Science.gov

Sample records for pennsylvania womens health

  1. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  2. A Demographic Profile of Pennsylvania's Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Pennsylvania has the largest rural population in the nation, and more than 50 percent of this population is female. Overall, Pennsylvania's rural women are doing well in education, family life stability, and health, relative to comparison groups of rural men and urban women and men. Educational attainment is greater among urban women and men, but…

  3. Health status, health conditions, and health behaviors among Amish women. Results from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS).

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Flaherty, Sean; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Chase, Gary A; Weisman, Carol S; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2007-01-01

    We performed one of the first systematic, population-based surveys of women in Amish culture. We used these data to examine health status and health risks in a representative sample of 288 Amish women ages 18-45 living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in particular for risks associated with preterm and low birthweight infants, compared with a general population sample of 2,002 women in Central Pennsylvania. Compared with women in the general population, Amish women rated their physical health approximately at the same level, but reported less stress, fewer symptoms of depression, and had higher aggregate scores for mental health. Amish women reported low levels of intimate partner violence, high levels of social support, and they perceived low levels of unfair treatment owing to gender compared with the general population. Amish women also reported higher fertility, fewer low birthweight babies, but the same number of preterm births as the general population. The findings suggest that these outcomes may be due to higher levels of social support and better preconceptional behavior among Amish women.

  4. Perceived risk of preterm and low-birthweight birth in the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H.; Green, Michael J.; Chase, Gary A.; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Ural, Serdar H.; Weisman, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Engaging women in preconception prevention may be challenging if at-risk women do not perceive increased risk. This study examined predictors of perceiving increased risk for preterm/low birth-weight birth. STUDY DESIGN Using the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study, a population-based sample of reproductive-age women, we analyzed whether sociodemographics, health and pregnancy history, health behaviors, attitudes, or health care utilization predicted risk perception of preterm/low-birthweight birth. RESULTS Of the 645 women analyzed, 157 (24%) estimated their risk of preterm/low-birthweight birth to be very or somewhat likely. Higher perceived risk was associated with being underweight, previous preterm/low-birthweight birth, having a mother with previous preterm/low-birthweight birth, lower perceived severity of preterm/low birth-weight, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS Several factors known to predict preterm/low birth-weight did influence risk perception in this study, whereas others did not. Further research on how these factors have an impact on participation in preconception care programs is warranted. PMID:18455138

  5. Mental Health Status Among Rural Women of Reproductive Age: Findings From the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Weisman, Carol S.; Chase, Gary A.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to examine variables associated with mental health among rural women of reproductive age, with particular attention given to rural area type and farm residence. Methods. We analyzed data from the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study, which included a random-digit-dialed survey of women aged 18 to 45 years. Hierarchical multiple linear and logistic regression models were estimated to predict 3 mental health outcomes: score on a mental health measure, depressive symptoms, and diagnosed depression or anxiety. Results. Mental health outcomes were associated with different factors. Farm residence was associated with higher mental health score, and the most isolated rural residence was associated with less diagnosed depression or anxiety. Elevated psychosocial stress was consistently significant across all models. A key stress modifier, self-esteem, was also consistently significant across models. Other variables associated with 2 of the outcomes were intimate partner violence exposure and affectionate social support. Conclusions. Farm residence may be protective of general mental health for women of reproductive age, and residence in isolated rural areas may decrease access to mental health screening and treatment, resulting in fewer diagnoses of depression or anxiety. PMID:18511738

  6. The "Health Belief Model" Applied to Two Preventive Health Behaviors Among Women from a Rural Pennsylvania County. AE & RS 115.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Mary E.

    In order to test the usefulnes of the Health Belief Model (a model designed to measure health practices, attitudes, and knowledge), a survey of Potter County, Pennsylvania was conducted, and 283 responses from adult females without chronic illnesses were analyzed. The dependent variables employed were regulating diet and getting regular exercise.…

  7. Preconception Predictors of Birth Outcomes: Prospective Findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Dawn P.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Camacho, Fabian T.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine maternal pre-pregnancy (preconception) predictors of birthweight and fetal growth for singleton live births occurring over a 2-year period in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2-years later; self-report data and birth records were obtained for incident live births during the followup period. The analytic sample includes 116 singleton births. Baseline preconception maternal health status and health-related behaviors were examined as predictors of birthweight and fetal growth, controlling for prenatal and sociodemographic variables, using multiple regression analysis. Results Preconception BMI (overweight or obese) and vegetable consumption (at least one serving per day) had statistically significant independent and positive effects on birthweight and fetal growth. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy, a prenatal variable, was an additional independent predictor of birthweight and fetal growth. Sociodemographic variables were not significant predictors after controlling for preconception and prenatal maternal characteristics. Conclusions Findings confirm that preconception maternal health status and health-related behaviors can affect birthweight and fetal growth independent of prenatal and socioeconomic variables. Implications for preconception care are discussed. PMID:19472041

  8. Women's History Week in Pennsylvania. March 3-9, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Bertha S., Comp.

    The materials in this resource handbook are for the use of Pennsylvania teachers in developing classroom activities during National Women's History Week. The focus is on women who were notably active in government and politics (primarily, but not necessarily in Pennsylvania). The following women are profiled: Hallie Quinn Brown; Mary Ann Shadd…

  9. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  10. Training Programs to Strengthen Pennsylvania's Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, R. Elliott; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mactavish, Lindsay E.; Pollock, Timothy R.; Weand, Crystal L.; Polachek, Catherine; Reynolds, Stanley M.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes Pennsylvania's 9-year experience in implementing training programs to strengthen public health response to emerging infectious diseases. During the biannual 3-5-day-long Pennsylvania Public Health Institute (PHI) events, which have been held since 2000, courses have covered topics such as emerging infectious disease outbreaks, monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in retail food, and zoonotic diseases commonly associated with companion animals. Core competency courses include the legal basis for public health and epidemiology for nonepidemiologists. Emerging infectious disease seminars offered to clinicians since 2005 have focused on the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Complementing the PHI, the Pennsylvania Department of Health's monthly Epidemiology Journal Club offers additional interactions with presenters from academic institutions and federal agencies. Lunch-time forums also provide a venue for health department staff to share their work with colleagues. Innovative use of modern communication technology increases participation of frontline health workers in Journal Club events, and video conference capability offers flexibility in the selection of presenters. Pennsylvania's experience over the past 9 years demonstrates that with political will, commitment from content experts, and adequate administrative support, modest state and federal resources can be used to sustain public health training programs tailored to local needs. PMID:19635002

  11. Examining the Efficacy of Management for Pennsylvania School Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, certified school nurses were governed by the same educational rules and administrative directives as teachers. School nurses were supervised and evaluated by non-nurse managers who had no knowledge of the scope of school nurse practice. A focus of the study was to examine the efficacy of management for school health programs. The…

  12. Examining the Efficacy of Management for Pennsylvania School Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, certified school nurses were governed by the same educational rules and administrative directives as teachers. School nurses were supervised and evaluated by non-nurse managers who had no knowledge of the scope of school nurse practice. A focus of the study was to examine the efficacy of management for school health programs. The…

  13. Gender, Markets, and the Expansion of Women's Education at the University of Pennsylvania, 1913-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manekin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, with posters, tote bags, speakers, and balloons, the University of Pennsylvania launched its celebration of "125 Years of Women at Penn." Exhibits illustrating the experiences of women students appeared around campus and on the Web, while banners trumpeting the contributions of Penn women waved from lightposts. The…

  14. Gender, Markets, and the Expansion of Women's Education at the University of Pennsylvania, 1913-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manekin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, with posters, tote bags, speakers, and balloons, the University of Pennsylvania launched its celebration of "125 Years of Women at Penn." Exhibits illustrating the experiences of women students appeared around campus and on the Web, while banners trumpeting the contributions of Penn women waved from lightposts. The…

  15. Abortion Stigma Among Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A.; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R.; Steinberg, Julia R.; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. METHODS A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women’s responses to them. RESULTS Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. CONCLUSIONS Women’s reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women’s abortion experiences. PMID:27984674

  16. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Oct 21, 2016 Facebook Twitter ... for certain low-income uninsured women. 11 Uninsured Women Approximately 11% of women ages 19 to 64 ( ...

  17. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program in Pennsylvania: RE-AIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Seguin, Rebecca A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Corbin, Marilyn A; Wiker, Nancy; Gauker, Jodi; Chui, Kenneth; Nelson, Miriam E

    2015-03-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based programs is needed to reduce CVD risk among midlife and older women. The aim of this study is to examine the public health impact of StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts in Pennsylvania using the RE-AIM framework. Reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance were assessed using qualitative and quantitative measures; effectiveness was assessed using a pretest-posttest within-participants design. Reach into the target population was 5 in 100,000. Compared to the target population, a greater percentage of participants were white, married, middle-class, and had a graduate degree. Effectiveness was demonstrated (weight loss -2.0 kg, p < 0.001). Adoption among trained leaders was high (83.3 %), as was fidelity in implementation (average score 9.3 of 10). No leaders maintained the program. To increase impact of the StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program, it will be important to lower the costs and modify the recruitment and training strategies to better reach low-income and minority women. Such strategies may also improve program maintenance.

  18. Health Needs Survey: Indiana County, Pennsylvania, Summer 1975. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Mary H.

    In July and August 1975, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 347 adults living in Indiana County, Pennsylvania to gather information on the health services needed, physician extenders (i.e., nurse practitioners and physician's assistants), adequate health care for everyone, and regular health habits of the population. The sample included…

  19. The Importance of Public Health Agency Independence: Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health often deals with inconvenient truths. These are best communicated and acted on when public health agencies are independent of the organizations or individuals for whom the truths are inconvenient. The importance of public health independence is exemplified by the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling. Pennsylvania Department of Health involvement has been forestalled by the state governor, who has intensely supported shale gas development. PMID:24328620

  20. The importance of public health agency independence: Marcellus shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bernard D

    2014-02-01

    Public health often deals with inconvenient truths. These are best communicated and acted on when public health agencies are independent of the organizations or individuals for whom the truths are inconvenient. The importance of public health independence is exemplified by the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling. Pennsylvania Department of Health involvement has been forestalled by the state governor, who has intensely supported shale gas development.

  1. Using women's health research to develop women leaders in academic health sciences: the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, M; VandenBosche, G; Agatisa, P K; Hirshfield, A; Dan, A; Shaver, J L; Murasko, D; McLaughlin, M

    2001-01-01

    While the number of women entering U.S. medical schools has risen substantially in the past 25 years, the number of women in leadership positions in academic medicine is disproportionately small. The traditional pathway to academic leadership is through research. Women's health research is an ideal venue to fill the pipeline with talented women physicians and scientists who may become academic leaders in positions where they can promote positive change in women's health as well as mentor other women. The Office on Women's Health (OWH) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has contracted with 18 academic medical centers to develop National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health. Emphasizing the integral link between women's health and women leaders, each of the Centers of Excellence must develop a leadership plan for women in academic medicine as part of the contract requirements. This paper describes the training programs in women's health research that have developed at five of the academic medical centers: the University of Wisconsin, Magee Women's Hospital, the University of Maryland, Medical College of Pennsylvania Hahnemann University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. We discuss some of the challenges faced for both initiation and future viability of these programs as well as criteria by which these programs will be evaluated for success.

  2. Allied Health, Nursing and Health-Related Manpower Supply and Demand in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawadski, Alfonso S.

    The status of postsecondary allied health and health-related programs in Pennsylvania was studied. Among the data presented are the following: types of awards offered in 1976-77 by program at four-year institutions; the average number of graduates for 1969-73 and the number projected for 1974-78 by program, and 1973 enrollments by sex; programs…

  3. Allied Health, Nursing and Health-Related Manpower Supply and Demand in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawadski, Alfonso S.

    The status of postsecondary allied health and health-related programs in Pennsylvania was studied. Among the data presented are the following: types of awards offered in 1976-77 by program at four-year institutions; the average number of graduates for 1969-73 and the number projected for 1974-78 by program, and 1973 enrollments by sex; programs…

  4. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem.

  5. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Minority Women's Health This section of womenshealth.gov takes a ... Health email updates. Enter email address Submit Minority Women's Health news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link ...

  6. [Health for women; women for health].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    This document describes a proposed new health policy for Colombian women. The rationale for the new policy, known as "Health for women, women for health", is discussed, and the general and specific objectives, program description, actions and strategies are presented for each of 5 subprograms. The subprograms cover health promotion and self-care for women, reproductive and sexual health care, prevention of abuse and services for women and children who are victims of violence, mental health, and occupational health Changes in Colombian society and living conditions and in the role of women over the past few decades have been reflected in changing epidemiologic profiles, life expectancy, and demands placed on health services. The Health for women, women for health policy takes into account social discrimination against women and its impact on female health. The subprogram of health promotion and self-care is intended to complement, reinforce, and broaden preventive interventions already offered by the health services. The subprogram will require a mobile interdisciplinary team to conduct educational campaigns and to coordinate activities. Promotional actions include staff training in a gender focus on health and health policy for women, development of a health manual for women, and a mass media campaign on self-care for women. The subprogram for reproductive health and sexuality will reorient existing maternal health services away from their emphasis on increasing coverage of prenatal care, promoting births in health facilities, and actions to reduce infant mortality and toward services appropriate to the different phases of the female reproductive cycle. The subprogram will include provision of family planning services, preventing and managing high risk pregnancies, providing adequate care in maternity centers for labor and delivery, and preventing avoidable maternal deaths. Reviewing and revising existing legislation to protect reproductive health is among proposed

  7. Forest Health Monitoring in Pennsylvania 1998-1999

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2002-01-01

    Pennsylvania has mature forests dominated by hardwood species. Red maple was common in all size classes. Most trees are healthy, with full crowns (low transparency, high density), little dieback, and little damage.

  8. Women's rights to health.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Women's rights and health are threatened by cultural, religious, and social biases against women that create barriers in women's ability to access health information, education, and services. The fact that women's basic human rights include a right to health has been incorporated in international rights covenants, but violations occur in the form of 1) direct state actions, such as coercive abortion; 2) failure of states to meet health needs; 3) discrimination that denies health care to specific groups; and 4) failure of states to protect women from violence, child marriage, female infanticide, and other forms of health- and life-threatening discrimination. In order to improve this situation, a basic set of indicators must be developed to monitor implementation of agreements to protect women. Health professionals must continue to incorporate women's rights into the ethics or charters of health practices, to improve service to women, and to increase governmental advocacy on behalf of women. Governments must acknowledge the benefits of applying a rights approach to women's health status and must develop plans to implement recommendations arising from international conferences on women's rights. Women-centered nongovernmental organizations must create a clear framework on women's rights to health and develop advocacy and networking strategies.

  9. Privacy and security in Pennsylvania: ensuring privacy and security of health information exchange in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Glen F; Gillespie, William; Fox, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Though HIPAA addresses privacy and security on a nationwide basis, state laws and regulations vary. This paper describes the landscape for privacy and security in Pennsylvania and its key elements. It addresses common myths and misunderstandings and provides an overview of what is actually required to provide needed protections privacy policies from government and the stakeholders; risk analysis and management; and technical and non-technical means to enforce policies and mitigate risks. Also covered are the enablers, barriers and key recommendations for the future.

  10. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV Breast Implants Caregiving College Health Diabetes Healthy Aging Heart Health Mammograms Menopause Pregnancy Safe Medication Use Other Topics like cosmetics and nutrition Other Tips Hispanic Women's Health 4 Tips for ...

  11. Women for women's health: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Andrews, C M

    1996-01-01

    The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift. Ugandan nurses recognize that their educational preparation has stagnated for many years and that it was not only the political unrest in their country that put them behind professionally. They realize that, given the new directions set by the government, they must become prepared to implement primary health care. They are demanding a university education so they may take their place alongside other health care providers prepared at the university level. Some of the most convincing arguments for a university program for nurses came from doctors at the university who spoke about the need to raise the standards of nursing practice, the quality of teachers, and the morale of practitioners. One nurse said: "If we lose hope for a BScN program, I think all the nurses will quit and we won't have any new students going into the profession." This program is designed to improve the health and well-being of all Ugandans, especially the most vulnerable groups of women and children in rural areas, through strengthening and expanding health services by targeting the educational preparation of nurses. Health planners in Uganda envision the professional nurse as key to the implementation of the national health policy of primary health care. University-educated nurses should be able to assess problems, make clinically sound decisions, and act appropriately within the scope of nursing practice. They should be able to interact and consult collegially with other health care

  12. Health of women.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health.

  13. Democracy and Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  14. Democracy and Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777

  15. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  16. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...

  17. School Psychologists' Report of School-Based Mental Health Service Programs across Pennsylvania School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Ajani Yanea

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the mental health needs and services of children and adolescents within Pennsylvania school communities; this included a focus upon evidence-based counseling approaches. Relationships were analyzed between population density, SES status, grade level and the type of mental health issues serviced. Survey data from 314 respondents…

  18. School Psychologists' Report of School-Based Mental Health Service Programs across Pennsylvania School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Ajani Yanea

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the mental health needs and services of children and adolescents within Pennsylvania school communities; this included a focus upon evidence-based counseling approaches. Relationships were analyzed between population density, SES status, grade level and the type of mental health issues serviced. Survey data from 314 respondents…

  19. Associating Pregnancy Intent with Pregnancy: Prospective Findings from the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study (CePAWHS)

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H.; Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Camacho, Fabian T.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined whether adult women’s intention for future pregnancy predicted actual pregnancies occurring in a 2-year follow-up study. Methods Data are from the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study population-based longitudinal survey of women ages 18–45 (n=1,420). The analytic sample consists of 889 non-pregnant women who had reproductive capacity. Intention for future pregnancy was ascertained at baseline, and women were re-interviewed 2 years later to document interval pregnancies. The impact of pregnancy intention on subsequent pregnancy was analyzed using multiple logistic regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Results At baseline, 46% of women were considering a future pregnancy. One hundred thirty-seven women became pregnant during the 2-year study; of these pregnancies, 83% were intended (occurring in women considering a future pregnancy at baseline) and 17% were unintended (occurring in women not considering a future pregnancy at baseline). Pregnancies occurred in 28% of women who at baseline were considering future pregnancy and 5% of women not considering pregnancy. In adjusted analysis, baseline pregnancy intention was associated with pregnancy occurrence in women ages 25–34 (adjusted OR 4.19, 95% CI 2.20–7.97) and ages 35–45 (adjusted OR 26.89, 95% CI 9.05–79.93), but not in women ages 18–24. Conclusions In this prospective study, pregnancy intention was strongly associated with pregnancy incidence over a 2-year follow-up period among women ages 25 and older, suggesting that pregnancy intentions could be used to identify women at higher risk of pregnancy. Future investigation is needed to confirm these findings and to explore the reasons why pregnancy intentions were not predictive for women ages 18–24. PMID:19447320

  20. Examining relationships between receiving mental health services in the Pennsylvania prison system and time served.

    PubMed

    Metraux, Stephen

    2008-07-01

    This study examined a cohort of 7,046 men who were released from the Pennsylvania State prison system between 1999 and 2002 to Philadelphia County to assess the relationships between receipt of mental health services in prison and prison exit. Administrative data on prison stays for 7,046 men released from Pennsylvania prisons to Philadelphia locations were analyzed. Of the 7,046 men, 8.7% received ongoing or intensive mental health services and 25.9% received mental health services while incarcerated. Multivariate analyses indicate that use of mental health services was positively associated with increased odds of serving the full prison sentence (as opposed to receiving parole), although the relationship between mental health services received and length of prison episode was inconclusive. Dynamics related to prison release warrant further attention in efforts to reduce the prevalence of mental illness in prisons and to facilitate community reentry for persons so diagnosed.

  1. Minority women and advocacy for women's health.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K; Morssink, C B; Nestle, M

    2001-09-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered.

  2. Women's health in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Drudi, Laura; Grenon, S Marlene

    2014-06-01

    To review the current state of knowledge with regards to clinical challenges related to women's health during spaceflight. Articles were reviewed relevant to "women", "sex," and "gender" in "microgravity," "weightlessness," and "spaceflight" in the English and Russian languages. There were 50 papers identified. Studies have shown that crewmembers suffer from space motion sickness, but gender discrepancies have not been explored. Nearly all women experience orthostatic intolerance in space, which may be due to differences in female cardiovascular response. Immunosuppression in spaceflight results in susceptibility to opportunistic infections, but no studies have investigated gender differences. Finally, radiation exposure and germ cell viability influence the reproductive health of astronauts. With changes in space access offered by commercial space activities, research areas devoted to women's health in microgravity should become one of the priorities for safe space exploratory efforts.

  3. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  4. Update in women's health.

    PubMed

    Ganschow, Pamela S; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Mackinnon, Jennifer; Charney, Pamela

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this clinical update is to summarize articles and guidelines published in the last year with the potential to change current clinical practice as it relates to women's health. We used two independent search strategies to identify articles relevant to women's health published between March 1, 2007 and February 29, 2008. First, we reviewed the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and journal indices from the ACP Journal Club, Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Circulation, Diabetes, JAMA, JGIM, Journal of Women's Health, Lancet, NEJM, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Women's Health Journal Watch. Second, we performed a MEDLINE search using the medical subject heading term "sex factors." The authors, who all have clinical and/or research experience in the area of women's health, reviewed all article titles, abstracts, and, when indicated, full publications. We excluded articles related to obstetrical aspects of women's health focusing on those relevant to general internists. We had two acceptance criteria, scientific rigor and potential to impact women's health. We also identified new and/or updated women's health guidelines released during the same time period. We identified over 250 publications with potential relevance to women's health. Forty-six articles were selected for presentation as part of the Clinical Update, and nine were selected for a more detailed discussion in this paper. Evidence-based women's health guidelines are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Important Women's Health Guidelines in 2007-2008: New or Updated Topic Issuing organization Updated recommendations and comments Mammography screening in women 40-4917 ACP Individualized risk assessment and informed decision making should be used to guide decisions about mammography screening in this age group. To aid in the risk assessment, a discussion of the risk factors, which if present in a woman in her 40s increases her risk to above that of an

  5. Field Survey of Health Perception and Complaints of Pennsylvania Residents in the Marcellus Shale Region

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Pouné; Propert, Kathleen Joy; Powers, Martha; Emmett, Edward; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale region residents have reported medical symptoms they believe are related to nearby Unconventional Natural Gas Development (UNGD). Associations between medical symptoms and UNGD have been minimally explored. The objective of this descriptive study is to explore whether shale region Pennsylvania residents perceive UNGD as a health concern and whether they attribute health symptoms to UNGD exposures. A questionnaire was administered to adult volunteers with medical complaints in a primary-care medical office in a county where UNGD was present. Participants were asked whether they were concerned about health effects from UNGD, and whether they attributed current symptoms to UNGD or to some other environmental exposure. There were 72 respondents; 22% perceived UNGD as a health concern and 13% attributed medical symptoms to UNGD exposures. Overall, 42% attributed one or more of their medical symptoms to environmental causes, of which UNGD was the most frequent. A medical record review conducted on six participants who attributed their medical symptoms to UNGD revealed that only one of these records documented both the symptoms in question and the attribution to UNGD. The results of this pilot study suggest that there is substantial concern about adverse health effects of UNGD among Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale residents, and that these concerns may not be adequately represented in medical records. Further efforts to determine the relationship between UNGD and health are recommended in order to address community concerns. PMID:25003172

  6. Women's health in Japan.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    In Japan, the Women's Center in Osaka operates a women's health information hotline for 3 days/month. An analysis of 730 calls to the Centre during 1990-1992 shows that abortion and contraception are not major concerns. (Safe abortion is accessible. Oral contraceptives are banned. Condoms and the rhythm method are the most common family planning methods.) The bulk of the calls (22.6%) centered around menstruation, followed by reproductive diseases (21.5%), menopause (7%), and infertility (7%). Irregular menstruation, no menstruation, and painful periods made up most menstruation concerns. These cases tended not to be serious, which explains why physicians were not interested in them, resulting in client dissatisfaction. Physicians are usually concerned about menstruation only as it pertains to desire for pregnancy. Mothers who call the hotline with questions about their daughters' menstruation ask about menstruation as it relates to fertility. Clearly, woman's role is to bear children. Physicians prescribe medication to women with concerns about infertility but women have difficulty asking their physicians any questions about the medication. Women concerned about infertility do not consider other options such as alternative treatments, adoption, or not bearing children. Once fertility has diminished, physicians are no longer interested in women. Women with questions about menopause who do not get the information from their physician or respectful attention from their physician call the hotline. Most menopause- related complaints revolve around symptoms.

  7. Women's Health USA, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development.

    This book provides a collection of current and historical data on some of the most pressing health challenges facing women, their families, and their communities. It is intended to be a concise reference for policymakers and program managers at the federal, state, and local levels. The book brings together the latest available data from various…

  8. Integrative Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Chiaramonte, Delia; Ring, Melinda; Locke, Amy B

    2017-09-01

    This article addresses the common women's health concerns of menopause-related symptoms, premenstrual syndrome, and chronic pelvic pain. Each can be effectively addressed with an integrative approach that incorporates interventions such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, mind-body approaches, acupuncture, and lifestyle modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A

    1993-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1800s, the American Medical Association, antiobscenity crusaders, and even women's groups supported criminalization of abortion. By 1900, it was illegal nationwide. In the late 1960s, women, physicians, and states began questioning abortion laws, since many women had unsafe, often fatal, illegal abortions. By 1973, 4 states had legalized abortion and 15 other states had liberalized abortion laws. A mid-1960 study showed that private patients comprised about 95% of all elective abortions. Poor clinic patients did not have the power to convince 3 physicians to support their request for an abortion. IN 1965, the Supreme Court agreed that a Connecticut Planned Parenthood Affiliate had the right to distribute contraceptives. The 1973 Roe v. Wade Court decision advanced this decision, by confirming a woman's right to abortion during the first 2 semesters of pregnancy. In 1976, the US Congress passed the Hyde amendment forbidding federal funding (e.g., Medicaid) for abortions except to save a mother. 2 1980 Supreme Court decisions supported the Hyde amendment. The Hyde amendment and these court decisions showed discrimination against poor women. Since then there have been other decisions that have whittled away at Roe v. Wade. Contraceptive failure is responsible for about 50% of the 1.6 million abortions/year. About 60% of women having an abortion are under 25 years old. Thus, criminalization of abortion would adversely affect many women as well as society. Many prochoice physicians had cared for women who suffered from botched abortions. Physicians under 45 years old tend to not know how to perform a 2nd trimester abortion because most obstetrician/gynecology residency training programs do not require them to learn it, and they do not want to do them. 2nd trimester abortion should be a required part of residency training. Physicians as preservers of women's health should be advocating safe abortion and not adopt the legal vs. illegal abortion

  10. Androgens and women's health.

    PubMed

    Redmond, G P

    1998-01-01

    Androgenic disorders are those conditions in women characterized by excessive androgen action. They are the most common endocrinopathy of women, affecting from 10% to 20%. Signs are: persistent acne, hirsutism and androgenic alopecia, which is the female equivalent of male pattern baldness. A subgroup, those traditionally labeled as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), additionally have anovulation, as well as menstrual abnormalities and, often, obesity. Although women with androgenic disorders usually present themselves for help with the skin or menstrual changes, there are other important implications regarding their health. Women with PCOS have varying degrees of insulin resistance, and an increased incidence of Type II diabetes mellitus, as well as unfavorable lipid patterns. The presence of these risk factors is suggested by upper segment obesity, darkening of the skin, and the other skin changes that make up acanthosis nigricans. Diagnosis involves measurement of circulating androgens (of which free testosterone is most important), together with prolactin and FSH when menstrual dysfunction is present. Many women with androgenic skin changes have normal serum androgen levels, suggesting increased end organ sensitivity to androgens. Others have hyperandrogenism (of ovarian or adrenal origin). Treatment is usually successful in controlling acne, reducing hirsutism and stabilizing, or partially reversing, androgenic alopecia. Pharmacological approaches involve suppressing androgen levels, for example, the use of an appropriate oral contraceptive, or antagonizing androgen action with several medications that have this activity. Unfortunately, most women with androgenic disorders are frustrated in their efforts to obtain medical help. Understanding androgenic disorders will enable the physician to significantly help the majority of women with these conditions.

  11. Women need health education.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.

  12. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  13. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care » Program Overview » Outreach Materials » FAQs Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... Who can I call for more help? What health care services are available to women Veterans? A full ...

  14. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  15. A Guide for Preparing the Application for Program Approval for Certification of Nursing Assistants for Long Term Care Agencies and Home Health Aides in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaincott, Helen K.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist health care agencies and educational institutions to prepare an application for approval by the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania Department of Health to train nursing aides for long-term care and home health agencies. Types of materials provided include definitions, a sample…

  16. Health Disparities in Women

    PubMed Central

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Bryan, Alicia; Skidmore Edwards, Elizabeth; Madzima, Takudzwa; Massey, Kelly; May, Linda; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND SCOPE Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health is an international, open-access, peer-reviewed journal which considers manuscripts on all aspects of the diagnosis, management, and prevention of disorders specific to women, in addition to related genetic, pathophysiological, and epidemiological topics. Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health aims to provide researchers working in this complex, quickly developing field with online, open access to highly relevant scholarly articles by leading international researchers. In a field where the literature is ever-expanding, researchers increasingly need access to up-to-date, high-quality scholarly articles on areas of specific contemporary interest. This supplement is on Health Disparities in Women. This supplement aims to address this by presenting high-quality articles that allow readers to distinguish the signal from the noise. The editor in chief hopes that through this effort, practitioners and researchers will be aided in finding answers to some of the most complex and pressing issues of our time. PMID:28579867

  17. Women, health, and technology.

    PubMed

    Stauning, I

    1993-01-01

    Some factors that determine the development and diffusion of medical technologies are discussed. The use of technology in pregnancy and labor cannot be seen as a response to user needs or the result of societal planning alone. Often technologies are developed and diffused without any evaluation of their risks and benefits. The relations between medical research and industrial interests are focused on to explain the development, and against this background user interests and women's strategies as users and providers of health care are discussed.

  18. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... these needed lifestyle components in middle age. The Elderly Woman Since the average woman lives longer these ... Thyroid Awareness Resources Find an Endocrinologist Healthy Lifestyles Nutrition Men's Health Women's Health Kids' Health Address American ...

  19. Health assessment for Palmerton Zinc, Palmerton, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD002395887. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-04

    An active zinc smelter that began operation in 1898 has contaminated several square miles of eastern Pennsylvania with phytotoxic concentrations of zinc. Runoff containing soil contaminated with high concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc from the defoliated area contributes to heavy metal contamination identified in fish in area streams. Consumption of fish from the area streams presents a potential health threat; the public should be advised to consume fish from the immediate area streams on a limited basis only (no more than once per week). The proposed revegetation action will be an acceptable approach to eliminate a significant source of continuing contamination to the area's streams.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-226-1769, Montgomery Hospital, Norristown, Pennsylvania. [Glutaraldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In response to a request from Montgomery Hospital, Norristown, Pennsylvania, an evaluation was made of possible worker exposures to glutaraldehyde while disinfecting respiratory therapy equipment, bronchoscopes, physical therapy whirlpool tubs, surgical instruments, and anesthesia equipment parts. The author concludes that a health hazard existed from glutaraldehyde during disinfection and sterilizing procedures. The author recommends substitution of less-hazardous materials for glutaraldehyde where possible, construction of a work station with adequate local exhaust ventilation for glutaraldehyde use, installation of a dilution ventilation system in the whirlpool facilities, and use of personal protective clothing when handling glutaraldehyde.

  1. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  2. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  3. MIGRANT HEALTH PROJECT, PENNSYLVANIA, 1966--ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT REPORT ON HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES FOR MIGRANTS, PROJECT GRANT 33, UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAPMAN, A.L.; AND OTHERS

    HEALTH SERVICES WERE MADE AVAILABLE TO SOME 6176 SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN A FIFTEEN-COUNTY PROJECT AREA OF PENNSYLVANIA DURING 1966. THIS PROJECT IS AN EXTENSION AND EXPANSION OF A FOUR-COUNTY MIGRANT HEALTH PROGRAM BEGUN IN 1963. THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY THIS PROGRAM HAVE BEEN EXPANDED FROM OUT-PATIENT SERVICES TO INCLUDE DENTAL CARE,…

  4. Women, health and population policies.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, J

    1997-07-01

    Women, in Nepal, suffer from low levels of literacy, limited access to health care, and widespread poverty. This article describes the health status of Nepalese women, major interventions, and constraints. Nepalese women face 10 major critical health issues. Women have little choice in determining marriage partners, number of children, or family planning (FP). Women's status is measured by the number of sons. Women's security is tied to the childbearing capacity. Women lack property rights and access to independent resources. Clause 9 of the Law permits men to remarry and leave their wives destitute: if the woman is incurably mentally ill; if the woman has an infectious, incurable venereal disease; if the woman is an invalid; if the woman is infertile after 10 years of marriage; or if the woman is living separate and taking her share of ANSA. The 6th 5-Year Plan offered the integration of FP within other development programs. Population policy included, for the first time, women's programs. Four major women-oriented strategies were included in the 1984 National Population Strategy: 1) the encouragement of women's employment through training and job opportunities in health, education, and agricultural industries; 2) provision of institutional support that accommodates women's needs; 3) integration of women's development within Integrated Development Projects; and 4) distribution of appropriate technology. Future actions should focus on reproductive health, FP for adolescents and men, women's control of their own fertility, and the education of the girl child.

  5. Course Plan for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Linda A.

    In view of women's misconceptions about their bodies, their sexuality, their mental health, and the health care system, this three-credit evening community college course on women's health needs and concerns was designed. Course objectives include recording and analyzing the effects of nutrition, sleep, exercise, and stress on various body…

  6. School Nurses on the Front Line: Challenges in Meeting the Diverse Health Needs of Rural Pennsylvania School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Davis, Lisa A.; Smith, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    School nurses are the health professionals most consistently involved with the health needs of children, particularly in rural areas where primary care providers are less likely to be located. To understand the scope and effectiveness of nursing services for school districts throughout Pennsylvania, the researchers conducted a study in 2005 to:…

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-238-1814, Kountry Kreations, Towanda, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pennsylvania Department of Health, an evaluation was made of complaints associated with handling imported grape vine wreaths at the Kountry Kreations in Towanda, Pennsylvania. Kountry Kreations produced decorative craft items for the wholesale market. The wreaths were imported from Taiwan. Complaints from employees included headache, sore throat, watering eyes, extreme tiredness, blurry vision, sore neck, nausea, upset stomach, chills, loss of concentration, rapid heartbeat, rash, and leg twitches. Various aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkyl substituted benzenes, naphthalenes, and styrene were detected nor was there evidence of methylene bromide. The author concludes that a potential health hazard existed due to improper ventilation at the facility. The introduction of fresh, outside air was insufficient and the inadequate containment of contaminant producing processes were the major contributors to the problem. The author recommends worker education of the hazards associated with craft materials and proper work habits. Specific mention was made that the glue-melting pots be operated in the temperature range specified by the manufacturer of the adhesives.

  8. Balancing investments in Federally Qualified Health Centers and Medicaid for improved access and coverage in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Paul M; Lee, Hyunji; Scherrer, Christina; Swann, Julie L

    2014-12-01

    Two common health disparities in the US include a lack of access to care and a lack of insurance coverage. To help address these disparities, healthcare reform will provide $11B to expand Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) over the next 5 years. In 2014, Medicaid rules will be modified so that more people will become eligible. There are, however, important tradeoffs in the investment in these two programs. We find a balanced investment between FQHC expansion and relaxing Medicaid eligibility to improve both access (by increasing the number of FQHCs) and coverage (by FQHC and Medicaid expansion) for the state of Pennsylvania. The comparison is achieved by integrating multi-objective mathematical models with several public data sets that allow for specific estimations of healthcare need. Demand is estimated based on current access and coverage status in order to target groups to be considered preferentially. Results show that for Pennsylvania, FQHCs are more cost effective than Medicaid if we invest all of the resources in just one policy. However, we find a better investment point balancing those two policies. This point is approximately where the additional expenses incurred from relaxing Medicaid eligibility equals the investment in FQHC expansion.

