its effect was smaller if added at 12 h and it had no effect when added at 24 h, as shown by Northern analysis and lacZ reporter studies. The inducer molecule was purified and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as 1,3-diaminopropane. Addition of pure 1,3-diaminopropane stimulated the production of penicillin by about 100% compared to results for the control cultures. Genes for the biosynthesis of 1,3-diaminopropane have been identified in the P. chrysogenum genome.

  19. Direct electrochemistry of Penicillium chrysogenum catalase adsorbed on spectroscopic graphite.

    PubMed

    Dimcheva, Nina; Horozova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The voltammetric studies of Penicillium chrysogenum catalase (PcCAT) adsorbed on spectroscopic graphite, showed direct electron transfer (DET) between its active site and the electrode surface. Analogous tests performed with the commercially available bovine catalase revealed that mammalian enzyme is much less efficient in the DET process. Both catalases were found capable to catalyse the electrooxidation of phenol, but differed in the specifics of catalytic action. At an applied potential of 0.45V the non-linear regression showed the kinetics of the bioelectrochemical oxidation catalysed by the PcCAT obeyed the Hill equation with a binding constant K=0.034±0.002 M(2) (Hill's coefficient n=2.097±0.083, R(2)=0.997), whilst the catalytic action of the bovine catalase was described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model with the following parameters: V(max,app)=7.780±0.509 μA, and K(M,app)=0.068±0.070 mol L(-1). The performance of the electrode reaction was affected by the electrode potential, the pH, and temperature. Based on the effect of pH and temperature on the electrode response in presence of phenol a tentative reaction pathway of its bioelectrocatalytic oxidation has been hypothesised. The possible application of these findings in biosensing phenol up to concentration 30 mM at pHs below 7 and in absence of oxidising agents (oxygen or H(2)O(2)) was considered.

  20. Penicillium astrolabium and Penicillium neocrassum, two new species isolated from grapes and their phylogenetic placement in the P. olsonii and P. brevicompactum clade.

    PubMed

    Serra, Rita; Peterson, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    We describe two new terverticillate Penicillium species isolated from grapes on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic differences from known species. The strains were isolated in the course of a study to establish the mycobiota of grapes in Portugal. Penicillium astrolabium is phenotypically similar to P. olsonii but differs from it by two cultural characters, growth rates and the colony reverse color. P. neocrassum is similar to P. brevicompactum but is readily distinguished by sclerotia production. Phylogenetically P. astrolabium and P. neocrassum are placed respectively in the P. olsonii and P. brevicompactum clade. Multilocus analysis confirmed the genetic distinctiveness of both species. The parsimony trees obtained for ITS-lsu rDNA region and two protein coding genes, calmodulin and beta-tubulin, show congruence for all the species in the Olsonii series: P. brevicompactum, P. bialowiezense, P. olsonii, P. astrolabium and P. neocrassum, indicating that these taxa are genetically well isolated.

  1. First report of Penicillium crustosum causing blue mold on stored apple fruit in Serbia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium crustosum Thom causes blue mold on pome fruits and is also regularly found on cheese, nuts and soil. The fungus produces an array of mycotoxins that impact human health, including penitrem A, roquefortine C, terrestric acid, and cyclopenol. In January and February 2013, decayed apples, ‘...

  2. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  3. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates resistant to pyrimethanil from stored apple fruit in Pennsylvania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples in the United States are stored in low temperature controlled atmosphere for 9–12 months and are susceptible to decay by blue mold. Penicillium spp. cause significant economic losses worldwide and produce mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Blue mold is managed by a combinat...

  4. Haenamindole and fumiquinazoline analogs from a fungicolous isolate of Penicillium lanosum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new amino acid-derived compounds, lanosindole (1) and 2'-epi-fumiquinazoline C (2), were isolated from cultures of a fungicolous isolate of Penicillium lanosum (MYC 1813 = NRRL 66231), together with 2'-epi-fumiquinazoline D (3), previously reported only as a product of an in vitro enzymatic step...

  5. Performance of fogged disinfectants to inactivate conida of Penicillium digitatum within citrus degreening rooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fogging with formaldehyde of citrus packinghouses when the fruit are absent is a practice to control conidia of Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc., cause of citrus green mold. Replacements for formaldehyde in these facilities are needed because of worker and environmental health issues. To evaluate...

  6. Detection of VM55599 and preparaherquamide from Aspergillus japonicus and Penicillium fellutanum: biosynthetic implications.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yousong; Gruschow, Sabine; Greshock, Thomas J; Finefield, Jennifer M; Sherman, David H; Williams, Robert M

    2008-09-01

    The secondary metabolites VM55599 (4) and preparaherquamide (5) have been identified by LC-MS(n) analysis as natural metabolites in cultures of Penicillium fellutanum, whereas preparaherquamide has been identified only in cultures of Aspergillus japonicus. In accord with a previous proposal, the identification of both metabolites, which have a diastereomeric relationship, provides indirect support for a unified biosynthetic scheme.

  7. Novel decaturin alkaloids from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium oxalicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-le; Lib, Dan-yi; Xie, Lei-rui; Wu, Xin; Hua, Hui-ming; Li, Zhan-lin

    2013-10-01

    From the mycelia of Penicillium oxalicum two new compounds, decaturins E (1) and F (2), have been isolated, along with four known analogues, decaturin A (3), decaturin C (4), decaturin D (5), and oxalicine B (6). The structures were determined by HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR analysis.

  8. AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM INDUCES DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of P. chrysogenum (PCE) can dose-dependently induce responses typ...

  9. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BALB/MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  10. Use of chemosensitization to overcome fludioxonil-resistance in Penicillium expansum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance in two mutant strains of Penicillium expansum to the fungicide fludioxonil was overcome by co-application of natural phenolic chemosensitizing agents that targeted various elements of the oxidative stress-response pathway. Fludioxonil resistance in these strains resulted from cell-linked ...

  11. Amino acid sequence and S-S bonds of Penicillium brevicompactum guanyl-specific ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Shlyapnikov, S V; Kulikov, V A; Yakovlev, G I

    1984-11-19

    The primary structure of Penicillium brevicompactum guanyl-specific RNase was determined. The enzyme consists of 102 amino acid residues, Mr 10801. The 4 cysteine residues of the RNase are linked in pairs by disulfide bonds: Cys2-Cys10, Cys6-Cys101. P. brevicompactum RNase structure is similar to RNase T1; the degree of homology is 66%.

  12. A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Sanzani, Simona Marianna; Miazzi, Monica Marilena; di Rienzo, Valentina; Fanelli, Valentina; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Taurino, Maria Rosaria; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most frequently involved in grape deterioration, secondary infections by Penicillium spp. are quite common, especially in cool areas with high humidity and in wines obtained by partially dried grapes. In this work, a single-tube nested real-time PCR approach—successfully applied to hazelnut and peanut allergen detection—was tested for the first time to trace Penicillium spp. in musts and wines. The method consisted of two sets of primers specifically designed to target the β-tubulin gene, to be simultaneously applied with the aim of lowering the detection limit of conventional real-time PCR. The assay was able to detect up to 1 fg of Penicillium DNA. As confirmation, patulin content of representative samples was determined. Most of analyzed wines/musts returned contaminated results at >50 ppb and a 76% accordance with molecular assay was observed. Although further large-scale trials are needed, these results encourage the use of the newly developed method in the pre-screening of fresh and processed grapes for the presence of Penicillium DNA before the evaluation of related toxins. PMID:27509524

  13. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  15. A multilocus database for the identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates using phenotypic methods is increasingly complex and difficult but genetic tools allow recognition and description of species formerly unrecognized or cryptic. We constructed a web-based taxonomic database using BIGSdb for the identification of ...

  16. Occurrence of fludioxonil resistance in penicillium digitatum from citrus in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, the most important postharvest disease of citrus (Citrus spp.). Fludioxonil is marketed as either a solo product or in combination with azoxystrobin for control of green mold and other postharvest diseases. Baseline sensitivity to fludioxonil ...

  17. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV-Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  18. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R T; Latch, G C

    1977-03-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin.

  19. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R. T.; Latch, G. C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin. PMID:16345234

  20. [Clavine alkaloid biosynthesis by the fungus Penicillium palitans westling 1911 isolated from ancient permafrost deposits].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, A G; Zhelifonova, V P; Antipova, T V

    2009-01-01

    The relic strain of Penicillium palitans isolated from the ancient permafrost deposits produces clavine alkaloids such as festuclavine, fumigaclavine A, and fumigaclavine B. Alkaloid biosynthesis is concurrent with the growth. Tryptophan and zinc ion additives to the culture medium stimulate the synthesis of alkaloids.

  1. The biochemical basis of pathogenicity and host-specificity of Penicillium digitatum on citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, we report that volatiles emitted from wounded citrus peel play a major role in host recognition by Penicillium digitatum. Volatiles of various citrus cultivars had a pronounced stimulatory effect on germination and germ tube elongation of green mold pathogen. When exposed to volatile...

  2. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BALB/MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  3. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BAL/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  4. AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM INDUCES DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of P. chrysogenum (PCE) can dose-dependently induce responses typ...

  5. Inhibitory effect of selenium against Penicillium expansum and its possible mechanisms of action

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum is a widely spread fungal pathogen that causes blue mold rot in a variety of fruits. This pathogen not only induces blue mold rot but also produces patulin in affected apple fruit, a secondary metabolite that is toxic to humans and animals. Currently, diseases caused by P. expan...

  6. Ultraviolet-C light inactivation of Penicillium expansum on fruit surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the influence of fruit surface morphology on ultraviolet-C (UV-C 254 nm) inactivation of microorganisms is required for designing effective treatment systems. In this study, we analyzed UV-C inactivation of Penicillium expansum that was inoculated onto the surface of organic fruits. Re...

  7. Identification of a QTL for postharvest disease resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit. Little attention has been devoted to postharvest disease resistance in apple breeding programs due both to a lack of sources of genetic resistance and to the time required for seedlings t...

  8. Detection of additional genes of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium griseofulvum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genes in the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster as has been found for biosynthetic pathways of other mycotoxins. The mycotoxin patulin, common in apples and apple juice, is most often associated with Penicillium expansum. However, of 15 fungal species capable of sy...

  9. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  10. Growth inhibition of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565 by four essential oils.

    PubMed

    Cvek, Domagoj; Markov, Ksenija; Frece, Jadranka; Landeka Dragicević, Tibela; Majica, Matea; Delas, Frane

    2010-06-01

    Fungi produce a large variety of extracellular proteins, organic acids, and other metabolites and can adapt to several environmental conditions. Mycotoxin-producing moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are common food contaminants. One of the natural ways to protect food from mould contamination is to use essential oils. In this study, we evaluated the effect of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender, rosemary, and sage at 1 % (v/v) concentration in yeast media inoculated with spores (final concentration 106 mL-1 media) of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565, alone or in combination, on fungal biomass. Cinnamon showed the best inhibitory effect (100 %). Lavender oil best inhibited the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus (nearly 100 %), and was less successful with Penicillium expansum (having dropped to 57 % on day 28). With cultivation time the inhibitory effect of sage and rosemary oil grew for Aspergillus ochraceus and dropped for Penicillium expansum.These results suggest that fungi can be controlled with essential oils, especially with cinnamon oil.

  11. Host ranges of Penicillium species causing blue mold of bulb crops in Washington State and Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    First reported from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of U.S.A. as causal agents of blue mold on edible and/or ornamental bulbs are Penicillium albocoremium (from Tulipa sp.; pathogenic on Allium sativum, A. cepa, A. stipitatum, Iris hollandica and Tulipa sp.), P. crustosum (from Narcissus; pathogenic on ...

  12. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BAL/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  13. A new polyketide, penicillolide from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sacculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Songya; Li, Zhanlin; Wang, Yu; Chen, Zaixing; Bai, Jiao; Tian, Li; Pei, Yuehu; Hua, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    A new polyketide, penicillolide (1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sacculum GT-308. Compound 1 is a polyketide with a unique carbon skeleton. The structure of this compound was established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HRESI-MS.

  14. Isolation of Xanthomegnin from Penicillium viridicatum by Preparative High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, R. E.; Grove, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for the production and purification of xanthomegnin from Penicillium viridicatum (NRRL 6430) cultured on rice at 15°C for 29 days. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography afforded 440 mg of crystalline xanthomegnin per kg of rice. PMID:6881966

  15. Cross-reactivity of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Stachybotrys antigens using affinity-purified antibodies and immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2004-05-01

    In this study, the author examined the cross-reactivities of Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus niger/fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum with affinity-purified rabbit sera. The molds were grown for expression of maximum numbers of antigens, after which they were extracted and mixed with commercially available extracts. The mixture was used for antibody preparation in rabbits, measurement of antibody levels, and for the demonstration of the degree of cross-reactivity. Control rabbits were injected with saline, yet they produced significant levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against all mold extracts tested. The author interpreted this result to mean that sera obtained from rabbits immunized with pure mold extracts likely reflected cross-reactivity with other molds. Therefore, only affinity-purified antibodies and the most sensitive immunoassay technique (i.e., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) were used for the cross-inhibition studies. The antigenic cross-reactivities were as follows: (a) between Aspergillus and Penicillium, 19.6-21.0%; (b) between Stachybotrys and Aspergillus, 8.2-8.7%; and (c) between Stachybotrys and Penicillium, 7.0-9.6%. The findings of this study demonstrate that cross-reactivity studies between different molds require the use of affinity-purified antibodies and a sensitive and quantitative assay with untreated antigens. With the use of such an assay, it was determined that the cross-reactivity between Stachybotrys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium was at approximately 10%, which is less widespread than previously believed.

  16. [Isolation of imazalil and prochloraz resistant Penicillium variable strains from a commercial citrus warehouse].

    PubMed

    Díaz, M A; Vila, R; Hernández, E

    1987-10-01

    "In vitro" sensitivity of two strains of Penicillium variabile to different concentrations of Imazalil and Prochloraz has been studied. Both strains were isolated from a citrus packing-house in which Imazalil was used. These strains were resistant to both compounds showing a ED50 higher than 100 ppm.

  17. Production of bioactive compounds based on phylogeny in the genus Penicillium preserved at NBRC.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Mayuzumi, Shinzo; Inaba, Shigeki; Park, Ju-Young; Anzai, Kozue; Suzuki, Rieko; Kuwahara, Natsumi; Utsumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Fumie; Sato, Hajime; Okane, Izumi; Tsurumi, Yasuhisa; Ando, Katsuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Penicillium strains (n=394) preserved at NBRC (the NITE Biological Resource Center) were compared as to groupings (11 species-clusters) based on phylogeny and the production of bioactive compounds. The strains in two clusters, of which P. chrysogenum and P. citrinum are representative, showed higher rates of positive strains with multi-biological activities.

  18. Two New Records of Penicillium Associated with Blue Moldy Bulbs of Lily in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Ki; Park, Myung Soo; Hahm, Soo-Sang

    2006-01-01

    Two new records of Penicillium from blue moldy bulbs of lily are reported in Korea. The Korean isolates of P. albocoremium (Frisvad) Frisvad and P. tulipae Overy and Frisvad were phylogenetically identical to the reference species based on DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene. P. albocoremium and P. tulipae are described and illustrated. PMID:24039494

  19. Characterization of blue mold Penicillium species isolated from stored fruits using multiple highly conserved loci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a variety of hosts, locatio...

  20. Genome sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1, which causes postharvest apple decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium species cause postharvest decay, commonly known as blue mold, in pome fruits such as apples and pears. Among the species that cause blue mold, P. expansum is the most virulent and prevalent, while P. solitum is signficantly less virulent. For devising novel strategies to prevent and to r...

  1. Enhancement of Penicillium echinulatum glycoside hydrolase enzyme complex.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Büchli, Fernanda; Robl, Diogo; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Rabelo, Sarita Candida; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    The enhancement of enzyme complex produced by Penicillium echinulatum grown in several culture media components (bagasse sugarcane pretreated by various methods, soybean meal, wheat bran, sucrose, and yeast extract) was studied to increment FPase, xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase enzyme activities. The present results indicated that culture media composed with 10 g/L of the various bagasse pretreatment methods did not have any substantial influence with respect to the FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase attained maximum values of, respectively, 2.68 FPU/mL, 2.04, and 115.4 IU/mL. On the other hand, proposed culture media to enhance β-glucosidase production composed of 10 g/L steam-exploded bagasse supplemented with soybean flour 5.0 g/L, yeast extract 1.0 g/L, and sucrose 10.0 g/L attained, respectively, 3.19 FPU/mL and 3.06 IU/mL while xylanase was maintained at the same level. The proteomes obtained from the optimized culture media for enhanced FPase, xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase production were analyzed using mass spectrometry and a panel of GH enzyme activities against 16 different substrates. Culture medium designed to enhance β-glucosidase activity achieved higher enzymatic activities values (13 measured activities), compared to the culture media for FPase/pectinase (9 measured activities) and xylanase (7 measured activities), when tested against the 16 substrates. Mass spectrometry analyses of secretome showed a consistent result and the greatest number of spectral counts of Cazy family enzymes was found in designed β-glucosidase culture medium, followed by FPase/pectinase and xylanase. Most of the Cazy identified protein was cellobiohydrolase (GH6 and GH7), endoglucanase (GH5), and endo-1,4-β-xylanase (GH10). Enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated sugarcane bagasse performed with β-glucosidase enhanced cocktail achieved 51.4 % glucose yield with 10 % w/v insoluble solids at enzyme load of 15 FPU/g material. Collectively the

  2. Functional studies of ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum has a specific activity (V/sub max/) of 6-7 units x mg protein/sup -1/ determined with the physiological substrates of MgATP and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and assayed by (A) initial velocity measurements with APS kinase and inorganic pyrophosphatase present and (B) analysis of nonlinear reaction progress curves. The fact both assays give the same results show the intrinsic activity of ATP sulfurylase is much higher than previously reported. In initial velocity dead-end inhibition studies, the sulfate analog S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/ is a competitive inhibitor of SO/sub 42/..sqrt.. and a noncompetitive inhibitor of MgATP. Monovalent oxyanions such as NO/sub 3//sup -/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, ClO/sub 4//sup -/, and FSO/sub 3//sup -/ behave as uncompetitive inhibitors of MgATP and thus seem not to be true sulfate analogs. The reverse reaction was assayed by the pyrophosphate dependent release of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ from AP/sup 35/S. Product inhibition by MgATP or SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ is competitive with APS and mixed-type with PP/sub i/. Imidodiphosphate can serve as an alternative substrate for PP/sub i/. ATP sulfurylase binds (but does not hydrolyze) APS. A Scatchard plot of the APS binding is nonlinear, suggesting at least two types of sites. The cumulative results are qualitatively consistent with the random addition of MgATP and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and the ordered release of first MgPP/sub i/ then APS, with APS release being partially rate limiting. Certain quantitative discrepancies suggest either an unknown variable (e.g. enzyme concentration) complicates the analysis or, in light of binding studies that the actual mechanism is more complicated (e.g. alternating sites) than any of the conventional models examined.

  3. Native pears of Sardinia affect Penicillium expansum pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cubaiu, L; Azara, E; Ladu, G; Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of pome fruits and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. The occurrence of natural resistance against different hostpathogens, has been evidenced in some pear accessions of the Sardinian germoplasm. The aim of this research was to correlate P. expansum growth and patulin production on these indigenous pear accessions. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out with seven accessions ('Sarmentina', 'Vacchesa', 'De Puleu', 'De su Duca', 'Natalina', 'Oliena', 'Laconi 5') belonging to the CNR-ISPA ex situ collection and one national control cultivar ('Abate'). A wild type P. expansum from our collection was isolated from blue mould-decayed Sardinian pear fruit and selected for its aggressiveness and patulin production. The in vivo assay was carried out using 5 x 2 cm (Ø x thickness) sterilized fruit discs wounded and inoculated by a 10(5)UFC/mL concentration of P. expansum. Fruit discs were incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days before analysis. The in vitro experiments, aimed at monitoring over time P. expansum mycelial growth and patulin accumulation, were performed with a standard medium (PDA) and a pear puree Agar Medium (PAM). Petri dishes with PDA and PAM were inoculated centrally with P. expansum conidia (10(5)UFC/ml) and then incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days. Mycelial growth on Sardinian PAMs was inhibited in comparison to 'Abate' PAM and PDA. In particular, the accessions 'Sarmentina' and 'Vacchesa' showed the maximum inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Patulin production was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mycotoxin concentration in Sardinian PAMs was lower than that detected in PDA medium, pointing out a positive correlation between fungal growth inhibition and patulin production. The lowest concentration of patulin was found in 'Sarmentina' PAM. Based on these findings, some of Sardinian pear accessions seems to

  4. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Julie M; Treece, Erin R; Trenary, Heather R; Brenneman, Jessica L; Flickner, Tressa J; Frommelt, Jonathan L; Oo, Zaw M; Patterson, Megan M; Rundle, William T; Valle, Olga V; Kim, Thomas D; Walker, Gary R; Cooper, Chester R

    2008-01-01

    Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase), but at body temperature (37°C), a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein sequence, which contained the

  5. Discrimination of Penicillium isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Justin M; Green, Brett J; Buskirk, Amanda D; Kashon, Michael L; Slaven, James E; Janotka, Erika; Blachere, Francoise M; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

    2008-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to generate highly reproducible mass spectral 'fingerprints' for twelve Penicillium species. Prior to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, eight replicate cultures of each Penicillium species were subjected to three one-minute bead-beating cycles in an acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid solvent. The mass spectra contained abundant peaks in the range of m/z 5000-20 000, and allowed unambiguous discrimination between species. In addition, a biomarker common to all Penicillium mass spectra was observed at m/z 13 900. Discriminant analysis using the MALDI-TOF MS data yielded classification error rates of 0% (i.e. 100% correct identification), indicating that MALDI-TOF MS data may be a useful diagnostic tool for the objective identification of Penicillium species of environmental and clinical importance.

  6. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  7. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  8. Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, J; Samson, R A

    2011-11-15

    Species of Trichocomaceae occur commonly and are important to both industry and medicine. They are associated with food spoilage and mycotoxin production and can occur in the indoor environment, causing health hazards by the formation of β-glucans, mycotoxins and surface proteins. Some species are opportunistic pathogens, while others are exploited in biotechnology for the production of enzymes, antibiotics and other products. Penicillium belongs phylogenetically to Trichocomaceae and more than 250 species are currently accepted in this genus. In this study, we investigated the relationship of Penicillium to other genera of Trichocomaceae and studied in detail the phylogeny of the genus itself. In order to study these relationships, partial RPB1, RPB2 (RNA polymerase II genes), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences were obtained. The Trichocomaceae are divided in three separate families: Aspergillaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Aspergillaceae are characterised by the formation flask-shaped or cylindrical phialides, asci produced inside cleistothecia or surrounded by Hülle cells and mainly ascospores with a furrow or slit, while the Trichocomaceae are defined by the formation of lanceolate phialides, asci borne within a tuft or layer of loose hyphae and ascospores lacking a slit. Thermoascus and Paecilomyces, both members of Thermoascaceae, also form ascospores lacking a furrow or slit, but are differentiated from Trichocomaceae by the production of asci from croziers and their thermotolerant or thermophilic nature. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Penicillium is polyphyletic. The genus is re-defined and a monophyletic genus for both anamorphs and teleomorphs is created (Penicillium sensu stricto). The genera Thysanophora, Eupenicillium, Chromocleista, Hemicarpenteles and Torulomyces belong in Penicilliums. str. and new combinations for the species belonging to these genera

  9. Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Trichocomaceae occur commonly and are important to both industry and medicine. They are associated with food spoilage and mycotoxin production and can occur in the indoor environment, causing health hazards by the formation of β-glucans, mycotoxins and surface proteins. Some species are opportunistic pathogens, while others are exploited in biotechnology for the production of enzymes, antibiotics and other products. Penicillium belongs phylogenetically to Trichocomaceae and more than 250 species are currently accepted in this genus. In this study, we investigated the relationship of Penicillium to other genera of Trichocomaceae and studied in detail the phylogeny of the genus itself. In order to study these relationships, partial RPB1, RPB2 (RNA polymerase II genes), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences were obtained. The Trichocomaceae are divided in three separate families: Aspergillaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Aspergillaceae are characterised by the formation flask-shaped or cylindrical phialides, asci produced inside cleistothecia or surrounded by Hülle cells and mainly ascospores with a furrow or slit, while the Trichocomaceae are defined by the formation of lanceolate phialides, asci borne within a tuft or layer of loose hyphae and ascospores lacking a slit. Thermoascus and Paecilomyces, both members of Thermoascaceae, also form ascospores lacking a furrow or slit, but are differentiated from Trichocomaceae by the production of asci from croziers and their thermotolerant or thermophilic nature. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Penicillium is polyphyletic. The genus is re-defined and a monophyletic genus for both anamorphs and teleomorphs is created (Penicillium sensu stricto). The genera Thysanophora, Eupenicillium, Chromocleista, Hemicarpenteles and Torulomyces belong in Penicillium s. str. and new combinations for the species belonging to these genera

  10. The effect of Penicillium fungi on plant growth and phosphorus mobilization in neutral to alkaline soils from southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, S A; Gupta, V V S R; Harvey, P R; Ryder, M H

    2007-01-01

    The phosphate solubilizing fungi Penicillium radicum, Penicillium bilaiae (strain RS7B-SD1), and an unidentified Penicillium sp. designated strain KC6-W2 were tested for their ability to increase the growth and phosphorus (P) nutrition of wheat, medic, and lentil in three soils of neutral to alkaline pH reaction. The strongest plant growth promoting (PGP) strain was Penicillium sp. KC6-W2, which stimulated significant increases in shoot growth and dry mass in seven of the nine experiments conducted. Levels of PGP by Penicillium sp. KC6-W2 ranged from 6.6% to 19% and were associated with increased uptake of P to the shoot. The PGP properties of Penicillium sp. KC6-W2 were evident on each of the three different plant species and soil types, a level of reliability not observed in other strains tested. Inoculation of seed with P. radicum increased lentil growth by 5.5% (P < 0.05) in soil from Tarlee but did not affect plant growth in the eight other experiments. Inoculation of plant seed with P. bilaiae RS7B-SD1 resulted in significant PGP in two of the nine experiments conducted. However, when significant, stimulation of PGP by P. bilaiae RS7B-SD1 was strong and resulted in increases in medic dry matter (19%) and lentil shoot dry matter (15%). A soil microcosm experiment investigated the effect of Penicillium fungi on cycling of soil P. Penicillium bilaiae RS7B-SD1 was the only fungus to significantly increase HCO3-extractable P (23% increase; P < 0.05). Production of phosphatase enzymes was not associated with increased HCO3-extractable P. Addition of carbon in the form of ryegrass seed significantly increased microbial respiration and movement of P to the microbial biomass (P < 0.05), but these parameters were irrespective of Penicillium treatment. This work has established the potential for use of Penicillium inoculants to increase plant growth on alkaline soils in Australia. The role of Penicillium fungi in plant P uptake and soil P cycling requires further

  11. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    PubMed

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production.

