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Sample records for pentandra bong vog

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oil and fixed oil Bauhinia pentandra (Bong.) D. Dietr

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Macia C. S.; Souza, Luciana G. S.; Ferreira, Daniele A.; Monte, Francisco J. Q.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; de Lemos, Telma L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bauhinia pentandrais popularly known as “mororó” and inhabits the Caatinga and Savannah biomes. Objective: This paper reports the chemical composition of the essential and fatty oils of the leaves from B. pentandra. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the fixed oil by extraction with hexane, followed by saponification with KOH/MeOH, and methylation using MeOH/HCl. The constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The major constituent of the essential oil was the phytol (58.78% ±8.51%), and of the fatty oil were palmitic (29.03%), stearic (28.58%) and linolenic (10.53%) acids. Conclusion: Of the compounds identified in the essential oil, three are first reported in this species, and this is the first record of the chemical composition of the fixed oil. PMID:26664026

  2. Proposal to conserve Tamarix ramosissima against T. pentandra Tamaricaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ledebour described Tamarix ramosissima in 1829 from plants collected in Kazakhstan (Lake Noor Zaisan). In the protologue he overlooked T. pentandra Pall. (l.c.) and T. pallasii Desv. (l.c.), two earlier names which apply to the same biological entity, also widespread through Central and Western Asia...

  3. Bongs and blunts: notes from a suburban marijuana subculture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Bongs and blunts constitute significant elements of marijuana consumption in the United States, especially among youth. The author draws upon ethnographic methods to provide rich descriptions of these practices amongst a network of suburban marijuana users. The author first provides a description of bong use in a suburban home prior to detailing the same youth network engaging in the process of rolling and smoking a blunt in a public environment. Ultimately, the author examines and contrasts these two features of American marijuana consumption.

  4. The Vog Measurement and Prediction (VMAP) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, S.; Huff, R.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions from Kilauea volcano pose significant environmental and health risks to Hawaii. The overarching goal of this feasibility project is to develop an accurate and timely volcanic air-pollution forecasting capacity with a program of verification using state-of-the-art observation methods. To date VMAP has (i) created a real-time modeling and forecast capability using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to predict the concentration and dispersion of SO2 gas and sulfate aerosol from Kilauea volcano (Fig. 1). HYSPLIT uses the output of a high-resolution operational run of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model for initial and boundary conditions. (ii) Developed an operational spectrometer-based SO2 emission rate monitor for use as input to the dispersion model, (iii) Cooperatively deployed an array of stationary SO2 gas and sulfate aerosol sensors to record the ground-level spatial characteristics of Kilauea's gas plume in high temporal and spatial resolution for verification and improvement of the gas dispersion prediction, (iv) Developed a series of web pages to disseminate observations and forecasts, which can be used by safety officials to protect the public, and to raise public awareness of the hazards of volcanic emissions to respiratory health, agriculture, and general aviation, (v) Developed an archive of vog data to facilitate estimation of historical concentration frequency-of-exposure. VMAP provides technical support for researchers, health professionals, and to our stakeholders, who have also provided constructive input in the development of our products. Preliminary results of our efforts will be presented and future work will be discussed.

  5. [Cannabis "bong": A frequent, original and dangerous way of consumption].

    PubMed

    Paleiron, N; André, M; Durand, M; Tromeur, C; Giacardi, C; Grassin, F; Vinsonneau, U

    2016-05-01

    The bong is a water pipe craft, used to smoke tobacco or cannabis. The benefit of consuming cannabis as a "bang" is based on the intensity and speed of the effect. The cannabis intoxication can then be associated with disorders of sensory functions, the type of distortion of perceptions or hallucinations, often accompanied by intense anxiety. Bong cannabis consumption appears to be responsible for specific side effects (especially hemoptysis), possibly related to the importance of inhalation of products of combustion of cannabis and combustion of plastic parts used in its manufacture.

  6. Prokaryotic Virus Orthologous Groups (pVOGs): a resource for comparative genomics and protein family annotation

    PubMed Central

    Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Koonin, Eugene V.; Kristensen, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on earth, and while most of this diversity remains completely unexplored, advances in genome sequencing have provided unprecedented glimpses into the virosphere. The Prokaryotic Virus Orthologous Groups (pVOGs, formerly called Phage Orthologous Groups, POGs) resource has aided in this task over the past decade by using automated methods to keep pace with the rapid increase in genomic data. The uses of pVOGs include functional annotation of viral proteins, identification of genes and viruses in uncharacterized DNA samples, phylogenetic analysis, large-scale comparative genomics projects, and more. The pVOGs database represents a comprehensive set of orthologous gene families shared across multiple complete genomes of viruses that infect bacterial or archaeal hosts (viruses of eukaryotes will be added at a future date). The pVOGs are constructed within the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) framework that is widely used for orthology identification in prokaryotes. Since the previous release of the POGs, the size has tripled to nearly 3000 genomes and 300 000 proteins, and the number of conserved orthologous groups doubled to 9518. User-friendly webpages are available, including multiple sequence alignments and HMM profiles for each VOG. These changes provide major improvements to the pVOGs database, at a time of rapid advances in virus genomics. The pVOGs database is hosted jointly at the University of Iowa at http://dmk-brain.ecn.uiowa.edu/pVOGs and the NCBI at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/kristensen/pVOGs/home.html. PMID:27789703

  7. Prokaryotic Virus Orthologous Groups (pVOGs): a resource for comparative genomics and protein family annotation.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Koonin, Eugene V; Kristensen, David M

    2017-01-04

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on earth, and while most of this diversity remains completely unexplored, advances in genome sequencing have provided unprecedented glimpses into the virosphere. The Prokaryotic Virus Orthologous Groups (pVOGs, formerly called Phage Orthologous Groups, POGs) resource has aided in this task over the past decade by using automated methods to keep pace with the rapid increase in genomic data. The uses of pVOGs include functional annotation of viral proteins, identification of genes and viruses in uncharacterized DNA samples, phylogenetic analysis, large-scale comparative genomics projects, and more. The pVOGs database represents a comprehensive set of orthologous gene families shared across multiple complete genomes of viruses that infect bacterial or archaeal hosts (viruses of eukaryotes will be added at a future date). The pVOGs are constructed within the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) framework that is widely used for orthology identification in prokaryotes. Since the previous release of the POGs, the size has tripled to nearly 3000 genomes and 300 000 proteins, and the number of conserved orthologous groups doubled to 9518. User-friendly webpages are available, including multiple sequence alignments and HMM profiles for each VOG. These changes provide major improvements to the pVOGs database, at a time of rapid advances in virus genomics. The pVOGs database is hosted jointly at the University of Iowa at http://dmk-brain.ecn.uiowa.edu/pVOGs and the NCBI at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/kristensen/pVOGs/home.html. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Fabrication of zinc oxide-embedded kapok (Ceiba pentandra) paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mones, E. S.; Balela, M. D. L.; Futalan, C. C. M.; Manalo, R. D.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide-embedded kapok (Ceiba pentandra) papers with antimicrobial property were fabricated. Fabrication of papers from kapok fibers was done using chloroform and sodium chlorite treatments. Meanwhile, embedding of zinc oxide particles on the fabricated kapok papers was done using an in situ method. The said method involved soaking the paper in zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide solutions. The method also involved heat treatment of the sample to fasten the formation of zinc oxide particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement shows the presence of synthesized ZnO particles on the cellulose fibers while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the flake-like morphology of the embedded ZnO particles. Agar diffusion test shows that the samples have higher antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli.

  9. An indoor air quality assessment for vulnerable populations exposed to volcanic vog from Kilauea Volcano.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Longo, Anthony A; Harris, Merylin; Bibilone, Renwick

    2010-01-01

    The Ka'u District of Hawaii is exposed to sulfurous air pollution called vog from the ongoing eruption of Kilauea Volcano. Increased volcanic activity in 2008 prompted an indoor air quality assessment of the district's hospital and schools. All indoor sulfur dioxide concentrations were above the World Health Organization's average 24-hour recommendation. Indoor penetration ratios were up to 94% of ambient levels and dependent upon building construction or the use of air-conditioning. Health-promotion efforts for vulnerable populations at the hospital and schools are under way to improve indoor air quality and respond to those affected by vog exposure.

  10. Observing and Predicting Vog Dispersion from Hawai'i's K¯i lauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Pattantyus, Andre; Horton, Keith; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the Kīlauea volcano on the Island of Hawai'i enters its 32st year of nearly continuous eruption. Since 1983, east rift SO2 emissions have ranged from <50 tonnes, during the periods of eruptive pause, to over 30,000 tonnes per day, during periods of enhanced activity. Emissions from Kīlauea volcano pose significant environmental and health risks to the Hawai'i community. The Vog Measurement and Prediction (VMAP) project was conceived to help mitigate the negative impacts of Kīlauea's emissions. To date, VMAP has achieved the following milestones: (i) created a custom application of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HY-SPLIT) model (Vog Model, hereafter) to produce real-time statewide forecasts of the concentration and dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol from Kīlauea volcano; (ii) developed an ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer array to provide near real-time volcanic gas emission rate measurements for use as input to the dispersion model; (iii) developed and deployed a stationary array of ambient SO2 and meteorological sensors to record the spatial characteristics of Kīlauea's gas plume in high temporal and spatial resolution for model verification; and (iv) developed web-based dissemination of observations and forecasts that provide guidance for safety officials to protect the public and raise public awareness of the potential hazards of volcanic emissions to respiratory health, agriculture, and general aviation (http://weather.hawaii.edu/vmap/). Wind fields and thermodynamic data from the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model provide input to the vog model, with a statewide resolution of 3 km and a resolution of 1 km covering Hawai'i Island. Validation of the vog model predictions is accomplished with reference to data from Hawai'i State Department of Health ground-based Air Quality monitors. VMAP results show that this approach can provide useful guidance for the people of Hawai'i. An

  11. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim. PMID:26379743

  12. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim.

    PubMed

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim.

  13. Assessment of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating Ceiba pentandra (kapok) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Kiran, Chekuboyina; Rao, Dadi Bhaskara; Sirisha, Nagala; Rao, Tamanam Raghava

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the significance of germination on phytochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities of Ceiba pentandra seed extracts. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating seeds of Ceiba pentandra were estimated by different methods. The levels of phytochemical constituents were influenced by germination and increased except alkaloids and tannins, which were decreased significantly during germination. Among non-enzymatic antioxidants like DPPH, FRAP, reducing assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity all showed improved activity compared with non-germinating seeds. This may be due to various reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were generated as by-products of metabolism during germination. This group of ROS included superoxide radicals (O2), hydrogen peroxide radicals (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The formation of these oxygen radicals resulted in the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides by radical chain oxidation via phospholipids peroxy radicals within membranes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that this could be related to the increase of antioxidant activity in large unilamellar vesicles observed in germinated seeds. The implication of this study is that the Ceiba pentandra seeds as natural antioxidant agents and put forward the possibility of employing for therapeutic potential. PMID:26442618

  14. Fabrication of polyaniline-coated Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) fibers embedded with copper-based particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arguelles, K. E.; Herrera, M. U.; Futalan, C. C. M.; Balela, M. D. L.

    2017-05-01

    Polyaniline-coated kapok (Ceiba pentandra) fibers that were embedded with Cu-based particles were fabricated for antimicrobial application. Kapok fibers were coated with polyaniline molecules using oxidative polymerization. The coated fibers were embedded with copper-based particles using soaking method in prepared CuO suspension. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows presence of Cu and Cu2O particles on the modified fibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) supports the presence of embedded particles on the modified fibers. The samples showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Attack of the vog: Natural air pollution has residents of Hawaii all choked up

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1995-05-06

    In Hawaii, measurements of sulfur dioxide of 600-1000 ppb have been measured, almost as high as the deadly London Fog of 1952. The Kilauea Volcano has produced a slow but steady supply of lava since 1986, emiting as a by product about 1,000 tones of sulfur dioxide gas each day, one of the biggest air pollution sources on the island. This article examines the origins of the `Vog` and discusses its effect on human health, comparing it to National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystal and nanoporous self-assembled CNC membrane derived from Ceiba pentandra.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; W Salleh, W N; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A F; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; M Zain, M F; Awang, Nor Asikin; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan

    2017-02-10

    This research involves the rare utilisation of the kapok fibre (Ceiba pentandra) as a raw material for the fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and self-assembled CNC membranes. The isolation of CNC from Ceiba pentandra began with the extraction of cellulose via the chemical alkali extraction by using 5wt% NaOH, followed by the typical acidified bleaching method and, finally, the CNC production through acid hydrolysis with 60wt% H2SO4 at the optimum time of 60min. The prepared CNC was then employed for the preparation of self-assembled membrane through the water suspension casting evaporation technique. The obtained CNC membrane was characterised in terms of its composition, crystallinity, thermal stability, as well as, structural and morphological features with the use of several techniques including FTIR, XRD, AFM, TEM, FESEM, and TGA. The FESEM and AFM analyses had illustrated the achievement of a self-assembled CNC membrane with a smooth surface and a well-distributed nano-porous structure, with the porosity of 52.82±7.79%. In addition, the findings proved that the self-assembled CNC membrane displayed good adsorption capability indicated by the recorded efficiency of 79% and 85% for 10mg/L and 5mg/L of methylene blue in an aqueous solution, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Challenge of Representing Sulfur Chemistry in the University of Hawaii Vog Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattantyus, A.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide oxidizes to sulfate aerosol through numerous chemical pathways. There are gas-phase and aqueous-phase pathways, pathways that involve metals, and photolytic pathways. Considering all pathways in an atmospheric chemistry model is computationally expensive and unnecessary given certain pathway dependencies and limitations. Several sulfur chemistry parameterizations have been realized in the UH Vog model to convert sulfur dioxide to sulfate. These range in complexity from constant conversion rates to parameterizations that consider the dominant gas and aqueous-phase pathways. Past research has found that aqueous-phase pathways are the most dominant when cloud water is present, and conversion rates are higher in non-precipitating clouds than in precipitating clouds. This suggests that the input of a representative cloud field should produce improved sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentration forecasts. A liquid water content field from the Weather Research and Forecasting model is input into the existing sulfur chemistry module in the UH Vog model. Forecasts of sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations around the island of Hawaii are compared against in-situ observations, and model results using more simplified sulfur conversion schemes.

  18. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts.

  19. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extracts from Helicteres isora L. and Ceiba pentandra L.

    PubMed

    Loganayaki, Nataraj; Siddhuraju, Perumal; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts from H. isora fruits and C. pentandra seeds were investigated by employing established in vitro systems, which included reducing power, OH(●), DPPH(●), ABTS(●+), linoleic acid emulsion, metal chelation and antihemolytic activity. The extracts of C. pentandra contained relatively higher levels of total phenolics and flavonoids than those of H. isora. All the extracts showed dose dependent reducing power activity and moreover, they were well correlated with the total phenolic substances. A similar dose dependant trend has also been observed for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DPPH(●) radical scavenging activity. Further, addition of 250 μg of extracts to the reaction mixture produced 41.3-54.6% peroxidation inhibiting activity during 60 h of incubation. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity of samples can be further evidenced by inhibition of reactive oxygen mediated erythrocyte cell lysis and metal ion chelating activity.

  20. 50 years of bong-han theory and 10 years of primo vascular system.

    PubMed

    Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A; Ryu, Yeon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed.

  1. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A.; Ryu, Yeon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed. PMID:23983793

  2. Acute health effects associated with exposure to volcanic air pollution (vog) from increased activity at Kilauea Volcano in 2008.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Crosby, Frederick L; Crosby, Vickie L

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i increased eruption activity and emissions of sulfurous volcanic air pollution called vog. The purpose of this study was to promptly assess for a relative increase in cases of medically diagnosed acute illnesses in an exposed Hawaiian community. Using a within-clinic retrospective cohort design, comparisons were made for visits of acute illnesses during the 14 wk prior to the increased volcanic emissions (low exposure) to 14 wk of high vog exposure when ambient sulfur dioxide was threefold higher and averaged 75 parts per billion volume per day. Logistic regression analysis estimated effect measures between the low- and high-exposure cohorts for age, gender, race, and smoking status. There were statistically significant positive associations between high vog exposure and visits for medically diagnosed cough, headache, acute pharyngitis, and acute airway problems. More than a sixfold increase in odds was estimated for visits with acute airway problems, primarily experienced by young Pacific Islanders. These findings suggest that the elevated volcanic emissions in 2008 were associated with increased morbidity of acute illnesses in age and racial subgroups of the general Hawaiian population. Continued investigation is crucial to fully assess the health impact of this natural source of sulfurous air pollution. Culturally appropriate primary- and secondary-level health prevention initiatives are recommended for populations in Hawai'i and volcanically active areas worldwide.

  3. “Huay Bong 80” a new variety with high yield and high stability for starch content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huay Bong 80 is a new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) variety developed by researchers from Kasetsart University cooperating with the Thai Tapioca Development Institute (TTDI). This new variety has been protected by the Thai New Plant Variety Protection Act of B.E. 2542 (AD 1999) from January 4,...

  4. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  5. Physicochemical and sorption characteristics of Malaysian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. as a natural oil sorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, M A; Rahmah, Anisa Ur; Man, Z

    2010-05-15

    Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn (kapok) is a natural sorbent that exhibits excellent hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics. The effect of packing density, the oil types and solvent treatment on the sorption characteristics of kapok was studied in a batch system. Oil sorption capacity, retention capacity, entrapment stability and kapok reusability were evaluated. Based on SEM and FTIR analyses, kapok fiber was shown to be a lignocellulosic material with hydrophobic waxy coating over the hollow structures. Higher packing density at 0.08 g/ml showed lower sorption capacity, but higher percentage of dynamic oil retention, with only 1% of oil drained out from the test cell. Kapok remained stable after fifteen cycles of reuse with only 30% of sorption capacity reduction. The oil entrapment stability at 0.08 g/ml packing was high with more than 90% of diesel and used engine oil retained after horizontal shaking. After 8h of chloroform and alkali treatment, 2.1% and 26.3% reduction in sorption capacity were observed, respectively, as compared to the raw kapok. The rigid hollow structure was reduced to flattened-like structure after alkali treatment, though no major structural difference was observed after chloroform treatment. Malaysian kapok has shown great potential as an effective natural oil sorbent, owing to high sorption and retention capacity, structural stability and high reusability.

  6. Antibiotic-modifying activity of riachin, a non-cyanogenic cyanoglycoside extracted from Bauhinia pentandra

    PubMed Central

    de Farias, Pablo Antonio Maia; Figueredo, Fernando Gomes; Lucas, Aline Maria Brito; de Moura, Rafael Barbosa; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Martin, Ana Luiza de Aguiar Rocha; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França

    2015-01-01

    Background The search for new active compounds from the Brazilian flora has intensified in recent years, especially for new drugs with antibiotic potential. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine whether riachin has antibiotic activity in itself or is able to modulate the activity of conventional antibiotics. Methods A non-cyanogenic cyanoglycoside known as riachin was isolated from Bauhinia pentandra, and was tested alone and in combination with three antibiotics (clindamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin) against multiresistant bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus). Results Riachin did not show significant antibiotic activity when tested alone against any strain (P>0.05). However, when combined with conventional antibiotics, it showed drug-modifying activity against strains of S. aureus exposed to clindamycin (P<0.001) as well as against P. aeruginosa exposed to amikacin (P<0.001). Although riachin did not show direct antibiotic activity, it had synergistic activity when combined with amikacin or clindamycin. The mechanism of action of this synergism is under investigation. Conclusion The results of this work demonstrate that some substances of natural origin can enhance the effectiveness of certain antibiotics, which means a substantial reduction in the drug dose required and possibly in consequent adverse events for patients. PMID:26109849

  7. Ability of treated kapok (Ceiba pentandra) fiber for removal of clay particle from water turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafur, Nurfitri Abdul; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Jahja, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    Kapok (Ceiba pentandra, family Bombacaceae) fiber (KF) is a by-product of traditional agriculture in tropical countries and is mainly used as fiberfill in fabric. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using KF to remove clay particles from turbid water. Firstly, KF was boiled at 100 ºC in deionized water for 15 min to remove the surface oil. A suspension of montmorillonite powder mixed 1 L of deionized water, divided into volumes of 100, 200, 300, and 400 mL, was used as the turbid water source. The ability of KF to remove clay particles from the water was assessed by filtering the water through 60 g of treated KF in a ∼397.9 cm3 acrylic column. Results showed that the treated KF effectively removed the clay particles from the entire volume of turbid water in this experiment; the results also demonstrate that this KF fiber has value as a simple and inexpensive tool for water treatment, especially in developing countries.

  8. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts.

    PubMed

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  9. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Community quarantine to interrupt Ebola virus transmission - Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August-October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Blackley, David J; Freeman, Tabeh; Lindblade, Kim A; Arzoaquoi, Samson K; Mott, Joshua A; Williams, Justin N; Halldin, Cara N; Kollie, Francis; Laney, A Scott

    2015-02-27

    On September 30, 2014, the Bong County health officer notified the county Ebola task force of a growing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Mawah, a village of approximately 800 residents. During September 9-16, household quarantine had been used by the community in response to a new Ebola infection. Because the infection led to a local outbreak that grew during September 17-20, county authorities suggested community quarantine be considered, and beginning on approximately September 20, the Fuamah District Ebola Task Force (Task Force) engaged Mawah leaders to provide education about Ebola and to secure cooperation for the proposed measures. On September 30, Bong County requested technical assistance to develop strategies to limit transmission in the village and to prevent spread to other areas. The county health team, with support from the Task Force and CDC, traveled to Mawah on October 1 and identified approximately two dozen residents reporting symptoms consistent with Ebola. Because of an ambulance shortage, 2 days were required, beginning October 1, to transport the patients to an Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia. Community quarantine measures, consisting of restrictions on entering or leaving Mawah, regulated river crossings, and market closures, were implemented on October 1. Local leaders raised concerns about availability of medical care and food. The local clinic was reopened on October 11, and food was distributed on October 12. The Task Force reported a total of 22 cases of Ebola in Mawah during September 9-October 2, of which 19 were fatal. During October 3-November 21, no new cases were reported in the village. Involving community members during planning and implementation helped support a safe and effective community quarantine in Mawah.

  11. Nutritional composition and protein value of the baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) almond from the Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniela C; Freitas, Jullyana B; Czeder, Ludmila P; Naves, Maria Margareth V

    2010-08-15

    The almond of the baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vog.), a native species of the Brazilian Savanna, is used in the gastronomy of the central western region of the country. There is relatively little information about the chemical composition and nutritional value of the baru almond, which was the motivation for this research. The baru almonds had high lipid (397-437 g kg(-1)) and protein (238-281 g kg(-1)) contents. There were differences in the amino acid score (AAS = 83-103%) and limiting amount of sulfur amino acids, depending on the origin of the almond. The protein value of the baru almond was higher than that of the peanut according to the relative net protein ratio (RNPR(Baru) = 74%, RNPR(Peanut) = 66%) and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). The baru almond also had high iron (mean 48.1 mg kg(-1)), zinc (mean 46.6 mg kg(-1)) and dietary fibre (mean 115.8 g kg(-1)) contents in relation to Dietary Reference Intakes. The baru almond has a high nutrient density and high content of quality protein. Furthermore, the lipid and protein contents and amino acid profile of the baru almond are representative of edible seeds and similar to those of true nuts. This almond can be used as a complementary source of protein and as an excellent option for a healthy diet. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Kinetic study on microwave-assisted esterification of free fatty acids derived from Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Thanh; Yusup, Suzana; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a great attention has been paid to advanced microwave technology that can be used to markedly enhance the biodiesel production process. Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil containing high free fatty acids (FFA) was utilized as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Microwave-assisted esterification pretreatment was conducted to reduce the FFA content for promoting a high-quality product in the next step. At optimum condition, the conversion was achieved 94.43% using 2wt% of sulfuric acid as catalyst where as 20.83% conversion was attained without catalyst. The kinetics of this esterification reaction was also studied to determine the influence of factors on the rate of reaction and reaction mechanisms. The results indicated that microwave-assisted esterification was of endothermic second-order reaction with the activation energy of 53.717kJ/mol.

  13. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-08-22

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC.

  14. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  15. Extreme long-distance dispersal of the lowland tropical rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra L. (Malvaceae) in Africa and the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Dick, Christopher W; Bermingham, Eldredge; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio

    2007-07-01

    Many tropical tree species occupy continental expanses of rainforest and flank dispersal barriers such as oceans and mountains. The role of long-distance dispersal in establishing the range of such species is poorly understood. In this study, we test vicariance hypotheses for range disjunctions in the rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra, which is naturally widespread across equatorial Africa and the Neotropics. Approximate molecular clocks were applied to nuclear ribosomal [ITS (internal transcribed spacer)] and chloroplast (psbB-psbF) spacer DNA sampled from 12 Neotropical and five West African populations. The ITS (N=5) and psbB-psbF (N=2) haplotypes exhibited few nucleotide differences, and ITS and psbB-psbF haplotypes were shared by populations on both continents. The low levels of nucleotide divergence falsify vicariance explanations for transatlantic and cross-Andean range disjunctions. The study shows how extreme long-distance dispersal, via wind or marine currents, creates taxonomic similarities in the plant communities of Africa and the Neotropics.

  16. Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lim, Teik-Thye; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Oil sorption capacity and hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of an agricultural product, kapok (Ceiba pentandra), was thoroughly examined. The kapok fiber has a hollow structure with large lumen. Its performance was compared with that of a polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent for oil spill cleanup. The oils investigated were diesel, hydraulic oil (AWS46), and engine oil (HD40). Reusability of the kapok after application to various oils was also evaluated. Both loose (at its natural state) and densely packed kapok assemblies were examined. Sorption capacities of the packed kapok assemblies were very much dependent on their packing densities. At 0.02gcm(-3), its oil sorption capacities were 36, 43 and 45gg(-1) for diesel, ASW46 and HD40, respectively. The values decreased to 7.9, 8.1 and 8.6gg(-1) at 0.09gcm(-3). Its sorption capacities for the three oils were significantly higher than those of PP. When the oil-saturated kapok assemblies were allowed to drain, they exhibited high oil retention ability, with less than 8% of the absorbed diesel and HD40, and 12% of the absorbed AWS46 lost even after 1h of dripping. When applied on oil-over-water baths, the kapok exhibited high selectivity for the oils over the water; almost all oils spilled could be removed with the kapok, leaving an invisible oil slick on water. After the 4th cycle of reuse, the reused kapok assembly only lost 30% of its virgin sorption capacity if packed at 0.02gcm(-3), and the loss in sorption capacity was much less at higher packing densities. The hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics of the kapok fiber could be attributed to its waxy surface, while its large lumen contributed to its excellent oil absorbency and retention capacity.

  17. Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok fiber) as a resource for second generation bioethanol: effect of various simple pretreatment methods on sugar production.