  9. Health meanings of Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Daly, E B

    1995-05-01

    Limited information exists concerning the health meanings of Saudi women. The purposes of this study were to describe the meanings of health among a sample of 58 young Saudi women and to compare findings with other published reports of non-Saudi women. Responses to the question 'what does being healthy mean to you?' resulted in nine health categories. Findings indicated that practising healthy ways, performance of roles, and harmony in life were more strongly emphasized than health categories of being productive, adaptation, and physical fitness. Compared to western women, Saudi women did not report health meanings that could be categorized as body image, cognitive function, social involvement or positive self-concept. Study findings should challenge nursing practitioners, educators and students to reconsider assumptions underlying nursing interventions and to broaden their perspective of health that embraces cultural plurality in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Asian-Americans Minority Women's Health Asian-Americans Health conditions common in Asian- ... to top Health conditions common in Asian-American women Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Heart disease ...

  11. [Women and health: pending tasks].

    PubMed

    Raczynski, D

    1990-04-01

    Recognizing the value of women's work within the family and society is a key ingredient towards designing an acceptable national health policy. The critical roles that women can play are especially relevant when designing health policies and programs for poverty areas and for areas of preventive medicine. But success of such programs require a national commitment if they are to work. Women represent very important agents in the prevention, cure and rehabilitation of diseases within the family and the community. Community participation for health programs are expedited when governments have support from local women. Examples of such programs are in the areas of maternal and child health and problems that affect women, such as mental disorders among poor urban women.

  12. Theories on immigrant women's health.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Yang, Kyeongra

    2006-09-01

    Our purpose in this article is to review theories critically that have been used to explain immigrant women's health based on 4 case studies of Korean immigrant women's experiences in the United States and suggest directions for future development of theories on immigrant women's health. First, 3 existing theories on immigration and health (selective migration, negative effect of immigration, and acculturation) are concisely described. Then, the daily experiences of 4 low-income Korean immigrant women are described in a narrative mode, and the 3 existing theories are critiqued in terms of how they can explain the women's narratives. Finally, implications for future theory development on immigrant women's health experience are proposed based on the discussion.

  13. Multicultural considerations in women's health.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ana E; Robertson, Candace

    2003-09-01

    As patient practices continue to diversify, clinical skills need to extend beyond disease manifestation and treatment modalities into awareness of health statistics that highlight disparities, training, cross-cultural health care delivery at the individual and system-based levels. and skills of health care advocacy. Excellent care for multicultural women implies the ability to assess the health issues applicable to all women as well as the issues specific to the women in the clinician's office. It implies enabling the patient to share with her individual and cultural influences. Incorporating both of these influences at the same time and integrating them into her context of care can result in developing the best fit for health care goals, eliminating disparities and improving health outcomes in terms of quantity and quality of lives for all women.

  14. Health hazard evaluation report, HETA-87-250-1888, GTE Products Corporation, Williamsport, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Richardson, F.D.

    1988-04-01

    In response to a request from the Electronic Components Divsion of the GTE Corporation, Williamsport, Pennsylvania, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions resulting from exposure to rosin pyrolysis products, Freon, methylene chloride, and other chemicals. Workers in the Standard Electronic Module assembly and testing area reported dizziness; headache; eye, nose and throat irritation; memory loss and mood changes. Air sampling was conducted for formaldehyde, total aldehydes, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Medical interviews were conducted with 23 workers; many reported symptoms consistent with exposure to agents with neurotoxic and irritant characteristics. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard existed from inadequate ventilation; chemicals used in the area are capable of precipitating symptoms reported by workers. The authors recommend that measures be taken to reduce or eliminate exposures to methylene chloride, improve housekeeping and ventilation, and institute medical surveillance.

  15. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities.

  16. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.

    In June 1975, 53 men and 56 women living on commercial farms in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania were interviewed regarding their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 23% of all adults living on commercial farms in the county. A commercial farm was defined as…

  17. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Butler County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; Taranto, Angelo A.

    In July and August 1975, 17 men and 63 women living in rural areas in Butler County, Pennsylvania were interviewed as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 12% of all adults living on commercial farms and 5% of all rural nonfarm adults in the county. A…

  18. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Fulton County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.

    In June 1975, 47 men and 43 women living on commercial farms in Fulton County, Pennsylvania were interviewed regarding their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 39% of all adults living on commercial farms in the county. A commercial farm was defined as one that…

  19. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Juniata County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.

    In June 1975, 62 men and 64 women living on commercial farms in Juniata County, Pennsylvania were interviewed regarding their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 22% of all adults living on commercial farms in the county. A commercial farm was defined as one that…

  20. Advancing Women's Health and Women's Leadership With Endowed Chairs in Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Johnson, Paula; Klein, Wendy; Jenkins, Marjorie; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2017-02-01

    Gender-based bias and conflation of gender and status are root causes of disparities in women's health care and the slow advancement of women to leadership in academic medicine. More than a quarter of women physicians train in internal medicine and its subspecialties, and women physicians almost exclusively constitute the women's health focus within internal medicine. Thus, internal medicine has considerable opportunity to develop women leaders in academic medicine and promote women's health equity.To probe whether holding an endowed chair-which confers status-in women's health may be an effective way to advance women leaders in academic medicine and women's health, the authors explored the current status of endowed chairs in women's health in internal medicine. They found that the number of these endowed chairs in North America increased from 7 in 2013 to 19 in 2015, and all were held by women. The perceptions of incumbents and other women's health leaders supported the premise that an endowed chair in women's health would increase women's leadership, the institutional stature of women's health, and activities in women's health research, education, and clinical care.Going forward, it will be important to explore why not all recipients perceived that the endowed chair enhanced their own academic leadership, whether providing women's health leaders with fundraising expertise fosters future success in increasing the number of women's health endowed chairs, and how the conflation of gender and status play out (e.g., salary differences between endowed chairs) as the number of endowed chairs in women's health increases.

  1. Health Professionals' Knowledge of Women's Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Rebecca M.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 71 health professionals, benchmarking data from 8 hospitals, continuing education program evaluations, and focus groups with nursing, allied health, and primary care providers indicated a need for professional continuing education on women's health issues. Primary topic needs were identified. The data formed the basis for…

  2. Preventive Care in Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Anita K; Goodall, Perpetua

    2016-06-01

    Specialists in general obstetrics and gynecology are key providers of primary care in women. They diagnose and provide the initial management of many medical conditions unrelated to reproductive health. Most importantly they can impact the overall health of patients through incorporating preventive approaches in the annual well-woman visit. This article defines preventive care and identifies leading causes of mortality in women. A framework for identifying key elements of the well-woman examination is summarized. Examples of prevention are provided, which focus on major health care issues that affect adult women.

  3. New Medicaid Enrollees See Health and Social Benefits in Pennsylvania's Expansion.

    PubMed

    Hom, Jeffrey K; Wong, Charlene; Stillson, Christian; Zha, Jessica; Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Cahill, Rachel; Grande, David

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how new Medicaid enrollees are approaching their own health and health care in the shifting health care landscape of the Affordable Care Act has implications for future outreach and enrollment efforts, as well as service planning for this population. The objective of this study was to explore the health care experiences and expectations of new Medicaid expansion beneficiaries in the immediate post-enrollment period. We conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews with a random sample of 40 adults in Philadelphia who had completed an application for Medicaid through a comprehensive benefits organization after January 1, 2015, when the Medicaid expansion in Pennsylvania took effect. We conducted an inductive, applied thematic analysis of interview transcripts. The new Medicaid beneficiaries described especially high levels of pent-up demand for care. Dental care was a far more pressing and motivating concern than medical care. Preventive services were also frequently mentioned. Participants anticipated that insurance would reduce both stress and financial strain and improve their experience in the health care system by raising their social standing. Participants highly valued the support of telephone application counselors in the Medicaid enrollment process to overcome bureaucratic obstacles they had encountered in the past. Dental care and preventive services appear to be high priorities for new Medicaid enrollees. Telephone outreach and enrollment support services can be an effective way to overcome past experiences with administrative barriers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Association Between Neighborhood-Level Smoking and Individual Smoking Risk: Maternal Smoking Among Latina Women in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Weibe, Douglas; Camenga, Deepa R.; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether or not high maternal smoking rates at the neighborhood level increase the likelihood of individual smoking by Latina women in the three months prior to and during pregnancy, independent of other individual and neighborhood factors. Methods This study was observational in nature, using linked vital statistics records for 24,443 Latina women in Pennsylvania (2009–2010) and U.S. Census data for 2,398 census tracts. We used multilevel logistic regression models to determine the individual odds of self-reported maternal smoking given different census tract-level rates of maternal smoking in the previous three years (2006–2008), adjusting for maternal and census-tract characteristics, including ethnic density, population density, and poverty. Results Higher levels of maternal smoking at the census-tract level were associated with increased individual odds of smoking among Latina mothers. In the fully adjusted model, a 10% increase in the neighborhood smoking rate was associated with a 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.22, 1.34) increase in the individual odds of smoking. Conclusion Latina women living in census tracts where more women have smoked during or immediately prior to pregnancy are themselves at higher risk of smoking during this period. PMID:26556939

  5. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  6. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  7. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence and rise of poverty in the United States, which is found particularly among women, children, and those from minority groups. Discusses the positive association between poverty and mental health problems. Describes the impact of poverty on women, and the need for research to discover the psychological impact of poverty. (JS)

  8. Smoking and women's health.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  9. Women's health and behavioral health issues in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jean Lau; Yee, Barbara W K; Banks, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    As health care reform promises to change the landscape of health care delivery, its potential impact on women's health looms large. Whereas health and mental health systems have historically been fragmented, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates integrated health care as the strategy for reform. Current systems fragment women's health not only in their primary care, mental health, obstetrical, and gynecological needs, but also in their roles as the primary caregivers for parents, spouses, and children. Changes in reimbursement, and in restructuring financing and care coordination systems through accountable care organizations and medical homes, will potentially improve women's health care.

  10. Social change and women's health.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Peggy; Worts, Diana; McMunn, Anne; Sacker, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five decades, the organization of women's lives has changed dramatically. Throughout the industrialized world, paid work and family biographies have been altered as the once-dominant role of homemaker has given way to the role of secondary, dual, or even primary wage-earner. The attendant changes represent a mix of gains and losses for women, in which not all women have benefited (or suffered) equally. But little is known about the health consequences. This article addresses that gap. It develops a "situated biographies" model to conceptualize how life course change may influence women's health. The model stresses the role of time, both as individual aging and as the anchoring of lives in particular historical periods. "Situating" biographies in this way highlights two key features of social change in women's lives: the ambiguous implications for the health of women as a group, and the probable connections to growing social and economic disparities in health among them. This approach lays the groundwork for more integrated and productive population-based research about how historical transformations may affect women's health.

  11. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... for cardiovascular disease that are unique to women? Polycystic ovary syndrome , high blood pressure disorders that occur during pregnancy, ... to and from the liver through the blood. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  12. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... for cardiovascular disease that are unique to women? Polycystic ovary syndrome , high blood pressure disorders that occur during pregnancy, ... to and from the liver through the blood. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  13. Women's health and feminist politics.

    PubMed

    Faure, D

    1994-06-01

    The Sempreviva Organizacao Feminista (SOF) has aimed since 1963 to improve women's health in low-income communities in southeastern Brazil. There is concern for the whole person in all stages of a woman's life, not just the reproductive one commonly addressed in population control programs. SOF has linked gender, health, and poverty and contributed to social movements to improve conditions. SOF's constituency is about 90% women aged 20-40 years, with 2-5 children, and a lack of education. About 70% remain in the home caring for their families, and 25% are employed formally or informally. The women's fertility rates are high and they desire to limit childbearing. Most women are unaware of their own reproductive physiology and had not discussed sex with their parents before marriage. Active membership by 1971 was 7600 members. SOF's present aims are to strengthen the women's movement, to develop feminist approaches to health issues, to implement a women's health program, and to incorporate gender issued into other social movements. The present goals evolved out of the initial program of offering health services and family planning in a suburb of Sao Paulo. After break with their funding agency in 1967, over the refusal to promote female sterilization, they found funding by the World Council of Churches and others, which opened the doors to improvement in the quality of care. Meetings held every 2 years provide a forum for involvement of grassroots groups. The National Feminist Network for Health and Reproductive Rights provides the integrating mechanism for feminist nongovernmental groups and pressures the national government for reforms that will benefit women. SOF is just one of the grassroots organizations that offers collective and innovative experiences and empowerment. Social movements in the south and west of Sao Paulo have become more organized and demanded better public health policy or improvements in sanitation and waste disposal. SOF is currently

  14. Health assessment for Hellertown Manufacturing, Hellertown, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD002390748. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-29

    The Hellertown Manufacturing Site (HMS) is a former spark plug manufacturing facility located in Hellertown (Northampton), Pennsylvania. Between 1930 and 1976, the HMS operated a series of five unlined lagoons that were used for the disposal of zinc and chromium plating wastes and cleaners, and cutting oil water generated by the facility. The five lagoons were closed out in 1976 by backfilling with the waste sludges remaining in the lagoons. On-site contaminants of concern include chromium and cyanide from sludge lagoons. ATSDR is unable to determine the potential public health threat to area residents based on the limited amount of sampling performed. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substance via direct contact and possibly through inhalation. ATSDR is unable to comment on other potential human exposure pathways without additional on-site soil sampling and off-site soil, groundwater, and surface water information.

  15. Population and women's health.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, V

    1994-01-01

    Explanations of cultural patterns can be found in the economic context (carrying capacity) in which they develop. Population pressure explains the abuse of women throughout history and in modern times because overpopulation leads to devaluation of women's reproductive capacity. A cultural response to overpopulation includes practices that limit the numbers of women of reproductive age. Such practices foster son preference, which results in selective abortion, female infanticide, neglect and overwork of girls, dowry deaths, and discrimination against widows. The results of these practices are manifest in sex ratios that are culturally rather than naturally controlled and in demographic facts such as the calculation that 60 million females are missing in Asia alone (and perhaps more than 100 million worldwide). Women are also removed from a reproductive setting by being kidnapped or sold into prostitution or by being forced to adopt prostitution for economic survival. In cases where survival is threatened by environmental degradation and population growth, the most harsh cultural practices will emerge to adapt the population to the resources at hand. This situation creates an ethical dilemma posed by the problem of imposing Western values on a culture that is undertaking adaptive practices to insure its very survival. Ways to help women in these situation include limiting population growth humanely through family planning, provision of paid work to women, and creation of an environment that supports a small family ideal. Prosperity itself, through modernization, sometimes causes family sizes to increase. The most important intervention appears to be the provision of paid employment outside the home for women. On the other hand, large-scale wealth transfers and liberal immigration policies simply send signals that population pressure is a regional problem that can be alleviated by the international community. Increasing immigration to developed countries will place

  16. Women's Health Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, ... special exams and screenings. During your checkup, your health care provider will usually do: A pelvic exam - ...

  17. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  18. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  19. Drinking water and women's health.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2006-01-01

    Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-232-1948, Consolidated Freightways, Pocono Summit, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Blade, L.M.; Savery, H.

    1989-02-01

    A study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at Consolidated Freightways, Pocono Summit, Pennsylvania. The request concerned potential exposure of dock workers to exhaust emissions from diesel-powered forklift trucks brought about by the health complaints of several of the workers there. Twenty-one workers were identified as symptomatic of exposure to diesel exhaust fumes. This included at least half of the midnight shift. Upper respiratory tract irritation was mentioned by all of these workers. Some reported eye irritation, cough productive of black-tinged sputum, and sore throat. These symptoms lessened during periods away from work. Airborne concentrations of all components measured at the site were well below the applicable exposure limits. A potential health hazard associated with exposure to diesel engine exhaust existed. The authors recommend that whenever a forklift truck is to be left unattended for more than the shortest of periods, the motor should be turned off. The newer forklifts should be used on a shift before the older, less emission controlled, lifts. Roof exhaust fans ordered are to be installed at the facility and their effectiveness evaluated.

  1. Health assessment for Modern Sanitation Landfill, York, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980539068. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-04

    The 72-acre active Modern Sanitation Landfill (MSL) is located in York (York County), Pennsylvania. MSL reportedly received hazardous waste from 1976 to 1979. Preliminary on-site groundwater sampling results have identified methylene chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, and vinyl chloride. Preliminary off-site surface water sampling results have identified methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene (TCE), and cadmium. In addition, TCE was identified in off-site groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances. Direct contact with and ingestion of contaminated groundwater and surface water are the exposure pathways of concern. In addition, direct contact with contaminated sediment and soils, inhalation of volatilized contaminants, and ingestion of bioaccumulated contaminants in the fish may be other possible environmental pathways. Additional information on contaminants released, populations potentially exposed, and environmental pathways through which the contaminants can reach these populations is necessary.

  2. The changing relationships between academic health centers and their universities: a look at the University of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Susan E; Rubenstein, Arthur H

    2008-09-01

    After a period of financial losses in the University of Pennsylvania Health System stemming from a combination of internal decision making and negative external market forces, the university set out to make substantial changes in the governance and administrative organization overseeing its health system and medical school. The changes were designed to assure the university and its trustees that financial controls were strengthened and that the missions of research, education, and patient care were balanced. The governance changes included creating a structure whereby a single administrative leader was responsible for all three missions--education, research, and clinical care--and reported directly to the president of the university. Further, existing governing boards responsible for various entities within the school of medicine and health system were disbanded, and a new single board was created to oversee PENN Medicine, the overarching organization established in 2001 and now responsible for oversight of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the University of Pennsylvania Health System. The realignment initiated by these major changes spawned additional refinements in leadership responsibilities and process controls that, together with the new governance model, are credited with financial recovery and stronger performance in all aspects of the enterprise. These structural changes led to greater emphasis on integrating and coordinating programs to take advantage of PENN Medicine's home in a leading university.

  3. Springboards to Mortarboards: Women's College Foundings in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer-Ellis, Erich M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of foundings of four-year women's colleges in three states, 1855-1968, reveals that institutional forces (presence of elite women's colleges, development of Catholic women's colleges, and enactment of the suffrage amendment) increased the founding rate, but rising organizational density later decreased the rate. Argues that…

  4. Childbearing and Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while she is pregnant or within 42 days of the end of her pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. No one knows exactly how many women die from bearing children because data is imprecise in most countries.…

  5. Childbearing and Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while she is pregnant or within 42 days of the end of her pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. No one knows exactly how many women die from bearing children because data is imprecise in most countries.…

  6. Biocultural perspectives on women's health.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    During the 1997 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a session was devoted to biocultural perspectives on women's health in developing countries. The topics covered included female circumcision conducted as part of the traditional wedding ceremony of the Rendille people of Kenya and the deleterious effect of sociocultural factors such as acceptance of premarital sexual intercourse and early child-bearing on the health of adolescent girls in West Africa. A study in Bangladesh sought information on women's health during pregnancy and lactation. Using 19,000 paired questionnaires and urine samples from 493 women representing all reproductive states, pregnancy-related sickness (such as nausea and vomiting) was correlated to hormone levels, maternal age, and fetal loss. Preliminary results contradict a popular belief that incidence of pregnancy-related sickness is associated with a lowered risk of early fetal loss. Another study in Bangladesh revealed that previous research indicating that women in Bangladesh experience menopause eight years sooner than US women was inaccurate. The two-year earlier onset of menopause found in Bangladesh is likely caused by stress-related anovulation. A preliminary literature review has also shown that Bangladeshi women lack significant amounts of phytoestrogens in their diet. Improved knowledge of biocultural factors is sought as a prerequisite for improving medical treatment in developed and developing countries.

  7. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment from a health professional. Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Depression This video describes the causes, symptoms, and treatments of depression. Eating Disorders Myths Busted These series of videos ...

  8. College Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer ... relievers, and more. Beauty - Test your knowledge on cosmetics and get other helpful tips. General Health - Learn ...

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report No. MHETA 88-249-1931, Community Savings Association, Finleyville, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, W.T.; Costa, C.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Finleyville Branch of the Community Savings Association (SIC-6036), located in Finleyville, Pennsylvania. Employees had been sensitized to a fungus and were experiencing nausea, headache, fatigue, sinus congestion, and difficulty in breathing even after action to control the fungus had been taken. The first allergic reaction was noted in October of 1986 with four more cases developing by December 5 of that same year. During early February of 1987 the wall in the storeroom was scraped, cleaned, and painted with a fungal-resistant paint. On March 16 the office was closed early due to three full-time employees suffering the aforementioned symptoms plus dermatological symptoms of an allergic reaction. Additional control efforts were likewise unsuccessful. Analysis indicated that exposure to microorganisms and an inadequate supply of fresh air were likely the causes of the symptoms experienced by these workers. The authors recommend that the ventilation, heating, and air conditioning unit be operated according to ASHRAE standards; that the storeroom wall be maintained free of microbial growth and that files in open boxes be cleaned and placed in enclosed cabinets, and humidity be adjusted.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-033-1576, Airco Carbon, St. Marys, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Hartle, R.W.; Morawetz, J.S.

    1985-09-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total particulates, and respirable free silica at the Airco Company (SIC-3624), Saint Marys, Pennsylvania in January, 1984. The evaluation was requested confidentially because of concern over exposures to soot, coal tar pitch volatiles, and sand in the car bottom and sagger bake operations. Forty-three employees were interviewed. Two of 19 total particulate samples exceeded the OSHA standard of 15 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), 17.3 and 32.7 mg/m3. Benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/m3. The OSHA standard for benzene soluble fractions is 0.2 mg/m3. Two of seven samples of silica were above the limit of detection, 0.09 and 0.06 mg/m3. In bulk samples, the benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.44 to 860 mg/gram and the PAH content from 0 to 26,124 micrograms per gram. Employees working in the bake areas reported a significant excess incidence of symptoms such as skin, nose and eye irritation, cough, sore or dry throat, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists at the facility. Recommendations include enclosing vehicles used in moving electrodes, cleaning up spilled dust, and controlling fumes emitted from the sagger kilns.

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-270-2080, Harrisburg Steam Generation Facility, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In response to a request from the City of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, a health hazard evaluation was conducted at the Harrisburg Steam Generation Facility (HSGF)(SIC-4953) concerning possible exposure to fly ash, combustion products and asbestos (1332214). The facility was a waste to energy site where municipal refuse was incinerated at approximately 1400 degrees-F. The steam generated was either sold directly or converted to electricity via an on site turbine. Employees used hard hats, safety shoes and glasses, work clothes and single use disposable dust and mist respirators. There was a potential for exposure to fly ash for employees working in the boiler and basement areas. Total particulate exposures ranged from 5 to llmg/m3 for laborers. The concentration of lead (7439921) exceeded the standards set by OSHA permissible exposure level of 0.05mg/kg in three of the personal breathing zone air samples. Amosite (12172735) and chrysotile (12001295) asbestos were identified in bulk samples of insulation and asbestos taken from a settled dust sample in the boiler area. Surface wipe samples indicated the possibility of hand to mouth contact with fly ash, particularly in the break and locker rooms. The author concludes that there is a need for reducing worker exposure to fly ash particulate. The author recommends engineering and work practice controls to reduce particulate exposures, increased cleaning and maintenance activities; and further evaluation of asbestos contamination at the facility.

  12. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-248-1694, Wasson Elementary School, Dubois, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, R.; Aw, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The DuBois area school district DuBois, Pennsylvania requested an evaluation due to complaints of bloody nose, dry eyes, upper respiratory irritation, and headaches among students and faculty at the Wasson Elementary School. All 24 teachers were involved in a questionnaire that focused on medical histories and symptoms related to working in the school. Environmental air samples revealed trace concentrations of organic vapors, primarily toluene and C9 to C12 hydrocarbons. Carbon-dioxide levels measured 200 parts per million (ppm) outside and up to 800 ppm inside, suggesting that the amount of fresh air coming into the building was inadequate. The distribution of that air within the building was inadequate. The authors conclude that the health complaints were related to poor indoor air quality caused by deficiencies in the ventilation system. The heating/cooling system had many deficiencies related to design, installation, and maintenance. The authors recommended improvements to be made in the system, including cleaning air filters, adjusting dampers, leaving classroom doors open, using fans to promote mixing of outside air, and setting thermostats at the same setting.

  13. Office of Research on Women's Health. National Institutes of Health and the women's health agenda.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, J H

    1994-12-30

    The historical precedent underway in women's health research in the 1990s provides the basis for more equitable health promotion and disease prevention and treatment of women in the second millennium. The success of this enterprise rests on the collaboration and cooperation of all concerned--the scientific community, health care providers, and the women themselves. The goal is improved health and prevented disease for all women. Thucydides avowed that "history is philosophy learned from examples." We can do no less.

  14. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  15. Women's health care: for whom and why?

    PubMed

    van den Brink-Muinen, A

    1997-05-01

    Differences are investigated between female practice populations of female general practitioners providing women's health care and of women and men general practitioners providing regular health care. Women's health care in the Netherlands is provided in the general practice "Aletta" and is based on the following principles: (1) consideration of the patient's gender identity and gender roles; (2) consideration of the patient's personal and social situation; (3) treating the patient respectfully; (4) encouraging the patient to cope with health problems and stimulating self-responsibility; and (5) avoidance of medicalization. Data were derived from an extensive health interview with 253 women Aletta patients (15 years or older) about socio-demographic characteristics, gender role, attitudes, somatic and mental health status, and medical consumption. The Aletta patients were also asked about their motives in choosing women's health care. Reference groups were comprised of 391 and 628 women patients of women and men general practitioners, respectively, providing regular health care. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explain differences between the three groups. "The Aletta patient" can be characterized as a young, urban, single, highly educated, working, and childless woman, who deliberately chooses women's health care. She is more androgynous than women of other doctors, less inclined to seek help with the GP, she suffers more from psychosomatic and psychosocial problems, and she has poorer mental health. It results in a higher use of mental health care, and also of alternative health care. Women patients of women and men doctors providing regular health care hardly differ between each other in the characteristics described above. Health policy makers should take into consideration that in the future possibly more women will prefer health care in which the ideas of women's health care are being applied. The integration of some important aspects of women

  16. [Sociodemographic determinants of women's health].

    PubMed

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1991-06-01

    This work correlates a series of variables influencing fertility, maternal-child health, and infant mortality from Colombia's 1990 Contraceptive Prevalence, Demography, and Health Survey for 13 regions of Colombia. Causes of death among women aged 15-49 years for 1989 are then examined, and an integrated health program developed by the Association for Family Welfare (PROFAMILIA) for lower income rural and semirural women is described as an example of a successful primary health care program. Colombia's total fertility rate declined from 7.0 in 1965 to 2.9 in 1990. The marital total fertility rate among some subgroups, however, still exceeds 5.0. Fertility is often higher in rural zones, among less educated women, and among those not employed outside the home. The major fertility determinants are family planning, nuptiality, and socioeconomic status, as well as infertility due to lactation and abortion. Family size ideals also play a role. The highest fertility in Colombia today is in the departments of the Atlantic region, in Choco and the Pacific Coast, and in the subregion of the departments of Tolima-Huila and Caqueta. According to the 1990 survey, 66% of women currently in union used a contraceptive method. 62.3% of women in Cali and 61.8% in Bogota used modern methods, compared to only 41% in Tolima-Huila-Caqueta and 43% in Guajira-Magdalena. About 52% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are currently in union. The region of highest fertility have the lowest ages at 1st sexual relations, 1st union, and birth of 1st child. The 1st birth occurred at an average age of 24 years in Antioquia compared to 20 years in the Atlantic Coast. The regions of highest fertility are also those with the greatest proportion of women in union: 60% in the Atlantic region and in Tolima-Huila-Caqueta but only 46% in Antioquia. Socioeconomic status is a major fertility determinant, working through education and accessibility of family planning services. The correlation between

  17. International human rights and women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1993-01-01

    Neglect of women's reproductive health, perpetuated by law, is part of a larger, systematic discrimination against women. Laws obstruct women's access to reproductive health services. Laws protective of women's reproductive health are rarely or inadequately implemented. Moreover, few laws or policies facilitate women's reproductive health services. Epidemiological evidence and feminist legal methods provide insight into the law's neglect of women's reproductive health and expose long-held beliefs in the law's neutrality that harm women fundamentally. Empirical evidence can be used to evaluate how effectively laws are implemented and whether alternative legal approaches exist that would provide greater protection of individual rights. International human rights treaties, including those discussed in this article, are being applied increasingly to expose how laws that obstruct women's access to reproductive health services violate their basic rights.

  18. Health in older women athletes.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor against a wide spectrum of diseases, but little is known about the link between older women's health and their professional involvement in sport in the past. The aim of this narrative review is to characterize and summarize the available data concerning the influence of physical activity on morbidity and mortality in former female athletes. Concerning bone health, it seems that physical activity in the past can be protective against osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, but these data come from observational studies only. Also the cardiovascular system appears to benefit in older women from regular sport in the past. This refers mainly to better heart efficiency, and improved endothelial function and metabolic profile. The incidence of different types of neoplasms, especially breast cancer, is also decreased in former athletes. Professional sport, on the other hand, acts negatively on the pelvic floor and is a risk factor for urinary incontinence. The overall effect on mortality is difficult to assess, because of many parameters, such as the sport's intensity, variety of the sport and exposure to extreme danger in some disciplines. Also, caution should be kept in interpretation of the data because of the shortage of well-designed studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Women's Health Among the Chumash

    PubMed Central

    Adams, James D.; Garcia, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Plants were, and still are, widely used for a number of conditions affecting women in California. This article discusses traditional remedies of the Chumash for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, feminine hygiene, heavy menstruation, urinary tract infections, parturition, lactation, infant care, menopause, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, contraception and abortions. Many plants are presented including Artemisia douglasiana, Paeonia californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia apiana, Ephedra viridis, Leymus condensatus, Vitis californica, Eschscholzia californica, Rosa californica, Scirpus acutus, Anemopsis californica and Phoradendron macrophyllum. By providing the specific uses of plants for specific diseases and discussing chemistry, efficacy and safety concerns for each plant, we hope that this article gives direction to women seeking to use plants in their health care. PMID:16550233

  20. Women, reproductive health and international human rights.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the issue concerning the reproductive health and international human rights of women. The modern era of human rights applied to women's health started with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1946 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. However, the leading instrument of women's equal rights is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted in 1979. This treaty assumed the legal responsibility to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women, particularly in the field of health care, thus ensuring that women will have access to health and family planning services. The concept of health as "the state of physical, mental and social well-being" as described by WHO emphasizes the significance of the social well-being in which the social, cultural, and economic factors plays a pivotal role in women's health status. In other parts of the world however, women are considered as relatively insignificant and are made to suffer discrimination in health because of their sex role. Such disadvantages against the female gender include injustices in the light of human rights law, particularly in the context of reproductive health services. Addressing the health disadvantages of women calls for actions gearing towards the promotion of women's empowerment. Efforts to advance the reproductive health through human rights of women should be rooted on the existing framework of human rights as recognized in most national constitutions and international human rights treaties.

  1. International Women and Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's International and Communication Service, Carouge (Switzerland).

    Information on women and health from around the world is provided in this guide. So far, no country has formal mechanisms through which women themselves can create the policies and practices so critical to their own health and that of their families. A major purpose of the guide is to assist the many women's initiatives attempting to change this…

  2. International Women and Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's International and Communication Service, Carouge (Switzerland).

    Information on women and health from around the world is provided in this guide. So far, no country has formal mechanisms through which women themselves can create the policies and practices so critical to their own health and that of their families. A major purpose of the guide is to assist the many women's initiatives attempting to change this…

  3. Health education needs of incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Shirley; Schmidt, Katie

    2014-07-01

    This study identifies the healthcare education needs of incarcerated women in a state corrections facility. This was a naturalistic qualitative study. Focus groups included two groups of adult women incarcerated in a state corrections facility. One group consisted of women housed in maximum security, and one group consisted of women housed in medium security. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison approach. Three guiding questions provided the foundation for the identified themes. Themes included six healthcare education topics important to incarcerated women and three related to health education strategies best suited for incarcerated women. Trust, respect and empowerment are key concepts in educating incarcerated women about their personal health and health of their families. With over 200,000 women incarcerated in the United States today, creating policies and practices that focus on the healthcare education needs of women that are woman focused may enhance knowledge and skills and may ultimately lead to reduced recidivism. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS more than women of other races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to HIV risk. People living in poverty also get lower-quality health care in general, ...

  5. Violence against women and mental health.

    PubMed

    Oram, Sian; Khalifeh, Hind; Howard, Louise M

    2017-02-01

    Violence against women is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a public health problem. In this Series paper, we argue that violence against women is also a prominent public mental health problem, and that mental health professionals should be identifying, preventing, and responding to violence against women more effectively. The most common forms of violence against women are domestic abuse and sexual violence, and victimisation is associated with an increased risk of mental disorder. Despite clinical guidance on the role of mental health professionals in identifying violence against women and responding appropriately, poor identification persists and can lead to non-engagement with services and poor response to treatment. We highlight that little research has been done on how to improve identification and treatment of victims and perpetrators in contact with mental health services, but that mental health services could play a major role in primary and secondary prevention of violence against women.

  6. Public health assessment for modern sanitation landfill, York, York County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980539068. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-22

    The Modern Landfill, National Priorities List (NPL) site, is located adjacent to Prospect Road approximately 8 miles west of the City of York in Windsor and Lower Windsor Townships, York County, Pennsylvania. On-site and off-site groundwater were found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Some businesses and private homes maintained wells. Nearby residents are concerned about potential exposure to contaminants through their drinking water. Modern Landfill is currently operating a waste treatment facility that treats contaminated groundwater and leachate from the site. Exposure to contaminated air represents a completed exposure pathway for on-site workers. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) Health Activities Recommendation Panel has evaluated the site for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities.

  7. Empowering women: participatory approaches in women's health and development projects.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L; Mark, T

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the experience of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) and community-based organizations in implementing projects aimed at improving women's health. The study included 16 projects, reflecting Australian NGO experiences in Africa, China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and South America. They illustrate the value of participatory approaches in determining needs and priorities, and the value of the continued involvement of women in implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Approaches that succeeded in increasing women's access to and use of health services addressed gender issues, set realistic and achievable objectives, and recognized and enhanced the roles and status of women.

  8. Adopting an ethical approach to global health training: the evolution of the Botswana - University of Pennsylvania partnership.

    PubMed

    Dacso, Matthew; Chandra, Amit; Friedman, Harvey

    2013-11-01

    Global health training opportunities for medical students and residents have proliferated in recent years. These short-term elective rotations allow trainees to learn about global health issues by participating in various aspects of education and health care in resource-limited settings. Recently published consensus-based ethical guidelines have suggested considerations for the design of international electives that address the activities of host and sending sites, visiting students and residents, and sponsors.The authors analyze the value of global health training opportunities for medical students, residents, faculty, host and sending institutions, and other stakeholders from the perspective of the Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, a program that has provided global health experiences for health care trainees for more than 10 years. Drawing from the Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training framework, they illustrate the ethical and logistical challenges faced by the program's organizers and the solutions that they implemented alongside their host site partners. They conclude with a summary of recommendations to guide implementation of ethically sound international health electives in resource-limited settings.