  12. Multilocus sequence identification of Penicillium species in cork bark during plank preparation for the manufacture of stoppers.

    PubMed

    Serra, Rita; Peterson, Stephen; Venâncio, Armando

    2008-04-01

    Despite several studies reporting Penicillium as one of the most frequent fungal genera in cork planks, the isolates were rarely identified to species level. We conducted a detailed study to identify Penicillium species from the field to the factory environment prior to and after boiling the cork planks. A total of 84 samples were analyzed. Of the 486 Penicillium isolates phenotypically identified, 32 representative or unusual strains were selected for identification by multilocus DNA sequence type. Cork proved to be a rich source of Penicillium biodiversity. A total of 30 taxa were recognized from cork including rarely seen species and 6 phylogenetically unique groups. Spores of some species lodged deep in cork can survive the boiling process. P. glabrum, P. glandicola and P. toxicarium, species with high CFU numbers in the field, are still frequently present in cork after boiling. Other species are killed by the boiling treatment and replaced by Penicillium species originating from the factory environment. Species known to contribute to cork taint were isolated at all stages. Good manufacturing practices are necessary at all stages in the preparation of cork planks to minimize the load of Penicillium species that produce cork taint.

  13. An evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of Penicillium spp. isolated from traditional Greek sausages in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A number of novel Penicillium strains belonging to Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium solitum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional Greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. Extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline pH, while the lipolytic activity was assessed using olive oil, the short-chain triacylglycerol tributyrin, and the long-chain triolein, as substrates. The study revealed that although closely related, the tested strains produce enzymes of distinct specificities. P. nalgiovense PNA9 produced the highest alkaline proteolytic activity (13.2 unit (U)/ml) and the highest lipolytic activity with tributyrin (92 U/ml). Comparisons with known sources show that proteases and/or lipases can be secreted effectively by some Penicillia (P. nalgiovense PNA4, PNA7, and PNA9 and P. solitum PSO1), and further investigations on their properties and characteristics would be promising.

  14. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of 5 species of triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A M; Junqueira, A C; Costa, G L; Celano, V; Oliveira, P C; Coura, J R

    2001-01-01

    A study of the mycobiota in the digestive tract of 5 important species of triatomines, Triatoma brasiliensis, T infestans, T. sordida, T. pseudomaculata and T. vitticeps, was made. The digestive tracts of 164 adults and 535 nymphs of those triatomines were studied and 393 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (19 species), Aspergillus (17 species) and Acremonium (5 species) and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium felluttanum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium waksmanii, Aspergillus awamori and Paecilomyces variotii. Among the isolated fungi, we found species that are recognized as entomopathogenic and pathogenic for humans and animals.

  15. Penicillium daejeonium sp. nov., a new species isolated from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sang, Hyunkyu; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang Sun; Choi, Young Phil; Deng, Jian-Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-08-01

    Two isolates of monoverticillate Penicillium species were collected from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and genes encoding β-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (cmd), as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two isolates are members of the P. sclerotiorum complex in Penicillium subgenus Aspergilloides, but different from species of the P. sclerotiorum complex. The isolates are closely related to P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. viticola in terms of their multigene phylogeny, but their colony and conidiophore morphologies differ from those of closely related species. The name P. daejeonium is proposed for this unclassified new species belonging to the P. sclerotiorum complex in subgenus Aspergilloides.

  16. Predictive modelling approach applied to spoilage fungi: growth of Penicillium brevicompactum on solid media.

    PubMed

    Membré, J M; Kubaczka, M

    2000-09-01

    Growth of Penicillium brevicompactum was examined on five solid media. Fungal growth was established by diameter measurements up to 50 days. Seventy experimental curves were fitted by Baranyi's primary predictive model. The growth rates were then analysed by non-parametric statistical methods. Penicillium brevicompactum could colonize the surface of solid media containing up to 700 g l-1 of sugar (50% glucose-50% fructose) with a growth rate of 0.9 mm day-1 (median values). Fitting curves by non-linear models followed by a non-parametric multiple comparison seems to be a convenient method for detecting differences in fungal growth on solid media. These two methods would be useful for studying fungal spoilage of bakery products with intermediate water activity.

  17. Biosorption of binary mixtures of copper and cobalt by Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Tsekova, Kolishka; Ianis, Maria; Dencheva, Vera; Ganeva, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    This work reports on a study of the biosorption of copper and cobalt, both singly and in combination (in equimolar concentrations), by the resting cells of Penicillium brevicompactum. Equilibrium batch sorption studies were carried out at 30 degrees C and pH 5.0 for a contact time of 1 hour to guarantee that equilibrium was reached. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption of binary mixtures of heavy metal solutions on the fungal biomass was found to be of competitive type where the adsorption capacity for any single metal decreased in the presence of the other. The cobalt ions showed a higher affinity for Penicillium brevicompactum than the copper ions.

  18. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Hirooka, Y.; Tanney, J.B.; Whitfield, E.; Mwange, K.; Meijer, M.; Amend, A.S.; Seifert, K.A.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7 904 isolates, 2 717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 β-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

  19. Purification of Candida guilliermondii and Pichia ohmeri killer toxin as an active agent against Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandre Rodrigo; Tachi, Masahico; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Nobrega, Gisele Maria Andrade; Hoffmann, Fernando Leite; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2009-01-01

    An antifungal assay with cell-free culture supernatant of Pichia ohmeri 158 and Candida guilliermondii P3 was tested against Penicillium expansum strain #2 at 25 degrees C by measuring hyphal length and percentage conidia germination. C. guilliermondii was more effective against P. expansum conidia germination (58.15% inhibition), while P. ohmeri showed higher inhibition of mycelial growth (66.17%), indicating a probable mechanism associated with killer activity. This killer toxin (molecular mass <3 kDa) was partially purified by normal phase HPLC, using TSKgel Amide-80 analytical and preparative columns. Compared with crude extract, the killer toxin eluted from the post analytical column significantly inhibited P. expansum:% inhibition rose from 42.16 to 90.93% (C. guilliermondii) and 39.32 to 91.12% (P. ohmeri) (p < 0.05). The one-step purification process was adequate in isolating killer toxin from culture supernatant and also increased anti-Penicillium activity.

  20. Tremorgenic mycotoxins produced by strains of Penicillium spp. isolated from toxic Poa huecu parodi.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, M; Sala de Miguel, M A; Blanco Viera, J; Planes de Banchero, E

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen strains of Penicillium spp. have been isolated from Poa huecu Parodi from the Zapala zone, exhibiting toxicity to sheet. The following strains have been identified: P. crustosum, cyclopium, notatum, palitans, puberulum, verrucosum, viridicatum and Penicillium spp. The toxigenic capacity of the strains was studied after growing them under suitable conditions. Toxins produced were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Penitrem A (PA) and Penitrem B (PB) neurotoxins were identified and quantitated in twelve strains; verruculogen (VERR) and fumitremorgen B (FTB) being present in one of them. The effect of these mycotoxins was studied in mice. Neurological symptoms characteristic of the intoxication by tremorgenic toxins and similar to those observed in sheep suffering from 'huecu's disease' were observed. The possible role of these toxins as causative agents of 'huecu's disease' is discussed.

  1. Production of tremorgenic toxins by Penicillium janthinellum Biourge: a possible aetiological factor in ryegrass staggers.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, G W; Payne, A L; Cockrum, P A

    1979-02-01

    Topsoil, herbage and faeces collected during an outbreak of ryegrass staggers in sheep were examined for tremorgenic penicillia. No such fungi were recovered from the plant material, but they were found among the predominant fungi in the soil and faecal samples. The commonest species of Penicillium, and almost the only tremorgenic species encountered, was Penicillium janthinellum Biourge. When fed to sheep, the mycelium of this fungus evoked a number of the clinical signs seen in field cases of ryegrass staggers. Two tremorgenic toxins were isolated from the mycelial felts and available evidence indicates that they are verruculogen and fumitremorgin A. P. janthinellum also produced these tremorgens when cultured in moist, autoclaved soil, but not in unheated soil. The results obtained from this study are in accord with the hypothesis that ryegrass staggers is caused by tremorgenic mycotoxins.

  2. The small molecular mass antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum--a mechanism of action oriented review.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Nikoletta; Leiter, Eva; Kovács, Barbara; Tomori, Valéria; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Emri, Tamás; Marx, Florentine; Batta, Gyula; Csernoch, László; Haas, Hubertus; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2011-12-01

    The β-lactam producing filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a 6.25 kDa small molecular mass antifungal protein, PAF, which has a highly stable, compact 3D structure and is effective against a wide spectrum of plant and zoo pathogenic fungi. Its precise physiological functions and mode of action need to be elucidated before considering possible biomedical, agricultural or food technological applications. According to some more recent experimental data, PAF plays an important role in the fine-tuning of conidiogenesis in Penicillium chrysogenum. PAF triggers apoptotic cell death in sensitive fungi, and cell death signaling may be transmitted through two-component systems, heterotrimeric G protein coupled signal transduction and regulatory networks as well as via alteration of the Ca(2+) -homeostasis of the cells. Possible biotechnological applications of PAF are also outlined in the review.

  3. Mycobiota and toxigenic Penicillium species on two Spanish dry-cured ham manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Alapont, C; López-Mendoza, M C; Gil, J V; Martínez-Culebras, P V

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the natural mycobiota occurring in dry-cured hams, and in particular on the incidence of mycotoxin-producing fungi. A total of 338 fungal colonies were isolated from three stages of production, these being the post-salting, ripening and aging stages in two manufacturing plants. The results show that fungi were more frequently isolated from the aging stage and that the predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Seventy-four of the 338 fungal strains were selected for identification at the species level by using morphological criteria and internal transcribed spacers sequencing. Of the 74 fungal strains, 59 were Penicillium strains. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified, with P. commune (24 strains) and P. chrysogenum (13 strains) being the most abundant. The potential ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied by isolating the culture followed by HPLC analysis of these mycotoxins in the culture extracts. The results indicated that 25 (33.7%) of the 74 fungal strains produced CPA. Worth noting is the high percentage of CPA-producing strains of P. commune (66.6%) of which some strains were highly toxigenic. P. polonicum strains were also highly toxigenic. With respect to OTA-producing fungi, a low percentage of fungal strains (9.5%) were able to produce OTA at moderate levels. OTA-producing fungi belonged to different Penicillium species including P. chrysogenum, P. commune, P. polonicum and P. verrucosum. These results indicate that there is a possible risk factor posed by CPA and OTA contamination of dry-cured hams.

  4. [Biosynthesis of biologically active low-molecular weight compounds by fungi of the genus Penicillium (review)].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskii, A G; Antipova, T V; Zhelifonova, V P

    2015-01-01

    The recent data on exometabolite biosynthesis in fungi of the genus Penicillium is summarized. The study of creative species, as well as those isolated from extreme ecotopes, resulted in the identification of a number of novel, biologically active compounds. Alkaloid biosynthesis has been shown to begin on.the first day of fungus cultivation and to proceed throughout the cultivation period. Idiophase kinetics was observed for the biosynthesis of polyketide metabolites. The mechanisms of regulation of biosynthesis of promising bioactive compounds are discussed.

  5. Consistent production of phenolic compounds by Penicillium brevicompactum for chemotaxonomic characterization.

    PubMed

    Andersen, B

    1991-08-01

    A consistently produced group of fungal secondary metabolites from Penicillium brevicompactum has been purified and identified as the Raistrick phenols. These compounds are shown to exist separately as an equilibrium mixture in aqueous solutions. The Raistrick phenols have all been included in the metabolite profile of P. brevicompactum. By means of thin layer chromatography-scanning and high performance liquid chromatography-UV diode array detection, the chromatographic and spectroscopic data can be used in the chemotaxonomic characterization of the fungus.

  6. Enumeration and identification of Aspergillus group and Penicillium species in poultry feeds from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, C; Dalcero, A M; Chiacchiera, S M; Miazzo, R; Saenz, M A

    1998-01-01

    A total of 180 samples of poultry feeds were collected during 1996 and 1997 from different factories in the south of the province of Córdoba-Argentina. They were examined for the occurrence of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus group species. Likewise, the capacity to produce aflatoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi group was determined. The predominant species of Aspergillus were A. flavus and A. parasiticus. For Penicillium spp., P. brevicompactum, P. purpurogenum and P. oxalicum were identified. Less frequently isolated were A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. orizae, A. parvulus, A. tamarii, A. terreus, and P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. minioluteum, P. pinophylum, P. restrictum, P. variable and others. The mean value counts ranged from 1 x 10(3) to 9.5 x 10(4) CFU/g for the Aspergillus spp. and from 1.2 x 10(3) to 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/g for the Penicillium spp. When cultured on autoclaved rice kernels for 1 week in the dark at 25 degrees C, mycotoxin production by strains of A. flavus was as follows: 21 of the 45 assayed strains (47%) produced aflatoxins. From them, 24% of the isolates produced AFB1 and AFB2 with levels from 181 to 14545 and 6 to 3640 micrograms/kg respectively. Only 10 strains produced AFB1 with levels from 10 to 920 micrograms/kg. Fifty percent of the A. parasiticus strain was toxicogenic; six aflatoxicogenic profiles were identified. Only 10% of the strains produced all of the aflatoxins. These results showed that a potential exists for the production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi and the Penicillium spp. They also suggested an association of mycotoxicosis with poultry feeds in Argentina.

  7. Effects of salts and temperatures on post-irradiation growth of Penicillium exposed to ultraviolet

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, R.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of Penicillium notatum colonies after uv irradiation of dried mycelium or spores was studied in relation to post-irradiation temperature and salt environment. Dried mycelium and spores behaved differently with respect to sensitivity to temperature, salts and uv, especially the latter. Threshold inhibitory doses for spores were modified markedly either at 4 C or in magnesium and calcium chlorides. It is suggested that these temperature and salt effects are related to prevention of photochemical membrane damage.

  8. Abundance of airborne Penicillium CFU in relation to urbanization in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Rosas, I; Calderón, C; Ulloa, M; Lacey, J

    1993-08-01

    Air was sampled simultaneously at three localities in Mexico City differing in urbanization index and air pollution level on 22 days during a period covering both dry and rainy seasons. An Andersen two-stage microbial sampler was used for 15 min at 28 liters min-1 to isolate culturable fungi on malt extract agar. After exposure, plates were incubated at 25 degrees C for 48 to 72 h before colonies were counted and identified to give concentrations of total fungal spores and of Penicillium spp., expressed as CFU per cubic meter of air. Total fungi numbered 91 to 602 CFU m-3 in Tlalpan Borough (southern area), 40 to 264 CFU m-3 in Cuauhtémoc Borough (downtown), and 26 to 495 CFU m-3 in Gustavo A. Madero Borough (northern area). Although Penicillium spp. were the second most frequently isolated fungal genus, concentrations were small, with a maximum of only 133 CFU m-3. Twice as many colonies were isolated in the southern area, with an urbanization index of 0.25 (arithmetic mean, 41 CFU m-3), as at other sampling stations with greater urbanization indices (arithmetic means, 19 and 20 CFU m-3). In the downtown area, with an urbanization index of 1.0, Penicillium spp. were more numerous than any other genus and formed 25% of the total fungal count compared with 14 and 17% in the other areas. Concentrations of airborne Penicillium spp. did not differ significantly between rainy and dry seasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Tanzawaic acids I–L: Four new polyketides from Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06

    PubMed Central

    Sandjo, Louis P; Thines, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    Summary Four new polyketides have been identified in culture filtrates of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06 isolated from a soil sample. They are structurally based on the same trans-decalinpentanoic acid skeleton as tanzawaic acids A–H. One of the new compounds was found to inhibit the conidial germination in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae at concentrations of 25 μg/mL. PMID:24605144

  10. Effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on penicillin fermentations: mycelial growth and penicillin production. [Penicillium chrysogenum

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate of Penicillium chrysogenum was examined experimentally. The dissolved carbon dioxide was found to inhibit the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate when the aerated submerged penicillin fermentation was exposed to influent gases of 12.6 and 20% carbon dioxide, respectively. Upon exposure to influent gases of 3 and 5% carbon dioxide, no pronounced metabolic inhibition was noted.

  11. Abundance of airborne Penicillium CFU in relation to urbanization in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, I; Calderón, C; Ulloa, M; Lacey, J

    1993-01-01

    Air was sampled simultaneously at three localities in Mexico City differing in urbanization index and air pollution level on 22 days during a period covering both dry and rainy seasons. An Andersen two-stage microbial sampler was used for 15 min at 28 liters min-1 to isolate culturable fungi on malt extract agar. After exposure, plates were incubated at 25 degrees C for 48 to 72 h before colonies were counted and identified to give concentrations of total fungal spores and of Penicillium spp., expressed as CFU per cubic meter of air. Total fungi numbered 91 to 602 CFU m-3 in Tlalpan Borough (southern area), 40 to 264 CFU m-3 in Cuauhtémoc Borough (downtown), and 26 to 495 CFU m-3 in Gustavo A. Madero Borough (northern area). Although Penicillium spp. were the second most frequently isolated fungal genus, concentrations were small, with a maximum of only 133 CFU m-3. Twice as many colonies were isolated in the southern area, with an urbanization index of 0.25 (arithmetic mean, 41 CFU m-3), as at other sampling stations with greater urbanization indices (arithmetic means, 19 and 20 CFU m-3). In the downtown area, with an urbanization index of 1.0, Penicillium spp. were more numerous than any other genus and formed 25% of the total fungal count compared with 14 and 17% in the other areas. Concentrations of airborne Penicillium spp. did not differ significantly between rainy and dry seasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8368852

  12. SPF-32629 A and B, novel human chymase inhibitors produced by Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Takuro; Hosotani, Nobuo; Ohnishi, Masako; Kumagai, Kazuo; Saji, Ikutaro

    2006-01-01

    Two new human chymase inhibitors, SPF-32629A and B, were isolated from the cultured broth of Penicillium sp. SPF-32629. These structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and identified as new pyridone compounds. SPF-32629B was the carboxylated derivative of SPF-32629A. SPF-32629A and B specifically inhibited human chymase among four serine proteases tested with the IC50 of 0.25 and 0.42 microg/ml, respectively.

  13. Yaequinolones J1 and J2, novel insecticidal antibiotics from Penicillium sp. FKI-2140.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2005-12-08

    [chemical reaction: see text]. Two novel insecticidal antibiotics with a p-methoxyphenylquinolinone skeleton fused with a pyran ring, yaequinolones J1 (1) and J2 (2), have been isolated from Penicillium sp. FKI-2140, and structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including various NMR experiments. The relative stereochemistries were assigned by NOE experiments. Yaequinolones J1 and J2 showed toxicity against Artemia salina (brine shrimp) with the MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL.

  14. Impact of the Penicillium chrysogenum genome on industrial production of metabolites.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Marco Alexander

    2011-10-01

    The genome sequence of Penicillium chrysogenum has initiated a range of fundamental studies, deciphering the genetic secrets of the industrial penicillin producer. More than 60 years of classical strain improvement has resulted in major but delicate rebalancing of the intracellular metabolism leading to the impressive penicillin titres of the current production strains. Several leads for further improvement are being followed up, including the use of P. chrysogenum as a cell factory for other products than β-lactam antibiotics.

  15. Penicillium strains as dominant degraders in soil for coffee residue, a biological waste unsuitable for fertilization.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Takeshi, Kyoko

    2007-12-01

    Coffee residue is an agricultural waste which inhibits the growth of several crops. Therefore coffee residue-degrading microbes in soil were screened, isolated and characterized. Forty isolates were obtained after enrichment culture of soil samples. Seven strains (fast degraders) showed strong degrading activity, while 18 strains (slow degraders) showed weak degrading activity. DNA analysis suggested that the fast degraders are Penicillium, and the slow degraders are Penicillium, Trichoderma/Hypocrea, Fusarium/Gibberella, Phaeoacremonium/Togninia or Acidocella. The all fast degraders are cellulolytic, mannolytic and pectinolytic. Although it is generally thought that fungi such as Trichoderma contribute largely to aerobic degradation of cellulosic biomass, our data suggested that Penicillium overwhelms them in coffee residue degradation. It was implied that polysaccharides in coffee residue are not degraded independently by different microbes, but degraded simultaneously by strains with cellulolytic, mannolytic and pectinolytic activity. Since there is no report of an ascomycete possessing all the three enzyme activities, the fast degraders are ecologically important and have the potential to be used as producers of the costly enzymes from agricultural wastes. The present results advance our understanding of microbial degradation of a phytotoxic agricultural waste, and offer a new tool for recycling it.

  16. Effects of different culture media on biodegradation of triclosan by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Özdemir, Caner; Tekinay, Turgay

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent and a persistent pollutant. The biodegradation of triclosan is dependent on many variables including the biodegradation organism and the environmental conditions. Here, we evaluated the triclosan degradation potential of two fungi strains, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Penicillium sp., and the rate of its turnover to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Both of these strains showed less susceptibility to triclosan when grown in minimal salt medium. In order to further evaluate the effects of environmental conditions on triclosan degradation, three different culture conditions including original thermal power plant wastewater, T6 nutrimedia and ammonium mineral salts medium were used. The maximum triclosan degradation yield was 48% for R. mucilaginosa and 82% for Penicillium sp. at 2.7 mg/L triclosan concentration. Biodegradation experiments revealed that Penicillium sp. was more tolerant to triclosan. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs also showed the morphological changes of fungus when cells were treated with triclosan. Overall, these fungi strains could be used as effective microorganisms in active uptake (degradation) and passive uptake (sorption) of triclosan and their efficiency can be increased by optimizing the culture conditions.

  17. Electronic nose application for determination of Penicillium digitatum in Valencia oranges.

    PubMed

    Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Antonucci, Francesca; Strano, Maria Concetta; Calandra, Mariarosaria; Solaini, Silvia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are responsible for one the most serious diseases occurring during storage of citrus fruits. Its early detection allows a relevant increase in shelf life, and in situ monitoring of fungal infections represents a very efficient tool to improve storage quality. In the case of metabolic alterations due to physiological or fungal pathologies, olfactometric analysis allows the detection of specific volatile biomarkers, thus providing an effective tool for postharvest quality control of fruits and vegetables. A total of 300 Valencia oranges were analysed with an electronic nose and results were screened by a multivariate classification technique, partial least squares discriminant analysis, in order to investigate whether the electronic nose could distinguish between Penicillium-infected and non-infected samples and to evaluate the efficiency of the group classifications. High percentages of correct classification were obtained at low levels of infection (100% for 2-5% infection in an independent test). The electronic nose may be successfully applied as a reliable, non-destructive and non-contact indirect technology for the identification of fungal strains in storage rooms, especially when the infection occurs in small percentages that are not easily identifiable by classic methodologies of inspection. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Isolation, expression and characterization of a minor allergen from Penicillium crustosum.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, M Serdal; Kumar, Veena; Abebe, Makonnen; Lemieux, Michèle; Vijay, Hari M

    2014-01-01

    A ribosomal P1 protein, Pen b 26 from Penicillium brevicompactum, was previously identified as a major allergen. A homolog protein was isolated and characterized from Penicillium crustosum which is not known to be allergenic mold. A cDNA library of P. crustosum was constructed and screened using a probe based on the DNA sequence of Pen b 26. A positive clone was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by comparing its immunological and physical properties to Pen b 26. It was designated as Pen cr 26 and had a 321 nt ORF corresponding to 107 amino acids with a MW of 11 kDa. Pen cr 26 had strong sequence homology to Pen b 26 (92% for nucleotides and 86% for amino acids) and its physical and predicted structural properties were similar to the latter. The level of expression of Pen cr 26 was much lower than that of Pen b 26 in the same expression vector. Both proteins were recognized equally well by the IgG class specific antibodies, but Pen cr 26 was poorly recognized by Penicillium-sensitive atopic sera (IgE), suggesting striking antigenic difference in IgE epitopes, i.e., 87% were positive for Pen b 26 while only 23% were positive for Pen cr 26. The allergenicity of Pen cr 26 seems to be minor in nature and it could be a hypoallergenic variant of Pen b 26.