    PubMed

    Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Leh, Cheu Peng

    2012-07-01

    The importance of bioethanol currently has increased tremendously as it can reduce the total dependency on fossil-fuels, especially gasoline, in the transportation sector. In this study, Ceiba pentandra (kapok fiber) was introduced as a new resource for bioethanol production. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that the cellulose (alpha- and beta-) contents were 50.7%. The glucose composition of the fiber was 59.8%. The high glucose content indicated that kapok fiber is a potential substrate for bioethanol production. However, without a pretreatment, the kapok fiber only yielded 0.8% of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, it is necessary to pre-treat the kapok fiber prior to hydrolysis. Taking into account environmentally friendliness, only simple pretreatments with minimum chemical or energy consumption was considered. It was interesting to see that by adopting merely water, acid and alkaline pretreatments, the yield of reducing sugar was increased to 39.1%, 85.2% and >100%, respectively.

  18. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  19. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes ‘Mayaro fever’, a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Methods Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Results The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. Conclusions B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus. PMID:24678592

  20. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alda E; Kuster, Ricardo M; Yamamoto, Kristie A; Salles, Tiago S; Campos, Renata; de Meneses, Marcelo D F; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Davis

    2014-03-28

    The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes 'Mayaro fever', a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus.

  1. The mycorrhizal community in a forest chronosequence of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] in Northern England.

    PubMed

    Palfner, Götz; Casanova-Katny, M Angélica; Read, David J

    2005-11-01

    Demography and fungal diversity of the belowground ectomycorrhizal community in a chronosequence of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] in Northumberland, Northern England, were analysed; mycorrhizal root samples were taken from 6-, 12-, 30- and 40-year-old stands, and fungal fruiting bodies were collected in autumn to complement the survey. Naturally germinated seedlings less than 1 year of age (taken from the 30-year-old stand) were also examined. A total of 118,000 mycorrhizal root tips were extracted from 40 soil cores (ten per age class) and from the complete root systems of 25 seedlings and separated into active and senescent root tips according to their morphology and anatomy. Active tips were distinguished according to their mycobionts which were characterised and identified microscopically. Although almost 100% of all fine roots were mycorrhizal, EM fungal diversity throughout the chronosequence was low, consisting of a total of 16 species of which three were only found as fruiting bodies. Of the six mycobionts found most regularly below ground, Tylospora fibrillosa was the most common, colonising about 70% of all root tips and more than 90% of those of seedlings and young trees. Root density and mycorrhizal diversity increased, but percentage of vital root tips decreased with increasing tree age, levelling off in the 30- and 40-year-old stand. Among the five subdominant fungal species, Dermocybe crocea was found to have its peak of distribution in the 12-year-old stand and Russula emetica, Lactarius rufus, Hymenoscyphus ericae agg. and the unidentified Piceirhiza sulfo-incrustata in the 30- and 40-year-old stands. The possible correlations between the mycorrhizal community structure and biotic and abiotic factors are discussed.

  2. Bing Bong Bang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Tham Yew

    1996-01-01

    The communication style of Asians is less "self exposing" than that of Americans, because Asian culture places more importance on the group than the individual. Integrating American-style adventure-education programs into Asian culture would require an understanding of adventure learning stripped of its cultural influences, understanding…

  3. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and drought on the growth and physiology of clonal Sitka spruce plants (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.).

    PubMed

    Townend, J

    1993-12-01

    Two-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) plants from four clones were grown in naturally lit growth chambers for 6 months at either ambient (350 ppm) or ambient + 250 ppm (600 ppm) CO(2) concentration. Plants were grown in large boxes filled with peat, in a system that allowed the roots of individual plants to be harvested easily at the end of the growing season. Half of the boxes were kept well watered and half were allowed to dry out slowly over the summer. Plants growing in elevated CO(2) showed a 6.9% increase in mean relative growth rate compared to controls in the drought treatment and a 9.8% increase compared to controls in the well-watered treatment, though there was considerable variation in response among the different clones and water treatments. Rates of net CO(2) assimilation were higher and stomatal conductances were lower in plants grown in elevated CO(2) than in ambient CO(2) in both the well-watered and drought treatments. Both of these factors contributed to the doubling of instantaneous water use efficiency. The partitioning of biomass to roots was unaffected by elevated CO(2), but the ratio of needle mass/stems + branches mass decreased. Together with reduced stomatal conductance, this probably caused the observed increases in xylem pressure potentials with elevated CO(2).

  4. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by Candida krusei are a problem of extreme complexity due to the intrinsic resistance to azole drugs. The species Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland is a plant of the Eriocaulaceae family that has demonstrated promising antifungal activity. In phyto-formulation research, liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive systems (LCPM) stand out as drug delivery systems for vaginal administration because they increase the activity and overcome the problems associated with plant-based medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the methanolic extract of scapes of S. nitens (S. nitens extract [SNE]) and an SNE-loaded LCPM against C. krusei as prophylaxis for vulvovaginal candidiasis. LCPM formulation developed consisted of oleic acid as the oil phase (50% w/w), polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol (40% w/w) as the surfactant and a polymeric dispersion containing 2.5% Carbopol® 974P and 2.5% polycarbophil (10% w/w) as the aqueous phase. LCPM formulation developed was characterized using polarized light microscopy, rheological analysis, and in vitro mucoadhesive studies. Different strains of C. krusei, including one standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258) and three clinically isolated strains from the vaginal region (CKV1, 2, and 3), were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilms, and time kill. The in vivo prophylaxis assay was performed using the standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258). The analyses of F by polarized light microscopy and rheology showed isotropy; however, the addition of 100% artificial vaginal mucus (F100) made it more viscous and anisotropic. Moreover, the mucoadhesive strength was modified, which makes F an excellent formulation for vaginal applications. SNE was active against all strains studied, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 125 to 62.5 µg/mL; after incorporating SNE into F (FE

  5. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by Candida krusei are a problem of extreme complexity due to the intrinsic resistance to azole drugs. The species Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland is a plant of the Eriocaulaceae family that has demonstrated promising antifungal activity. In phyto-formulation research, liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive systems (LCPM) stand out as drug delivery systems for vaginal administration because they increase the activity and overcome the problems associated with plant-based medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the methanolic extract of scapes of S. nitens (S. nitens extract [SNE]) and an SNE-loaded LCPM against C. krusei as prophylaxis for vulvovaginal candidiasis. LCPM formulation developed consisted of oleic acid as the oil phase (50% w/w), polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol (40% w/w) as the surfactant and a polymeric dispersion containing 2.5% Carbopol(®) 974P and 2.5% polycarbophil (10% w/w) as the aqueous phase. LCPM formulation developed was characterized using polarized light microscopy, rheological analysis, and in vitro mucoadhesive studies. Different strains of C. krusei, including one standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258) and three clinically isolated strains from the vaginal region (CKV1, 2, and 3), were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilms, and time kill. The in vivo prophylaxis assay was performed using the standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258). The analyses of F by polarized light microscopy and rheology showed isotropy; however, the addition of 100% artificial vaginal mucus (F100) made it more viscous and anisotropic. Moreover, the mucoadhesive strength was modified, which makes F an excellent formulation for vaginal applications. SNE was active against all strains studied, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 125 to 62.5 µg/mL; after incorporating SNE into F

  6. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Fallah, Mosaka; Calvert, Geoffrey M.; Duwor, Stanley; Hamilton, E. Dutch; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Dweh, Emmanuel; Burbach, Ryan; Dlouhy, Diane; Oeltmann, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts. PMID:26079309

  7. Lava, VOG, and tropical forests: working with the FIA program in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Thomas McGinley; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    In the winter of 2009, the Pacific Northwest Research Station initiated the ground implementation of their Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program on the Hawaiian Islands. In the Pacific, people from the indigenous to the transplanted, hold intrinsic and utilitarian values of their forests that often differ considerably from values of mainstream mainland USA. These...

  8. Photocatalytic C–H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the C–H activation and oxygen insertion reaction resulting in formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds and phenols. Prepared for submission to American Chemical Society (ACS) journal, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

  9. Early wide spacing in red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.): effects on stem form and stem growth.

    Treesearch

    Bernard T. Bormann

    1985-01-01

    A thinning trial was established in 1962 in a 7-year-old red alder stand in northwestern Washington. Spacings were 8 x 8 ft (dense), 12 x 12 it (intermediate), and 16 x 16 ft (open). The effect of early thinning on growth and stem form was measured in 1982, 20 years after spacing treatment. There was negligible tree lean and sweep in open and intermediate stands except...

  10. High levels of genetic differentiation and selfing in the Brazilian cerrado fruit tree Dipteryx alata Vog. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS) to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees. PMID:21637609

  11. Catalytic hydrocracking of Kapuk seed oil (Ceiba pentandra) to produce biofuel using Zn-Mo supported HZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzayanti, Y. W.; Prajitno, D. H.; Roesyadi, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper Kapuk seed oil (KSO) was considered as a potential biofuel for alternative fuel from inedible oil. Catalytic hydrocracking of Kapuk seed oil using Zn-Mo supported on the HZSM-5 catalyst in a slurry pressure batch reactor at various temperature with reactor pressure in range 10-15 bar. The Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The best catalyst performance on catalytic hydrocracking of KSO using Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 25) with loading 2.92%wt for Zn and 7.55%wt for Mo. It displayed the highest hydrocarbon content decarboxylation and/or decarbonylation were 35.51 area% of n-paraffins and the highest content for gasoil-range alkanes was 17.24 area% at 4000C. The liquid product predominant is n-C15, and the second component is n-C17. The catalyst Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 was helpful for the catalytic hydrocracking of KSO for hydrocarbon biofuel production.

  12. "That's not a beer bong, it's a breast pump!" representations of breastfeeding in prime-time fictional television.

    PubMed

    Foss, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been recognized as one of the key determinant in one's future health. Yet although most people are aware of the benefits, many women do not breastfeed their babies past the first few months. These low rates can be partially explained by negative cultural attitudes toward breastfeeding, which have been reinforced by media messages. This research explored representations of breastfeeding in entertainment media-an area that has been overlooked. A textual analysis was conducted on 53 fictional television breastfeeding representations, ranging in genre and audience, from Beavis and Butthead to Criminal Minds. Findings indicate that breastfeeding depictions are generally positive, but limited in scope to educated, older, Caucasian women breastfeeding newborns, with little discussion about how to overcome problems. Extended breastfeeding and nursing in public were conveyed as socially unacceptable, making other characters uncomfortable, often within the same storylines that sexualized breasts. While the frequency of representations in recent years was encouraging, the narrow definition of the "normal" nursing experience excluded many types of women and breastfeeding experiences. And, by failing to address breastfeeding challenges and conveying that extended breastfeeding or nursing in public is abnormal or obscene, these depictions reinforce myths about the ease of breastfeeding and may discourage women from breastfeeding past the newborn phase, and outside the privacy of their homes. These portrayals may help explain why breastfeeding has not been "normalized," despite an international consensus that it is the best health choice for babies.

  13. Subsurface temperature estimation from climatology and satellite SST for the sea around Korean Peninsula 1Bong-Guk, Kim, 1Yang-Ki, Cho, 1Bong-Gwan, Kim, 1Young-Gi, Kim, 1Ji-Hoon, Jung 1School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong-Guk; Cho, Yang-Ki; Kim, Bong-Gwan; Kim, Young-Gi; Jung, Ji-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface temperature plays an important role in determining heat contents in the upper ocean which are crucial in long-term and short-term weather systems. Furthermore, subsurface temperature affects significantly ocean ecology. In this study, a simple and practical algorithm has proposed. If we assume that subsurface temperature changes are proportional to surface heating or cooling, subsurface temperature at each depth (Sub_temp) can be estimated as follows PIC whereiis depth index, Clm_temp is temperature from climatology, dif0 is temperature difference between satellite and climatology in the surface, and ratio is ratio of temperature variability in each depth to surface temperature variability. Subsurface temperatures using this algorithm from climatology (WOA2013) and satellite SST (OSTIA) where calculated in the sea around Korean peninsula. Validation result with in-situ observation data show good agreement in the upper 50 m layer with RMSE (root mean square error) less than 2 K. The RMSE is smallest with less than 1 K in winter when surface mixed layer is thick, and largest with about 2~3 K in summer when surface mixed layer is shallow. The strong thermocline and large variability of the mixed layer depth might result in large RMSE in summer. Applying of mixed layer depth information for the algorithm may improve subsurface temperature estimation in summer. Spatial-temporal details on the improvement and its causes will be discussed.

  14. Evaluation of quantitative head impulse testing using search coils versus video-oculography in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yuri; Schubert, Michael C; Migliaccio, Americo A; Zee, David S; Schneider, Erich; Lehnen, Nadine; Carey, John P

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the validity of 2D video-oculography (VOG) compared with scleral search coils for horizontal AVOR gain estimation in older individuals. Cross-sectional validation study. Tertiary care academic medical center. Six individuals age 70 and older. Simultaneous eye movement recording with scleral search coil (over right eye) and EyeSeeCam VOG camera (over left eye) during horizontal head impulses. Best estimate search coil and VOG horizontal AVOR gain, presence of compensatory saccades using both eye movement recording techniques. We observed a significant correlation between search coil and VOG best estimate horizontal AVOR gain (r = 0.86, p = 0.0002). We evaluated individual head impulses and found that the shapes of the head movement and eye movement traces from the coil and VOG systems were similar. Specific features of eye movements seen in older individuals, including overt and covert corrective saccades and anticompensatory eye movements, were captured by both the search coil and VOG systems. These data suggest that VOG is a reasonable proxy for search coil eye movement recording in older subjects to estimate VOR gain and the approximate timing of corrective eye movements. VOG offers advantages over the conventional search coil method; it is portable and easy to use, allowing for quantitative VOR estimation in diverse settings such as a routine office-based practice, at the bedside, and potentially in larger scale population analyses.

  15. Comparing the accuracy of video-oculography and the scleral search coil system in human eye movement analysis.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takao; Sekine, Kazunori; Hattori, Kousuke; Takeda, Noriaki; Koizuka, Izumi; Nakamae, Koji; Miura, Katsuyoshi; Fujioka, Hiromu; Kubo, Takeshi

    2005-03-01

    The measurement of eye movements in three dimensions is an important tool to investigate the human vestibular and oculomotor system. The primary methods for three dimensional eye movement measurement are the scleral search coil system (SSCS) and video-oculography (VOG). In the present study, we compare the accuracy of VOG with that of SSCS using an artificial eye. We then analyzed the Y (pitch) and Z (yaw) component of human eye movements during saccades, smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, and the X (roll) component of human eye movement during the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex induced by rotation in normal subjects, using simultaneous VOG and SSCS measures. The coefficients of the linear relationship between the angle of a simulated eyeball and the angle measured by both VOG and SSCS was almost unity with y-intercepts close to zero for torsional (X), vertical (Y) and horizontal (Z) movements, indicating that the in vitro accuracy of VOG was similar to that of SSCS. The average difference between VOG and SSCS was 0.56 degrees , 0.78 degrees and 0.18 degrees for the X, Y and Z components of human eye movements, respectively. Both the in vitro and in vivo comparisons demonstrate that VOG has accuracy comparable to SSCS, and is a reliable method for measurement of three dimensions (3D) human eye movements.

  16. Optimizing interoperability between video-oculographic and electromyographic systems.

    PubMed

    Navallas, Javier; Ariz, Mikel; Villanueva, Arantxa; San Agustín, Javier; Cabeza, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A new system is presented that enhances the interoperability between a video-oculographic (VOG) system for mouse movement control and an electromyographic (EMG) system for mouse click detection. The proposed VOG-EMG system combines gaze and muscle information to minimize the number of undesired clicks due to involuntary activations and environmental noise. We tested the system with 24 subjects, comparing three different configurations: one in which the VOG and EMG systems worked independently and two in which we used VOG gaze information to improve the EMG click detection. Results show that the number of false-positive click detections can be reduced when VOG and EMG information is combined. In addition, the third configuration, including extra processing, can reduce the activation delay produced because of the combined use of the VOG and EMG systems. The new VOG-EMG system is meant to be used in noisy environments in which the number of false clicks may impeach a reliable human-computer interaction.

  17. Hepatic and gastrointestinal first-pass effects of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinghui; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Di; Ai, Junjun; Meng, Yihan; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2013-10-01

    This paper was to clarify the reasons of low bioavailability of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside (VOG) in rats via hepatic combined with gastrointestinal first-pass effect. Observed the hepatic first-pass effect through the comparison of area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0→∞ ) of VOG in arterial plasma after femoral and portal vein administration (10 mg/kg), similarly, evaluated the gastrointestinal first-pass effect after portal vein (10 mg/kg) and gastrointestinal administration (20 mg/kg). For the study on regulatory mechanisms of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on the bioavailability of VOG, the solution of verapamil hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was instilled into intestine at 10 min before the infusion of VOG. The bioavailability of VOG after intraportal, intestinal as well as gastric administration was 45.1%, 8.1% and 9.8%, respectively. The value of AUC0→∞ for verapamil group was approximately 1.4-fold higher than that for normal saline group, meaning that perhaps CYP3A participated in the metabolism of VOG or P-gp transported VOG outside. The hepatic and intestinal first-pass effect were considered to mostly contribute to the low bioavailability of VOG in rats, and the gastric first-pass effect should be neglected. Also, the contribution of CYP3A to metabolism and P-gp mediated efflux have played a significant role in low bioavailability of VOG. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. The mechanism of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside protecting ECV-304 cells against tertbutyl hydroperoxide induced injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-bo; Ying, Xi-xiang; Lu, Jia

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the mechanism of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside (VOG) protecting ECV-304 cells against tertbutyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced injury. ECV-304 cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. The change of relative mitochondrial transmembrane potential in the ECV-304 cells was analysed with rhodamine 123 staining. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the HPLC method. The results showed that 128 µmol L(-1) VOG could effectively protect ECV-304 cells against cytotoxicity induced by TBHP. VOG protected TBHP-treated ECV-304 cells from death, significantly decreased MDA production, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ). Taken together, VOG protects against TBHP-induced ECV-304 cell injury partially through resuming mitochondrial function.

  19. Predicting crown weight and bole volume of five Western hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    J.A. Kendall Snell; Susan N. Little

    1983-01-01

    Regression equations are presented for estimating biomass of five western hardwoods: red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), giant chinkapin (Castanopsis chrysophylla (Dougl.) A. DC.), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh), Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), and tanoak (...

  20. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  1. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  2. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  3. Formation of ectomycorrhizae following inoculation of containerized Sitka spruce seedlings.

    Treesearch

    C.G. Shaw; R. Molina

    1980-01-01

    Containerized Sitka spruce, [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] were inoculated at sowing with pure cultures of either Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr.) Berk. & Br., Astraeus pteridis (Shear) Feller, Amanita pantherina...

  4. Vestibular dysfunction in Turner syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Michael; Agrawal, Yuri

    2014-02-01

    Turner syndrome is a well-known cause of sensorineural hearing loss, and the lack of estrogen has been implicated in cochlear dysfunction. It has never been associated with vestibular dysfunction. We report a case of a patient with Turner syndrome who was found to have bilateral vestibular dysfunction based on video-oculography (VOG) testing. A single patient with a history of Turner syndrome who was found to have significant bilateral vestibular dysfunction. After noticing a deficit in the vestibulo-ocular reflexes on qualitative horizontal head impulse examination, the patient underwent VOG testing. VOG testing quantatively measures angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) gain in the horizontal semicircular canal plane. AVOR gain represents the eye movement response to a head movement; in normal individuals the eye movement is fully compensatory and gain values are close to unity. VOG results showed AVOR gains of 0.29 and 0.36 on the right and left sides, respectively. We have presented a case of a woman with Turner syndrome with asymptomatic vestibular dysfunction demonstrated with VOG testing. Although there is a documented relationship between Turner syndrome and sensorineural hearing loss, there are no previous studies or case reports linking Turner syndrome and vestibular dysfunction. Additional research and added vigilance in monitoring Turner syndrome patients may be warranted.

  5. Ocular Findings in Volcanic Fog Induced Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Lagunzad, John Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the ocular signs and symptoms of patients complaining of eye irritation due to volcanic fog (vog). Methods The study utilized a non-comparative, retrospective chart review of 30 patients who had a chief complaint of eye irritation, which the subjects attributed to vog. Ocular signs and symptoms are described and related to the ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter sized 2.5 microns (PM2.5), and vog visibility in O‘ahu during the period of the study. Results Ocular signs noted were conjunctival injection (100%), clear mucous discharge (100%), papillary reaction (100%), punctal edema (80%), eyelid swelling (73.3%) and chemosis (63.3%). Ocular symptoms were itchiness (100%), foreign body sensation (100%), tearing (96.6%) and burning sensation (90%). All patients had concurrent respiratory symptoms. During the period of study, the highest 24-hour average concentration of particulate matter sized 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was 49.04 µg/m3 and vog was visually present. Conclusions Patients complaining of eye irritation due to vog have observable ocular signs and symptoms. PMID:22187513

  6. [Distribution characteristics and seasonal dynamics of Cu and Zn in shrub-marsh plants in mountainous areas of northeast China].

    PubMed

    Man, Xiu-ling; Cai, Ti-jiu

    2008-01-01

    The study on the distribution, accumulation, and seasonal dynamics of Cu and Zn in shrub-marsh plants Salix rosmarinifolia, Salix pentandra, Carex caespitosa and Carex schmidtii in mountainous areas of Northeast China showed that the Cu concentration in test plants varied from 6 to 12 mg x kg(-1), and its distribution was in the sequence of root > stem > leaf in S. rosmarinifolia and S. pentandra, and of stem > leaf > root in C. caespitosa and C. schmidtii, suggesting that Cu was mainly accumulated in the root of shrubs and the stem or leaf of Carex. Shrubs and Carex had less difference in their Cu concentration. The Zn concentration in test plants was 30-250 mg x kg(-1), and its distribution was in the sequence of leaf > stem > root in S. rosmarinifolia and S. pentandra, and of root > stem > leaf in C. caespitosa and C. schmidtii, indicating that Zn was mainly accumulated in the leaf of shrubs and the root of Carex. Shrubs had a higher Zn concentration than Carex. The accumulation coefficient of Zn in the organs of S. rosmarinifolia and S. pentandra was higher than 1.45, suggesting a good Zn-accumulation ability of these plants. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the aboveground parts of the four plants were higher during the initial growth period and then fluctuated to decrease with season, while those in roots were all higher both in the initial and in the late growth periods.

  7. Kapok oil methyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  8. Volcanic Air Pollution - A Hazard in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other pollutants emitted from Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i react with oxygen and atmospheric moisture to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog poses a health hazard by aggravating preexisting respiratory ailments, and acid rain damages crops and can leach lead into household water supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is closely monitoring gas emissions from Kilauea and working with health professionals and local officials to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  9. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2017-04-20

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  10. Vertical Jump Biomechanics Altered With Virtual Overhead Goal.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Hegedus, Eric J; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2017-04-01

    Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P < .001*) and hip angular impulse (P < .004*) were found during VOG compared with POG. Subjects landed more erect with less magnitude of trunk flexion (P = .002*) during POG compared with VOG. A virtual target can optimize jump height and promote increased hip moments and trunk flexion. This may be a useful alternative to physical targets to improve performance during certain biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.

  11. Organic Iodine Adsorption by AgZ under Prototypical Vessel Off-Gas Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Jordan, J. A.

    2016-09-30

    U.S. regulations will require the removal of 129I from the off-gas streams of any used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing plant prior to discharge of the off-gas to the environment. Multiple off-gas streams within a UNF reprocessing plant combine prior to release, and each of these streams contains some amount of iodine. For an aqueous UNF reprocessing plant, these streams include the dissolver off-gas, the cell off-gas, the vessel off-gas (VOG), the waste off-gas and the shear off-gas. To achieve regulatory compliance, treatment of multiple off-gas streams within the plant must be performed. Preliminary studies have been completed on the adsorption of I2 onto silver mordenite (AgZ) from prototypical VOG streams. The study reported that AgZ did adsorb I2 from a prototypical VOG stream, but process upsets resulted in an uneven feed stream concentration. The experiments described in this document both improve the characterization of I2 adsorption by AgZ from dilute gas streams and further extend it to include characterization of the adsorption of organic iodides (in the form of CH3I) onto AgZ under prototypical VOG conditions. The design of this extended duration testing was such that information about the rate of adsorption, the penetration of the iodine species, and the effect of sorbent aging on iodine removal in VOG conditions could be inferred.

  12. Earth Observation taken by the STS-125 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-13

    S125-E-006569 (13 May 2009) --- Hawaiian vog from Kilauea volcano, on the island of Hawaii, has been erupting continuously since 1983. This image, taken by the crew of Space Shuttle Atlantis (after completing the capture of the Hubble Space Telescope), shows the volcanic plumes from Kilauea rising up from Halema`uma`u Crater and along the coastline from lava flows entering the ocean from the East rift zone. The volcanic activity has created a blanket of volcanic fog, called vog that envelops the island. The Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) maintains a website (including webcams) that continuously monitors and updates reports on the volcanic activity. Recent maps indicate expanded lava coverage along the coastal plain. In addition, Hawaii?s Department of Health maintains daily vog alerts, and publishes advisories for vog conditions around the ?big island? of Hawaii and the state. When this image was acquired, the region west of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (downwind from the coastal plumes) had a vog advisory for people with respiratory sensitivities. The Volcano Observatory also reported that ?Lava from east rift zone vents continues to flow through tubes to the coast and is entering the ocean at two locations west of Kalapana. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `O`o vents remain elevated. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and variable; the most recent rate measurement was 1,200 tonnes/day on May 12, compared to the 2003-2007 average rate of 140 tonnes/day. Small amounts of mostly ash-sized tephra continue to be produced consisting mostly of Pele's hair -- irregular pieces of vesicular glass -- and a few hollow spherules.?

  13. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children.

    PubMed

    Tam, Elizabeth; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, A Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i has erupted continuously since 1983, releasing approximately 300-12000metrictons per day of sulfur dioxide (SO2). SO2 interacts with water vapor to produce an acidic haze known locally as "vog". The combination of wind speed and direction, inversion layer height, and local terrain lead to heterogeneous and variable distribution of vog over the island, allowing study of respiratory effects associated with chronic vog exposure. We characterized the distribution and composition of vog over the Island of Hawai'i, and tested the hypotheses that chronic vog exposure (SO2 and acid) is associated with increased asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and reduced pulmonary function in Hawai'i Island schoolchildren. We compiled data of volcanic emissions, wind speed, and wind direction over Hawai'i Island since 1992. Community-based researchers then measured 2- to 4-week integrated concentrations of SO2 and fine particulate mass and acidity in 4 exposure zones, from 2002 to 2005, when volcanic SO2 emissions averaged 1600metrictons per day. Concurrently, community researchers recruited schoolchildren in the 4th and 5th grades of 25 schools in the 4 vog exposure zones, to assess determinants of lung health, respiratory symptoms, and asthma prevalence. Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean±s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3±0.2ppb, 2.5±1.2μg/m(3), 0.6±1.1nmolH+/m(3)), 2) Intermittent (1.6±1.8ppb, 2.8±1.5μg/m(3), 4.0±6.6nmolH+/m(3)), 3) Frequent (10.1±5.2ppb, 4.8±1.9μg/m(3), 4.3±6.7nmolH+/m(3)), and 4) Acid (1.2±0.4ppb, 7.2±2.3μg/m(3), 25.3±17.9nmolH+/m(3)). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and

  14. [Application of chemiluminescent methods for analysis of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts].