  9. Women's health topics in dental hygiene curricula.

    PubMed

    Gibson-Howell, Joan C

    2010-01-01

    Minimal inclusion of women's health topics in dental and dental hygiene curricula may not prepare dental health care workers to provide comprehensive health care to females. The purposes of these surveys in 2001 and 2007 were to investigate United States dental hygiene school curricula regarding inclusion of women's health topics in differing degree programs (associate/certificate, baccalaureate, associate/baccalaureate) and course status (required or elective). The surveys also identified sources used to obtain women's health topics, assessed faculty continuing education participation in women's health, determined satisfaction with current curricula, questioned if change was anticipated and if so in what topics, identified where students apply their knowledge about women's health and in what ways and reported progress of dental hygiene curricula over the 6 year time period. Surveys were sent to dental hygiene program directors in 2001 (N=256) and in 2007 (N=288) asking them to complete the questionnaire. There was no statistically significant association between 2001 and 2007 survey results by degree or program setting. The educational issue, women's general health continuing education courses/topics completed by dental hygiene faculty in the past 2 years, showed a statistically significant difference during that time interval. No statistically significant difference existed between the survey years regarding topics on women's general health and oral health. Regardless of statistical significance, further details investigated percentage differences that may reveal relevant issues. These surveys establish a baseline of women's health topics included in dental hygiene curricula in order to assess knowledge of dental hygienists in practice.

  10. Women's health care utilization and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amy K; Larson, Sharon; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly

    2006-01-01

    This study examines women's use and expenditures for medical care in the US. In 2000, 91% of women aged 18 years and older used any form of health care services. Overall, 82% of adult women reported an ambulatory care visit, and 11% had an inpatient hospital stay. Mean expense per person with expenses was 3219 dollars for that year. We examined use and expenditures by sociodemographic characteristics. The most notable findings indicate that women with private insurance and those on Medicaid are more likely to use health services than uninsured women. White women, compared to black and Hispanic women, are more likely to have an ambulatory care visit, buy prescription drugs, and use preventive health care services. In addition, white and Hispanic women pay a higher proportion of medical care expenses out-of-pocket than do black women. Finally, nearly 30% of older women in fair or poor health spent 10% or more of their income on medical care. Preventable disparities in access to and receipt of care are unacceptable. To improve the quality of health care for all women, it is important for policymakers to understand the factors that influence their utilization and expenditures for medical care. Data collection, analysis, and reporting by race, ethnicity, and primary language across federally supported health programs are essential to help identify, understand the causes of, monitor, and eventually eliminate disparities.

  11. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Education, Welfare Reform, Reducing Smoking, Workman's Compensation, Children's Health & Safety, Unintended Pregnancies/Births. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    A telephone survey of a random sample of over 1,650 Pennsylvania citizens solicited opinions on proposals for improvements in the areas of: (1) welfare reform; (2) smoking reduction; (3) unintended pregnancies and unwanted births; (4) education reform; (5) children's health and safety; and (6) workmen's compensation. Each section of this report…

  12. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path.

  13. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health Considerations for Women at All Life Stages Is Kissing Dangerous to Your Health? Menstruation, Pregnancy, Menopause and Teeth Saliva Test May Help Dentists Check for Breast Cancer games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's ...

  14. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E; Weyant, Robert J; Shaffer, John R; Crout, Richard J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Beach, Scott R; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G; Brown, Linda J; Strotmeyer, Stephen J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  15. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  16. Welfare reform: a women's health perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, M F

    1996-01-01

    Welfare reform programs currently being considered and implemented by the federal government and the states pose serious risks to poor women's health. Many of the proposed reforms, such as inflexible work requirements and time limits that threaten to reduce or eliminate current benefits, will make it more difficult for women to leave abusive relationships and will exacerbate the risks associated with violence against women. Other proposals target women's reproductive behavior. Programs that, for example, deny welfare benefits to teen mothers or to children born to women on welfare, increase the emotional stress experienced by poor pregnant women and may effectively coerce some women to seek abortions they would not otherwise choose. Benefit cuts also exacerbate the well-documented ill effects of poverty on children and families. The goals of welfare reform-increasing work participation and reducing poverty-can be more effectively achieved by means that do not pose these serious health risks to poor women.

  17. Health assessment for Welsh Landfill, Honeybrook, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980829527. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-24

    The Welsh Landfill site (AKA Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill) National Priorities List site is located near the top of Welsh Mountain, Honey Brook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. The landfill was operated as an unpermitted solid waste disposal facility from 1963-1977 and is currently operated as a waste transfer station. Environmental pathways for the migration of site-contaminants to off-site areas include those associated with groundwater and surface and subsurface soil. Human exposure to site contaminants may occur through ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, dusts or volatilized contaminants. The proposed remediation of the site by EPA should eliminate or significantly reduce the potential for the completion of human exposure pathways to site contaminants by capping the site and supplying public water to affected residences. This site is considered a public health hazard because of past exposure to site contaminants by individuals.

  18. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  19. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  20. Health Disparities Among Sexual Minority Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lesbian and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) identity is more common among women veterans than among male veterans. Unique health issues have been identified among women veterans and among sexual minority women, but little is known about women who are both sexual minorities and veterans. This study aimed to compare demographic and health information from sexual minority women veterans with sexual minority women non-veterans and heterosexual women veterans. Methods Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data were pooled from ten U.S. states that elected to ask sexual identity during 2010. The analytic sample was comprised of women who identified both their sexual identity and veteran status (n=1,908). Mental health indicators were frequent mental distress, sleep problems, low social/emotional support, and low satisfaction with life. Health risk indicators included current smoking, overweight, and obesity. Physical health status was defined by three components: disability requiring assistive equipment, >14 days of poor physical health in the past 30 days, and activity limitations. Results Compared with heterosexual women veterans, sexual minority women veterans had higher odds of mental distress (odds ratio [OR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61–5.70) and smoking (OR=2.31, 95%CI: 1.19–4.48). After adjusting for demographic correlates, sexual minority women veterans had three times the odds of poor physical health (OR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.51–5.99) than their sexual minority non-veteran peers. Conclusions Results suggest sexual minority women veterans may experience unique health disparities relevant to provision of care in both Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA healthcare systems. Future research requires availability of data that include sexual minority status. PMID:23746281

  1. Public health assessment addendum for Letterkenny Army Depot, USA Letterkenny Southeast Area, Chambersburg, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PA6213820503 and USA Letterkenny, Property Disposal Office Area, Chambersburg, Franklin County, Pennsylvania. CERCLIS No. PA2210090054. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-25

    The Letterkenny Army Depot (Letterkenny) is five miles north of Chambersburg, in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. The US Army Depot consists of two National Priorities List (NPL) sites: USA Letterkenny Southeast Area (hereafter referred to as the SE Area) and USA Letterkenny - Property Disposal Office Area (hereafter referred to as the PDO Area). A public health assessment of those combined sites was released by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry on September 30, 1988 (Appendix 1). The previous public health assessment combined discussion of both NPL sites due to similar contaminants and pathways. Since the release of the previous public health assessment, new environmental, community health concerns, and health outcome data have become available, warranting this addendum.

  2. [The role, power and health of women].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-O; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2007-04-01

    Women's health issues, often addressed together with reproduction and children's health under the broad based "women and children's health" category, receive inadequate attention from the medical system. In retrospect, the social construct of the female role has been grounded in the physiological nature of sex. Thus, women are often treated based on their stereotypical roles (e.g., mother, daughter-in-law, wife, daughter) rather than on their needs as distinct individuals. Although modern society was built by women and men together, patriarchal values continue to relegate the social status and value of women to that of assistant. Social opportunity remains significantly different for men and women, with discrimination persisting. The status and value of women are often ignored in both the public and private sectors. While status and power influences the health of women, such mechanisms are rarely discussed in the medical field. This paper discusses how women's social status has been formed by social and economic development, how it has been ignored, and the influence of such developments on women's health.

  3. Health assessment for Publicker Industries Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981939200. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-12

    The Publicker Industries, Inc. (Publicker) site is on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Publicker is located in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. About 3,500 persons reside within 1 mile of Publicker. The area surrounding Publicker is primarily industrial. Across the Delaware River in New Jersey, ground water is used by several community water systems to supply about 100,000 persons with potable water. Based on the information reviewed, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has concluded that this site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible fire or explosion at the site. This site is also a potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to organic chemical contaminants may occur via ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with soils, ground water, sediments, and air. Additional information is needed to evaluate more fully the releases, migration, and resulting levels of contaminants at points of potential human exposure.

  4. Health-hazard-evaluation report MHETA 89-362-2027, Helen Mining Company, Homer City, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.P.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from the United Mine Workers of America, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Helen Mining Company, Homer City, Pennsylvania. One of the tipple operators had complained of headaches, dizziness and skin rashes from working with a mixture of solvents used in the float/sink test operation. The solvents included perchloroethylene and dibromomethane. A week prior to receiving the request, the use of dibromomethane had been discontinued. Consequently, on the visit to the site, no traces of dibromomethane were found. After engineering controls were installed, only one of seven personal breathing zone samples detected any perchloroethylene, and that sample was 0.12 parts per million, at the limit of detection. The author concludes that a hazard from perchloroethylene did not exist at the time of the evaluation. The author recommends replacing the rubber/cloth type glove being used with either a Teflon or Viton glove, and enclosing the work table.

  5. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-87-181-0000, Graphic Packaging Corporation, Paoli, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.; Wilcox, T.G.

    1988-07-01

    An evaluation was made of working conditions at the Graphic Packaging Corporation, Paoli, Pennsylvania. Particular attention was given to workers making microwave popcorn bags who reported swelling around the eyes and dermatitis. One employee also reported an asthma attack while working on the bags. Special water-based epoxy adhesives were used for these bags as the product must withstand heating in a microwave oven. Environmental and personal breathing-zone air samples were taken and medical questionnaires were filled out. Use of the adhesive was discontinued in May of 1987 and the symptoms have disappeared. Chemical analysis of the adhesive indicated the presence of several chemicals that are potential irritants or allergic sensitizers both to skin and the respiratory tract. These irritants included formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzoic acid, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, p-dioxane, and ethyl acetate. Samples taken before the switchover to another adhesive was made did not indicate a hazardous level of any of these substances to be present.

  6. Health literacy and women's health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Corrarino, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the impact of health literacy on women's health and provides strategies for addressing this public health issue. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of peer-reviewed journals. Multiple electronic databases were used, including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Key words were used to identify articles and were combined to include health literacy, health behavior, women's health, patient education, and professional role. Additional articles were identified as a result of reviewing reference lists found during the electronic search. Health literacy is a complex issue that affects many women and can adversely affect women's knowledge, ability to adhere to clinical plans of care, and health outcomes for women and their children. It is estimated that 36% of adults in the United States possess limited health literacy skills. Effective strategies can be used by health care providers to address this serious problem, including clear and effective communication, development of health education materials, professional education, and development of community partnerships. Health literacy is a serious problem. Effective approaches can be employed to blunt the adverse effect on women's health. Health care providers are well positioned to demonstrate leadership within the health care system regarding health literacy. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  7. Refugee women's health: collaborative inquiry with refugee women in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative capacity building experience in a Rwandan refugee camp with refugee women from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is described in this article. In service to the American Refugee Committee, I taught 13 refugee women how to plan and facilitate focus group sessions with the larger community of refugee women. The facilitators then conducted 18 focus group sessions gathering data from 100 refugee women. Thematic results included the health implications of poverty, the struggle to survive, the overburden of daily work, ambivalence about family planning, and the lack of freedom to express themselves.

  8. Increasing Women in Leadership in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Reif, Lindsey K.; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women’s health. In this article, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  9. Health concept and health promotion process among Korean migrant women.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chiyoung

    2013-01-01

    My purpose in this study was to explore the concepts of health and the health promotion process among Korean women who migrated to North America for their children's education. Interviews and surveys were analyzed using a grounded theory analysis and descriptive statistics. Women in this study established their health concept and health promotion process in accordance to their socially constructed mother role. The women established unique meanings of health and developed an altruistic motivation to be healthy that allowed them to actively pursue health promotion despite their traditional care provider roles.

  10. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  11. Transdisciplinary women's health: a call to action.

    PubMed

    DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Kline, Nolan; Marsh, Laura; Smith, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Various women's health concerns (e.g., hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, immune deficiencies, respiratory diseases, eating disorders, substance use/abuse, sexually transmitted infections, stress, poverty, poor nutrition, and early childhood caries) are associated with oral-systemic etiologies that can either cause or form as a result of poor oral health. Nonetheless, the intersections of biological, social-behavioral, and structural factors that impact women's oral-systemic health are rarely examined. We argue for the need for transdisciplinary research, grounded in team science, for incorporating and transcending multiple discipline-specific frameworks and models to examine the complexity of women's health issues holistically across the lifespan.

  12. The State of Women Veterans' Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Goldzweig, Caroline L; Balekian, Talene M; Rolón, Cony; Yano, Elizabeth M; Shekelle, Paul G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assess the state of women veterans' health research. DESIGN Systematic review of studies that pertained specifically to or included explicit information about women veterans. A narrative synthesis of studies in 4 domains/topics was conducted: Stress of military life; Health and performance of military/VA women; Health services research/quality of care; and Psychiatric conditions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We identified 182 studies. Of these, 2 were randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) and the remainder used observational designs. Forty-five percent of studies were VA funded. We identified 77 studies pertaining to the stress of military life, of which 21 reported on sexual harassment or assault. Rates of harassment ranged from 55% to 79% and rates of sexual assault from 4.2% to 7.3% in active duty military women and 11% to 48% among women veterans. Forty-two studies concerned the health and performance of military/VA women, with 21 studies evaluating sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their effect on health. Fifty-nine studies assessed various aspects of health services research. Eight studies assessed quality of care and 5, patient satisfaction. Twenty-five studies assessed utilization and health care organization, and findings include that women veterans use the VA less than men, that gender-specific reasons for seeking care were common among female military and veteran personnel, that provision of gender-specific care increased women veterans' use of VA, and that virtually all VAs have available on-site basic women's health services. Fifty studies were classified as psychiatric; 31 of these were about the risk, prevalence, and treatment of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS Most research on VA women's health is descriptive in nature and has concerned PTSD, sexual harassment and assault, the utilization and organization of care, and various psychiatric conditions. Experimental studies and studies of the quality of care are rare. PMID:16637952

  13. Lesbians' and bisexual women's definition of health.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Sarah C; Calman, Leslie; Magrini, D

    2012-01-01

    Health is an abstract term used to describe the state of the human body, a mental state or the likelihood of longevity. Throughout history, many definitions have been provided by agencies and healthcare professionals. Although the meaning of health has a long and well-examined history, there remains a gap in the literature surrounding the meaning of health to specific populations of people. The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the meaning of health from the perspective of lesbians and bisexual women. A content analysis was performed on the definition of health as reported by 189 sexual minority women. The conclusions from this study strongly suggest that health interventions for lesbian and bisexual women focus on what women want to achieve, rather than on what individual behavior should be.

  14. Women, health, and knowledge: travels through and beyond foreign parts.

    PubMed

    Oakley, A

    1993-01-01

    The meanings of health for women as a social group are discussed. It is argued that women's perspectives on health give central importance to the concepts of self-determination, coping, power, and control. Health for women is bound up with their experiences in everyday life. Women are also primary health care providers. Medicine, however, dominates women's bodies in ways that conflict with women's own perspectives on their health: In "developed" societies, medical intervention now poses a major threat to women's health. By concentrating on quantitative methodology, most researchers studying women's health have ignored these important meanings of health to women.

  15. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  16. Epigenetics in women's health care.

    PubMed

    Pozharny, Yevgeniya; Lambertini, Luca; Clunie, Garfield; Ferrara, Lauren; Lee, Men-Jean

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to structural modifications to genes that do not change the nucleotide sequence itself but instead control and regulate gene expression. DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA regulation are some of the mechanisms involved in epigenetic modification. Epigenetic changes are believed to be a result of changes in an organism's environment that result in fixed and permanent changes in most differentiated cells. Some environmental changes that have been linked to epigenetic changes include starvation, folic acid, and various chemical exposures. There are periods in an organism's life cycle in which the organism is particularly susceptible to epigenetic influences; these include fertilization, gametogenesis, and early embryo development. These are also windows of opportunity for interventions during the reproductive life cycle of women to improve maternal-child health. New data suggest that epigenetic influences might be involved in the regulation of fetal development and the pathophysiology of adult diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Various epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Additionally, environmental exposures are being held responsible for causing epigenetic changes that lead to a disease process. Exposure to heavy metals, bioflavonoids, and endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A and phthalates, has been shown to affect the epigenetic memory of an organism. Their long-term effects are unclear at this point, but many ongoing studies are attempting to elucidate the pathophysiological effects of such gene-environment interactions. (c) 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  17. Women's health. The childbearing years and after.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, N.

    1997-01-01

    Health and development planners have tended to see women primarily in context of their reproductive role. As a result, solutions to women's health needs have been restricted to expanding and improving maternal and child health systems. There has recently been a major shift in direction, largely because of the influence of the world conference on population and development held in Cairo in 1994. Dr Guiseppe Benagiano, director of the special programme of research, development and research training in human reproduction based at the WHO, says, "We need to remind ourselves constantly that reproductive health is not simply a biomedical issue but one with serious implications for our general health and by extension, for all our efforts in human social and economic development." The 1993 world development report on health identified the lack of a clear strategy for engaging women in health care and suggested that child health services, prenatal care, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and family planning services should be provided jointly at convenient times. In an example of this, the Chilean Institute of Reproductive Medicine now offers integrated family planning services at the same time as child health services, and Thailand is experimenting with mobile health clinics to reach women in their homes. As the proportion of elderly women increases, old age is increasingly being seen as a female issue. With the impact of urbanisation and industrialisation, more of these women are living isolated lives, often suffering from chronic debilitating diseases. In his opening statement to the global commission on women's health in April 1995 which focused on health conditions of women in old age, Dr Hiroshi Nakajima, the WHO's director general, said: "Our goal should not be solely to extend lives in the physical sense, but to ensure that the added years are worth living." PMID:9390062

  18. Employment and Women's Health: Effects of Paid Employment on Women's Mental and Physical Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetti, Rena L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews longitudinal studies on effects of employment on women's mental and physical health, with special attention to variations in effects of employment depending on characteristics of women and their jobs. Concludes that employment appears to improve health of women who have positive attitudes toward employment, and social support from…

  19. Preventive Health Care for Women Who Have Sex with Women.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel A; Jarrett, Diane

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent shifts in societal attitudes toward same-sex relationships, women who have sex with women face a variety of barriers to optimal health, including a history of negatively perceived interactions in clinical settings that lead them to delay or avoid health care. Women who have sex with women may be at disproportionate risk of obesity, tobacco use, substance use, mental health issues, intimate partner violence, sexually transmitted infections, and some cancers. Disparities can exist throughout the lifetime. Lesbian and bisexual adolescents are vulnerable to bullying, family rejection, and risky sexual behavior that may lead to sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancy. Sexual minority stress, which is a response to stigmatization, prejudice, and internalized homophobia, contributes to many of these conditions. Family physicians should foster trust and communication to provide a nonjudgmental, welcoming environment supportive of culturally competent health care and optimal outcomes. When indicated, clinicians should refer women who have sex with women to culturally sensitive community resources and legal advisors for assistance with medical decision making, hospital visitation, conception, and legal recognition of nonbiologic parents.

  20. FastStats: Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries Assault or Homicide Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  1. A synopsis of 30 years of major accomplishments by the Pennsylvania Department of Health in Environmental Health (Part 2 of 2): the 1990s and the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Logue, James N; Sivarajah, Kandiah

    2010-12-01

    This article reviews significant environmental health projects conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, particularly the Division of Environmental Health, during the 1990s and the following decade. The authors describe lessons learned from a new occupational health initiative, continuing work on the health assessment grant funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and a new Environmental Public Health Tracking grant funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in addition to emerging issues during these two decades.

  2. Reproductive Rights and Women's Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Nada Logan

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive rights are essential to the recognition/treatment of women as full-fledged human beings/citizens. Barriers to reproductive rights pose a grave danger to women's well-being. This article explores the origins of these barriers, their nature, and their impact on mental health. The most controversial relationship is between induced abortion and mental health. Barriers, misinformation, and coercion affecting contraceptive, abortion, and pregnancy care are an ongoing danger to women's mental health and the well-being of their families. Mental health professionals are best qualified, and have an obligation, to know the facts, apply them, and provide accurate information to protect women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sequestration is a women's health issue.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Leslie; Nolan, Martha; Greenberger, Phyllis

    2012-12-01

    The term, women's health, was historically synonymous with reproductive health. When the prevailing thought among scientists and physicians was that women were just little men and reproductive organs were the only difference between the sexes, the Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) was formed to change this conventional wisdom. SWHR realizes that austerity measures are necessary during hard economic times; however, we believe that sequestration is not the appropriate tool to reduce our federal deficit. Medical research, while vital to the scientific community, is also fundamental to the U.S. economy. Biomedical research and research on health statistics, surveillance data, and disease tracking are critical to maintaining a healthy society and are the difference between sickness and health for all women and their families.

  4. Access to Dental Providers in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Matthew D.; Baird, Michelle K.; Vesely, Joseph V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ensuring access to dental care, particularly for children, is a significant policy concern in the United States. Many factors affect access on both the provider and patient sides. This study examines an important factor in the ability to access dental care: the distribution and availability of dental health providers. The authors assess providers across the counties of Pennsylvania, primarily using data from the 2013 Survey of Dentists and Dental Hygienists administered by the Pennsylvania Department of Health. To identify possible dental provider shortages in Pennsylvania counties, the authors assessed ten indicators of access to dental providers. They find significant variation in the indicators across Pennsylvania counties. PMID:28083429

  5. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-207-2195, Northwest Incinerator, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Bryant, C.J.

    1992-03-01

    In response to a request from the City of Philadelphia and the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, District Council 33, Local 427, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous working conditions at the Northwest Incinerator (SIC-4953), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Full shift personal breathing zone and general area air samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), total dust, respirable dust, crystalline silica (14808607), and metals. Airborne concentrations of respirable nuisance dust were all well below the permissible exposure limits. Concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (1746016) (TCDD) equivalents ranged from 0.01 to 12.8 picograms per cubic meter. There was also significant lead (7439921) surface contamination in one wipe sample. The authors conclude that possible exposures to PCDDs/PCDFs via inhalation and from surface contamination did exist. The facility ceased operations immediately after the evaluation. The authors recommend measures to cut down on exposure should the site be reopened for use or remediation.

  6. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Walsh, H.L.; Sperry, A.J.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brightbill, R.A.; Smith, G.; Foreman, W.T.; Manning, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100 %, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100 % in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  7. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A J; Iwanowicz, L R; Alvarez, D A; Brightbill, R A; Smith, G; Foreman, W T; Manning, R

    2014-10-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100%, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100% in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  8. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 90-010-2170, LTV Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Letts, D.

    1991-12-01

    In response to a request from the United Steelworkers of America, an investigation was made of possible causative agents for allergic contact dermatitis in workers who clean the coke oven gas inlets at the LTV Steel Company (SIC-3312), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The LTV Steel coke oven facility consists of five batteries, with a total of 315 by-product ovens. Almost 3 years ago a skin problem of potential occupational origin was identified among the heaters, helpers and patchers. A list of 26 workers with skin problems was developed by the union and management and provided to NIOSH investigators. The suspected causative agent was a condensate from coke oven underfiring gas which collected on gas nozzle seats in the gas heating pipes of specific batteries. The nine employees diagnosed as having occupational allergic contact dermatitis tested positive to at least one of the coke oven gas condensate fractions. Many compounds were identified in the condensate sample. The authors conclude that the dermatitis in some workers was probably caused by contact with the coke oven gas condensates. The authors recommend measures intended to prevent contact with the condensates.

  9. Health Maintenance in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Baill, I Cori; Castiglioni, Analia

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman's 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Major guidelines concur that women at average risk of breast cancer benefit from screening mammography at least every other year from 50 to 74 years of age. Several effective options for colorectal cancer screening are recommended for women 50 to 75 years of age. Cervical cancer screening should occur at three- or five-year intervals depending on the test used, and can generally be discontinued after 65 years of age or total hysterectomy for benign disease. Screening for ovarian cancer is not recommended. Clinicians should consider screening for sexually transmitted infections in older women at high risk. Postmenopausal women should be routinely screened for depression, alcohol abuse, and intimate partner violence.

  10. Integrating Work and Family: Women's Health Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killien, Marcia

    An exploratory study examined the relationship between individual, family, and work variables and working mothers' health. The study also investigated the relationship between health management strategies and health. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather data from 85 women who were married, employed 20 hours a week or more, and had…

  11. Campaigning for women's health rights worldwide.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    In this paper, the author takes a look at the women's health movement worldwide and lists some of its many achievements. The information provided is set in the context of reproductive rights, the most common issue that affects women in both the developed and the developing world. The author discusses access to birth control and the role of the consumer movement in achieving rights for women in childbirth.

  12. Women's impetus in community and health development.

    PubMed

    Roestam, K S

    1994-01-01

    Women in Indonesia are playing an increasingly large part in economic activity and community development. Moreover, they are making a significant beneficial impact on the nation's health, most notably, perhaps, by helping to secure financial resources. The present article describes some of the ways in which women are working to improve the well-being of the Indonesian people.

  13. Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Background and Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic diseases are the major causes of death, disability and frailty in older women of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds. This multi- ... CDC), and the National Institutes of Health. Eight University-based Prevention ... encouraged women of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds to adopt ...

  14. Women and statin use: a women's health advocacy perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Harriet; Allard, Danielle

    2008-08-01

    This paper is based on a longer report on the benefits, safety and modalities of information representation with regard to women and statin use, situated within the historical context of Women's Health Movement which has advocated for unbiased, appropriate medical research and prescribing for women based on the goals of full-disclosure, informed consent, evidence-based medicine and gender-based analysis. The evidence base for prescribing statins for women, especially for primary prevention is weak, yet Canadian data suggest that half of all prescriptions are for women. Safety meta-analyses do not disaggregate for women; do not consider female vulnerability to statin induced muscle problems, and women-centred concerns such as breast-cancer, miscarriage or birth defects are under-researched. Many trials have not published their non-cardiac serious adverse event data. These factors suggest that the standards of full-disclosure, informed consent, evidence-based prescribing and gender-based analysis are not being met and women should proceed with caution.

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA 85-126-1932, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.J.; Gorman, R.; Stewart, J.; Whong, W.Z.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from a group of surgeons at the Bryn Mawr Hospital, located in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions. The surgeons were concerned about emissions generated by electrocautery knives when performing reduction mammoplasty. Several operating room personnel were experiencing acute health effects during this procedure, which does produce a considerable amount of smoke. Symptoms included respiratory and eye irritation, headache, and nausea. Personal and area air samples were taken for hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, total particulates, benzene soluble fraction, and polynuclear aromatic compounds. Total particulate concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 mg/m3 in personal breathing zone samples and from 0.7 to 9.4 mg/m3 in area samples. During a brief demonstration of the laser cutting technique, a particulate sample was taken which measured 9.4 mg/m3, 7.4 mg/m3 of which was benzene soluble. The benzene soluble fraction exceeded the NIOSH REL and the OSHA PEL in seven of eleven samples collected. Trace amounts of hydrocarbons were identified. The major component of the samples appeared to be a compound or compounds related to fatty acid esters. Solvent extracts of airborne particles collected from the room using cauterization were mutagenic. The authors recommend that engineering ventilation controls be used, that any further acute or chronic health effects be evaluated and documented, and that exposure to electrocautery smoke be reevaluated.

  16. Sexual Health Issues in Women

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  17. Public health context of women's mental health research.

    PubMed

    Blehar, Mary C

    2003-09-01

    As more attention is directed to the mental health care of women, sex and gender differences in research design and in regulatory policies have interfaced with clinical care and public policy. An emphasis on women's mental health issues in the provision of treatment and care as well as the design of large-scale screening strategies to identify and treat women with mental disorders promises to be effective public health approaches to reducing the burden of mental illness in women. The past decade has seen increased emphasis on women's mental health and sex/gender differences in the federal sector and in the research community. Federal regulations (summarized in the NIH Outreach Notebook) call for the inclusion of women and minorities in NIH-funded clinical research. The regulations also place emphasis on gender analysis of the results of clinical trials, in particular phase III trials, the findings of which are likely to influence practice. There has been substantial progress toward the goal of including women in research, but more remains to be done. A 2000 GAO report titled "Women's Health: NIH Has Increased Its Efforts to Include Women in Research" commended NIH for tracking the number of women in clinical research but the report also noted that relatively few NIH-funded studies, including major clinical trials, had reported findings by gender of study participants. This was seen as an impediment to progress in developing gender-based effective treatments. In the past decade, the women's health field has moved beyond an exclusive emphasis on women's reproductive function to one that defines health as a scientific enterprise to identify clinically important sex and gender differences in prevalence, etiology, course, and treatment of illnesses affecting men and women in the population as well as conditions specific to women. Nonetheless, for mental disorders, women's reproductive function and its impact on mental health conditions is still understudied. Based on

  18. Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

  19. Latino Women's Spiritual Beliefs Related to Health.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Kurlanska, Courtney; Ramos, Blanca M

    2010-01-01

    This study employed qualitative research to describe the relationship between spirituality and overall health among a sample of Latino women. A framework is presented for understanding this complex relationship. Findings are presented from a qualitative analysis of six 1.5-hour focus group sessions. The research was conducted among Latino women living in Chicago, Illinois, and Northeastern New York communities. We employed a community-based participatory research approach in which community members were active participants throughout the research process. Subjects were 47 Latino women 31 to 81 years, all of whom were Christian and the majority (43%) of whom had less than a high school education. Twenty-seven percent reported having high school diplomas, and the same percentage reported at least some college. Of the women who answered the questions, one did not have health insurance, 69% had public health insurance, and 29% had private health insurance. Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to understand the relationship between spirituality and health and to develop the conceptual framework. Spirituality was expressed as a vital component of health, and the belief in a need for balance of physical, mental, and spiritual health was described. An active and a passive relationship between spirituality and health emerged, with active being most common. Asking God for help or faith as a coping strategy were subdomains of the active relationship, and God responsible for health fell under the passive domain. These relationship types influenced beliefs about participation in one's own health. The findings that emerged contribute to an understanding of how spirituality plays a role in health beliefs among Latino women, which has implications for health promotion research and program development for addressing health disparities.

  20. Women prisoners, mental health, violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Morag

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the specific experiences of women in prison, focusing on previous (and continuing) physical and mental abuse, the consequent health care requirements of women prisoners, the policy response and the availability of suitable health care in prisons across the EU. It draws from an extensive review of the literature on women prisoners across Europe that was part of an on-going European Project funded by the DAPHNE programme of the European Commission, entitled 'DAPHNE Strong'. It also uses the field research from the project collected via surveys and in-depth interviews with key personnel in organisations that work with women prisoners or ex-prisoners and staff with a strategic overview of activity from the ministries of justice, police, prison service and women's support organisations. There are probably many more women prisoners with a history of domestic abuse than is officially recognised. Many of the women prison population who have experienced violence and abuse mask this by problematic drug or alcohol use as well as self-injury. These are key areas that training for prison staff needs to address. The availability of services for this group of women is inconsistent within and between countries of the EU. The political will to address the situation of women in prison, as distinct from the norms applied to men, is variable and it seems to take the determined efforts of active lobby groups to make inroads into an area of latent inertia.

  1. Forgiveness and health in christian women.

    PubMed

    Quenstedt-Moe, Gretchen; Popkess, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Researchers in psychology have studied the influence of forgiveness on the both the psychological and physical health of individuals. In addition, parish nursing is also looking at forgiveness as a potential benefit for self-care and health promotion. Forgiveness was measured using Enright's Forgiveness Inventory. Health was measured using Spielberg's State/Trait Anger measure, Beck's II Depression measure, SPF-15 Health Survey. Body Mass Index was also calculated. Mixed Methods was also used to describe the qualitative findings using content analysis on the types of unjust violations Christian women experienced. Women expressed very severe unjust violations involving sexual, physical, emotional, financial and spiritual abuse. Statistical correlations suggested important relationships among forgiveness and overall health measures warranting further investigation. The relationship between Church type and forgiveness raised questions about women's role in the Church as well as, the importance of acknowledging personal feelings, which are excluded in many orthodox denomination's doctrines.

  2. Women's oral health: the evolving science.

    PubMed

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Harrison, Sonja G

    2008-02-01

    The evidence base for women's oral health is emerging from legislative action, clinical research, and survey documentation. The Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum study (1999) followed a similar study (1996) of medical school curricula. Both of these major efforts resulted from statutory mandates in the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 (updated October 2000). A major study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of Sciences in 2001 concluded that "the study of sex differences is evolving into a mature science." This IOM study documented the scientific basis for gender-related policy and research and challenged the dental research enterprise to conduct collaborative, cross-disciplinary research on gender-related issues in oral health, disease, and disparities. This report chronicles some of the factors that have and continue to influence concepts of women's oral health in dental education, research, and practice. Gender issues related to women's health are no longer restricted to reproductive issues but are being considered across the life span and include psychosocial factors that impact women's health and treatment outcomes.

  3. Women's health and women's work in health services: what statistics tell us.

    PubMed

    Hedman, B; Herner, E

    1988-01-01

    This article draws together statistical information in several broad areas that relate to women's health, women's reproductive activities and women's occupations in Sweden. The statistical analysis reflects the major changes that have occurred in Swedish society and that have had a major impact on the health and well-being, as well as on the social participation rate, of women. Much of the data is drawn from a recent special effort at Statistic Sweden aimed at influencing the classification, collection and presentation of statistical data in all fields in such a way that family, working, education, health and other conditions of women can be more readily and equitably compared with those of men. In addition, social changes have seen the shifting of the responsibility of health care from the unpaid duties of women in the home to health care institutions, where female employees predominate. These trends are also discussed.

  4. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  5. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables. PMID:22654388

  6. Women's health and oral health implications of the curriculum study.

    PubMed

    Silverton, S F

    2001-07-01

    This article discusses the effect of medical school and dental school curriculum surveys, which allowed interdisciplinary analysis of the status of women's issues in the health profession. With this documentation of the status of women's health and oral issues, changes in the curriculum can now occur to close the gaps in education and training exposed in the surveys. Changes in the curriculum are aimed at improving clinical practice by practitioners and lowering barriers to care experienced by women. These changes must be incorporated into not only the medical school and dental school curriculums, but also into the practices of the current health care practitioners to be effective.

  7. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How ... conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Breast cancer Cancer ...

  8. Systematic review of women veterans' mental health.

    PubMed

    Runnals, Jennifer J; Garovoy, Natara; McCutcheon, Susan J; Robbins, Allison T; Mann-Wrobel, Monica C; Elliott, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Given recent, rapid growth in the field of women veterans' mental health, the goal of this review was to update the status of women veterans' mental health research and to identify current themes in this literature. The scope of this review included women veterans' unique mental health needs, as well as gender differences in veterans' mental health needs. Database searches were conducted for relevant articles published between January 2008 and July 2011. Searches were supplemented with bibliographic reviews and consultation with subject matter experts. The database search yielded 375 titles; 32 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The women veterans' mental health literature crosses over several domains, including prevalence, risk factors, health care utilization, treatment preferences, and access barriers. Studies were generally cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed-gender, and examined Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users from all service eras. Results indicate higher rates of specific disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbidities, with differing risk factors and associated medical and functional impairment for female compared with male veterans. Although satisfaction with VA health care is generally high, unique barriers to care and indices of treatment satisfaction exist for women. There is a breadth of descriptive knowledge in many content areas of women veterans' mental health; however, the research base examining interventional and longitudinal designs is less developed. Understudied content areas and targets for future research and development include certain psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the effects of deployment on woman veterans' families, and strategies to address treatment access, attrition, and provision of gender-sensitive care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Soy Foods for Enhancing Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fly, Alyce D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the forms of soy available as food ingredients and foods, the components in soy that may be important to women's health, the FDA health claim permitted for soy foods and ingredients, and research studies examining the role of soy in reducing cholesterol, cancer risk, osteoporosis, and symptoms of menopause. (Contains references.) (SM)

  10. A Remedy for Women's Health Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibel, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 38 current women's health books that indicates essential purchases for libraries interested in developing a core collection. Topics addressed include general information; gynecological health; premenstrual syndrome; heart disease; cancer; menopause; sexuality; and a sidebar that includes relevant books in…

  11. A Remedy for Women's Health Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibel, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 38 current women's health books that indicates essential purchases for libraries interested in developing a core collection. Topics addressed include general information; gynecological health; premenstrual syndrome; heart disease; cancer; menopause; sexuality; and a sidebar that includes relevant books in…

  12. Soy Foods for Enhancing Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fly, Alyce D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the forms of soy available as food ingredients and foods, the components in soy that may be important to women's health, the FDA health claim permitted for soy foods and ingredients, and research studies examining the role of soy in reducing cholesterol, cancer risk, osteoporosis, and symptoms of menopause. (Contains references.) (SM)

  13. 76 FR 27597 - National Women's Health Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... May 11, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8670--National Women's Health Week, 2011 Proclamation... ] Proclamation 8670 of May 6, 2011 National Women's Health Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of..., happy lives. During National Women's Health Week, we reaffirm our commitment to making women's health a...

