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Sample records for pentanedione 2,3

  1. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  2. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  3. Effects of ammonium lactate on 2,3-pentanedione formation from lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, M.S.; Jackson, J.E.; Miller, D.J.

    1999-10-01

    Ammonia is often used for pH adjustment during fermentation of glucose to lactic acid. Its presence as ammonium lactate in the catalytic upgrading of lactic acid to 2,3-pentanedione over CsOH/silica reduces diketone yields to nearly zero at high ammonia levels. Removal of ammonia from the feed restores 2,3-pentanedione yield, indicating that the catalyst itself is not poisoned by ammonia. Instead, 2,3-pentanedione continues to form in the presence of ammonia and is consumed in secondary reactions downstream of the catalyst bed. Both base-catalyzed self-condensation of 2,3-pentanedione to duroquinone (and oligomeric species) and direct reaction of ammonia with the diketone are observed.

  4. 76 FR 1434 - Request for Information on 2,3-Pentanedione and Other Alpha-Diketones Used As Diacetyl Substitutes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) intends to... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Request for Information on 2,3-Pentanedione and Other Alpha- Diketones Used As Diacetyl Substitutes AGENCY: National Institute for...

  5. Gene Expression in Obliterative Bronchiolitis-Like Lesions in 2,3-Pentanedione-Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Daniel L.; Merrick, B. Alex; Gerrish, Kevin E.; Stockton, Patricia S.; Wang, Yu; Foley, Julie F.; Gwinn, William M.; Kelly, Francine L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Ton, Thai-Vu T.; Flake, Gordon P.

    2015-01-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is an irreversible lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosis in the small airways with eventual occlusion of the airway lumens. OB is most commonly associated with lung transplant rejection; however, OB has also been diagnosed in workers exposed to artificial butter flavoring (ABF) vapors. Research has been limited by the lack of an adequate animal model of OB, and as a result the mechanism(s) is unclear and there are no effective treatments for this condition. Exposure of rats to the ABF component, 2,3-pentanedione (PD) results in airway lesions that are histopathologically similar to those in human OB. We used this animal model to evaluate changes in gene expression in the distal bronchi of rats with PD-induced OB. Male Wistar Han rats were exposed to 200 ppm PD or air 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 2-wks. Bronchial tissues were laser microdissected from serial sections of frozen lung. In exposed lungs, both fibrotic and non-fibrotic airways were collected. Following RNA extraction and microarray analysis, differential gene expression was evaluated. In non-fibrotic bronchi of exposed rats, 4683 genes were significantly altered relative to air-exposed controls with notable down-regulation of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, in fibrotic bronchi, 3807 genes were significantly altered with a majority of genes being up-regulated in affected pathways. Tgf-β2 and downstream genes implicated in fibrosis were significantly up-regulated in fibrotic lesions. Genes for collagens and extracellular matrix proteins were highly up-regulated. In addition, expression of genes for peptidases and peptidase inhibitors were significantly altered, indicative of the tissue remodeling that occurs during airway fibrosis. Our data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of OB. This new information is of potential significance with regard to future therapeutic targets for treatment. PMID:25710175

  6. Low-Pressure Photolysis of 2,3-Pentanedione in Air: Quantum Yields and Reaction Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Hichem; Djehiche, Mokhtar; Gierczak, Tomasz; Morajkar, Pranay; Fittschen, Christa; Coddeville, Patrice; Tomas, Alexandre