    PubMed

    Ryzhikov, M A; Ryzhikova, V O

    2006-01-01

    With help methods chemiluminecent make analysis of the antioxidant activity a series herbal extracts. The herbal e[tractions with distinct antioxidant activity were selected: Origanum vulgare ((L.), Filipendula ulmaria Maxim (L.), Thimus serpyllum (l.), Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.), Ledum palustre (L.), Viburnum opulus, Salix pentandra (L.), Vaccinium myrtillus (L.), Flnus incana (L.0, Bergenia crassifolia (l.). Antioxidant properties of this medicine plants may be used for prophylaxis and medical treatment of freeradical pathologic conditions.

  15. Free Speech in a MySpace World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baule, Steven M.; Kriha, Darcy L.

    2008-01-01

    In the potential shadow of a "Bong Hits for Jesus" banner, complicated student speech and discipline issues arise almost daily on the Internet. Whether it is a mock MySpace page set up to make fun of a teacher or a direct threat to an assistant principal, it is often unclear exactly where school ground discipline ends and student free speech…

  16. Production of wood pellets from Alaska-grown white spruce and hemlock

    Treesearch

    Allen M. Brackley; Daniel J. Parrent

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature review failed to locate any information relative to the pelleting characteristics of hemlock species—western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr. )—that grow in Alaska. To determine more about the pelletizing properties of the species,...

  17. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  18. Adoption of engineered wood products in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Joseph A. Roos; Indroneil Ganguly; Allen Brackley

    2009-01-01

    Based on an in-grade testing program, the Ketchikan Wood Technology Center has registered three proprietary grademarks for Alaska species of hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), and spruce (combined Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr...

  19. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Valerie Barber

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades. red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade lumber containing numerous visual...

  20. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner; Nicholls David; Valerie Barber

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade...

  1. Stand-density study of spruce-hemlock stands in southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Donald J. DeMars

    2000-01-01

    The lack of growth and yield information for young even-aged western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla(Raf.) Sarg.)-Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stands in southeastern Alaska served as the impetus for a long-term stand-density study begun in 1974. The study has followed permanent growth plots in managed stands under...

  2. Performance-based financing contributes to the resilience of health services affected by the Liberian Ebola outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Mapleh, L.; Ade, S.; Harries, A. D.; Bhat, P.; Kateh, F.; Dahn, B.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: The Liberian counties of Bong, with performance-based financing (PBF) for all 36 public primary-care facilities, and Margibi, with no PBF for its 24 public primary-care facilities. Objective: To compare whether specific maternal and child health indicators changed in the two counties during the pre-Ebola (2013), Ebola (2014) and post-Ebola (2015) disease outbreak periods from July to September each year. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Results: For pregnant women, the numbers of antenatal visits, intermittent preventive malaria treatments, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests and facility-based births with skilled attendants all fell during the Ebola period, with decreases being significantly more marked in Margibi County. Apart from HIV testing, which remained low in both counties, these indicators increased in the post-Ebola period, with increases significantly more marked in Bong than in Margibi. The number of childhood immunisations decreased significantly in Bong in the Ebola period compared with the pre-Ebola period, but increased to above pre-Ebola levels in the post-Ebola period. There were markedly larger decreases in childhood immunisations in Margibi County during the Ebola period, which remained significantly lower in the post-Ebola period compared with Bong County. Conclusion: In a PBF-supported county, selected maternal and childhood health indicators showed less deterioration during Ebola and better recovery post-Ebola than in a non-PBF-supported county. PMID:28744447

  3. Relations between red alder composition and understory vegetation in young mixed forests of southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Hanley; Robert L. Deal; Ewa H. Orlikowska

    2006-01-01

    Interest in mixed red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.)—conifer young-growth stands has grown in southeast Alaska, USA, because they appear to provide much more productive understory vegetation and wildlife habitat than do similar-aged pure conifer stands. We studied understory vegetation in nine even-aged young-growth stands (38-42 years old)...

  4. Edge-glued panels from Alaska hardwoods: retail manager perspectives

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner; Valerie Barber

    2010-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) are both lesser-known hardwoods grown, harvested, and manufactured into appearance products, with potential for increased utilization. The production of edgeglued panels from red alder and paper birch offers one expansion opportunity for wood...

  5. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Treesearch

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  6. Sitka spruce and western hemlock beach logs in southeast Alaska: suitability for lumber, pulp, and energy.

    Treesearch

    Susan Ernst; Marlin E. Plank; Donald J. Fahey

    1986-01-01

    The suitability of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) beach logs in southeast Alaska for lumber, pulp, and energy was determined. Logs were sawn at a cant mill in southeast Alaska and at a dimension mill in northern Washington. Volume and value recovery was...

  7. Comparative effects of urea fertilizer and red alder in a site III, coast Douglas-fir plantation in the Washington Cascade Range.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Marshall Murray; Rick. Leon

    2005-01-01

    Five randomly assigned treatments were used to quantify effects of adding varying numbers of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) or nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of a 10-year-old conifer plantation at a medium quality site in the western Washington Cascade Range. Zero, 20, 40, and 80 alder trees per acre were retained along with about 300 conifers...

  8. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits. ...

  9. An Unreasonable Argument against Student Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, David

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's recent opinion in "Morse v. Frederick" (2007), perhaps better known as the "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" case, contains a widely reported concurrence by Justice Clarence Thomas. Challenging well-established precedent, Thomas argues that students should have no constitutional rights in school. In this essay David Blacker argues that,…

  10. Content Specificity of Expectancy Beliefs and Task Values in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Ennis, Catherine D.; Sun, Haichun

    2008-01-01

    The curriculum may superimpose a content-specific context that mediates motivation (Bong, 2001). This study examined content specificity of the expectancy-value motivation in elementary school physical education. Students' expectancy beliefs and perceived task values from a cardiorespiratory fitness unit, a muscular fitness unit, and a traditional…

  11. Influence of overstory on snow depth and density in hemlock-spruce stands: implications for management of deer habitat in Southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Hanley; Cathy L. Rose

    1987-01-01

    Snow depth and density were measured in 33 stands of western hemlock-Sitka spruce (Tsuga heterophylla [Rat] Sarg.-Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr.) over a 3-year period. The stands, near Juneau, Alaska, provided broad ranges of species composition, age, over-story canopy coverage, tree density, and wood volume. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that both...

  12. Greenhouse germination trials of pelletized western redcedar and red alder seeds

    Treesearch

    Nabil Khadduri

    2007-01-01

    Pelletized western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seeds exhibited lower total germination and delayed germination speed (G50 or days to 50% germination) when compared to non-pelletized “raw” seeds in greenhouse trials. Averaged across two lots of western redcedar, pelletizing decreased...

  13. Mountain hemlock: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography lists references pertaining to mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) found in North American and European literature for individuals interested in this species. The author has attempted to include all references which might conceivably provide useful information on this species; abstracts are provided for those...

  14. Phenotypic evidence suggests a possible major-gene element to weevil resistance in Sitka spruce

    Treesearch

    John N. King; René I. Alfaro; Peter Ott; Lara vanAkker

    2012-01-01

    The weevil resistance breeding program against the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), particularly for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), is arguably one of the most successful pest resistance breeding programs for plantation forest species, and it has done a lot to rehabilitate...

  15. Growth and cold hardiness of container-grown Douglas-fir, noble fir, and Sitka spruce seedlings in simulated greenhouse regimes.

    Treesearch

    Peyton W. Owston; T.T. Kozlowski

    1981-01-01

    Seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Abies procera Rehd., and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. were grown for 5 months in growth rooms which simulated hot, warm, or cool growing regimes in greenhouses in western Oregon. Temperature, humidity, light intensity, and photoperiod were changed...

  16. Rights at Stake in Free-Speech Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Despite the less-than-weighty incident at its core--the display of a homemade banner emblazoned with "Bong Hits 4 Jesus"--a case that the U.S. Supreme Court will take up carries potentially far-reaching consequences for student speech, and for the legal protections of public school educators. From a sea of controversies over student…

  17. Rights at Stake in Free-Speech Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Despite the less-than-weighty incident at its core--the display of a homemade banner emblazoned with "Bong Hits 4 Jesus"--a case that the U.S. Supreme Court will take up carries potentially far-reaching consequences for student speech, and for the legal protections of public school educators. From a sea of controversies over student…

  18. Root cold hardiness and native distribution of subalpine conifers

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Coleman; Thomas M. Hinckley; Geoffrey McNaughton; Barbara A. Smit

    1992-01-01

    Root and needle cold hardiness were compared in seedlings of subalpine conifers to determine if differences existed among species originating from either cold continental climates or mild maritime climates. Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Carr. and Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr. are exclusively distributed in maritime environments,...

  19. Free Speech in a MySpace World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baule, Steven M.; Kriha, Darcy L.

    2008-01-01

    In the potential shadow of a "Bong Hits for Jesus" banner, complicated student speech and discipline issues arise almost daily on the Internet. Whether it is a mock MySpace page set up to make fun of a teacher or a direct threat to an assistant principal, it is often unclear exactly where school ground discipline ends and student free speech…

  20. Analyses of gene diversity in some species of conifers

    Treesearch

    Francis C. Yeh

    1981-01-01

    Genetic variation at 21 to 25 loci in extracts of individual megagametophytes was surveyed in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia [Engelm.] Critchfield). The overall mean proportion...

  1. Maintaining cultures of wood-rotting fungi.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Nelson; H.A. Fay

    1985-01-01

    Phellinus weirii cultures were stored successfully for 10 years in small alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) disks at 2 °C. The six isolates tested appeared morphologically identical and after 10 years varied little in growth rate from those stored on malt agar slants. Long-term storage on alder disks reduces the time required for...

  2. Height growth and site index curves for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Robert O. Curtis

    1985-01-01

    New height growth and site index curves for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) were developed from stem analysis data. The analyses use a reference (site index) age of 20 years and are applicable to natural stands between 5 and 50 years of age in western Washington and northwestern Oregon. The new curves are polymorphic and provide a better fit to observed patterns of...

  3. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  4. Assessing the volume of wood products used to build and maintain recreational structures on the Tongass National Forest: potential opportunities for Alaska wood products substitution.

    Treesearch

    Randall A. Cantrell

    2004-01-01

    Although the Tongass National Forest (TNF) possesses abundant stands of redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg), most of its buildings, bridges, and trails are constructed from...

  5. Occurrence of insect and disease pests on young-growth Sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Susan M. Tait; Charles G. III Shaw; Andris. Eglitis

    1985-01-01

    Insects and diseases were surveyed in 16 even-aged, young-growth stands of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) in southeastern Alaska. Stand ages ranged from 17 to 27 years in nine thinned stands and from 12 to 22 years in seven unthinned stands. All stands...

  6. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King

    2012-01-01

    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  7. The hardwood resource in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John H. Poppino; Donald R. Gedney

    1984-01-01

    The hardwood resource in western Oregon is described by species and ownership. Changes in the private hardwood resource between 1961-62 and 1973-76 are shown. Statistics of size, volume, and ownership by county are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh).

  8. Hardwood price reporting.

    Treesearch

    Brent L. Sohngen; Richard W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Prices for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  9. Managing young upland forests in southeast Alaska for wood products, wildlife, aquatic resources, and fishes: problem analysis and study plan.

    Treesearch

    Mark S. Wipfli; Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Adelaide C. Johnson; Toni L. de Santo; Thomas A. Hanley; Mark E. Schultz; Mason D. Bryant; Richard T. Edwards; Ewa H. Orlikowska; Takashi. Gomi

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) appears to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and affect the major resources (timber, wildlife, and fisheries) of forested ecosystems in southeast Alaska. We propose an integrated approach to understanding how alder influences trophic links and processes in young-growth ecosystems. The presence...

  10. Volume recovery, grade yield, and properties of lumber from young-growth sitka spruce and western hemlock in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Christensen; Kent R. Julin; Robert J. Ross; Susan. Willits

    2002-01-01

    Wood volume recovery, lumber grade yield, and mechanical properties of young-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyla (Raf.) Sarg.)were examined. The sample included trees from commercially thinned and unthinned stands and fluted western hemlock logs obtained from a sort yard....

  11. Growth and yield of sitka spruce and western hemlock at Cascade Head Experimental Forest, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Stephen H. Smith; John F. Bell; Francis R. Herman; Thomas. See

    1984-01-01

    A study established in 83-year-old, even-aged stands of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) at Cascade Head Experimental Forest in the Siuslaw National Forest on the Oregon coast traces their development for 33 years. Statistical data collected from 12 permanent...

  12. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  13. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder-conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Takashi Gomi; Adelaide C. Johnson; Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Ewa H. Orlikowska; Mark S. Wipfli

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.)-conifer riparian forests (40 years old) in southeast Alaska. More riparian red alder were found along...

  14. The density and distribution of Sitka spruce and western hemlock seedling banks in partially harvested stands in southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Louise S.Y. Levy; Robert L. Deal; John C. Tappeiner

    2010-01-01

    This study’s objective was to document and describe the current seedling bank of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in southeast Alaska that were partially cut between 1900 and 1984. We investigated the following: (1) What are seedling bank densities? (2)...

  15. Taper equation and volume tables for plantation-grown red alder.

    Treesearch

    Andrew A. Bluhm; Sean M. Garber; David E. Hibbs

    2007-01-01

    A taper equation and associated tables are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees grown in plantations. The data were gathered from variable-density experimental plantations throughout the Pacific Northwest. Diameter inside bark along the stem was fitted to a variable exponent model form by using generalized nonlinear least squares and a...

  16. Influence of precommercial thinning and herbicides on understory vegetation of young-growth Sitka spruce forest in southeastern Alaska

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth C. Cole; Thomas A. Hanley; Michael Newton

    2010-01-01

    The effects of precommercial thinning on the understory vegetative cover of 16- to 18-year-old spruce-hemlock (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriere--Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands were studied in seven replicate areas over seven growing seasons postthinning. Vegetative cover was analyzed at the class level, but species-...

  17. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Treesearch

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  18. Long-term basal area and diameter growth responses of western hemlock-sitka spruce stands in southeast Alaska to a range of thinning intensities.

    Treesearch

    Nathan J. Poage

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the long-term basal area and diameter growth response of young, well-stocked, even-aged, mixed-species stands of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) to a range of thinning intensities (heavy, moderate, light, and unthinned), 20 years of...

  19. A method of site quality evaluation for red alder.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington

    1986-01-01

    A field guide to predict site index for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) was developed for use in western Washington and Oregon. The guide requires the user to evaluate 14 soil-site properties that are grouped into three general factors: (1) geographic and topographic position, (2) soil moisture and aeration during the growing season, and (3) soil fertility and physical...

  20. Consumer preferences for kitchen cabinets made from red alder: a comparison to other hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...

  1. Stand dynamics of mixed red alder-conifer forests of southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Ewa H. Orlikowska; David V. D' Amore

    2004-01-01

    Stand structure and dynamics were evaluated in mixed red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer forests of southeast Alaska. We assessed stand development, tree density, total basal area, diameter distribution of live and dead trees, height distribution of live trees, and mean diameter of all and largest conifers in 40-year-old red alder - conifer...

  2. Variation in damage from growing-season frosts among open-pollinated families of red alder.

    Treesearch

    Kevin C. Peeler; Dean S. DeBell

    1987-01-01

    Repeated growing-season frosts during late April and early May 1985 caused extensive damage to red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings in a newly planted research trial in western Washington. About two-thirds of the seedlings were severely damaged (entire stem damaged or necrotic). Such damage varied by family, from 50 percent of seedlings in the...

  3. An Unreasonable Argument against Student Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, David

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's recent opinion in "Morse v. Frederick" (2007), perhaps better known as the "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" case, contains a widely reported concurrence by Justice Clarence Thomas. Challenging well-established precedent, Thomas argues that students should have no constitutional rights in school. In this essay David Blacker argues that,…

  4. Significant involvement of PEP-CK in carbon assimilation of C4 eudicots

    PubMed Central

    Muhaidat, Riyadh; McKown, Athena D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims C4 eudicot species are classified into biochemical sub-types of C4 photosynthesis based on the principal decarboxylating enzyme. Two sub-types are known, NADP-malic enzyme (ME) and NAD-ME; however, evidence for the occurrence or involvement of the third sub-type (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PEP-CK) is emerging. In this study, the presence and activity of PEP-CK in C4 eudicot species of Trianthema and Zaleya (Sesuvioideae, Aizoaceae) is clarified through analysis of key anatomical features and C4 photosynthetic enzymes. Methods Three C4 species (T. portulacastrum, T. sheilae and Z. pentandra) were examined with light and transmission electron microscopy for leaf structural properties. Activities and immunolocalizations of C4 enzymes were measured for biochemical characteristics. Key Results Leaves of each species possess atriplicoid-type Kranz anatomy, but differ in ultrastructural features. Bundle sheath organelles are centripetal in T. portulacastrum and Z. pentandra, and centrifugal in T. sheilae. Bundle sheath chloroplasts in T. portulacastrum are almost agranal, whereas mesophyll counterparts have grana. Both T. sheilae and Z. pentandra are similar, where bundle sheath chloroplasts contain well-developed grana while mesophyll chloroplasts are grana deficient. Cell wall thickness is significantly greater in T. sheilae than in the other species. Biochemically, T. portulacastrum is NADP-ME, while T. sheilae and Z. pentandra are NAD-ME. Both T. portulacastrum and Z. pentandra exhibit considerable PEP-CK activity, and immunolocalization studies show dense and specific compartmentation of PEP-CK in these species, consistent with high PEP-CK enzyme activity. Conclusions Involvement of PEP-CK in C4 NADP-ME T. portulacastrum and NAD-ME Z. petandra occurs irrespective of biochemical sub-type, or the position of bundle sheath chloroplasts. Ultrastructural traits, including numbers of bundle sheath peroxisomes and mesophyll chloroplasts, and

  5. A torsional eye movement calculation algorithm for low contrast images in video-oculography.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S H; Kingma, H; Peeters, R M; Westra, R L

    2010-01-01

    Video-oculography (VOG) is a frequently used clinical technique to detect eye movements. In this research, head mounted small video-cameras and IR-illumination are employed to image the eye. Many algorithms have been developed to extract horizontal and vertical eye movements from the video images. Designing a method to determine torsional eye movements is a more complex task. The use of IR-wavelengths required for illumination in certain clinical tests results in a very low image contrast. In such images, iris textures are almost invisible, making them unsuited for direct application of standard matching algorithms, which are used to calculate torsional eye movements. This research presents the design and implementation of a robust torsional eye movement detection algorithm for VOG. This algorithm uses a new approach to measure the torsional eye movement and is suitable for low contrast videos. The algorithm is implemented in a clinical device and its performance is compared to that of alternative techniques.

  6. On-line classification and prediction of eye movements by multiple-model Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Kohlbecher, Stefan; Schneider, Erich

    2009-05-01

    An extensible multiple-model Kalman filter framework for eye tracking and video-oculography (VOG) applications is proposed. The Kalman filter predicts future states of a system on the basis of a mathematical model and previous measurements. The predicted values are then compared against the current measurements. In a correcting step, the predicted state is enhanced by the measurements. In this work, the Kalman filter is used for smoothing the VOG data, for on-line classification of eye movements, as well as for predictive real-time control of a gaze-driven head-mounted camera (EyeSeeCam). With multiple models running in parallel, it was possible to distinguish between fixations, slow-phase eye movements, and saccades. Under the assumption that each class of eye movement follows a distinct model, one can decide which types of eye movement occurred by evaluating the probability for each model.

  7. Inverse Problems for Nonlinear Delay Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    outlined here, or it may be included implicitly in the problem formulation through Tikhonov regularization as discussed for example by Kravaris and...Seinfeld [KS], Vogel [Vog] and widely by many others. In the regularization approach one restricts consideration to a subset Q1 of parameters which has...routine ways: fixed point theorem arguments [JKH4] or Picard iteration arguments. Either of these ap- proaches can be used to establish existence

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Volcanic Emissions and Health Security in Hawaii by 2050

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    in Hawaii Effects of Forecasted Climate Changes on Vog Anthropogenic effects on global warming are expected to lead to various changes in the...over 0.17°C per decade in the last 40 years and is projected to continue warming , with a net increase of 0.83-1.11°C by the year 2035 and an increase... warming the stratosphere. The increasing difference in temperature above and below the inversion layer can strengthen temperature inversions, making

  9. Inexpensive system for real-time 3-dimensional video-oculography using a fluorescent marker array

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Americo A.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel, inexpensive method for real-time measurement of binocular three-dimensional eye position. The method employs consumer-grade digital video cameras (“webcams”) to track an array of three fluorescent non-collinear markers affixed to each eye. The instantaneous position of the marker array relative to a reference position is used to construct a rotation matrix describing the eye rotation. The mathematical computation used to determine the rotation matrix is conceptually simpler and computationally more efficient than methods previously described, allowing generation of binocular three-dimensional eye position in real-time during image acquisition. The fluorescent marker is illuminated using a UV-A light source. The light source and reflective artifacts are filtered out to improve the signal to noise ratio. In addition, we present a method to align the camera with the center of eye rotation. When tested in vitro, the video-oculography (VOG) method had a <2.9% positional error (in each component of 3D eye position) for eye positions within 20° of center. We directly compared this method of VOG to the search coil technique by measuring three-dimensional eye position simultaneously using search coils and VOG in a chinchilla (C. laniger). The in vivo positional difference between the two methods was <3.1% for each component of 3D eye position. PMID:15814146

  10. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dzotam, Joachim K; Touani, Francesco K; Kuete, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%), 11/19 (57.9%), 10/19 (52.6%) and 10/19 (52.6%) tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  11. Influence of red alder on chemical properties of a clay loam soil in western Washington.

    Treesearch

    D.S. DeBell; M.A. Radwan; J.M. Kraft

    1983-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of mineral soil beneath red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) stands of various ages were studied. Total nitrogen (N) of the 0-to 20-centimeter (0- to 8-inch) soil layer increased with stand age, and pH of both the 0- to 20-centimeter and 20- to 50-centimeter (8- to 20-inch) layers decreased with stand age. Contents of some mineral...

  12. Operational Intelligence Failures of the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    105William M. Leary , ed., Macarthur and the American Century: A Reader (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001), 538...Arts Publishing House, 1999); Timothy A. Walton, Delex Special Report-3, “China’s Three Warfares,” January 18, 2012, Delex Consulting, Studies and...2014). Leary , William M., ed. Macarthur and the American Century: A Reader. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001. Lee, Bong. The Unfinished

  13. Development of the Electrochemical Biosensor for Organophosphate Chemicals Using CNT/Ionic Liquid Bucky Gel Electrode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    small sample size [1]. Chen et al. developed OPH amperometric biosensors with carbon electrodes for monitoring OP pesticides [5]. Wang et al. reported...on OPH/car- bon nanotube (CNT) amperometric biosensors wherein the elec- trodes were modified with CNTs for enhancing the performance of enzyme...www.elsevier .com/locate /e lecomDevelopment of the electrochemical biosensor for organophosphate chemicals using CNT/ionic liquid bucky gel electrode Bong

  14. Successful Proof of Concept of Family Planning and Immunization Integration in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in

  15. The video ocular counter-roll (vOCR): a clinical test to detect loss of otolith-ocular function

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Millan, Jorge; Treviño, Carolina; Winnick, Ariel; Zee, David S.; Carey, John P.; Kheradmand, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion vOCR can detect loss of otolith-ocular function without specifying the side of vestibular loss. Since vOCR is measured with a simple head tilt maneuver, it can be potentially used as a bedside clinical test in combination with video head impulse test. Objective Video-oculography (VOG) goggles are being integrated into the bedside assessment of patients with vestibular disorders. Lacking, however, is a method to evaluate otolith function. This study validated a VOG test for loss of otolith function. Methods VOG was used to measure ocular counter-roll (vOCR) in 12 healthy controls, 14 patients with unilateral vestibular loss (UVL), and six patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) with a static lateral head tilt of 30°. The results were compared with vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), a widely-used laboratory test of otolith function. Results The average vOCR for healthy controls (4.6°) was significantly different from UVL (2.7°) and BVL (1.6°) patients (p < 0.0001). The vOCR and VEMP measurements were correlated across subjects, especially the click and tap oVEMPs (click oVEMP R = 0.45, tap oVEMP R = 0.51; p < 0.0003). The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that vOCR and VEMPs detected loss of otolith function equally well. The best threshold for vOCR to detect vestibular loss was at 3°. The vOCR values from the side of vestibular loss and the healthy side were not different in UVL patients (2.53° vs 2.8°; p = 0.59). PMID:28084887

  16. Is volcanic air pollution associated with decreased heart-rate variability?

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic C; Grandinetti, Andrew; Fernandez, Ed; Sutton, A J; Elias, Tamar; Brooks, Barbara; Tam, Elizabeth K

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the autonomic cardiovascular control among residents of Hawaii who are exposed to varying levels of volcanic air pollution (vog), which consists largely of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid aerosols. Methods In a cross-sectional study between April 2006 and June 2008, the authors measured cardiovagal autonomic function by heart-rate variability (HRV) in 72 healthy individuals who lived in four exposure zones on Hawaii Island: vog-free (n=18); episodic exposure to SO2 >200 ppb and acid aerosol (n=19); chronic exposure to SO2 ≥30 ppb and acid aerosol (n=15); and chronic exposure to acid aerosols (n=20). Individuals with diabetes or heart disease, or who had smoked in the preceding month were excluded. HRV was measured in all subjects during rest, paced breathing and active standing (Ewing manoeuvre). HRV was analysed in time and frequency domains and compared between the four exposure zones. Results There were no significant differences between exposure zones in HRV, in either time or frequency domains, even after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity and body mass index. There was no significant HRV change in three individuals in whom HRV was measured before and during an exposure to combined SO2 100–250 ppb and concentration of respirable particles of diameter ≤2.5 μ (PM2.5) >500 μg/m3. Age was significantly correlated with time-domain parameters during paced breathing and the Ewing manoeuvre. Conclusions This study of healthy individuals found no appreciable effects of vog on the autonomic nervous system. PMID:21546995

  17. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage.

  18. The power and value of green in promoting sustainable transport behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaker, David; Vautin, David; Vij, Akshay; Walker, Joan L.