  19. A rapid knockdown effect of Penicillium citrinum for control of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maketon, Monchan; Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Kaysorngup, Achirayar

    2014-02-01

    Twenty local isolates of entomopathogenic fungi were determined for control of the larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus. In a laboratory experiment, a Penicillium sp. CM-010 caused 100% mortality of third-instar larvae within 2 h using a conidial suspension of 1 × 10⁶ conidia ml⁻¹. Its LC₅₀ was 3 × 10⁵ conidia ml⁻¹, and the lethal time (LT₅₀) was 1.06 h. Cloning and sequencing of its internal transcribed spacer region indicated that this Penicillium species is Penicillium citrinum (100% identity in 434 bp). Mortality of the adult was highest with Aspergillus flavus CM-011 followed with Metarhizium anisopliae CKM-048 from 1 × 10⁹ conidia ml⁻¹. P. citrinum CM-010 at 1 × 10⁶ conidia ml⁻¹ killed 100% larvae within 2 h while Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis at 5 ITU ml⁻¹ required 24 h. This P. citrinum CM-010 also greatly reduced survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae in an unreplicated field test. Light and transmission electron micrographs showed that the fungal conidia were ingested by the larvae and deposited in the gut. The metabolite patulin was produced by P. citrinum CM-010 instead of citrinin.

  20. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M; Guitton, Y; Vansteelandt, M; Kerzaon, I; Blanchet, E; Robiou du Pont, T; Frisvad, J C; Hess, P; Pouchus, Y F; Grovel, O

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

  1. Genomic Characterization Reveals Insights Into Patulin Biosynthesis and Pathogenicity in Penicillium Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Boqiang; Zong, Yuanyuan; Du, Zhenglin; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhanquan; Qin, Guozheng; Zhao, Wenming; Tian, Shiping

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium species are fungal pathogens that infect crop plants worldwide. P. expansum differs from P. italicum and P. digitatum, all major postharvest pathogens of pome and citrus, in that the former is able to produce the mycotoxin patulin and has a broader host range. The molecular basis of host-specificity of fungal pathogens has now become the focus of recent research. The present report provides the whole genome sequence of P. expansum (33.52 Mb) and P. italicum (28.99 Mb) and identifies differences in genome structure, important pathogenic characters, and secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters in Penicillium species. We identified a total of 55 gene clusters potentially related to secondary metabolism, including a cluster of 15 genes (named PePatA to PePatO), that may be involved in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum. Functional studies confirmed that PePatL and PePatK play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of patulin and that patulin production is not related to virulence of P. expansum. Collectively, P. expansum contains more pathogenic genes and SM gene clusters, in particular, an intact patulin cluster, than P. italicum or P. digitatum. These findings provide important information relevant to understanding the molecular network of patulin biosynthesis and mechanisms of host-specificity in Penicillium species.

  2. Evaluation of secretome of highly efficient lignocellulolytic Penicillium sp. Dal 5 isolated from rhizosphere of conifers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rohit; Kaur, Baljit; Singh, Surender; Di Falco, Macros; Tsang, Adrian; Chadha, B S

    2016-09-01

    Penicillium sp. (Dal 5) isolated from rhizosphere of conifers from Dalhousie (Himachal Pradesh, India) was found to be an efficient cellulolytic strain. The culture under shake flask on CWR (cellulose, wheat bran and rice straw) medium produced appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase (35.69U/ml), β-glucosidase (4.20U/ml), cellobiohydrolase (2.86U/ml), FPase (1.2U/ml) and xylanase (115U/ml) compared to other Penicillium strains reported in literature. The mass spectroscopy analysis of Penicillium sp. Dal 5 secretome identified 108 proteins constituting an array of CAZymes including glycosyl hydrolases (GH) belonging to 24 different families, polysaccharide lyases (PL), carbohydrate esterases (CE), lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMO) in addition to swollenin and a variety of carbohydrate binding modules (CBM) indicating an elaborate genetic potential of this strain for hydrolysis of lignocellulosics. Further, the culture extract was evaluated for hydrolysis of alkali treated rice straw, wheat straw, bagasse and corn cob at 10% substrate loading rate.

  3. Prospects for fungus identification using CO1 DNA barcodes, with Penicillium as a test case.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Keith A; Samson, Robert A; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Houbraken, Jos; Lévesque, C André; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Louis-Seize, Gerry; Hebert, Paul D N

    2007-03-06

    DNA barcoding systems employ a short, standardized gene region to identify species. A 648-bp segment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) is the core barcode region for animals, but its utility has not been tested in fungi. This study began with an examination of patterns of sequence divergences in this gene region for 38 fungal taxa with full CO1 sequences. Because these results suggested that CO1 could be effective in species recognition, we designed primers for a 545-bp fragment of CO1 and generated sequences for multiple strains from 58 species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium and 12 allied species. Despite the frequent literature reports of introns in fungal mitochondrial genomes, we detected introns in only 2 of 370 Penicillium strains. Representatives from 38 of 58 species formed cohesive assemblages with distinct CO1 sequences, and all cases of sequence sharing involved known species complexes. CO1 sequence divergences averaged 0.06% within species, less than for internal transcribed spacer nrDNA or beta-tubulin sequences (BenA). CO1 divergences between species averaged 5.6%, comparable to internal transcribed spacer, but less than values for BenA (14.4%). Although the latter gene delivered higher taxonomic resolution, the amplification and alignment of CO1 was simpler. The development of a barcoding system for fungi that shares a common gene target with other kingdoms would be a significant advance.

  4. Trichocomaceae: biodiversity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp residing in libraries.

    PubMed

    Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2012-10-19

    Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42)  and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.

  5. Prospects for fungus identification using CO1 DNA barcodes, with Penicillium as a test case

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Keith A.; Samson, Robert A.; deWaard, Jeremy R.; Houbraken, Jos; Lévesque, C. André; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Louis-Seize, Gerry; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2007-01-01

    DNA barcoding systems employ a short, standardized gene region to identify species. A 648-bp segment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) is the core barcode region for animals, but its utility has not been tested in fungi. This study began with an examination of patterns of sequence divergences in this gene region for 38 fungal taxa with full CO1 sequences. Because these results suggested that CO1 could be effective in species recognition, we designed primers for a 545-bp fragment of CO1 and generated sequences for multiple strains from 58 species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium and 12 allied species. Despite the frequent literature reports of introns in fungal mitochondrial genomes, we detected introns in only 2 of 370 Penicillium strains. Representatives from 38 of 58 species formed cohesive assemblages with distinct CO1 sequences, and all cases of sequence sharing involved known species complexes. CO1 sequence divergences averaged 0.06% within species, less than for internal transcribed spacer nrDNA or β-tubulin sequences (BenA). CO1 divergences between species averaged 5.6%, comparable to internal transcribed spacer, but less than values for BenA (14.4%). Although the latter gene delivered higher taxonomic resolution, the amplification and alignment of CO1 was simpler. The development of a barcoding system for fungi that shares a common gene target with other kingdoms would be a significant advance. PMID:17360450

  6. Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F.; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new “omics” era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus. PMID:22318718

  7. Genome, Transcriptome, and Functional Analyses of Penicillium expansum Provide New Insights Into Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Levin, Elena; Sela, Noa; Selma-Lázaro, Cristina; Carmona, Lourdes; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; González-Candelas, Luis; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between secondary metabolism and infection in pathogenic fungi has remained largely elusive. The genus Penicillium comprises a group of plant pathogens with varying host specificities and with the ability to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. The genomes of three Penicillium expansum strains, the main postharvest pathogen of pome fruit, and one Pencillium italicum strain, a postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit, were sequenced and compared with 24 other fungal species. A genomic analysis of gene clusters responsible for the production of secondary metabolites was performed. Putative virulence factors in P. expansum were identified by means of a transcriptomic analysis of apple fruits during the course of infection. Despite a major genome contraction, P. expansum is the Penicillium species with the largest potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Results using knockout mutants clearly demonstrated that neither patulin nor citrinin are required by P. expansum to successfully infect apples. Li et al. ( MPMI-12-14-0398-FI ) reported similar results and conclusions in their recently accepted paper.

  8. Biotransformation of 2,4-dinitroanisole by a fungal Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Hunter W; Langenfeld, Kathryn L; Li, Xueshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Just, Craig L

    2017-02-01

    Insensitive munitions explosives are new formulations that are less prone to unintended detonation compared to traditional explosives. While these formulations have safety benefits, the individual constituents, such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), have an unknown ecosystem fate with potentially toxic impacts to flora and fauna exposed to DNAN and/or its metabolites. Fungi may be useful in remediation and have been shown to degrade traditional nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, that are structurally similar to DNAN. In this study, a fungal Penicillium sp., isolated from willow trees and designated strain KH1, was shown to degrade DNAN in solution within 14 days. Stable-isotope labeled DNAN and an untargeted metabolomics approach were used to discover 13 novel transformation products. Penicillium sp. KH1 produced DNAN metabolites resulting from ortho- and para-nitroreduction, demethylation, acetylation, hydroxylation, malonylation, and sulfation. Incubations with intermediate metabolites such as 2-amino-4-nitroanisole and 4-amino-2-nitroanisole as the primary substrates confirmed putative metabolite isomerism and pathways. No ring-cleavage products were observed, consistent with other reports that mineralization of DNAN is an uncommon metabolic outcome. The production of metabolites with unknown persistence and toxicity suggests further study will be needed to implement remediation with Penicillium sp. KH1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biotransformation of DNAN by a fungus.

  9. Proteomics shows new faces for the old penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new "omics" era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus.

  10. The effect of locust bean gum (LBG)-based edible coatings carrying biocontrol yeasts against Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum causal agents of postharvest decay of mandarin fruit.

    PubMed

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Strains belonging to Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans species were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic molds Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. Moreover, studies aimed at screening the antifungal activity of selected yeast strains in vivo conditions against P. digitatum and P. italicum, and investigated the efficacy of a polysaccharidic matrix, locust bean gum (LBG), enriched with the tested BCAs, in controlling postharvest decays in artificially inoculated mandarins. The population dynamics of BCAs on wounds and the magnitude of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in fruit tissues were also investigated after treatments of mandarins with antagonistic yeasts. W. anomalus BS91, M. pulcherrima MPR3 and A. pullulans PI1 provided excellent control of postharvest decays caused by P. digitatum and P. italicum on mandarins, both when the yeasts were used alone and in combination with LBG, which enhanced the yeast cell viability over time. Finally, the increased activity of POD and lower decrease in SOD activity in response to BCAs application in mandarin fruits confirmed their involvement in the biocontrol mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite films containing food additives with antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2008-12-10

    New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite films containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and mineral salts, classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Selected films containing food preservatives were used for in vitro evaluation (disk diameter test) of their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Penicillium italicum (PI), the most important postharvest pathogens of fresh citrus fruit. Mechanical properties and oxygen (OP) and water vapor permeabilities (WVP) of selected films were also determined. Film disks containing parabens and their mixtures inhibited PD and PI to a higher extent than the other chemicals tested. Among all organic acid salts tested, potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium benzoate (SB) were the most effective salts in controlling both PD and PI. The use of mixtures of parabens or organic acid salts did not provide an additive or synergistic effect for mold inhibition when compared to the use of single chemicals. Barrier and mechanical properties of films were affected by the addition of food preservatives. Results showed that HPMC-lipid films containing an appropriate food additive should promise as potential commercial antifungal edible coatings for fresh citrus fruit.

  12. Modelling the effect of temperature, pH, water activity, and organic acids on the germination time of Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti conidia.

    PubMed

    Kalai, Safaa; Anzala, Lexane; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2017-01-02

    In this study, the influence of environmental factors on the germination time of Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti conidia was evaluated. To do so, the effects of i/temperature, pH, water activity, and ii/organic acids were determined using models based on i/cardinal values, and ii/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) respectively. Cardinal values for germination of conidia were not observed to be species dependent. Minimum temperatures were estimated to be below the freezing point, with an optimum of 26.9°C, and a maximum of 33.5°C. For both species, minimal and optimal aw values were found to be 0.83 and 0.99, respectively, while for pH these values corresponded to 2.9, and 5.6. MIC values could not be determined for lactic acid because conidia of both species germinated in up to 1M concentrations, the highest concentration tested. At pH5.6, P. camemberti (MIC=0.197M) was more sensitive to propionic acid than P. roqueforti (MIC=0.796M).

  13. Use of GFP-tagged strains of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum to study host-pathogen interactions in oranges and apples.

    PubMed

    Buron-Moles, G; López-Pérez, M; González-Candelas, L; Viñas, I; Teixidó, N; Usall, J; Torres, R

    2012-11-15

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are responsible for green and blue molds in citrus and pome fruits, respectively, which result in major monetary losses worldwide. In order to study their infection process in fruits, we successfully introduced a green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoding gene into wild type P. digitatum and P. expansum isolates, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), with hygromycin B resistance as the selectable marker. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the transformation of these two important postharvest pathogens with GFP and the use of transformed strains to study compatible and non-host pathogen interactions. Transformation did not affect the pathogenicity or the ecophysiology of either species compared to their respective wild type strains. The GFP-tagged strains were used for in situ analysis of compatible and non-host pathogen interactions on oranges and apples. Knowledge of the infection process of apples and oranges by these pathogens will facilitate the design of novel strategies to control these postharvest diseases and the use of the GFP-tagged strains will help to determine the response of P. digitatum and P. expansum on/in plant surface and tissues to different postharvest treatments.

  14. The draft genome sequence of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium subrubescens reveals a highly enriched content of plant biomass related CAZymes compared to related fungi.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Mäkelä, Miia R; Hildén, Kristiina; Bervoets, Sander; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P; Granchi, Zoraide

    2017-03-20

    Here we report the genome sequence of the ascomycete saprobic fungus Penicillium subrubescens FBCC1632/CBS132785 isolated from a Jerusalem artichoke field in Finland. The 39.75Mb genome containing 14,188 gene models is highly similar for that reported for other Penicillium species, but contains a significantly higher number of putative carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) encoding genes.

  15. Examination of the taxonomic position of Penicillium strains used in blue cheese production based on the partial sequence of β-tubulin.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshio; Hirose, Dai; Akiyama, Ayano; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium roqueforti is a well known starter used for blue cheese production. Two closely related species, P. carneum and P. paneum, were previously classified as varieties of P. roqueforti. Penicillium roqueforti does not produce patulin, a mycotoxin harmful for human health, whereas both P. carneum and P. paneum actively produce this toxin. From the viewpoint of food safety, it is thus important to confirm that P. carneum and P. paneum are not used for cheese production. In the present study, the taxonomic position of Penicillium strains used for blue cheese production was examined on the basis of the partial sequence of β-tubulin. Twenty-eight Penicillium strains isolated from blue cheeses were investigated. All the examined strains belonged to P. roqueforti. Therefore, the Penicillium strains used for production of the blue cheese samples examined here do not negatively impact on human health.

  16. Identification, characterization, and molecular cloning of a novel hyaluronidase, a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 16, from Penicillium spp.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Mikio; Kamei, Jun-ichi; Obata, Akio

    2011-01-03

    Hyaluronidase (HAase) activity was detected in the culture supernatants of Penicillium purpurogenum and Penicillium funiculosum. The HAase from Penicillium spp. (HAase-P) was a hyaluronate 4-glycanohydrolase, which catalyzed the endolytic hydrolysis of the β-1,4 glycosidic linkage, as do vertebrate HAases. The gene encoding HAase-P was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. According to homology analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences, HAase-P is not classified into any of the known HAase groups, but belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 16, which includes endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase. Regarding the substrate specificities, no chondroitinase and glucanase activities were detected. Judging from homology analyses and enzymatic properties, HAase-P seems to be a new type of HAase.

  17. Phylogeny and morphological analyses of Penicillium section Sclerotiora (Fungi) lead to the discovery of five new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Chen, Kai; Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2017-08-15

    Phylogeny of Penicillium section Sclerotiora is still limitedly investigated. In this study, five new species of Penicillium are identified from the samples collected from different places of China, and named P. austrosinicum, P. choerospondiatis, P. exsudans, P. sanshaense and P. verrucisporum. The conidiophores of P. austrosinicum and P. exsudans are monoverticillate like most members of the section, while the rest species are biverticillate similar to the only two species P. herquei and P. malachiteum previously reported in the section Sclerotiora. The phylogenetic positions of the new taxa are determined based on the sequence data of ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 regions, which reveals that all the species with biverticillate condiophores form a well-supported subclade in the section. The new Penicillium species clearly differ from the existing species of the genus in culture characteristics on four standard growth media, microscopic features, and sequence data. Morphological discrepancies are discussed between the new species and their allies.

  18. Molecular characterization of the PR-toxin gene cluster in Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium chrysogenum: cross talk of secondary metabolite pathways.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro I; Ullán, Ricardo V; Albillos, Silvia M; Montero, Olimpio; Fernández-Bodega, María Ángeles; García-Estrada, Carlos; Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The PR-toxin is a potent mycotoxin produced by Penicillium roqueforti in moulded grains and grass silages and may contaminate blue-veined cheese. The PR-toxin derives from the 15 carbon atoms sesquiterpene aristolochene formed by the aristolochene synthase (encoded by ari1). We have cloned and sequenced a four gene cluster that includes the ari1 gene from P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of the four genes (named prx1 to prx4) resulted in a reduction of 65-75% in the production of PR-toxin indicating that the four genes encode enzymes involved in PR-toxin biosynthesis. Interestingly the four silenced mutants overproduce large amounts of mycophenolic acid, an antitumor compound formed by an unrelated pathway suggesting a cross-talk of PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid production. An eleven gene cluster that includes the above mentioned four prx genes and a 14-TMS drug/H(+) antiporter was found in the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. This eleven gene cluster has been reported to be very poorly expressed in a transcriptomic study of P. chrysogenum genes under conditions of penicillin production (strongly aerated cultures). We found that this apparently silent gene cluster is able to produce PR-toxin in P. chrysogenum under static culture conditions on hydrated rice medium. Noteworthily, the production of PR-toxin was 2.6-fold higher in P. chrysogenum npe10, a strain deleted in the 56.8kb amplifiable region containing the pen gene cluster, than in the parental strain Wisconsin 54-1255 providing another example of cross-talk between secondary metabolite pathways in this fungus. A detailed PR-toxin biosynthesis pathway is proposed based on all available evidence.

  19. Evaluation of food additives and low-toxicity compounds as alternative chemicals for the control of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum on citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Palou, Lluís; Usall, Josep; Smilanick, Joseph L; Aguilar, Maria-José; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of low-toxicity chemicals as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of post-harvest green and blue moulds of citrus was evaluated. A preliminary selection of chemicals, mostly common food additives, was made through in vivo primary screenings with oranges artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or P italicum. Selected compounds and mixtures were tested as heated solutions in small-scale trials. Immersion of artificially inoculated oranges or lemons for 120 s in solutions at 40.6 degrees C and natural pH of potassium sorbate (0.2 M), sodium benzoate (0.2 M) or mixtures (0.1 + 0.1 M) of potassium sorbate with sodium benzoate, sodium propionate or sodium acetate were the most effective organic acid salts tested and reduced green mould by 70-80% after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. The mixtures did not significantly enhance the effectiveness of potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate alone. These solutions were as effective as sodium carbonate or calcium polysulphide treatments and, in general, they were more effective on lemons than on oranges. Satisfactory control of green and blue moulds was obtained by dipping oranges for 150 s in solutions of sodium molybdate (24.2 mM) or ammonium molybdate (1.0 mM) at 48 or 53 degrees C, but not at 20 degrees C. At 53 degrees C, however, the effectiveness of hot water was not enhanced by either molybdate. Molybdenum salts at higher concentrations were phytotoxic and stained the fruit. At non-phytotoxic concentrations, the effectiveness of these solutions was more influenced by temperature than by concentration. In general, the inhibitory effects of all compounds tested were not fungicidal but fungistatic and not very persistent. In conclusion, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and ammonium molybdate, among the wide range of chemicals tested, were superior for the control of post-harvest Penicillium decay of citrus fruit.

  20. Genotypic identification of Penicillium expansum and the role of processing on patulin presence in juice.

    PubMed

    Elhariry, Hesham; Bahobial, Abdul Aziz; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2011-04-01

    This work aimed at isolation and identification of patulin producing fungi and to follow the presence of patulin during apple juice processing. Among 34 Penicillium isolates, eight isolates (five from healthy appeared apples and 12 from rot spotted apples) were considered as patulin producers using thin-layer chromatography. These isolates were classically identified as a Penicillium expansum. PCR utilizing primers based on the polygalacturonase gene of P. expansum was applied for detecting this mold. The PCR amplified a 404-bp DNA product from all tested P. expansum isolates, but not in other common food spoilage Penicillium species. RAPD technique using P1 or M13 primers was applied to determine the similarity of the P. expansum isolates. RAPD results revealed that the tested strains showed high percentage of similarity and no correlation was observed between cluster analysis and the sources of isolation. Patulin could not be detected in healthy appeared apples and their extracted juice during different stages of juice process. In apple juice made from the healthy parts of apples decayed by P. expansum contained patulin which may present health hazard. The obtained results assured that patulin is known to be stable in apple juice even after pasteurization. In conclusion, the removal of the rotten part from the fruit is not sufficient to eliminate the mycotoxin patulin from apple juice. Although, the enzyme treatment (pectinase and amylase) and pasteurization (95 °C for 7 min) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced patulin level, its level is still higher than the level of <50 μg/kg considered by Codex alimentarius when the apple juice processed from the healthy parts of rot spotted fruits. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioactive Constituents from an Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium polonicum NFW9, associated with Taxus fauna.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nighat; Sripisut, Tawanun; Youn, Ui Joung; Ahmed, Safia; Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Muñoz-Acuña, Ulyana; Simmons, Charles J; Qazi, Muneer Ahmed; Jadoon, Muniba; Tan, Ghee Teng; de Blanco, Esperanza J Carcache; Chang, Leng Chee

    2017-02-16

    Endophytic fungi are being recognized as vital and untapped sources of a variety of structurally novel and unique bioactive secondary metabolites in the field of natural products drug discovery. Herein, this study reports the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum (NFW9) associated with Taxus fuana. Extracts of the endophytic fungus cultured on potato dextrose agar were purified using several chromatographic techniques. Biological evaluation was performed based on their abilities to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cytotoxicity assays. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of a fermentation culture of an endophytic fungus, Penicillium polonicum led to the isolation of a dimeric anthraquinone, (R)-1,1',3,3',5,5'-hexahydroxy-7,7'-dimethyl[2,2'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone (1), a steroidal furanoid (-)-wortmannolone (2), along with three other compounds (34). Moreover, this is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from an endophytic fungus. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS data analyses. The stereo structure of compound 1 was determined by the measurement of specific optical rotation and CD spectrum. The relative stereochemistry of 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 23 showed inhibitory activities in TNF-α-induced NF-κB assay with IC50 values in the range of 0.472.11 µM. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 showed moderate inhibition against NF-κB and cancer cell lines. The endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum of Taxus fuana is capable of producing biologically active natural compounds. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further chemical investigations into endophyte-producing natural products, drug discovery and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Limitations of monoclonal antibodies for monitoring of fungal aerosols using Penicillium brevicompactum as a model fungus.