  14. Women and Health Care: A Bibliography With Selected Annotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Sheryl K.

    This bibliography provides a comprehensive historical review of the literature on women and health care. The materials presented address the following areas of concern: (1) basic issues in health care for women; (2) special health concerns and needs of women; (3) sexuality and mental health; (4) women's projects designed to improve their health…

  15. Shipboard women's health care: provider perceptions.

    PubMed

    Schwerin, M J; Sack, D M

    1997-10-01

    Women have served aboard auxiliary U.S. Navy ships as integrated members of the shipboard work force since 1978. In 1994, women first started serving aboard combatant ships with the inclusion of women in the work force of the aircraft carrier USS Dwight D Eisenhower (CVN 69). The provision of the highest standard of medical care for both men and women is a priority at all levels in the U.S. Navy. This study assesses the perceptions of shipboard health care providers regarding their ability to provide adequate women's health care. This evaluation was performed by conducting a personal interview with the senior health care provider of each of 32 ships on which women are integrated members of the work force. Medical department representatives reported that most ships have training programs for birth control (90.6%), sexually transmitted diseases (96.9%), and the Navy pregnancy policy (84.4%). Health care providers also reported limitations in available supplies (i.e., contraceptives, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease tests).

  16. Proximity to Natural Gas Wells and Reported Health Status: Results of a Household Survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Lamers, Vanessa; Trufan, Sally J.; Holford, Theodore R.; Dziura, James D.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Kane, Michael J.; Reif, John S.; Weiss, Theresa R.; Stowe, Meredith H.

    2014-01-01

    of specific air and water exposures, is warranted. Citation: Rabinowitz PM, Slizovskiy IB, Lamers V, Trufan SJ, Holford TR, Dziura JD, Peduzzi PN, Kane MJ, Reif JS, Weiss TR, Stowe MH. 2015. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 123:21–26; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307732 PMID:25204871

  17. 21 CFR 808.88 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.88 Pennsylvania. (a) The following Pennsylvania medical device...

  18. 21 CFR 808.88 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.88 Pennsylvania. (a) The following Pennsylvania medical device...

  19. Executive women and health: perceptions and practices.

    PubMed Central

    LaRosa, J H

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a socioeconomic/health profile of a select group of executive women, to understand more about their personal and professional lives, and to examine how these factors relate to their overall health. The data were obtained from a self-administered 73-item questionnaire that was mailed during spring 1987 to the 1,000 members of a professional executive women's organization with 15 chapters across the United States. Findings suggest that the women in executive positions do not necessarily compromise their health. In comparison with a group of age/gender/education matched working women, the overall wellness and risk assessment scores were remarkably similar. The study group, however, reported greater life satisfaction, stronger social support, and excellent health status; the overwhelming majority was satisfied with their personal and professional lives and believed that they were in control of both. This perception, coupled with the relatively high wellness scores, suggests that on average this group of executives may be in better health than had been predicted as women rose to executive positions within organizations. PMID:2240328

  20. The menopause: women's psychology and health care.

    PubMed

    Defey, D; Storch, E; Cardozo, S; Díaz, O; Fernández, G

    1996-05-01

    Menopause has often been described as a time of loss and decay in the lay and medical literature. The present research aims at defining women's perception of themselves and their health care needs in this period of life. Through a community-based sample of women, participative assessments were performed and their conclusions contrasted with the opinions of male and female gynecologists. Though both groups coincided concerning the relevance of loneliness, partnership, beauty and the "empty nest" syndrome, several items showed a marked difference between both groups. Gynecologists tended to perceive women as much more striving for an active sex-life, depressed, lacking projects for the future and worried about their health care than they actually were. Women, instead, stressed the relevance of menopause as a life crisis laden with opportunities for self-accomplishment and positive changes in life-style towards greater autonomy.

  1. Depression and a Rural Environment are Associated with Poor Oral Health among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Daniel W.; Hayes, Sarah E.; Randall, Cameron L.; Polk, Deborah E.; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R.; Weyant, Robert J.; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J.; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically-significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically-significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Materials and Methods Pregnant women (N=685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT, completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (CESD), and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CESD>=16) and rural/urban domicile. Results Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Conclusions Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, impacts certain oral health indices, and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical healthcare providers. PMID:26643277

  2. Latex allergy in women's health care.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Latex allergy in midwifery and women's health care is not a new concept, with numerous case reports documenting adverse reactions in pregnant women to natural rubber latex in the birthing room. The practising midwife, nurse and sonographer need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of latex allergy and the implications of a severe reaction to latex not only to the woman but also the unborn child.

  3. Polygyny and women's health in rural Mali.

    PubMed

    Bove, R M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Women's social networks and social power are increasingly seen as important factors modulating their health in sub-Saharan Africa. Polygyny, a common marital structure in many societies, mediates important intra-household relationships by requiring both competition and co-operation among co-wives. Using mixed methods, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 298 women aged 15-84 living in the Kolondiéba region of rural Mali in 1999, and supplemented by detailed interviews with 40 women. Three categories of outcome were explored: illness experience, therapeutic itinerary and social support received. Quantitative data were analysed using regression analysis and qualitative data using a grounded theory approach. In quantitative analyses, controlling for age and household wealth index, senior wives were less likely to be escorted to a healer by their husbands during illness than were junior wives or monogamous women. Polygynous women were also less likely to obtain a treatment for which there was a monetary fee. Fewer than one-third of polygynous women reported the assistance of a co-wife during illness in any given task. In qualitative analyses, women further related varied mechanisms through which polygyny impacted their health trajectories. These ranged from strongly supportive relationships, to jealousy because of unequal health or fertility, bias in emotional and material support provided by husbands, and accusations of wrong-doing and witchcraft. This study highlights the need for more prospective mixed methods analyses to further clarify the impact of polygyny on women's health-related experiences and behaviours in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Polygyny and Women's Health in Rural Mali

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley M; Vala-Haynes, Emily; Valeggia, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Women's social networks and social power are increasingly seen as important factors modulating their health in sub-Saharan Africa. Polygyny, a common marital structure in many societies, mediates important intra-household relationships by requiring both competition and cooperation among co-wives. Using mixed methods, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 298 women aged 15 to 84 living in the Kolondiéba region of rural Mali in 1999, and supplemented by detailed interviews with 40 women. Three categories of outcome were explored: illness experience, therapeutic itinerary, and social support received. Quantitative data were analyzed using regression analysis and qualitative data using a grounded theory approach. In quantitative analyses, controlling for age and household wealth index, senior wives were less likely to be escorted to a healer by their husbands during illness than were junior wives or monogamous women. Polygynous women were also less likely to obtain a treatment for which there was a monetary fee. Fewer than one third of polygynous women reported the assistance of a co-wife during illness in any given task. In qualitative analyses, women further related varied mechanisms through which polygyny impacted their health trajectories. These ranged from strongly supportive relationships, to jealousy because of unequal health or fertility, bias in emotional and material support provided by husbands, and accusations of wrong-doing and witchcraft. This study highlights the need for more prospective mixed methods analyses to further clarify the impact of polygyny on women's health-related experiences and behaviors in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23480408

  5. Women's Select Health Issues in Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Luz M; Becker, Jonathan A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review women's health issues that affect underserved populations. Certain groups have a lack of health care resources or inability to access resources. Individuals encounter barriers to accessing health care due to socioeconomic status, transportation, intimate partner issues, and distrust of the health care system. These factors lead to health care disparities and a lack of appropriate care or quality care as it pertains to breast cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, and obtaining contraceptive care. Identifying available resources in response to community-based needs assessment is among the tools available to combat these inequalities.

  6. The uses of aromatherapy in women's health.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Jackie; Ames, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Aromatherapy is the practice of therapeutic use of essential plant-based oils. Essential oils and aromatherapy have been used in the care of women for centuries. The published research has used small samples and often combines other complementary therapies with aromatherapy; however, the use of essential oils has not been shown to cause harm and is accepted by women. Aromatherapy mixtures are appropriate for use by nurses in labor and delivery settings. The article reviews the literature and discusses appropriate essential oil mixtures for use in women's health setting and labor and delivery.

  7. Women and migration: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Carballo, M; Grocutt, M; Hadzihasanovic, A

    1996-01-01

    The need to migrate is usually a function of the complex interaction of economic, social, familial and political factors. Among the most important, however, are the denial of access to education, employment, goods and services and the lack of respect for basic human rights. Because in many societies women are marginalized from these rights, migration to more economically and educationally open societies can often help improve their personal situation and their professional opportunities. On the other hand, because the status of women is usually linked to their role and status within the family and is defined in relationship to their male partners, migration can place women in situations where they experience stress and anxiety due to the loss of their traditional social entourage and environment. Their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and occupational experience. The higher vulnerability of women to sexual abuse and violence also places them at risk of STDs, including HIV, and a range of post-traumatic stress disorders associated with sexual violence. Their reproductive health needs often go unnoticed and unprotected even in well organized refugee and migrant situations, and the insensitivity of health staff to the needs of women is often more pronounced in refugee and migrant contexts than it is in general. Health monitoring of women in all migration-related situations has to be given greater priority. Similarly, much more attention at a health policy level is called for if the rights of women refugees and migrants are to be protected, and their contribution to health and social development is to be acknowledged and promoted.

  8. Maximizing health in menopausal women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Welner, Sandra L; Simon, James A; Welner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    There are nearly 30 million women with disabilities in the United States. Of these, more than 16 million are over the age of 50. Years ago, women with disabilities did not commonly live to the age of menopause, and, if they did, they reached this stage of life in a very debilitated condition. Now, women with disabilities are entering their mature years as active members of society who can look forward to productive futures. Because the health needs of women with disabilities might differ from those of other women, special attention should be focused on how physiological changes of perimenopausal and menopausal states affect this population. In addition to functional changes that might affect menopausal women with disabilities, basic health maintenance issues may be adversely affected by environmental factors. Physical barriers can influence compliance with preventive health screening that is essential in aging populations. Treatment options might need to be tailored to the individual. The disabling condition itself may progress, resulting in secondary conditions requiring creative interventions. A comprehensive evaluation and the development of a suitable management plan, which takes into account the multifactorial nature of aging as a disabled woman, are essential in delivering optimal care to this population.

  9. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... standard drink is one that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol, which is found in: 12 ... have short- and long-term health effects, both positive and negative: Benefits Heart disease: Once thought of ...

  10. Sisterhood Surveyed. Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Women's Studies Association Conference (West Chester, Pennsylvania, October 1-2, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessa, Anne Dzamba, Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1982 conference of the Mid-Atlantic Women's Studies Association are presented. Synopses of sessions include the following topics: iconography of sisterhood, matriarchy, ethnic and cultural critiques, political perspectives, and nontraditional women students. Conference papers and authors are as follows: "Friends for Half a…

  11. Sisterhood Surveyed. Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Women's Studies Association Conference (West Chester, Pennsylvania, October 1-2, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessa, Anne Dzamba, Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1982 conference of the Mid-Atlantic Women's Studies Association are presented. Synopses of sessions include the following topics: iconography of sisterhood, matriarchy, ethnic and cultural critiques, political perspectives, and nontraditional women students. Conference papers and authors are as follows: "Friends for Half a…

  12. LGBTQ women and mental health "recovery".

    PubMed

    Das, A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated what women identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ) think about mental health "recovery." We used a grounded theory analysis of 13 participant interviews. Three novel critiques emerged, including rejection of mental health "recovery" based on participants' identities as "mad," sexual assault survivors, and/or LGBTQ. While a medicalized interpretation of "recovery" may not work for some women, alternative understandings, such as using "recovery" to heal from discrimination and demand systemic changes, have liberatory potential. It is essential that supporters discern and utilize each woman's chosen language.

  13. The development of probiotics for women's health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    The idea you could use lactic acid bacteria to treat and prevent recurrence of vaginal infections was ridiculed in the early 1980s. Bacteria were the bad guys to be eradicated by current and emerging antibiotic classes. Thirty years later, probiotic administration of microbes is widespread worldwide, including for vaginal and bladder health in women, and the scientific basis and clinical efficacy data for this and multiple other applications prove the viability of this concept. The development of this approach, the creation of a definition for probiotics, and the expansion to other areas of women's health form the basis of this review.

  14. Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…

  15. 78 FR 28711 - National Women's Health Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8978 of May 10, 2013 National Women's Health Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since our Nation's founding, women have given their all to..., advances in women's health and well-being have lagged behind. During National Women's Health Week, we...

  16. Divorce and Women's Risk of Health Insurance Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health…

  17. [Menstruation and its impact on women's health].

    PubMed

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Stadlmayr, W

    2005-10-01

    The impact of menstruation on women's health manifests itself on different levels. The sociocultural dimension shows the influence of societal and cultural norm, which regulate the way of dealing with menstruating women. These rules are at first glance in most cultures characterized by rather expulsion, rejection and submission of women. At a closer look many traditions however reflect the fascination and the power which is associated with the "blood of women", which means that throughout history menstruation is conceived in an ambivalent manner. This ambivalence is still present in the subjective experience of modern women, who experience the biological process of menstruation but finally attribute emotional and cognitive meaning to it. This means that women finally decide when menstruation becomes a "disease" for them. Many empirical studies show that although a majority of women declare menstruation as something negative and disturbing, only a much smaller percentage would want to get rid of it, because menstruation seems to be associated with feelings of connectedness with nature and with other women. The biomedical view on menstruation is historically new and quite different: uterine bleeding can either be a sign of disease (uterus, ovaries) or it can lead to anemia, pain, anxiety, frustration in women consulting. Menstrual disorders are in fact one of the most frequent reasons for consultation. Modern medicine has developed a large range of interventions which modify or abolish menstruation. From a medical standpoint menstruation is not necessary and may be obsolete. The transition from "healthy menstruation" to "menstruation related diminution of quality of life", to "Menstrual Disease" is continuous and has to be elaborated in the physician patient interaction, the patient being expert for her values, aims and health objectives and the physician being the expert for knowledge and information. The patient has to use this to come to a personal and individual

  18. What Pennsylvania Health Care Students Would Want for Participating in Loan Forgiveness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    The results of a survey of students majoring in health care fields regarding a proposed program in which educational loans would be forgiven in exchange for serving medically underserved Pennsylvanians are discussed in this report. The survey sought to discover whether students would be interested in participating in a "loan forgiveness"…

  19. Assessing the Quality of Death and Dying in an Integrated Health Care System in Rural Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Darer, Jonathan D; Clarke, Deseraé N; Sees, Amanda C; Berger, Andrea L; Kirchner, H Lester; Stametz, Rebecca A; Davis, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    With growing emphasis on improving the value of health care, there is increased scrutiny of quality outcomes and high health expenditures during the final months of life. The purpose of this project is to answer 1) how do next of kin (NOK) perceive the quality of their loved ones' dying and death; 2) are there patient and NOK characteristics that predict lower quality; and 3) are there structural aspects of care associated with lower quality? A mailed survey was administered to a stratified random sample of NOK of Geisinger Health System patients who had died in the past year. The Quality of Death and Dying, the General Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire eight-item depression scale, and selected questions from the Toolkit of Instruments to Measure End of Life Care were used. There were 672 respondents. Significant predictors of Quality of Death and Dying score were number of doctors involved in care (P = 0.0415), location of death (P < 0.0001), frequency of receiving confusing or contradictory information (P < 0.0001), illness progression (P = 0.0343), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 score (P = 0.0148), and General Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale score (P < 0.0070). Several findings suggest that factors such as NOK depression and anxiety, prolonged illness, dying in the hospital, receipt of conflicting information, and confusion around the doctor in charge are associated with lower quality of the dying and death experience for NOK. Further investigation is warranted to facilitate high-quality measurement and the use of measurement results to improve care. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Funding women's health work -- no easy answers.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a community's solution to improving women's health in Guatemala. Indigenous women from the highland community of Cajola formed the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Mujer Mam (APBMM). The APBMM identified a need for women health promoters and good, low-cost medicines. The Instituto de Educacion Integral para la Salud y el Desarrollo (IDEI) helped train 16 women as health communicators or promoters in 1996. The health communicators learned about setting up community medicine distribution. The mayor bypassed APBMM's efforts to set up medicine distribution and set up a community pharmacy himself. Someone else opened a private pharmacy. The 200-member group was frustrated and redirected their energies to making natural herbal medicines, such as eucalyptus rub. The group set up a community medicine chest in the IDEI medical clinic and sold modern medicine, homemade vapor rubs, and syrups. The group was joined by midwives and other volunteers and began educating mothers about treatment of diarrhea and respiratory diseases. The Drogueria Estatal, which distributes medicines nationally to nongovernmental groups, agreed to sell high quality, low cost medicine to the medicine chest, which was renamed Venta Social de Medicamentos (VSM). The health communicators are working on three potential income generation projects: VSM, the production and sale of traditional medicines and educational materials, and an experimental greenhouse to grow medicinal plants and research other crops that can be grown in the highlands.

  1. Women and health: female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Hosken, F

    1978-01-01

    Documented cases of female circumcision are reported for Malaysia, Indonesia, East and West Africa. Infibulation is reported for East and West Africa. A specific village listing is provided. Female circumcision as practised in African villages is designed to reduce sexual enjoyment. Those girls who refuse the operation are often ostracized. Sunna circumcision, the cutting of the prepuce of the clitoris, is performed with razor blades and knives by old women. In some areas cuts in the vagina are made to make childbearing easier. The result is the opposite. Moslems perform infibulation (fastening the labia majora together) to insure virginity and paternity. In Kenya defenders of the practise of clitoridectomy say its opposers are viewing the situation emotionally from a Western perspective. Changes are typically resisted by men, especially if they are perceived as being determined by outsiders.

  2. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  3. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 82-272-1276, Boeing Vertol Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Chrostek, W.; Liss, G.M.; Moss, G.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate employee health complaints, including anxiety, nausea, eye strain, and headache thought possibly related to working under high pressure sodium vapor (HPSV) lamps and working with storage boxes dipped in sulfur, air samples were collected in May and July 1982 for exposures to sulfates, sulfites, and sulfur dioxide. A calibrated photometer was used to measure illumination in units of lux. Self-administered questionnaires were completed. To further assess possible color distortion, investigators administered the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test to 15 employees in Building 3-25. Environmental sampling found non-detectable levels of sulfite. The illumination levels in some parts of the building were far less than optimal. Although no serious adverse health effects were noted, symptoms related to the eyes and minor abnormalities of color discrimination, possibly related to HPSV lamps and exposure to sulfur containers, were detected. Recommendations to improve the lighting situation are presented.

  4. Health assessment for William Dick Lagoons, Honeybrook, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980537773. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The William Dick Lagoon site consists of three unlined lagoons (approximately 2.5 acres total area) which previously contained over four million gallons of rinse water from cleaning chemical tank trailers. In 1970, two of the lagoons breached and released approximately 300,000 gallons of wastewater into the nearby area and a small tributary. Trichloroethylene, toluene, 4,4-DDE, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons have been reported in the soil on the site. Trichloroethylene was detected in a nearby spring, previously used as a water source by a small number of residents. Potential human exposure pathways include ingestion of contaminated water, dermal exposure to contaminated water and soil, and inhalation of contaminated dust and organics in the contaminated groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances. However, it does not appear that a human population is currently exposed to site contaminants at levels of health concern.

  5. Sexual health care for women with dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Su-Ching; Jeng, Cherng-Jye; Lin, Yen-Chin

    2011-09-01

    Female dyspareunia is a serious impairment with a prevalence of up to 39.5%, imposing a significant burden on women's health, relationship, and quality of life. Because the causes of female dyspareunia are associated with multiple biological, medical, psychological, sociocultural, and interpersonal dimensions, all members of the health team should help fill this gap in the total care of the patient. The nurse is an ideal member of the health team to counsel patients in the sensitive and highly charged area of human sexuality. The purpose of this article was to explore the essential components of female dyspareunia from nursing care perspective to help women suffering from dyspareunia. The article provides a set of tools, including description and clinical presentation, obtaining a history and clinical data for the evaluation of dyspareunia, and a counseling tool of the Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, and Intensive Therapy model; suggestions are also provided for health care professionals during the treatment process.

  6. Health consequences of sexual violence against women.

    PubMed

    Jina, Ruxana; Thomas, Leena S

    2013-02-01

    Sexual violence can lead to a multitude of health consequences, including physical, reproductive and psychological. Some may be fatal, whereas others, such as unhealthy behaviours, may occur indirectly as a result of the violence. In total, these result in a significant health burden and should be considered by service providers, government authorities and non-governmental agencies. For women who present early, immediate care should be provided with plans for follow up. Mental-health interventions are important, as women who are sexually assaulted have the highest burden of post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive- behavioural therapy has been found to be effective for preventing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder, but psychological debriefing for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder is not recommended. Implementing a routine screening and intervention programme in obstetrics and gynaecology departments may be valuable, as reproductive health consequences are common.

  7. Reproductive health decision making among Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo; Doku, David Teye; Esia-Donkoh, Kobina

    2014-03-15

    Women's reproductive health decision-making and choices, including engaging in sexual intercourse and condom use, are essential for good reproductive health. However, issues concerning sexual intercourse and condom use are shrouded in secrecy in many sub-Saharan African countries. This study investigates factors that affect decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom among women aged 15-49. A nationally representative sample (N = 3124) data collected in the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the association between women's economic and socio-demographic characteristics and their decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom. One out of five women reported that they could not refuse their partners' request for sexual intercourse while one out of four indicated that they could not demand the use of condoms by their partners. Women aged 35-49 were more likely to make decision on engaging in sexual intercourse (OR = 1.35) compared to those aged 15-24. Furthermore, the higher a woman's education, the more likely that she would make decision regarding condom use. Also, if a woman had primary (OR = 1.37) or secondary (OR = 1.55) education, she is more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse compared to a woman who had no formal education. Compared to women in the Greater Accra region (the capital city region), women in the Western region (OR = 2.10), Central region (OR = 2.35), Brong Ahafo (OR = 1.70), Upper East (OR = 7.71) and Upper West (OR = 3.56) were more likely to make decision regarding the use of condom. Women who were in the richest, rich and middle wealth index categories were more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse as well as condom use compared to the poorest. Interventions and policies geared at empowering women to take charge of their reproductive health should focus particularly on women

  8. Putting women's health in the picture.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.

  9. Young women's reproductive health survey.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H

    1987-08-12

    A survey of reproductive health issues was conducted on 15 year old Hutt Valley secondary school girls by means of a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in the sample was 29%. Sixteen percent of the sexually active respondents used no method of contraception. Knowledge of reproductive health facts and contraception was poor both amongst sexually experienced and inexperienced respondents. Twenty-six percent relied on peers for this information, with mothers, teachers and books being other important sources cited. Respondents requested more information on sexually transmitted diseases, contraception and sexual relationships. Most would like this information more readily accessible. Preferred sources of information mentioned were: parents, books, films/videos, family planning clinics and friends.

  10. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and women's health.

    PubMed

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    In May 1997, President Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The President's action underscores that in the 25 years since its public revelation, the study has moved from a singular historical event to a powerful metaphor that symbolizes racism in medicine, misconduct in human research, the arrogance of physicians, and government abuse of black people. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study also has implications for women's health. Discussion of the study usually ignores its impact on the wives of the victims. In addition, African-American women may be more reluctant to participate in clinical trials because of the shadow cast by the syphilis study and other incidents of medical abuse. Finally, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study reminds us that the battle against racism must be an integral part of the campaign to improve women's health.

  11. Women's health centers and specialized services.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, E K; Taylor, S L

    1996-01-01

    More than 75% of the female respondents in this study would choose a women's health center (WHC) over a standard health facility. Women who worked outside the home perceived a greater WHC need. And almost all respondents were interested in communications from the center via a quarterly newsletter. Significant test results related to age, income, education, and work status as segmentation variables, offering WHC's an opportunity to target their patients with specialized services such as cosmetic surgery, infertility treatment, breast imaging, etc. If enough resources are allocated, a WHC can design itself to attract highly lucrative patients. Little difference was found in the opinions of women regarding the need for a WHC or the core services desired, but the specific service mix decision must be carefully considered when designing a WHC.

  12. Vietnamese women in education and health care.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    In Viet Nam, government policy to achieve universal literacy has led to virtual equality in the numbers of girls and boys attending primary schools (50.7% girls) and to a 43.7% and 41.38% enrollment level for girls in junior secondary and high secondary schools, respectively. Women also fill 70% of primary teaching posts, and 37% of the female teachers at all levels have college degrees. In order to achieve further advances, the government has set targets for the year 2000 that include 1) abolition of illiteracy among women aged 15-25; 2) a 50% representation of girls in junior secondary schools; 3) a 45% enrollment of girls at the high secondary level; and 4) an increased number of women trained in professional, managerial, and women-related matters. To achieve this goal, the government will increase its training and education budget by 15%. In the health care field, women account for 60% of the work force and have been instrumental in achieving improvements in public health. However, women's health remains at risk from the after-effects of war and other factors, 4,000,000 people are disabled, 300,000 children have been orphaned, and millions of people face old age without the support of offspring who were killed in the war. Thus, government goals for the year 2000 include 1) reducing maternal and child mortality rates, 2) eliminating anemia among pregnant women, 3) reducing the infant mortality rate, 4) reducing malnutrition in children under age 5 from 42% to 30%, and 5) reducing population growth.

  13. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  14. Assessment of Health Knowledge in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Gail; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The level of accurate health knowledge that young adult women possess regarding selected information dealing with nutrition; disease; and over-the-counter, prescription, and social drugs is discussed. Sections include the introduction, methods, results, discussion, and implications for biology teachers. (KR)

  15. Women's Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women English 여성을 위한 암 관련 정보 - 한국어 (Korean) PDF American Cancer Society Spanish (español) Salud de las mujeres Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  16. Women's Health Care: A Needed Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Janet

    1987-01-01

    A course developed to fill a gap related to women's health issues in the University of Georgia's pharmacy curriculum is described. Specific discussion topics include pregnancy, obstetrics analgesic, drugs in breast milk, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Course objectives and a course outline are appended. (Author/MLW)

  17. Adopting feminist strategies to improve women's health.

    PubMed

    James, T

    The new public health movement offers community nurses a context in which to address the continuing inequalities faced by women in society. This paper explores the use of feminism as a tool for this. It considers some of the constraints on feminist nursing practice and offers some ways forward.

  18. Women's Health Care: A Needed Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Janet

    1987-01-01

    A course developed to fill a gap related to women's health issues in the University of Georgia's pharmacy curriculum is described. Specific discussion topics include pregnancy, obstetrics analgesic, drugs in breast milk, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Course objectives and a course outline are appended. (Author/MLW)

  19. Women and health sciences librarianship: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, R K

    1977-01-01

    In biomedical libraries, as in other areas of librarianship, women continue to be underrepresented in administrative positions. This paper reviews some of the factors contributing to the present situation and discusses implications and suggested courses of action for health sciences librarians. PMID:884344

  20. The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern: special populations, sexual harassment in the workplace, sexual violence against women, women's athletics, and health services for women students. Among specific recommendations are the…

  1. The influence of family on immigrant South Asian women's health.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Sukhdev; Bottorff, Joan L; Hilton, B Ann

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of family members on immigrant South Asian women's health and health-seeking behavior. This qualitative study was part of a larger study that examined the health-seeking practices of immigrant South Asian women living in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. Using ethnographic methods, data were collected through face-to-face interviews with women who had lived in Canada for 10 months to 31 years. Analysis of translated and transcribed data revealed that women made decisions about their health in consultation with family members. Overall, family members were perceived to be supportive and provided direct and indirect assistance to women in ways that influenced their health. Expected roles and responsibilities often had detrimental influences on women's health. Health care for immigrant South Asian women needs to take into account women's relationships with family members and the influence of family on women's health.

  2. 77 FR 29527 - National Women's Health Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... of May 14, 2012 National Women's Health Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A..., their own health care needs have too often gone unmet. During National Women's Health Week, we recommit to making health care more accessible and affordable for women across our country. As President, I...

  3. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

  4. Improving health and empowering women. Latin America.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    This news article describes Latin American programs integrating women into family planning and reproductive health programs. Regional efforts are successful in provision of IEC materials, including the Japanese-Mexican joint project, which produced an adolescent health video series. Collaboration among countries is encouraged. The approach involves sensitivity to community needs. In Brazil, JOICFP initiated programs in hard-to-reach areas of the urban slums of Sao Paulo. The program includes an adolescent component on sex education and family planning. In 1994 a gathering place was established where youth could obtain information on health, sex education, and family planning. The Adolescent Space is manned by volunteers and peer counselors who give information on sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and other adolescent issues. In Guatemala, program effort has been directed since 1988 on the indigenous populations living in poor rural areas. Outsiders are challenged by the close-knit indigenous communities. In order to obtain credibility and to reach those women in need, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are recruited by the Family Planning Association of Guatemala and trained by APROFAM in safe motherhood practices and health care. Training is directed to helping TBAs mobilize women to accept health messages and join program activities. TBAs use specially produced handbooks for non-literate users. Bicycles are given to TBAs as a means of transportation. Treadle sewing machines were donated from Japan for training women in a vocation such as dressmaking. The training academies are effective in providing skills, facilitating small group interaction, and mobilizing women to seek a better quality of life. Mexico's Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) encourages the active involvement of men in family planning, emphasizes education, and uses fees as a means of achieving sustainability. The Gente Joven program strives to involve adolescents, teachers, and parents

  5. Reproductive rights and health for women.

    PubMed

    Jansson-yanagisawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Yumiko Jansson-Yanagisawa, a member of Women's Health and Rights, Japan, believes that Japan's Criminal Law, which outlawed abortion 100 years ago, and Eugenic Protection Law (1948), which permits abortion under 5 conditions (the 4th covers the health and economic situation of the mother), should be replaced by a new law that guarantees safe abortion on demand. Her group organizes educational meetings and discussion forums. They have produced a film (a Japanese version of Abortion Stories from North and South, with an accompanying book of responses to the issues raised by the film) and a book (Dangerous Reproductive Revolution) on reproductive technology. In 1990, they unsuccessfully tried to block an attempt to decrease the legal time period for an abortion from 24 weeks to less than 22 weeks. Believing that abortion is a health issue, rather than an ethical one, they would like to see a reference resource of abortion research and statistics for Japan. A larger, national women's organization for reproductive health could conduct research and handle legal issues and paramedical elements of women's health. All aspects of abortion should be illuminated.

  6. Case Study: Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Edward

    Financial support to college students and public and private colleges in Pennsylvania is described. The philosophy in Pennsylvania regarding the survival of private institutions is to provide money to the students, the consumers, and let them decide which institutions fit their basic needs and goals. Pennsylvania has established the Pennsylvania…

  7. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  8. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  9. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... en/ [top] National Institute of Mental Health. (2012). Women and Depression : Discovering Hope. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/women-and-depression-discovering-hope/complete-index.shtml [top] Centers for ...

  10. The women's health movement in the United States.

    PubMed

    Norsigian, J

    1992-01-01

    The current women's health movement in the US had its origins in the late 1960s, when women's groups, health and medical providers, and others organized a country wide effort to legalize abortion. Some established women-controlled health centers, some produced women's health publications and other educational materials, and others carried out a number of women's health advocacy projects to change public policies affecting women's health. Sterilization abuse became the focus of government inquiry after activists publicized that certain women, especially women of color and Native American women, were sterilized without informed consent. During the 1970s, dozens of women-controlled health centers emerged as alternatives to the conventional delivery of health and medical care. Several years of hard work resulted in a landmark National Cancer Institute recommendation that breast biopsies be done as part of a 2-step procedure in most cases. Childbirth is another issue, Cesarean section rates averaging 1: 4 births nationwide remain unjustifiably high. Childbirth is a medicalized experience for most women, when it should be an essentially normal event. Abortion and reproductive rights are primary concerns in the women's health movement, although prochoice groups are well-organized. Some feminists argue that reproductive technologies expand women's choices, while other emphasize their potential for exploitation. The women's health movement has not yet changed the way most medical institutions are run. Thus, a new coalition with the disability rights movement, the various aging movements, and the civil rights movement will be crucial in the future.

  11. Cancer-Related Health Disparities in Women

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Croyle, Robert T.; Chollette, Veronica Y.; Pinn, Vivian W.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This article synthesizes information about cancer in 9 populations of minority women: Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban American, African American, Asian American, Native Hawaiian, American Samoan, American Indian, and Alaska Native. Methods. Cancer registry data, social indicators, government sources, and published articles were searched for information on the background and cancer experience of these 9 racial/ethnic groups. Results. Approximately 35 million women in these racial/ethnic groups live in the United States, and their numbers are increasing rapidly. Since 1992, incidence rates for major cancer sites have slowed or decreased among these groups, but declines in mortality have not occurred or have been smaller than for Whites. Gaps in early detection have narrowed, but minority women still lag behind Whites. Smoking and obesity remain common in these populations. Conclusions. More culturally appropriate interventions and research are needed, and these efforts must involve the community and raise the quality of health services. PMID:12554589

  12. Dual-Routine HCV/HIV Testing: Seroprevalence and Linkage to Care in Four Community Health Centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catelyn; Kwakwa, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012-August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013-May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads to increased HCV and HIV screening

  13. Dual-Routine HCV/HIV Testing: Seroprevalence and Linkage to Care in Four Community Health Centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Kwakwa, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. Methods National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012–August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013–May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. Results A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. Conclusion The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads

  14. Four perspectives of women's health. Workshop participants talk about women's health issues in four countries. [Australia].

    PubMed

    Gourlay, P

    1994-01-01

    The director of Education and Training for the Family Planning Association of Victoria in Australia granted an interview to JOICFP News during JOICFP's IEC Workshop for the Production of Video Script for Women's Health in Tokyo, Japan. Before attending the workshop, he was concerned about what he could contribute to and get from it. He said that he learned a great deal from the other participants. He reflected on how important it is for professionals involved in family planning education to support each other. All the groups attending the workshop emphasized the need to encourage men to become responsible within relationships and to examine those relationships, the power dynamics, and the women's ability to negotiate safe sex. Men's responsibility goes beyond skill and awareness, however. It also includes social and economic justice and women's health and reproductive choices in a context generally male-centered. A big challenge for women's health advocates is examining shared responsibility.

  15. Embodied largeness: a significant women's health issue.

    PubMed

    Carryer, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a three-year long research project in which nine large-bodied women have engaged in a prolonged dialogue with the researcher about the experience of being 'obese'. The study involved an extensive review of the multidisciplinary literature that informs our understandings of body size. The literature review was shared with participants in order to support their critical understanding of their experience. An examination of a wide range of literature pertinent to the area of study reveals widespread acceptance of the notion that to be thin is to be healthy and virtuous, and to be fat is to be unhealthy and morally deficient. The experience of participants raised questions as to how nursing could best provide health-care for large women. According to the literature review, nurses have perpetuated an unhelpful and reductionist approach to their care of large women, in direct contradiction to nursing's supposed allegiance to a holistic approach to health-care. This paper suggests strategies for an improved response to women who are concerned about their large body size.