    2015-12-24

    Dicarbonyls in the atmosphere mainly arise from secondary sources as reaction products in the degradation of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Because of their sensitivity to solar radiation, photodissociation of dicarbonyls can dominate the fate of these VOC and impact the atmospheric radical budget. The photolysis of 2,3-pentanedione (PTD) has been investigated for the first time as a function of pressure in a static reactor equipped with continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy to measure the HO2 radical photostationary concentrations along with stable species. We showed that (i) Stern-Volmer plots are consistent with low OH-radical formation yields in RCO + O2 reactions, (ii) the decrease of the photodissociation rate due to pressure increase from 26 to 1000 mbar is of about 30%, (iii) similarly to other dicarbonyls, the Stern-Volmer analysis shows a curvature at the lower pressure investigated, which may be assigned to the existence of excited singlet and triplet PTD states, (iv) PTD photolysis at 66 mbar leads to CO2, CH2O and CO with yields of (1.16 ± 0.04), (0.33 ± 0.02) and (0.070 ± 0.005), respectively, with CH2O yield independent of pressure up to 132 mbar and CO yield in agreement with that obtained at atmospheric pressure by Bouzidi et al. (2014), and (v) the PTD photolysis mechanism remains unchanged between atmospheric pressure and 66 mbar. As a part of this work, the O2 broadening coefficient for the absorption line of HO2 radicals at 6638.21 cm(-1) has been determined (γO2 = 0.0289 cm(-1) atm(-1)). PMID:26608471

  7. Lactic acid conversion to 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid over silica-supported sodium nitrate: Reaction optimization and identification of sodium lactate as the active catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wadley, D.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1997-01-15

    Lactic acid is converted to 2,3-pentanedione, acrylic acid, and other products in vapor-phase reactions over silica-supported sodium lactate formed from sodium nitrate. Multiparameter optimization of reaction conditions using a Box-Benkhen experimental design shows that the highest yield and selectivity to 2,3-pentanedione are achieved at low temperature, elevated pressure, and long contact time, while yield and selectivity to acrylic acid are most favorable at high temperature, low pressure, and short contact time. Post-reaction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses of the catalyst indicate that sodium nitrate as the initial catalyst material is transformed to sodium lactate at the onset of reaction via proton transfer from lactic acid to nitrate. The resultant nitric acid vaporizes as it is formed, leaving sodium lactate as the sole sodium-bearing species on the catalyst during reaction. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro.

  9. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Shimko, Michael J.; Wells, J.R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A.; Case, Shannon L.; Thompson, Janet A.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport, without affecting Cl− transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  10. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  11. Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer's wort.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    Undesirable butter-tasting vicinal diketones are produced as by-products of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis during wort fermentation. One promising method of decreasing diacetyl production is through control of wort valine content since valine is involved in feedback inhibition of enzymes controlling the formation of diacetyl precursors. Here, the influence of valine supplementation, wort amino acid profile and free amino nitrogen content on diacetyl formation during wort fermentation with the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus was investigated. Valine supplementation (100 to 300 mg L(-1)) resulted in decreased maximum diacetyl concentrations (up to 37 % lower) and diacetyl concentrations at the end of fermentation (up to 33 % lower) in all trials. Composition of the amino acid spectrum of the wort also had an impact on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione production during fermentation. No direct correlation between the wort amino acid concentrations and diacetyl production was found, but rather a negative correlation between the uptake rate of valine (and also other branched-chain amino acids) and diacetyl production. Fermentation performance and yeast growth were unaffected by supplementations. Amino acid addition had a minor effect on higher alcohol and ester composition, suggesting that high levels of supplementation could affect the flavour profile of the beer. Modifying amino acid profile of wort, especially with respect to valine and the other branched-chain amino acids, may be an effective way of decreasing the amount of diacetyl formed during fermentation.

  12. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Conclusion: Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185 PMID:26642857

  13. Unifying mechanism for bacterial cell signalers (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, lactones and oligopeptides): electron transfer and reactive oxygen species. Practical medical features.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Cell signaling has attracted much attention involving higher organisms, and more recently is of considerable interest concerning involvement in the bacterial realm. Many aspects can apply, including quorum sensing. Of the participating molecules, designated autoinducers, 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is one of the most important. It is in equilibrium with a furanone and a furanosyl-borate diester (AI-2). A prior hypothesis for cell signaling in higher organisms invoked a key role for electron transfer (ET) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as conduits, relays and electrical effects. The principal ET functionalities are quinones, metal complexes, ArNO(2), and iminium species. A lesser known type is the alpha-dicarbonyl class. Diacetyl, a member, as well as its imine derivatives, can serve as a model for DPD, since the parent possesses a reduction potential amenable to ET in the biological domain. Hence, it is conceivable that DPD and its imine derivatives may be involved in ET-ROS processes. Presence of hydroxy groups should facilitate ET by DPD vs. diacetyl. Extensive prior literature supports participation of ET functionalities in action of therapeutic drugs, toxins and various illnesses. This biochemical behavior also applies to the alpha-dicarbonyl parent models. A second important bacterial autoinducer is the lactone category. Although ET functionality is lacking, the presence of the 1,3-dicarbonyl structure can provide a site for avid chelation with redox metal, e.g., iron or copper, followed by ET-ROS. Findings with added iron furnish support for the proposal. Oligopeptides comprise the third principal type of bacterial signaling agent. A prior review incorporates these within the theoretical framework based on ET by redox amino acids and redox enzymes. In recent years there has been a rapid increase in resistance to antibiotics by pathogenic bacteria. Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause in