    PubMed

    Schmechel, D; Górny, R L; Simpson, J P; Reponen, T; Grinshpun, S A; Lewis, D M

    2003-12-01

    Molds are ubiquitous in every environment and many species have been recently associated with an increase in opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients or the exacerbation of asthmatic episodes in allergic patients. The degree of environmental contamination with fungi thus needs to be monitored and in this study we report the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of spores of Penicillium brevicompactum in experimental model aerosols. In addition, we have investigated the influence of different parameters of air sampling and sample recovery on ELISA performance. MAbs were produced with standard hybridoma techniques and cross-reactivities were determined against spores of 53 fungal species by indirect ELISA. Standardized experimental fungal aerosols were collected with the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler onto polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene filters (PTFE) and the effects of different extraction buffers and filter agitation methods during sample processing on spore recovery and ELISA detection were investigated. Five mAbs were produced and all of them cross-reacted with several of 31 related Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium species. However, cross-reactivities with 21 non-related fungi were rare. Spores were recovered in much higher numbers from polycarbonate filters (PFs) than from polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Optical densities (ODs) in ELISA were higher for spores collected into carbonate coating buffer (CCB) than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Filter bath sonication following filter vortexing had no positive effects on ELISA sensitivity. The cross-reactivity patterns of mAbs suggest that Aspergillus and Penicillium species share multiple antigens. Quantitative ELISA results for fungal aerosols were found to be influenced by differential sample processing and thus method standardization will be essential to maintain the comparability of immunometric

  3. Genetic basis for mycophenolic acid production and strain-dependent production variability in Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Gillot, Guillaume; Jany, Jean-Luc; Dominguez-Santos, Rebeca; Poirier, Elisabeth; Debaets, Stella; Hidalgo, Pedro I; Ullán, Ricardo V; Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika

    2017-04-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a secondary metabolite produced by various Penicillium species including Penicillium roqueforti. The MPA biosynthetic pathway was recently described in Penicillium brevicompactum. In this study, an in silico analysis of the P. roqueforti FM164 genome sequence localized a 23.5-kb putative MPA gene cluster. The cluster contains seven genes putatively coding seven proteins (MpaA, MpaB, MpaC, MpaDE, MpaF, MpaG, MpaH) and is highly similar (i.e. gene synteny, sequence homology) to the P. brevicompactum cluster. To confirm the involvement of this gene cluster in MPA biosynthesis, gene silencing using RNA interference targeting mpaC, encoding a putative polyketide synthase, was performed in a high MPA-producing P. roqueforti strain (F43-1). In the obtained transformants, decreased MPA production (measured by LC-Q-TOF/MS) was correlated to reduced mpaC gene expression by Q-RT-PCR. In parallel, mycotoxin quantification on multiple P. roqueforti strains suggested strain-dependent MPA-production. Thus, the entire MPA cluster was sequenced for P. roqueforti strains with contrasted MPA production and a 174bp deletion in mpaC was observed in low MPA-producers. PCRs directed towards the deleted region among 55 strains showed an excellent correlation with MPA quantification. Our results indicated the clear involvement of mpaC gene as well as surrounding cluster in P. roqueforti MPA biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional characterization of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster of Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Marco A; Westerlaken, Ilja; Leeflang, Chris; Kerkman, Richard; Bovenberg, Roel A L

    2007-09-01

    Industrial strain improvement via classical mutagenesis is a black box approach. In an attempt to learn from and understand the mutations introduced, we cloned and characterized the amplified region of industrial penicillin production strains. Upon amplification of this region Penicillium chrysogenum is capable of producing an increased amount of antibiotics, as was previously reported [Barredo, J.L., Diez, B., Alvarez, E., Martín, J.F., 1989a. Large amplification of a 35-kb DNA fragment carrying two penicillin biosynthetic genes in high yielding strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. Curr. Genet. 16, 453-459; Newbert, R.W., Barton, B., Greaves, P., Harper, J., Turner, G., 1997. Analysis of a commercially improved Penicillium chrysogenum strain series, involvement of recombinogenic regions in amplification and deletion of the penicillin gene cluster. J. Ind. Microbiol. 19, 18-27]. Bioinformatic analysis of the central 56.9kb, present as six direct repeats in the strains analyzed in this study, predicted 15 Open Reading Frames (ORFs). Besides the three penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC and penDE) only one ORF has an orthologue of known function in the database: the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene ERG25. Surprisingly, many genes known to encode direct or indirect steps beta-lactam biosynthesis like phenyl acetic acid CoA ligase and transporters are not present. Detailed analyses reveal a detectable transcript for most of the predicted ORFs under the conditions tested. We have studied the role of these in relation to penicillin production and amplification of the biosynthetic gene cluster. In contrast to what was expected, the genes encoding the three penicillin biosynthetic enzymes alone are sufficient to restore full beta-lactam synthesis in a mutant lacking the complete region. Therefore, the role of the other 12 ORFs in this region seems irrelevant for penicillin biosynthesis.

  5. First Report on Isolation of Penicillium adametzioides and Purpureocillium lilacinum from Decayed Fruit of Cheongsoo Grapes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Sang, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Yong Soo; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-03-01

    Two species, Penicillium adametzioides and Purpureocillium lilacinum, were isolated from decayed grapes (cv. Cheongsoo) in Korea. Each species was initially identified by phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of two genes. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin (BT2) genes were used for identification of Penicillium adametzioides, and ITS and partial translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) genes were used for identification of Purpureocillium lilacinum. Morphologically, they were found to be identical to previous descriptions. The two species presented here have not been previously reported in Korea.

  6. Penicillium brevicompactum as the cause of a necrotic lung ball in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    de la Cámara, R; Pinilla, I; Muñoz, E; Buendía, B; Steegmann, J L; Fernández-Rañada, J M

    1996-12-01

    The non-Candida, non-Aspergillus fungal infections are being reported with increasing frequency in BMT patients. One of these agents is Penicillium which has rarely been implicated as a pathogen in these patients. Only a few cases of isolated fungemias have been reported to date. We present the first documented case of invasive lung infection due to Penicillium brevicompactum in an allogeneic BMT recipient. As this case shows, the diagnosis of non-Candida, non-Aspergillus fungal infections may be incorrect if only histologic findings are available, mainly because misdiagnosis with other more common fungus can occur. A positive culture is required in order to make an accurate diagnosis.

  7. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro

    2010-04-12

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives. PMID:28327529

  9. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  10. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 1015 cm-3. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  11. Glucose released by hydrolytic activity of amylase influences the pigment synthesis in Penicillium sp NIOM-02.

    PubMed

    Puttananjaiah, Mohan-Kumari H; Dhale, Mohan A

    2013-01-01

    Carbon catabolite repression is generally considered as a regulatory mechanism to ensure sequential synthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study we made an attempt to understand the influence of amylase activity on pigment synthesis in Penicillium sp NIOM-02. The amylase activity is inversely proportional to pigment production. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of amylase reaction revealed glucose as the major product of starch hydrolysis. The fungus grown in acarbose (inhibitor of amylase) incorporated media produced higher quantities of pigments. Apparently, glucose released due to amylase activity influenced the pigment synthesis by cAMP signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bridged Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from Penicillium raciborskii, an Endophytic Fungus of Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Marena; Ward, Joshua M; Turpeinen, Ari; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Hokkanen, Juho; Tolonen, Ari; Häkkänen, Heikki; Picart, Pere; Ihalainen, Janne; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Mattila, Sampo

    2016-04-22

    Three new epithiodiketopiperazine natural products [outovirin A (1), outovirin B (2), and outovirin C (3)] resembling the antifungal natural product gliovirin have been identified in extracts of Penicillium raciborskii, an endophytic fungus isolated from Rhododendron tomentosum. The compounds are unusual for their class in that they possess sulfide bridges between α- and β-carbons rather than the typical α-α bridging. To our knowledge, outovirin A represents the first reported naturally produced epimonothiodiketopiperazine, and antifungal outovirin C is the first reported trisulfide gliovirin-like compound. This report describes the identification and structural elucidation of the compounds by LC-MS/MS and NMR.

  13. Disposition of Mycophenolic Acid, Brevianamide A, Asperphenamate, and Ergosterol in Solid Cultures of Penicillium brevicompactum

    PubMed Central

    Bird, B. A.; Campbell, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    When Penicillium brevicompactum was grown between layers of dialysis membrane on Czapek-Dox agar for 3 days, no synthesis of mycophenolic acid, brevianamide A, asperphenamate, or ergosterol occurred. After removal of the uppermost membrane layer, aerial mycelium developed and all four metabolites were formed. The bulk of the mycophenolic acid that was formed was excreted into the medium, the bulk of the brevianamide A and asperphenamate was found in the aerial hyphae, and ergosterol was found in both vegetative and aerial mycelia. PMID:16345939

  14. Mycotoxin production and postharvest storage rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale) by Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Overy, D P; Frisvad, J C

    2005-03-01

    Twenty naturally infected ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes displaying visible mold growth were examined to identify the fungi and to evaluate the presence of fungal secondary metabolites. Penicillium brevicompactum was the predominant species isolated from 85% of the samples. Mycophenolic acid was identified from corresponding tissue extracts. Because mycophenolic acid is a potent immunosuppressant and synergistic mycotoxicosis studies involving human consumption have not been carried out on this metabolite, spoilage of commercially marketed produce caused by P. brevicompactum is a concern. This is the first reported occurrence of mycophenolic acid in commercially sold plant food products.

  15. Petrosifungins A and B, novel cyclodepsipeptides from a sponge-derived strain of Penicillium brevicompactum.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Lang, Gerhard; Steffens, Stefan; Schaumann, Karsten

    2004-03-01

    A strain of Penicillium brevicompactum derived from a specimen of the Mediterranean sponge Petrosia ficiformis was investigated for its secondary metabolites. Using fast centrifugal partitioning chromatography (FCPC) two previously unknown cyclodepsipeptides, petrosifungins A (1) and B (2), were isolated, both containing two neighboring units of the nonproteinogenic amino acid l-pipecolinic acid. The absolute configurations of all amino acids were established to be l using GITC derivatization and Marfey's method. Furthermore, the known metabolite brevianamide A (3) was isolated. The likewise known compounds mycophenolic acid (4) and asperphenamate (5) were identified from their spectroscopic properties directly in the extract using HPLC-UV, -MS, and -NMR coupling.

  16. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  17. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  18. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  19. Biological control of Penicillium digitatum by Trichoderma viride on postharvest citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Díaz Borrás, A; Vila Aguilar, R

    1990-10-01

    In previous studies it was shown that Trichoderma viride, isolated from Spanish citrus packing houses, showed antagonistic activity against Penicillium digitatum in in vitro laboratory tests. In the present in vivo studies Navelina oranges, protected with aqueous suspension of T. viride (2.5 x 10(6) to 2.5 x 10(9) spores per ml), showed an increase in resistance toward P. digitatum. Oranges, inoculated with P. digitatum, did not produce lesions after 5 days when T. viride was applied 48 h or 72 h before inoculation.

  20. X-ray diffraction study of Penicillium Vitale catalase in the complex with aminotriazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovik, A. A.; Grebenko, A. I.; Melik-Adamyan, V. R.

    2011-07-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme catalase from Penicillium vitale in a complex with the inhibitor aminotriazole was solved and refined by protein X-ray crystallography methods. An analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the complex showed that the inhibition of the enzyme occurs as a result of the covalent binding of aminotriazole to the amino-acid residue His64 in the active site of the enzyme. An investigation of the three-dimensional structure of the complex resulted in the amino-acid residues being more precisely identified. The binding sites of saccharide residues and calcium ions in the protein molecule were found.

  1. X-ray diffraction study of Penicillium Vitale catalase in the complex with aminotriazole

    SciTech Connect

    Borovik, A. A.; Grebenko, A. I.; Melik-Adamyan, V. R.

    2011-07-15

    The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme catalase from Penicillium vitale in a complex with the inhibitor aminotriazole was solved and refined by protein X-ray crystallography methods. An analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the complex showed that the inhibition of the enzyme occurs as a result of the covalent binding of aminotriazole to the amino-acid residue His64 in the active site of the enzyme. An investigation of the three-dimensional structure of the complex resulted in the amino-acid residues being more precisely identified. The binding sites of saccharide residues and calcium ions in the protein molecule were found.

  2. Isolation and partial characterization of a mutant of Penicillium funiculosum for the saccharification of straw

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.M.; Wood, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Clearing of agar plates containing ball-milled, delignified straw has been used for screening mutants of Penicillium funiculosum IMI 87160 III. The effects of glycerol and a number of sugars on the clearing were investigated for selecting derepressed mutants. The ..beta..-glucosidase synthesis by one such mutant, C22c, in shake flasks containing straw was not repressed by 5% glycerol, whereas activities on filter paper, CM-cellulose, and p-nitrophenyl-..beta..-xylosidase were only partially derepressed; xylanase was extensively derepressed. The evidence for separate control of the enzymes involved in the solubilization of straw is discussed. 23 references.

  3. Identification of intermediates in the biosynthesis of PR toxin by Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Riclea, Ramona; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2015-10-05

    The sesquiterpenoid 7-epi-neopetasone was synthesized via the Wieland-Miescher ketone. The compound was identical to a previously tentatively identified headspace constituent of Penicillium roqueforti. Feeding experiments with (13) C-labeled mevalonolactone isotopomers demonstrated that oxidation at C12 and an isomerization of the C11C12 to a C7C11 double bond must occur independently and not via a C7-C11-C12 allyl radical in one step. Feeding with (11,12,13-(13) C3 )-7-epi-neopetasone resulted in labelling of the PR toxin, thus establishing this compound as a newly identified pathway intermediate.

  4. Polyketides with Immunosuppressive Activities from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongju; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Weiyang; Liu, Yayue; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone (1) and methyl peniphenone (2), along with seven known xanthones (3–9) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2 isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 showed potent immunosuppressive activity with IC50 values ranging from 5.9 to 9.3 μg/mL. PMID:27897975

  5. Influence of carbohydrate and nitrogen source on patulin production by Penicillium patulum.

    PubMed

    Stott, W T; Bullerman, L B

    1975-11-01

    A strain of Penicillium patulum, isolated from cheddar cheese, produced patulin when grown on liquid media containing lactose and milk nitrogen sources. Patulin production was affected by the temperature of incubation, the type and amount of carbohydrate, and the type of nitrogen source present. Patulin levels generally were depressed by incubation at 5 C and low carbohydrate levels. Patulin was produced at low levels in the absence of sugars at 5 C when the mold was grown on milk nitrogen sources. No patulin was detected in cultures grown on 25% casein slurries or cheddar cheese, even though growth of the mold was extensive.

  6. Environmental and Nutritional Factors Affecting the Production of Rubratoxin B by Penicillium rubrum Stoll 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, A. Wallace; Wyatt, Elwanda P.; King, Patricia A.

    1970-01-01

    Rubratoxin B can be produced in a semisynthetic medium by Penicillium rubrum under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. Maximum production (552.0 mg/500 ml) was obtained with P. rubrum NRRL A-11785 grown in stationary cultures of Mosseray's simplified Raulin solution supplemented with 2.5% malt extract broth at ambient temperature. Zinc is required at levels of at least 0.4 mg per liter. In the absence of iron sulfate, there was a 50-fold reduction in rubratoxin B production but not in growth. No toxin was produced by this isolate in 5- or 7-liter fermentors. PMID:5485727

  7. Improved Mannanase Production from Penicillium occitanis by Fed-Batch Fermentation Using Acacia Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Blibech, Monia; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Chaari, Fatma; Dammak, Ilyes; Bhiri, Fatma; Neifar, Mohamed; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    By applying a fed-batch strategy, production of Penicillium occitanis mannanases could be almost doubled as compared to a batch cultivation on acacia seeds (76 versus 41 U/mL). Also, a 10-fold increase of enzyme activities was observed from shake flask fermentation to the fed-batch fermentation. These production levels were 3-fold higher than those obtained on coconut meal. The high mannanase production using acacia seeds powder as inducer substrate showed the suitability of this culture process for industrial-scale development. PMID:23724314

  8. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-03-22

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives.

  9. Sexual recombination as a tool for engineering industrial Penicillium chrysogenum strains.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, Tim A; Böhm, Julia; Becker, Kordula; Kück, Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    The recent discovery and functional characterization of opposite mating-type loci in the industrial penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum demonstrated their regulatory role in sexual as well as asexual development. Subsequent experiments further showed that a sexual life cycle can be induced in P. chrysogenum that was for long believed to reproduce exclusively by asexual propagation. Finally, crossing of wild type and production strains resulted in the generation of recombinant ascospore isolates. We predict from these recent findings that recombinant progeny for industrial applications can be obtained by sexual crossings and discuss experimental difficulties that occur when parental strains with karyotype heterogeneity are used for mating.

  10. Chemical constituents of the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Mioso, Roberto; Marante, Francisco Javier Toledo; Laguna, Irma Herrera Bravo de

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is a well-known multifunctional cell factory of high added-value biomolecules. The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the metabolites present in the culture broth of a new marine-derived Penicillium roqueforti strain isolated in the Canary Islands, Spain. The fungal biomass production was carried out in liquid-state fermentation, and after 10-12 days of incubation at 22-25°C, the supernatant mycelia was separated by filtration, and the culture broth (12l) was stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane (3×), in accordance with the modified Kupchan method. The volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were separated by chromatography and analyzed using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses. Several volatile organic compounds involved in the fatty acid pathway were identified: a terpenoid, a cyclic dipeptide, phthalates, and an alkyl adipate. In addition, three categories of non-volatile compounds (alkanes, fatty acids and 1-alkanols) were identified by spectroscopy. The results show that the fermented broth of this fungal strain has no mycotoxins under the culture conditions applied. It is hoped that this chemo-specific information will offer critical input for improving the biotechnological applications of this filamentous fungus. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium oxalicum During Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Peiji; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2015-11-01

    Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp., and Penicillium spp. are frequently used to produce high concentrations of lignocellulosic enzymes. This study examined the discrepancies in the compositions and dynamic changes in the extracellular enzyme systems secreted by Aspergillus niger ATCC1015, Trichoderma reesei QM9414, and Penicillium oxalicum 114-2 cultured on corn stover and wheat bran. The results revealed different types and an abundance of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides were released during incubation, which induced the secretion of diverse glycoside hydrolases. Both the enzyme activities and isozyme numbers of the three fungal strains increased with time. A total of 279, 161, and 183 secretory proteins were detected in A. niger, T. reesei, and P. oxalicum secretomes, respectively. In the A. niger secretomes, more enzymes involved in the degradation of (galacto)mannan, xyloglucan, and the backbone of pectin distributed mostly in dicots were detected. In comparison, although P. oxalicum 114-2 hardly secreted any xyloglucanases, the diversities of enzymes involved in the degradation of xylan and β-(1,3;1,4)-D-glucan commonly found in monocots were higher. The cellulase system of P. oxalicum 114-2 was more balanced. The degradation preference provided a new perspective regarding the recomposition of lignocellulosic enzymes based on substrate types.

  12. Novel cellulases from an extremophilic filamentous fungi Penicillium citrinum: production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanmay; Sahoo, Rupam; Sengupta, Rajib; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2008-04-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has potential economical and environment-friendly applications. Therefore, discovery of new extremophilic cellulases is essential to meet the requirements of industry. Penicillium citrinum (MTCC 6489) that was previously isolated from soil in our laboratory, produced alkali tolerant and thermostable cellulases. Endoglucanase and filter paper activity hydrolase (FPAse) production of P. citrinum were studied using wheat bran substrate in solid state and submerged culture. Zymogram analysis of endoglucanase revealed the presence of two isoforms differing in molecular weight. One of them was 90 kDa and other one was 38 kDa. Partially purified endoglucanase showed two different peaks at pH 5.5 and 8.0, respectively, in its pH optima curve. But FPase showed only one peak (at pH 6.5) in its pH optima curve. Cellulase of P. citrinum is thermostable in nature. The present work reports for the first time, the alkali stable cellulase from alkali tolerant fungus Penicillium citrinum. Thermostable endoglucanase from P. citrinum may have potential effectiveness as additives to laundry detergents.

  13. Identification and characterization of chitin synthase genes in the postharvest citrus fruit pathogen Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Gandía, Mónica; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we carried out the isolation and characterization of chitin synthase genes (CHS) of the main citrus fruit postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum. Using distinct sets of degenerate primers designed from conserved regions of CHS genes of yeast and filamentous fungi, PCR methods, and a DNA genomic library, five putative CHS genes (PdigCHSI, PdigCHSII, PdigCHSIII, PdigCHSV, and PdigCHSVII) were identified, isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Phylogenetic analyses, sequence identity, and domain conservation support the annotation as CHS. A very high sequence identity and strong synteny were found with corresponding regions from the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. Gene expression of P. digitatum CHS genes during mycelium axenic growth, under oxidative and osmotic stress conditions, and during infection of citrus fruits was confirmed and quantified using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). PdigCHSIII had the highest expression among the five genes by one order of magnitude, while PdigCHSII had the lowest. However, PdigCHSII was strongly induced coincident with conidial production, suggesting a role in conidiogenesis. The expression of PdigCHSI, PdigCHSIII, PdigCHSV, and PdigCHSVII was upregulated during infection of citrus fruit. PdigCHSV and PdigCHSVII coexpressed in most of the experiments carried out, and they are separated by a 1.77 kb intergenic region and arranged in opposite directions.

  14. [Purification and characterization of a novel alpha-galactosidase from penicillium sp. F63 CGMCC1669].

    PubMed

    Mi, Shi-jun; Bai, Ying-guo; Meng, Kun; Wang, Ya-ru; Yao, Bin; Shi, Xiu-yun; Huang, Huo-qing; Zhang, Yu-hong; Shi, Peng-jun

    2007-02-01

    An a-galactosidase-producing fungus was screened out of 26 filamentous fungi isolated from soil by us. Phylogenetic analysis based on the alignment of 18S rDNA sequences, combined with the morphological identification, indicated that the strain F63 was a member of the genus Penicillium. The a-galactosidase from Penicillium sp. F63 was purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular size of the purified enzyme is approximately 82kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE. The a-galactosidase has an optimum pH of 5.0 and an optimum temperature of 45 degrees C. The enzyme is stable between pH5.0 and 6.0 below 40 degrees C. The a-galactosidase activity is slightly inhibited by Ag+ , which is dissimilar to other a-galactosidases. Kinetic studies of the a-galactosidase showed that the Km and the Vmax for pNPG are 1.4mmol/L and 1.556mmol/L. min(-1) x mg- 1, respectively. The enzyme is able to degrade natural substrates such as melibiose, raffinose and stachyose but not galactose-containing polysaccharides. The alpha-galactosidase was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and its inner peptides were sequenced by ESI-MS/MS. The results show that the a-galactosidase is a novel one.

  15. [Effect of temperature on the growth of Penicillium from moldy feed].

    PubMed

    Müller, H M; Wolf, K M; Stachow, A

    1990-09-01

    178 Penicillium strains were isolated from moulded feedstuffs (mainly corn and wheat after ambient air drying, wheat after refrigeration, corn after treatment with propionic acid), and investigated for the effect of temperature on growth rate. Temperatures between 4 and 27 degrees C were used. 159 strains proved psychrotrophic, they were able to grow at 4 degrees C on malt extract agar (MA) as well as in wheat; the growth in wheat was indicated by the production of ergosterol. On MA all psychrotrophic strains were able to grow also at 10-27 degrees C. The maximum rate of growth was reached at 10-15 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C, 20-27 degrees C, or must be assumed for temperatures greater than or equal to 27 degrees C. At 4 and 10 degrees C the mean growth rate on MA was 24 and 51%, respectively, related to the mean rate at 20 degrees C; the lower temperature limit of growth was found at - 1 degree C by graphic extrapolation. The Q10 value of growth on MA is about 2, if temperatures between 20 and 10 degrees C are compared; with decreasing temperature higher Q10 values up to 3.7 are obtained. The growth rate of a strain of Penicillium aurantiogriseum on wheat was affected by temperature nearly in the same manner as on malt extract agar. The results are discussed with respect to the risk of moulding during refrigerated storage of feedstuffs.

  16. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfang; Zhao, Hainan; Barrero, Roberto A; Zhang, Baohong; Sun, Guiling; Wilson, Iain W; Xie, Fuliang; Walker, Kevin D; Parks, Joshua W; Bruce, Robert; Guo, Guangwu; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xin; Tang, Qi; Liu, Hongwei; Bellgard, Matthew I; Qiu, Deyou; Lai, Jinsheng; Hoffman, Angela

    2014-01-25

    Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi.