  16. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Decolonizing sexual health nursing with Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Janet

    2013-09-01

    Nurses striving to provide quality health care for and with Indigenous individuals and communities in Australia face particular challenges. Past and present discriminatory or non-responsive health-care practices and policies have caused many Aboriginal women and their families to mistrust health-care professionals and practices. It is vital that nurses develop culturally safe and respectful ways of working in partnership with Aboriginal colleagues and clients. The author discusses how nurses in both Canada and Australia have drawn on critical and postcolonial feminist theories, Indigenous epistemologies and methodologies, and models of cultural safety to develop a more responsive, decolonizing approach to health care and training. Two practice examples from the Australian context highlight both the challenges and the benefits of incorporating decolonizing approaches into practice. The similarities in and differences between situations reveal a clear need for responsive and flexible decolonizing approaches.

  18. Women brothel workers and occupational health risks

    PubMed Central

    Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

  19. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

  1. Divorce and women's risk of health insurance loss.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce.

  2. Micronutrients in women's reproductive health: I. Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Kontic-Vucinic, Olivera; Sulovic, Nenad; Radunovic, Nebojsa

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutritional status of women before, during, and after pregnancy is an important element of reproductive health. It maintains maternal health and reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, birth defects and chronic disease in children later in postnatal life. Pregnancy creates a special metabolic demand for high-quality nutrients. With careful food selection, it is possible to obtain most of the recommended levels of nutrients. Apart from the dietary intake, nutrition is highly dependant on economic status, social and cultural environment, and personal habits of the mother. Nutritional imbalance could cause detrimental effects to the pregnant woman, influence pregnancy outcome, and impair breast milk composition. Despite the extensive research, we still do not have a complete understanding how nutritional status of the mother influences her health as well as fetal growth and development. It is well known that fetal growth and development is strongly linked with maternal supply of essential nutrients, e.g. vitamins. The exact role of the variety of micronutrients in fetal growth and development has yet to be explored in detail. It is estimated that up to 30% of pregnant women suffer from a vitamin deficiency. Without supplementation, about 75% would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Moreover, multivitamin deficit combinations often co-exist, and subclinical depletations are probably common; consequences could be severe. Studies carried on in developing countries have shown that improving micronutrient intake in deficient women can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Also, proper maternal intake of important micronutrients directly enhances the quality of breast milk. To meet the increasing demands during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period women should not be dependent only upon the dietary intake: adequate reserve is essential for the successful pregnancy outcome.

  3. Women's health bridges and barriers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Parvizy, Soroor; Kiani, Kiandokht; Ivbijaro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to understand the social bridges and social barriers to women's health in Iran. We used a qualitative content analysis method and interviewed 22 women. The participants identified appropriate employment, physical exercise, and cultural and educational development as social bridges to women's health. Social barriers to women's health included gender inequalities, burden of responsibility, and financial difficulties. Based on the results of this study, we suggest an interdisciplinary approach to plan social-based health programs in order to improve women's health outcomes in the developing countries such as Iran.

  4. Gendered health policies and a women's movement: the Gypsy case.

    PubMed

    Acton, T; Caffrey, S; Dunn, S; Vinson, P

    1998-03-01

    Health concepts depend on socially constructed hygiene practices. Many accounts of "traditional" Gypsy hygiene make gender differentiation primary, implying that traditional health practices reinforce patriarchy and emphasizing the special needs of Gypsy women. This paper argues, however, that the position of women is contested in Romani society. Although prioritizing the more apparent health needs of women and small children appeals to health professionals, this cannot by itself create an effective critique of the health system's response to Gypsy needs. The emergence of a Gypsy women's movement has led to a new critique, and challenge to the victim image of women.

  5. Women's self-assessed personal health resources.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K; Hollnagel, H

    1997-12-01

    To contribute to the development of a resource-oriented medical language by identifying self-assessed personal health resources in women. Key questions were developed to invite the patient to tell the general practitioner about such resources. Patients' answers were audiotaped and analysed qualitatively according to Giorgi's phenomenological approach. The theoretical frame of reference included salutogenesis, patient-centredness, and gender perspectives. Two female general practitioners and their consultations. 37 consecutive female patients aged 24-85 years. Common aspects of personal qualities and strategies considered by women as their health resources. The material unveiled health resources related to 1) internal strength mobilized by external strain, 2) interactive networks within and outside the family, 3) lifestyle practices, 4) physical and social activity, 5) acceptance and facilitation of the natural course of Disease, and 6) constitution. Female patients have explicit and intelligible ideas about their self-assessed personal health resources, which can be identified and mobilized by the general practitioner and form part of potentially empowering strategies in medical practice.

  6. EMS Activations for School-Aged Children From Public Buildings, Places of Recreation or Sport, and Health Care Facilities in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Catherine, Andrew T; Olympia, Robert P

    2016-06-01

    To determine the etiology of emergency medical services (EMS) activations in 2011 to public buildings, places of recreation or sport, and health care facilities involving children aged 5 to 18 years in Pennsylvania. Electronic records documenting 2011 EMS activations as provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Health's Bureau of EMS were reviewed. Data elements (demographics, dispatch complaint, mechanism of injury, primary assessment) from patients aged 5 to 18 years involved in an EMS response call originating from either a public building, a place of recreation and sport, or health care facility were analyzed. A total of 12,289 records were available for analysis. The most common primary assessments from public buildings were traumatic injury, behavioral/psychiatric disorder, syncope/fainting, seizure, and poisoning. The most common primary assessments from places of recreation or sport were traumatic injury, syncope/fainting, altered level of consciousness, respiratory distress, and abdominal pain. The most common primary assessments from health care facilities were behavioral/psychiatric disorder, traumatic injury, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and syncope/fainting. When examining the mechanism of injury for trauma-related primary assessments, falls were the most common mechanism at all 3 locations, followed by being struck by an object. Of the 1335 serious-incident calls (11% of the total EMS activations meeting inclusion criteria), 61.2% were from public buildings, 14.1% from places of recreation or sport, and 24.7% from health care facilities. Our identification of common EMS dispatch complaints, mechanisms of injury, and primary assessments can be used in the education of staff and preparation of facilities for medical emergencies and injuries where children spend time.

  7. Accumulated financial strain and women's health over three decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv; Wilkinson, Lindsay R; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2012-09-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this research examines how accumulated financial strain affects women's self-rated health in middle and later life. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003), we employ random-coefficient growth curve models to examine whether recurring financial strain influences women's health, above and beyond several measures of objective social status. Predicted probabilities of poor health were estimated by the frequency of financial strain. Financial strain is associated with rapid declines in women's health during middle and later life, especially for those women who reported recurrent strain. Changes in household income and household wealth were also associated with women's health but did not eliminate the effects due to accumulated financial strain. Accumulated financial strain has long-term effects on women's health during middle and later life. The findings demonstrate the importance of measuring life course exposure to stressors in studies of health trajectories.

  8. Health indicators for military, veteran, and civilian women.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Hoerster, Katherine D; Nelson, Karin M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Simpson, Tracy L

    2012-05-01

    Women who have served in the military are a rapidly growing population. No previous studies have compared directly their health status to that of civilians. To provide estimates of several leading U.S. health indicators by military service status among women. Data were obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a U.S. population-based study. Health outcomes were compared by military status using multivariable logistic regression among the female participants (274,399 civilians, 4221 veterans, 661 active duty, and 995 National Guard or Reserves [NG/R]). Data were analyzed in August 2011. Veterans reported poorer general health and greater incidence of health risk behaviors, mental health conditions, and chronic health conditions than civilian women. Active duty women reported better access to health care, better physical health, less engagement in health risk behaviors, and greater likelihood of having had a recent Pap than civilian women. Women from the NG/R were comparable to civilians across most health domains, although they had a greater likelihood of being overweight or obese and reporting a depressive and anxiety disorder. Compared with civilian women, NG/R women rated their health and access to health care similarly and active duty women rated theirs better on several domains, but veterans consistently reported poorer health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Public health assessment for north Penn-area 1, Souderton, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD096834494. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-12

    The North Penn Area 1 site, a National Priorities List (NPL) site, is located in the Borough of Souderton, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Gentle, Cleaners, Inc., one of the parties potentially responsible for the site contamination, has been in business since 1953 and used tetrachloroethene (PCE) from 1953 to 1983 in dry cleaning operations. At present, groundwater is the only medium that is known to be contaminated. Enviromental data for surface soil, surface water, sediment, and air do not exist. Past, present, and future completed exposure pathways for volatile organic compounds such as PCE and TCE in groundwater exist for nearby residents. The site is considered an indeterminate public health hazard because limited data are available; however, data that are available do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contaminants that would be expected to cause any adverse health effects.

  10. Factors associated with mobile health information seeking among Singaporean women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Leanne; Chiuan Yen, Ching; Xue, Lishan; Choo Tai, Bee; Chuan Chan, Hock; Been-Lirn Duh, Henry; Choolani, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    This study examined effects of age and social psychological factors on women's willingness to be mobile health information seekers. A national survey of 1,878 Singaporean women was conducted to obtain information on women's mobile phone usage, experiences of health information seeking, and appraisals of using mobile phones to seek health information. Results showed that young, middle-aged, and older women exhibited distinct mobile phone usage behaviors, health information-seeking patterns, and assessments of mobile health information seeking. Factors that accounted for their mobile information-seeking intention also varied. Data reported in this study provide insights into mobile health interventions in the future.

  11. Reconceptualizing native women's health: an "indigenist" stress-coping model.

    PubMed

    Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M

    2002-04-01

    This commentary presents an "indigenist" model of Native women's health, a stress-coping paradigm that situates Native women's health within the larger context of their status as a colonized people. The model is grounded in empirical evidence that traumas such as the "soul wound" of historical and contemporary discrimination among Native women influence health and mental health outcomes. The preliminary model also incorporates cultural resilience, including as moderators identity, enculturation, spiritual coping, and traditional healing practices. Current epidemiological data on Native women's general health and mental health are reconsidered within the framework of this model.

  12. Mobile clinics for women's and children's health.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; El-Gibaly, Omaima M H; El-Gazzar, Amira F E-S; Al-Attar, Ghada S T

    2016-08-11

    The accessibility of health services is an important factor that affects the health outcomes of populations. A mobile clinic provides a wide range of services but in most countries the main focus is on health services for women and children. It is anticipated that improvement of the accessibility of health services via mobile clinics will improve women's and children's health. To evaluate the impact of mobile clinic services on women's and children's health. For related systematic reviews, we searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), CRD; Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), CRD; NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), CRD (searched 20 February 2014).For primary studies, we searched ISI Web of Science, for studies that have cited the included studies in this review (searched 18 January 2016); WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 23 May 2016); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.cochranelibrary.com (including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register) (searched 7 April 2015); MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 7 April 2015); Embase, OvidSP (searched 7 April 2015); CINAHL, EbscoHost (searched 7 April 2015); Global Health, OvidSP (searched 8 April 2015); POPLINE, K4Health (searched 8 April 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (searched 8 April 2015); Global Health Library, WHO (searched 8 April 2015); PAHO, VHL (searched 8 April 2015); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 8 April 2015); LILACS, VHL (searched 9 April 2015). We included individual- and cluster-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. We included controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies provided they had at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Also, we included interrupted time series (ITS) studies if there was a clearly defined point in time when the intervention occurred and at least three data points

  13. Women and health reform: how national health care can enhance coverage, affordability, and access for women (examples from massachusetts).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Therese; Cohen, Laura; Hyams, Tracey; Sullivan, Katherine M; Johnson, Paula A

    2014-01-01

    Massachusetts women have the highest rates of health insurance coverage in the nation and women's access to care has improved across all demographic groups. However, important challenges persist. As national health reform implementation moves forward under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), states will likely encounter many of the same women's health challenges experienced in Massachusetts over the past 7 years. A review of the literature and data analyses comparing health care services access, utilization, and cost, and health outcomes from Massachusetts pre- and post-2006 health care reform identified two key challenges in women's continuity of coverage and affordability. These areas are crucial for state and national policymakers to consider in improving women's health as they work to implement health care reform at the state and federal levels. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Women's Lives, Mothers' Health. Children in the Tropics No. 159.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, M.; Masse-Raimbault, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Part of a program of publications concerning the status and advancement of women coordinated in four journals by the Group for Initiatives on Women and Development, this issue of "Children in the Tropics" focuses on mothers' health. Section I describes factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls. Discussion…

  15. Women Prisoners' Mental Health: Vulnerabilities, Risks and Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Margaret E.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2001-01-01

    Studies 49 incarcerated women to examine the complex relationship among women's criminal history, victimization, relational supports, personal strengths and their mental health. A cluster analysis produced four typologies shaping recommendations for assessment and treatment. Findings suggest that women with the greatest mental health needs have…

  16. Women's Lives, Mothers' Health. Children in the Tropics No. 159.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, M.; Masse-Raimbault, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Part of a program of publications concerning the status and advancement of women coordinated in four journals by the Group for Initiatives on Women and Development, this issue of "Children in the Tropics" focuses on mothers' health. Section I describes factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls. Discussion…

  17. Holistic Health Care for Native Women: An Integrated Model

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Providing health care services to Native women has become a challenge owing to the severity of illness—in particular, diabetes, alcoholism, and arthritis—in this group today. If comprehensive health care is to be offered, coordination of services between health and mental health practitioners is needed. Gathering together to support each other has been a traditional custom for Native women. An integrated health care model is discussed that offers Native women an opportunity to deal with the challenge of mental health and health issues through traditional activities, enhancing their physical and spiritual health and receiving education while creating an atmosphere of empowerment and mutual support. PMID:12356594

  18. Holistic health care for native women: an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Maria

    2002-10-01

    Providing health care services to Native women has become a challenge owing to the severity of illness--in particular, diabetes, alcoholism, and arthritis--in this group today. If comprehensive health care is to be offered, coordination of services between health and mental health practitioners is needed. Gathering together to support each other has been a traditional custom for Native women. An integrated health care model is discussed that offers Native women an opportunity to deal with the challenge of mental health and health issues through traditional activities, enhancing their physical and spiritual health and receiving education while creating an atmosphere of empowerment and mutual support.

  19. Enhancing women's health: A call for social work research.

    PubMed

    Bird, Melissa; Wright, Rachel L; Frost, Caren J

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a critical synthesis of the social work empirical literature on women's health. In light of recent policy changes that directly affect women's health and social work, the authors conducted a literature review of recent publications (2010-2015) regarding social work and women's health nationally. Despite frequent accounts cited in the literature, there has been no comprehensive review of issues involving women's health and social work in the United States. The purpose of this review is to examine the current social work literature addressing women's health at the national (U.S.) level. This research presents a summary description of the status of the social work literature dealing with women's health, specifically 51 articles published between 2010 and 2015. Our search highlights the need for social work research to fill gaps and more fully address the needs of women across the lifespan.

  20. Health care utilization among women on O'ahu: implications for Native Hawaiian women.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell-Brennan, H K; Goebert, D

    2001-09-01

    Women generally seek and use more health care services than do men. Women are also more likely to encounter financial and non-financial barriers to care than do their male counterparts. These differences are accentuated among low income and minority women. We examined health care utilization patterns among women on O'ahu using survey data, and compared those patterns among Native Hawaiian and other ethnic groups. We also provide prevalence rates for several critical women's health issues by ethnic group and explore demographic predictors for health care utilization. Although the vast majority of women have seen health care providers in the last year, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were identified, especially with respect to our Native Hawaiian female population. A pattern for Native Hawaiian women reveals among the highest rates of depression, as well as sexual/physical/emotional abuse. Alarmingly, Native Hawaiian women are also less likely to have seen a provider in the last year, less likely to have insurance coverage, and more likely to visit emergency departments. Differences by provider type served to reinforce these disparities. In order to reduce barriers to health care utilization for Native Hawaiian women--and for all women in Hawai'i--we recommend universal insurance coverage that includes screening and counseling services. Additionally, training for health care providers is essential in order to improve culturally competent, psychological assessments of health issues for women, particularly Native Hawaiian women.

  1. A comprehensive approach to women's health: lessons from the Mexican health reform.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Langer, Ana

    2012-12-10

    This paper discusses the way in which women's health concerns were addressed in Mexico as part of a health system reform. The first part sets the context by examining the growing complexity that characterizes the global health field, where women's needs occupy center stage. Part two briefly describes a critical conceptual evolution, i.e. from maternal to reproductive to women's health. In the third and last section, the novel "women and health" (W&H) approach and its translation into policies and programs in the context of a structural health reform in Mexico is discussed. W&H simultaneously focuses on women's health needs and women's critical roles as both formal and informal providers of health care, and the links between these two dimensions. The most important message of this paper is that broad changes in health systems offer the opportunity to address women's health needs through innovative approaches focused on promoting gender equality and empowering women as drivers of change.

  2. Older Hispanic women, health literacy, and cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bertha E; Acton, Gayle J

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 90 million people in the United States lack basic literacy skills, which affect health behaviors. Cervical cancer is preventable and treatable, yet few older Hispanic women seek screening and continue to be a high-risk group for cervical cancer. A literature review was conducted to address the relationship between cervical cancer screening, health literacy, and older Hispanic women. Eighty studies were reviewed, and nine addressed health literacy and Hispanic women. One study addressed the association between functional health literacy and Pap smear screening among older Hispanic women. Few studies have explored the association between preventive cervical cancer screening and health literacy among older Hispanic women. Nurses must assess health literacy and be prepared to provide care, which is culturally, and linguistically appropriate to improve health outcomes. Further research is needed to be inclusive of all populations including older Hispanic women.

  3. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-274-1924, Office of Employment Security, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, P.; Savery, H.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from the Pennsylvania Social Services Union, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Office of Employment Security, located in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. Employees had complained of dizziness; coughing; burning of the eyes, nose and throat; recurring respiratory infections; and other symptoms. The 30 employees handled unemployment benefits claims and operated a job placement service. Potential sources of air contaminants in the building included a dry toner type photocopier, fiberglass insulation inside the air supply ductwork, tobacco smoking, cleaning compounds, office furnishings and supplies, and building construction materials. No carbon-monoxide or nitrogen-dioxide levels were detected. No evidence was found to support any causal relationship between work related experiences and the symptoms expressed by the workers. The authors recommend that specific actions be taken to ensure the HVAC system is operating optimally, that parking of vehicles in the alley where the air intakes are located is prevented, and that certain ergonomic recommendations for operators of video-display units are adopted to lessen their muscle fatigue and general discomfort.

  4. What Health Issues or Conditions Are Specific to Women Only?

    MedlinePlus

    ... women, women with disabilities and their unique challenges, osteoporosis and bone health, and menopause « Condition ... No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds Couples with obesity may ...

  5. Keeping current with the evolving makeup of the Pennsylvania population.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry

    2010-01-01

    The changing residential population of the Pennsylvania requires continued monitoring if health practitioners are to maintain an awareness of the individuals in their community. A review of federal agency reports provides a general overview of Pennsylvania and national demographic and health factor characteristics.

  6. The women's health movement: making policy, 1970-1995.

    PubMed

    Munch, Shari

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of second-wave feminism during the 1970s, a significant body of literature emerged describing sexist practices in women's health care. Gender-bias and gender disparities found in women's health care became concerns that garnered considerable attention in the United States because of the increased health risks posed for women. This article describes key historical challenges and accomplishments made in U.S. women's health care policy during the quarter century spanning 1970-1995 that influence contemporary health care social work practice and social work education.

  7. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  8. A perinatal health framework for women with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Monika; Long-Bellil, Linda M; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2015-10-01

    Studies suggest that women with disabilities experience health and health care disparities before, during, and after pregnancy. However, existing perinatal health and health care frameworks do not address the needs and barriers faced by women with physical disabilities around the time of pregnancy. A new framework that addresses perinatal disparities among women with physical disabilities is needed. To propose a framework for examining perinatal health and health care disparities among women with physical disabilities. We developed a perinatal health framework guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the integrated perinatal health framework by Misra et al. The proposed framework uses a life span perspective in a manner that directly addresses the multiple determinants specific to women with physical disabilities around the time of pregnancy. The framework is based on longitudinal and integrated perspectives that take into account women's functional status and environment over their life course. The perinatal health framework for women with physical disabilities was developed to inform the way researchers and health care professionals address disparities in perinatal health and health care among women with physical disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproductive Health Management for the Care of Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Zephyrin, Laurie C

    2016-02-01

    There are more than 2 million women veterans living in the United States. Many women do not identify themselves as veterans. As women's health care providers, it is important to understand and recognize the potentially complex health and social needs of women veterans and the role of military service on their lives. The reproductive health needs of women veterans may be shaped by their military experiences and coexisting medical or mental health conditions. Military sexual trauma and combat exposure are common causes of posttraumatic stress disorder and can affect overall health and well-being. Screening for military service is important in all women, and inclusion of this as a key demographic variable in research and clinical encounters can further inform health care considerations. The following key topics are addressed: who are women veterans, health and social risk factors associated with a history of military service, reproductive health across the life course, military sexual trauma and reproductive health of women veterans, how to take a military history, and the essential role of women's health providers, including obstetrician-gynecologists, in enhancing health systems and providing high-quality care to veterans.

  10. Disabled women׳s maternal and newborn health care in rural Nepal: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective there is little evidence about disabled women׳s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women׳s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318

  11. Finding a balance: health promotion challenges of military women.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice Griffin; Buckley, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome indicated that self-efficacy and interpersonal influences were the most influential in determining health promotion. This research illuminates some of the challenges working women face in meeting health promotion activities and how best to support their ability to participate in healthy behaviors.

  12. Women's oral health: growing evidence for enhancing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Leslie R; Kaste, Linda M; Briggs, Charlotte; DiPietro, Luisa A; Erwin, Katherine; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Gordon, Sara; Heaton, Brenda; Henshaw, Michelle M; Joskow, Renée; Reisine, Susan T; Sinkford, Jeanne C

    2013-04-01

    Women's health, including oral health, is an evolving science with foundation knowledge from many disciplines. Key milestones, particularly in the last decade, provide a roadmap towards the necessary inclusion of gender into dental practice. Such focus is especially important for the evolving role of oral health care providers as primary health care providers. Continued progress of the vibrant incorporation of evidence-based women's oral health into the standard practice of oral health care is encouraged. This expanded preface provides an introduction to this DCNA issue, a brief history and timeline of major women's oral health events, and resources for further consideration.

  13. Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Narjis; S Khan, Kausar; Shaikh, Babar T

    2014-04-01

    Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women's personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. As part of a six-country study titled 'Women's Empowerment in Muslim Contexts', semi-structured group discussions (n = 30) were conducted with women (n = 250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant's perceptions about Pakistani women's: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. The society studied has constructed a 'Model' for women that consider them 'Objects' without rights and autonomy. Women's subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women's traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. There is a strong link between women's autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women's health is bound to have

  14. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo Pereira; Almeida, Alexandra Isabel; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Parreira, Vitória Barros Castro; Amaral, Maria Odete

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  15. Women of Color Health Data Book: Adolescents to Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Wilhelmina A.; Lindquist, Malinda A.

    This publication recognizes the importance of women's health, and more specifically, the role of culture, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic background, geographic location, and other social and economic factors in contributing to health status. After a section that highlights important issues, section 1, "Factors Affecting the Health of Women of…

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Women's Physical Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    Although health is a key element in one's experience of middle adulthood as a time of productivity and personal fulfillment, research on psychosocial factors predictive of mid-life health is sparse, especially for women. Psychosocial variables are not only highly salient to health, but also are potentially modifiable by women themselves. This…

  17. 75 FR 53975 - Office of Women's Health Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health Update AGENCY: Food and Drug... following meeting: Office of Women's Health (OWH) Update. The topics to be discussed are OWH current and...

  18. Muslim Women's Perspectives on Designing Mosque-Based Women's Health Interventions-An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Vu, Milkie; Muhammad, Hadiyah; Peek, Monica E; Padela, Aasim I

    2017-02-07

    Mosques could serve as a promising setting for health interventions. However, little empirical data are available to guide the development of mosque-based health interventions, especially for women. We aimed to assess Muslim women's views on effective strategies for mosque-based educational interventions to promote women's health. A sample of Muslim women of diverse ethnicity and race were recruited from mosques in Chicago to participate in semi-structured interviews. In interviews, 19 participants (aged 41-67 years) discussed characteristics of the imam and peer educator, aspects of the intervention modality, and content of health messaging that would be effective mosque-based health programs. Participants reported that imams should have health-related knowledge to deliver be successful, while peer educators should be respected women, educated in both religion and health. Sermons and group education classes were believed to be modalities that could reach a large portion of the community for discussions of women's health issues. Participants also suggested that sermons should use scriptural sources to convey the importance of women's health. Participants supported imam-led sermons and peer-led educational classes as effective strategies to promote women's health. Our study results speak to strategies for leveraging religious concepts to promote health among Muslim women.

  19. 75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health... (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI... older women by developing and following a large cohort of postmenopausal women and relating...

  20. Hunger of the body and hunger of the mind: African American women's perceptions of food insecurity, health and violence.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Mariana; Booth, Sue

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the relationship between health, hunger, and food insecurity among African American women in Philadelphia. Four focus groups and 12 individual in-home, semistructured interviews were conducted. 3 food pantries in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 34 women recruited from 3 food pantries. Interview topics included participants' experiences of food insecurity, food sources, and the relationship between food, hunger, and health. A phenomenological coding scheme and network analysis was developed based on themes emerging from qualitative data. The experience of food insecurity was related to violence and poor mental health. Women described 2 kinds of hunger: "hunger of the body" and "hunger of the mind." Hunger of the body referred to the outright painful sensation of hunger caused by insufficient funds. Hunger of the mind was related to trauma, encompassing feelings of depression and hopelessness. Both forms of hunger may be a physical manifestation of structural and interpersonal violence. There is a need for a broader framework to examine the health effects of food insecurity that addresses women's safety, economic independence, and physical and emotional well-being.

  1. Upper-air observation indicators predict outbreaks of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children: integration of daily environmental and school health surveillance systems in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Youssefagha, Ahmed H; Lohrmann, David K; Jayawardene, Wasantha P; El Afandi, Gamal S

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children and daily upper-air observations (temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and mixing ratio) and, if so, to derive a mathematical model that predicts asthma exacerbations among children. Using an ecological study design, school health records of 168,825 elementary school students enrolled in the Health eTools for Schools program within 49 Pennsylvania counties were analyzed. Data representing asthma exacerbations were originally recorded by school nurses as the type of treatment given to a student during a clinic visit on a particular day. Daily upper-air measurements from ground level to the 850 mb pressure level, covering a radius of 800 km around Pittsburgh, PA, were obtained. The Wilcoxon two-sample test was used to identify associations. A generalized estimating equation model was used to predict the occurrence of more than 48 asthma exacerbations, the daily mean for 2008-2010. Surveillance of asthma among school children in Pennsylvania increased over 3 years. The greatest occurrence was in the fall, followed by summer, spring, and winter. Annual averages of upper-air observations were significantly different between seasons (p < .02). Upper-air temperature, dew point, and mixing ratio above their 3-year mean values and upper-air relative humidity ≥ 50% were significantly associated with occurrence of asthma exacerbations (p < .011). Monitoring of upper-air observation data over time can be a reliable means for predicting increases of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school nurses implement effective precautionary measures.

  2. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; Taranto, Angelo A.

    In July and August 1975, 138 rural residents of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania were interviewed as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the prevention of cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents were selected by interviewing an adult living on a commercial farm (a farm that either sold $10,000 or more produce per year or the…

  3. Motorized recreation in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Lord

    2007-01-01

    Pennsylvania's Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) has been developing management plans to deal with the growing popularity of motorized recreation in the Commonwealth. Two important segments of off-highway vehicle use in Pennsylvania involve all-terrain vehicles and snowmobile riding. A pair of needs studies for these recreationists provides a...

  4. Pennsylvania Reading Research Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Craig J., Ed.

    To help Pennsylvania-based reading professionals share the results of their research with colleagues, this guide contains abstracts of both published and unpublished articles, doctoral dissertations, masters' projects, institutional research projects, and articles in preparation, all prepared by researchers living in Pennsylvania or affiliated…

  5. Perceptions of breast health awareness in Black British women.

    PubMed

    Banning, Maggi

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer is a global concern. Published studies indicate that 43% of Black and ethnic minority women interviewed have reported that they did not practice breast awareness because they did not know the relevant breast changes that occur in breast cancer. Black women are also more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer when it is in an advanced stage. This pilot study aimed to address the views of Black British women on breast health awareness and breast health screening practices. In this qualitative study I used semi-structured interviews were used to investigate breast health perceptions, practices and education in a pilot sample of ten women. Women held numerous perceptions of breast cancer which ranged from no knowledge to well informed through receiving extensive education. Two out of ten women were relatively uneducated with regard to breast self examination (BSE). The remaining eight women participated in a variety of screening routines which varied from undertaking BSE everyday to once every few months. Women's experience of breast health education was also variable. One woman, younger woman, had not received any health education advice in relation to breast health awareness or BSE. The remaining nine women had received some health advice following visit to their General Practitioners, Medical consultant, media information or as a result of participating in mammographic screening. Black British women require health education that focuses on breast cancer and its associated risk factors, technique of BSE, and national breast cancer screening recommendations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The health status of women in the world-system.

    PubMed

    Dyches, H; Rushing, B

    1993-01-01

    The health status of women is examined within the context of a global political economy. The authors present a beginning attempt to model some key macrolevel processes linked to the health of women. In particular, a structural modeling technique known as LVPLS (or "soft modeling") is used to empirically test one recent formulation of world-system theory. The findings give added emphasis to the importance of the larger economic forces that affect women's health.

  7. Discussing Women's Reproductive Health, Religion, Roles and Rights: Achieving Women's Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix de

    1995-01-01

    A health education program in Brazil trained 26 women as community health educators. Only four used their roles to foster social change. Discussing women's reproductive health in the context of religion and social values contributed to successful training; economic and political empowerment was hampered by perpetuation of traditional role…

  8. Leveraging community-based financing for women's nonmaternal health care: experiences of rural Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Durairaj, Varatharajan

    2015-03-01

    Given the increasing need for mainstreaming household financing for women's nonmaternal health care and evidences on community-based financing's contribution to women's health care in general, this study explored their scope for nonmaternal health care in Orissa. A qualitative assessment conducted focus group discussions with rural women who met the eligibility criteria. Community-based financing provided financial access and risk protection for women's nonmaternal health care during the previous 1 year, though not adequately. Schemes covering outpatient care (or mild illnesses) provided relatively more financial access. The major determinants of their restricted financial access were limited sum assured, noncomprehensive coverage of services, exclusion of elderly women, and the lower priority households gave to nonmaternal health care. Community-based financing requires relevant structural changes along with demand-side behavioral modifications to ensure optimal attention to women's nonmaternal health care.

  9. Committee Opinion No. 547: Health care for women in the military and women veterans.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Military service is associated with unique risks to women's reproductive health. As increasing numbers of women are serving in the military, and a greater proportion of United States Veterans are women, it is essential that obstetrician-gynecologists are aware of and well prepared to address the unique health care needs of this demographic group. Obstetrician-gynecologists should ask about women's military service, know the Veteran status of their patients, and be aware of high prevalence problems (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder, intimate partner violence, and military sexual trauma) that can threaten the health and well-being of these women. Additional research examining the effect of military and Veteran status on reproductive health is needed to guide the care for this population. Moreover, partnerships between academic departments of obstetrics and gynecology and local branches of the Veterans Health Administration are encouraged as a means of optimizing the provision of comprehensive health care to this unique group of women.

  10. Mental health trajectories and related factors among perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Chao; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2015-06-01

    To investigate Taiwanese women's mental health trajectories from the third trimester of pregnancy to four weeks postpartum and the correlations of these trajectories with perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Previous studies have reported differences between prenatal and postpartum mental health status. A repeated design study was conducted in a medical hospital in Southern Taiwan. One-hundred and ninety-four Taiwanese women completed the Chinese Health Questionnaire and Social Support Scale at the 36th prenatal week and first and fourth week postpartum. Three linear mental health trajectories for perinatal women were identified. Consistently poor perinatal mental health was reported by 16·0% of the participants. Less social support was associated with lower prenatal mental health scores. Younger age was a risk factor for consistently poor perinatal health. Vaginal delivery was associated with improved mental health after childbirth. Mental health was worse in the third trimester of pregnancy than postpartum. Less social support was associated with lower prenatal mental health scores, and this association was similarly distributed between women with consistently poor and improved mental health after birth. Health care providers should assess women's mental health status and provide timely interventions during the perinatal period. Social support should be provided for pregnant women, especially younger women or those with lower perceived social support. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Worry and bother: factors in rural women's health decision making.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, B Jan; Jackson, Melanie N G; Lassig, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined older rural women's health decision making. Thirty-three rural women were recruited to participate in semistructured qualitative interviews. Major themes emerged that focused on rural women's comments regarding their concerns about not worrying or bothering their children with personal health matters. Themes were discussed in the context of an ethic of care. Results suggest that it is important for mental health professionals, family physicians, social workers, and other practitioners to be aware of the sense of worry and concern for others that older rural women bring to bear in decision making about personal health issues.

  12. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  13. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  14. Chhaupadi Culture and Reproductive Health of Women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Choi, Eun Hee; Aryal, Anu; Park, Myung Bae; Doh, Young Ah

    2015-10-01

    Different sociocultural barriers concerning women's health are still prevalent. Chhaupadi culture in Nepal is that threat wherein menstruating women have to live outside of the home in a shed-like dwelling. Our study aims to determine the factors of reproductive health problems related to Chhaupadi. A cross-sectional study was performed with women of menstrual age (N = 672) in Kailali and Bardiya districts of Nepal. Data were collected with stratified sampling and analyzed using SPSS. Reproductive health problems were observed according to the World Health Organization reproductive health protocol. Regression analysis was performed to show the association between relevant variables. Results reveal that one fifth (21%) of households used Chhaupadi. Condition of livelihood, water facility, and access during menstruation and precisely the Chhaupadi stay was associated (P < .001) with the reproductive health problems of women. The study concludes that Chhaupadi is a major threat for women's health. Further research on appropriate strategies against Chhaupadi and menstrual hygiene should be undertaken.

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Postmenopausal Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-06-01

    Declined estrogen levels in women after menopause can cause a number of significant health issues, and various estrogen receptor ligands have been clinically evaluated for postmenopausal treatment. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to display protective effects against menopausal symptoms such as bone loss and metabolic dysfunctions in both animals and humans. In particular, it inhibits the proliferations of breast and endometrial cancer cells through estrogen receptor α-mediated mechanism(s). These findings suggest that CLA may provide beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms, while protecting the endometrium and breast from estrogen stimulation. Thus, understanding the effects of CLA on menopausal disorders and ER metabolism is important in development of novel therapeutic options for use in postmenopausal women with or without conventional estrogen therapy. In this report, we review literature regarding the impact of CLA on menopausal symptoms in cell lines, rodents, and humans, along with potential mechanism(s). We also discuss safety consideration for CLA use in humans. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Women at war: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lissa; Grubbs, Kathleen; Greene, Carolyn; Trego, Lori L; McCartin, Tamarin L; Kloezeman, Karen; Morland, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of deployment stressors on the mental health outcomes of women deployed to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. This pilot study examined exposure to combat experiences and military sexual harassment in a sample of 54 active duty women and assessed the impact of these stressors on post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and depressive symptoms. Within 3 months of returning from deployment to Iraq, participants completed (a) the Combat Experiences Scale and the Sexual Harassment Scale of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, (b) the Primary Care PTSD Screen, and (c) an abbreviated version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Approximately three quarters of the sample endorsed exposure to combat experiences, and more than half of the sample reported experiencing deployment-related sexual harassment, with nearly half of the sample endorsing both stressors. Approximately one third of the sample endorsed clinical or subclinical levels of PTSD symptoms, with 11% screening positive for PTSD and 9% to 14% of the sample endorsing depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that combat experiences and sexual harassment jointly accounted for significant variance in post-deployment PTSD symptoms, whereas military sexual harassment was identified as the only unique significant predictor of these symptoms. Findings from the present study lend support to research demonstrating that military sexual trauma may be more highly associated with post-deployment PTSD symptoms than combat exposure among female service members and veterans.