    2011-07-01

    While it is increasingly popular to broadcast information regarding environmental impact, little is known regarding the effects that this information has on human behavior. This research aims to provide insight into whether, and to what extent, presenting environmental attributes of transport alternatives influences individual transport decisions. We designed and conducted three experiments in which subjects (UC Berkeley undergraduates) were presented with hypothetical scenarios of transport decisions, including auto purchase choice, mode choice, and route choice. We analyzed their decisions via a choice model to determine how they value reducing their emissions relative to other attributes. We found that our subjects are willing to adjust their behavior to reduce emissions, exhibiting an average willingness to pay for emissions reduction, or value of green (VoG), of 15 cents per pound of CO2 saved. Despite concern that people cannot meaningfully process quantities of CO2, we found evidence to the contrary in our subject pool in that the estimated VoG was consistent across context (the wide range of transport decisions that we presented) and presentation (e.g., whether the information was presented in tons or pounds, or whether a social reference point of the emissions of an average person was provided). We also found significant heterogeneity in VoG, with most of the respondents valuing green somewhere between 0 and 70 cents per pound and with women, on average, willing to pay 7 cents more per saved pound than men. While the findings are encouraging, further work is required to determine whether they hold outside of a lab environment and with a more representative pool of subjects.

  19. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  20. Factors influencing the variability of antioxidative phenolic glycosides in Salix species.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Zander, Matthias; Kätzel, Ralf; Mewis, Inga

    2010-07-28

    Phenolic glycosides, especially the salicylates, are important secondary metabolites in the bark of willows (Salix spp.). Because of their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and fever-reducing properties, they are of particular interest to society. Compared to the fabrication of synthetic salicylacetylic acid, the commercial production of willow bark extracts with adequate amounts of salicylate is very difficult due to several biological and technical reasons. Therefore, one of the objectives was to identify salicylate-rich clones from three species, Salix daphnoides , Salix purpurea , and Salix pentandra , with potentially high amounts of phenolic glycosides. Three hundred different Salix clones were collected, and the chemical profiles of their bark were analyzed by HPLC. Overall, S. daphnoides clones showed the highest phenolic glycoside contents, followed by S. purpurea and S. pentandra. Second, seasonal changes of secondary compounds in willow bark were analyzed to determine the optimal harvesting time. The phenolic glycoside levels decreased over the growing season, with highest contents detected during plant dormancy. The effects of different cultivation conditions were also examined, and none of these treatments were found to have a significant effect on the phenolic glycoside content in willow bark. Biomass accumulation in the clones with grass competition was significantly lower than in the other three treatments.

  1. DARA vestibular equipment onboard MIR.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, P; Kellig, A; Hoffmann, H U; Ruyters, G

    1998-01-01

    In space, the weightless environment provides a different stimulus to the otolith organs of the vestibular system, and the resulting signals no longer correspond with the visual and other sensory signals sent to the brain. This signal conflict causes disorientation. To study this and also to understand the vestibular adaptation to weightlessness, DARA has developed scientific equipment for vestibular and visuo-oculomotoric investigations. Especially, two video-oculography systems (monocular--VOG--and binocular--BIVOG, respectively) as well as stimuli such as an optokinetic stimulation device have successfully been employed onboard MIR in the frame of national and European missions since 1992. The monocular VOG was used by Klaus Flade during the MIR '92 mission, by Victor Polyakov during his record 15 months stay onboard MIR in 1993/94 as well as by Ulf Merbold during EUROMIR '94. The binocular version was used by Thomas Reiter and Sergej Avdeyev during the 6 months EUROMIR '95 mission. PIs of the various experiments include H. Scherer and A. Clarke (FU Berlin), M. Dieterichs and S. Krafczyk (LMU Munchen) from Germany as well as C.H. Markham and S.G. Diamond from the United States. Video-Oculography (VOG) is a technique for examining the function of the human balance system located in the inner ear (vestibular system) and the visio-oculomotor interactions of the vestibular organ. The human eye movements are measured, recorded and evaluated by state-of-the-art video techniques. The method was first conceived and designed at the Vestibular Research Laboratory of the ENT Clinic in Steglitz, FU Berlin (A. Clarke, H. Scherer). Kayser-Threde developed, manufactured and tested the facilities for space application under contract to DARA. Evaluation software was first provided by the ENT Clinic, Berlin, later by our subcontractor Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI), Teltow. Optokinetic hardware to support visuo-oculomotoric investigations, has been shipped to MIR for EUROMIR '95

  2. Kalman filter detection of blinks in video-oculography: applications for VVOR measurement during locomotion.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Palmer, T; Goldvasser, D; Krebs, D E

    2001-04-30

    A Kalman filter algorithm was implemented for automatic detection of blink artifacts in video-oculography (VOG) data, and a cubic spline used to patch the eliminated data. The algorithm was tested by randomly introducing artificial blinks into eye movement data and computing the errors introduced by the patches. We also computed visual vestibulo-ocular reflex (VVOR) gain and phase in healthy and vestibulopathic subjects during a locomotor task, before and after blink removal, to demonstrate the interpretive importance of eliminating blink artifacts. The error introduced by the patched data was small (0.50+/-0.32 degrees ) and within the resolution of head angle measurements. Comparison of gain and phase shift before and after removing blinks revealed that even when calculated values are within expected limits, coherence of the VVOR signal was significantly (p=0.003) lower prior to blink removal (0.51+/-0.37) compared to that after blink removal (0.92+/-0.08). Comparison of VVOR calculations between healthy and vestibulopathic subjects (after removal of blinks) revealed that vestibulopathic subjects had significantly decreased gains (p=0.018) and increased phase shifts (p=0.009): these results agree with data reported in literature. We conclude that the Kalman filter detection and cubic spline patching algorithms are useful tools for VOG and should enable reliable VVOR measurements during unconstrained, ecologically meaningful locomotor activities.

  3. Mobile telephone use effects on peripheral audiovestibular function: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Ceranic, Borka; Cox, Robin; Watt, Hilary; Chadwick, Philip; Luxon, Linda M

    2008-02-01

    Low level radio-frequency (RF) signals may produce disorientation, headache and nausea. This double blind study tested nine case-subjects, who complained of various symptoms after prolonged mobile telephone use and 21 control subjects. Each subject underwent a series of trials, in which a dummy mobile telephone exposure system was held to each ear for 30 min in (a) pulsed, (b) continuous RF emission or, (c) no emission test modes. In the active pulsed and continuous modes the same mean power as the output of a typical handset was delivered at a carrier frequency of 882 MHz and at a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 1.3 W kg(-1) (+/- 30%). In Experiment I (auditory), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), which assess the outer hair cells in the inner ear, were conducted. In Experiment II (vestibular) the vestibulo-ocular reflex was recorded by video-oculography (VOG), at baseline and immediately post exposure. There were no significant TEOAE changes from baseline to post-exposure recording for any of the exposures and no significant differences in the TEOAEs' change from baseline to post exposure between cases and controls. The VOG did not identify any effect of the exposure on the vestibular end organ in either cases or controls. In conclusion, 30 min exposure to mobile phone RF did not show any immediate effects on vestibulocochlear function as measured by TEOAE and the VOR. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The effect of space missions on gravity-responsive torsional eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, S. G.; Markham, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three astronauts underwent preflight, inflight, and postflight testing of spontaneous ocular torsion and of ocular counterrolling (OCR), reflexes governed by the gravity-responsive otolith organs in the inner ear. One astronaut, A, had a 30-day space mission on Euromir '94 and was examined monocularly with SensoMotoric Instruments video-oculography (VOG). The other two astronauts, B and C, were studied with a binocular VOG and flew an 180-day mission on Euromir '95. In space, spontaneous eye torsion in the upright position was found to be substantially offset from baseline Earth-based recordings in all three subjects for the duration of the flights. In addition, the binocular studies showed a marked torsional disconjugacy. On return to Earth, offset and torsional disconjugacy persisted for many days. OCR in response to 30 degrees right and left tilt was examined preflight and postflight. Compared to preflight, Astronaut A showed reduced OCR immediately postflight, which increased over the next few days. Both Astronauts B and C had increased OCR postflight, which gradually approached but did not achieve the preflight values over 13 days postflight. The adaptation of ocular torsion in space in one astronaut and not in the other two, and slow adaptation postflight, may reflect the lack of visual feed-back and the open loop nature of the otolith-ocular torsion reflex.

  5. The effect of space missions on gravity-responsive torsional eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, S. G.; Markham, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three astronauts underwent preflight, inflight, and postflight testing of spontaneous ocular torsion and of ocular counterrolling (OCR), reflexes governed by the gravity-responsive otolith organs in the inner ear. One astronaut, A, had a 30-day space mission on Euromir '94 and was examined monocularly with SensoMotoric Instruments video-oculography (VOG). The other two astronauts, B and C, were studied with a binocular VOG and flew an 180-day mission on Euromir '95. In space, spontaneous eye torsion in the upright position was found to be substantially offset from baseline Earth-based recordings in all three subjects for the duration of the flights. In addition, the binocular studies showed a marked torsional disconjugacy. On return to Earth, offset and torsional disconjugacy persisted for many days. OCR in response to 30 degrees right and left tilt was examined preflight and postflight. Compared to preflight, Astronaut A showed reduced OCR immediately postflight, which increased over the next few days. Both Astronauts B and C had increased OCR postflight, which gradually approached but did not achieve the preflight values over 13 days postflight. The adaptation of ocular torsion in space in one astronaut and not in the other two, and slow adaptation postflight, may reflect the lack of visual feed-back and the open loop nature of the otolith-ocular torsion reflex.

  6. Twenty Years of Continuous gas Release at Kilauea: Effusive Lessons in a Volatile Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    2002-12-01

    The observatory worker who has lived a quarter of a century with Hawaiian lavas frothing in action, cannot fail to realize that gas chemistry is the heart of the volcano magma problem. T.A. Jaggar, 1940 Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption has presented workers with a nearly ideal setting to develop and test models of how this volcano and others like it work, from the viewpoint of magma transport, gas release, and eruption dynamics. Gas sampling studies, and in-situ and remote emission measurements can be conducted more easily at Kilauea than at other volcanoes because of its approachable nature and because of advances in instrumentation and analytical techniques. Analyses of gases from the eruption and from early in the last century have, with studies of volatiles trapped in submarine lavas, been used to conceptualize a degassing model for Kilauea concordant with contemporaneous geologic and geophysical evidence delineating the volcano's internal structure. More recent studies have revealed a greater CO2 emission rate than previously thought. The revised estimates have been used to infer changes in magma supply rate. Meanwhile, SO2 emission rates and our improved knowledge of residual volatiles are being used in parallel with geophysical methods, to monitor the eruption rate. Continuous monitoring studies using on-site species-selective sensors are a rapidly evolving part of the gas studies effort for the eruption. The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption has also provided an opportunity to study hazards associated with long-term environmental effects of volcanic emissions. Beginning in mid-1986, when activity changed from episodic fountaining to continuous effusion, volcanic air pollution, known locally as vog, became an unfortunate part of everyday life for Hawai`i residents and visitors. Since then, Kilauea has on average released about 1,600 tonnes of SO2 per day, roughly 6,000 times the daily amount judged by the EPA to classify an emitter as a major industrial

  7. In Vitro Analysis of Acetalated Dextran Microparticles as a Potent Delivery Platform for Vaccine Adjuvants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    W.: Williams . H. Interventions for basal cell carcinoma of the skin: systematic review. Bl•41 {Br. ,’.ted. 1./2004, 329 (7~68), 705. (151 Bath...Hextall, F. J.; Perkins. W.: Bong, 1.: Williams . H. C. Interventions for basal cell carcinoma of the ’kin. Cod1ruM Database Syst. Ret•. 2007. (1... Branson Sonifier 450, with a 0.5 in. flat tip) with an output setting of 3 and a duty cycle of IO%. The resulting single emulsion was immediately

  8. Density and rectangularity of planting influence 20-year growth and development of red alder.

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings were planted in northwestern Oregon, U.S.A., at five initial spacings: 0.6 × 1.2 m, 1.2 × 1.2 m, 1.2 × 1.8 m, 1.8 × 1.8 m, and 2.5 × 2.5 m. Up to about age 10, tree and stand characteristics were correlated primarily with initial planting density in the expected manner; through age 20, however, tree growth...

  9. Growth of historical Sitka spruce plantations at Unalaska Bay, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    J. Alden; D. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) grew an estimated 37 cubic feet of stemwood per acre per year (2.6 m3·ha-1·yr-1) in remnant World War II plantations on Amaknak Island and 38 cubic feet of stemwood per acre per year (2.7 m3·ha-1·yr-1) in an early 19th century grove on Expedition Island, 520 miles (837 km) southwest of natural tree...

  10. [Seed germination and key to seedling identification for six native tree species of wetlands from Southeast Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Vargas Simón, Georgina; Castellanos Albores, Jorge; Jong, Bernardus H J de

    2010-06-01

    Wetland tree species are of importance for economic and restoration purposes. We describe the germination process and seedling morphology of six arboreal native species typical of Southeastern Mexico: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis and Crataeva tapia. A total of 300 seeds per species were planted in a mixture of sand, cocoa plant husk and black soil (1:1:1), and maintained in a tree nursery with 30% artificial shade, from February to November of 2007. We carried out the morphological characterization, and elaborated a key to seedlings based on: 1) germination type 2) seedling axis and 3) leaf elements. P. aquatica has cryptocotylar hypogeal germination, the others have phanerocotylar epigeal germination. Germination rates were high (>86%), except for C. barbadensis (69%).

  11. Accumulation of cadmium by plants of Zawar Mines, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Aery, N C; Tiagi, Y D

    1988-01-01

    Several plants of the Zawar Zinc Deposits of Rajasthan (India) accumulate very high levels of cadmium. The maximum concentration namely 420 micrograms g-1 was found in the stems of Crotalaria linifolia. Some other cadmium accumulators with the concentration of the metal in microgram g-1 are Impatients balsamina (380), Dyerophytum indicum (282) and Melhania futteyporensis (245). The sequence of cadmium accumulation in different organs of the same plant species was roots greater than stems greater than leaves. Cadmium levels in the leaves of Celosia argentea, Crotalaria linifolia, Impatiens balsamina and Triumfetta pentandra showed a significant (linear) plant-soil relationship. The respective biological absorption coefficients (BAC - concentration of the element in the plant divided by concentration of the same element in the substrate) for these plants were 2.74, 4.13, 5.49 and 4.65.

  12. Plant uptake and transport of /sup 241/Am

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Mueller, R.T. Sr.; soufi, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    We conducted several experiments with /sup 241/Am to obtain a more complete understanding of how this transuranium element is absorbed and transported in plants. In a plant species (Tamarix pentandra Pall.) that has salt glands in the leaves excreting NaCl and other ions, /sup 241/Am was not pumped through these glands. Cyanide, which forms complexes with any metals, when applied to a calcareous soil, greatly increased the transport of /sup 241/Am into stems and leaves of bush bean plants. Radioactive cyanide (/sup 14/C) was also transported to leaves and stems. When radish was grown in both calcareous and noncalcareous soils, /sup 241/Am appeared to be fixed on the peel so firmly that it was resistant to removal by HNO/sub 3/ washing. The chelating agent DTPA induced increased transport of /sup 241/Am to leaves and into the fleshy roots of the radish.

  13. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yian; Wang, Jintao; Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall, large lumen, low density and hydrophobic-oleophilic properties. As a type of renewable natural plant fiber, kapok fiber is abundant, biocompatible and biodegradable, and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields. Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber, this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments, kapok fiber-based composite materials, and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils, metal ions, dyes, and sound, with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material, one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future.

  14. Spectral radiation of tree leaves in Bogor Agricultural University campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andika Purbaya, Deki; Badriyah Rushayati, Siti; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik

    2017-01-01

    Every anthropogenic activities that use fossil fuels will produce pollutants such as greenhouse gases. CO2 with other greenhouse gases increase urban air temperatures through the greenhouse effect. The aims of this study are to measure spectral radiation of several species of trees leaves in Bogor Agricultural University Campus and determine types of trees that are effective in absorbing CO2. Data was statistically analyzed based on the order of spectral radiation value. Meanwhile, grouping the ability of species to absorb CO2 was done based on normal curve distribution. Spectral radiation value is inversely proportional to the ability of plants to absorb CO2. The tree species classified as having a high ability to absorb CO2 is Tamrindus indica, Adenanthera pavoniana, Samanea saman, and Ceiba pentandra whereas the species classified as low capacity in absorbing CO2 is Annona murricata, Pterocarpus indicus, Acacia mangium, and Canangium odoratum, the rest classified as having moderate capability.

  15. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Janos, David P; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary.

  16. Root–shoot allometry of tropical forest trees determined in a large-scale aeroponic system

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Amram; Grünzweig, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy–root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. Methods Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa. Growth and allometric parameters of 12-month-old saplings grown in a large-scale aeroponic system and in 50-L soil containers were compared. The main advantage of growing plants in aeroponics is that their root systems are fully accessible throughout the plant life, and can be fully recovered for harvesting. Key Results The expected differences in shoot and root size between the fast-growing C. pentandra and the slower-growing K. anthotheca were evident in both growth systems. Roots were recovered from the aeroponically grown saplings only, and their distribution among various diameter classes followed the patterns expected from the literature. Stem, branch and leaf allometric parameters were similar for saplings of each species grown in the two systems. Conclusions The aeroponic tree growth system can be utilized for determining the basic allometric relationships between root and shoot components of these trees, and hence can be used to study carbon allocation and fluxes of whole above- and below-ground tree parts. PMID:23250916

  17. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Networks Inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta Seedlings in Rain Forest Soil Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Janos, David P.; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks–previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect–probably help to maintain the rain forest–savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  18. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tam, Elizabeth K.; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James A.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean ± s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3 ± 0.2 ppb, 2.5 ± 1.2 μg/m3, 0.6 ± 1.1 nmol H +/m3), 2) Intermittent (1.6 ± 1.8 ppb, 2.8 ± 1.5 μg/m3, 4.0 ± 6.6 nmol H +/m3), 3) Frequent (10.1 ± 5.2 ppb, 4.8 ± 1.9 μg/m3, 4.3 ± 6.7 nmol H +/m3), and 4) Acid (1.2 ± 0.4 ppb, 7.2 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 25.3 ± 17.9 nmol H +/m3). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC < 0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

  19. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 17 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-17

    ISS017-E-007156 (17 May 2008) --- Volcanic plumes and volcanic fog in Hawaii are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 17 crewmember on the International Space Station. For 25 years, Kilauea volcano on Hawaii's Big Island has been erupting continuously. Recent explosive activity that started in March 2008 is producing increased emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). These emissions result in a widespread caustic volcanic fog -- known as vog -- that, depending on local winds, drifts as much as 200 miles up the volcanic chain, burning throats and eyes, and inducing asthma attacks as far away as Honolulu, on the island of Oahu. An oblique view of the Hawaiian islands taken from the International Space Station -- viewed looking towards the southwest, rather than "straight down" relative to the station -- on a hazy spring day includes a regional view of three volcanic plumes from Kilauea that contribute to the vog: the plume from Halema'uma'u crater near the summit, a plume from Pu'u O'o vent along the east rift, and a plume from where lava enters the ocean on the coast outside of the park boundaries. At the time this image was taken, doctors throughout the state of Hawaii were reporting an increased caseload of people with respiratory problems. Aside from the vog, this view captures cloud formations indicative of both the large-scale air flow and the local wind patterns around the islands. The parallel lines of clouds aligned roughly northeast to southwest reveal the direction of the region's prevailing trade winds; that flow is disrupted around the islands (between Hawaii and Maui, at right), and further influenced by the local land/sea breeze which at that time had driven the cloud formations offshore and circling the islands. In addition to the Kilauea plumes, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are also visible on the island of Hawaii (center). The uninhabited island of Kaho'olawe is just visible to the southwest of Maui.

  20. Headwater riparian invertebrate communities associated with red alder and conifer wood and leaf litter in southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeSage, C.M.; Merritt, R.W.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We examined how management of young upland forests in southeastern Alaska affect riparian invertebrate taxa richness, density, and biomass, in turn, potentially influencing food abundance for fish and wildlife. Southeastern Alaska forests are dominated by coniferous trees including Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), with mixed stands of red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.). Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is hypothesized to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and through forest management may provide increased riparian invertebrate abundance. To compare and contrast invertebrate densities between coniferous and alder riparian habitats, leaf litter and wood debris (early and late decay classes) samples were collected along eleven headwater streams on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Members of Acarina and Collembola were the most abundant taxa collected in leaf litter with alder litter having significantly higher mean taxa richness than conifer litter. Members of Acarina were the most abundant group collected on wood debris and alder wood had significantly higher mean taxa richness and biomass than conifer wood. Alder wood debris in more advanced decay stages had the highest mean taxa richness and biomass, compared to other wood types, while conifer late decay wood debris had the highest densities of invertebrates. The inclusion of alder in young-growth conifer forests can benefit forest ecosystems by enhancing taxa richness and biomass of riparian forest invertebrates. ?? 2005 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomical discrimination of the differences between torn mesentery tissue and internal organ-surface primo-vessels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghun; Ryu, Yeonhee; Yun, Yungju; Lee, Sungwon; Kwon, Ohsang; Kim, Jaehyo; Sohn, Inchul; Ahn, Seonghun

    2010-03-01

    The most difficult step in the morphological study of the internal organ-surface primo-vessel (Bong-Han duct) system is the correct identification of samples, due to similarities between torn mesentery and primo-vessel tissue. Without proper sample discernment, the subsequent parts of morphological studies cannot be trusted. Here, we present differences between torn mesentery and primo-vessel tissues as determined by minimal operation, using stereoscopic and microscopic observation. Stereoscopic observation revealed that torn mesentery is tightly connected to the organ surface and does not branch; the detached margin has a fan-shaped membrane without any swollen portions. Primo-vessels are slightly connected to the organ surface and branched, while detached margins lack a membrane and possess a swelling termed the primo-node (Bong-Han corpuscle). Microscopic observation shows bundle patterns in primo-vessel tissue, but irregular arrangement in torn mesentery tissue. These characteristics can be used to distinguish torn mesentery from primo-vessels.

  2. SSR and EST-SSR-based genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Sraphet, Supajit; Boonchanawiwat, Athipong; Thanyasiriwat, Thanwanit; Boonseng, Opas; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Lightfoot, David A; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn

    2011-04-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers provide a powerful tool for genetic linkage map construction that can be applied for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, a total of 640 new SSR markers were developed from an enriched genomic DNA library of the cassava variety 'Huay Bong 60' and 1,500 novel expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) loci were developed from the Genbank database. To construct a genetic linkage map of cassava, a 100 F(1) line mapping population was developed from the cross Huay Bong 60 by 'Hanatee'. Polymorphism screening between the parental lines revealed that 199 SSRs and 168 EST-SSRs were identified as novel polymorphic markers. Combining with previously developed SSRs, we report a linkage map consisted of 510 markers encompassing 1,420.3 cM, distributed on 23 linkage groups with a mean distance between markers of 4.54 cM. Comparison analysis of the SSR order on the cassava linkage map and the cassava genome sequences allowed us to locate 284 scaffolds on the genetic map. Although the number of linkage groups reported here revealed that this F(1) genetic linkage map is not yet a saturated map, it encompassed around 88% of the cassava genome indicating that the map was almost complete. Therefore, sufficient markers now exist to encompass most of the genomes and efficiently map traits in cassava.

  3. Successful proof of concept of family planning and immunization integration in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-03-01

    Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in non

  4. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  5. Buckets of Ash Track Tephra Flux From Halema`uma`u Crater, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Don; Wooten, Kelly; Orr, Tim

    2009-11-01

    The 2008-2009 eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit made news because of its eight small discrete explosive eruptions and noxious volcanic smog (vog) created from outgassing sulfur dioxide. Less appreciated is the ongoing, weak, but continuous output of tephra, primarily ash, from the new open vent in Halema`uma`u Crater. This tephra holds clues to processes causing the eruption and forming the new crater-in-a-crater, and its flux is important to hazard evaluations. The setting of the vent—easily accessible from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)—is unusually favorable for near-daily tracking of tephra mass flux during this small prolonged basaltic eruption. Recognizing this, scientists from HVO are collecting ash and documenting how ejection masses, components, and chemical compositions vary through time.

  6. The first five years of Kīlauea’s summit eruption in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, 2008–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, Tamar; Swanson, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The eruption in Halema‘uma‘u Crater that began in March 2008 is the longest summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, on the Island of Hawai‘i, since 1924. From the time the eruption began, the new "Overlook crater" inside Halema‘uma‘u has exhibited fluctuating lava lake activity, occasional small explosive events, and a persistent gas plume. The beautiful nighttime glow impresses and thrills visitors in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, but the continuous emission of sulfur dioxide gas produces "vog" (volcanic smog) that can severely affect communities and local agriculture downwind. U.S. Geological Survey scientists continue to closely monitor the eruption and assess ongoing hazards.

  7. Perverted Head-Shaking and Positional Downbeat Nystagmus in Essential Tremor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Ji Soo; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Ehm, Gwanhee; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Beom S

    2016-04-01

    Even though the pathophysiology is not completely understood, cerebellar dysfunction has been invoked in essential tremor (ET). We evaluated cerebellar dysfunction in ET with the presence of perverted head-shaking (pHSN) and positional downbeat nystagmus (pDBN) which are known to reflect cerebellar dysfunction. First, we reviewed the videooculography (VOG) of 185 patients with ET from March 2007 to April 2010. Seventeen of 28 patients with pHSN and pDBN were followed up for at least a 1.8-year interval from baseline to determine the clinical course. And then, we recruited 52 consecutive patients with ET and compared their ocular motor findings with 51 normal controls using VOG. Among the 185 patients with ET, 28 (15.1 %) showed pHSN (n = 23, 12.4 %) or pDBN (n = 8, 4.3 %). Seventeen of them who were followed up did not develop Parkinsonism or other neurologic deficits during the observation period. The subsequent case-control study showed a higher prevalence of pHSN or pDBN (11/52, 21.2 %, pHSN in nine and pDBN in five) in patients with ET than in the normal controls (2/51, 3.9 %, pHSN only, P = 0.015). The tremor rating scale or involved body sites did not differ between the patients with and without pHSN/pDBN. pHSN and pDBN were more common in patients with ET than in the normal controls. This result supports that cerebellar dysfunction is associated with ET.