  17. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. Results The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi. PMID:24460898

  18. Molecular Basis for Mycophenolic Acid Biosynthesis in Penicillium brevicompactum▿†

    PubMed Central

    Regueira, Torsten Bak; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Hertweck, Christian; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active ingredient in the increasingly important immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals CellCept (Roche) and Myfortic (Novartis). Despite the long history of MPA, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis has remained enigmatic. Here we report the discovery of a polyketide synthase (PKS), MpaC, which we successfully characterized and identified as responsible for MPA production in Penicillium brevicompactum. mpaC resides in what most likely is a 25-kb gene cluster in the genome of Penicillium brevicompactum. The gene cluster was successfully localized by targeting putative resistance genes, in this case an additional copy of the gene encoding IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We report the cloning, sequencing, and the functional characterization of the MPA biosynthesis gene cluster by deletion of the polyketide synthase gene mpaC of P. brevicompactum and bioinformatic analyses. As expected, the gene deletion completely abolished MPA production as well as production of several other metabolites derived from the MPA biosynthesis pathway of P. brevicompactum. Our work sets the stage for engineering the production of MPA and analogues through metabolic engineering. PMID:21398490

  19. Penicillium arizonense, a new, genome sequenced fungal species, reveals a high chemical diversity in secreted metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Grijseels, Sietske; Nielsen, Jens Christian; Randelovic, Milica; Nielsen, Jens; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Workman, Mhairi; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    A new soil-borne species belonging to the Penicillium section Canescentia is described, Penicillium arizonense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 141311T = IBT 12289T). The genome was sequenced and assembled into 33.7 Mb containing 12,502 predicted genes. A phylogenetic assessment based on marker genes confirmed the grouping of P. arizonense within section Canescentia. Compared to related species, P. arizonense proved to encode a high number of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in particular hemicellulases. Mining the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis resulted in the identification of 62 putative biosynthetic gene clusters. Extracts of P. arizonense were analysed for secondary metabolites and austalides, pyripyropenes, tryptoquivalines, fumagillin, pseurotin A, curvulinic acid and xanthoepocin were detected. A comparative analysis against known pathways enabled the proposal of biosynthetic gene clusters in P. arizonense responsible for the synthesis of all detected compounds except curvulinic acid. The capacity to produce biomass degrading enzymes and the identification of a high chemical diversity in secreted bioactive secondary metabolites, offers a broad range of potential industrial applications for the new species P. arizonense. The description and availability of the genome sequence of P. arizonense, further provides the basis for biotechnological exploitation of this species. PMID:27739446

  20. Identification of a Polyketide Synthase Involved in Sorbicillin Biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Oleksandr; Guzmán-Chávez, Fernando; Ries, Marco I.; Lankhorst, Peter P.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Vreeken, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Secondary metabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum was intensively subjected to classical strain improvement (CSI), the resulting industrial strains producing high levels of β-lactams. During this process, the production of yellow pigments, including sorbicillinoids, was eliminated as part of a strategy to enable the rapid purification of β-lactams. Here we report the identification of the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene essential for sorbicillinoid biosynthesis in P. chrysogenum. We demonstrate that the production of polyketide precursors like sorbicillinol and dihydrosorbicillinol as well as their derivatives bisorbicillinoids requires the function of a highly reducing PKS encoded by the gene Pc21g05080 (pks13). This gene belongs to the cluster that was mutated and transcriptionally silenced during the strain improvement program. Using an improved β-lactam-producing strain, repair of the mutation in pks13 led to the restoration of sorbicillinoid production. This now enables genetic studies on the mechanism of sorbicillinoid biosynthesis in P. chrysogenum and opens new perspectives for pathway engineering. IMPORTANCE Sorbicillinoids are secondary metabolites with antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities produced by filamentous fungi. This study identified the gene cluster responsible for sorbicillinoid formation in Penicillium chrysogenum, which now allows engineering of this diverse group of compounds. PMID:27107123

  1. Towards high-siderophore-content foods: optimisation of coprogen production in submerged cultures of Penicillium nalgiovense.

    PubMed

    Emri, Tamás; Tóth, Viktória; Nagy, Csilla Terézia; Nagy, Gábor; Pócsi, Imre; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Antal, Károly; Balla, József; Balla, György; Román, Gyula; Kovács, István; Pócsi, István

    2013-07-01

    Fungal siderophores are likely to possess atheroprotective effects in humans, and therefore studies are needed to develop siderophore-rich food additives or functional foods to increase the siderophore uptake in people prone to cardiovascular diseases. In this study the siderophore contents of mould-ripened cheeses and meat products were analysed and the coprogen production by Penicillium nalgiovense was characterised. High concentrations of hexadentate fungal siderophores were detected in penicillia-ripened Camembert- and Roquefort-type cheeses and also in some sausages. In one sausage fermented by P. nalgiovense, the siderophore content was comparable to those found in cheeses. Penicillium nalgiovense produced high concentrations of coprogen in submerged cultures, which were affected predominantly by the available carbon and nitrogen sources under iron starvation. Considerable coprogen yields were still detectable in the presence of iron when the fermentation medium was supplemented with the iron chelator Na₂-EDTA or when P. nalgiovense was co-cultivated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data may be exploitable in the future development of high-siderophore-content foods and/or food additives. Nevertheless, the use of P. nalgiovense fermentation broths for these purposes may be limited by the instability of coprogen in fermentation media and by the β-lactam production by the fungus. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Aerobiological analysis in a salami factory: a possible case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis by Penicillium camembertii.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, V F; Sulotto, F; Botta, G C; Chiesa, A; Airaudi, D; Anastasi, A

    1999-08-01

    A 39-year-old man was hospitalized with a history of fatigue, dyspnoea and low grade fever which seemed to be related to his working environment. The patient was employed in a salami factory, working near the area where the salami are seasoned with fungal inocula. Chest X-ray showed diffuse initial changes of reticulonodular pattern that disappeared after a brief course of steroids therapy. Precipitating antibodies to Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus fumigatus were found both in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This, together with the finding of a lymphocytic alveolitis with CD4+ depletion and CD8+ increase, suggested the possibility of extrinsic allergic alveolitis of fungal aetiology. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring with an impinger of both the working and outside environment for aerial fungal concentration demonstrated a very high level of contamination (up to 1.14x10(9) fungal propagules m-3 of air) and an inside/outside ratio from 21 to about 2000. Penicillium camembertii was the most common species found in all the indoor sites (60-100% of the fungal load). The patient's BALF and serum both displayed precipitating antibodies to P. camembertii from the powder used for the inoculum and the air samples. These results together with the patient's working history gave some evidence of relationship between the indoor P. camembertii concentration and the patient's symptoms.

  3. Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Comparison of Solid-State and Submerged Fermentation of Penicillium expansum KACC 40815

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Singh, Digar; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are known to harbor a wide array of secondary metabolites with cryptic bioactivities. However, the metabolomics of these species is not well-understood in terms of different fermentation models and conditions. The present study involved metabolomics profiling and transcriptomic analysis of Penicillium expansum 40815 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Metabolite profiling was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry with multivariate analysis, followed by transcriptomic analyses of differentially expressed genes. In principal component analysis, the metabolite profiling data was studied under different experimental sets, including SSF and SmF. The significantly different metabolites such as polyketide metabolites (agonodepside B, rotiorin, verrucosidin, and ochrephilone) and corresponding gene transcripts (polyketide synthase, aromatic prenyltransferase, and terpenoid synthase) were primarily detected under SmF conditions. In contrast, the meroterpenoid compounds (andrastin A and C) and their genes transcripts were exclusively detected under SSF conditions. We demonstrated that the metabolite production and its corresponding gene expression levels in P. expansum 40815 were significantly influenced by the varying growth parameters and the immediate environment. This study further provides a foundation to produce specific metabolites by regulating fermentation conditions. PMID:26863302

  4. High efficiency transformation of Penicillium nalgiovense with integrative and autonomously replicating plasmids.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Francisco; Laich, Federico; García-Rico, Ramón O; Martín, Juan F

    2004-01-15

    Penicillium nalgiovense is a filamentous fungus that is acquiring increasing biotechnological importance in the food industry due to its widespread use as starter culture for cured and fermented meat products. Strains of P. nalgiovense can be improved by genetic modification to remove the production of penicillin and other potentially hazardous secondary metabolites, to improve its capacity to control the growth of undesirable fungi and bacteria on the meat product, and other factors that contribute to the ripening of the product in order to get safer and better quality foods. Genetic manipulation of P. nalgiovense has been limited by the lack of molecular genetics tools that were available for this fungus, particularly for "self-cloning" avoiding the use of exogenous DNAs. In this article we describe a series of vectors, selectable markers and transformation methods that can be used for efficient transformation of P. nalgiovense, gene cloning and expression. A uridine auxotrophic P. nalgiovense mutant with an inactive pyrG gene has been isolated. The P. nalgiovense wild-type pyrG gene was cloned and sequenced, and vectors carrying the gene were shown to complement the pyrG mutant. Autonomously replicating plasmids carrying the AMA1 region from Aspergillus nidulans transformed P. nalgiovense very efficiently; these plasmids were shown to be maintained as stable extrachromosomal elements in P. nalgiovense and could be rescued in Escherichia coli. The mitotic stability of self-replicative AMA1 plasmids in P. nalgiovense was higher than that reported for Penicillium chrysogenum.

  5. Purification, sequencing and evaluation of a divergent phytase from Penicillium oxalicum KCTC6440.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Peter C W

    2015-01-01

    A fungal strain producing high levels of phytase was purified to homogeneity from Penicillium oxalicum KCTC6440 (PhyA). The molecular mass of the purified PhyA was 65 kDa and optimal activity occurred at 55°C. The enzyme was stable in a pH range of 4.5-6.5, with an optimum performance at pH 5.5. The Km value for the substrate sodium phytate was 0.48 mM with a Vmax of 672 U/mg. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+), and slightly enhanced by EDTA. The PhyA efficiently released phosphate from feedstuffs such as soybean, rich bran and corn meal. The PhyA gene was cloned in two steps of degenerate PCR and inverse PCR and found to comprise 1501 bp and encode 461 amino acid residues. The enzyme was found to have only 13 amino acids differing to the known PhyA from other Penicillium sp., but has distinct enzyme characteristics. Computational analysis showed that PhyA possessed more positively charged residues in the active sites compared to other PhyA molecules, which may explain the broader pH spectrum.

  6. Proteomics Insights into the Biomass Hydrolysis Potentials of a Hypercellulolytic Fungus Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Ogunmolu, Funso Emmanuel; Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Mayank; Bashir, Zeenat; Pasari, Nandita; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2015-10-02

    The quest for cheaper and better enzymes needed for the efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass has placed filamentous fungi in the limelight for bioprospecting research. In our search for efficient biomass degraders, we identified a strain of Penicillium funiculosum whose secretome demonstrates high saccharification capabilities. Our probe into the secretome of the fungus through qualitative and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics studies revealed a high abundance of inducible CAZymes and several nonhydrolytic accessory proteins. The preferential association of these proteins and the attending differential biomass hydrolysis gives an insight into their interactions and clues about possible roles of novel hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic proteins in the synergistic deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Our study thus provides the first comprehensive insight into the repertoire of proteins present in a high-performing secretome of a hypercellulolytic Penicillium funiculosum, their relative abundance in the secretome, and the interaction dynamics of the various protein groups in the secretome. The gleanings from the stoichiometry of these interactions hold a prospect as templates in the design of cost-effective synthetic cocktails for the optimal hydrolysis of biomass.

  7. Rapid extra-/intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Penicillium sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Liangwei; Xian, Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the fungus Penicillium was used for rapid extra-/intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. AuCl4 - ions reacted with the cell filtrate of Penicillium sp. resulting in extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles within 1 min. Intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles was obtained by incubating AuCl4 - solution with fungal biomass for 8 h. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by means of visual observation, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The extracellular nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorbance at 545 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD spectrum showed Bragg reflections corresponding to the gold nanocrystals. TEM exhibited the formed spherical gold nanoparticles in the size range from 30 to 50 nm with an average size of 45 nm. SEM and TEM revealed that the intracellular gold nanoparticles were well dispersed on the cell wall and within the cell, and they are mostly spherical in shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. The presence of gold was confirmed by EDX analysis.

  8. Penicillium salamii strain ITEM 15302: A new promising fungal starter for salami production.

    PubMed

    Magistà, D; Ferrara, M; Del Nobile, M A; Gammariello, D; Conte, A; Perrone, G

    2016-08-16

    Traditional sausages are often considered of superior quality to sausages inoculated with commercial starter cultures and this is partially due to the action of the typical house microflora. Penicillium nalgiovense is the species commonly used as starter culture for dry-cured meat production. Recently a new species, Penicillium salamii, was described as typical colonizer during salami seasoning. In order to understand its contribution to the seasoning process, two different experiments on curing of fresh pork sausages were conducted using P. salamii ITEM 15302 in comparison with P. nalgiovense ITEM 15292 at small and industrial scale, and the dry-cured sausages were subjected to sensory analyses. Additionally, proteolytic and lipolytic in vitro assays were performed on both strains. P. salamii ITEM 15302 proved to be a fast growing mould on dry-cured sausage casings, well adapted to the seasoning process, with high lipolytic and proteolytic enzymatic activity that confers typical sensory characteristics to meat products. Therefore, P. salamii ITEM 15302 was shown to be a good candidate as new starter for meat industry.

  9. Purification and characterization of an extracellular protease from Penicillium chrysogenum Pg222 active against meat proteins.

    PubMed

    Benito, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Núñez, Félix; Asensio, Miguel A; Bermúdez, María E; Córdoba, Juan J

    2002-07-01

    An extracellular protease from Penicillium chrysogenum (Pg222) isolated from dry-cured ham has been purified. The purification procedure involved several steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, filtration, and separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and gel filtration, the purified fraction showed a molecular mass of about 35 kDa. The hydrolytic properties of the purified enzyme (EPg222) on extracted pork myofibrillar proteins under several conditions were evaluated by SDS-PAGE. EPg222 showed activity in the range of 10 to 60 degrees C in temperature, 0 to 3 M NaCl, and pH 5 to 7, with maximum activity at pH 6, 45 degrees C, and 0.25 M NaCl. Under these conditions the enzyme was most active against tropomyosin, actin, and myosin. EPg222 showed collagenolytic activity but did not hydrolyze myoglobin. EPg222 showed higher activity than other proteolytic enzymes like papain, trypsin, and Aspergillus oryzae protease. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined and was found to be Glu-Asn-Pro-Leu-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ala-Pro-Ser-Trp. This partial amino acid sequence revealed a 55% homology with serine proteases from Penicillium citrinum. The activity of this novel protease may be of interest in ripening and generating the flavor of dry-cured meat products.

  10. Hydrolytic activity of Penicillium chrysogenum Pg222 on pork myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Benito, María J; Córdoba, Juan J; Alonso, Mercedes; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2003-12-31

    Moulds grow on many different dry-cured meat products and are able to hydrolyse muscle proteins. However, their contribution to proteolysis in these products is not well known. Only recently, the ability of just a few strains of Penicillium spp. to increase proteolysis in dry-cured meat products has been shown. For these strains to be used as starter cultures, their hydrolytic activity under standard conditions should be characterised. With this purpose, the effect of Penicillium chrysogenum Pg222 on pork myofibrillar proteins has been assayed in a culture medium containing 5% (w/v) NaCl. SDS-PAGE revealed that Pg222 was responsible for extensive hydrolysis of the main myofibrillar proteins except alpha-actinin. The proteolysis led to increases in free amino acids, reaching peak values at 84 h. Ala, Tyr and Lys were present in the greatest amount. These results suggest that P. chrysogenum Pg222 would contribute to development of desired texture and flavours in dry-cured meat products.

  11. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Protease from Penicillium chrysogenum Pg222 Active against Meat Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Benito, María J.; Rodríguez, Mar; Núñez, Félix; Asensio, Miguel A.; Bermúdez, María E.; Córdoba, Juan J.

    2002-01-01

    An extracellular protease from Penicillium chrysogenum (Pg222) isolated from dry-cured ham has been purified. The purification procedure involved several steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, filtration, and separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and gel filtration, the purified fraction showed a molecular mass of about 35 kDa. The hydrolytic properties of the purified enzyme (EPg222) on extracted pork myofibrillar proteins under several conditions were evaluated by SDS-PAGE. EPg222 showed activity in the range of 10 to 60°C in temperature, 0 to 3 M NaCl, and pH 5 to 7, with maximum activity at pH 6, 45°C, and 0.25 M NaCl. Under these conditions the enzyme was most active against tropomyosin, actin, and myosin. EPg222 showed collagenolytic activity but did not hydrolyze myoglobin. EPg222 showed higher activity than other proteolytic enzymes like papain, trypsin, and Aspergillus oryzae protease. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined and was found to be Glu-Asn-Pro-Leu-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ala-Pro-Ser-Trp. This partial amino acid sequence revealed a 55% homology with serine proteases from Penicillium citrinum. The activity of this novel protease may be of interest in ripening and generating the flavor of dry-cured meat products. PMID:12089038

  12. Successful treatment of intra-abdominal eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti in a dog.

    PubMed

    Janovec, J; Brockman, D J; Priestnall, S L; Kulendra, N J

    2016-03-01

    A 2-year-old female neutered golden retriever was presented for investigation of an intra-abdominal mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass associated with the caudal pole of the right kidney. Incisional biopsy findings were consistent with eumycotic mycetoma. The mass was subsequently removed in conjunction with right ureteronephrectomy. Two years later, the dog re-presented with a splenic mass and fungal plaques located throughout the peritoneum. Splenectomy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti. Indefinite systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg itraconazole orally once a day was initiated. Thirty-two months after the last surgery, there were no clinical signs apart from mild polydipsia. Haematology and biochemistry results were unremarkable. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intra-abdominal eumycotic mycetoma with a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy in the dog. Penicillium duponti has not apparently been reported to cause disease in animals or humans. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A-F by Penicillium crustosum.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Svetlana A; Jagels, Annika; Cramer, Benedikt; Geisen, Rolf; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A-F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. For this purpose, penitrems A-F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum cultures and used as analytical standards. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family. Obtained results give insides into the biosynthesis of toxicologically relevant penitrems A-F under different environmental factors and can be utilized to prevent food contamination.

  14. Penicillium glabrum cork-colonising isolates - preliminary analysis of their genomic similarity.

    PubMed

    Basílio, Maria Carmo; Gaspar, Ricardo; Silva Pereira, Cristina; San Romão, Maria Vitória

    2006-09-01

    The cork stopper manufacturing process includes an operation, known as stabilisation, by which humid cork slabs are extensively colonised by fungi. The effects of fungal growth on cork are not completely understood although they are considered to be involved in the so-called "cork taint" of wine. It is essential to (a) identify environmental constraints which define the appearance of the colonising fungal species and (b) trace their origin to the forest and/or the manufacturing space. The present article correlates two sets of data, from consecutive years and the same season, of systematic sampling of two manufacturing units, located in the North and South of Portugal. Chrysonilia sitophila dominance was confirmed, followed by a high diversity of Penicillium species. Penicillium glabrum, which was found in all samples, was the most frequently isolated species. P. glabrum intra-species variability was investigated using DNA fingerprinting techniques revealing highly discriminative polymorphic markers in the genome. Cluster analysis of P. glabrum data was discussed in relation to the geographical location of strains, and results suggest that P. glabrum arise from predominantly the manufacturing space, although cork specific fungi can contribute.

  15. Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Comparison of Solid-State and Submerged Fermentation of Penicillium expansum KACC 40815.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyang Yeon; Heo, Do Yeon; Park, Hye Min; Singh, Digar; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are known to harbor a wide array of secondary metabolites with cryptic bioactivities. However, the metabolomics of these species is not well-understood in terms of different fermentation models and conditions. The present study involved metabolomics profiling and transcriptomic analysis of Penicillium expansum 40815 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Metabolite profiling was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry with multivariate analysis, followed by transcriptomic analyses of differentially expressed genes. In principal component analysis, the metabolite profiling data was studied under different experimental sets, including SSF and SmF. The significantly different metabolites such as polyketide metabolites (agonodepside B, rotiorin, verrucosidin, and ochrephilone) and corresponding gene transcripts (polyketide synthase, aromatic prenyltransferase, and terpenoid synthase) were primarily detected under SmF conditions. In contrast, the meroterpenoid compounds (andrastin A and C) and their genes transcripts were exclusively detected under SSF conditions. We demonstrated that the metabolite production and its corresponding gene expression levels in P. expansum 40815 were significantly influenced by the varying growth parameters and the immediate environment. This study further provides a foundation to produce specific metabolites by regulating fermentation conditions.

  16. Induction of Resistance to Penicillium digitatum in Grapefruit by the Yeast Biocontrol Agent Candida oleophila.

    PubMed

    Droby, S; Vinokur, V; Weiss, B; Cohen, L; Daus, A; Goldschmidt, E E; Porat, R

    2002-04-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Candida oleophila, the base of the commercial product Aspire, is recommended for the control of postharvest decay in citrus and pome fruit. Its modes of action include nutrient competition, site exclusion, and direct mycoparasitism. In the present study, we showed that application of Candida oleophila to surface wounds or to intact 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit elicited systemic resistance against Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit. The induction of pathogen resistance in fruit was already pronounced 24 h after elicitation; it was distance, concentration, and time dependent and restricted to the peel tissue closely surrounding the yeast application site. The induction of pathogen resistance required viable yeast cells at concentrations of 10(8) to 10(9) cells ml(-1). Nonviable autoclaved or boiled yeast cells or lower yeast concentrations were ineffective in enhancing fruit disease resistance. Application of Candida oleophila cell suspensions to grapefruit peel tissue increased ethylene biosynthesis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, and phytoalexin accumulation, and increased chitinase and beta-1,3-endoglucanase protein levels, indicated by western immunoblotting analysis. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that spore germination and germ tube growth of Penicillium digitatum were markedly inhibited in wounds made near the yeast-treated sites. Overall, this study provides evidence that induced resistance against postharvest decay of citrus fruit should be considered an important component of the multiple modes of action of the yeast Candida oleophila.

  17. Penicillium commune metabolic profile as a promising source of antipathogenic natural products.

    PubMed

    Diblasi, Lorena; Arrighi, Federico; Silva, Julio; Bardón, Alicia; Cartagena, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium is an important genus of ascomycetous fungi in the environment and in food and drug production. This paper aims to investigate statins and antipathogenic natural products from a Penicillium commune environmental isolate. Fractions (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were obtained from an ethyl acetate extract. Direct insertion probe/electron ionisation/ion trap detection mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS) identified lovastatin (1) in F1, while GC-MS showed that 3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (2) was the main constituent of F2 (49.34%). F4 presented 3 (16.38%) as an analogue of 2 and their known structures were similar to that of an autoinducer-signal. F1 produced a significant decrease in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which is the main cause of bacterial pathogenicity. F2 and F4 were effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, but when F2 was associated with oxacillin, it showed an important activity against both bacteria. These novel results suggest that P. commune INTA1 is a new source of promising antipathogenic products.

  18. Cloning and heterologous expression of a thermostable pectate lyase from Penicillium occitanis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Damak, Naourez; Abdeljalil, Salma; Koubaa, Aida; Trigui, Sameh; Ayadi, Malika; Trigui-Lahiani, Hèla; Kallel, Emna; Turki, Nadia; Djemal, Lamia; Belghith, Hafeth; Taieb, Noomen Hadj; Gargouri, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The entire pectate lyase cDNA (Pel1) of Penicillium occitanis was cloned from a cDNA bank and sequenced. The ORF exhibited a great homology to Penicillium marneffei and conservation of all features of fungal pectate lyases such as the barrel structure with "eight right-handed parallel β-helix" architecture. The structure modeling also showed the interesting resemblance with thermostable pectate lyases since several specific residues were also shared by Pel1 and these thermostable enzymes. Having shown that the enzyme retains its activity after endoH-mediated deglycosylation, we investigated its expression in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pET28-a vector. This expression was shown to be optimum when cells were induced at room temperature in 2YT medium rather than at 37 °C and LB medium. In such conditions, the recombinant protein was apparently produced more in soluble form than as inclusion bodies. The effect of NaCl concentration was investigated during the binding and elution steps of recombinant His-tagged enzyme on MagneHis Ni-particles. The purified enzyme was shown to retain its thermo-activity as well as a great tolerance to high concentration of NaCl and imidazole.

  19. Penicillium sp. as an organism that degrades endosulfan and reduces its genotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aguilar, Mariana; Tovar-Sánchez, Efrain; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Sánchez-Meza, Juan Carlos; Castrejón-Godínez, María Luisa; Dantán-González, Edgar; Trujillo-Vera, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan is an organochloride and persistent pesticide that has caused concern because of its impact in the environment and its toxicity to and bioaccumulation in living organisms. In this study, we isolated an endosulfan-degrading fungus from the activated sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Through repetitive enrichment and successive subculture in media containing endosulfan as the sole carbon source, a fungus designated CHE 23 was isolated. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, strain CHE 23 was assigned to the genus Penicillium sp. In a mineral salt medium with 50 mg/l endosulfan as the sole source carbon, CHE 23 removed the added endosulfan in a period of six days. To verify the decrease in endosulfan toxicity due to the activity of the fungus, we performed genotoxicity tests trough the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay, with Eisenia fetida as the bioindicator species. This organism was exposed to the supernatants of the culture of the fungus and endosulfan. Our results indicated that the genotoxicity of endosulfan was completely reduced due the activity of this fungus. These results suggest that the Penicillium sp. CHE 23 strain can be used to degrade endosulfan residues and/or for water and soil bioremediation processes without causing toxicity problems, which are probably due to the generation of no-toxic metabolites during biodegradation.