  17. Women's health issues after ileal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Philpott, Jessica R; Barber, Matthew D; Graff, Lesley A; Shen, Bo

    2014-12-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis who require colectomy. This surgical intervention allows for resection of colon, while offering intestinal continuity with fecal continence, discontinuation of most medications related to ulcerative colitis and reduction in the risk of colitis-associated neoplasia. As a proportion of these patients are women of childbearing age, it is important to understand the impact on reproductive health and function. Although limited data exist, restorative proctocolectomy/IPAA does not seem to adversely affect menstrual function. In general, sexual function is reported to improve postsurgery with the ability to achieve orgasm unaltered. However, dyspareunia is commonly reported post restoratively. Of concern, there are data to suggest that fertility is decreased post-IPAA. The reasons stated are pelvic adhesions and obstruction of fallopian tubes. Laparoscopic approach may improve fertility outcomes by reducing postoperative adhesions as compared with the open approach. Once achieved, pregnancy in patients with IPAA is characterized by a transient increase in stool frequency that resolves postdelivery. Whether vaginal delivery or cesarean section is preferred route of delivery in these patients is still controversial. But commonly cesarean section is advocated for patients' post-IPAA to prevent anal sphincter injury and long-term effects on pouch function. All of these issues should be included in the discussion with women who are contemplating IPAA, so they are well aware of them before deciding on the best management plan.

  18. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    PubMed

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health.

  19. Relationship Between Marital Transitions, Health Behaviors, and Health Indicators of Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kutob, Randa M; Yuan, Nicole P; Wertheim, Betsy C; Sbarra, David A; Loucks, Eric B; Nassir, Rami; Bareh, Gihan; Kim, Mimi M; Snetselaar, Linda G; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-04-01

    Historically, marital status has been associated with lower mortality and transitions into marriage were generally accompanied by improved health status. Conversely, divorce has been associated with increased mortality, possibly mediated by changes in health behaviors. This study uses data from a prospective cohort of 79,094 postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) to examine the relationship between marital transition and health indicators (blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index [BMI]) as well as health behaviors (diet pattern, alcohol use, physical activity, and smoking) in a sample of relatively healthy and employed women. Linear and logistic regression modeling were used to test associations, controlling for confounding factors. Women's transitions into marriage/marriage-like relationship after menopause were associated with greater increase in BMI (β = 0.22; confidence interval (95% CI), 0.11-0.33) and alcohol intake (β = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.04-0.11) relative to remaining unmarried. Divorce/separation was associated with a reduction in BMI and waist circumference, changes that were accompanied by improvements in diet quality (β = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.10-1.47) and physical activity (β = 0.98, 95% CI, 0.12-1.85), relative to women who remained married. Contrary to earlier literature, these findings among well-educated, predominantly non-Hispanic white women suggest that marital transitions after menopause are accompanied by modifiable health outcomes/behaviors that are more favorable for women experiencing divorce/separation than those entering a new marriage.

  20. Eating disorders and women's health: an update.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anne Marie; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2006-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eating disorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eating disorder or a history of an eating disorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eating disorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified.

  1. Medical education, women's status, and medical issues' effect on women's health in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cox, C

    1997-01-01

    At an international conference in 1992 on women and health, an attempt was made to redefine health concerns for women of the English-speaking Caribbean in the 1990s. Medical practices in developing countries change as advances are made in public health; clinical issues on the islands now resemble those in the United States (e.g. hypertension, cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence, and abortion). In the Caribbean, however, these problems exist in a unique socioeconomic context, and women's health there suffers indirectly because of cultural mores. Gender bias in medical education and practice influences treatment of women and obstructs their advancement to policy-making levels in the design and delivery of programs that bear on maternal and child health, among others. The effect of local cultural beliefs and practices on women's health must be considered when setting goals and direction for health policy if aid or educational programs are to be effective.

  2. The Women's Mental Health Research Agenda: Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the following topics concerning violence against women: (1) its scope; (2) its impact on women; (3) the community services provided in response to the violence; (4) clinical treatment of victims; and (5) violence prevention. Presents a research agenda that addresses the gaps in existing literature. (JS)

  3. Projected Climate Change Impacts on Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Shortle, J.; Abler, D.; Blumsack, S.; Crane, R.; Kaufman, Z.; McDill, M.; Ready, R.; Rydzik, M.; Wagener, T.; Wardrop, D.; Wilson, T.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of the potential impacts of human-induced climate change on the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. We first assess a suite of 21 global climate models for the state, rating them based on their ability to simulate the climate of Pennsylvania on time scales ranging from submonthly to interannual. The multi-model mean is superior to any individual model. Median projections by late century are 2-4 degrees C warming and 5-10 percent precipitation increases (B1 and A2 scenarios), with larger precipitation increases in winter and spring. Impacts on the commonwealth's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, agriculture, forests, energy, outdoor recreation, tourism, and human health, are evaluated. We also examine barriers and opportunities for Pennsylvania created by climate change mitigation. This assessment was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection which, pursuant to the Pennsylvania Climate Change Act, Act 70 of 2008, is required to develop a report on the potential scientific and economic impacts of climate change to Pennsylvania.

  4. Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?

    PubMed

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences.

  5. Mental health, pregnancy and self-rated health in antenatal women attending primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Sonkusare, S; Adinegara; Hebbar, S

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the determinants of self rated health in the low-risk pregnant women of Melaka Tengah in Malaysia. A total of 387 subjects were analysed. The role of mental health, psychosocial stressors, support from husband, coping skills, socio-economic status and pregnancy characteristics in determining self- rated health were studied. Health items were taken from the Duke Health Profile. Bad obstetric history, poor mental health, stress from the family were found to be significantly associated with poor self - rated health whereas good support from the husband was related to good self - rated health.

  6. Geographical Disparities in the Health of Iranian Women: Health Outcomes, Behaviors, and Health-care Access Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Feyzabadi, Vahid Yazdi; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women's health is a key factor affecting the health of the whole population. Tackling inequality in determinants of health is recognized as the main path toward reducing the inequality in health outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the provincial inequality in determinants of women's health and health care in Iran. Methods: Using the Moss's model (2002) as a comprehensive framework of determinants of women's health, including “geopolitical environment,” “culture, norms, sanctions,” “women's roles in reproduction and production,” “health-related mediators,” and “health outcome” categories, we chose 13 indicators. Afterward, using data sources including the Iranian Multiple Indicators of Demographics and Health Survey, the National Organization for Civil Registration, and Statistics Centre of Iran, we analyzed provincial inequality in these indicators in Iran (2011). Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve were used for measuring inequality. Results: Gini coefficients calculated as follows; life satisfaction level (0.027), literate women (0.398), women with proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention (0.483), unemployed women (0.380), women without an income (0.384), women who use at least one type of mass media (0.389), women who used computer or internet (0.467), women who had received pregnancy care from a skill birth attendant (SBA) (0.420), women who had delivered with the help of an SBA (0.426), women who currently smoke cigarettes (0.603), women who currently consume hookah (0.561), women with at least one chronic disease (0.438), and women's deaths in 2010 and 2011 (0.393 and 0.359, respectively). Conclusions: We found large provincial disparities in determinants of women's health in Iran. Determinants such as lifestyle, health behavior, health knowledge, and health-care services availability should be considered by health policymakers in addressing the inequality in women's health at a provincial level. PMID:28348721

  7. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Education, Tax Reform, Crime Control, Welfare Reform, Health Care Reform. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…

  8. Women's access to health care: the legal framework.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Ngwena, C G

    2006-09-01

    The Millennium Development Goals set ambitious targets for women's health, including reductions in maternal and child mortality and combating the spread of HIV/AIDS. The law, which historically has often obstructed women's access to the health care they require, has a dynamic potential to ensure women's access that is being progressively realized. This paper identifies three legal principles that are key to advancing women's reproductive and sexual health. First, law should require that care be evidence-based, reflecting medical and social science rather than, for instance, religious ideology or morality. Second, legal guidance should be clear and transparent, so that service providers and patients know their responsibilities and entitlements without litigation to resolve uncertainties. Third, law should provide applicable measures to ensure fairness in women's access to services, both general services and those only women require. Legal developments are addressed that illustrate how law can advance women's equality, and social justice.

  9. The health of women and girls determines the health and well-being of our modern world: A white paper from the International Council on Women's Health Issues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; McGrath, Sarah J; Meleis, Afaf I; Stern, Phyllis; Digiacomo, Michelle; Dharmendra, Tessa; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Hochleitner, Margarethe; Messias, Deanne K H; Brown, Hazel; Teitelman, Anne; Sindhu, Siriorn; Reesman, Karen; Richter, Solina; Sommers, Marilyn S; Schaeffer, Doris; Stringer, Marilyn; Sampselle, Carolyn; Anderson, Debra; Tuazon, Josefina A; Cao, Yingjuan; Krassen Covan, Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    The International Council on Women's Health Issues (ICOWHI) is an international nonprofit association dedicated to the goal of promoting health, health care, and well-being of women and girls throughout the world through participation, empowerment, advocacy, education, and research. We are a multidisciplinary network of women's health providers, planners, and advocates from all over the globe. We constitute an international professional and lay network of those committed to improving women and girl's health and quality of life. This document provides a description of our organization mission, vision, and commitment to improving the health and well-being of women and girls globally.

  10. New Voices in Women's Health: Perceptions of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Allison A.; Gill, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored aging and health experiences and concerns of women with intellectual and developmental disabilities, using a participatory approach that captured the direct reports of the women, in their own words and from their own perspectives. The results of a qualitative analysis of 6 focus groups, composed of 34 women with intellectual…

  11. Women's Health and Women's Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass Ceiling?

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The term “glass ceiling” refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond “fixing the women” to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health. PMID:18954235

  12. Experiences of The Network: Towards Unity for Health Women and Health Taskforce.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de Leon, D; Lewis, J

    2009-08-01

    Women's health is an often neglected component of health professions education despite the well-documented need to improve the health status of women, especially in low income countries. This paper was written on behalf of all members of The Network: Towards Unity for Health Women and Health Taskforce (WHTF) which unites leaders in women's health and higher education from different countries around the world. The WHTF objectives include teaching health providers the skills and knowledge necessary to improve care to women; encouraging universities to partner with community women's groups; promoting the inclusion of women's rights and gender issues in curricula; and cultivating leadership among female health professions students. The main goal of the paper is to provide an overview of the collaborative processes, the accomplishments and the lessons learned in this project since the early 1990s. It includes the history and evolution of the Taskforce; the importance of human rights and gender issues in approaching women's health; teaching tools--the Women and Health Learning Package (WHLP); implementation of WHLP in health professions education and community settings; and main outcomes and future challenges. The WHLP was implemented in fourteen universities and seven university community programs. A new edition of WHLP will be available in 2009. The WHTF is a model of south-south collaboration in health professions education and community programs to improve women's health. It has been successful in reaching universities and communities all over the globe and provides a model for other education, health and community issues.

  13. Women's oral health: why sex and gender matter.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Linda C; Gibson, Gretchen; Kinnunen, Taru H

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the differences and interaction between sex and gender, and how they affect women's oral and general health. The authors provide a definition of women's health, and examples of how this definition can be used to describe various oral health conditions and diseases in women. The article reviews the research on sex and gender and provides examples of their interactions. Examples of oral diseases that affect primarily women are reviewed. Advice for clinicians on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of these conditions is provided.

  14. Social justice considerations for lesbian and bisexual women's health care.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Virginia K

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian and bisexual women share much with heterosexual women such as the desire to parent and the risk for partner violence. However, these women have unique risks associated with heavy alcohol use, smoking, obesity, and nulliparity. As nurses become increasingly aware of the need for social justice advocacy for marginalized groups, they are in a good position to advocate for lesbian and bisexual women and to bring visibility to their poor treatment in the health care setting.

  15. Health Disparity among Latina Women: Comparison with Non-Latina Women.

    PubMed

    Paz, Karen; Massey, Kelly P

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the Latino community and focusing on the women that make up this fast-growing demographic create a better understanding of the needs and considerations for health-care professionals and social policies. It is important that national health and health-care data on the Latino ethnic group be presented by gender in order to determine areas specific to women. This review focuses on the existing health and health-care data of Latino women (Latinas). The ability to distinguish the health-care experiences of Latinas will increase the understanding of existing barriers to their health care, the initiatives needed to overcome them, and increase the overall quality of health among Latina women.

  16. [Women's rights in Brazil: focus on maternal health].

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana Cristina da Nóbrega Marinho Torres; Paes, Neir Antunes

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on maternal health care, the article explores the path of women's health rights in Brazil since World War II. It presents a historical survey of broader government initiatives in this arena and of the introduction of actions to provide prenatal, birth, and postpartum care, encourage breastfeeding, and establish measures aimed at women during their reproductive lives.

  17. Overview: Forging Research Priorities for Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1990-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)

  18. Minorities & Women in the Health Fields, 1982 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, John E.

    Historical and current U.S. data are presented on women and minorities both working in health fields and preparing for these fields as students. The 96 statistical tables with accompanying text concern trends in the education and employment of minorities (Part I) and men and women (Part II) for the following health occupations: physicians,…

  19. Women's Magazines' Coverage of Smoking Related Health Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Lauren

    1989-01-01

    Examines the extent to which women's magazines with a strong interest in health covered various health hazards associated with smoking. Finds that six major women's magazines have virtually no coverage of smoking and cancer. Suggests that self-censorship may have helped determine editorial content more than pressure from tobacco companies. (RS)

  20. Health Care Resources for Children and Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Janet D.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews evidence about health care resources currently available to children and pregnant women in the United States. Evidence suggests that the maldistribution of resources remains a serious threat to health care access for women and children at greatest risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality. (SLD)

  1. Women and Mental Health: Augmenting Undergraduates' Knowledge and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Pamela Reed

    1992-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate course in psychology that addresses concepts relating to women's mental health. Explains that the course emphasizes the impact of social variables on mental health issues for women. Includes a list of topics and student activities for the course. Presents student reactions and assessment. (DK)

  2. Overview: Forging Research Priorities for Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1990-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)

  3. Mental Health and Service Delivery Systems for Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines mental health issues, especially alcoholism, suicide, and social depression, related to the counseling of Black women. Recommends improved mental health services, counselor/clinical training programs, and additional research focusing on the causes of stress among Black women. (Author/MW)

  4. Masked Symptoms: Mid-Life Women, Health, and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Zelda

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey (1997) reveal that relatively few mid-life women offer ill health as a reason for leaving their job or downshifting to part-time employment, implying that the role of ill health may be inconsequential in effecting changing patterns in mid-life women's labour force activity. In contrast, interviews with 30…

  5. Masked Symptoms: Mid-Life Women, Health, and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Zelda

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey (1997) reveal that relatively few mid-life women offer ill health as a reason for leaving their job or downshifting to part-time employment, implying that the role of ill health may be inconsequential in effecting changing patterns in mid-life women's labour force activity. In contrast, interviews with 30…

  6. Syllabi Set on Women, Health and Healing: Fourteen Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Sheryl, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled with the goal of developing social science perspectives on women's health and on topics at the intersection of social science and clinical issues, the syllabi included were developed by faculty teaching in the Women, Health and Healing Program at the University of California, San Francisco. The courses here are directed at upper division…

  7. The health of adolescent women in the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, I F

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities and stresses faced by today's adolescent women have the potential to affect their health, either directly or through interaction with biologic and psychosocial events. Recently achieved entry into the world of endurance and competitive sports; smoking, drug, and alcohol use; the toxic shock syndrome; and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome threaten the health of young women today. Physicians who care for adolescent women in the 1980s and in the future will require special skills to do so successfully. Images PMID:3074565

  8. Women's Careers in Biomedical Sciences: Implications for the Economy, Scientific Discovery, and Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Heggeness, Misty L; Lund, P Kay; Clayton, Janine Austin

    2017-05-01

    While women have been well represented in medical school and biomedical doctoral degree programs, they do not comprise half of academic medicine faculty positions. Furthermore, there is a significant paucity of women in academic medicine leadership positions, as evidenced by the fact that only 16% of dean positions at United States Medical schools are filled by women. In this commentary, the authors review the state of women in academic medicine and argue that increased representation of women in the academic workforce will lead to economic gains, increased scientific discovery, and improvements to women's health.

  9. Strategies for building a multidisciplinary academic program in women's health.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J

    1999-09-01

    During the decade of the 1990s, women's health has received unprecedented attention from government, industry, marketers of healthcare, and academic medical centers. An assessment of research, education, and healthcare delivery has exposed gaps in our knowledge about gender-related issues. Recognition of gender as a rich frontier for innovation and discovery has resulted in widespread and varied responses and a commensurate increase in activity in the field. However, this diversity of effort has created the new challenge of effectively communicating strategies of response to the multiple disciplines invested in women's health. This article describes a strategy used at Duke University Medical Center to build awareness of women's health through a highly visible and successful Women's Health Seminar Series. The series serves as a focal point for broader efforts to build a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, academic program in women's health with initiatives in clinical care, research, faculty development, provider education, and community outreach.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report mHETA 88-269-1993, Meyersdale Manufacturing Co. , Meyersdale, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, G.J.

    1989-10-01

    In response to requests from the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, Local 393, investigations were made of formaldehyde exposures, lead exposures from drinking water, and occupational exposures during winter operating conditions at Meyersdale Manufacturing Company, Meyersdale, Pennsylvania. Time-weighted average formaldehyde concentrations from area impinger samples of facility air ranged from 0.03 to 0.23 parts per million (ppm). None of these was over the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit of 1 ppm. The levels of formaldehyde measured were in the range associated with eye and upper respiratory tract irritation. Other organic compounds detected in the atmosphere at the site included dioxane, methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethane which were attributed to dry cleaning compounds from the shirt cleaning area. The concentrations of these compounds did exceed NIOSH recommended exposure levels based on potential carcinogenic effects. An unidentified source of lead contamination in the sampling materials invalidated the water samples collected for lead analysis. The study concludes that formaldehyde concentration did not exceed the OSHA limits. Dry-cleaning solvent exposures in the shirt-cleaning area exceeded NIOSH lowest feasible limits for potential carcinogens.

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-065-2206, Somerset County Assistance Office Building, Somerset, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Piacitelli, C.

    1992-04-01

    In response to a request from the superintendent of the office, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Somerset County Assistance Office Building (SIC-8399), Somerset, Pennsylvania. Employees had complained of eye and skin irritation and fatigue, particularly during afternoon hours. Temperature and humidity measurements were generally in accordance with recommendations. Mold growth was not found. Levels of airborne contaminants were very low and not expected to cause the symptoms which the workers had reported. The carbon-dioxide (124389) level was such that it would be expected to cause complaints of air quality. When the investigation was conducted, the ventilation system was only partially operative. However, even when the system was in full operation, the measurements indicated that the supply of outdoor air to the building was well below recommended rates for office complexes. The author concludes that the complaints may have been due to substandard ventilation and exposure to cigarette smoke. The author recommends that more outside air be provided to the building and smoking be restricted to certain specified areas of the building.

  12. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-062-1652, Veterans Administration Center and Regional Office, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.E.; Chrostek, W.

    1986-01-01

    Concern among employees that asbestos exposure at the Veterans Administration Center and Regional Office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania may be causing relatively high rates of cancer deaths culminated in a NIOSH evaluation of the facility. Medical and personnel records were incomplete, but death certificates were obtained for 10 of 20 presumed cancer victims. Three had died of lung cancer, two of colon cancer, and one each of gastric, small intestine, pancreas, and breast cancer. The sampling was too small to draw any conclusions concerning a cancer cluster. Bulk samples of steam pipes and damaged ceiling tiles were taken from the areas of concern. Three of the five bulk samples showed chrysotile asbestos. Ceiling tile and pipe covering contained 30-40% chrysotile asbestos. No asbestos was found in dust settled on a file cabinet. Air fiber concentrations were below the limit of detection (3000 fibers per cubic meter) in the 12 samples taken. Air samples indicated that adequate outside air is entering the working areas of the building. The authors conclude that a potential hazard from asbestos existed if pipes or ceiling tiles were damaged or disturbed.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-289-1798, Kirby Manufacturing Company, Inc. , McClure, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, M.S.; Singal, M.

    1987-05-01

    In response to a request from an employer representative, an evaluation was made of the Kirby Manufacturing Company located in McClure, Pennsylvania concerning possible exposure to formaldehyde from the resin used to give a wrinkle-resistant property to textiles. Full-shift breathing-zone and general-air-monitoring samplings were performed. In 14 samples the personal exposure to formaldehyde ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 parts per million (ppm) with an average of 1.0 ppm. A questionnaire regarding symptoms was completed by 100 workers. Symptoms reported to be occurring more frequently of late included sneezing, nasal irritation, headache, eye irritation, throat irritation, and coughing. As these symptoms were connected with formaldehyde exposures, the authors conclude that overexposure to formaldehyde was occurring at the facility. The authors recommend that a specialist in industrial ventilation systems be consulted to prepare specifications for a dilution ventilation system for the facility. Using the new system, indoor air containing formaldehyde vapor would not be recirculated. Fabrics containing formaldehyde should be aired before further treatment or use.

  14. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. Images p400-a p401-a p402-a p403-a PMID:10076494

  15. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580

  16. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health

  17. Determinants of Black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine; Wiens, Juliana; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Clow, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    The On the Margins project investigated health status, health-care delivery, and use of health services among African-Canadian women residing in rural and remote regions of the province of Nova Scotia. A participatory action research approach provided a framework for the study. Triangulation of data-collection methods--interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires--formed the basis of data generation. A total of 237 in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and coded verbatim. Atlas-ti data-management software was used to facilitate coding and analysis. Six themes emerged from the data: Black women's multiple roles, perceptions of health, experiences with the health-care system, factors affecting health, strategies for managing health, and envisioning solutions. The authors focus on 1 of these themes, factors affecting Black women's health, and discuss 3 subthemes: race and racism, poverty and unemployment, and access to health care.

  18. Low health-related quality of life among abused women.

    PubMed

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E; Nortvedt, Monica W; Baste, Valborg

    2006-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to all the women's shelters in Norway to describe health-related quality of life among women who had experienced violence from an intimate partner. Every woman who could understand Norwegian and was staying at a women's shelter in Norway for more than 1 week from October 2002 to May 2003 was asked to participate. We described violence by intimate partners by using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Index. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to measure health-related quality of life. These women experienced a multitude of threats and actual physical and psychological violence during their partnership. Their health-related quality of life was low and significantly (p<0.001) below the norm for the female population of Norway in all dimensions. The SF-36 mental health dimension was 2.5 standard deviations below the norm. Women at women's shelters in Norway who had experienced domestic violence had very low and clinically significantly reduced health-related quality of life scores. Health care workers must give priority to developing intervention plans for victims of violence from intimate partners.

  19. Pennsylvania Reaches Infrastructure Milestone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With a series of “aye” votes, the Pennsylvania agency that turns EPA funding and state financing into water infrastructure projects crossed a key threshold recently – $8 billion in investment over nearly three decades

  20. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  1. [A general review on women's health education of modern China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoyang

    2015-07-01

    In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization.

  2. Women in Health Careers: Status of Women in Health Careers in the United States and Other Selected Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Maryland; Showell, Shirlene

    Compiling available statistical information on the status of women in health careers, the chart book was designed for use at the International Conference on Women in Health. Tables and figures illustrate statements through statistics and graphs. In the section dealing with the United States, tables present a broad statistical base, and figures…

  3. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  4. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  5. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  6. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  7. Sexual Minority Women's Health Behaviors and Outcomes After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Potter, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority women (e.g., lesbians, bisexual women, and women who prefer a female partner) are a known risk population for overweight, obesity, and mental health problems. Our objective is to compare sexual minority women with breast cancer to a control sample of sexual minority women without cancer to identify differences in healthful lifestyle practices, weight, well-being and mental health. This is a cross-sectional study of 85 sexual minority women with a breast cancer history (cases) matched by age and partner status to 85 sexual minority controls without cancer. We compared self-reported physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, weight, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Cases and controls had similar health behaviors, BMI, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Of the weight-related behaviors, meeting the recommended guidelines of physical activity was significantly associated with lower likelihood of being overweight or obese, less depression, and better mental quality of life. Sexual minority women with breast cancer are similar to sexual minority women without cancer with respect to healthful behaviors, body weight, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of poor outcomes after cancer should be implemented in this population as well as in sexual minority women without cancer.

  8. [Pelvic Health: Healthcare Needs From Medical and Women Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ji-Yan; Chang, Lu-I; Tsai, Chuan-Hsiu

    2017-04-01

    The pelvis, one of the most important cavities in the human body, is involved in human reproduction health. The pelvis changes in females with age and reproduction-related changes in hormones. Women generally lack sufficient knowledge regarding their pelvic-health needs and feel embarrassed to seek pelvic-health-related medical advice. Conversely, medical care related to women's health focuses mainly on maternal health and cancer prevention. When facing the challenges of pelvic floor dysfunction, surgical procedures are the most common treatment modality. The present article aims to define pelvic health and to compare the differences in perspective on this issue between the medical and women. Lastly, suggestions for pelvic healthcare that focus on women's needs are made.

  9. Domestic violence and its mental health correlates in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shuba; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Suresh, Saradha; Ahuja, Ramesh Chandra

    2005-07-01

    Domestic spousal violence against women has far-reaching mental health implications. To determine the association of domestic spousal violence with poor mental health. In a household survey of rural, urban non-slum and urban slum areas from seven sites in India, the population of women aged 15-49 years was sampled using probability proportionate to size. The Self Report Questionnaire was used to assess mental health status and a structured questionnaire elicited spousal experiences of violence. Of 9938 women surveyed, 40% reported poor mental health. Logistic regression showed that women reporting 'any violence' -- 'slap', 'hit', 'kick' or 'beat' (OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.0-2.5) -- or 'all violence' -- all of the four types of physically violent behaviour (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.94-3.51) -- were at increased risk of poor mental health. Findings indicate a strong association between domestic spousal violence and poor mental health, and underscore the need for appropriate interventions.

  10. Biopsychosocial health disparities among young women enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Beckie, Theresa M; Fletcher, Gerald; Groer, Maureen W; Kip, Kevin E; Ji, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the biopsychosocial characteristics of young women with those of older women who were enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The baseline characteristics of women who prematurely terminated CR participation were also explored. Baseline physiological and psychosocial indices of women ≤ 55 years compared with older women eligible for CR were evaluated 1 week before enrolling in either a traditional CR or a gender-specific, motivationally enhanced CR. A greater proportion of young women (n = 65) compared with their older counterparts (n = 187) were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction during their index hospitalization. They demonstrated lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios, and greater body weight compared with older women and were more likely to be active smokers. Young women compared with older women reported significantly worse health perceptions, quality of life, optimism, hope, social support, and stress and significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Women who prematurely terminated CR participation were younger, more obese, with worse quality of life, and greater symptoms of depression and anxiety compared with women completing CR. Notable differences in physiological and psychosocial profiles of young women compared with older women enrolled in CR were evident, placing them at high risk for nonadherence to secondary prevention interventions as well as increased risk for disease progression and subsequent cardiac adverse events. Continued existence of these health differentials represents an important public health problem and warrants further research to address these age-related and sex-specific health disparities among women with coronary heart disease.

  11. Health assessment for Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill, Honey Brook, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980829527. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-02

    The Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill site in Honey Brook, Pennsylvania was an unpermitted residential and commercial refuse disposal facility that operated from 1963 to sometime in the 1980s. After 1977, the landfill continued to operate in defiance of legal action to support a closure plan. Various investigations conducted in the 1980s revealed that industrial and hazardous waste had been accepted by the site. The environmental contamination on-site consists of copper, lead, 1,2-dichloropropane, toluene, chloroform and methylene chloride in drummed wastes; and mercury, toluene, dichlorofluoromethane, methylene chloride, trichlorofluoromethane, 5-methyl-2-hexanone, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene in groundwater. One time sampling indicated the presence of volatile compounds in air (hydrogen chloride and chloroform). The environmental contamination off-site consists of cadmium in sediment; and chloromethane, chloroform, xylenes, dichlorofluoromethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, p-cresol, toluene, methyl isobutyl ketone, di-n-butyl phthalate, lead, mercury, and zinc in residential well water. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, and airborne gases, vapors, and particulate.

  12. Incarceration and Women's Health: The Utility of Effective Health Education Programming--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson-James, Candace; Nunez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The health and well-being of incarcerated women is a significant public health concern. Compared with non-incarcerated women, incarcerated women in the United States are more often from minority populations, younger (between the ages of 18 and 34 years), of low socioeconomic status, unemployed and mothers to children under 18 years of age. More…

  13. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

  14. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Magdalena; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke

    2011-11-02

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications.

  15. Mental health services provided through the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health: do they reach rural women?

    PubMed

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Weisman, Carol S; Baker, Katie; Primavera, Kaitlin

    2005-01-01

    The National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health (CoEs) were established in part to provide integrated, comprehensive health care including mental health services to women. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health services currently provided by each of the 19 CoEs throughout the United States and to assess the extent to which these services are targeted to and utilized by rural women. Methods included both website review and semistructured interviews with knowledgeable informants in the CoEs. Center websites varied widely in mental health services mentioned: one CoE described services for nine different types of mental health issues, while one-fourth of the CoEs included no mention of any specific mental health services. Only four websites indicated that rural women were part of the CoE target population. Knowledgeable informant interviews indicated that seven of the CoEs had mental health staff onsite providing mental and behavioral health services. These services most often included treatment for depression and other mood disorders and for stress, as well as counseling for domestic violence issues. None of the CoEs offered mental or behavioral health services specifically targeted to rural women. We conclude that although they have not done so to date, the CoEs would be good sites in which to develop and test mental health outreach services for rural women.

  16. Should health professionals screen women for domestic violence? Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jean; Richardson, Jo; Carter, Yvonne H; Davidson, Leslie L; Feder, Gene

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence for the acceptability and effectiveness of screening women for domestic violence in healthcare settings. Design Systematic review of published quantitative studies. Search strategy Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CINAHL) were searched for articles published in the English language up to February 2001. Included studies Surveys that elicited the attitudes of women and health professionals on the screening of women in health settings; comparative studies conducted in healthcare settings that measured rates of identification of domestic violence in the presence and absence of screening; studies measuring outcomes of interventions for women identified in health settings who experience abuse from a male partner or ex-partner compared with abused women not receiving an intervention. Results 20 papers met the inclusion criteria. In four surveys, 43-85% of women respondents found screening in healthcare settings acceptable. Two surveys of health professionals' views found that two thirds of physicians and almost half of emergency department nurses were not in favour of screening. In nine studies of screening compared with no screening, most detected a greater proportion of abused women identified by healthcare professionals. Six studies of interventions used weak study designs and gave inconsistent results. Other than increased referral to outside agencies, little evidence exists for changes in important outcomes such as decreased exposure to violence. No studies measured quality of life, mental health outcomes, or potential harm to women from screening programmes. Conclusion Although domestic violence is a common problem with major health consequences for women, implementation of screening programmes in healthcare settings cannot be justified. Evidence of the benefit of specific interventions and lack of harm from screening is needed. What is already known on this topicAround one quarter of women in the United Kingdom have

  17. Older Women and Lower Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Abdul Rashid, Sharifah Norazizan Syed

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have found that older women report lower self-rated health than men. However, it is not clear why older women are more likely to report poor self-rated health than older men. Data for this study came from a national cross-sectional survey, Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians (MHQoLOM). Included in the survey were…

  18. Third World women call for a balanced perspective on women's health.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, J; Teymour, L

    1993-01-01

    In 1990 a conference entitled "In Search of Balanced Perspectives and Global Solidarity for Women's Health and Reproductive Rights" took place in Manila, the Philippines. The message from the Third World women who attended was that their struggles for personal and reproductive freedom are integrally linked with their dependent economic status. In addition, the conference addressed the violence many Third World women suffer as a result of oppressive state and religious policies. More than 50% of the women who attended one panel testified that they had personally experienced "state violence." The women called for an immediate end to women's oppression via nationalism and militarism in addition to racism, sexism, and classism. They represented a challenge to all of us--to work toward a balanced perspective on women's health in the context of the socioeconomic and political development of all peoples.

  19. Stigma, sexual health, and human rights among women who have sex with women in Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia C.; Logie, Carmen H.; Adams, Darrin; Mothopeng, Tampose; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, gender and sexual minorities have become increasingly visible across sub-Saharan Africa, marking both the progression and violation of their human rights. Using data from a study with sexual minorities in Lesotho, this analysis leveraged the social ecological model to examine relationships between stigma, human rights, and sexual health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. A community-based participatory approach was used for the mixed-method, cross-sectional study. A total of 250 women who have sex with women completed a structured questionnaire, of which 21 participated in a total of three focus group discussions. Stigma was common within and outside the health sector. Stigma and human rights abuses were associated with increased risk for HIV and STIs. Interventions to address stigma at the structural, community, and interpersonal levels are essential to ensuring sexual health and rights for women who have sex with women in Lesotho. PMID:26719002

  20. Stigma, sexual health, and human rights among women who have sex with women in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia C; Logie, Carmen H; Adams, Darrin; Mothopeng, Tampose; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Baral, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, gender and sexual minorities have become increasingly visible across sub-Saharan Africa, marking both the progression and violation of their human rights. Using data from a study with sexual minorities in Lesotho, this analysis leveraged the social ecological model to examine relationships between stigma, human rights, and sexual health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. A community-based participatory approach was used for the mixed-method, cross-sectional study. A total of 250 women who have sex with women completed a structured questionnaire, of which 21 participated in a total of three focus group discussions. Stigma was common within and outside the health sector. Stigma and human rights abuses were associated with increased risk for HIV and STIs. Interventions to address stigma at the structural, community, and interpersonal levels are essential to ensuring sexual health and rights for women who have sex with women in Lesotho.

  1. Women's status and the health of women and men: a view from the States.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Gupta, V; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1999-01-01

    We examined the status of women in the 50 American states in relation to women's and men's levels of health. The status of women in each state was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. The study design was cross-sectional and ecologic. Our main outcome measures were total female and male mortality rates, female cause-specific death rates and mean days of activity limitations reported by women during the previous month. Measures of women's status were strikingly correlated with each of these health outcomes at the state level. Higher political participation by women was correlated with lower female mortality rates (r = -0.51), as well as lower activity limitations (-0.47). A smaller wage gap between women and men was associated with lower female mortality rates (-0.30) and lower activity limitations (-0.31) (all correlations, P < 0.05). Indices of women's status were also strongly correlated with male mortality rates, suggesting that women's status may reflect more general underlying structural processes associated with material deprivation and income inequality. However, the indices of women's status persisted in predicting female mortality and morbidity rates after adjusting for income inequality, poverty rates and median household income. Associations were observed for specific causes of death, including stroke, cervical cancer and homicide. We conclude that women experience higher mortality and morbidity in states where they have lower levels of political participation and economic autonomy. Living in such states has detrimental consequences for the health of men as well. Gender inequality and truncated opportunities for women may be one of the pathways by which the maldistribution of income adversely affects the health of women.

  2. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Muscle/Bone Disorders Health Care Heart Disease Manufacturing Personal Protective Equipment Reproductive Health Respiratory Diseases Sales ... Related Topics Job Area Agriculture Construction Health Care Manufacturing Sales Services Transportation Health Concerns Bloodborne Diseases Cancer ...