  8. Relative roles of luminance and fixation in inducing dissociated vertical divergence.

    PubMed

    Ghadban, Rafif; Liebermann, Laura; Klaehn, Lindsay D; Holmes, Jonathan M; Brodsky, Michael C

    2014-12-23

    We evaluated the roles of luminance and fixation in the pathophysiology of dissociated vertical divergence (DVD). Vertical eye position was measured in 6 subjects with DVD (ages 11-47 years, 5 females) and 6 controls (ages 16-40 years, 5 females) using video-oculography (VOG) under conditions of change in fixation and luminance. Subjects with DVD showed the following VOG responses. When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter and bright light was shone into one eye to produce a marked binocular luminance disparity, we found some subjects had a small induced vertical divergence causing the illuminated eye to be lower than the nonilluminated eye (mean -1.6° ± 1.5°, P = 0.06 compared to no vertical divergence using the signed rank test). When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter, while alternate occlusion produced a mild binocular luminance disparity, we found a smaller vertical divergence of the eyes that was not statistically significant (1.2° ± 2.1°, P = 0.3). When alternate occlusion produced reversal of monocular fixation in the dark (with essentially no change in peripheral luminance disparity), there was a significant vertical divergence movement causing the covered eye to be relatively higher than the uncovered eye (7.2° ± 3.1°, P = 0.03). The amplitude of this vertical divergence was similar to that measured under conditions of alternate occlusion in a lighted room (where there also was a significant average relative upward movement of the covered eye of 8.1° ± 2.9°, P = 0.03). Control subjects showed no vertical divergence under any testing conditions. Dissociated vertical divergence is mediated primarily by changes in fixation and only to a minor degree by binocular luminance disparity. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Relative Roles of Luminance and Fixation in Inducing Dissociated Vertical Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Ghadban, Rafif; Liebermann, Laura; Klaehn, Lindsay D.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Brodsky, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the roles of luminance and fixation in the pathophysiology of dissociated vertical divergence (DVD). Methods. Vertical eye position was measured in 6 subjects with DVD (ages 11–47 years, 5 females) and 6 controls (ages 16–40 years, 5 females) using video-oculography (VOG) under conditions of change in fixation and luminance. Results. Subjects with DVD showed the following VOG responses. When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter and bright light was shone into one eye to produce a marked binocular luminance disparity, we found some subjects had a small induced vertical divergence causing the illuminated eye to be lower than the nonilluminated eye (mean −1.6° ± 1.5°, P = 0.06 compared to no vertical divergence using the signed rank test). When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter, while alternate occlusion produced a mild binocular luminance disparity, we found a smaller vertical divergence of the eyes that was not statistically significant (1.2° ± 2.1°, P = 0.3). When alternate occlusion produced reversal of monocular fixation in the dark (with essentially no change in peripheral luminance disparity), there was a significant vertical divergence movement causing the covered eye to be relatively higher than the uncovered eye (7.2° ± 3.1°, P = 0.03). The amplitude of this vertical divergence was similar to that measured under conditions of alternate occlusion in a lighted room (where there also was a significant average relative upward movement of the covered eye of 8.1° ± 2.9°, P = 0.03). Control subjects showed no vertical divergence under any testing conditions. Conclusions. Dissociated vertical divergence is mediated primarily by changes in fixation and only to a minor degree by binocular luminance disparity. PMID:25537206

  10. Measuring three dimensions of eye movement in dynamic situations by means of videooculography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, H; Teiwes, W; Clarke, A H

    1991-01-01

    A primary function of the vestibular system is the stabilisation of the eye during head movement. Consequently, evaluation of reflex eye movements represents an essential means to both clinical diagnosis and researching of the vestibular function. Movements in the eye can be resolved into three orthogonal components, i.e. horizontal, vertical and torsional. As an improvement on most current techniques, which provide only measurement of the horizontal and vertical components, videooculography (VOG) facilitates non-invasive measurement of all three of the defined components. To date, only the scleral coil technique, which involves the semi-invasive placement of coil rings onto the bulbi, yields a continuous measure of eye torsion. Employment of suitable solid-state devices permit the integration of a compact, high resolution video recording system. In the basic configuration, eye movements can be observed and simultaneously recorded for later analysis or documentation. The video images of the eye are obtained by means of a miniaturised CCD video sensor mounted on a light-occluding mask. Image processing of the acquired video images determines horizontal and vertical coordinates of eye position online. Ocular torsion, as reflected by the rotation of the natural iris, is measured for each video frame. The VOG algorithm has been implemented on a PC based workstation, which permits online observation, recording and evaluation of eye movements. In addition, the technique has found clinical application as a portable eye-movement observation and recording system, allowing bedside examination and recording of transient symptoms. Preliminary results from various studies, including the objective evaluation of positional nystagmus (BPPN), are presented.

  11. Crouzon Syndrome: Relationship of Eye Movements to Pattern Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Avery H; Kelly, John P; Hopper, Richard A; Phillips, James O

    2015-07-01

    To characterize conjugate eye movements in Crouzon syndrome (CS) patients with and without strabismus. Smooth pursuit, saccades, horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were recorded using binocular video-oculography (VOG) in 10 children with CS (5 orthotropic, 5 strabismic) and 12 age-matched controls. Hess-Lancaster plots were generated from Orbit 1.8 using rectus muscle pulley locations from computed tomography imaging. Two-dimensional eye scan paths from VOG recordings were compared with the Hess-Lancaster plots. Targeted saccades were normometric on average but variable, and followed the main sequence in both CS groups. Smooth pursuit gains were normal for both CS groups; however, SP gains of the fixating eye in subjects with strabismus were significantly lower. Optokinetic nystagmus gains were reduced in both CS groups (P < 0.02) but were lower in subjects with strabismus. Shifting misalignments of binocular eye position in primary and eccentric gazes were associated with reduction in OKN gain in both CS groups. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gains for both CS groups were largely normal despite the presence of an off-axis vertical component. Normal gains for saccades and smooth pursuit in CS patients with strabismus are consistent with accurate execution of both movements despite extorsion of the globe. Vestibulo-ocular reflex in CS patients with strabismus had an off-axis vertical component consistent with extorted muscle pulleys. Optokinetic nystagmus is reduced in CS without strabismus owing to binocular position disparities and in CS with strabismus is likely due to cortical suppression associated with cross-axis orientation and exotropia.

  12. Differential diagnostic value of eye movement recording in PSP-parkinsonism, Richardson's syndrome, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Jürgens, Reinhart; Becker, Wolfgang; Valdarno, Federica; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2008-12-01

    Vertical gaze palsy is a highly relevant clinical sign in parkinsonian syndromes. As the eponymous sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), it is one of the core features in the diagnosis of this disease. Recent studies have suggested a further differentiation of PSP in Richardson's syndrome (RS) and PSP-parkinsonism (PSPP). The aim of this study was to search for oculomotor abnormalities in the PSP-P subset of a sample of PSP patients and to compare these findings with those of (i) RS patients, (ii) patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and (iii) a control group. Twelve cases of RS, 5 cases of PSP-P, and 27 cases of IPD were examined by use of video-oculography (VOG) and compared to 23 healthy normal controls. Both groups of PSP patients (RS, PSP-P) had significantly slower saccades than either IPD patients or controls, whereas no differences in saccadic eye peak velocity were found between the two PSP groups or in the comparison of IPD with controls. RS and PSP-P were also similar to each other with regard to smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), with both groups having significantly lower gain than controls (except for downward pursuit); however, SPEM gain exhibited no consistent difference between PSP and IPD. A correlation between eye movement data and clinical data (Hoehn & Yahr scale or disease duration) could not be observed. As PSP-P patients were still in an early stage of the disease when a differentiation from IPD is difficult on clinical grounds, the clear-cut separation between PSP-P and IPD obtained by measuring saccade velocity suggests that VOG could contribute to the early differentiation between these patient groups.

  13. Design of a Piezoelectric Accelerometer with High Sensitivity and Low Transverse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bian; Liu, Hanyue; Yang, Ning; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of cable fault detection, a new structure of piezoelectric accelerometer was designed and analyzed in detail. The structure was composed of a seismic mass, two sensitive beams, and two added beams. Then, simulations including the maximum stress, natural frequency, and output voltage were carried out. Moreover, comparisons with traditional structures of piezoelectric accelerometer were made. To verify which vibration mode is the dominant one on the acceleration and the space between the mass and glass, mode analysis and deflection analysis were carried out. Fabricated on an n-type single crystal silicon wafer, the sensor chips were wire-bonged to printed circuit boards (PCBs) and simply packaged for experiments. Finally, a vibration test was conducted. The results show that the proposed piezoelectric accelerometer has high sensitivity, low resonance frequency, and low transverse effect. PMID:27681734

  14. Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chikly, Bruno; Roberts, Paul; Quaghebeur, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system has a specific anatomical and immunohistochemical signature that sets it apart from the arteriovenous and lymphatic systems. With immune and endocrine functions, the primo vascular system has been found to play a large role in biological processes, including tissue regeneration, inflammation, and cancer metastases. Although scientifically confirmed in 2002, the original discovery was made in the early 1960s by Bong-Han Kim, a North Korean scientist. It would take nearly 40 years after that discovery for scientists to revisit Kim's research to confirm the early findings. The presence of primo vessels in and around blood and lymph vessels, nerves, viscera, and fascia, as well as in the brain and spinal cord, reveals a common link that could potentially open novel possibilities of integration with cranial, lymphatic, visceral, and fascial approaches in manual medicine.

  15. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  16. Data of methylome and transcriptome derived from human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Bong-Seok; Koh, In-Uk; Bae, Jae-Bum; Yu, Ho-Yeong; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Lee, Hae-Young; Kim, Jae-Joong; Choi, Murim; Choi, Sun Shim

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression have been implicated in the development of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the left ventricle (LV, a pathological locus for DCM) and the right ventricle (RV, a proxy for normal hearts). The data in this DiB are for supporting our report entitled "Methylome analysis reveals alterations in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of left ventricle development genes in human dilated cardiomyopathy" (Bong-Seok Jo, In-Uk Koh, Jae-Bum Bae, Ho-Yeong Yu, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Sun Shim Choi, 2016) [1].

  17. Content Specificity of Expectancy Beliefs and Task Values in Elementary Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Ennis, Catherine D.; Sun, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum may superimpose a content-specific context that mediates motivation (Bong, 2001). This study examined content specificity of the expectancy-value motivation in elementary school physical education. Students’ expectancy beliefs and perceived task values from a cardiorespiratory fitness unit, a muscular fitness unit, and a traditional skill/game unit were analyzed using constant comparison coding procedures, multivariate analysis of variance, χ2, and correlation analyses. There was no difference in the intrinsic interest value among the three content conditions. Expectancy belief, attainment, and utility values were significantly higher for the cardiorespiratory fitness curriculum. Correlations differentiated among the expectancy-value components of the content conditions, providing further evidence of content specificity in the expectancy-value motivation process. The findings suggest that expectancy beliefs and task values should be incorporated in the theoretical platform for curriculum development based on the learning outcomes that can be specified with enhanced motivation effect. PMID:18664044

  18. NASA’s First Nations Launch Bolsters Skills, Broadens Horizons For Tribal Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-20

    Fifteen teams of STEM-minded students from 14 tribal and other U.S. colleges and universities competed in NASA’s Eighth Annual First Nations Launch Competition, or FNL, hosted at Carthage College in Kenosha, Wisconsin, on April 20 – 22, 2017. The three-day event, featuring technical workshops, design-sharing and a spirit of collaboration, culminated on Saturday, April 22, at the Richard Bong Recreation Area in nearby Kansasville, Wisconsin, where teams gathered to launch the high-powered rockets they’d designed and built this school year. FNL empowers Native American college students to pursue academic and professional opportunities in STEM and other fields. First Nations Launch is a STEM Education and Accountability Project (SEAP) managed at the Kennedy Space Center through the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium located at Carthage College in Kenosha, Wisconsin.

  19. Design of a Piezoelectric Accelerometer with High Sensitivity and Low Transverse Effect.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bian; Liu, Hanyue; Yang, Ning; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-09-26

    In order to meet the requirements of cable fault detection, a new structure of piezoelectric accelerometer was designed and analyzed in detail. The structure was composed of a seismic mass, two sensitive beams, and two added beams. Then, simulations including the maximum stress, natural frequency, and output voltage were carried out. Moreover, comparisons with traditional structures of piezoelectric accelerometer were made. To verify which vibration mode is the dominant one on the acceleration and the space between the mass and glass, mode analysis and deflection analysis were carried out. Fabricated on an n-type single crystal silicon wafer, the sensor chips were wire-bonged to printed circuit boards (PCBs) and simply packaged for experiments. Finally, a vibration test was conducted. The results show that the proposed piezoelectric accelerometer has high sensitivity, low resonance frequency, and low transverse effect.

  20. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  1. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN). This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. Results The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm) and less CN (15 ppm) than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm). The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl.) of 26%. Conclusions Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait. PMID:21609492

  2. Toking, Vaping, and Eating for Health or Fun: Marijuana Use Patterns in Adults, U.S., 2014.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Gillian L; King, Brian A; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Promoff, Gabbi; McAfee, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    Policies legalizing marijuana for medical and recreational use have been increasing in the U.S. Considering the potential impact of these policies, important knowledge gaps exist, including information about the prevalence of various modes of marijuana use (e.g., smoked in joints, bowls, bongs; consumed in edibles or drinks) and about medical versus recreational use. Accordingly, this study assessed (1) prevalence and correlates of modes of current and ever marijuana use and (2) prevalence of medicinal and recreational marijuana use in U.S. adults. Data came from Summer Styles (n=4,269), a nationally representative consumer panel survey of adults aged ≥18 years, collected in 2014. The survey asked about past 30-day (current) and ever mode of marijuana use and current reason for use (medicinal, recreational, both). Weighted prevalence estimates were computed and correlates were assessed in 2014 using logistic regression. Overall, 7.2% of respondents reported current marijuana use; 34.5% reported ever use. Among current users, 10.5% reported medicinal-only use, 53.4% reported recreational-only use, and 36.1% reported both. Use of bowl or pipe (49.5%) and joint (49.2%) predominated among current marijuana users, with lesser use of bong, water pipe, or hookah (21.7%); blunts (20.3%); edibles/drinks (16.1%); and vaporizers (7.6%); 92.1% of the sample reported combusted-only marijuana use. Combusted modes of marijuana use are most prevalent among U.S. adults, with a majority using marijuana for recreation. In light of changing policies and patterns of use, improved marijuana surveillance is critical for public health planning. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher; Nemeth, Nicole; Marineros, Leonel

    2006-09-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica.

  4. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491

  5. "Stepping-sticks" and "seat-sticks": new types of tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Alp, R

    1997-01-01

    In Tenkere, Sierra Leone, a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) spent long hours eating the fruits and flowers of the Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) tree. The branches of this species are covered in sharp thorns which make movement in their high canopies problematic for the chimpanzees. In an apparent attempt to increase their mobility and to ease the discomfort of lengthy bouts of eating in these trees, some of the Tenkere chimpanzees have been observed using stick tools as foot ("stepping-sticks") and body ("seat-sticks") protection against the painful thorns. This form of tool-using is culturally unique to the Tenkere chimpanzees, as at other sites where these apes have been observed eating parts of kapok trees, there are no published records of this tool technology. In three of the stepping-stick tool use incidents, the chimpanzee used the tool(s), held between their greater and lesser toes, in locomotion. This form of tool use is the first recorded case of habitually used tools that can be justifiably categorized as being "worn" by any known wild population of Pan troglodytes.

  6. The Distribution of Anacardiaceae in Teluk Bahang Forest Reserve, Pulau Pinang

    PubMed Central

    Juperi, Shaodah; Zakaria, Rahmad; Mansor, Asyraf

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of Anacardiaceae in Teluk Bahang Permanent Forest Reserve (TBPFR) in Pulau Pinang, all trees with a diameter at breast high (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were enumerated in a study site constituting 0.4 ha of the reserve. Seventy five individuals of Anacardiaceae (14% of all trees) are recorded. These individuals represent 4 genera and 5 species, namely, Mangifera pentandra, Mangifera macrocarpa, Gluta elegans, Campnosperma auriculatum and Swintonia floribunda. The mean density of Anacardiaceae within the study plots is 7.50±8.14 (mean±S.D.) per ha whereas the basal area (BA) calculated is 0.97 m2/0.40 ha. The importance value (IVi) for Anacardiaceae is 81%. The estimated total aboveground biomass (TAGB) for Anacardiaceae is 24.24 ton/0.40 ha. A total of 333 Anacardiaceae saplings with a DBH < 5 cm are recorded. These saplings have been identified as juveniles of the genera Gluta (9.99%), Swintonia (84.90%) and Mangifera (5.11%). PMID:24575224

  7. The distribution of anacardiaceae in teluk bahang forest reserve, pulau pinang.

    PubMed

    Juperi, Shaodah; Zakaria, Rahmad; Mansor, Asyraf

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of Anacardiaceae in Teluk Bahang Permanent Forest Reserve (TBPFR) in Pulau Pinang, all trees with a diameter at breast high (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were enumerated in a study site constituting 0.4 ha of the reserve. Seventy five individuals of Anacardiaceae (14% of all trees) are recorded. These individuals represent 4 genera and 5 species, namely, Mangifera pentandra, Mangifera macrocarpa, Gluta elegans, Campnosperma auriculatum and Swintonia floribunda. The mean density of Anacardiaceae within the study plots is 7.50±8.14 (mean±S.D.) per ha whereas the basal area (BA) calculated is 0.97 m(2)/0.40 ha. The importance value (IVi) for Anacardiaceae is 81%. The estimated total aboveground biomass (TAGB) for Anacardiaceae is 24.24 ton/0.40 ha. A total of 333 Anacardiaceae saplings with a DBH < 5 cm are recorded. These saplings have been identified as juveniles of the genera Gluta (9.99%), Swintonia (84.90%) and Mangifera (5.11%).

  8. The recent progress of Chinese VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    At present, Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) consists of 5 antennas (Seshan 25m, Urumqi 25m, Kunming 30m, Miyun 50m and Tianma 65m) and one data processing center in Shanghai Observatory, Chinese academy of sciences. It is a synthetic aperture radio telescope with the equivalent diameter up to 3000 Km. Through e-VLBI (electronic VLBI) technology, CVN is connected by the commuication network. It is a multi-purpose scientific research platform radio for geodesy, astronomy, as well as deep space exploration. In Geodesy, CVN is the component of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China. Since the year of 2006, more than 20 geodetic domestic observations have been carried out. A set of phase-referencing observations of pulsars with CVN has carried out and got preliminary results. CVN also joined the Chinese lunar exploration Project from 2007 and supported 4 Chang’E series lunar probe missions. In Chang’E-3 mission, using the in-beam VLBI observations, the relative position accuracy of Rover and Lander is up to 1 meter.In recent years, we have updated the facilities of CVN from antenna, receivers, VLBI terminals to correlator. Participation of Tianma 65m antennas increases its performance. In 2012, Shanghai correlator was accepted as the IVS correlator. After upgrade, Shanghai correlator will try to provide the data process service for IVS community from 2015. To drive the construction of the planned VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System) station, at least two VOGS 13m antenna will join CVN in the near future. Construction of the first VOGS antenna in Shanghai hopes to begin this year.The new VLBI correlator and digital terminal are under development. From participation in VGOS, we plan to study the earth rotation especially of high frequency and corresponding geophysical signals, to link China’s regional reference frame to ITRF, and etc. CVN is willing to join the research corporation with IVS, EVN, VLBA and AOV (Asia- Oceania VLBI Group for Geodesy and

  9. High-Speed Video-Oculography for Measuring Three-Dimensional Rotation Vectors of Eye Movements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Noriaki; Uno, Atsuhiko; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background The mouse is the most commonly used animal model in biomedical research because of recent advances in molecular genetic techniques. Studies related to eye movement in mice are common in fields such as ophthalmology relating to vision, neuro-otology relating to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), neurology relating to the cerebellum’s role in movement, and psychology relating to attention. Recording eye movements in mice, however, is technically difficult. Methods We developed a new algorithm for analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed video-oculography (VOG). The algorithm made it possible to analyze the gain and phase of VOR using the eye’s angular velocity around the axis of eye rotation. Results When mice were rotated at 0.5 Hz and 2.5 Hz around the earth’s vertical axis with their heads in a 30° nose-down position, the vertical components of their left eye movements were in phase with the horizontal components. The VOR gain was 0.42 at 0.5 Hz and 0.74 at 2.5 Hz, and the phase lead of the eye movement against the turntable was 16.1° at 0.5 Hz and 4.88° at 2.5 Hz. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this algorithm being used to calculate a 3D rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed VOG. We developed a technique for analyzing the 3D rotation vector of eye movements in mice with a high-speed infrared CCD camera. We concluded that the technique is suitable for analyzing eye movements in mice. We also include a C++ source code that can calculate the 3D rotation vectors of the eye position from two-dimensional coordinates of the pupil and the iris freckle in the image to this article. PMID:27023859

  10. Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) Detection Using Visible, Near Infrared and Thermal Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Maja, Joe Mari; Buchanon, Sherrie; Ehsani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of visible-near infrared and thermal imaging for detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus trees. Visible-near infrared (440–900 nm) and thermal infrared spectral reflectance data were collected from individual healthy and HLB-infected trees. Data analysis revealed that the average reflectance values of the healthy trees in the visible region were lower than those in the near infrared region, while the opposite was the case for HLB-infected trees. Moreover, 560 nm, 710 nm, and thermal band showed maximum class separability between healthy and HLB-infected groups among the evaluated visible-infrared bands. Similarly, analysis of several vegetation indices indicated that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Vogelmann red-edge index (VOG) and modified red-edge simple ratio (mSR) demonstrated good class separability between the two groups. Classification studies using average spectral reflectance values from the visible, near infrared, and thermal bands (13 spectral features) as input features indicated that an average overall classification accuracy of about 87%, with 89% specificity and 85% sensitivity could be achieved with classification models such as support vector machine for trees with symptomatic leaves. PMID:23389343

  11. Huanglongbing (citrus greening) detection using visible, near infrared and thermal imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Maja, Joe Mari; Buchanon, Sherrie; Ehsani, Reza

    2013-02-06

    This study demonstrates the applicability of visible-near infrared and thermal imaging for detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus trees. Visible-near infrared (440-900 nm) and thermal infrared spectral reflectance data were collected from individual healthy and HLB-infected trees. Data analysis revealed that the average reflectance values of the healthy trees in the visible region were lower than those in the near infrared region, while the opposite was the case for HLB-infected trees. Moreover, 560 nm, 710 nm, and thermal band showed maximum class separability between healthy and HLB-infected groups among the evaluated visible-infrared bands. Similarly, analysis of several vegetation indices indicated that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Vogelmann red-edge index (VOG) and modified red-edge simple ratio (mSR) demonstrated good class separability between the two groups. Classification studies using average spectral reflectance values from the visible, near infrared, and thermal bands (13 spectral features) as input features indicated that an average overall classification accuracy of about 87%, with 89% specificity and 85% sensitivity could be achieved with classification models such as support vector machine for trees with symptomatic leaves.

  12. Validation of mobile eye-tracking as novel and efficient means for differentiating progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marx, Svenja; Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Dowiasch, Stefan; Stoll, Josef; Bremmer, Frank; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Höglinger, Günter U; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The decreased ability to carry out vertical saccades is a key symptom of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). Objective measurement devices can help to reliably detect subtle eye movement disturbances to improve sensitivity and specificity of the clinical diagnosis. The present study aims at transferring findings from restricted stationary video-oculography (VOG) to a wearable head-mounted device, which can be readily applied in clinical practice. We investigated the eye movements in 10 possible or probable PSP patients, 11 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and 10 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a mobile, gaze-driven video camera setup (EyeSeeCam). Ocular movements were analyzed during a standardized fixation protocol and in an unrestricted real-life scenario while walking along a corridor. The EyeSeeCam detected prominent impairment of both saccade velocity and amplitude in PSP patients, differentiating them from PD and HCs. Differences were particularly evident for saccades in the vertical plane, and stronger for saccades than for other eye movements. Differences were more pronounced during the standardized protocol than in the real-life scenario. Combined analysis of saccade velocity and saccade amplitude during the fixation protocol with the EyeSeeCam provides a simple, rapid (<20 s), and reliable tool to differentiate clinically established PSP patients from PD and HCs. As such, our findings prepare the ground for using wearable eye-tracking in patients with uncertain diagnoses.

  13. Fire tests to evaluate the potential fire threat and its effects on HEPA filter integrity in cell ventilation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 7920

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1992-12-01

    As a result of a DOE (Tiger Team) Technical Safety Appraisal (November 1990) of the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), ORNL Building 7920, a number of fire protection concerns were identified. The primary concern was the perceived loss of ventilation system containment due to the thermal destruction and/or breaching of the prefilters and/or high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA `s) and the resultant radioactive release to the external environment. The following report describes the results of an extensive fire test program performed by the Fire Research Discipline (FRD) of the Special Projects Division of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and funded by ORNL to address these concerns. Full scale mock-ups of a REDC hot cell tank pit, adjacent cubicle pit, and associated ventilation system were constructed at LLNL and 13 fire experiments were conducted to specifically answer the questions raised by the Tiger Team. Our primary test plan was to characterize the burning of a catastrophic solvent spill (kerosene) of 40 liters and its effect on the containment ventilation system prefilters and HEPA filters. In conjunction with ORNL and Lockwood Greene we developed a test matrix that assessed the fire performance of the prefilters and HEPA filters; evaluated the fire response of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) epoxy ventilation duct work; the response and effectiveness of the fire protection system, the effect of fire in a cubicle on the vessel off-gas (VOG) elbow, and other fire safety questions.

  14. Dynamic Visual Acuity Associated With Eye Movements And Pupillary Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaste, Ernesto; García, Nadia; Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúñiga, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Objectively was evaluate dynamic visual acuity (DVA), using moving optotypes, while monitoring eye movements and pupillary responses. Under controlled conditions of luminance and contrast the viewers were asked to look carefully at a moving alphabetic letter. The letter was moved in the horizontal plane at a determined speed by a sinusoidal frequency generator. The initial frequency was gradually incremented until the viewer reported was not able to distinguish the object. Objective measures of DVA were obtained using video-oculography (VOG) in which, pupillary images and eye movements were analyzed by image processing. We found that when a large dilatation of the pupil is presented coincided with a pause eye movement (0.1s). It was when the viewer leaves to see clearly the letter of Snellen. The changes of pupil diameter of the five viewers were found averages to nasal trajectory from 3.58 mm (0 Hz) to 3.85 mm (1Hz), and to temporal trajectory from 3.54 mm (0 Hz) to 3.96 mm (1 Hz). Also, the bandwidth since 0.6 to 1.2 Hz, of the viewers due to the response at the stimulus (letter of Snellen) with 20° of amplitude, was obtained.

  15. Detection of spatio-temporal changes of Norway spruce forest stands in Ore Mountains using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misurec, J.; Kopačková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Campbell, P. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mountains are an example of the region that suffered from severe environmental pollution caused by long-term coal mining and heavy industry leading to massive dieback of the local Norway spruce forests between the 1970's and 1990's. The situation became getting better at the end of 1990's after pollution loads significantly decreased. In 1998 and 2013, airborne hyperspectral data (with sensor ASAS and APEX, respectively) were used to study recovery of the originally damaged forest stands and compared them with those that have been less affected by environmental pollution. The field campaign (needle biochemical analysis, tree defoliation etc.) accompanied hyperspectral imagery acquisition. An analysis was conducted assessing a set of 16 vegetation indices providing complex information on foliage, biochemistry and canopy biophysics and structure. Five of them (NDVI, NDVI705, VOG1, MSR and TCARI/OSAVI) showing the best results were employed to study spatial gradients as well as temporal changes. The detected gradients are in accordance with ground truth data on representative trees. The obtained results indicate that the original significant differences between the damaged and undamaged stands have been generally levelled until 2013, although it is still possible to detect signs of the previous damages in several cases.