  20. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A–F by Penicillium crustosum

    PubMed Central

    Jagels, Annika; Cramer, Benedikt; Geisen, Rolf; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A–F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. For this purpose, penitrems A–F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum cultures and used as analytical standards. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family. Obtained results give insides into the biosynthesis of toxicologically relevant penitrems A–F under different environmental factors and can be utilized to prevent food contamination. PMID:28671569

  1. Effect of ozone on sterilization of Penicillium digitatum using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Iseki, Sachiko; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Masaru

    2008-10-01

    Methyl bromide has been sprayed to the crops for protecting from insects and virus, but has high ozone depletion potential. Thus, the development of substitute-technology has been strongly required. We have investigated a plasma sterilization for spores of Penicillium digitatum, which causes green mold disease of the crops, using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma. The sterilization was caused by UV light, ozone, O and OH radicals. In this study, ozone density was measured and the effect to sterilization was discussed. The plasma was generated at an alternative current of 6kV and Ar gas flow rate of 3L/min. In order to investigate the sterilization mechanism of ozone, the absolute density of ozone was measured using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and was from 2 to 8 ppm. The sterilization by this plasma was larger than that by the ozonizer (03:600ppm). It is confirmed that the effect of ozone to the sterilization of Penicillium digitatum would be small.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  3. Purification and biochemical characterization of polygalacturonase produced by Penicillium expansum during postharvest decay of ‘Anjou’ pear

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A polygalacturonase (PG) was extracted and purified from decayed tissue of ‘Anjou’ pear fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. Both chromatographic methods revealed a single peak co...

  4. Isolation, purification, and characterization of a polygalacturonase produced in Penicillium solitum-decayed 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was extracted and purified from decayed Golden Delicious apple fruit inoculated with Penicillium solitum. Gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. Both methods revealed a single peak corresponding to PG activity and analysis of cation ...

  5. Penicillium solitum produces a polygalacturonase isozyme in decayed ‘Anjou’ pear fruit capable of macerating host tissue in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A polygalacturonase (PG) isozyme was isolated from Penicillium solitum-decayed ‘Anjou’ pear fruit and purified to homogeneity using a multistep process. Both gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography revealed a single PG activity peak and analysis of the purified protein showed a single band...

  6. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  7. Fatal cases of farmer's lung in a Canadian family. Probable new antigens, Penicillium brevicompactum and P olivicolor.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa-Yoshida, K; Ando, M; Etches, R I; Dosman, J A

    1997-01-01

    Three Canadian farmers, including a married couple and another close relative, died from progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Their histories and investigations were compatible with chronic farmer's lung (FL). Our environmental and immunologic studies indicate Penicillium brevicompactum and P olivicolor as probable new antigens of FL in a cool and dry climate.

  8. Molecular characterization and a multiplex allele-specific PCR method for detection of thiabendazole resistance in Penicillium expansum from apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is commonly used as a postharvest treatment for control of blue mold in apples caused by Penicillium expansum. Different point mutations in the ß-tubulin gene conferring benzimidazole resistance have been reported in plant pathogens, but molecular mechanisms of TBZ resistance in ...

  9. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and identification of mycotoxigenic Penicillium species using conserved genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of conserved genes and sequence analysis provides a very powerful tool for the identification of toxigenic as well as non-toxigenic Penicillium species. Sequences are obtained by amplification of the gene fragment, sequencing via capillary electrophoresis of d...

  10. Simultaneous Saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol using Penicillium funiculosum cellulose and free or immobilized Saccharomyces uvarum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpa V.; Sivaraman, H.; Rao, M.

    1983-06-01

    This communication discusses the compatibility of Penicillium funiculosum cellulase with Saccharomyces uvarum cells and the results on the combined hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol using a system of S. uvarum cells immobilized in an open pore gelatin matrix described earlier from the same laboratory. (Refs. 10).

  11. Genotyping-by-sequencing markers facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. There are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple; however, resistance has been described in wild Malus sieversii accessions...

  12. Aspergillus and Penicillium (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) in soils of the Brazilian tropical dry forest: diversity in an area of environmental preservation.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Renan do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jadson Diogo Pereira; Costa, Phelipe Manoel Oller; de Lima-Júnior, Nelson Correia; Alves de Souza Galvão, Ivana Roberta Gomes; Alves dos Santos-Júnior, Anthony; Fernandes, Maria José; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Oliveira, Neiva Tinti

    2016-03-01

    Soil is a complex biological system that plays a key role for plants and animals, especially in dry forests such as the Caatinga. Fungi from soils, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, can be used as bioindica- tors for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify species of Aspergillus and Penicillium in soil, from the municipalities of Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, with dry forests, in the Catimbau National Park. Five collections were performed in each area during the drought season of 2012, totaling 25 soil samples per area. Fungi were isolated by suspending soil samples in sterile distilled water and plating on Sabouraud Agar media plus Chloramphenicol and Rose Bengal, and Glycerol Dicloran Agar. Isolates were identified by morphological taxonomy in the Culture Collection Laboratory and confirmed by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA. A total of 42 species were identified, of which 22 belong to the genus Aspergillus and 20 to Penicillium. Penicillium isolates showed uniform distribution from the collecting area in Tupanatinga, and the evenness indices found were 0.92 and 0.88 in Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, respectively. Among isolates of Aspergillus evenness, the value found in Tupanatinga (0.85) was very close to that found in Ibimirim (0.86). High diversity and low dominance of fungi in soil samples was observed. These results con- tributed to the estimation of fungal diversity in dry environments of the Caatinga, where diversity is decreasing in soils that have undergone disturbance.

  13. GenBank submission of draft whole genome sequence of the apple decay pathogen Penicillium expansum isolate (R19)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium species cause postharvest blue mold decay of apple and pear fruits in the United States and around the world. This genus is responsible for severe economic losses and produces an array of mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Among the species that cause blue mold, isolat...

  14. Carbon, nitrogen and pH regulate the production and activity of a polygalacturonase isozyme produced by Penicillium expansum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of carbon, nitrogen and pH on polygalacturonase activity produced by Penicillium expansum were investigated. P. expansum mycelial growth was greatest on lyophilized fruit tissue and the highest PG activity occurred in apple pectin medium. Nitrogen source influenced PG activity and was ...

  15. Identification of wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) with resistance to the postharvest decay pathogens Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum cause blue mold and bitter rot of apples during storage which results in significant economic losses. Resistance to these pathogens in commercial apple cultivars has not been documented in the literature. An apple germplasm collection, from the center...

  16. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold is caused by Penicillium expansum and is among the most economically significant disease of stored apples worldwide. The fungus gains ingress through cracks, natural openings, and wounds in the fruit and produces mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. All commercial apples a...

  17. Temperature suppresses decay on apple fruit by affecting Penicillium solitum conidial germination, mycelial growth and polygalacturonase activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium solitum causes blue mold on apples during storage which results in economic losses. Information pertaining to growth and decay caused by this pathogen is important for developing disease control strategies. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of temperature on decay caused by P. solitum ...

  18. GenBank submission of draft whole genome sequence of the apple decay pathogen Penicillium solitum (RS1 isolate)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium species cause postharvest blue mold decay of apples and pears in the United States and in many countries worldwide. This genus is responsible for severe economic losses and produces an array of mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Among the species that cause blue mold,...

  19. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  20. Comparative stability and catalytic and chemical properties of the sulfate-activating enzymes from Penicillium chrysogenum (mesophile) and Penicillium duponti (thermophile).

    PubMed

    Renosto, F; Schultz, T; Re, E; Mazer, J; Chandler, C J; Barron, A; Segel, I H

    1985-11-01

    ATP sulfurylases from Penicillium chrysogenum (a mesophile) and from Penicillium duponti (a thermophile) had a native molecular weight of about 440,000 and a subunit molecular weight of about 69,000. (The P. duponti subunit appeared to be a little smaller than the P. chrysogenum subunit.) The P. duponti enzyme was about 100 times more heat stable than the P. chrysogenum enzyme; k inact (the first-order rate constant for inactivation) at 65 degrees C = 3.3 X 10(-4) s-1 for P. duponti and 3.0 X 10(-2) s-1 for P. chrysogenum. The P. duponti enzyme was also more stable to low pH and urea at 30 degrees C. Rabbit serum antibodies to each enzyme showed heterologous cross-reaction. Amino acid analyses disclosed no major compositional differences between the two enzymes. The analogous Km and Ki values of the forward and reverse reactions were also essentially identical at 30 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, the physiologically important adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) synthesis activity of the P. duponti enzyme was 4 U mg of protein-1, which is about half that of the P. chrysogenum enzyme. The molybdolysis and ATP synthesis activities of the P. duponti enzyme at 30 degrees C were similar to those of the P. chrysogenum enzyme. At 50 degrees C, the APS synthesis activity of the P. duponti enzyme was 12 to 19 U mg of protein-1, which was higher than that of the P. chrysogenum enzyme at 30 degrees C (8 +/- 1 U mg of protein-1). Treatment of the P. chrysogenum enzyme with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) at 30 degrees C under nondenaturing conditions modified one free sulfhydryl group per subunit. Vmax was not significantly altered, but the catalytic activity at low magnesium-ATP or SO4(2-) (or MoO4(2-)) was markedly reduced. Chemical modification with tetranitromethane had the same results on the kinetics. The native P. duponti enzyme was relatively unreactive toward DTNB or tetranitromethane at 30 degrees C and pH 8.0 or pH 9.0, but at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0, DTNB rapidly

  1. Pulmonary fungus ball caused by Penicillium capsulatum in a patient with type 2 diabetes: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following the recent transfer of all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces (including Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei), Penicillium species are becoming increasingly rare causal agents of invasive infections. Herein, we present a report of a type 2 diabetes patient with a fungus ball in the respiratory tract caused by Penicillium capsulatum. Case presentation A 56-year-old Chinese female gardener with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes presented at the Shanghai Changzheng Hospital with fever, a cough producing yellow-white sputum, and fatigue. The therapeutic effect of cefoxitin was poor. An HIV test was negative, but the β-D-glucan test was positive (459.3 pg/ml). Chest radiography revealed a cavitary lesion in the left upper lobe, and a CT scan showed globate cavities with a radiopaque, gravity-dependent ball. The histopathologic features of the tissue after haematoxylin-eosin staining showed septate hyphae. The fungus was isolated from the gravity-dependent ball and identified as Penicillium capsulatum based on the morphological analysis of microscopic and macroscopic features and on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequencing. After surgery, the patient was cured with a sequential treatment of fluconazole 400 mg per day for 90 days and caspofungin 70 mg per day for 14 days. Conclusions Although the prognosis is often satisfactory, clinicians, mycologists and epidemiologists should be aware of the possibility of infection by this uncommon fungal pathogen in diabetes patients, since it may cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts such as diabetes and AIDS patients. PMID:24152579

  2. The development of genetic and molecular markers to register and commercialize Penicillium rubens (formerly Penicillium oxalicum) strain 212 as a biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    Villarino, Maria; De Cal, Antonieta; Melgarejo, Paloma; Larena, Inmaculada; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium oxalicum strain 212 (PO212) is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against a large number of economically important fungal plant pathogens. For successful registration as a BCA in Europe, PO212 must be accurately identified. In this report, we describe the use of classical genetic and molecular markers to characterize and identify PO212 in order to understand its ecological role in the environment or host. We successfully generated pyrimidine (pyr-) auxotrophic mutants. In addition we also designed specific oligonucleotides for the pyrF gene at their untranslated regions for rapid and reliable identification and classification of strains of P. oxalicum and P. rubens, formerly P. chrysogenum. Using these DNA-based technologies, we found that PO212 is a strain of P. rubens, and is not a strain of P. oxalicum. This work presents PO212 as the unique P. rubens strain to be described as a BCA and the information contained here serves for its registration and commercialization in Europe. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A kinetic study of textile dyeing wastewater degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Durruty, Ignacio; Fasce, Diana; González, Jorge Froilán; Wolski, Erika Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The potential of Penicillium chrysogenum to decolorize azo dyes and a real industrial textile wastewater was studied. P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize and degrade three azo dyes (200 mg L(-1)), either independently or in a mixture of them, using glucose as a carbon source. A kinetic model for degradation was developed and it allowed predicting the degradation kinetics of the mixture of the three azo dyes. In addition, P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize real industrial wastewater. The kinetic model proposed was also able to predict the decolorization of the real wastewater. The calibration of the proposed model makes it a useful tool for future wastewater facilities' design and for practical applications.

  4. Penicillium expansum Link strain for a biometallurgical method to recover REEs from WEEE.

    PubMed

    Di Piazza, Simone; Cecchi, Grazia; Cardinale, Anna Maria; Carbone, Cristina; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Giovine, Marco; Zotti, Mirca

    2017-02-01

    Due to the wide range of applications in high-tech solutions, Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have become object of great interest. In the last years several studies regarding technologies for REE extraction from secondary resources have been carried out. In particular biotechnologies, which use tolerant and accumulator microorganisms to recover and recycle precious metals, are replacing traditional methods. This paper describes an original biometallurgical method to recover REEs from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by using a strain of Penicillium expansum Link isolated from an ecotoxic metal contaminated site. The resulting product is a high concentrated solution of Lanthanum (up to 390ppm) and Terbium (up to 1520ppm) obtained from WEEE. Under this perspective, the proposed protocol can be considered a method of recycling exploiting biometallurgy. Finally, the process is the subject of the Italian patent application n. 102015000041404 submitted by the University of Genoa.

  5. A highly regioselective route to arbutin esters by immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Ling; Li, Ning; Li, Ri-Feng; Smith, Thomas J; Zong, Min-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum, a novel and inexpensive enzyme preparation that we immobilized in our laboratory, was an excellent catalyst for highly regioselective acylation of arbutin with fatty acid vinyl esters. For the enzymatic butanoylation of arbutin, under the optimal conditions, initial reaction rate was 75.1 mM/h, and substrate conversion and regioselectivity were greater than 99%. In addition, a variety of 6'-esters of arbutin were prepared with high conversion (>99%) and excellent regioselectivity (>99%). It was found that the enzymatic reaction rate varied widely with different acyl donors, presumably owing to their different interactions with the active site of the lipase. The immobilized lipase from P. expansum displayed highest catalytic activity with medium-length straight-chain acyl donors. Acyl donors bearing a substituent or a conjugate double bond gave reduced reaction rates.

  6. Use of active extracts of poplar buds against Penicillium italicum and possible modes of action.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Limei; Li, Dongmei; Xia, Huan; Su, Xiaojun; Peng, Litao; Pan, Siyi

    2016-04-01

    Antifungal components, from poplar buds active fraction (PBAF) against Penicillium italicum, the causal agent of blue mold in citrus fruits, were identified and possible action modes were investigated. Pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin were determined as active components in PBAF, using HPLC and HPLC-MS analysis. The antifungal activity is stable at temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 100 °C and pH levels ranging from 4 to 8. In the presence of PBAF, the hyphae become shriveled, wrinkled and the cell membrane became seriously disrupted. Further investigation on cell permeability, nucleic acid content and alkaline phosphatase suggest that the cell membrane might be the target. Mycelial oxygen consumption and the respiration-related enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase were all inhibited by PBAF. We propose that PBAF is a potentially useful alternative for blue mold control and may act against P. italicum by interfering with respiration and disrupting the cell membrane.

  7. Travel-related disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Hart, J; Dyer, J R; Clark, B M; McLellan, D G; Perera, S; Ferrari, P

    2012-08-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes severe human immunodeficiency virus-related opportunistic infection in endemic areas of Southeast Asia and has rarely been reported in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We report here the case of an Australian renal transplant patient who presented with disseminated P. marneffei infection shortly after a 10-day holiday to Vietnam, and review all previously published cases of penicilliosis associated with renal transplantation. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of P. marneffei infection in an SOT recipient acquired during travel to an endemic country, and highlights the importance of an accurate travel history when opportunistic infection is suspected, as well as giving appropriate health advice to transplant patients who travel.

  8. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum

    SciTech Connect

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-04-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

  10. Structural investigation of endoglucanase 2 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium verruculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhrusheva, A. V.; Nemashkalov, V. A.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Tishchenko, S. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Kljashtorny, V. G.; Korotkova, O. G.; Gusakov, A. V.; Sinitsyn, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    Enzyme additives capable of degrading non-starch polysaccharides of cereal cell walls, which are major ingredients used in animal feed, can improve the efficiency of livestock production. Non-starch polysaccharides have antinutritional properties that interfere with efficient digestion and assimilation of nutrients by animals. Therefore, the improvement of the properties and characteristics of enzyme additive is an important issue. The three-dimensional structure of one of the key industrial enzymes involved in the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides — endoglucanase 2 from the filamentous fungus Penicillium verruculosum — was determined (PDB ID: 5I6S). The catalytic site of this enzyme was established. Based on the enzyme structure, it was suggested that the pH optimum of the enzyme activity can be shifted from acidic to neutral or alkaline pH values.

  11. Characterization of novel thermostable polygalacturonases from Penicillium brasilianum and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Jamile; Pili, Jonaina; Cence, Karine; Toniazzo, Geciane; Treichel, Helen; Valduga, Eunice

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was the partial characterization of polygalacturonase (PG) extracts produced by a newly isolated Penicillium brasilianum and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation. The partial characterization of the crude enzymatic extracts showed optimum activity at pH 5.5 and 37 °C for both extracts. The results of temperature stability showed that PG from both microorganisms were more stable at 55 °C. However, the enzyme obtained by P. brasilianum presents a half-life time (t 1/2 = 693.10 h), about one order of magnitude higher than those observed in for A. niger at 55 °C. In terms of pH stability, the PG produced by P. brasilianum presented higher stability at pH 4.0 and 5.0, while the PG from A. niger showed higher stability at pH 5.0.

  12. Bioactive Compounds Produced by Strains of Penicillium and Talaromyces of Marine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Nicoletti, Rosario; Trincone, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the search for novel natural compounds with bioactive properties has received a remarkable boost in view of their possible pharmaceutical exploitation. In this respect the sea is entitled to hold a prominent place, considering the potential of the manifold animals and plants interacting in this ecological context, which becomes even greater when their associated microbes are considered for bioprospecting. This is the case particularly of fungi, which have only recently started to be considered for their fundamental contribution to the biosynthetic potential of other more valued marine organisms. Also in this regard, strains of species which were previously considered typical terrestrial fungi, such as Penicillium and Talaromyces, disclose foreground relevance. This paper offers an overview of data published over the past 25 years concerning the production and biological activities of secondary metabolites of marine strains belonging to these genera, and their relevance as prospective drugs. PMID:26901206

  13. [Exometabolites of the Fungal Isolates (Genus Penicillium, Section Chrysogena) from Low-Temperature Ecotopes].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskii, A G; Antipova, T V; Zhelifonova, V P; Baskunov, B P; Kochkina, G A; Ozerskaya, S M

    2016-01-01

    Exometabolites of 22 strains of the genus Penicillium, section Chrysogena isolated from low-temperature ecotopes of various geographical regions were analyzed. The ecotopes included permafrost deposits, frozen volcanic ash, a fossil horse, cryopeg, and water from an Antarctic lake. The studied strains were found to contain exometabolites belonging to the groups of penicillins (penicillin G), chrysogins (chrysogin, 3-acetylquinazolone-4, 2-pyruvoyl aminobenzamide, 2-hydroxypropionyl amunobenzamide, and questiomycin A), roquefortines (3,12-dihydroroquefortine, roquefortine, glandicolines A and B, and meleagrine), xanthocillins (xanthocillin X), and simple tryptophan derivatives (N-acetyltriptamine and indoleacetic acid). In five P. chrysogenum strains and three P. nalgiovense strains a correlation was found between exometabolite spectra and morphological characteristics of the cultures isolated from modern ecotopes. For other strains species identification was based on morphological features, due to the absence of biosynthesis of penicillin G, on of the major chemotaxonomic markers for these species.

  14. Application of nested PCR to detect Penicillium marneffei in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Pongpom, Monsicha; Sirisanthana, Thira; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a nested PCR assay for specific identification of 18S ribosomal DNA of Penicillium marneffei. In this study, the assay was used to detect the DNA of P. marneffei in serum samples. Sensitivity of the test was 4 pg/microl and 0.4 fg/microl when the cycle numbers used for nested reactions were 15 and 30, respectively. Twenty four out of 35 sera (68.6%) collected from patients with culture confirmed penicilliosis marneffei were positive, while normal healthy and non-P. marneffei infected HIV-positive sera were negative. The results suggested that the assay could be applied for the diagnosis of infections due to P. marneffei.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of Penicillium brevicompactum, a grape contaminant and mycophenolic acid producer.

    PubMed

    Patiño, B; Medina, A; Doménech, M; González-Jaén, M T; Jiménez, M; Vázquez, C

    2007-02-01

    Penicillium brevicompactum is a ubiquitous fungal species that contaminates diverse substrates and commodities and produces an array of metabolites toxic to human and animals. The present work has obtained evidence, by liquid chromatography (LC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry, of the ability of P. brevicompactum strains isolated from grapes to produce mycophenolic acid, a potent immunosuppressor. In order to facilitate early diagnosis of this species on commodities for human and animal consumption, a rapid, sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for P. brevicompactum was developed. The specific primers were designed based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacers of rRNA genes) multicopy region. This method provides a useful aid to detect the presence of this fungal species in grapes and other commodities in order to prevent the toxins produced entering the food chain.

  16. [Disseminated infection due to Penicillium marneffei related to HIV infection: first observation in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Santiso, Gabriela; Chediak, Viviana; Maiolo, Elena; Mujica, María T; San Juan, Jorge; Arechavala, Alicia; Negroni, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The first case observed in Argentina of AIDS-related human penicillosis is herein presented. The patient was a six- teen year-old young man coming from a rural area of southern China. He was admitted at the F. J. Muñiz Hospital of Buenos Aires city with severe pneumonia and adult respiratory distress. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fuid and was microscopically observed in a skin cytodiagnosis. P. marneffei identification was confirmed by rRNA amplification and its phenotypic characteristics. The patient suffered an advanced HIV infection and also presented several AIDS-related diseases due to CMV, nosocomial bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii which led to a fatal outcome.

  17. Spore germination, colony development, and secondary metabolism in Penicillium brevicompactum: a radiogas chromatographic and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, D L; Nulton, C P; Bartman, C D; Gottlieb, F J; Campbell, I M

    1978-12-01

    A study of the first 76 h of development of spores of Penicillium brevicompactum in batch-mode shake culture indicates that mycophenolic acid biosynthesis begins when the hyphae of germinating spores aggregate to form pellets. Supplies of mycophenolic acid so produced augment a pre-existing pool of the material that is associated with the dormant spore. Although acetate metabolism is active at all stages of development, incorporation of [1-(14)C]acetate into 2,4-dihydroxy-6-(1',2'-dioxopropyl)benzoic acid, another secondary metabolite of the fungus, could not be demonstrated. The significance of these data are considered in terms of the function of mycophenolic acid and the substituted benzoic acid in the producing organism.

  18. [Production of mycophenolic acid by fungi of the genus Penicillium link].

    PubMed

    Vinokurova, N G; Ivanushkina, N E; Kochkina, G A; Arinbasarov, M U; Ozerskaia, S M

    2005-01-01

    Out of 36 strains of fungi of the genus Penicillium, some of which were isolated from ancient permafrost soils, 14 strains synthesized mycophenolic acid (MPA). Maximal (over 500 mg/l) accumulation of MPA in culture liquid was observed in P. brevicompactum strains (VKM F-457, VKM F-477, and VKM F-1150). This was the first study to detect MPA in representatives of the species P. rugulosum; in three strains of this species (VKM FW-665, VKM FW-717, and VKM FW-733), the level of MPA accumulation exceeded 300 mg/l. The time course of the synthesis of MPA by the P. rugulosum strain VKM FW-733 was studied. It was shown that the synthesis of this metabolite was dramatically intensified at the stationary growth phase (ten days).

  19. Brevianamides and Mycophenolic Acid Derivatives from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Penicillium brevicompactum DFFSCS025.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinya; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Nong, Xuhua; Wang, Jie; Qi, Shuhua

    2017-02-17

    Four new compounds (1-4), including two brevianamides and two mycochromenic acid derivatives along with six known compounds were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium brevicompactum DFFSCS025. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by quantum chemical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 9 showed moderate cytotoxicity against human colon cancer HCT116 cell line with IC50 value of 15.6 μM. In addition, 3 and 5 had significant antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larval settlement with EC50 values of 13.7 and 22.6 μM, respectively. The NMR data of 6, 8, and 9 were assigned for the first time.