  3. Implementing a new model of integrated women's health in academic health centers: lessons learned from the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, V M; Strauss, J F; Milliken, N; Donoghue, G D

    2000-11-01

    The National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health Program (CoE) represents a new model for women's health in academic health centers that unites women's health research, teaching, clinical care, public education and outreach, and career advancement for women in the health sciences. Lessons learned from the first 3 years of implementation indicate that this type of model requires a transformation from the traditionally fragmented set of activities in academic health centers to an integrated system united around the goal of advancing women's health. The transformation requires institutional commitment, dedicated players, and an ability to build on existing resources and bring added value to the institution. Challenges and strategies to link women's health activities and increase collaboration are also discussed.

  4. Access to specialty mental health services among women in California.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Baumrind, Nikki

    2005-06-01

    The Anderson behavioral model was used to investigate racial and ethnic disparities in access to specialty mental health services among women in California as well as factors that might account for such disparities. The study was a cross-sectional examination of a probability sample of 3,750 California women. The main indicators of access to services were perceived need, service seeking, and service use. Multivariate models were constructed that accounted for need and enabling and demographic variables. Significant racial and ethnic variations in access to specialty mental health services were observed. African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women were significantly less likely to use specialty mental health services than white women. Multivariate analyses showed that Hispanic and Asian women were less likely than white women to report perceived need, even after frequent mental distress had been taken into account. Among women with perceived need, African-American and Asian women were less likely than white women to seek mental health services after differences in insurance status had been taken into account. Among women who sought services, Hispanic women were less likely than white women to obtain services after adjustment for the effects of poverty. Need and enabling factors did not entirely account for the observed disparities in access to services. Additional research is needed to identify gender- and culture-specific models for access to mental health services in order to decrease disparities in access. Factors such as perceived need and decisions to seek services are important factors that should be emphasized in future studies.

  5. Effects of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake on Women's Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Julia Andrea; Weitzman, Abigail

    2016-03-01

    This article explores the effects of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on women's reproductive health, using geocoded data from the 2005 and 2012 Haiti Demographic and Health Surveys. We use geographic variation in the destructiveness of the earthquake to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. Results indicate that heightened earthquake intensity reduced use of injectables-the most widely used modern contraceptive method in Haiti-and increased current pregnancy and current unwanted pregnancy. Analysis of impact pathways suggests that severe earthquake intensity significantly increased women's unmet need for family planning and reduced their access to condoms. The earthquake also affected other factors that influence reproductive health, including women's ability to negotiate condom use in their partnerships. Our findings highlight how disruptions to health care services following a natural disaster can have negative consequences for women's reproductive health.

  6. Does less autonomy erode women's health? Yes. No. Maybe.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Craig; Brewis, Alexandra; Pike, Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of health is a central objective of human biology and related fields. Female autonomy is hypothesized to be an important determinant of women's health as well as demographic outcomes. The literature relating women's health to their everyday autonomy has produced conflicting results, and this may be due in part to the application of different measures of autonomy and different measures of health. Using secondary data from a large nationally representative study, this study examines the relationship between multiple measures of female autonomy and three measures of wellbeing among women living in Uzbekistan (n = 5,396). The multivariate results show that women's autonomy related to freedom of movement is associated with lower levels of depression symptomatology and lower systolic blood pressure. Respondents who assert that women should have control over their bodies also had lower odds of high depression symptoms and lower diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women with greater decision-making autonomy were more likely to be classified as having high depressive symptomatology and higher diastolic blood pressure. Building on recent work, we suggest that these associations might reflect varying levels of agreement between men and women, and we provide some limited evidence to support this. This study stands as a theoretical and methodological cautionary note by suggesting that the relationship between autonomy and health is complex. Further, if differences in gender agreement underlie differences in the predictive accuracy of autonomy scales, then human biology researchers will need to begin collecting identical data from men and women.

  7. Women and health care: a comparison of theories.

    PubMed

    Fee, E

    1975-01-01

    There are three distinct approaches to the analysis of women's position in society, and thus of women's relation to the health care system. Liberal feminists seek equal opportunity "within the system," deman equal opportunity and employment for women in health care, and are critical of the patronizing attitudes of physicians. Radical feminists reject "the system" as one based on the oppression of women and seek to build alternative structures to better fill their needs. They see the division between man and woman as the primary contradiction in society and patriarchy as its fundamental institution. They have initiated self-help groups and women's clinics to extend the base of health care controlled by women in their own interests. Marxist-feminists see the particular oppression of women as generated by contradications within the development of capitalism. Women's unpaid labor at home and underpaid labor in the work force both serve the interests of the owners of capital. The health care system serves these same interests; it maintains and perpetuates the social class structure while becoming increasingly alienated from the health needs of the majority of the population.

  8. [In Egypt, researchers assess the health of village women].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A May 1991 workshop on reproductive morbidity attended by 60 participants in Cairo included presentation of results of a study of 509 nonpregnant women aged 20-60 years. The study was conducted by an anthropologist, a biostatistician, 2 obstetrician-gynecologists, and a microbiologist in 2 rural villages of Gizeh. The majority of the women studied had married before age 19, and 80% were illiterate. Despite initial reticence, over 90% of the village women ultimately took part in the study. The team observed the frequency with which the women accepted illness, weakness, and pain as a normal part of life. Physical examinations revealed that 44% had vaginitis, 9% were anemic, 17% had severe anemia, 56% had prolapse, 18% were hypertensive, and 42% were obese. Survey questionnaires revealed that 36% experienced pain during intercourse, 18% had pain in the lower abdomen, 71% had menstrual pain, 15% had pruritus, and 48% feared they were sterile. The team observed that the women were apparently reluctant to use the local health services. The villages had their own health centers staffed by female physicians, but only 1/3 of the women giving birth in the preceding 2 years had sought prenatal care, and 75% chose to deliver at home. Relations between the health workers and the village women must be strengthened if the situation is to be improved. The seminar recommended that the health and social workers make greater efforts to encourage use of the health services by local women.

  9. 'The Best Health Care Delivery System in the World'? Women's health and maternity/newborn care trends in Philadelphia, PA, United States-1997-2011: a case report.

    PubMed

    McCool, William F; Guidera, Mamie; Janis, Jaclyn

    2013-10-01

    Despite being ranked number one globally in terms of health care cost per capita, the United States (US) has ranked as low as 37th in the world in terms of health care system performance. This poor performance for one of the most developed nations in the world has been reflected in the underachieved attempts of the multiple US health care systems at improving maternal and newborn health, according to the goals set in 2000 by the United Nations with Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) 5: Improve Maternal Health, and 4: Reduce Child Mortality. This paper will examine the progress, or lack thereof, over a period of 15 years of the fifth largest urban area in the US - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - in its delivery of health care to pregnant women and their newborns. Using data collected from national, state, and city health agencies, trends concerning pregnancy care will be presented and compared to the target goals of MDG-5 and MDG-4, as well as Healthy People 2020, a US government-based initiative to improve health care of all Americans. Findings will demonstrate that urban areas such as Philadelphia are on a path of not reaching goals that have been set by the United Nations and the US government, and by some indicators are moving away in a negative direction from these goals.

  10. 78 FR 19710 - Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's Health Week

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's Health Week AGENCY: Office on Women...), Office on Women's Health (OWH) invites public and private-sector health-related organizations to participate in National Women's Health Week (NWHW) as partners to help create awareness of women's...

  11. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Shukri, Nor A.; Duncan, Andrew; Denison, Fiona C.; Forbes, Shareen; Walker, Brian R.; Norman, Jane E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m2) and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m2) pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation) pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05). Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:26457716

  12. Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Health care providers' perspective of the gender influences on immigrant women's mental health care experiences.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Joyce M; Donnelly, Tamphd T

    2007-10-01

    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders. Evidence has shown that immigrant women experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. Informed by the post-colonial feminist perspective, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provide mental health services to immigrant women. In-depth interviews were used to obtain information about immigrant women's mental health care experiences. The primary goal was to explore how contextual factors intersect with race, gender, and class to influence the ways in which immigrant women seek help and to increase awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health care needs of the immigrant women. The study's results reveal that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties accessing mental health care due to insufficient language skills, unfamiliarity/unawareness of services, and low socioeconomic status; (b) participants identified structural barriers and gender roles as barriers to accessing the available mental health services; (c) the health care relationship between health care providers and women had profound effects on whether or not immigrant women seek help for mental health problems.

  14. Health promotion in active-duty military women with children.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice G; Ephraim, Paula M; Flaherty, Norma B; Gurney, Cynthia A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which selected demographic characteristics, definition of health, perceived health status, perceived self-efficacy, and resources are related to the health promoting behaviors of active-duty women with children and to describe qualitatively the experience of being an active-duty mother. Grounded in Pender's (1996) Health Promotion Model, this study used methodological triangulation to test a hypothesized model. A sample of 141 active-duty women with children using military health services participated. Resource availability and commitment were key components of being successful at balancing home and work demands.

  15. [Mothers' clubs: a place for women's health care].

    PubMed

    de Senna, P A; da Fonseca, R M

    1995-04-01

    The article relates an investigation realized next to integrant of Mother's Club of the Sanitary District of Perus, in the Municipal of São Paulo. It has how aims to know the its organizational shape and the relation between locals Municipals health institutions and with other women movements. With this to intended to know the concepts about health disease from their members to verify the possibilities of intervention in coletive health. The results reveal in the conceptions of health-disease of their integrants. Observe, however, spaces to intervention in the feeling to mplify the breast-plate of the women about of the their social identity and of the woman's health.

  16. Feminist initiatives on women's health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L

    1984-04-01

    In the 1960s the Dutch Women's Liberation organization "Dolle Mina" carried out a campaign in Holland to promote the use of oral contraceptives and tried to generate political support in the home and through street demonstrations. What was needed was an adequate abortion service with a corresponding abortion law, a free and adequate supply of contraceptives, and a non-sexist approach to and treatment of women in the field of sexuality, birth control, and medical servicces in general. About 15 years later, the Netherlands now has a flourishing women's health movement, including efforts in information provision, guidance, research, reference, schooling, and contact-building. The basic principles of the women's movement are; 1) the woman herself is the stardard; 2) problems women have with regard to their health are not to be observed in isolation from their social l ife and position; 3) women's acquaintance with feelings about the functioning of their own bodies form the basis of all therapies to improve women's health; 4) women must be offered the choice of existing methods of treatment and help procedures; 5) women should help each other with their common ailments, and heirarchical divisions such as helper-patient, and expert-nonexpert, should be removed; and 6) as often as possible help should be given to women in their own surroundings. Women's health centers have begun to take on a number of women's physical and psychosomatic complaints; 5 centers now operate in 5 different cities, and others are being developed. The Women's Health Center in Amsterdam was initiated in 1976 and caters to gynecological questions, breast examination problems, eating disorders, and drug addiction. Contracts between feminist health groups and the traditional health system are varied, and individuals involved in family planning groups are often also active in the feminist health acctiities. There is resistance to feminist initiatives, mainly from those working in traditional health

  17. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems and services such as Pap smears and birth control? What about breast care such as mammograms and breast cancer treatments? VA provides women Veterans with a full range of ... first seven days after birth for all eligible women Veterans. Many details are ...

  18. Promoting career mobility of women faculty in health administration programs.

    PubMed

    Pohl, C M

    1999-01-01

    Faculty women have encountered the same glass ceiling in their pursuit of better paying, higher level positions that other women have experienced in the work world. Numerous factors have contributed to the continued inequality of salary and rank within the academic community. In order to overcome these barriers, faculty women and women executives in health administration have identified and implemented successful strategies. This article describes these barriers and discusses their impact on the career paths of faculty women and women graduate students in health administration programs. The strategies of role modeling, mentoring, and networking were examined in terms of their benefits, problems, and related gender factors. Finally, recommendations that will complement these strategies were determined and discussed.

  19. Special health care needs of homeless pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Killion, C M

    1995-12-01

    As women and families join the ranks of the homeless in increasing numbers, many women find themselves confronting both pregnancy and homelessness. When pregnancy accompanies the precarious state of homelessness, the need for adequate shelter is not being met during one of the most critical periods of a woman's life. This article focuses on the unique health needs of homeless pregnant women. Detailed accounts of the daily life experiences of African American, Anglo, and Latina homeless pregnant women were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in a large metropolitan area in southern California. Their pregnancies were difficult because normal physiological changes of pregnancy often became pathological, signs of potential complications went unnoticed or unattended, and minor discomforts of pregnancy were exacerbated by the women's environment. Nursing therapeutics that support health maintenance and coping strategies of the women while on the streets or in shelters were explicated.

  20. Assessing women's understandings of health in rural Papua New Guinea: implications for health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Rachael; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), women's health is addressed by applying biomedical solutions which often ignore the complexity of women's histories, cultural contexts and lived experiences. The objective of this study was to examine adult and older women's perceptions of health and well-being to identify priority areas for public service interventions. Rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in the Wosera district, a rural area of PNG from mid-2005 to early 2006, to examine the health concerns of women. Twenty-seven adult women and 10 older women participated in the study. Health was not limited to one aspect of a woman's life, such as their biology or maternal roles; it was also connected with the social, cultural and spiritual dimensions of women's daily existence. Participants also identified access to money and supportive interpersonal relationships as significant for good health. A disconnect was found to exist between women's understandings of good health and socio-political health policies in PNG, something likely to be repeated in health service delivery to different cultural groups across the Asia Pacific region. Health and development practitioners in PNG must become responsive to the complexity of women's social relationships and to issues relating to the context of women's empowerment in their programmes.

  1. Women's autonomy and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their health seeking behavior in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that women with higher autonomy are more likely to seek health care during pregnancy and delivery than those with lower autonomy. The paper also examines whether the autonomy-health utilization relationship is influenced by individual (education, work status, religion) and, household (wealth and rural-urban residence) level factors, all of which are important for both autonomy and health-care utilization. Results indicate that women's autonomy remains significant even after adjusting for other individual and household variables. Besides autonomy, our results highlight other individual and household level influences on the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. Results also demonstrate the need to look beyond individual level factors when examining the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. The statistical significance of some individual-level measures, such as education means it cannot be used as proxy for women's autonomy. This calls for policy makers not only to empower women, but also provide them with better formal education.

  2. Women and health consequences of natural disasters: Challenge or opportunity?

    PubMed

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani PhD, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Disasters do not affect people equally; the impact of disasters on the lives of women is different from other groups of a community. Women's fundamental rights to health and safety are violated after disasters. The authors of this study aimed to explore various factors of women's health with reference to previous natural disasters in Iran. A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews and field observations was employed to explore women's health factors in the affected regions. A total of 22 participants affected by disasters, as well as key informants, were interviewed applying the purposeful sampling method. Data were collected in 2014 in three provinces, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A content analysis using the Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two themes and four categories were extracted from the data. The themes that emerged included psycho-physical effects and women's health status. Physical and psycho-emotional effects and reproductive and environmental health effects were the four emergent categories. The findings implied that managing women's health challenges may result in reducing the distressing effects of disaster. These findings support identification and application of the mechanisms by which women's well-being in physical, mental, reproductive, and environmental aspects can be protected after disasters.

  3. Estimated Demand for Women's Health Services by 2020

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Timothy M.; Chakrabarti, Ritashree; Storm, Michael V.; Elwell, Erika C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the demand for women's health care by 2020 using today's national utilization standards. Methods This descriptive study incorporated the most current national data resources to design a simulation model to create a health and economic profile for a representative sample of women from each state. Demand was determined utilizing equations about projected use of obstetrics-gynecology (ob-gyn) services. Applying patient profile and health care demand equations, we estimated the demand for providers in 2010 in each state for comparison with supply based on the 2010 American Medical Association Masterfile. U.S. Census Bureau population projections were used to project women's health care demands in 2020. Results The national demand for women's health care is forecast to grow by 6% by 2020. Most (81%) ob-gyn related services will be for women of reproductive age (18–44 years old). Growth in demand is forecast to be highest in states with the greatest population growth (Texas, Florida), where supply is currently less than adequate (western United States), and among Hispanic women. This increase in demand by 2020 will translate into a need for physicians or nonphysician clinicians, which is clinically equivalent to 2,090 full-time ob-gyns. Conclusion Using today's national norms of ob-gyn related services, a modest growth in women's health care demands is estimated by 2020 that will require a larger provider workforce. PMID:23829185

  4. Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Christina; Erdman, Deborah A; Smith, Jill Gray; Widom, Kenneth; Reardon, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Firearm-related injuries are a public health issue in the United States. In rural Pennsylvania, it is a familiar way of life to have a gun or guns in the home. Safety behaviors along with gun storage in the home, specifically where there are young children (aged 6 years and younger), are a concern for this level I regional resource center in rural Pennsylvania. Head Start families were surveyed regarding gun safety habits before and after safety educational activities. A noteworthy number of families reported changing behaviors regarding better safety habits for storing and use of firearms in the home postsurvey.

  5. Minorities & Women in the Health Fields. 1984 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD. Div. of Health Professions Analysis.

    This report provides selected information on minorities and women working in the health fields or preparing for them as students in health professions schools. The report is in two sections. The first section consists of tables presenting educational and employment data for racial and ethnic minorities in the health fields, with accompanying text.…

  6. Mental health of Southeast Asian refugee women: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mattson, S

    1993-01-01

    Southeast Asian refugee women suffered extremely traumatic experiences at the hands of the Khmer Rouge, during their escapes from Cambodia and Laos, and in refugee camps. I describe these experiences as the background for interventions to promote and re-establish mental health in these women. A reported study of women who were experiencing psychosomatic blindness as a result of the trauma they had undergone is presented as an example. Therapeutic strategies are suggested.

  7. An Attitudinal Survey of Pennsylvania's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Telephone surveys of 844 residents in 42 rural Pennsylvania counties established baseline data on rural opinions about 14 public policy issues. Concerning government spending, respondents felt that too little was spent on job creation, aging issues, child care, education, health services, and farming and agriculture; funding was about right for…

  8. Medication Administration Practices in Pennsylvania Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette

    2006-01-01

    As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…

  9. Health empowerment among immigrant women in transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lee, Fang-Hsin; Lin, Miao-Ling; Lin, Pei-Chao

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based intervention designed to promote increased health empowerment for marriage migrant women in Taiwan. The rapid increase of international marriage immigration through matchmaking agencies has received great attention recently because of its impact on social and public health issues in the receiving countries. A participatory action research (PAR) and in-depth interviews were adopted. Sixty-eight women participated in this study. Eight workshops of the health empowerment project were completed. Through a PAR-based project, participants received positive outcomes. Four outcome themes were identified: (a) increasing health literacy, (b) facilitating capacity to build social networks, (c) enhancing sense of self-worth, and (d) building psychological resilience. PAR was a helpful strategy that enabled disadvantaged migrant women to increase their health literacy, psychological and social health, and well-being. The findings can be referenced by the government in making health-promoting policies for Southeast Asian immigrant women to increase their well-being. Community health nurses can apply PAR strategies to plan and design health promotion intervention for disadvantaged migrant women. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Influence of qualitative research on women's health screening guidelines.

    PubMed

    Abadir, Anna Maria; Lang, Ariella; Klein, Talia; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2014-01-01

    Considerable time and resources are allocated to carry out qualitative research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the availability of qualitative research on women's health screening and assess its influence on screening practice guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Medline, CINHAL, and WEB of Science databases were used to identify the availability of qualitative research conducted in the past 15 years on 3 different women's health screening topics: cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, and prenatal first-trimester screening. Key national practice guidelines on women's health screening were selected using the National Guideline Clearinghouse web site. Bibliometric analysis was used to determine the frequency of qualitative references cited in the guidelines. A total of 272 qualitative research papers on women's health screening was identified: 109 on cervical cancer screening, 104 on breast cancer screening, and 59 on prenatal first-trimester screening. The qualitative studies focused on health care provider perspectives as well as ethical, ethnographic, psychological, and social issues surrounding screening. Fifteen national clinical practice guidelines on women's health screening were identified. A total of 943 references was cited, only 2 of which comprised of qualitative research cited by only 1 clinical practice guideline. Although there is considerable qualitative research that has been carried out on women's health screening, its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines is minimal. Further exploration of the disconnect between the two is important for enhancing knowledge translation of qualitative research within clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Malign neglect: assessing older women's health care experiences in prison.

    PubMed

    Aday, Ronald; Farney, Lori

    2014-09-01

    The problem of providing mandated medical care has become commonplace as correctional systems in the United States struggle to manage unprecedented increases in its aging prison population. This study explores older incarcerated women's perceptions of prison health care policies and their day-to-day survival experiences. Aggregate data obtained from a sample of 327 older women (mean age = 56) residing in prison facilities in five Southern states were used to identify a baseline of health conditions and needs for this vulnerable group. With an average of 4.2 chronic health conditions, frequently histories of victimization, and high rates of mental health issues, the women's experiences of negotiating health care was particularly challenging. By incorporating the voices of older women, we expose the contradictions, dilemmas, and obstacles they experience in their attempts to obtain health care. It is clear from the personal accounts shared that, despite court mandates, penal harm practices such as delaying or denying medical treatment as well as occasional staff indifferences are common in women's prisons. With older women having the greatest need for health care, an age- and gender-sensitive approach is recommended.

  12. Rethinking Preconception Care: A Critical, Women's Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Erika L; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Vamos, Cheryl A; Marhefka, Stephanie L; Kline, Nolan S; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Preconception care aims to provide care to reproductive aged individuals in order to improve pregnancy and birth outcomes. Given that preconception care is a public health priority, it is important to evaluate the evolution of this health paradigm and the promotion of preconception messages that are obtained by the public. We identified online preconception health messages, which were critically assessed through a women's health perspective. Methods We searched for "preconception care" on three major search engines. Websites were included if they were U.S.-based, provided content in English, and mentioned preconception care. Blogs and journal articles were excluded. The final sample included 52 websites. Using a content analysis approach, we assessed the presence of gender bias and identified other emergent themes. Results The majority of websites focused on preconception care for women only (67%). The recommendations centered on: (1) health behaviors for women (e.g., folic acid, drinking, smoking); (2) visiting healthcare providers; and (3) evaluating medical risks. Moreover, most content implied that women desired, or should desire, pregnancy. Overall, the messages used biomedical language and rarely mentioned other important health topics, such as social support and violence. Conclusions The primary messages presented on preconception care websites emphasized biomedical aspects of women's health. The current context of preconception care medicalizes this pre-pregnancy period by defining it as a biomedical condition requiring lifestyle changes and interventions. Additionally, the biases presented in these messages assumed women want and are capable of pregnancies and excluded an integral factor for heteronormative reproduction-men.

  13. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K.; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Martin, William J.; Kosgei, Rose J.; Carter, E. Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M.; George, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  14. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided.

  15. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  16. Double-Duty Caregiving: Women in the Health Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Brown, Judith Belle; Vandervoort, Anthony; McNair, Susan; Dashnay, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this feminist narrative study was to examine the experiences of women in four different health professions (nursing, medicine, physiotherapy, and social work) who provided care to elderly relatives. Although caring is a central and common feature of the personal and professional lives of many women (Baines, Evans, & Neysmith, 1991;…

  17. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  18. Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

    The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

  19. The Use of Inpatient Mental Health Services by Hispanic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Provides a profile of Hispanic women's use of inpatient mental health facilities. Presents gender differences for Hispanic and non-Hispanic inpatient admissions regarding age, marital status, and diagnosis. Women, particularly Hispanics, used service less than men; admission rates were higher for men with schizophrenia and alcohol-related…

  20. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  1. Older Women: A Population at Risk for Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Wendy; Cohen, Donna

    The expanding population of older women relative to older men or the "feminization of aging" is a significant demographic trend with important implications for the future. Older women are at risk for extended years of widowhood, living alone, institutionalization, poverty, and mental health problems. Although the dementias of late life appear to…

  2. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  3. Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

  4. Depression Screening Patterns for Women in Rural Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudiver, Fred; Edwards, Joellen Beckett; Pfortmiller, Deborah T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rates and types of screening for depression in rural primary care practices are unknown. Purpose: To identify rates of depression screening among rural women in a sample of rural health clinics (RHCs). Methods: A chart review of 759 women's charts in 19 randomly selected RHCs across the nation. Data were collected from charts of female…

  5. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care seeking behavior in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba

    2017-07-31

    This paper investigated the potential importance of women's autonomy in reproductive healthcare-seeking behavior of women in Ethiopia. Data from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey (DHS), that involved a total of 16,515 women, were analyzed. A weighted sub-sample of married women and women who had had a live birth were included in analyses on family planning and antenatal care. Women's autonomy was measured by participation in decision-making, attitudes toward wife beating and whether getting permission to seek medical care was a big problem. Nearly 54% of women participated in all major household decisions, and 69% said getting permission to go for medical care was not a large problem. Women's participation in domestic decision-making was significantly positively associated with use of family planning (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.62) and antenatal care (aOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13-1.64) after adjusting for the effects of socio-demographic variables. Moreover, greater women's education, paid employment, exposure to media and better household economic status were related to both use of family planning and antenatal care. Improving women's autonomy will help to attain both gender equality and improved use of health services.

  6. Women and mental health in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Shah, Ruchita

    2015-01-01

    Gender is a critical determinant of mental health and mental illness. The patterns of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder among women are different from those seen among men. Women have a higher mean level of internalizing disorders while men show a higher mean level of externalizing disorders. Gender differences occur particularly in the rates of common mental disorders wherein women predominate. Differences between genders have been reported in the age of onset of symptoms, clinical features, frequency of psychotic symptoms, course, social adjustment, and long-term outcome of severe mental disorders. Women who abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely to attribute their drinking to a traumatic event or a stressor and are more likely to have been sexually or physically abused than other women. Girls from nuclear families and women married at a very young age are at a higher risk for attempted suicide and self-harm. Social factors and gender specific factors determine the prevalence and course of mental disorders in female sufferers. Low attendance in hospital settings is partly explained by the lack of availability of resources for women. Around two-thirds of married women in India were victims of domestic violence. Concerted efforts at social, political, economic, and legal levels can bring change in the lives of Indian women and contribute to the improvement of the mental health of these women. PMID:26330636

  7. 75 FR 26871 - National Women's Health Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Women's Health Week, 2010 Proclamation 8517--Mother's Day, 2010 Proclamation 8518--Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2010 Executive Order 13541--Temporary Organization To Facilitate a Strategic... [[Page 26873

  8. Spiritual Health and Physical Activity Among Iranian Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Rabiepoor, Soheila; Sadeghi, Elham; Sayyadi, Hojjat

    2017-08-23

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between spiritual health and physical activity among Iranian pregnant women during 2015. A cross-sectional descriptive-analytic design was adopted. A total number of 411 participants were selected by convenience sampling from Iranian women who regularly attended health centers for prenatal care. Data were collected using demographic questionnaire and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile questionnaire, 2nd edition. (Spiritual health and physical activity are two components of health-promoting lifestyle.) The data were analyzed, using descriptive statistics, t test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and regression. p values <0.05 were considered significant. The mean age of pregnant women was 27.90 ± 6.03 years. Spiritual health had the highest score (25.86 ± 4.7) and physical activity had the lowest score (11.31 ± 3.27), among six Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile subscales. In fact, there was a statistically significant correlation between spiritual health and physical activity (p = 0.000). According to results, pregnant women have higher spiritual health and lower physical activity scores. There was a statistically significant correlation between spiritual health and physical activity. The findings of this study can be used in prenatal care, midwifery education, and maternal health policies.

  9. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  10. Health implications of partner violence against women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Issahaku, Paul Alhassan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the health implications of partner violence against women in Ghana using data from northern Ghana. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 443 women contacted at health facilities in the northern region. Results indicate that 7 out of 10 women have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past 12 months; 62% had experienced psychological violence, 29% had experienced physical violence, and 34% had experienced sexual violence. Participants reported health problems associated with violence, including injury, thoughts of suicide, sleep disruption, and fear of partner (FP). Logistic regression analyses showed that women who reported physical, psychological, and sexual violence, respectively, had 3.94 times, 10.50 times, and 2.21 times the odds of reporting thoughts of suicide, whereas the odds that women who reported physical, psychological, and sexual violence would report sleep disruption were 4.82 times higher, 4.44 times higher, and 2.50 times higher, respectively. However, only physical and psychological violence predicted the odds of FP. This study shows that IPV is a health risk factor among women in Ghana. Measures that should be designed to improve the health of women experiencing marital violence are suggested.

  11. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Buck, Katherine S; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C

    2013-03-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds.

  12. Acupuncture and women's health: an overview of the role of acupuncture and its clinical management in women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Suzanne; Smith, Caroline A; Possamai-Inesedy, Alphia; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture and other modalities of Chinese/East Asian medicine have been used to treat women's health for many centuries. Gynecology specialties focus particularly on menstrual and reproductive disorders. Both the adoption of the use of acupuncture outside Asia, and the incorporation of scientific analysis in Asia have challenged biomedical conceptions of what can be achieved with this treatment method. The scale of research activity in relation to acupuncture and women's health has increased over the last 20 years. This review aims to explore the research evidence in relation to acupuncture use for women's reproductive disorders, focusing on both clinical findings and experimental research on acupuncture's mechanisms of action in relation to women's health. A narrative literature search was undertaken using searches of electronic databases and manual searches of journals and textbooks. The search included all literature published prior to June 2013. The literature was assessed as to the nature of the study it was reporting and findings synthesized into a commentary. For acupuncture's mechanism of action the search resulted in 114 relevant documents; in relation to clinical reports on the use of acupuncture for women's health 204 documents were found and assessed. There is preliminary data indicating acupuncture may improve menstrual health and coping for women experiencing delays falling pregnant. There is experimental data showing that acupuncture can influence female reproductive functioning, although the actual mechanisms involved are not yet clarified. Further well-conducted clinical research would benefit our understanding of the usefulness of acupuncture to women's health.

  13. 75 FR 2545 - Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's Health Week

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's Health Week AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary, Office of Public Health and Science, Office on Women... Women's Health (OWH) ] invites public and private sector women's health-related organizations...

  14. The health status and well-being of low-resource, housing-unstable, single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Sara F; Tach, Laura; Guerra, Terry; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-03-01

    The health and well-being of single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in US cities who participate in housing programmes is not well described. This two-phase, mixed-methods study explores the health status of families who were participants in a housing-plus programme in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2013 and the relationship between the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which they lived and their perceptions of well-being and safety. In phase 1, data collected with standardised health status instruments were analysed using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests to describe the health of single parents and one randomly selected child from each parent's household in comparison to population norms. In a subset of survey respondents, focus groups were conducted to generate an in-depth understanding of the daily lives and stressors of these families. Focus group data were analysed using content analysis to identify key descriptive themes. In phase 2, daily activity path mapping, surveys and interviews of parent-child dyads were collected to assess how these families perceive their health, neighbourhood and the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on the families' day-to-day experience. Narratives and activity maps were combined with crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department to analyse the relationship between crime and perceptions of fear and safety. Phase 1 data demonstrated that parent participants met or exceeded the national average for self-reported physical health but fell below the national average across all mental health domains. Over 40% reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Parents described high levels of stress resulting from competing priorities, financial instability, and concern for their children's well-being and safety. Analysis of phase 2 data demonstrated that neighbourhood characteristics exert influence over parents' perceptions of their environment and how they permit

  15. The health status and well-being of low-resource, housing-unstable, single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, Sara F.; Tach, Laura; Guerra, Terry; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Richmond, Therese S.

    2016-01-01

    The health and well-being of single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in US cities who participate in housing programmes is not well described. This two-phase, mixed-methods study explores the health status of families who were participants in a housing-plus programme in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2013 and the relationship between the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which they lived and their perceptions of well-being and safety. In phase 1, data collected with standardised health status instruments were analysed using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests to describe the health of single parents and one randomly selected child from each parent’s household in comparison to population norms. In a subset of survey respondents, focus groups were conducted to generate an in-depth understanding of the daily lives and stressors of these families. Focus group data were analysed using content analysis to identify key descriptive themes. In phase 2, daily activity path mapping, surveys and interviews of parent–child dyads were collected to assess how these families perceive their health, neighbourhood and the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on the families’ day-to-day experience. Narratives and activity maps were combined with crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department to analyse the relationship between crime and perceptions of fear and safety. Phase 1 data demonstrated that parent participants met or exceeded the national average for self-reported physical health but fell below the national average across all mental health domains. Over 40% reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Parents described high levels of stress resulting from competing priorities, financial instability, and concern for their children’s well-being and safety. Analysis of phase 2 data demonstrated that neighbourhood characteristics exert influence over parents’ perceptions of their environment and how

  16. Food insecurity and intimate partner violence against women: results from the California Women's Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Ricks, Joni L; Cochran, Susan D; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Williams, John K; Seeman, Teresa E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence in a population-based sample of heterosexual women. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between three levels of food insecurity and intimate partner violence. Data from 6 years of the California Women's Health Survey. Randomly selected women (n 16 562) aged 18 years and older from the State of California, USA. We found: (i) that African-American women had a higher prevalence of food insecurity and were more likely to report severe intimate partner violence; (ii) a strong positive association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence; (iii) evidence of effect modification of the association between food insecurity and intimate partner violence by marital status; and (iv) higher odds of intimate partner violence among those reporting more severe food insecurity. Food insecurity is an important risk indicator for intimate partner violence among women. Understanding the factors that put women, especially minority women, at greatest risk facilitates intervention development.

  17. Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n = 30) were conducted with women (n = 250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization

  18. How the media influences women's perceptions of health care.

    PubMed

    Kahn, C

    2001-01-01

    To better understand the effectiveness of media sources that marketers use to channel direct-to-consumer (DTC) campaigns to women, researchers devised a study that segmented the female participants according to their degree of involvement in health care decisions, marital status, age, employment, income, and education. The findings show that women in certain population segments reacted far differently to health care information depending on whether it was presented through the Internet, magazines, newspapers, radio, or TV.

  19. The health care Titanic: women and children first?

    PubMed

    Holland, S; Peterson, K

    1993-01-01

    The plight of people who lack access to health care has captured national attention and led to a number of proposals to remedy the problem. The authors look at three types of proposals being advanced--"pro-competition" plans, "pay-or-play" plans, and a national health care system--and find that they fail to address adequately the pressing needs of two groups of the poor: women of childbearing age and elderly women.

  20. Environment and Women's Health Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can the environment affect older women? Outdoor air pollution What is outdoor air pollution and how can ... reduce outdoor air pollution and global warming? Indoor air pollution What is indoor air pollution and how can ...