  16. Anatahan Activity and Monitoring, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A.; White, R.; Koyanagi, S.; Trusdell, F.; Kauahikaua, J.; Marso, J.; Ewert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Anatahan volcano began erupting in 2003 and continued with a second eruptive phase in 2004. In January 2005 the volcano began a sequence of eruptions and unrest that continues as of September 2005. The activity has been characterized by punctuated episodes of very steamy strombolian activity and vigorous ash emission. Some of the ash emissions have reached 50,000-foot elevations, with VOG and ash occasionally reaching the Philippines and southernmost Japan, over 1000 miles away. Vigorous ash emission has been almost continuous since June 2005. A M4.8 long-period earthquake (LP) occurred in mid-August, one of the largest LPs recorded on the planet in the last quarter-century. Real-time monitoring consisting of a few telemetered short-period seismometers and acoustic sensors has been severely hampered by ashfall on the small island. Monitoring efforts have been focused on the aircraft/ash hazard, with the goal of providing the FAA and airline industry with rapid notice of seismic signatures that may indicate ash columns rising to the altitude of airline traffic, or nominally above 20,000-30,000 ft.

  17. Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Krupitsky, Dmitry; Grove, John S; Anderson, Bruce S

    2005-08-01

    Volcanic fog (vog) from Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii includes a variety of chemical species including sulfur compounds and traces of metals such as mercury. The metal species seen tended to be in the nanograms per cubic meter range, whereas oxides of sulfur: SO2 and SO3 and sulfate aerosols, were in the range of micrograms per cubic meter and rarely even as high as a few milligrams per cubic meter of air (nominally ppb to ppm). These sulfur species are being investigated for associations with both acute and chronic changes in human health status. The sulfate aerosols tend to be less than 1 microm in diameter and tend to dominate the mass of this submicron size mode. The sulfur chemistry is dynamic, changing composition from predominantly sulfur dioxide and trioxide gasses near the volcano, to predominantly sulfate aerosols on the west side of the island. Time, concentration and composition characteristics of submicron aerosols and sulfur dioxide are described with respect to the related on-going health studies and public health management concerns. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and particulate matter equal to or less than 1 microm in size were almost always below the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). These standards do not however consider the acidic nature and submicron size of the aerosol, nor the possibility of the aerosol and the sulfur dioxide interacting in their toxicity. Time series plots, histograms and descriptive statistics of hourly averages give the reader a sense of some of the exposures observed.

  18. Validation of mobile eye-tracking as novel and efficient means for differentiating progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Svenja; Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Dowiasch, Stefan; Stoll, Josef; Bremmer, Frank; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: The decreased ability to carry out vertical saccades is a key symptom of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). Objective measurement devices can help to reliably detect subtle eye movement disturbances to improve sensitivity and specificity of the clinical diagnosis. The present study aims at transferring findings from restricted stationary video-oculography (VOG) to a wearable head-mounted device, which can be readily applied in clinical practice. Methods: We investigated the eye movements in 10 possible or probable PSP patients, 11 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and 10 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a mobile, gaze-driven video camera setup (EyeSeeCam). Ocular movements were analyzed during a standardized fixation protocol and in an unrestricted real-life scenario while walking along a corridor. Results: The EyeSeeCam detected prominent impairment of both saccade velocity and amplitude in PSP patients, differentiating them from PD and HCs. Differences were particularly evident for saccades in the vertical plane, and stronger for saccades than for other eye movements. Differences were more pronounced during the standardized protocol than in the real-life scenario. Conclusions: Combined analysis of saccade velocity and saccade amplitude during the fixation protocol with the EyeSeeCam provides a simple, rapid (<20 s), and reliable tool to differentiate clinically established PSP patients from PD and HCs. As such, our findings prepare the ground for using wearable eye-tracking in patients with uncertain diagnoses. PMID:23248593

  19. Willows strongly emit methane (CH4) during dormant season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Janebova, Klara; Stellner, Stanislav; Dusek, Jiri; Pavelka, Marian; Ryplova, Renata; Urban, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands are considered to be a substantial natural source of methane (CH4), due to CH4 production by methanogens in flooded soil. Trees, especially wetland tree species possessing an aerenchyma system in roots, are known to emit CH4 into the atmosphere. However, information about the seasonal dynamics of tree CH4 emissions is rare. We determined CH4 emissions from stems of mature willow trees (Salix pentandra, S. fragilis) in wetlands from March 2014 to September 2015. We aimed to investigate the seasonal changes of CH4 emissions within the soil-tree-atmosphere continuum and the impact of environmental parameters on these emissions. An intensive campaign investigating vertical profile of CH4 emissions in stems was performed in May 2016. The measurements were performed in sedge-grass marsh surrounding the ecosystem station Wet Meadows in South Bohemia, Czech Republic (49˚ 01´30´´N,14˚ 46´20´´E), with scattered willow trees. Emissions of CH4 were determined from stems and adjacent soil each month using static chamber systems and laser analyses. Our study revealed that all trees studied consistently emitted CH4 from their stems over the whole year. The CH4 emissions were significantly higher in S. fragilis (up to 14.2 mg CH4 m-2 stem area h-1) than in S. pentandra (up to 1.03 mg CH4 m-2 h-1), and dramatically decreased within first 1.5 m of stem height with highest emissions detected close to the soil surface. Even though the CO2 exchange of willow stems, as an indicator of their physiological activity, showed strong seasonality typical for tree species of temperate zone (high CO2 emissions during vegetation season followed by low, but still detectable emissions in dormant season), the stems emitted CH4 in an opposite pattern. The CH4 emissions were the lowest in summer months (from June until August/September) and dramatically increased from September onwards and remained very high and almost constant until May. The soil even deposited CH4 from the

  20. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  1. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  2. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  3. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-06-16

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong.

  4. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  5. Primo vessel inside a lymph vessel emerging from a cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwoo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Jaekwan

    2012-10-01

    Primo vessels were observed inside the lymph vessels near the caudal vena cava of a rabbit and a rat and in the thoracic lymph duct of a mouse. In the current work we found a primo vessel inside the lymph vessel that came out from the tumor tissue of a mouse. A cancer model of a nude mouse was made with human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460. We injected fluorescent nanoparticles into the xenografted tumor tissue and studied their flow in blood, lymph, and primo vessels. Fluorescent nanoparticles flowed through the blood vessels quickly in few minutes, and but slowly in the lymph vessels. The bright fluorescent signals of nanoparticles disappeared within one hour in the blood vessels but remained much longer up to several hours in the case of lymph vessels. We found an exceptional case of lymph vessels that remained bright with fluorescence up to 24 hours. After detailed examination we found that the bright fluorescence was due to a putative primo vessel inside the lymph vessel. This rare observation is consistent with Bong-Han Kim's claim on the presence of a primo vascular system in lymph vessels. It provides a significant suggestion on the cancer metastasis through primo vessels and lymph vessels.

  6. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitation of gibberellins A sub 1 , A sub 3 , A sub 4 , A sub 9 and a putative A sub 9 -conjugate in grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) during the period of shoot elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, T.; Philipson, J.J.; Oden, P.C. Forestry Commission Northern Research Station, Roslin Midlothian )

    1990-08-01

    The levels of endogenous gibberellin A{sub 1}(GA{sub 1}), GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 9}, and a cellulase hydrolyzable GA{sub 9} conjugate in needles and shoot stems of mature grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) grown under environmental conditions that were either inductive, hot, and dry, or noninductive, cool, and wet, for flowering, were estimated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring using deuterated ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, and GA{sub 9} as internal standards. The results imply differential metabolism between clones treated with conditions inductive and noninductive for flowering. Higher concentrations of putative GA{sub 9} conjugate and free GA{sub 9} in the hot and dry treatment indicate a higher capacity of synthesizing, for flowering, the physiologically important GA{sub 4} in the heat and drought-treated material. This synthesis does not, however, result in a buildup of the GA{sub 4} pool, probably because of a high turnover rate of GA{sub 4}. The cool and wet-treated material had higher amounts of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3}, indicating that the differentiation was preferentially directed toward vegetative growth.

  8. Forest expansion and climate change in the Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) zone, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.H.

    1995-08-01

    The relationship between climate change and the dynamics of ecotonal populations of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.) was determined by comparing climate and the age structure of trees from 24 plots and seedlings from 13 plots in the subalpine zone of Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Tree establishment was greatest during periods with above normal annual and summer temperatures, and normal or above normal precipitation. Seedling establishment was positively correlated with above normal annual and summer temperatures and negatively correlated with April snowpack depth. The different responses of trees and seedlings to precipitation variation is probably related to site soil moisture conditions. Mountain hemlock populations began to expand in 1842 and establishment increased dramatically after 1880 and peaked during a warm mesic period between 1895 and 1910. The onset of forest expansion coincides with warming that began at the end of the Little Ice Age (1850-1880). These data indicate that stability of the mountain hemlock ecotone is strongly influenced by climate. If warming induced by greenhouse gases does occur as climate models predict, then the structure and dynamics of near timberline forests in the Pacific Northwest will change. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Temperature effects on nitrogen form uptake by seedling roots of three contrasting conifers.

    PubMed

    Boczulak, S A; Hawkins, B J; Roy, R

    2014-05-01

    Plant species may show a preference for uptake of particular nitrogen (N) forms, but little is known about how N form preference is influenced by soil temperature. Potential future changes in soil N form availability and plant N form preference in warmer soils might shift competitive interactions among forest tree species. We compared the N uptake and growth of three conifer species from contrasting environments grown at rhizosphere temperatures of 10, 16 or 20 °C and supplied with ammonium (NH4 (+)) or nitrate (NO3 (-)) or a mix of arginine and alanine. Short-term N uptake was assessed using ion-selective microelectrodes and application of (15)N, and long-term uptake was assessed by plant N status. Species exhibited preferences for particular N forms, and these preferences related to the N form most available in native soils. Specifically, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) showed a preference for nitrate (a N form commonly found in warmer areas), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) preferred ammonium (a N form abundant in cold soils) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) showed a preference for ammonium and organic N (organic N is often abundant in cold soils). Relative N form preference, as indicated by plant growth, changed with temperature in some species, indicating that these species could acclimate to changing rhizosphere temperatures. Understanding how conifers utilize available soil nutrients at different temperatures can help to predict species' future performance as soil temperatures rise.

  10. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  11. Simultaneous Measurement of Acetylene Reduction and Respiratory Gas Exchange of Attached Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Lawrence J.; Tjepkema, John D.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of acetylene reduction, carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen uptake by individual root nodules of intact nitrogen-fixing plants (Alnus rubra Bong.). The nodules were enclosed in a temperature-controlled leak-tight cuvette. Assay gas mixtures were passed through the cuvette at a constant, known flow rate and gas exchange was measured by the difference between inlet and outlet gas compositions. Gas concentrations were assayed by a combination of an automated gas chromatograph and a programmable electronic integrator. Carbon dioxide and ethylene evolution were determined with a coefficient of variation which was less than 2%, whereas the coefficient of variation for oxygen uptake measurements was less than 5%. Nodules subjected to repeated removal from and reinsertion into the cuvette and to long exposures of 10% v/v acetylene showed no irreversible decline in respiration or acetylene reduction. This system offers long-term stability and freedom from disturbance artifacts plus the ability to monitor continuously, rapidly and specifically the changes in root nodule activity caused by environmental perturbation. PMID:16662496

  12. Understanding Attitudes, Beliefs, and Information Seeking Regarding Hookah Smoking in Parents of College Students: An Exploratory Qualitative Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Allison V; Bingham, Megan V; Martinasek, Mary P; Friesen, Bruce K

    2015-07-01

    Hookah smoking has become increasingly common among young adults in the United States. College students engage in hookah smoking due to the increased exposure and popularity of hookah bars surrounding college campuses. There is limited information on parental perceptions of college students' hookah smoking. Forty-four telephone interviews were recorded and transcribed with parents of college students using a structured interview guide to explore perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and information seeking regarding hookah smoking. The transcripts were coded and categorized using NVivo software, and emerging themes were uncovered. Parents were lacking in awareness and knowledge of hookah smoking and health consequences. They often equated hookah smoking with bong use from their own college experiences. Although negative effects were equated with cigarette smoking, some parents reported beneficial effects of hookah smoking. Some parents disapproved of their college students smoking hookah, whereas others felt it was important that they try new behaviors in moderation. The varying responses indicate that parents were not receiving consistent messages, if any, regarding hookah tobacco smoking. Informing parents of current novel risky behaviors such as hookah smoking is necessary as they are trusted sources of information for young adult children. Delivering information and educational messages to both students and their parents may be a worthy approach when developing campaigns to deter hookah smoking. There is a need to deter hookah smoking, as it remains a public health concern. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Historical observations on the half-century freeze in research between the Bonghan system and the primo vascular system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Aih

    2013-12-01

    This article provides potential reasons for the past 45-year halt in research between the time of the Bonghan system of Bong Han Kim (B.H. Kim) and that of the primo vascular system (PVS) of Kwang-Sup Soh (K.S. Soh), briefly but more accurately in its history. Over the years, numerous questions related to the Bonghan system and the PVS have arisen, especially from researchers interested in pursuing PVS research: When and how did B.H. Kim's study results on the Bonghan system become known to public? Why did B.H. Kim and his publications disappear after 1966? Why was little study performed on the system for almost 50 years after Kim? Why and how was the research on the system reinitiated in 2002 by Kwang-Sup Soh? Why did the Bonghan system become the PVS? These questions, as well as technical difficulties in identifying the system, have discouraged many researchers from becoming involved in research on the system. The motivation for preparing this article was to remove doubts about the existence of this important organ, which might have been caused by its unusual and unclear historical background, by providing an accurate history.

  14. Proteomic analysis for tissues and liquid from bonghan ducts on rabbit intestinal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jae; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Chang Hoon; Lee, Won-Chul; Jhang, Seong-Uk; Park, Hyung Soon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2008-12-01

    Research on the Bonghan system has recently prompted great interest in the theory proposed by Bong Han Kimin in the early 1960s. In order to study the biochemical characteristics of the Bonghan system, we analyzed Bonghan ducts (BHD) on the surface of rabbit intestines and characterized the liquid in the BHD at the level of the proteome. Proteomic analysis was performed using nano LC-ESI MS/MS. Using a solution digestion technique, we identified 70 different proteins in the liquid of the BHD. We used gel-based digestion to analyze the BHD itself and our results showed the presence of 207 proteins. We used these proteins to analyze gene ontology (GO) to yield insights into biological processes, molecular functions and cellular compartmentalization. Remarkably, GO clustering showed high concentrations of proteins involved in metabolism. These proteins are not usually found in blood, lymph or blood vessels, and thus can be useful for characterizing BHD. It is worth studying their association with stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells, cancer cells and myeloid cells.

  15. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and ‘salamander A’) has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. PMID:25682890

  16. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.

  17. Piperidine alkaloids in sitka spruce with varying levels of resistance to white pine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Gerson, Elizabeth A; Kelsey, Rick G

    2002-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate piperidine alkaloids as potential resistance factors in Sitka spruce, Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr, at risk to attack by white pine weevils, Pissodes strobi (Peck). We sampled 72 seedlings in each of two replicated field trials in the Oregon Coast Range. The seedlings were grown from open-pollinated seeds of putatively "resistant" or "susceptible" off-site parental sources. Alkaloid concentrations in bark and foliage were measured in previously unattacked trees at the time of weevil host selection. Leader mortality was evaluated in the fall to gauge actual resistance in the sample trees. Five families had < or = 25% topkill and seven sustained >50% topkill. Alkaloid concentrations differed significantly among families, but the major alkaloids did not appear to be functionally linked with topkill or useful indicators of resistance. However, our study design did not address all potential resistance mechanisms. Therefore, before concluding that Sitka spruce alkaloids have no influence on white pine weevils, complementary laboratory and field experiments are needed.

  18. The mining sector of Liberia: current practices and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samuel T K; Wang, Hongtao; Kabenge, Martin; Qi, Xuejiao

    2017-07-18

    Liberia is endowed with an impressive stock of mineral reserves and has traditionally relied on mining, namely iron ore, gold, and diamonds, as a major source of income. The recent growth in the mining sector has the potential to contribute significantly to employment, income generation, and infrastructure development. However, the development of these mineral resources has significant environmental impacts that often go unnoticed. This paper presents an overview of the Liberian mining sector from historical, current development, and economic perspectives. The efforts made by government to address issues of environmental management and sustainable development expressed in national and international frameworks, as well as some of the environmental challenges in the mining sector are analyzed. A case study was conducted on one of the iron ore mines (China Union Bong Mines Investment) to analyze the effects of the water quality on the local water environment. The results show that the analyzed water sample concentrations were all above the WHO and Liberia water standard Class I guidelines for drinking water. Finally the paper examines the application of water footprint from a life cycle perspective in the Liberian mining sector and suggests some policy options for water resources management.

  19. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) transcriptome analysis in response to infection by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides using an oligonucleotide-DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Ishitani, Manabu; Sraphet, Supajit; Whankaew, Sukhuman; Asvarak, Thipa; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-07-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD), caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. Manihotis, is a serious disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta) worldwide. In this study, we established a cassava oligonucleotide-DNA microarray representing 59,079 probes corresponding to approximately 30,000 genes based on original expressed sequence tags and RNA-seq information from cassava, and applied it to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to fungal infection using two cassava cultivars, Huay Bong 60 (HB60, resistant to CAD) and Hanatee (HN, sensitive to CAD). Based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and expression profiling by the microarray, we showed that the expressions of various plant defense-related genes, such as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, cell wall-related genes, detoxification enzyme, genes related to the response to bacterium, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), genes related to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways were higher in HB60 compared with HN. Our results indicated that the induction of PR genes in HB60 by fungal infection and the higher expressions of defense response-related genes in HB60 compared with HN are likely responsible for the fungal resistance in HB60. We also showed that the use of our cassava oligo microarray could improve our understanding of cassava molecular mechanisms related to environmental responses and development, and advance the molecular breeding of useful cassava plants.

  20. Growth responses of subalpine fir to climatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Peterson, D.L.; Ettl, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied regional variation in growth-limiting factors and responses to climatic variability in subalpine forests by analyzing growth patterns for 28 tree-ring growth chronologies from subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stands in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains (Washington and Oregon, U.S.A.). Factor analysis identified four distinct time series of common growth patterns; the dominant growth pattern at any site varied with annual precipitation and temperature (elevation). Throughout much of the region, growth is negatively correlated with winter precipitation and spring snowpack depth, indicating that growth is limited primarily by short growing seasons. On the driest and warmest sites, growth is negatively correlated with previous summer temperature, suggesting that low summer soil moisture limits growth. Growth patterns in two regions were sensitive to climatic variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, apparently responding to low-frequency variation in spring snowpack and summer soil moisture (one negatively, one positively). This regional-scale analysis shows that subalpine fir growth in the Cascades and Olympics is limited by different climatic factors in different subregional climates. Climatea??growth relationships are similar to those for a co-occurring species, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carri??re), suggesting broad biogeographic patterns of response to climatic variability and change by subalpine forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest.

  1. "Ebola kills generations": Qualitative discussions with Liberian healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Williams, Garfee; Amarah, Patricia; Lori, Jody R

    2017-02-01

    the purpose of this study was to explore healthcare providers' perceptions and reactions to the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic. a descriptive, qualitative study design was employed. Focus groups were conducted with Liberian healthcare providers who participated in care of patients with EVD. the study was conducted in Bong County, Liberia (population: 333,000), which was severely affected, with over 650 reported cases and close to 200 deaths by the end of 2015. the total sample of 58 participants, included 11 nurses, ten traditional birth attendants (TBAs), four midwives, 28 general community health volunteers, three physician assistants, one community member and one pharmacy dispenser. five core themes related to changes in healthcare practices and interactions since the EVD outbreak were identified based on the results of the focus groups; fear, stigma, resource constraints, lack of knowledge and training, and shifting cultural practices. this work represents a preliminary understanding of Liberian healthcare workers reactions to the EVD epidemic, and highlights the significant issues they faced as they attempted to care for patients and protect themselves. while the EVD epidemic has been declared over, preparedness activities for future disease outbreaks must continue. This study can inform future healthcare policy initiatives as well as preparedness activities targeted towards healthcare workers in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insect attack and wounding induce traumatic resin duct development and gene expression of (-)-pinene synthase in Sitka spruce.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Ashley Byun; Hunter, William L; Godard, Kimberley-Ann; Wang, Shawn X; Martin, Diane M; Bohlmann, Jörg; Plant, Aine L

    2003-09-01

    Conifers possess inducible terpenoid defense systems. These systems are associated with the formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRD) and are underpinned by enhanced gene expression and activity of terpene synthases (TPS), enzymes responsible for oleoresin formation. We first determined that Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carriere) had the capacity for TRD formation by mechanically wounding representative trees. We then proceeded to investigate whether the white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.), a stem-boring insect, can influence the expression of genes encoding monoterpene synthases (mono-tps) in Sitka spruce. We went on to compare this response with the effects of a simulated insect attack by drill wounding. A significant increase in mono-tps transcript level was observed in the leaders of lateral branches of weevil-attacked and mechanically wounded trees. In this study, weevils induced a more rapid enhancement of mono-tps gene expression. A full-length Sitka spruce mono-tps cDNA (PsTPS2) was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally identified as (-)-pinene synthase. The recombinant (-)-pinene synthase catalyzes the formation of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, both of which are known constituents of stem oleoresin in Sitka spruce and increase in abundance after weevil attack. These data suggest that increased (-)-pinene synthase gene expression is an important element of the direct defense system deployed in Sitka spruce after insect attack.

  3. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai'i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  4. Advanced Multi-phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen

    1995-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes code, finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), is used to analyze the complicated internal flowfield of the SRM (solid rocket motor) to explore the impacts due to the effects of chemical reaction, particle dynamics, and slag accumulation on the solid rocket motor (SRM). The particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, and agglomeration models are included in present study to obtain a better understanding of the SRM design. Finite rate chemistry model is applied to simulate the chemical reaction effects. Hermsen correlation model is used for the combustion simulation. The evaporation model introduced by Spalding is utilized to include the heat transfer from the particulate phase to the gase phase due to the evaporation of the particles. A correlation of the minimum particle size for breakup expressed in terms of the Al/Al2O3 surface tension and shear force was employed to simulate the breakup of particles. It is assumed that the breakup occurs when the Weber number exceeds 6. A simple L agglomeration model is used to investigate the particle agglomeration. However, due to the large computer memory requirements for the agglomeration model, only 2D cases are tested with the agglomeration model. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is employed to simulate the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the turbulent dispersion effect of the particles. The flowfield analysis obtained using the FDNS code in the present research with finite rate chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, agglomeration, and VOG models will provide a design guide for the potential improvement of the SRM including the use of materials and the shape of nozzle geometry such that a better performance of the SRM can be achieved. The simulation of the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity can assist the designer to improve the design of

  5. Stability of human binocular alignment in the dark and under conditions of nonfixation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeho; Klaehn, Lindsay; Brodsky, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the stability of human binocular alignment under conditions of altered fixation and luminance. Horizontal binocular alignment in 8 healthy orthotropic subjects was measured using infrared video-oculography (VOG) under conditions of binocular fixation and luminance change. Each testing condition was preceded by a binocular fixation period in room light (475 lux) to define the baseline binocular alignment. Binocular alignment was then measured in darkness without fixation, in room light through a semitranslucent filter that precluded fixation, and in darkness with a distant fixational target. We used the signed rank test to determine statistically whether these experimental conditions induced significant binocular alignment change from each baseline binocular alignment. The mean horizontal binocular alignment in the dark without fixation was similar to baseline binocular alignment (0.2° ± 2.8°; P = 0.4). The mean horizontal binocular alignment without fixation in room light was also similar to baseline binocular alignment (-1.4° ± 1.6°; P = 0.08). The mean horizontal binocular alignment in the dark when a fixational target was provided showed an exodrift compared to baseline alignment (2.3° ± 1.0°; P = 0.0004). The human brain does not require visual input to maintain binocular alignment on a short-term basis. The resilience of binocular alignment probably reflects the presence of phoria adaptation. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Linda Josephine; Lappat, Annabelle; Neuhuber, Winfried; Scherer, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Hölzl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3D-trunk-excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment. PMID:28050208

  7. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  8. View-illumination effects on hyperspectral vegetation indices in the Amazonian tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Lênio Soares; Breunig, Fábio Marcelo; Santos, João Roberto dos; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes de

    2013-04-01

    Because of the pointing capability of the Hyperion/Earth Observing-One (EO-1) to improve the revisit time of the scene, temporal series of narrowband vegetation indices (VIs) can be generated to study the phenology of the Amazonian tropical forests. In this study, 10 selected narrowband VIs calculated from Hyperion nadir and off-nadir data and from different view directions (forward scattering and backscattering) were analyzed for their sensitivity to view-illumination effects along the dry season on the Seasonal Semi-deciduous Forest. Data analysis was also supported by PROSAIL modeling to simulate the spectral response of this forest type in both directions. Hyperion and PROSAIL results showed that the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) were the two more anisotropic VIs, whereas the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) and the Vogelmann Red Edge Index (VOG) were comparatively less sensitive to view-illumination effects. When compared to the other VIs and because of the greater dependence on the near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, EVI showed a different spectral behavior. EVI increased from forward scattering to backscattering and with decreasing solar zenith angle (SZA) towards the end of the local dry season, due to reduction in shading and enhancement of the illumination effects. On the other hand, PRI was higher with increasing shading in the forward scattering direction, as deduced from the PROSAIL simulation. Results emphasized the importance of taking into account bidirectional effects when analyzing temporal series of VIs collected over tropical forests by imaging spectrometers with pointing capability or even by multispectral sensors with large field-of-view (FOV).