  20. Brevianamides and Mycophenolic Acid Derivatives from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Penicillium brevicompactum DFFSCS025

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinya; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Nong, Xuhua; Wang, Jie; Qi, Shuhua

    2017-01-01

    Four new compounds (1–4), including two brevianamides and two mycochromenic acid derivatives along with six known compounds were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium brevicompactum DFFSCS025. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by quantum chemical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 9 showed moderate cytotoxicity against human colon cancer HCT116 cell line with IC50 value of 15.6 μM. In addition, 3 and 5 had significant antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larval settlement with EC50 values of 13.7 and 22.6 μM, respectively. The NMR data of 6, 8, and 9 were assigned for the first time. PMID:28218640

  1. Penicamedine A, a Highly Oxygenated Hexacyclic Indole Alkaloid from Penicillium camemberti.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wei, Guangzheng; Guo, Yi; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Zhang, Jinwen; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-10-01

    A highly oxygenated hexacyclic indole alkaloid, penicamedine A (1), bearing a rare furan ring, was isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium camemberti, together with two known analogs, iso-α-cyclopiazonic acid (2) and cyclopiazonic acid (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Its absolute configuration was further confirmed unambiguously by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was evaluated for anti-HIV activity with p24 assays and tested for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines, including HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, SW480, and the immortalized non-cancerous human pulmonary epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by MTS method. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Morphogenetic Circuitry Regulating Growth and Development in the Dimorphic Pathogen Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Kylie J.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is an emerging human-pathogenic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia. Like a number of other fungal pathogens, P. marneffei exhibits temperature-dependent dimorphic growth and grows in two distinct cellular morphologies, hyphae at 25°C and yeast cells at 37°C. Hyphae can differentiate to produce the infectious agents, asexual spores (conidia), which are inhaled into the host lung, where they are phagocytosed by pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Within macrophages, conidia germinate into unicellular yeast cells, which divide by fission. This minireview focuses on the current understanding of the genes required for the morphogenetic control of conidial germination, hyphal growth, asexual development, and yeast morphogenesis in P. marneffei. PMID:23204189

  3. Investigation of the gibberellic acid optimization with a statistical tool from Penicillium variable in batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Isa, Nur Kamilah Md; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2014-01-01

    The culture conditions for gibberellic acid (GA3) production by the fungus Penicillium variable (P. variable) was optimized using a statistical tool, response surface methodology (RSM). Interactions of culture conditions and optimization of the system were studied using Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three levels of three variables in a batch flask reactor. Experimentation showed that the model developed based on RSM and BBD had predicted GA3 production with R(2) = 0.987. The predicted GA3 production was optimum (31.57 mg GA3/kg substrate) when the culture conditions were at 7 days of incubation period, 21% v/w of inoculum size, and 2% v/w of olive oil concentration as a natural precursor. The results indicated that RSM and BBD methods were effective for optimizing the culture conditions of GA3 production by P. variable mycelia.

  4. Citral exerts its antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum by affecting the mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiju; Jing, Guoxing; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Qiuli; Jia, Lei; Tao, Nengguo

    2015-07-01

    This work investigated the effect of citral on the mitochondrial morphology and function of Penicillium digitatum. Citral at concentrations of 2.0 or 4.0 μL/mL strongly damaged mitochondria of test pathogen by causing the loss of matrix and increase of irregular mitochondria. The deformation extent of the mitochondria of P. digitatum enhanced with increasing concentrations of citral, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular ATP content and an increase in extracellular ATP content of P. digitatum cells. Oxygen consumption showed that citral resulted in an inhibition in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) pathway of P. digitatum cells, induced a decrease in activities of citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinodehydrogenase and the content of citric acid, while enhancing the activity of malic dehydrogenase in P. digitatum cells. Our present results indicated that citral could damage the mitochondrial membrane permeability and disrupt the TCA pathway of P. digitatum.

  5. Primary structure of a guanyl-specific ribonuclease from the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, V.A.; Shlyapnikov, S.V.; Yakovlev, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    By the automatic Edman degradation of the intact S-carboxymethylated protein and a mixture of the products of its proteolytic cleavage at Arg, Lys, and Glu residues, together with results on the kinetics of the proteolysis of the protein under the action of carboxypeptidase Y, the primary structure of the extracellular guanyl-specific RNase of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum has been determined. The RNase contains 102 amino acid residues: 7 Asp, 7 Asn, 9 Thr, 11 Ser, 4 Glu, 1 Gln, 4 Pro, 10 Gly, 11 Ala, 4 Cys, 7 Val, 4 Ile, 3 Leu, 9 Tyr, 5 Phe, 2 Lys, 3 His, 1 Arg (M/sub r/ 10,801). It has been established that four hemicystine residues of the P. compactum RNase form, in pairs, two disulfide bonds

  6. Role of intracellular free calcium in killing Penicillium marneffei within human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renqiong; Ji, Guangquan; Ma, Tuan; Huang, Xiaowen; Ren, Hong; Xi, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) promote phagocyte antimicrobial responses. Here, we investigated macrophages stimulated by Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei). [Ca(2+)]c was determined in macrophages loaded with the fluorescent calcium probe Fura 2/AM as they were stimulated by P. marneffei. We found that P. marneffei induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]c in human macrophages. Further, increased [Ca(2+)]c with the ionophore A23187 promoted phagosomal acidification and maturation and reduced intracellular replication of P. marneffei in P. marneffei-infected human macrophages, whereas decreased [Ca(2+)]c with the chelation MAPTAM decreased TNF-α production, inhibited phagosomal acidification and maturation and increased intracellular replication of P. marneffei. These data indicate that Ca(2+) signaling may play an important role in controlling the replication of P. marneffei within macrophages.

  7. Quantitative clarification of inactivation mechanism of Penicillium digitatum spores treated with neutral oxygen radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We have quantitatively investigated the oxidative inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores including intracellular nanostructural changes through neutral oxygen species with a flux-defined atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, using fluorescent confocal-laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results suggest that neutral oxygen species, particularly ground-state atomic oxygen [O(3Pj)], which is an effective species for inactivating P. digitatum spores, inhibit the function of the cell membrane of spores without causing major superficial morphological changes at a low O(3Pj) dose of ˜2.1 × 1019 cm-2 under an O(3Pj) flux of 2.3 × 1017 cm-2 s-1, following the oxidation of intracellular organelles up to an O(3Pj) dose of ˜1.0 × 1020 cm-2. Finally, intracellular nanostructures are degraded by excess oxygen radicals over an O(3Pj) dose of ˜1.0 × 1020 cm-2.

  8. Studies on cellulase production by a mutant - Penicillium funiculosum UV-49

    SciTech Connect

    Joglekar, A.V.; Karanth, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    Rapidly depleting reserves and the rising cost of petroleum has focused worldwide attention on the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most promising potential solutions to this problem is utilization of cellulosic materials through bioconversion. In search of hypercelluloytic microorganisms, ultraviolet irradiation carried out with Penicillium funiculosum has yielded a superior mutant. The investigations reported in this article are shake flask studies on some important nutritional requirements of the mutant, namely, nitrogen source, carbon source, and inducers. The mutant shows an ability to metabolize inorganic nitrogen sources like urea and sodium nitrate both for growth and enzyme production. A comparison of the long-term saccharification ability and the utilization efficiency of the mutant enzyme with those reported in the literature is also carried out, showing the superior performance of the mutant enzyme.

  9. Penicillium roqueforti: a multifunctional cell factory of high value-added molecules.

    PubMed

    Mioso, R; Toledo Marante, F J; Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I

    2015-04-01

    This is a comprehensive review, with 114 references, of the chemical diversity found in the fungus Penicillium roqueforti. Secondary metabolites of an alkaloidal nature are described, for example, ergot alkaloids such as festuclavine, isofumigaclavines A and B, and diketopiperazine alkaloids such as roquefortines A-D, which are derived from imidazole. Other metabolites are marcfortines A-C, PR-toxin, eremofortines A-E, mycophenolic and penicillic acids, and some γ-lactones. Also, recent developments related to the structural characteristics of botryodiplodin and andrastin are studied-the latter has anticancer properties. Finally, we discuss the enzymes of P. roqueforti, which can participate in the biotechnological production of high value-added molecules, as well as the use of secondary metabolite profiles for taxonomic purposes.

  10. Untargeted Metabolic Profiling of Winery-Derived Biomass Waste Degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Avinash V; Beale, David J; Godhani, Nainesh B; Morrison, Paul D; Harding, Ian H; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-12-16

    Winery-derived biomass waste was degraded by Penicillium chrysogenum under solid state fermentation over 8 days in a (2)H2O-supplemented medium. Multivariate statistical analysis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data resulted in the identification of 94 significant metabolites, within 28 different metabolic pathways. The majority of biomass sugars were utilized by day 4 to yield products such as sugars, fatty acids, isoprenoids, and amino acids. The fungus was observed to metabolize xylose to xylitol, an intermediate of ethanol production. However, enzyme inhibition and autolysis were observed from day 6, indicating 5 days as the optimal time for fermentation. P. chrysogenum displayed metabolism of pentoses (to alcohols) and degraded tannins and lignins, properties that are lacking in other biomass-degrading ascomycetes. Rapid fermentation (3-5 days) may not only increase the pentose metabolizing efficiency but also increase the yield of medicinally important metabolites, such as syringate.

  11. [Synthesis and identification of penicillic-acid antigens from Penicillium cyclopium].

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongyu; Yuan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Yuan, Liyun; Wen, Lixin; Ni, Hengjia

    2008-05-01

    To establish a new immune assay for Penicillic Acid (PA) from Penicillium cyclopium, we studied the synthesis of conjugated complete antigens for penicillic acid. PA was conjugated to bovine serum album (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). The artificial antigens PA-BSA and PA-OVA were identified by ultraviolet spectrometric scanning, SDS-PAGE and immunization. Results showed that the absorption peak of conjugation were different from that of the carrier protein alone and of the PA. The conjugated ratio of PA and BSA was 23.2:1 and that of PA and OVA was 10.4:1. Balb/c mice were immunized by the artificial antigen of PA-BSA, with PA-OVA as coating antigen. The average titer of antiserums was more than 12 800 by indirect ELISA. The obtained antigens offered a basis for developing immunoassay method.

  12. Identification of the viridicatumtoxin and griseofulvin gene clusters from Penicillium aethiopicum.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Cacho, Ralph; Tang, Yi

    2010-05-28

    Penicillium aethiopicum produces two structurally interesting and biologically active polyketides: the tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxin 1 and the classic antifungal agent griseofulvin 2. Here, we report the concurrent discovery of the two corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters (vrt and gsf) by 454 shotgun sequencing. Gene deletions confirmed that two nonreducing PKSs (NRPKSs), vrtA and gsfA, are required for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2, respectively. Both PKSs share similar domain architectures and lack a C-terminal thioesterase domain. We identified gsfI as the chlorinase involved in the biosynthesis of 2, because deletion of gsfI resulted in the accumulation of decholorogriseofulvin 3. Comparative analysis with the P. chrysogenum genome revealed that both clusters are embedded within conserved syntenic regions of P. aethiopicum chromosomes. Discovery of the vrt and gsf clusters provided the basis for genetic and biochemical studies of the pathways.

  13. Effect of culture conditions on tremorgen production by some Penicillium species.

    PubMed Central

    di Menna, M E; Lauren, D R; Wyatt, P A

    1986-01-01

    Four strains each of seven tremorgenic Penicillium species were grown under various conditions and tested for tremorgen production by intraperitoneal injection of mice and by chemical analysis. Half of the strains had previously been found to be tremorgenic on bioassay after growth on Czapek Dox yeast extract broth or potato-milk-sucrose broth for 3 weeks at 26 degrees C. In the tests reported here nearly all previously nontremorgenic strains were either tremorgenic to mice or produced tremorgens detectable by chemical analysis but did so after longer incubation periods than used in the original screening. Bioassay was not suitable for the estimation of absolute levels but was preferable to chemical analysis when the identity of the tremorgens was not known. Species and strains within species gave different responses to changes in culture medium, incubation temperature, light irradiation, and shaking. Overall, tremorgen production was maximal at 20 or 26 degrees C, increased with time, and was reduced in shaken culture. PMID:3707124

  14. Effect of culture conditions on tremorgen production by some Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    di Menna, M E; Lauren, D R; Wyatt, P A

    1986-04-01

    Four strains each of seven tremorgenic Penicillium species were grown under various conditions and tested for tremorgen production by intraperitoneal injection of mice and by chemical analysis. Half of the strains had previously been found to be tremorgenic on bioassay after growth on Czapek Dox yeast extract broth or potato-milk-sucrose broth for 3 weeks at 26 degrees C. In the tests reported here nearly all previously nontremorgenic strains were either tremorgenic to mice or produced tremorgens detectable by chemical analysis but did so after longer incubation periods than used in the original screening. Bioassay was not suitable for the estimation of absolute levels but was preferable to chemical analysis when the identity of the tremorgens was not known. Species and strains within species gave different responses to changes in culture medium, incubation temperature, light irradiation, and shaking. Overall, tremorgen production was maximal at 20 or 26 degrees C, increased with time, and was reduced in shaken culture.

  15. Six New Polyketide Decalin Compounds from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum 328#

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Huang, Meixiang; Liu, Lan; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Six new compounds with polyketide decalin ring, peaurantiogriseols A–F (1–6), along with two known compounds, aspermytin A (7), 1-propanone,3-hydroxy-1-(1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-2,5-dihydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1-naphthalenyl) (8), were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum 328#. Their structures were elucidated based on their structure analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by 1H NMR analysis of their Mosher esters; the absolute configurations of 3–6 were determined by using theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Compounds 1–8 showed low inhibitory activity against human aldose reductase, no activity of inducing neurite outgrowth, nor antimicrobial activity. PMID:26473887

  16. An extension of the Coconut Cream Agar method to screen Penicillium citrinum isolates for citrinin production.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, S; Flint, S; Palmer, J; Fletcher, G C; Pitt, J I

    2013-09-01

    A simple and rapid screening method was developed for the detection of citrinin in fungal cultures using Coconut Cream Agar (CCA) described previously for detecting aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. Fifteen isolates of Penicillium citrinum were inoculated onto CCA and incubated at 25 and 30°C for 10 days. All isolates produced a distinct yellow green fluorescence on CCA when the reverse side of the agar plates were viewed under long wavelength UV light. Detection was optimal at 25°C after four to 5 days of incubation. Isolates positive by the CCA method also tested positive for citrinin production by the TLC agar plug method after growth on CCA, Czapek yeast extract agar and yeast extract sucrose agar. Control cultures were negative by both methods, indicating that the CCA Petri dish method was suitable for screening cultures for citrinin production. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Acute Abdomen Due to Penicillium marneffei: An Indicator of HIV Infection in Manipur State.

    PubMed

    Ghalige, Hemanth Sureshwara; Sahoo, Biswajeet; Sharma, Sanjeeb; Devi, Khuraijam Ranjana; Singh Th, Sudhir Chandra

    2014-09-01

    Opportunistic infection in HIV disease often present to clinicians in an atypical manner testing clinical acumen. Here, we report a case of Penicilliosis marneffei (PM) infection presenting to surgical emergency as acute abdomen with undiagnosed HIV status in advanced AIDS, chief complaints being prolonged fever and diffuse abdominal pain. Radiologic imaging showed non-specific mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the lymph node was done and subjected to direct microscopy, gram staining and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) which showed Penicillium marneffei. He was then treated with intravenous amphotericin. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation to sensitise clinicians and microbiologists to consider PM as an aetiology in acute abdomen in high risk individuals, more so, in patients from north-east India.

  18. Evaluation of chitosans and Pichia guillermondii as growth inhibitors of Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Neith; Larralde-Corona, C Patricia; Sepulveda, Jose; Trombotto, Stéphan; Domard, Alain; Shirai, Keiko

    2008-07-01

    Chitosans were obtained by room-temperature-homogeneous-deacetylation (RTHD) and freeze-pump-out-thaw-heterogeneous-deacetylation (FPT) from chitins purified from fermentations. Commercial chitosan was deacetylated by three-FPT-cycles. Chitosans and Pichia guillermondii were evaluated on the growth of Penicillium digitatum. Medium molecular weight (M(W)) chitosans displayed higher inhibitory activity against the yeast than low M(W) biopolymers. Chitosans with low degree of acetylation (DA) were inhibitory for yeast and mould. Therefore, a low M(W) and high DA chitosan was selected for use against moulds combined with yeasts. Biopolymer and yeasts presented an additive effect, since chitosans were effective to delay spore germination, whereas yeast decreased apical fungal growth.

  19. Expression and characterization of Pen b 26 allergen of Penicillium brevicompactum in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, M Serdal; Kumar, Veena; Abebe, Makonnen; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud; Vijay, Hari M

    2009-05-01

    Pen b 26 is one of the allergens produced by Penicillium brevicompactum which is one of the most prevalent in door airborne fungi and a major source of respiratory problems, including asthma. Pen b 26 wa scloned and expressed as an N-terminal as well as a C-terminal His6 tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. This allergen was purified by immobilized Ni2+-affinity chromatography. The purified Pen b 26 was characterized by immunological, biochemical and biophysical methods. C-His6 tagged Pen b 26 produced several fold greater yield than N-His6 tagged Pen b 26. The affinity of C-His6 tagged Pen b 26 for the specific antibody was also 2.75 times higher than N-His6 tagged Pen b 26

  20. Influence of Different Nanomaterials on Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Penicillium verrucosum

    PubMed Central

    Kotzybik, Kathrin; Gräf, Volker; Kugler, Lena; Stoll, Dominic A.; Greiner, Ralf; Geisen, Rolf; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in the environment. They originate from anthropogenic or natural sources or they are intentionally produced for different purposes. There exist manifold applications of nanoparticles in modern life leading unavoidably to a confrontation and interaction between nanomaterial and living organisms. Based on their wide distribution tending to increase steadily, the influence of particles based on silica and silver, exhibiting nominal sizes between 0.65 nm and 200 nm, on the physiology of the mycotoxigenic filamentous fungus Penicillium verrucosum was analyzed. The applied concentration and time-point, the size and the chemical composition of the particles was shown to have a strong influence on growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis. On microscopic scale it could be shown that silver nanoparticles attach to the mycelial surface. Moreover, silver nanoparticles with 0.65 nm and 5 nm in size were shown to internalize within the cell, form agglomerates in the cytoplasm and associate to cell organelles. PMID:26974550

  1. Secondary Metabolism in Penicillium expansum: Emphasis on Recent Advances in Patulin Research.

    PubMed

    Tannous, Joanna; Keller, Nancy P; Atoui, Ali; El Khoury, André; Lteif, Roger; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2017-03-31

    The plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum is a major concern of the global food industry due to its wide occurrence and ability to produce various mycotoxins, of which the most significant is patulin. Relatively less highlighted in the literature, in comparison with the other food-borne mycotoxins, patulin is one of the main factors in economic losses of vegetables and fruits. Otherwise, patulin is a health hazard which results in both short-term and long-term risks. This review includes knowledge on the biosynthetic mechanisms used for secondary metabolite production in P. expansum, with special emphasis on patulin biosynthesis. The abiotic factors triggering the production of patulin and the strategies developed to reduce or prevent the contamination by this mycotoxin are comprehensively discussed. The database presented in this review would be useful for the prioritization and development of future research.

  2. Oxidative damage involves in the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on spore germination of Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tongfei; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on spore germination of Penicillium expansum were investigated and a possible mechanism was evaluated. The results indicated that NO released by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly suppressed fungal growth. With the use of an oxidant sensitive probe and Western blot analysis, an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhanced carbonylation damage were detected in spores of P. expansum under NO stress. Exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbic acid (Vc) could increase the resistance of the spore to the inhibitory effect of NO. The activities of SOD and catalase (CAT), as well as ATP content in spores under NO stress were also lower than those in the control. We suggest that NO in high concentration induces the generation of ROS which subsequently causes severe oxidative damage to proteins crucial to the process of spore germination of P. expansum.

  3. Bergamotane Sesquiterpenes with Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Ying, You-Min; Fang, Cheng-An; Yao, Feng-Qi; Yu, Yuan; Shen, Ying; Hou, Zhuo-Ni; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Two new bergamotane sesquiterpene lactones, named expansolides C and D (1 and 2), together with two known compounds expansolides A and B (3 and 4), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum ACCC37275. The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed analyses of the spectroscopic data, especially 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. In an in vitro bioassay, the epimeric mixture of expansolides C and D (1 and 2) (in a ratio of 2:1 at the temprature of the bioassay) exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 =0.50 ± 0.02 mm) as compared with the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 1.90 ± 0.05 mm). To the best of our knowledge, it was the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of bergamotane sesquiterpenes.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Penicillium expansum PE-12.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Qi, Z; Yu, Q S; Tang, K X

    2013-07-15

    Penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. We isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PeGPD) from P. expansum PE-12 through reverse transcriptase PCR and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The gene is 1266 bp long, including an ORF of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. A phylogenetic tree based on GPD proteins showed that P. expansum is close to Aspergillus species, but comparatively distant from P. marneffei. Southern blot results revealed a single copy of PeGPD, and expression analysis gave evidence of high expression levels. PeGPD genes have potential for genetic engineering of P. expansum for industrial lipase production.

  5. Residue Val237 is critical for the enantioselectivity of Penicillium expansum lipase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lianghua; Su, Min; Chi, Liying; Zhang, Junling; Zhang, Huihui; Zhu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The shape of the hydrophobic tunnel leading to the active site of Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL) was redesigned by single-point mutations, in order to better understand enzyme enantioselectivity towards naproxen. A variant with a valine-to-glycine substitution at residue 237 exhibited almost no enantioselectivity (E = 1.1) compared with that (E = 104) of wild-type PEL. The function of the residue, Val237, in the hydrophobic tunnel was further analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. For each of these variants a significant decrease of enantioselectivity (E < 7) was observed compared with that of wild-type enzyme. Further docking result showed that Val237 plays the most important role in stabilizing the correct orientation of (R)-naproxen. Overall, these results indicate that the residue Val237 is the key amino acid residue maintaining the enantioselectivity of the lipase.

  6. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Qin; Li, Pei-Hai; Chao, Ya-Xi; Chen, Hao; Du, Ning; He, Qiu-Xia; Liu, Ke-Chun

    2015-10-22

    Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8), together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5-7, and 9-12), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher's and Marfey's methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM) in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4-6 and 8-12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds.

  7. Study of the Interactions Between Penicillium Oxalicum Currie & Thom And Alternaria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    PubMed Central

    Sempere, F.; Santamarina, M.P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25°C whereas at 15°C was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all conditions tested. The antagonist penetrated into A. alternata and disintegrated its conidiophores and conidia. The results suggests that P. oxalicum may be a possible biological control agent of the rice pathogens in a future. PMID:24031546

  8. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains.

    PubMed

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-08-01

    Fingerprinting of Penicillium crustosum strains was performed using different phenotypic characteristics. Seven strains of this extremely homogenous species were selected; of these, five originated from geographical locations characterized by low temperatures, and one from a location with a low water activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using micromorphological data, temperature- and water-dependent growth rates, and extrolite profiles obtained by HPLC analysis. The micromorphological data were less informative, while the growth-rate data were informative only if the strains investigated already showed slight adaptations to the selected external parameter. In contrast, PCA analyses of the extrolite data showed groupings of the strains according to their origins and known physiological differences. These groupings are in full agreement with the clustering obtained by previous amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) study. We thus demonstrate here for the first time that combined qualitative and quantitative extrolite profiles can be used as a tool for phenotypic fingerprinting, to complement, or replace, molecular fingerprinting techniques.

  9. Efficient production and evaluation of lignocellulolytic enzymes using a constitutive protein expression system in Penicillium oxalicum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Xue, Haizhao; Liu, Guodong; Song, Xin; Qu, Yinbo

    2015-06-01

    Native lignocellulolytic enzyme systems secreted by filamentous fungi can be further optimized by protein engineering or supplementation of exogenous enzyme components. We developed a protein production and evaluation system in cellulase-producing fungus Penicillium oxalicum. First, by deleting the major amylase gene amy15A, a strain Δ15A producing few extracellular proteins on starch was constructed. Then, three lignocellulolytic enzymes (BGL4, Xyn10B, and Cel12A) with originally low expression levels were successfully expressed with selected constitutive promoters in strain Δ15A. BGL4 and Cel12A overexpression resulted in increased specific filter paper activity (FPA), while the overexpression of Xyn10B improved volumetric FPA but not specific FPA. By switching the culture medium, this platform is convenient to produce originally low-expressed lignocellulolytic enzymes in relatively high purities on starch and to evaluate the effect of their supplementation on the performance of a complex cellulase system on cellulose.

  10. Acyl coenzyme A: 6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, P A; Abraham, E P; Baldwin, J E; Fleming, M D; Schofield, C J; Sutherland, J D; Willis, A C

    1990-03-26

    A study of the final stages of the biosynthesis of the penicillins in Penicillium chrysogenum has revealed two types of enzyme. One hydrolyses phenoxymethyl penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The other, also obtained from Aspergillus nidulans, transfers a phenylacetyl group from phenylacetyl CoA to 6-APA. The acyltransferase, purified to apparent homogeneity, had a molecular mass of 40 kDa. It also catalyses the conversion of isopenicillin N (IPN) to benzylpenicillin (Pen G) and hydrolyses IPN to 6-APA. In the presence of SDS it dissociates, with loss of activity, into fragments of ca 30 and 10.5 kDa, but activity is regained when these fragments recombine in the absence of SDS.

  11. Esterification of fatty acids by Penicillium crustosum lipase in a membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Possebom, Gessica; Nyari, Nádia L D; Zeni, Jamile; Steffens, Juliana; Rigo, Elisandra; Di Luccio, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the performance of a membrane reactor system for esterification of oleic acid and butyric acid with ethanol by Penicillium crustosum lipase using polyethersulfone membranes with molecular weight cut-offs of 30, 60 and 100 kDa at pressures up to 200 kPa. The confinement of lipase with 60 and 100 kDa membranes showed the best results. The esterification of butyric acid in the membrane reactor and with free lipase showed higher conversions than those obtained with oleic acid, since the system operated with oleic acid was more subject to fouling and thus could not be run for repeated cycles. The confinement of lipase from P. crustosum in a membrane reactor was possible, resulting in the satisfactory conversion of butyric acid to ethyl butyrate with the possibility of reuse of the immobilized enzyme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Morphogenesis and production of enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in response to different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn; dos Reis, Laísa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β -glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol.