  1. Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50–79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for sleep disturbance (insomnia and sleep duration) and risk of thyroid cancer. Insomnia score was measured using a validated 5-item Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale. Overall, a total of 295 thyroid cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women with greater insomnia scores had a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer than did women with low scores (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.05). The significant association between insomnia score and thyroid cancer was confined to nonobese women (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.62) and was not seen in obese women (hazard ratio = 0.94 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.84) (P for interaction = 0.07). In conclusion, postmenopausal women with greater insomnia scores, especially nonobese women, had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23221728

  2. Sleep disturbance and incidence of thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50-79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for sleep disturbance (insomnia and sleep duration) and risk of thyroid cancer. Insomnia score was measured using a validated 5-item Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale. Overall, a total of 295 thyroid cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women with greater insomnia scores had a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer than did women with low scores (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.05). The significant association between insomnia score and thyroid cancer was confined to nonobese women (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.62) and was not seen in obese women (hazard ratio = 0.94 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.84) (P for interaction = 0.07). In conclusion, postmenopausal women with greater insomnia scores, especially nonobese women, had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VII: Women in Podiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students, and to describe the discrimination…

  5. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools: Volume VIII: Women in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  7. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume IV: Women in Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    As one segment of a larger study of the barriers faced by women in the schools of eight health professions, the study on dentistry had as its central purpose the identification of any characteristics of the profession that affect the role and status of women in dentistry and in dental schools. Information was gathered through interviews with…

  8. Health and life style among infertile men and women.

    PubMed

    Revonta, M; Raitanen, J; Sihvo, S; Koponen, P; Klemetti, R; Männistö, S; Luoto, R

    2010-08-01

    Lifetime prevalence of infertility among couples is approximately 10-15%, but studies addressing their health behavior are few. Our aim was to describe health and life style of Finnish men and women who had experienced infertility. Cross-sectional survey. Finland. Data from a population-based survey (n=7021) was utilized. Life style of infertile men (n=289) and women (n=155) were compared to other men and fertile women. Life style (dietary factors, use of alcohol, physical activity), reproductive factors, other diseases and symptoms. After adjusting for age, area and education, infertile women under 50 years consumed more polyunsaturated fat (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46), less saturated fat (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.92) and had experienced more hangovers during previous year (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.05) than fertile women. Infertile men under 50 years consumed more total fat (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), polyunsaturated fat (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37) and monounsaturated fat (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.28) compared to other men. Infertile men did not consume more alcohol nor smoke more cigarettes but reported more often allergies than fertile men. Infertile women also had Chlamydia trachomatis infection, benign tumor in their uterus and intestinal disease more often than fertile women. Infertile women over 50 years were more often current smokers than fertile women, but the differences in other age-groups were not significant. Women with infertility experience reported more diseases and less use of oral contraceptives than other women, possibly reflecting reasons to infertility. Since both infertility and unhealthy use of alcohol are an increasing public health issues in western societies, more attention should be paid towards life style, especially alcohol use of infertile women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Women in midlife: stress, health and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Darling, Carol A; Coccia, Catherine; Senatore, Natalie

    2012-02-01

    Midlife is filled with challenges and unique stressors for women, which necessitate a greater understanding of the factors that influence their life satisfaction. This study examined the relationship of family strains/changes and weight to life satisfaction, as mediated by family coping, physical activity, sleep and health stress. The findings indicated that women in midlife, who experienced more stressful life changes and had higher body mass index scores, slept fewer hours and had greater health stress, which resulted in lower life satisfaction. These results have implications for family health professionals and programmes that deal with family and health problems, including sleep, weight and stress.

  10. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  11. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  12. Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women's Health at Midlife.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the U.S., little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health, paying particular attention to the paternity status of the mother's partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black (but not Hispanic) women. We find no evidence that these negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered.

  13. Perfectionism and health functioning in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Danielle S; Flett, Gordon L; Sadava, Stan W; Colautti, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between dimensions of perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism) and health functioning in a sample of 489 women with fibromyalgia. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to determine whether dimensions of perfectionism were differentially associated with health functioning among women with fibromyalgia after accounting for broader personality traits related to both perfectionism and health functioning. The results confirmed that both socially prescribed perfectionism and self-oriented perfectionism were associated with lower health functioning. Moreover, these associations were found after accounting for the effects of conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism. The findings involving self-oriented perfectionism were particularly complex and suggested that moderate self-oriented perfectionism may be somewhat adaptive, but too much or too little self-oriented perfectionism is associated with substantial reductions in health functioning among women with fibromyalgia. Collectively, these findings clarify that overall levels of perfectionism are not elevated among women with fibromyalgia, but those women who are exceptionally high in levels of self-oriented perfectionism or high in socially prescribed perfectionism are particularly likely to suffer lower health functioning. These results suggest that perfectionism should be specifically assessed and targeted for intervention among women with fibromyalgia and there should be a particular emphasis on the pressure to meet perceived or actual expectations imposed on the self. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Women, mental health, and the psychiatric enterprise: a review.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kia J

    2005-02-01

    This article raises questions about how social workers can be more responsive to the needs and wants of women who struggle with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Specifically, the article examines the history and theoretical context of mental health services for women, reviews lessons learned from women's own descriptions of their lived experiences with mental illness, and summarizes needed responses to the treatment needs of women. Recommendations are offered in areas of the general structure of the service delivery system, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions, and psychopharmacology.

  15. Health Status Among 28,000 Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Frayne, Susan M; Parker, Victoria A; Christiansen, Cindy L; Loveland, Susan; Seaver, Margaret R; Kazis, Lewis E; Skinner, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male veterans receiving Veterans Health Administration (VA) care have worse health than men in the general population. Less is known about health status in women veteran VA patients, a rapidly growing population. OBJECTIVE To characterize health status of women (vs men) veteran VA patients across age cohorts, and assess gender differences in the effect of social support upon health status. DESIGN AND PATIENTS Data came from the national 1999 Large Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees (response rate 63%) and included 28,048 women and 651,811 men who used VA in the prior 3 years. MEASUREMENTS Dimensions of health status from validated Veterans Short Form-36 instrument; social support (married, living arrangement, have someone to take patient to the doctor). RESULTS In each age stratum (18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years), Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were clinically comparable by gender, except that for those aged ≥65, mean MCS was better for women than men (49.3 vs 45.9, P<.001). Patient gender had a clinically insignificant effect upon PCS and MCS after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and education. Women had lower levels of social support than men; in patients aged <65, being married or living with someone benefited MCS more in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS Women veteran VA patients have as heavy a burden of physical and mental illness as do men in VA, and are expected to require comparable intensity of health care services. Their ill health occurs in the context of poor social support, and varies by age. PMID:16637944

  16. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  17. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  18. The politics of women's health: setting a global agenda.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has been marked by a rapid growth in the women's health movement around the world. There has been a marked shift in activities away from the developed countries, as campaigns increase in intensity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The practice of women's health politics has also become increasingly international with sustained and effective collaboration across the north-south divide. Both the goals of these campaigns and their methods vary with the circumstances of the women involved. But despite this diversity, common themes can be identified: reproductive self-determination; affordable, effective, and humane medical care; satisfaction of basic needs; a safe workplace; and freedom from violence.

  19. Air pollution indicators predict outbreaks of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children: integration of daily environmental and school health surveillance systems in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    YoussefAgha, Ahmed H; Jayawardene, Wasantha P; Lohrmann, David K; El Afandi, Gamal S

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study are to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children in industrialized countries (with climatic seasons) and exposure to daily air pollution with particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone, when controlled for potential confounders; and, if so, to derive a statistical model that predicts variation of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Using an ecological study design, health records of 168,25 students from elementary schools in 49 Pennsylvania counties employing "Health eTools for Schools" were analyzed. Asthma exacerbations were recorded by nurses as treatment given during clinic visits each day. Daily air pollution measurements were obtained from the EPA's air quality monitoring sites. The distribution of asthmatic grouping for pollen and calendar seasons was developed. A Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of asthma exacerbations. The greatest occurrence of asthma exacerbations was in autumn, followed by summer, spring and winter. If the number of asthma exacerbations on a day is N and the daily mean of asthma exacerbations for the three-year period is 48, the probabilities of N > 48 in tree pollen and grass pollen seasons were 56.5% and 40.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). According to the Poisson regression, the week number and prior day CO, SO₂, NO₂, NOx, PM₂.₅, and O₃ had significant effects on asthma exacerbations among students. Monitoring of air pollutants over time could be a reliable new means for predicting asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school nurses implement effective precautionary measures.

  20. Young Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Post HPV Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Murithi, Lydia Karuta

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the authors sought to explore, in greater depth, the impact that HPV vaccination has on college-aged women's reproductive and sexual health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HPV-vaccinated, college women and analyzed for reoccurring themes. Although findings revealed that women's HPV-related knowledge was suboptimal, most women correctly believed that they were still at risk for HPV after having received the vaccination. Women indicated that having the HPV vaccine made them more aware of sexually transmitted infections and prompted them to continue to take care of their sexual health. Women reported that having the HPV vaccine did not influence their condom use or birth control choices, and they believed that obtaining Pap smears was still important. These results help us to understand the impact of HPV vaccination on women's reproductive and sexual health. These findings are promising and reinforce the importance of educating women about behaviors that will help them maintain reproductive and sexually healthy lives.

  1. Mental health differences between men and women caregivers, BRFSS 2009.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Valerie J; Anderson, Lynda A; Thompson, William W; Deokar, Angela J

    2016-10-19

    This study uses data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine differences between male and female caregivers by demographics, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the effect of social support on HRQOL. Roughly two-thirds of caregivers were women, and demographic characteristics differed among men and women caregivers. Women caregivers reported significantly more mentally and physically unhealthy days than men, but there were no differences between men and women in general health or life satisfaction. Men were significantly more likely to report that they rarely or never received social support. Despite this, the effect of social support on HRQOL was stronger in men than in women. Implications of these findings for caregiver support programs are discussed.

  2. Smoking as a risk factor in the health of women.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, V

    2003-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million women smoke worldwide. It is also estimated that if current smoking rates among men and women persist worldwide, by 2025, 9% of the world's deaths and disabilities will be related to tobacco use. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer (lung, cervix, pancreas, kidney, bladder, esophagus, pharynx), pulmonary disorders, cerebrovascular disease, and many other health risks. Smoking also adversely affects fertility and reproductive outcomes. Although a greater percentage of women smoke in developed than in developing countries, women in developing countries appear to be initiating smoking habits in increasing numbers. If current trends persist, the adverse effects of smoking on women's health clearly will continue to escalate.

  3. Mental health consequences of violence against women and girls.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on mental health consequences of violence against women and girls were reviewed in a range of situations. Although several studies continued to show cross-sectional associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and mental health outcomes, a few prospective studies showed a robust association between CSA and depression. Studies on the impact of dating violence are still at a nascent stage and focus on antecedents of violence rather than its consequences. Women at higher risk, such as adolescents, migrants, the homeless, and women in the perinatal period have been studied and specific vulnerabilities identified. Women reporting bidirectional violence had higher rates of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cumulative violence, severity of violence, and recent violence are associated with higher morbidity. Studies among women in conflict zones have emphasized the role of different forms of sexual and physical violence on mental health. Newer emerging areas that need more research include mental health consequences of women in conflict zones and among same sex relationships. There are also few studies on the violence experience of both older women and adolescents. The need to better delineate the psychopathology of complex manifestations of PTSD is underscored.

  4. Global women's health in 2010: facing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Lester, Felicia; Benfield, Nerys; Fathalla, Mohamed M F

    2010-11-01

    Women's health is closely linked to a nation's level of development, with the leading causes of death in women in resource-poor nations attributable to preventable causes. Unlike many health problems in rich nations, the cure relies not only on the discovery of new medications or technology but also getting basic services to the people who need them most and addressing underlying injustice. In order to do this, political will and financial resources must be dedicated to developing and evaluating a scaleable approach to strengthen health systems, support community-based programs, and promote widespread campaigns to address gender inequality, including promoting girls' education. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have highlighted the importance of addressing maternal health and promoting gender equality for the overall development strategy of a nation. We must capitalize on the momentum created by this and other international campaigns and continue to advocate for comprehensive strategies to improve global women's health.

  5. Health Behaviors Among Women Using Fertility Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vo, Holly; Cheng, Diana; Cheng, Tina L; Mistry, Kamila B

    2016-11-01

    Objective To describe associated perinatal behaviors among women using fertility treatment. Methods Data were obtained for 12,197 Maryland women who delivered live neonates from 2004 to 2011 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey postpartum. We conducted weighted descriptive and multivariable analyses. Results Among 1368 women using fertility treatments, 28.4 % did not take folic acid daily 1 month before pregnancy, 58.1 % consumed alcohol, 16.0 % were binge drinking, and 7.5 % smoked 3 months before pregnancy, and 12.9 % consumed alcohol and 3.7 % smoked during pregnancy. Additionally, among those who consumed alcohol and smoked before pregnancy, 36.0 % and 25.7 %, respectively, reported not receiving prenatal counseling about alcohol use and smoking. Lack of counseling for these women was higher than for women with unintended pregnancies who consumed alcohol (36.0 % vs. 26.3 %, P < .001) or smoked (25.7 % vs. 15.0 %, P < .001). Women using fertility treatments were less likely to have inadequate folic acid intake [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.18), consume alcohol (aOR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.40-0.69), and smoke (aOR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.21-0.59) before pregnancy, and no statistically significant differences were found during pregnancy for alcohol consumption (aOR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.59-1.33) or smoking (aOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.28-1.45) compared to women with unintended pregnancies. Conclusion A significant proportion of women using fertility treatments were not practicing recommended perinatal behaviors or receiving prenatal counseling on preventable risk factors. Ongoing counseling before and during pregnancy may be especially effective for optimizing healthy behaviors among these motivated women undergoing often stressful treatments for fertility.

  6. The Stigma of Reproductive Health Services Utilization by Unmarried Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fear of the stigma associated with reproductive health services has always been one of the reasons why youth and unmarried individuals avoid making use of such services. This stigma imposes a great deal of mental stress, fear, and depression on patients and causes delays in the diagnosis and treatment of their conditions. Objectives: This paper explores the concept of stigma in the context of the utilization of reproductive health services by unmarried women. Patients and Methods: This study is qualitative in nature. Purposive sampling was employed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 unmarried women, five midwives, and two physicians. The data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results: Four main categories constituted the general concept concerning the stigma suffered by unmarried women for using reproductive health services, i.e., prevalent stereotypical thinking patterns in society, the fear of being judged and labeled by others, discrimination, and feeling ashamed of seeking reproductive health services. Conclusions: The findings indicated that society associates reproductive health issues with sexual relations, which in turn shapes the stigma and places limitations on unmarried women for using reproductive health services. Thus, while reproductive health services are planned and provided to unmarried women, strategies are demanded for overcoming this stigma. PMID:27247794

  7. Women at risk: Gender inequality and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Banda, Pamela C; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Ntoimo, Lorretta F C; Muchiri, Evans

    2017-04-01

    Gender inequality has been documented as a key driver of negative health outcomes, especially among women. However, studies have not clearly examined the role of gender inequality in maternal health in an African setting. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the role of gender inequality, indicated by lack of female autonomy, in exposing women to maternal health risk. Data were obtained from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey on a weighted sample of 3,906 married or partnered women aged 15-49 years. Multivariable analyses revealed that low autonomy in household decision power was associated with maternal health risk (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52, p < .001). Autonomy interacted with household wealth showed that respondents who were in the wealthier households and had low autonomy in household decision power (OR = 2.03, p < .05) were more likely to be exposed to maternal health risk than their counterparts who had more autonomy. Efforts to lower women's exposure to maternal mortality and morbidity in Zambia should involve interventions to alter prevailing gender norms that limit women's active participation in decisions about their own health during pregnancy and delivery.

  8. Health Reform, Medicaid Expansions, and Women's Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Bysshe, Tyler; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Health reform, including Medicaid expansion, is increasing insurance coverage and financial access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income women, although services for low-income uninsured women are still needed. American Community Survey and administrative data about Medicaid and health insurance enrollment are used to estimate the number of low-income women who will be uninsured in 2017, focusing on the age ranges 21 to 64, 40 to 64, and 50 to 64. Assuming that 29 states expand Medicaid (as of June 2015), the national percentage of low-income women 21 to 64 who are uninsured will fall from 32.2% in 2013 to 14.6% by 2017. Among Medicaid-expanding states, the percentage of uninsured will decrease from 28.7% to 8.0%, whereas in non-expanding states, the level will decrease from 36.9% to 23.3%. About 5.7 million women 21 to 64 and 2.6 million women 40 to 64 will remain uninsured in 2017. The size of the uninsured low-income population will remain much larger than the 659,000 women who have previously received Pap tests and 548,000 obtaining mammograms under the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program in 2013. Even before 2014, women living in states that are not expanding Medicaid were less likely to get mammograms and Pap tests than women in expanding states. Affordable Care Act-related insurance expansions will lower financial barriers to screening and should boost overall screening rates. But disparities in insurance coverage and cancer screening across Medicaid-expanding and non-expanding states could widen. Programs to support cancer screening for low-income uninsured women will still be needed. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Oral health status of pregnant women in Kumamoto Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Miyoshi, Junya; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    As part of Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, which is a multifaceted implementation for the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the effects of dental care and oral hygiene instruction. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women both in the first and the second half of pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from 2012 to 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with a depth ≥4 mm were defined as suffering from periodontitis. This project covered the cost of dental checkups. Of the 20,702 pregnant women enrolled in this project, 9,527 (46.0%) received dental checkups during the first half of pregnancy. The response rate of dental examinations in Kumamoto City (63.3%), the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture, was significantly higher than that of the other local areas (32.0%). In Kumamoto City, 4,890 women (83.4%) had dental examinations at the city office when they received a maternal handbook. Three thousand forty-five women (32.0%) had periodontitis. Among 1,605 women who received oral examinations twice at dental clinics, 698 received nonsurgical interventions. Dental interventions significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis in pregnant women (55.1% to 45.1%). Dental examinations without interventions also significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis (44.6% to 39.9%). Pregnant women living in Kumamoto City had higher rate of visits to dental clinics for checkups than those in other areas. Periodontitis was found in one-third of pregnant women. Not only dental interventions, but also dental examinations improve pregnant women's oral health status.

  10. Sleep and health consequences of shift work in women.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sharon A; Wolf, Theresa K; Shapiro, Colin M

    2009-07-01

    Women constitute about half the work force, and women shift workers warrant special attention given the different physiological needs of women, their reproductive status, and the added burden of family responsibilities. There is increasing evidence that women have greater difficulty adjusting to shift work compared to their male counterparts and that sleep problems may in large part account for this difficulty. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature to highlight the differential negative impact of shift work on sleep and other health issues in women and as part of a needs assessment to promote research in female shift workers by developing and prioritizing research questions in this field. The literature suggests that women shift workers report poor sleep quality and experience reproductive disturbances, an increased risk of breast cancer, and a greater risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.

  11. A historical perspective of the women's health nurse practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kass-Wolff, Jane H; Lowe, Nancy K

    2009-09-01

    There are more than 12,000 women's health nurse practitioners (WHNPs) currently certified by the National Certification Corporation (NCC) and practicing in a wide range of roles. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical development of the WHNP specialty, and to review the evolution of the specialty from an initially very focused practice in the area of family planning into obstetric and gynecologic care to today's more diffuse role inclusive of primary care. Women's health nurse practitioners must broaden their educational background to include the lifespan of women, not just the reproductive years. With the inclusion of chronic disease management of the middle-aged and elderly woman, WHNPs will provide more comprehensive and integrative health care to women in all areas of the United States.

  12. Taming Healthcare Costs: Promise and Pitfalls for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Amy; MacKenzie, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When it comes to healthcare, women are often the primary decision makers for their families. Therefore, focusing on women and their health needs can have a profound effect on health reform efforts to control costs and improve quality for all segments of the population. The promise and pitfalls of cost containment reform in Massachusetts can serve as an informative case study for policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels as they attempt to reduce costs while maintaining quality of care. Massachusetts cost containment law, Chapter 224, seeks to control the healthcare cost growth through innovative approaches to increase efficiency and transparency including the adoption of new delivery system models, investments in wellness and prevention programs, and implementation of standard quality and evaluation measures. In this paper, we outline four approaches to delivering on the promise of cost containment reform to maximize women's access to comprehensive, quality healthcare while avoiding the pitfalls of cost containment's adverse impact on women's health. PMID:26488183

  13. Knowledge and beliefs regarding oral health among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol

    2011-11-01

    Racial or ethnic and economic disparities exist in terms of oral diseases among pregnant women and children. The authors hypothesized that women of a racial or ethnic minority have less oral health knowledge than do women not of a racial or ethnic minority. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to assess and compare maternal oral health knowledge and beliefs and to determine if maternal race and ethnicity or other maternal factors contributed to women's knowledge or beliefs. The authors administered a written oral health questionnaire to pregnant women. The authors calculated the participants' knowledge and belief scores on the basis of correct answers or answers supporting positive oral health behaviors. They conducted multivariable analysis of variance to assess associations between oral health knowledge and belief scores and characteristics. The authors enrolled 615 women in the study, and 599 (97.4 percent) completed the questionnaire. Of 599 participants, 573 (95.7 percent) knew that sugar intake is associated with caries. Almost one-half (295 participants [49.2 percent]) did not know that caries and periodontal disease are oral infections. Median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores were 6.0 (5.5-7.0) and 6.0 (5.0-7.0), respectively. Hispanic women had median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores significantly lower than those of white or African American women (6.0 [4.0-7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0-7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0-7.0], respectively [P < .001]; and 5.0 [4.0-6.0] versus 6.0 [5.0-7.0] versus 6.0 [5.0-7.0], respectively [P < .001]). Multivariable analysis of variance results showed that being of Hispanic ethnicity was associated significantly with a lower knowledge score, and that an education level of eighth grade or less was associated significantly with a lower belief score. Pregnant women have some oral health knowledge. Knowledge varied according to maternal race or ethnicity, and beliefs varied according to maternal education

  14. Rural Women Veterans' Use and Perception of Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Kathy; Messecar, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    While the total number of veterans in the U.S. is decreasing overall, the number of women veterans is significantly increasing. There are numerous barriers which keep women veterans from accessing mental health care. One barrier which can impact receiving care is living in a rural area. Veterans in rural areas have access to fewer mental health services than do urban residing veterans, and women veterans in general have less access to mental health care than do their male colleagues. Little is known about rural women veterans and their mental health service needs. Women, who have served in the military, have unique problems related to their service compared to their male colleagues including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and military sexual trauma (MST). This qualitative study investigated use of and barriers to receiving mental health care for rural women veterans. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women veterans who have reported experiencing problems with either MST, PTSD, or combat trauma. All ten women had utilized mental health services during active-duty military service, and post service, in Veterans Administration (VA) community based-outpatient clinics. Several recurring themes in the women's experience were identified. For all of the women interviewed, a sentinel precipitating event led to seeking mental health services. These precipitating events included episodes of chronic sexual harassment and ridicule, traumatic sexual assaults, and difficult combat experiences. Efforts to report mistreatment were unsuccessful or met with punishment. All the women interviewed reported that they would not have sought services without the help of a supportive peer who encouraged seeking care. Barriers to seeking care included feeling like they were not really a combat veteran (in spite of serving in a combat unit in Iraq); feeling stigmatized by providers and other military personnel, being treated as crazy; and a lack of interest

  15. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  16. [Health behavior, preventative medicine, early detection, and utilization of women's health services among Ethiopian women immigrants in Israel].

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nivi; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2013-01-01

    Immigrants differ in morbidity and mortality characteristics, as well as health services and preventative medicine utilization, compared with the non-immigrant population. As the Length of stay in the host country increases, these patterns become similar to the Local population, due to the acculturation process. Immigrant women's prenatal care is often partial and inadequate, usually occurring late in pregnancy, their contraceptive use is lower and the rate of abortions is higher. They have less screening tests for cancer detection, are diagnosed at advanced stages and their survival and cure probabilities are lower Facilitators and barriers to immigrant women's health behaviors include cultural beliefs and perceptions, length of stay in the host country, degree of acculturation, Language barriers, accessibility, primary physician involvement, role burdens, knowledge and awareness. Ethiopian women experienced a sharp transition in a variety of life aspects following their immigration to Israel. Studies show that Ethiopian women's health and health behavior are typical to those encountered among immigrant women. Their birth patterns are becoming similar to local women as their years in Israel increase, and veteran's patterns are closer to the local population. Data regarding contraceptive use is lacking; the abortion rate is four times higher in comparison with Israeli-born Jewish women, and preventive medicine, referral and early detection rates for cancer are lower. Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are at high risk regarding their health. Understanding the underlying causes, the changes that occur as time in Israel increases, and identifying the accessibility barriers to services experienced by these women, will assist in planning cultural and needs sensitive services, including health promotion programs.

  17. HIV, Violence and Women: Unmet mental health care needs

    PubMed Central

    Zunner, Brian; Dworkin, Shari L.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R.; Abwok, Matilda; Meffert, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected (HIV+) women have high rates of Gender Based Violence (GBV). Studies of GBV find that approximately 50-90% of survivors develop mood and anxiety disorders. Given that women in sub-Saharan African constitute the largest population of HIV+ individuals in the world and the region's high GBV prevalence, mental health research with HIV+ women affected by GBV (HIV+GBV+) in this region is urgently needed. Methods Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the mental health care needs of HIV+GBV+ female patients at an HIV clinic in the Kisumu County, Kenya. Thirty in-depth interviews and four focus groups were conducted with patients, healthcare providers and community leaders. Interviews were transcribed, translated and analyzed using qualitative data software. Results Respondents stated that physical, sexual and emotional violence against HIV+ women was widely prevalent and perpetrated primarily by untested husbands accusing a wife of marital infidelity following her positive HIV test result. Mental health problems among HIV+GBV+ women included depressive, anxiety, traumatic stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. Participants opined that emotional distress from GBV not only caused HIV treatment default, but also led to poor HIV health even if adherent. Respondents agreed that mental health treatment was needed for HIV+GBV+ women; most agreed that the best treatment modality was individual counseling delivered weekly at the HIV clinic. Limitations Emotional distress may be higher and/or more varied among HIV+GBV+ women who are not engaged in HIV care. Conclusions Mental health care is needed and desired by HIV+GBV+ women in Kisumu County, Kenya. PMID:25574781

  18. HIV, violence and women: unmet mental health care needs.

    PubMed

    Zunner, Brian; Dworkin, Shari L; Neylan, Thomas C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Abwok, Matilda; Meffert, Susan M

    2015-03-15

    HIV-infected (HIV+) women have high rates of Gender Based Violence (GBV). Studies of GBV find that approximately 50-90% of survivors develop mood and anxiety disorders. Given that women in sub-Saharan African constitute the largest population of HIV+ individuals in the world and the region׳s high GBV prevalence, mental health research with HIV+ women affected by GBV (HIV+GBV+) in this region is urgently needed. Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the mental health care needs of HIV+GBV+ female patients at an HIV clinic in the Kisumu County, Kenya. Thirty in-depth interviews and four focus groups were conducted with patients, healthcare providers and community leaders. Interviews were transcribed, translated and analyzed using qualitative data software. Respondents stated that physical, sexual and emotional violence against HIV+ women was widely prevalent and perpetrated primarily by untested husbands accusing a wife of marital infidelity following her positive HIV test result. Mental health problems among HIV+GBV+ women included depressive, anxiety, traumatic stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. Participants opined that emotional distress from GBV not only caused HIV treatment default, but also led to poor HIV health even if adherent. Respondents agreed that mental health treatment was needed for HIV+GBV+ women; most agreed that the best treatment modality was individual counseling delivered weekly at the HIV clinic. Emotional distress may be higher and/or more varied among HIV+GBV+ women who are not engaged in HIV care. Mental health care is needed and desired by HIV+GBV+ women in Kisumu County, Kenya. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Health Care Issues of Incarcerated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Glenda S.

    1987-01-01

    Presents health profile of the female offender. Discusses needs in areas of gynecology, breast assessment, and health education and services related to childbearing and parenting. Describes incarcerated health care delivery system and looks to communication and education, nursing personnel, and community resources for potential solutions to…

  20. Diabetes risks and health literacy in southern African American and Latino women.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Wallace, Debra C; Hernández, Christina; Hyde, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Minority women experience health disparities, especially related to diabetes. The purpose of this article is to examine diabetes risk in minority women. A survey design was used to recruit 52 African Americans (AA) and 48 Latina women. Participants described their health, health behaviors, and health literacy. Blood pressure and body mass index were measured. AA women had more diabetes risks than Latinas, and older women had more risks than younger women. All of the women had low health literacy. Women with higher numbers of diabetes risks had lower health literacy. Findings can be used to develop diabetes prevention and education programs.

  1. Diabetes Risks and Health Literacy in Southern African American and Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, L. Louise; Wallace, Debra C.; Hernández, Christina; Hyde, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Minority women experience health disparities, especially related to diabetes. The purpose of the paper is to examine diabetes risk in minority women. A survey design was used to recruit 52 African Americans (AA) and 48 Latina women. Participants described their health, health behaviors, and health literacy. Blood pressure and BMI were measured. AA women had more diabetes risks than Latinas, and older women had more risks than younger women. All of the women had low health literacy. Women with higher numbers of diabetes risks had lower health literacy. Findings can be used to develop diabetes prevention and education programs. PMID:25674971

  2. Quality of life and mental health among women with ovarian cancer: examining the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking.

    PubMed

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer.

  3. Improving oral health in women: nurses' call to action.

    PubMed

    Clemmens, Donna A; Kerr, A Ross

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the most significant oral health and related problems experienced by women, and to provide a Nurse's Plan of Action to respond to these largely preventable diseases. Oral health is integral to women's overall health and well-being, with poor oral health being associated with cancer, heart disease, diabetes, depression, and the birth of preterm, low-birthweight babies. Poor nutrition and lifestyle, principally tobacco and heavy alcohol use, can further increase the risk for oral diseases. Disparities are evident in women's reported poor access of regular dental care related to lack of dental insurance and low income. These facts are disturbing because most oral diseases are preventable. The Surgeon General's report on oral health in America (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000) and, more recently, the "National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003) emphasized the need for partnerships of key stakeholders, including nurses, to get involved in oral disease prevention. Nurses are in an ideal position to provide health promotion education and screening across the multitude of settings in which they work regarding oral health and risk factors for oral disease. Nursing interventions aimed at promoting healthy outcomes and preventing disease should include a focus on oral health.

  4. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  5. Pennsylvania's Forest Resources, 2006

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service (NRS-FIA). These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory...

  6. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  7. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2016

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Albright

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. Information about the national and regional...

  8. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2015

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly1(see footnote 1, page 2). Information...

  9. Discovering Pennsylvania's Archeological Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Barry C.

    The primary focus of this booklet is the use of anthropology in archaeology and the history of American Indians and their culture in Pennsylvania. Explanations are given for: (1) anthropology; (2) the purpose of archaeology; (3) archaeological interpretations and patterns of culture; (4) types of societies (bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states);…

  10. Brightside Academy: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Brightside Academy has been providing quality care to children six weeks to 12 years old. Operating 49 locations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York, the company is committed to strengthening learners and respecting families. Currently, the organization provides early education for 6,700 children on a daily basis. 90%…

  11. Discovering Pennsylvania's Archeological Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Barry C.

    The primary focus of this booklet is the use of anthropology in archaeology and the history of American Indians and their culture in Pennsylvania. Explanations are given for: (1) anthropology; (2) the purpose of archaeology; (3) archaeological interpretations and patterns of culture; (4) types of societies (bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states);…

  12. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2013

    Treesearch

    George L. McCaskill

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based upon inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  13. The relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan.

    PubMed

    Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults' questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents.

  14. Gains on women's health issues made at UN conference on women.

    PubMed

    1995-09-15

    Beginning on August 30, representatives from more than 180 UN member states and women's rights advocates from every continent convened in the People s Republic of China for the much-anticipated UN Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) in Beijing and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum in Huairou. The Forum, which ran through September 8, boasted 20,000 attendees. Participants conducted numerous workshops, staged multiple demonstrations, and strategized about how to lobby governments negotiating the FWCW Platform for Action. That document focuses on eliminating discrimination against women in twelve key issue areas: poverty, education, health, violence against women, armed conflict, economic structures, women in decision making, policy and program planning, human rights, media and communications, environment, and the girl child. During debate over the section, issues such as sexual rights, sexual health abortion and adolescents' rights to reproductive health information sparked the greatest opposition from conservative forces. Government delegates approved the health section in its entirety by September 13, whereby they confirmed the commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in September 1994. Paragraph 97 states that the human rights of women include their right to have control over their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of discrimination and violence and also calls for equal relationships between women and men in sexual relations and reproduction. Paragraph 107 calls on governments to review laws containing punitive measures against women who have undergone illegal abortions. Finally, Paragraph 108 (e) takes into account the rights of the child to access to information, privacy, confidentiality, respect and informed consent on matters concerning sexuality and reproduction. FWCW was scheduled to conclude on September 15. Governmental delegates had not yet finished negotiating

  15. Availability of behavioral health treatment for women in prison.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Cynthia L; Wolff, Nancy; Paap, Kris

    2006-03-01

    This study examined whether women with behavioral health needs are more likely to receive treatment for these problems in prison or in the community and to what extent prison disrupts or establishes involvement in treatment for these women. Data were collected in August 2004 as part of a population survey of female inmates in the only state correctional facility for women in New Jersey. A total of 908 women were surveyed. Fifty-six percent of the women surveyed reported needing behavioral health treatment before incarceration, but only 62 percent of this group reported receiving such treatment in the community. The rate at which treatment matched need within this population before incarceration varied by type of treatment needed: it was the highest (58 percent) for women who needed treatment for mental health problems, lower (52 percent) for those who needed substance abuse treatment, and lowest (44 percent) for those who needed treatment for comorbid mental health and substance abuse problems. In comparison, the rate of match between need for and receipt of treatment in prison was higher for all three types of behavioral health treatment (78 percent, 57 percent, and 65 percent, respectively). Additionally, the findings suggest that prison did not disrupt the type of behavioral health treatment that inmates had previously received in the community. At least in New Jersey, prison appears to improve access to behavioral health treatment among female inmates. Although this conclusion is consistent with the rehabilitation goals of incarceration, it also suggests that some women may have been able to avoid prison if treatment had been provided in the community, especially for substance-related problems.

  16. Caregiver Attitudes to Gynaecological Health of Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…

  17. Health Professionals' Responses to Women's Disclosure of Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Keeling, June; Fisher, Colleen

    2015-08-01

    This study explored women's experiences of their responses from health professionals following disclosure of domestic violence within a health setting. The existence of health-based policies guiding professionals in the provision of appropriate support following disclosure of domestic violence is only effective if health professionals understand the dynamics of violent relationships. This article focuses on the findings from the interviews conducted with 15 women living in the United Kingdom who disclosed their experiences of domestic violence when accessing health care. Following thematic analysis, themes emerged that rotated around their disclosure and the responses they received from health professionals. The first two themes revealed the repudiation of, or recognition of and failure to act upon, domestic violence. A description of how the health professional's behavior became analogous with that of the perpetrator is discussed. The final theme illuminated women's receipt of appropriate and sensitive support, leading to a positive trajectory away from a violent relationship. The findings suggest that the implicit understanding of the dynamics of violent relationships and the behaviors of the perpetrator of domestic violence are essential components of health care provision to avoid inadvertent inappropriate interactions with women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Improving maternal, newborn and women's reproductive health in crisis settings

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Primus Che; Urdal, Henrik; Umeora, Odidika Uj; Sundby, Johanne; Spiegel, Paul; Devane, Declan

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To identify, synthesise and evaluate the effects of health system and other interventions aimed at improving maternal, newborn and women's reproductive health in crisis settings.

  19. The Health Care Costs of Violence against Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Marie; Sorensen, Jan; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the health care costs of violence against women. For the study, we used a register-based approach where we identified victims of violence and assessed their actual health care costs at individual level in a bottom-up analysis. Furthermore, we identified a reference population. We computed the attributable costs,…

  20. How Iranian Women Conceptualize Mental Health: An Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    MIRABZADEH, Arash; FOROUZAN, Ameneh Setareh; MOHAMMADI, Farahnaz; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; BARADARAN EFTEKHARI, Monir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In Iran, more than 25% of women suffer from mental disorders. Mental disorders and subclinical problems are associated with socioeconomic problem. At the community level, mental health promotion can reduce social damage. The aim of this study as a part of community based mental health promotion intervention was to explore how mental health in Iranian women is viewed. Methods According to a qualitative method in 2012, participants were selected by purposeful sampling from married women 18 to 65 years who are residents in Tehran. Fifteen in depth individual interviews were conducted with regard to the concept of mental health, causal pathway and help-seeking behavior according to explanatory model. Results Mental health was perceived as the same of emotional well-being. It conceptualized not only lack of mental disorder but also sense of satisfaction and healthy functioning. According to participant's view, the causal pathway of mental health problems were classified to individual, familial and social factors. Physical and behavioral problems were related to individual factor, Lack of marital adjustment was one of the most important issues in familial item and in social factor, cultural context and socio-economic problems were extracted. In help seeking process, all of the participants believed that the religion has important effect in mental health. Conclusion Marital adjustment is an important stage in process of mental health in women. PMID:25988094