  9. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  10. Plant tissue analysis for explosive compounds in phytoremediation and phytoforensics.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Mu, Ruipu; Yuan, Yuan; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Burken, Joel G

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue analysis methods were evaluated for six explosive compounds to assess uptake and phytoforensic methods development to quantify explosives in plant to obtain the plant data for the evaluation of explosive contamination in soil and groundwater. Four different solvent mixtures containing acetonitrile or methanol were tested at variable extraction ratios to compare the extraction efficiency for six explosive compounds: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN), in Laurel Willow (Salix pentandra) stem and range grass Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) using LC-MS/MS. Plant tissues were spiked with 500 ng/g of explosives and extracted using ultrasonically-assisted solvent extraction. With the ratio of fresh plant mass to solvent volume of 1:20 for willow and 1:40 for big bluestem grass, results indicated that all explosives in willow except HMX were extracted at higher than 73.3% by using 20 mL of methanol, 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water, or acetonitrile, whereas HMX was extracted with the highest recovery of 61.3% by 20 mL of acetonitrile. In big bluestem grass, the most effective solvents were 20 mL of either methanol or 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water for PETN extraction with a recovery of higher than 101.2% and 20 mL of 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water for HMX, RDX, TNT, 2ADNT, and DNAN extraction with a recovery of 83.8%, 104.4%, 97.5%, 80.7%, and 108.2%, respectively. However, unlike methanol and acetonitrile, 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water provided no problem of leading or split peak in chromatogram; therefore, it was preferred in the test and performed a method validation. Results indicated that 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water provided good repeatability and recovery and method detection limits at 0.5-20 ng/g fresh weight or 8.8-61.3 ng/g dry weight. Overall, results suggested that

  11. Regulation of glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes: a review and consensus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jeong-Taek; Park, Kyung Soo; Byun, Dong-Won; Ko, Kyung Soo; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Doo Man; Park, Tae Sun; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, In Kyu; Park, Joong Yeol; Son, Hyun Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang Won; Son, Ho Young

    2010-02-01

    A conference was convened by the Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Endocrine Society on September 7, 2009 to discuss and organize the results of research on intensive glucose control for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Professor Kyung Soo Park led the conference, and Professors Kwang Won Kim and Ho Young Son acted as chairmen. Professors Doo Man Kim, Tae Sun Park, and Bong Soo Cha reported on intensive glucose control and diabetic complications, including the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), Diabetes Control and Complication Trial (DCCT) research results, the recently published Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD), Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE), and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) research, as well as meta-analyses. Professor Jeong-Taek Woo reported on the manuscript written by the committee for the Korean Diabetes Association which dealt with the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Professors Kyung Soo Ko, Joong Yeol Park, Hyun Shik Son, Moon-Kyu Lee, Dong-Won Byun, and Yoon-Sok Chung participated in the discussion and collected information for the manuscript from all of the participants. The aim of the debate was to determine how to establish target goals for intensive glucose control and how to individualize those goals. The participants concluded that there was no need to modify the recommendation of maintaining an HbA1c under 6.5%, the current blood glucose treatment goal that is recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association. In addition, individual target goals for glucose control were recommended depending on the situation of each patient. We report on the consensus statement from the meeting.

  12. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  13. Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

  14. Bioactive properties of wood knot extracts on cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Martha; Aherne, S Aisling; Wong, Alfred; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-12-01

    Not all felled wood is converted to timber or pulp, with the remaining material being a rich source of relatively unexplored and unexploited potentially novel bioactive compounds. Therefore the potential bioactive effects of two softwood knot (the part of the branch encased in the tree stem) extracts--namely, Pinus banksiana Lamb. (Jack pine) and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. (Sitka spruce)--were investigated by (1) determining their effects on the viability and antioxidant status of human Jurkat T cells, (2) investigating potential cytoprotective and genoprotective effects against oxidative stress in cultured cells, and (3) assessing their effects on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Initially, both Jack pine knot and Sitka spruce knot extracts were shown to possess strong antioxidant activity as determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. When added to Jurkat cells, Jack pine knot extract was more toxic compared with Sitka spruce knot extract, with concentrations that resulted in 50% cell death of 153.0 microg/mL and 376.1 microg/mL, respectively. Supplementation of Jurkat cells with wood knot extracts did not affect their glutathione content or catalase activity. Pretreatment of Jurkat cells with Sitka spruce or Jack pine knot extracts protected against H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury. However, none of the extracts protected against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. Jack pine knots, at a concentration of 30 microg/mL, significantly suppressed ConA-induced IL-2 production. Although total phenol content did not differ between the two extracts, gas chromatography analysis did show variation in the types of constituents present. Further research is warranted to elucidate the selective bioactive properties of these softwood knot extracts.

  15. A comparative analysis of simulated and observed photosynthetic CO2 uptake in two coniferous forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Ibrom, Andreas; Jarvis, Paul G; Clement, Robert; Morgenstern, Kai; Oltchev, Alexander; Medlyn, Belinda E; Wang, Ying Ping; Wingate, Lisa; Moncrieff, John B; Gravenhorst, Gode

    2006-07-01

    Gross canopy photosynthesis (P(g)) can be simulated with canopy models or retrieved from turbulent carbon dioxide (CO2) flux measurements above the forest canopy. We compare the two estimates and illustrate our findings with two case studies. We used the three-dimensional canopy model MAESTRA to simulate P(g) of two spruce forests differing in age and structure. Model parameter acquisition and model sensitivity to selected model parameters are described, and modeled results are compared with independent flux estimates. Despite higher photon fluxes at the site, an older German Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (Karst.)) canopy took up 25% less CO2 from the atmosphere than a young Scottish Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) plantation. The average magnitudes of P(g) and the differences between the two canopies were satisfactorily represented by the model. The main reasons for the different uptake rates were a slightly smaller quantum yield and lower absorptance of the Norway spruce stand because of a more clumped canopy structure. The model did not represent the scatter in the turbulent CO2 flux densities, which was of the same order of magnitude as the non-photosynthetically-active-radiation-induced biophysical variability in the simulated P(g). Analysis of residuals identified only small systematic differences between the modeled flux estimates and turbulent flux measurements at high vapor pressure saturation deficits. The merits and limitations of comparative analysis for quality evaluation of both methods are discussed. From this analysis, we recommend use of both parameter sets and model structure as a basis for future applications and model development.

  16. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and provenance on four clones of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). II. Photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Centritto; Jarvis

    1999-10-01

    Four clones of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) from two provenances, at 53.2 degrees N (Skidegate a and Skidegate b) and at 41.3 degrees N (North Bend a and North Bend b), were grown for three growing seasons in ambient (~350 micromol per mol) and elevated (~700 micromol per mol) CO2 concentrations. The clones were grown in stress-free conditions (adequate nutrition and water) to assess the effect of elevated [CO2] on tree physiology. Growth in elevated [CO2] significantly increased instantaneous photosynthetic rates of the clonal Sitka spruce saplings by about 62%. Downward acclimation of photosynthesis (A) was found in all four clones grown in elevated [CO2]. Rubisco activity and total chlorophyll concentration were also significantly reduced in elevated [CO2]. Provenance did not influence photosynthetic capacity. Best-fit estimates of Jmax (maximum rate of electron transport), Vcmax (RuBP-saturated rate of Rubisco) and Amax (maximum rate of assimilation) were derived from responses of A to intercellular [CO2] by using the model of Farquhar et al. (1980). At any leaf N concentration, the photosynthetic parameters were reduced by growth in elevated [CO2]. However, the ratio between Jmax and Vcmax was unaffected by CO2 growth concentration, indicating a tight coordination in the allocation of N between thylakoid and soluble proteins. In elevated [CO2], the more southerly clones had a higher initial N use efficiency (more carbon assimilated per unit of leaf N) than the more northerly clones, so that they had more N available for those processes or organs that were most limiting to growth at a particular time. This may explain the initial higher growth stimulation by elevated [CO2] in the North Bend clones than in the Skidegate clones.

  17. Leaf acclimation to light availability supports rapid growth in tall Picea sitchensis trees.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alana R O; Sillett, Stephen C

    2017-03-21

    Leaf-level anatomical variation is readily apparent within tall tree crowns, yet the relative importance of water and light availability in controlling this variation remains unclear. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis, (Bong.) Carr.) thrives in temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, where it has historically reached heights >100 m, despite rarely living more than 400 years alongside redwoods that are five times older. We examined leaves of trees up to 97 m tall using a combination of transverse sections, longitudinal sections, epidermal imprints and whole-leaf measurements to explore the combined effects of water stress and light availability on leaf development in P. sitchensis. In contrast to the situation in tall Cupressaceae, light availability-not hydraulic limitation-is the primary ecological driver of leaf-level anatomical variation in P. sitchensis. While height-associated decreases in leaf length and mesoporosity are best explained by hydrostatic constraints on leaf elongation, the majority of anatomical traits we measured reflect acclimation to light availability, including increases in leaf width and vascular tissue areas in the brightest parts of the crown. Along with these changes, the appearance of abaxial stomata in the bright upper crown, and the arrangement of mesophyll in uniseriate, transverse plates-with radially arranged apoplastic pathways leading directly to stomata before bridging them with a V-shaped cell-may enhance gas exchange and hydraulic conductivity. This suite of leaf traits suggests an adaptive strategy that maximizes photosynthesis at the expense of water-stress tolerance. Anatomical investigations spanning the height gradient in tall tree crowns build our understanding of mechanisms underlying among-species variation in growth rates, life spans, and potential responses to climate change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rapid intervention to reduce Ebola transmission in a remote village - Gbarpolu County, Liberia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Blackley, David J; Lindblade, Kim A; Kateh, Francis; Broyles, Laura N; Westercamp, Matthew; Neatherlin, John C; Pillai, Satish K; Tucker, Anthony; Mott, Joshua A; Walke, Henry; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-02-27

    As late as September 14, 2014, Liberia's Gbarpolu County had reported zero cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). On October 25, the Bong County Health Team, a local health department in the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), received confirmation of Ebola in a man who had recently left Geleyansiesu, a remote village of approximately 800 residents, after his wife and daughter had died of illnesses consistent with Ebola. MOHSW requested assistance from CDC, the World Health Organization, and other international partners to investigate and confirm the outbreak in Geleyansiesu and begin interventions to interrupt transmission. A total of 22 cases were identified, of which 18 (82%) were laboratory confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were 16 deaths (case-fatality rate = 73%). Without road access to or direct telecommunications with the village, interventions had to be tailored to the local context. Public health interventions included 1) education of the community about Ebola, transmission of the virus, signs and symptoms, the importance of isolating ill patients from family members, and the potential benefits of early diagnosis and treatment; 2) establishment of mechanisms to alert health authorities of possibly infected persons leaving the village to facilitate safe transport to the closest Ebola treatment unit (ETU); 3) case investigation, contact tracing, and monitoring of contacts; 4) training in hygienic burial of dead bodies; 5) active case finding and diagnosis; and 6) isolation and limited no-touch treatment in the village of patients unwilling or unable to seek care at an ETU. The findings of this investigation could inform interventions aimed at controlling focal outbreaks in difficult-to-reach communities, which has been identified as an important component of the effort to eliminate Ebola from Liberia.

  19. Genetic and environmental control of crown development in Picea sitchensis and its relation to stem wood production.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, L J; Ford, E D

    1986-12-01

    Differences in stem wood production were found among four clones of Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. at both an agricultural and a forest site. Clonal rankings were not consistent between the sites. Four variables were identified that may influence stem wood production, foliage amount, total aboveground production per unit foliage, proportional allocation of production to new foliage and to branch wood thickening. Comparison of clonal performance between sites showed that stem wood production could be influenced by differences in each of these variables. The four variables were themselves determined by components of crown structure, these were (i) production of new branches from the main stem, (ii) the numbers and lengths of branchlets supported on branches from the main stem, (iii) foliage production per unit branchlet length and foliage longevity, and (iv) branch wood thickening per unit branch length. These components varied both among clones and between sites. Branch production from the mainstem varied among clones, and for some clones it varied substantially between sites. In some clones branch production was positively correlated with mainstem height increment. There were differences among clones in the way that branchlet production varied between the agricultural and forest sites. In the absence of needle fall, foliage weight/branch length varied threefold among clones, but for each clone, varied little between sites. Branch wood weight/branch length was generally greater when foliage weight/branch length was large, but total branch wood increment/tree was strongly influenced by total branch length. The dynamics of crown development and its relation to stem wood production are discussed with reference to (i) the importance of needle longevity, (ii) the importance of tallness and narrowness of crowns and (iii) the importance of branch thickening, a process that competes with stem growth in the utilization of photosynthate. It is concluded that although each of

  20. "Time for dabs": Analyzing Twitter data on marijuana concentrates across the U.S.

    PubMed

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Carlson, Robert G; Lamy, Francois R; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Smith, G Alan; Sheth, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Media reports suggest increasing popularity of marijuana concentrates ("dabs"; "earwax"; "budder"; "shatter; "butane hash oil") that are typically vaporized and inhaled via a bong, vaporizer or electronic cigarette. However, data on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use remain limited. This study aims to explore Twitter data on marijuana concentrate use in the U.S. and identify differences across regions of the country with varying cannabis legalization policies. Tweets were collected between October 20 and December 20, 2014, using Twitter's streaming API. Twitter data filtering framework was available through the eDrugTrends platform. Raw and adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets per state were calculated. A permutation test was used to examine differences in the adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets among U.S. states with different cannabis legalization policies. eDrugTrends collected a total of 125,255 tweets. Almost 22% (n=27,018) of these tweets contained identifiable state-level geolocation information. Dabs-related tweet volume for each state was adjusted using a general sample of tweets to account for different levels of overall tweeting activity for each state. Adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets were highest in states that allowed recreational and/or medicinal cannabis use and lowest in states that have not passed medical cannabis use laws. The differences were statistically significant. Twitter data suggest greater popularity of dabs in the states that legalized recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The study provides new information on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use and contributes to the emerging field of social media analysis for drug abuse research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. LiDAR remote sensing observations for forest assessment and recovery responses following disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosette, J.; Suárez, J.; Fonweben, J.; North, P.

    2013-12-01

    LiDAR data covering 400 km2 in the Cowal and Trossacs Forest District, Scotland, U.K., were used to provide a low cost solution to update the database of public forests and to produce multi-scale cartographic products for supporting management decisions in the event of forest disturbance such as infestation or wind damage. All parameter estimates were directly obtained from the LiDAR data without the necessity of field calibration. This was achieved using a hybrid approach integrating current stand models for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis bong. Carr) and LiDAR analysis. More conventional field methods offer percentage sampling, permitting only a proportion of stands to be surveyed each year and aiming to represent stand-level conditions. The use of LiDAR is advantageous in allowing a complete observation-based assessment throughout the forest and greatly-improved spatial representation of important forest parameters. Time-series analysis was performed using LiDAR data collected in the past 10 years. This analysis allowed us to establish growth trajectories in the forest stands, automatically discriminating areas of growth, those whose growth had been affected by disease and the occurrence of windthrow gaps. The results were compared to the cartography produced by the Forest District after a severe wind storm that affected the area in 2012. This analysis showed the ability of LiDAR to create a more precise location and extent of catastrophic damage and windthrow gaps. In addition, once windthrow has occurred, progression of further damage in existing canopy gaps can be observed. This approach additionally allows the impact of disease on forest growth and subsequent recovery response to be monitored.

  2. “Time for dabs”: Analyzing Twitter data on marijuana concentrates across the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Carlson, Robert G.; Lamy, Francois R.; Martins, Silvia S.; Boyer, Edward W.; Smith, G. Alan; Sheth, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Aims Media reports suggest increasing popularity of marijuana concentrates (“dabs”; “earwax”; “budder”; “shatter; “butane hash oil”) that are typically vaporized and inhaled via a bong, vaporizer or electronic cigarette. However, data on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use remain limited. This study aims to explore Twitter data on marijuana concentrate use in the U.S. and identify differences across regions of the country with varying cannabis legalization policies. Methods Tweets were collected between October 20 and December 20, 2014, using Twitter's streaming API. Twitter data filtering framework was available through the eDrugTrends platform. Raw and adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets per state were calculated. A permutation test was used to examine differences in the adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets among U.S. states with different cannabis legalization policies. Results eDrugTrends collected a total of 125,255 tweets. Almost 22% (n=27,018) of these tweets contained identifiable state-level geolocation information. Dabs-related tweet volume for each state was adjusted using a general sample of tweets to account for different levels of overall tweeting activity for each state. Adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets were highest in states that allowed recreational and/or medicinal cannabis use and lowest in states that have not passed medical cannabis use laws. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusions Twitter data suggest greater popularity of dabs in the states that legalized recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The study provides new information on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use and contributes to the emerging field of social media analysis for drug abuse research. PMID:26338481

  3. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

    2014-01-01

    Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits.

  4. Effects of fertilization of four hemlock species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) growth and feeding preference of predators.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S V; Braman, S K; Hanula, J L

    2011-02-01

    Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to the adelgid and to determine whether it affected feeding preferences of the adelgid predators Laricobius nigrinus Fender and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji & McClure). Treatments were long-term fertilization (from June 2008 to June 2009), short-term fertilization (from March to June 2009), and no fertilizer. Fertilizer was applied biweekly with 240 ppm N by using water-soluble fertilizer (N-P-K, 20:20:20). Plants (>1 yr old) were artificially infested with adelgids on 31 March 2009. Among unfertilized hemlocks (n=10 per species), foliar N was highest in Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) CarriBre and lowest in T. chinensis (Franch.) E. Pritz. Significantly more progredien ovisacs or sisten eggs were present on T. mertensiana than on the other hemlock species with none on unfertilized T. chinensis. A. tsugae adults on T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. were unaffected by fertility, but densities of developing A. tsugae nymphs were higher on unfertilized T. heterophylla plants than on fertilized T. heterophylla plants regardless of fertilizer treatment. Both L. nigrinus and S. tsugae consumed more adelgid eggs that developed on fertilized T. canadensis than from unfertilized plants. The predators did not exhibit this preference for adelgid eggs from females that developed on T. heterophylla or T. mertensiana.

  5. Individual and Contextual Predictors of Severity of Marijuana Use Events among Young Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Shrier, Lydia A.; Walls, Courtney; Rhoads, Amanda; Blood, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used momentary sampling to characterize marijuana events among young frequent users and determine contextual and individual predictors of use severity. Medical clinic outpatients aged 15–24 who used marijuana at least twice a week completed a baseline assessment, then used a handheld computer to report marijuana use at 4–6 signal-prompted times per day and before/after use for two weeks. Reports assessed event characteristics (when, with whom, where, how, why, how much, how high). Timestamps identified time, weekend, and duration for each event. Generalized estimating equations tested associations of individual and event-specific contextual characteristics with hits/event, duration, and high. Forty-one youth completed 3868 momentary reports; 40 (98%) reported at least one marijuana use event (N=432 events; M=10.5/participant) and thus provided data for these analyses. Marijuana was most commonly used with other people (74% of events), at home (58%), via blunt (66%), and for social or enhancement reasons (86%). Most events (62%) occurred on weekdays; use was least likely in the morning (8%). Most events involved 6 or more hits (81%). Mean high was 5.2 (out of 8). Of events with start and end times (n=250), mean duration was 46.8 minutes. Poor mental health and use with a blunt or a bong, in the morning or evening, and on the weekend were associated with 6 or more hits/event. Female gender was associated with greater event duration. Poor mental health predicted higher high. Among youth who used frequently, marijuana was used in a variety of contexts, with diversity in method, dose, and duration. Contextual factors appeared to predict marijuana dose for a given event, while individual characteristics were more predictive of high and duration. PMID:23010685

  6. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  7. Routine High-Resolution Forecasts/Analyses for the Pacific Disaster Center: User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John; Han, J.; Chen, S.; Burgan, R.; Fujioka, F.; Stevens, D.; Funayama, D.; Chambers, C.; Bingaman, B.; McCord, C.; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Enclosed herein is our HWCMO user manual. This manual constitutes the final report for our NASA/PDC grant, NASA NAG5-8730, "Routine High Resolution Forecasts/Analysis for the Pacific Disaster Center". Since the beginning of the grant, we have routinely provided experimental high resolution forecasts from the RSM/MSM for the Hawaii Islands, while working to upgrade the system to include: (1) a more robust input of NCEP analyses directly from NCEP; (2) higher vertical resolution, with increased forecast accuracy; (3) faster delivery of forecast products and extension of initial 1-day forecasts to 2 days; (4) augmentation of our basic meteorological and simplified fireweather forecasts to firedanger and drought forecasts; (5) additional meteorological forecasts with an alternate mesoscale model (MM5); and (6) the feasibility of using our modeling system to work in higher-resolution domains and other regions. In this user manual, we provide a general overview of the operational system and the mesoscale models as well as more detailed descriptions of the models. A detailed description of daily operations and a cost analysis is also provided. Evaluations of the models are included although it should be noted that model evaluation is a continuing process and as potential problems are identified, these can be used as the basis for making model improvements. Finally, we include our previously submitted answers to particular PDC questions (Appendix V). All of our initially proposed objectives have basically been met. In fact, a number of useful applications (VOG, air pollution transport) are already utilizing our experimental output and we believe there are a number of other applications that could make use of our routine forecast/analysis products. Still, work still remains to be done to further develop this experimental weather, climate, fire danger and drought prediction system. In short, we would like to be a part of a future PDC team, if at all possible, to further

  8. Seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir; Nekrasova, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. Any kind of risk estimates R(g) at location g results from a convolution of the natural hazard H(g) with the exposed object under consideration O(g) along with its vulnerability V(O(g)). Note that g could be a point, or a line, or a cell on or under the Earth surface and that distribution of hazards, as well as objects of concern and their vulnerability, could be time-dependent. There exist many different risk estimates even if the same object of risk and the same hazard are involved. It may result from the different laws of convolution, as well as from different kinds of vulnerability of an object of risk under specific environments and conditions. Both conceptual issues must be resolved in a multidisciplinary problem oriented research performed by specialists in the fields of hazard, objects of risk, and object vulnerability, i.e. specialists in earthquake engineering, social sciences and economics. To illustrate this general concept, we first construct seismic hazard assessment maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE). The parameters A, B, and C of USLE, i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an area of linear size L, are used to estimate the expected maximum

  9. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  10. Short Time Lyapounov Indicators in the Case of a Sun-Jupiter-Saturn-Asteroid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, R. F.; Sandor, Zs.

    1999-09-01

    In our previous papers (Sandor et al., 1999a; Sandor et al., 1999b) we have discussed the application of the short time indicators in the planar circular Restricted Three Body Problem (RTBP) and in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body problem (ERTBP) in order to distinguish between chaotic and regular domains of the phase space in theese problems. The method of stretching numbers was introduced by Voglis and Contopoulos (1994). This method allows a quick distinction between ordered and chaotic regions. We also applied the method of stretching numbers to the elliptic restricted three-body problem. As an extension of our investigation, in the present paper we apply the method of stretching numbers to a realistic Sun-Jupiter-Saturn-Asteroid (SJSA) problem. We represent the structure of the phase-space in the a-e plane, where a is the semimajor axis and e is the eccentricity. For an individual N curve, where N is the average value of stretching numbers. The values of the semimajor axis has been taken from the interval [3.2,5.2] (AU) for a fixed value of the eccentricity of the test particle between e=0 and e=0.4. For a good visualization of the regular and chaotic regions in the a-e plane we have processed the curves of average values calculating the absolut value of their ``derivative'' |frac {Delta N}{Delta a}|, where Delta a = a_{i+1}-ai is the difference between two consecutive initial semimajor axis and Delta N is the corresponding change of the average value of stretching numbers. If this derivative is larger than a certain value (in our case 0.002), the corresponding region between two neighbouring initial conditions is classified as chaotic. The usefulness of this method is based on the very fast and effective way how it approximates the location and size of the regular and chaotic regions. We have found that the structure of the phase-space is very similar in the RTBP and in the ERTB but there is a significant difference in the case of the SJSA. The

  11. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  12. Taxonomía de asteroides y cometas basada en los espectros de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Motta, V.; Froeschlé, C.

    Estudiaremos dos familias de objetos que sufren encuentros cercanos con planetas, a saber: la familia de cometas de Júpiter (JF) y los asteroides cercanos a la Tierra (NEAs). El movimiento de estos objetos es caótico en una escala de tiempo corta. Más aún, debido a los cambios erráticos en los elementos orbitales, la comparación de los valores actuales da poca información acerca de la posible vinculación dinámica entre los objetos de una misma familia. Calculamos una estimación finita de los Exponentes Característicos de Lyapunov (LCE), los llamamos Indicadores Característicos de Lyapunov (LCI) para ambas familias y analizamos las características del espacio de fase donde tiene lugar el movimiento de estos objetos. Integrando en un período suficientemente largo (e.g. 20000 años), encontramos que el LCI alcanza un valor cuasi-constante. La mayoría de los miembros de ambas familias muestran una concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov (inverso del LCI) de alrededor de 50-100 años (Tancredi, 1995, Astron & Astrop., 299, 288). La concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov es mayor para la familia de Júpiter que para los NEAs. Entre estos últimos, la menor dispersión se da para aquellos que cruzan la órbita de la Tierra. Se demostró que el espectro de los `indicadores locales' (Froeschlé et. al., 1990, Cel. Mec. 56, 307) o ``números de estiramiento'' (Voglis and Contopoulos, 1994, J. Phys. A 26, 4899) (relacionados con el LCI) son invariantes y nos dan una información más completa sobre el comportamiento caótico. Mediante la comparación de espectros discutimos la similitud entre los objetos de una misma familia y analizamos las diferentes posibles rutas al caos. Los espectros se clasifican mediante la comparación de los momentos de las distribuciones de los `números de estiramiento'. Aplicamos un método de agrupamiento jerárquico (Zappala et. al., 1990, Astron. J. 100, 2030) para identificar ``familias'' de espectros (grupos de espectros

  13. The Perception of Volcanic Risk in Kona Communities from Mauna Loa and Hualalai Volcanoes, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnston, D. M.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    awareness and risk perception varies between subpopulations defined by age, geography, and ethnicity. Long time intervals since damaging lava flows have occurred in Kona has contributed to lower levels of awareness and perception of the threat. The on-going eruptions at Kilauea has facilitated greater awareness and perception of risk from vog but not of other volcanic hazards. Low levels of preparedness may be explained by this and perhaps by the lack of motivation to seek new modes of adjustment.

  14. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide measurements using small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Corrales, E.; Linick, J.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes emit gases continuously with significant pre-post-eruption changes, mainly H2O and CO2, plus SO2, and others. The SO2/CO2 ratio changes within volcanic life cycles making it an indicator of oncoming eruption phases: it can dip weeks to months before eruptions, then increase, and decrease back to background after eruptions. Over the last five years, we have made an effort to develop small and inexpensive lighter-than-air and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms in Costa Rica at Turrialba Volcano. Turrialba is an appropriate natural laboratory to test and prove platforms and instrumentation in low-level steady state volcanogenic gas and aerosol emissions at moderate altitudes (<12Kft ASL), where good technical infrastructure exists, with good physical access to the volcano. Our program in Costa Rica includes: (1) systematic monitoring of Turrialba from orbit with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), with its thermal infrared (TIR) camera for SO2 retrieval, and more recently with GOSAT and OCO-2 for CO2; (2) in situ observations from aerostats and UAVs during ASTER overpasses, and (3) reconciliation of the orbital results with in situ data to validate mass retrieval and transport models. As part of the NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Activities program, we will conduct similar observations at Kilauea volcano using small UAVs and for both SO2 and CO2 in situ. One of the salient characteristics of the long lived Kilauea eruptions since 1983 has been the emission of SO2 in significant amounts, generating environmental stresses on local inhabitants due to lowered air quality, and stress on vegetation. Kilauea volcanic plumes, as with Turrialba, are mainly gases and liquid--SO2 is hydrolyzed to H2SO4 and the resulting highly acidic liquid aerosol is termed "vog," an environmental health hazard. Measurement of the diffuse CO2 emissions at Kilauea will also be of interest. Such measurements at Turrialba

  15. Biodiversity Measurement Using Indices Based on Hyperspectral Reflectance on the Coast of Lagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodanisi, E. O.; Salami, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperspectral measurements provide explicit measurements which can be used in the analysis of biodiversity change. This study was carried out in the coastal area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine if gasoline seepage affects vegetation species distribution and reflectance; with the view to analyzing the vegetation condition. To evaluate the potential of different reflectance spectroscopy of species, the ASD Handheld2 Spectrometer was used. Three identified impacted plots of 30m by 30m were selected randomly and a control plot established in relatively undisturbed vegetated areas away from but perpendicular to the source of seepage. Each identified plot and the control consisted of five transects and measurement were taken at every 2m with about four reflectance measurement per sample point, to average out differences in reflectance as a result of different leaf angles. The radiance output of the spectrometer was converted into reflectance using the reflectance of a white reference over a standardized white spectralon panel. Indices such as Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, RedEdge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Ratio Vegetation Index and Volgelmann RedEdge Index 1 were calculated to accurately estimate the chlorophyll content in the vegetation within optimal band wavelength. Shannon-Weiner's index, Spearman's rank correlation and Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data. Cocos nucifera was observed to be the most dominant species with a relative abundance of 47.27% while Ananas comosus recorded the lowest relative abundance of 21.8%. In the control plot, Cocos nucifera had the highest relative abundance of 42.3% and Mangifera indica with the least relative abundance of 16.7%. The relationship between the indices and chlorophyll content of the vegetation were significantly higher at (p>0.01) for all the indices in all the plots; however, RedEdgeNDVI and VOG1 indices had the

  16. Undergraduate Field Courses in Volcanology at the University of California, Davis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, P.