  13. Two cyclic hexapeptides from Penicillium sp. FN070315 with antiangiogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun-Pil; Jung, Hye Jin; Han, Jang Mi; Jung, Narae; Kim, Yonghyo; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2017-01-01

    In the course of searching for angiogenesis inhibitors from microorganisms, two cyclic peptides, PF1171A (1) and PF1171C (2) were isolated from the soil fungus Penicillium sp. FN070315. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic efficacy and associated mechanisms of 1 and 2 in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs at concentrations not exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, 1 and 2 significantly suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration, invasion, proliferation and tube formation of HUVECs as well as neovascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in developing chick embryos. We also identified an association between the antiangiogenic activity of 1 and 2 and the downregulation of both the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α at the protein level. Taken together, these results further suggest that compounds 1 and 2 will be promising angiogenesis inhibitors.

  14. Combined effects of selected Penicillium mycotoxins on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernhoft, Aksel; Keblys, Modestas; Morrison, Ellen; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S; Flåøyen, Arne

    2004-11-01

    The in vitro effect of combinations of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin (CIT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), penicillic acid (PIA) and roquefortine C (RQC) on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation was determined using purified lymphocytes from six piglets. Dose-response curves for each mycotoxin and mycotoxin combinations were generated. The combined effects of toxin pairs based on IC20 were illustrated in isobole diagrams and statistically calculated. OTA and CIT elicited a synergistic effect. Four toxin pairs elicited additive effects, four pairs less-than-additive effects and six pairs independent effects. Thus, the majority of toxin pairs tested produced lower combined effects than an additive effect. The results indicate that the sum effect of all toxins is less than that from the summation of concentrations of the individual compounds, adjusted for differences in potencies.

  15. A Sterol and Spiroditerpenoids from a Penicillium sp. Isolated from a Deep Sea Sediment Sample

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ye, Dezan; Shao, Zongze; Cui, Chengbin; Che, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated sterol, sterolic acid (1), three new breviane spiroditerpenoids, breviones I–K (2–4), and the known breviones (5–8), were isolated from the crude extract of a Penicillium sp. obtained from a deep sea sediment sample that was collected at a depth of 5115 m. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments, and 1 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were deduced by comparison of their CD spectra with those of the model compounds. Compounds 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells, which is comparable to the positive control cisplatin. PMID:22412815

  16. Production of xylanase and protease by Penicillium janthinellum CRC 87M-115 from different agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana A; Porto, Ana L F; Tambourgi, Elias B

    2006-04-01

    Five agricultural wastes were evaluated in submerged fermentation for xylanolytic enzymes production by Penicillium janthinellum. The wastes were hydrolyzed in acid medium and the liquid fraction was used for cultivation. Corn cob (55.3 U/mL) and oat husk (54.8 U/mL) were the best inducers of xylanase. Sugar cane bagasse (23.0 U/mL) and corn husk (23.8 U/mL) were moderately good, while cassava peel was negligible. Protease production was very low in all agro-industrial residues. The maximum biomass yields were 1.30 and 1.17 g/L for cassava peel and corn husk after 180 h, respectively. Xylanolytic activity showed a cell growth associated profile.

  17. Inhibition of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. by fatty acids and their monoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Clelia; Cardillo, Daniela; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2007-05-01

    The antifungal activity of three fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids) and their monoglycerides (monolaurin, monomyristic acid, and palmitin, respectively) against Aspergillus and Penicillium species in a model system was investigated. Data were modeled through a reparameterized Gompertz equation. The maximum colony diameter attained within the experimental time (30 days), the maximal radial growth rate, the lag time (i.e., the number of days before the beginning of radial fungal growth), and the minimum detection time (MDT; the number of days needed to attain 1 cm colony diameter) were evaluated. Fatty acids and their monoglycerides inhibited mold growth by increasing MDT and lag times. The effectiveness of the active compounds seemed to be strain and genus dependent. Palmitic acid was the most effective chemical against aspergilli, whereas penicilli were strongly inhibited by myristic acid. Aspergilli also were more susceptible to fatty acids than were penicilli, as indicated by the longer MDT.

  18. Fleming's penicillin producing strain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a commonly occurring mould in indoor environments and foods, and has gained much attention for its use in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. Phylogenetic analysis of the most important penicillin producing P. chrysogenum isolates revealed the presence of two highly supported clades, and we show here that these two clades represent two species, P. chrysogenum and P. rubens. These species are phenotypically similar, but extrolite analysis shows that P. chrysogenum produces secalonic acid D and F and/or a metabolite related to lumpidin, while P. rubens does not produce these metabolites. Fleming's original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed.

  19. Quantitative quenching evaluation and direct intracellular metabolite analysis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Sabine; Rapp, Sina; Schmitz, Katja; Noack, Stephan; Kornfeld, Georg; Hardiman, Timo

    2013-07-01

    Sustained progress in metabolic engineering methodologies has stimulated new efforts toward optimizing fungal production strains such as through metabolite analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum industrial-scale processes. Accurate intracellular metabolite quantification requires sampling procedures that rapidly stop metabolism (quenching) and avoid metabolite loss via the cell membrane (leakage). When sampling protocols are validated, the quenching efficiency is generally not quantitatively assessed. For fungal metabolomics, quantitative biomass separation using centrifugation is a further challenge. In this study, P. chrysogenum intracellular metabolites were quantified directly from biomass extracts using automated sampling and fast filtration. A master/slave bioreactor concept was applied to provide industrial production conditions. Metabolic activity during sampling was monitored by 13C tracing. Enzyme activities were efficiently stopped and metabolite leakage was absent. This work provides a reliable method for P. chrysogenum metabolomics and will be an essential base for metabolic engineering of industrial processes.

  20. Morphogenesis and Production of Enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in Response to Different Carbon Sources

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn; dos Reis, Laísa; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β-glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol. PMID:24877074

  1. Autolysis and ageing of Penicillium chrysogenum under carbon starvation: respiration and glucose oxidase production.

    PubMed

    Sámi, L; Karaffa, L; Emri, T; Pócsi, I

    2003-01-01

    During the exponential growth phase of Penicillium chrysogenum NCAIM 00237 the effective conversion of glucose and O2 to gluconate and H2O2 by glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most likely source of intracellular ROS measured. In glucose-supplemented autolysing cultures, the increased of intracellular ROS concentration was attributed to respiration in the absence of any significant GOX activity. The induction of GOX and catalase by glucose and H2O2 was clearly age-dependent in P. chrysogenum. In ageing cryptic growth phase cultures, superoxide dismutase and cyanide-resistant respiration were the major elements of antioxidative defence but these activities were insufficient to prevent the progressive accumulation of ROS and the concomitant decrease in cell vitality.

  2. Biosynthetic concepts for the production of β-lactam antibiotics in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan S; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-02-01

    Industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on successive classical strain improvement cycles. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the results of this classical strain improvement process, and discusses avenues to improve β-lactam biosynthesis and to exploit P. chrysogenum as an industrial host for the production of other antibiotics and peptide products. Genomic and transcriptional analysis of strain lineages has led to the identification of several important alterations in high-yielding strains, including the amplification of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster, elevated transcription of genes involved in biosynthesis of penicillin and amino acid precursors, and genes encoding microbody proliferation factors. In recent years, successful metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches have resulted in the redirection of the penicillin pathway towards the production of cephalosporins. This sets a new direction in industrial antibiotics productions towards more sustainable methods for the fermentative production of unnatural antibiotics and related compounds.

  3. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan S; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for β-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) that is used for the biosynthesis of penicillin G. To identify ABC transporters related to β-lactam biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of all 48 ABC transporters present in the genome of P. chryso-genum when grown in the presence and absence of PAA. ABC40 is significantly upregulated when cells are grown or exposed to high levels of PAA. Although deletion of this transporter did not affect β-lactam biosynthesis, it resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to PAA and other weak acids. It is concluded that ABC40 is involved in weak acid detoxification in P. chrysogenum including resistance to phenylacetic acid.

  4. Morphogenetic circuitry regulating growth and development in the dimorphic pathogen Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2013-02-01

    Penicillium marneffei is an emerging human-pathogenic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia. Like a number of other fungal pathogens, P. marneffei exhibits temperature-dependent dimorphic growth and grows in two distinct cellular morphologies, hyphae at 25°C and yeast cells at 37°C. Hyphae can differentiate to produce the infectious agents, asexual spores (conidia), which are inhaled into the host lung, where they are phagocytosed by pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Within macrophages, conidia germinate into unicellular yeast cells, which divide by fission. This minireview focuses on the current understanding of the genes required for the morphogenetic control of conidial germination, hyphal growth, asexual development, and yeast morphogenesis in P. marneffei.

  5. Morphology engineering of Penicillium chrysogenum by RNA silencing of chitin synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Gong, Guohong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Genhai; Zheng, Zhiming

    2013-03-01

    Chitin synthases, that catalyze the formation of chitin the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi, play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis. To investigate the roles of chitin synthase in Penicillium chrysogenum, we developed an RNAi system to silence the class III chitin synthase gene chs4. After transformation, mutants had a slow growth rate and shorter but highly branched hyphae. All transformants either were unable to form conidia or could form only a few. Changes in chs4 expression could lead to a completely different morphology and eventually cause distinct penicillin yields. In particular, the yield of one transformant was 41 % higher than that of the original strain.

  6. Aminoacyl-coenzyme A synthesis catalyzed by a CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Koetsier, Martijn J; Jekel, Peter A; Wijma, Hein J; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Janssen, Dick B

    2011-03-23

    Coenzyme A ligases play an important role in metabolism by catalyzing the activation of carboxylic acids. In this study we describe the synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) catalyzed by a CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum. The enzyme accepted medium-chain length fatty acids as the best substrates, but the proteinogenic amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, as well as the non-proteinogenic amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tyrosine and (R)- and (S)-β-phenylalanine were also accepted. Of these amino acids, the highest activity was found for (R)-β-phenylalanine, forming (R)-β-phenylalanyl-CoA. Homology modeling suggested that alanine 312 is part of the active site cavity, and mutagenesis (A312G) yielded a variant that has an enhanced catalytic efficiency with β-phenylalanines and D-α-phenylalanine.

  7. Promotion of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes production by restraining the intracellular β-glucosidase in Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Qin, Yuqi; Cao, Qing; Liu, Guodong; Li, Jie; Li, Zhonghai; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the functions of β-glucosidases in regulation of the lignocellulolytic enzymes production in Penicillium decumbens 114-2 were investigated. The major extracellular β-glucosidase gene bgl1 and the major intracellular β-glucosidase gene bgl2 were deleted in P. decumbens 114-2 respectively. In Δbgl2, the production of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes (including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases) on insoluble cellulose was significantly promoted, while in Δbgl1 there was no any difference compared with that of 114-2. The enhancement of the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Δbgl2 was likely attributed to the accumulation of intracellular cellobiose. Induction experiment in Δbgl1Δbgl2 showed that cellobiose was an inducer of lignocellulolytic enzymes expression in P. decumbens 114-2, and the induction was unrelated to the formation, if any, of gentiobiose or sophorose from cellobiose.

  8. Bioconversion to chitosan: a two stage process employing chitin deacetylase from Penicillium oxalicum SAEM-51.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Nidhi; Vivekanand, V; Agarwal, Pragati; Saroj, Samta; Singh, Rajesh P

    2013-07-25

    Chitin deacetylase from Penicillium oxalicum SAEM-51 was evaluated for bioconversion of chitin to chitosan in a two stage chemical and enzymatic process. Variations in morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties following chemical treatment were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Degree of deacetylation of the substrates was determined using FT-IR and elemental analysis. The pretreatment of substrate led to the decrease in crystallinity and formation of amorphous chitinous substrates to facilitate enzyme reaction. The treated chitin was further subjected to enzymatic deacetylation employing chitin deacetylase from P. oxalicum SAEM-51 to produce chitosan with considerably higher degree of deacetylation. Maximum deacetylation (79.52%) was achieved using superfine chitin, owing to its porous structure and low crystallinity. Further, derivation of reaction variables, i.e. substrate amount and enzyme dose through full-factorial central composite design led to enhanced degree of deacetylation with formation of 90% deacetylated chitosan.

  9. New compound with DNA Topo I inhibitory activity purified from Penicillium oxalicum HSY05.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Li-Hua; Liu, Fang; He, Feng-Jun; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Chen, Gang; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Strain HSY05 was isolated from sea sediment collected from the South China Sea and was later identified as Penicillium oxalicum by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Various chromatographic processes led to the isolation and purification of two metabolites from the fermentation culture of HSY05, including one new compound, 2,2',4,4'-tetrahyoxy-8'-methyl-6-methoxy-acyl-ethyl-diphenylmethanone (1), and a known compound secalonic acid D (SAD, 2), as characterised by UV, IR, 1D, 2D-NMR and MS data. The inhibitory activities against topoisomerase I of these two compounds were evaluated. The result showed that in addition to the known topo I inhibitor SAD (2), compound 1 also exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE GRAS COMPOUNDS IN THE IN VITRO CONTROL OF TWO PENICILLIUM ITALICUM STRAINS.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Cubaiu, L; D'Hallewin, G; Ladu, G

    2014-01-01

    One of the main etiological agents of postharvest citrus decay is blue mould caused by Penicillium italicum. This pathogen is currently controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides. The use of postharvest chemicals is essential if fruit is destined for storage, since postharvest life would be significantly reduced. However, concerns regarding human health and environmental risks, associated with chemicals residues in food have driven the search for alternative safe control methods. In the present study three substances as referred as GRAS (Generally Recognized as Save) compounds, previously found active against some phytopathogenic fungi, have been tested in vitro against two Penicillium italicum strains. The tested compounds were acetic acid, acetaldehyde and cinnamic aldehyde used at different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 50 ppm) and applied as fumigation after 0, 24 and 48 h from inoculation, in order to evaluate the control of the pathogen radial growth. The effectiveness of the treatments was affected by the investigated parameters: characteristics of the GRAS, concentration and time elapsed between inoculation and treatment. The treatment performed after 0 h showed a significant difference, by the three compounds, in the control of the radial growth of the pathogen. Acetic acid revealed the main ability by completely inhibiting the pathogen development at 20 ppm, while acetaldehyde and cinnamic aldehyde were less effective in the control. The treatment applied after 24 h, in general, showed a greater capability in the control, probably related to particular pathogen sensitivity during the different vegetative stages. The treatments carried out after 48 h showed a very low effectiveness for acetaldehyde and cinnamic aldehyde in controlling the pathogen development and significantly reduced for acetic acid. Furthermore the experiment demonstrated that the pathogen strains also affected the effectiveness of the treatments.

  11. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz; Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg{sup −1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  12. The heterotrimeric Galpha protein pga1 regulates biosynthesis of penicillin, chrysogenin and roquefortine in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Ramón O; Fierro, Francisco; Mauriz, Elba; Gómez, Ana; Fernández-Bodega, María Angeles; Martín, Juan F

    2008-11-01

    We have studied the role of the pga1 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum, encoding the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, in secondary metabolite production. The dominant activating pga1(G42R) mutation caused an increase in the production of the three secondary metabolites penicillin, the yellow pigment chrysogenin and the mycotoxin roquefortine, whereas the dominant inactivating pga1(G203R) allele and the deletion of the pga1 gene resulted in a decrease of the amount of produced penicillin and roquefortine. Chrysogenin is produced in solid medium as a yellow pigment, and its biosynthesis is clearly enhanced by the presence of the dominant activating pga1(G42R) allele. Roquefortine is produced associated with mycelium during the first 3 days in submerged cultures, and is released to the medium afterwards; dominant activating and inactivating pga1 mutations result in upregulation and downregulation of roquefortine biosynthesis recpectively. Pga1 regulates penicillin biosynthesis by controlling expression of the penicillin biosynthetic genes; the three genes pcbAB, pcbC and penDE showed elevated transcript levels in transformants expressing the pga1(G42R) allele, whereas in transformants with the inactivating pga1(G203R) allele and in the pga1-deleted mutant their transcript levels were lower than those in the parental strains. Increase of intracellular cAMP levels had no effect on penicillin production. In summary, the dominant activating pga1(G42R) allele upregulates the biosynthesis of three secondary metabolites in Penicillium chrysogenum to a different extent.

  13. Biochemical characterization and molecular genetics of nine mutants of Penicillium chrysogenum impaired in penicillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, J M; Gutiérrez, S; Fierro, F; Gil-Espinosa, S; van Liempt, H; Martín, J F

    1993-01-05

    Nine mutants of Penicillium chrysogenum (npe1 to npe8 and npe10) impaired in penicillin biosynthesis were screened after nitrosoguanidine mutation. Mutants npe1, npe4, npe5, npe6, npe7, npe8, and npe10 failed to synthesize significant levels of penicillin, whereas strains npe2 and npe3 synthesized about 20% of the penicillin level produced by the parental strain. Mutants npe5 and npe10 did not show alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine (ACV) synthetase activity in vitro and did not form ACV in vivo. Immunoblotting analysis of the different mutants using antibodies raised against Aspergillus nidulans ACV-synthetase showed that mutants npe5 and npe10 lacked this multienzyme protein, which in the parental strain had a molecular mass of about 420 kDa, and mutants npe2 and npe3 formed reduced level of this protein. All mutants showed normal levels of isopenicillin N synthase, as shown by Western blot analysis and enzyme assays (except npe10 that lacked this enzyme and npe2 and npe3 that formed reduced levels); npe1, npe4, npe6, npe7, npe8, and npe10 lacked isopenicillin N acyltransferase. Southern hybridizations of total DNA of the parental strain and mutants npe5, npe6, npe8, and npe10 with probes internal to the pcbAB, pcbC, and penDE genes showed that mutants npe5, npe6, and npe8 had the same arrangement of the penicillin gene cluster carrying probably point mutations, but mutant npe10 lacked the three penicillin biosynthetic genes, suggesting that it had suffered a deletion of the entire penicillin cluster. Southern hybridization with a pyrG probe as control and fingerprinting analysis of total DNA of npe10 as compared to several P.chrysogenum strains and other Penicillium and Aspergillus species, confirmed that npe10 is a deletion mutant of P. chrysogenum that had lost the penicillin biosynthetic genes.

  14. Cloning, recombinant expression and characterization of a new phytase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Corrêa, Thamy Lívia; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    The phy gene, which encodes a phytase in Penicillium chrysogenum CCT 1273, was cloned into the vector pAN-52-1-phy and the resulting plasmid was used for the cotransformation of Penicillium griseoroseum PG63 protoplasts. Among the 91 transformants obtained, 23 were cotransformants. From there, the phytase activity of these 23 transformants was evaluated and P. griseoroseum T73 showed the highest. The recombinant strain P. griseoroseum T73 contained the phy gene integrated in at least three sites of the genome and showed a 5.1-fold increase in phytase activity in comparison to the host strain (from 0.56 ± 0.2 to 2.86 ± 0.4 U μg protein(-1)). The deduced PHY protein has 483 amino acids; an isoelectric point (pI) higher than that reported for phytases from filamentous fungi (7.6); higher activity at pH 2.0 (73%), pH 5.0 (100%) and 50 °C; and is stable at pH values 3.0-8.0 and temperatures 70-80 °C. PHY produced by the recombinant strain P. griseoroseum T73 was stable after four weeks of storage at -20, 8 and 25 °C and was effective in releasing Pi, especially from soybeans. The data presented here show that P. griseoroseum is a successful host for expression of heterologous protein and suggest the potential use of PHY in the animal nutrition industry.

  15. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic fungus Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. Results The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. Conclusions The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest. PMID:23171342

  16. Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates.

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa S; Ćirić, Ana; Stojković, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is well known for its importance in drug and food production. Certain species are produced on an industrial scale for the production of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) or for insertion in food (e.g. cheese). In the present work, three Penicillium species, part of the natural mycobiota growing on various food products were selected - P. ochrochloron, P. funiculosum and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium. The objective of our study was to value these species from the point of view of production of bioactive metabolites. The species were obtained after inoculation and growth in Czapek and Malt media. Both mycelia and culture media were analyzed to monitor the production of different metabolites by each fungus and their release to the culture medium. The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and tocopherols were determined. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, as also the antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, organic acids and tocopherols extracts. Rhamnose, xylose, fructose and trehalose were found in all the mycelia and culture media; the prevailing organic acids were oxalic and fumaric acids, and protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most common phenolic acids; γ-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E isoform. Generally, the phenolic extracts corresponding to the mycelia samples revealed higher antioxidant activity. Concerning the antimicrobial activity there were some fluctuations, however all the studied species revealed activity against the tested strains. Therefore, the in-vitro bioprocesses can be an alternative for the production of bioactive metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel alkaline protease produced by Penicillium nalgiovense.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, M; Sergelidis, D

    2014-04-01

    Penicillium nalgiovense PNA9 produces an extracellular protease during fermentation with characteristics of growth-associated product. Enzyme purification involved ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and ultrafiltration, resulting in 12.1-fold increase of specific activity (19.5 U/mg). The protein was isolated through a series of BN-PAGE and native PAGE runs. ESI-MS analysis confirmed the molecular mass of 45.2 kDa. N-Terminal sequencing (MGFLKLLKGSLATLAVVNAGKLLTANDGDE) revealed 93 % similarity to a Penicillium chrysogenum protease, identified as major allergen. The protease exhibits simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics and K m (1.152 mg/ml), V max (0.827 mg/ml/min), and k cat (3.2 × 10(2)) (1/s) values against azocasein show that it possesses high substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency. The protease is active within 10-45 °C, pH 4.0-10.0, and 0-3 M NaCl, while maximum activity was observed at 35 °C, pH 8.0, and 0.25 M NaCl. It is active against the muscle proteins actin and myosin and inactive against myoglobin. It is highly stable in the presence of non-ionic surfactants, hydrogen peroxide, BTNB, and EDTA. Activity was inhibited by SDS, Mn(2+) and Zn(2+), and by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF, indicating the serine protease nature of the enzyme. These properties make the novel protease a suitable candidate enzyme in meat ripening and other biotechnological applications.

  18. Synergistic antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and cupric sulfate against Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Cerioni, Luciana; Rapisarda, Viviana Andrea; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando Eduardo; Rodríguez-Montelongo, Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Oxidizing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are widely used in food sanitization because of their antimicrobial effects. We applied these compounds and metals to analyze their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold. The MICs were 300 ppm for NaClO and 300 mM for H2O2 when these compounds were individually applied for 2 min to conidia suspensions. To minimize the concentration of these compounds, we developed and standardized a sequential treatment for conidia that resulted in loss of viability on growth plates and loss of infectivity on lemons. The in vitro treatment consists of preincubation with 10 ppm of NaClO followed by incubation with 100 mM H2O2 and 6 mM CuSO4 (cupric sulfate). The combination of NaClO and H2O2 in the presence of CuSO4 produces a synergistic effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.36). The sequential treatment applied in situ on lemon peel 24 h after the fruit was inoculated with conidia produced a significant delay in the fungal infection. The in vitro treatment was effective on both imazalil-sensitive and imazalil-resistant strains of P. digitatum and Geotrichum candidum, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. However, this treatment inhibited 90% of mycelial growth for Penicillium italicum (citrus blue mold). These results indicate that sequential treatment may be useful for postharvest control of citrus fruit diseases.

  19. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic fungus Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus.

    PubMed

    Marcet-Houben, Marina; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F; González-Candelas, Luis; Gabaldón, Toni

    2012-11-21

    Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest.

  20. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a halotolerant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum: antibiotic production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Guedes, Sumaya; Mendes, Benilde; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture has prompted intensive research on chemical and biological methods in order to protect contamination of water and soil resources. In this paper the degradation of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a Penicillium chrysogenum strain previously isolated from a salt mine was studied in batch cultures. Co-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with additives such as sugar and intermediates of pesticide metabolism was also investigated. Penicillium chrysogenum in solid medium was able to grow at concentrations up to 1000 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with sucrose. Meanwhile, supplementation of the solid medium with glucose and lactose led to fungal growth at concentrations up to 500 mg/L of herbicide. Batch cultures of 2,4-D at 100 mg/L were developed under aerobic conditions with the addition of glucose, lactose and sucrose, showing sucrose as the best additional carbon source. The 2,4-D removal was quantified by liquid chromatography. The fungus was able to use 2,4-D as the sole carbon and energy source under 0%, 2% and 5.9% NaCl. The greatest 2,4-D degradation efficiency was found using alpha-ketoglutarate and ascorbic acid as co-substrates under 2% NaCl at pH 7. Penicillin production was evaluated in submerged cultures by bioassay, and higher amounts of beta-lactam antibiotic were produced when the herbicide was alone. Taking into account the ability of P. chrysogenum CLONA2 to degrade aromatic compounds, this strain could be an interesting tool for 2,4-D herbicide remediation in saline environments.