    2002-05-01

    At U.C. Davis, undergraduate Geology majors have two opportunities to participate in extended field courses in volcanology: (1) all majors spend one week in a volcanology module during their six-week, "capstone" Summer Field Geology (GEL 110) course, and (2) all majors may enroll in a two-week, Introductory Volcanology course (GEL 138) offered each summer at Kilauea Volcano. The former course is required of all majors in order to fulfill their B.S. degree requirements, whereas the latter fulfills upper division elective units for either the B.A. or B.S. degree in Geology. The volcanology module in GEL 110 is based at U.C.'s White Mountain Research Station in Bishop, California and includes four separate exercises: (1) mapping patterns of consolidation of tephra at the Black Point tuff cone in order to understand the processes of palagonitization, (2) contouring graphic mean and sorting for tephra collected from the Red Cones cinder cone to understand Strombolian processes, (3) measuring a stratigraphic section of the Bishop Tuff in the lower Owens River Gorge to differentiate cooling units in ignimbrites, and (4) mapping the relationships amongst pumice units and obsidian at the Glass Mountain flow to understand evolution of silicic flows. Most exercises require laboratory measurements for grain size or density (Mayfield and Schiffman, 1998). GEL 138, based at the Kilauea Military Camp, includes a daily schedule of morning lectures and afternoon field excursions and exercises. Exercises include: (1) measuring a stratigraphic section of the Keanakako'i Ash Member to interpret pre-1790 periods of hydrovolcanism, (2) measuring and contouring ground temperatures in the Steaming Bluffs thermal area (3) conducting granulometric measurements of tephra from the Nanawale sand hills to understand the genesis of littoral cones, (4) mapping of soil pH around the perimeter of Kilauea Caldera to illuminate climatic effects (i.e.,vog and wind patterns) on the summit region, and

  17. Transuranium processing plant report of production, status, and plans for the period October 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1981-08-01

    During this period, transuranium elements were obtained from 26 irradiated HFIT targets. The products included 86 mg of /sup 249/Bk, 686 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 3.1 mg of /sup 253/Es, and an estimated 1.4 pg of /sup 257/Fm. In addition, about 326 mg of high-purity /sup 248/ Cm was separated from previously purified /sup 252/Cf. One hundred seven product shipments were made from TRU; recipients and the amounts of nuclides shipped are listed in a table. Forty-two standard and two special HFIR targets were fabricated. During the next 18 months, production totals of 110 mg of /sup 249/ Bk, 1200 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 5.5 mg of /sup 253/Es, and 2 pg of /sup 257/Fm are anticipated. Also, a total of 225 mg of /sup 248/Cm is expected to be made available. During this report period, a charcoal adsorber system for radioiodine removal was installed, tested, and placed in service. This system serves as a backup to the Hopcalite-charcoal system for adsorption of /sup 131/I from the VOG stream. Seven /sup 252/Cf neutron sources were fabricated during this report period. A total of 100 neutron sources have been fabricated previously at TRU. The original and current contents (/sup 252/Cf and /sup 248/Cm) of the existing sources and the individuals to whom the sources are currently loaned are listed in a table. In addition to neutron sources, nine fission sources were prepared by electroplating /sup 252/Cf onto platinum disks or foils.Special projects during this report period included (1) purification of two batches of isotopically pure /sup 240/Pu, (2) fabrication of two special HFIR targets, (3) repurification of the residues of the einsteinium product from Campaign 56, (4) production of approx. 235 ..mu..g of /sup 250/Cf by irradiation of /sup 249/Bk, (5) radiography of 28 irradiated, stainless steel alloy, fracture-strain specimens, and (6) preparations for the production of 40 ..mu..g of /sup 245/Es by irradiation of /sup 253/Es.

  18. ["Legal highs" from the German internet--"bath salt drugs" on the rise].

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Hottmann, Lidia; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of dangerous and insufficiently studied designer drugs has increased substantially within the last few years. Mixtures containing centrally active compounds are often declared as "bath salt", "incense", "plant food", "bong cleaners" and are marketed in head shops and on the Internet. As the majority of the ingredients of such products are not subject to regulations of the German Narcotics Law (Betäubungsmittelgesetz, BtMG), the vendors and consumers mistake the sale of such products for legal. An alternative possibility to prosecute the distribution of so-called "legal highs" arises from the regulations of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). Indicating a private address, several products were purchased via the Internet. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry using computer-assisted database search and potential hits were checked for plausibility. The analysis of 100 samples revealed centrally acting compounds (including caffeine) in 98 % (75 % of all samples positive for caffeine). In 16 % of the samples, drugs subject to the BtMG at the time of purchase (end of 2011) were found including 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, amphetamine, etilamphetamine, N-benzylpiperazine, mephedrone, methcathinone, and phenobarbital. In 55 % of the samples, drugs subject to the current BtMG were found (after its amendment on 20 July 2012). In 37 % of the samples, substances subject to the AMG were found (e.g. ephedrine). In 35 % of the samples, drugs with a potential psychotropic effect were found. In 57.3 % of the positive samples, more than one active ingredient was determined and in some cases up to five active components were found. Other interesting pharmacologically active ingredients found were 4-methylcathinone (n=13), flephedrone (n=8), trifluoromethylphenyl-piperazine (n=7), methylone (n=5), butylone (n=2), hordenine (n=2), and harmane (n=2). Most of the substances not covered by the BtMG can be

  19. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” and the “Standards for Tasty Water” devised for city water. Results The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study—Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND—showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health < 5.2. Conclusion The South Korean PET bottled water studied here fulfills the “Water Index of Taste,” “Water Index of Health,” “Standard for Tasty Water” and “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people. PMID:26538797

  20. Carbon sequestration in the trees, products and soils of forest plantations: an analysis using UK examples.

    PubMed

    Dewar, R C; Cannell, M G

    1992-07-01

    A carbon-flow model for managed forest plantations was used to estimate carbon storage in UK plantations differing in Yield Class (growth rate), thinning regime and species characteristics. Time-averaged, total carbon storage (at equilibrium) was generally in the range 40-80 Mg C ha(-1) in trees, 15-25 Mg C ha(-1) in above- and belowground litter, 70-90 Mg C ha(-1) in soil organic matter and 20-40 Mg C ha(-1) in wood products (assuming product lifetime equalled rotation length). The rate of carbon storage during the first rotation in most plantations was in the range 2-5 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1).A sensitivity analysis revealed the following processes to be both uncertain and critical: the fraction of total woody biomass in branches and roots; litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates; and rates of fine root turnover. Other variables, including the time to canopy closure and the possibility of accelerated decomposition after harvest, were less critical. The lifetime of wood products was not critical to total carbon storage because wood products formed only a modest fraction of the total.The average increase in total carbon storage in the tree-soil-product system per unit increase in Yield Class (m(3) ha(-1) year(-1)) for unthinned Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. plantations was 5.6 Mg C ha(-1). Increasing the Yield Class from 6 to 24 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) increased the rate of carbon storage in the first rotation from 2.5 to 5.6 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in unthinned plantations. Thinning reduced total carbon storage in P. sitchensis plantations by about 15%, and is likely to reduce carbon storage in all plantation types.If the objective is to store carbon rapidly in the short term and achieve high carbon storage in the long term, Populus plantations growing on fertile land (2.7 m spacing, 26-year rotations, Yield Class 12) were the best option examined. If the objective is to achieve high carbon storage in the medium term (50 years) without regard to the initial rate

  1. Spring and fall bloom evolutions estimated from 8 day composite satellite chlorophyll data in the East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Cho, Y.; Kim, S.; Kim, K.

    2012-12-01

    Bong-Guk Kim1, Yang-Ki Cho1, Sangil Kim2, Kwang-Yul, Kim1 1 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea 2 College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA To understand the ocean carbon cycle, estimating the ocean biomass is necessary and it has been done by various methods. Satellite observation is one of beneficial methods to investigate ocean biomass. Satellite data enable us to monitor chlorophyll-a for wide area with high resolution and frequency. The East/Japan Sea, which called as 'miniature ocean' due to its rapid turnover circulation, is one of the most productive ocean. With the concerning global warming, a number of studies on temporal and spatial distribution of satellite chlorophyll in the East/Japan Sea have been processed. However, most of these studies have used monthly data set which can not resolve detail evolution of chlorophyll-a. In this study, detail evolutions of spring and fall bloom are investigated by the CSEOF (Cyclo-Stationary EOF) analysis of 8-day composite MODIS chlorophyll data from July 2002 to February 2012. For the CSEOF analysis, optimal interpolation (OI) method was applied to fill the blank data which is critical problem in satellite data. Spring bloom started at western Japanese coast on 57th day of the year. And it gradually moves eastern coast of Korean and then moves to northern Primorye coast. Spring bloom spreads entire the East/Japan Sea on 113th day of the year and then, it disappears from the southern East/Japan Sea. Spring bloom ends in the northern East/Japan Sea. In the case of fall bloom, it starts at Korean coast on 265th day of the year, and it moves to the north along the Korean coast by 329th day of the year. After that day, fall bloom ends near the northern coast of Korea on 353rd day of the year.

  2. Dynamic variation in sapwood specific conductivity in six woody species.

    PubMed

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Meinzer, Frederick C; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Housset, Johann

    2007-10-01

    Our goals were to quantify how non-embolism-inducing pressure gradients influence trunk sapwood specific conductivity (k(s)) and to compare the impacts of constant and varying pressure gradients on k(s) with KCl and H2O as the perfusion solutions. We studied six woody species (three conifers and three angiosperms) which varied in pit membrane structure, pit size and frequency of axial water transport across pits (long versus short conduits). Both stepwise ("steady") and nonlinear continuous ("non-steady") decreases in the pressure gradient led to decreased k(s) in all species but white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook), a ring-porous and long-vesseled angiosperm. In one diffuse-porous angiosperm (red alder, Alnus rubra Bong.) and two conifers (western red cedar, Thuja plicata Donn. ex D. Don, and Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), k(s) was 10-30% higher under steady pressure gradients than under non-steady pressure gradients, and a decrease in the pressure gradient from 0.15 to 0.01 MPa m(-1) caused a 20-42% decrease in k(s). In another diffuse-porous angiosperm (maple, Acer macrophyllum Pursh) and in a third coniferous species (western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg), there was no difference between k(s) measured under steady and non-steady pressure gradients. With the exception of western red cedar, a conifer with simple pit membranes, the differences in k(s) between low and high pressure gradients tended to be lower in the conifers than in the diffuse-porous angiosperms. In Douglas-fir, western red cedar and the diffuse-porous angiosperms, k(s) was higher when measured with KCl than with H2O. In white oak, there were no differences in k(s) whether measured under steady or non-steady pressure gradients, or when xylem was perfused with KCl or H2O. The species differences in the behavior of k(s) suggest that elasticity of the pit membrane was the main factor causing k(s) to be disproportionate to the pressure gradient and to the

  3. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  4. Genesis of the columnar joints from welded tuff in Mount Mudeung National Geopark, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chungwan; Huh, Min; Yi, Keewook; Lee, Changyeol

    2015-09-01

    Mount Mudeung National Geopark (MMNG), Gwangju, Republic of Korea (1187 masl), is known for its huge, broad occurrences of columnar jointed colonnades in the Cretaceous Mudeungsan Tuff. To understand the genesis of columnar joints infilling a volcanic vent, integrated geochemical and geophysical studies were conducted. Most colonnades in the Geopark are located in regions higher than 700 masl and show elevation-dependent variations in the mean face width of the columns. These mean widths are approximately 1.7, 1.3, 2.9, and 1.2 m for the summit (>1100 masl), upper (950-1100 masl), lower (850-950 masl), and lowest (700-850 masl) colonnades, respectively. This variation implies that columnar jointing resulted from discontinuous tuff depositions on relatively planar ground, which is associated with caldera structures and landslides from the emptied caldera rim. Geochemical analyses of major, minor, and trace elements show that the andesitic-dacitic Mudeungsan Tuff resulted from the arc magmatism associated with subduction of the Izanagi Plate and involved crustal components. Few geochemical variations of the Mudeungsan Tuff indicate that tuff originated from a single magma chamber. U-Pb age dating indicates that the Mudeungsan Tuff was deposited at ~85 Ma except for the Chotdae-bong colonnades, which were dated to ~87 Ma. However, a scaling analysis of the elevation-dependent variations of face widths and simplified numerical model calculations indicate that the variation in face widths with elevation indicates the sequential emplacement, cooling, and compaction of separate welded tuffs. Thus, the welded tuffs of MMNG can be thought to be formed by three discontinuous large explosive eruptions with periods of repose after each eruption. These tuffs include 1) the highest-elevation columnar joints of colonnades in the summit area (>1100 m), corresponding to the lower colonnades of the third tuff; 2) the intermediate-elevation columnar joints of colonnades

  5. Characterizing the Followers and Tweets of a Marijuana-Focused Twitter Handle

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is a popular social media forum for sharing personal experiences, interests, and opinions. An improved understanding of the discourse on Twitter that encourages marijuana use can be helpful for tailoring and targeting online and offline prevention messages. Objectives The intent of the study was to assess the content of “tweets” and the demographics of followers of a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (@stillblazingtho). Methods We assessed the sentiment and content of tweets (sent from May 1 to December 31, 2013), as well as the demographics of consumers that follow a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (approximately 1,000,000 followers) using Twitter analytics from Demographics Pro. This analytics company estimates demographic characteristics based on Twitter behavior/usage, relying on multiple data signals from networks, consumption, and language and requires confidence of 95% or above to make an estimate of a single demographic characteristic. Results A total of 2590 tweets were sent from @stillblazingtho during the 8-month period and 305 (11.78%) replies to another Twitter user were excluded for qualitative analysis. Of the remaining 2285 tweets, 1875 (82.06%) were positive about marijuana, 403 (17.64%) were neutral, and 7 (0.31%) appeared negative about marijuana. Approximately 1101 (58.72%) of the positive marijuana tweets were perceived as jokes or humorous, 340 (18.13%) implied that marijuana helps you to feel good or relax, 294 (15.68%) mentioned routine, frequent, or heavy use, 193 (10.29%) mentioned blunts, marijuana edibles, or paraphernalia (eg, bongs, vaporizers), and 186 (9.92%) mentioned other risky health behaviors (eg, tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, sex). The majority (699,103/959,143; 72.89%) of @stillblazingtho followers were 19 years old or younger. Among people ages 17 to 19 years, @stillblazingtho was in the top 10% of all Twitter handles followed. More followers of @stillblazingtho in the United States were

  6. Treatment of leishmaniasis in the Oyapock basin (French Guiana): A K.A.P. survey and analysis of the evolution of phytotherapy knowledge amongst Wayãpi Indians.

    PubMed

    Odonne, Guillaume; Berger, Franck; Stien, Didier; Grenand, Pierre; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2011-10-11

    curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae, 7), Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Bombacaceae, 6) and Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae, 6). Multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that the species used in leishmaniasis remedies are more prone to vary by the user's place of residence than by their cultural origin, which indicates that exchange of knowledge about leishmaniasis remedies has occurred across different cultural groups. Literature-based comparisons between the remedies for leishmaniasis used by the Wayãpi during the 1980s showed a striking evolution, both in terms of diversity of species and number of plants used. The large number of species shared with other Guianese groups argues for intercultural exchange and may explain the majority (57.1%) of the newly used species highlighted in our study. Leishmaniasis is a well-known disease in the studied area. Phytotherapeutic treatments are still in use, although they are not the main source of remedies, and should undergo pharmacological studies to evaluate their potential therapeutic value. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation, Proposed Solution and Current Status of the Crater Lake Breakout Problem, Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornas, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    as 70 men with picks and shovels, and the specter of a wholly uncontrolled breach through the most erodible debris was averted. Early flow through the spillway was gentle and evacuees quickly returned home. However, 10-15 m of poorly indurated breccia still remains, lake level is still rising slowly, and we are watching to see whether outflow after heavy rains will armor the spillway or catastrophically erode the remaining dam. Insufficient communication between scientists and engineers led DPWH to design for less scouring than expected by PHIVOLCS, and politics and liability concerns at several levels halted digging before the trench could be deepened and outflow increased. Perhaps this is just as well. An inherent conflict arose between short- and long-term risk mitigation. Short-term risk was minimized; long-term risk was reduced but remains a concern. Complete breaching of the dam and thus elimination of long-term risk would have sharply increased short-term risk to Botolan. *Quick Response Team Members: Mabel Abigania, Rene Arante, Onie Arboleda, Maricar Arpa, Mariton Bornas, Edwin dela Cruz, Jojo Cordon, Toti Corpuz, Art Daag, Elmer Gabinete, Del Garcia, Lito Gelido, Lito de Guzman, Sheila Insauriga, Dindo Javier, Rudy Lacson, Bong Luis, Rey Lumbang, Danny Martinez, Mylene Martinez-Villegas, Chris Newhall, Jed Paladio-Melosantos, Mel Pagtalunan, Myla Panol, Jack Puertollano, Raymundo Punongbayan, Gina Quiambao, Andoy Ramos, July Sabit, Noli Sexon, Jimmy Sincioco, Opet Villacorte.

  8. Physiological responses of a young Picea Sitchensis stand to long-term nitrogen and sulphur deposition: a lesson from d13C, d18O and d15N in tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Borghetti, Marco; Levy, Peter; Perks, Mike; Saurer, Matthias; Sheppard, Lucy; Sutton, Mark

    2010-05-01

    deposition on tree physiological traits were investigated in a young Picea Sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. plantation on an acid peat soil (Deepsyke forest, Scotland, UK). The Deepsyke experiment is unique in providing the opportunity to evaluate the long-term effects of frequent aerial N and S spraying onto a forest canopy for a period of 5 to 8 years. The adopted approach was based on the measurements of stable carbon (d13C), oxygen (d18O) and nitrogen (d15N) isotope composition in tree rings. We used d13C for assessing changes in WUEi, while the degree of photosynthetic and stomatal responses to the different treatments were investigated using a conceptual model, combining variations of d13C and d18O. The differences between canopy vs. soil N applications were evaluated as magnitude of changes in WUEi and underlying mechanisms involved. Furthermore, physiological responses were also assessed in relation to leaf nutrient status. Finally, changes in tree internal N cycle in relation to canopy nitrogen uptake and the relative contribution to variation of WUEi were detected by d15N in tree rings.

  9. Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Straif, Kurt; Tashkin, Donald P; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-04-01

    sample sizes, and too few heavy marijuana users in the study sample. Recommendations for future studies are to (1) focus on tobacco-related cancer sites; (2) obtain detailed marijuana exposure assessment, including frequency, duration, and amount of personal use as well as mode of use (smoked in a cigarette, pipe, or bong; taken orally); (3) adjust for tobacco smoking and conduct analyses on nonusers of tobacco; and (4) conduct larger studies, meta-analyses, or pooled analyses to maximize statistical precision and investigate sources of differences in results. Despite the challenges, elucidation of the association between marijuana use and cancer risk is important in weighing the benefits and risks of medical marijuana use and to clarify the impact of marijuana use on public health.

  10. NDL-v2.0: A new version of the numerical differentiation library for parallel architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjidoukas, P. E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Voglis, C.; Papageorgiou, D. G.; Lagaris, I. E.

    2014-07-01

    on low-rank partial Hessian approximations, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 (1) (2011) 407-432. [3] M. Girolami, B. Calderhead, Riemann manifold Langevin and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods, J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B (Stat. Methodol.) 73 (2) (2011) 123-214. [4] P. Angelikopoulos, C. Paradimitriou, P. Koumoutsakos, Data driven, predictive molecular dynamics for nanoscale flow simulations under uncertainty, J. Phys. Chem. B 117 (47) (2013) 14808-14816. [5] P.E. Hadjidoukas, E. Lappas, V.V. Dimakopoulos, A runtime library for platform-independent task parallelism, in: PDP, IEEE, 2012, pp. 229-236. [6] C. Voglis, P.E. Hadjidoukas, D.G. Papageorgiou, I. Lagaris, A parallel hybrid optimization algorithm for fitting interatomic potentials, Appl. Soft Comput. 13 (12) (2013) 4481-4492. [7] P.E. Hadjidoukas, C. Voglis, V.V. Dimakopoulos, I. Lagaris, D.G. Papageorgiou, Supporting adaptive and irregular parallelism for non-linear numerical optimization, Appl. Math. Comput. 231 (2014) 544-559.

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  12. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Frequency stability of optical lattice clocks Jérôme Lodewyck, Philip G Westergaard, Arnaud Lecallier, Luca Lorini and Pierre Lemonde Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices C Becker, P Soltan-Panahi, J Kronjäger, S Dörscher, K Bongs and K Sengstock Cold atoms near superconductors: atomic spin coherence beyond the Johnson noise limit B Kasch, H Hattermann, D Cano, T E Judd, S Scheel, C Zimmermann, R Kleiner, D Koelle and J Fortágh Focusing a deterministic single-ion beam Wolfgang Schnitzler, Georg Jacob, Robert Fickler, Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler and Kilian Singer Tuning the structural and dynamical properties of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate: ripples and instability islands M Asad-uz-Zaman and D Blume Double-resonance lineshapes in a cell with wall coating and buffer gas Svenja Knappe and Hugh G Robinson Transport and interaction blockade of cold bosonic atoms in a triple-well potential P Schlagheck, F Malet, J C Cremon and S M Reimann Fabrication of a planar micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols M Hellwig, A Bautista-Salvador, K Singer, G Werth and F Schmidt-Kaler Laser cooling of a magnetically guided ultracold atom beam A Aghajani-Talesh, M Falkenau, V V Volchkov, L E Trafford, T Pfau and A Griesmaier Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond S Pezzagna, B Naydenov, F Jelezko, J Wrachtrup and J Meijer Top-down pathways to devices with few and single atoms placed to high precision Jessica A Van Donkelaar, Andrew D Greentree, Andrew D C Alves, Lenneke M Jong, Lloyd C L Hollenberg and David N Jamieson Enhanced electric field sensitivity of rf-dressed Rydberg dark states M G Bason, M Tanasittikosol, A Sargsyan, A K Mohapatra, D Sarkisyan, R M Potvliege and C S Adams

  13. [Contributions of parental and social influences to cannabis use in a non-clinical sample of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chabrol, H; Mabila, J D; Chauchard, E; Mantoulan, R; Rousseau, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative contributions of peers and parental influences and adolescents' own beliefs about use, in the prediction of cannabis use. Participants were 559 high-school and secondary school students (275 girls, mean age=15.4+/-1; 274 boys, mean age=15.5+/-0.9) who completed questionnaires assessing cannabis use frequency, the number of peers using cannabis, the number of peers opposed to cannabis use, parental attitude toward cannabis use, parental present or past cannabis use and participants' expectations toward use. Parents' opinion of cannabis use was assessed using a ten-point scale ranging from zero (highly opposed to cannabis use) to 10 (highly in favour of cannabis use). The participants' opinion of cannabis use was assessed using a self-report questionnaire which was generated from a preliminary qualitative study on a convenient sample of ten adolescents who agreed to participate in a semistructured interview assessing their perceptions of the effects of cannabis use. Interviewers drew up a list of all the reported perceptions. One rater eliminated redundant responses and combined similar instances into more general terms. Responses were reworded concisely to be appropriate for a close-ended questionnaire. The final questionnaire consisted of 29 items. Items were scored on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from 1=disagree strongly to 7=agree strongly. In the total sample (n=559), 22% of girls (n=61) and 28% of boys (n=76) reported having used cannabis once during the last six months (p=0.05); 4% of girls and 9% of boys used cannabis at least 3-4 times per week; water pipe or bong was used by 31% of boys and 28% of girls used cannabis. Cannabis users reported that 49% of their fathers were using or had used cannabis versus 10% of non-users. Cannabis users reported that 39% of their mothers were using or had used cannabis versus 22% of non-users. An exploratory factorial analysis of the cannabis use expectations

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Alejandro; Pfau, Tilman

    2008-04-01

    different experimental realizations leading to the two routes mentioned above, they share a common goal, namely achieving a deep understanding of quantum correlations that will ultimately allow to control them and possibly realize new forms of matter. They also share the flexibility that allows to increase the complexity in quantum correlations by joining in a controlled manner well understood building units and/or by regulating their coupling to the environment. It is under the common goal of understanding and controlling quantum correlations that we see the topics presented in this focus issue of New Journal of Physics, where both lines of development, that is on solid-state substrates or with quantum gases, give a timely view of the advances towards the above mentioned common goal. Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter Contents Temperature changes when adiabatically ramping up an optical lattice Lode Pollet, Corinna Kollath, Kris Van Houcke and Matthias Troyer Numerical study of two-body correlation in a 1D lattice with perfect blockade B Sun and F Robicheaux Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment Amodsen Chotia, Matthieu Viteau, Thibault Vogt, Daniel Comparat and Pierre Pillet Motion of Rydberg atoms induced by resonant dipole-dipole interactions C Ates, A Eisfeld and J M Rost Quantum coherence due to Bose-Einstein condensation of parametrically driven magnons S O Demokritov, V E Demidov, O Dzyapko, G A Melkov and A N Slavin Chaotic dynamics in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates J Kronjäger, K Sengstock and K Bongs Damped Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potential gradients S Drenkelforth, G Kleine Büning, J Will, T Schulte, N Murray, W Ertmer, L Santos and J J Arlt Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states and van der Waals blockade in a mesoscopic frozen Rydberg gas M Reetz-Lamour, J Deiglmayr, T Amthor and M Weidemüller Excitations in two-component Bose gases A Kleine, C