  14. Infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng

    2014-10-01

    The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide.

  15. SCC of Ti-6Al-4V foil by methanol - Effect of treatments with 2,4-pentanedione and its metal complexes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, E. G.; Fugassi, P.

    1972-01-01

    The susceptibility of Ti-6Al-4V foil to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by methanol can be decreased by treatment of the foil with 2,4-pentanedione prior to its immersion in the corroding media. It is assumed that such treatments remove from the protective film formed on the foil by exposure to the atmosphere, certain metal ions whose oxides are more readily penetrated by the ions, Na + and Cl- or Fe(3+) and Cl-, present in the corroding media.

  16. Three-component reaction of tautomeric amidines with 3-ferrocenylmethylidene-2,4-pentanedione. Formation of polymeric coordination complexes of potassium ferrocenyl-(hexahydro)pyrimidoxides.

    PubMed

    Klimova, Elena I; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Klimova, Tatiana; Maya, Sandra Cortez; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2013-01-01

    Acetamidine hydrochloride and p-aminobenzamidine dihydrochloride interact with 3-ferrocenylmethylidene-2,4-pentanedione at 80-82 °C in the presence of K2CO3 in the water-alcohol medium in two tautomeric forms (the amidoimine and enediamine ones) with formation of mixtures of pyrimidine and piperidone derivatives and polymeric coordination complexes of potassium ferrocenyl(hexahydro)pyrimidoxides. The structure of the resultant compounds is elucidated on the basis of IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The crystal structures of 6-ferrocenyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-piperidone, potassium 6-ferrocenyl-4-methyl-2-methylidene(hexahydro)pyrimidin-4-oxide and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-6-methyl-pyrimidine were determined by X-ray analysis of suitable single crystals. PMID:24362624

  17. Optimization of photoluminescence of Y2O3:Eu and Gd2O3:Eu phosphors synthesized by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antic, B.; Rogan, J.; Kremenovic, A.; Nikolic, A. S.; Vucinic-Vasic, M.; Bozanic, D. K.; Goya, G. F.; Colomban, Ph

    2010-06-01

    Spherical shaped nanoparticles of series Y2 - xEuxO3 (x = 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, and 2) and Gd2 - xEuxO3 (x = 0.06, 0.10) were prepared by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes of Y, Gd, and Eu. The bixbyite phase of Gd2 - xEuxO3 samples was formed at 500 °C, whereas the thermal decomposition of Y and Eu complexes' mixtures occurred at higher temperatures. Linearity in the concentration dependence on lattice parameter confirmed the formation of solid solutions. The distribution of Eu3 + in Gd2 - xEuxO3 was changed with thermal annealing: in the as-prepared sample (x = 0.10) the distribution was preferential at C3i sites while in the annealed samples, Eu3 + were distributed at both C2 and C3i sites. Rietveld refinement of site occupancies as well as emission spectra showed a random distribution of cations in Y2 - xEuxO3. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the sample showed red emission with the main peak at 614 nm (5D0-7F2). The PL intensity increased with increasing concentration of Eu3 + in both series. Infrared excitation was required to obtain good Raman spectra. The linear dependence of the main Raman peak wavenumber offers a non-destructive method for monitoring the substitution level and its homogeneity at the micron scale.

  18. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  19. Induction of oxidative stress in Prototheca zopfii by indole-3-acetic acid/HRP or 2,4-pentanedione/HRP systems and their oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Cunha, L T; Pugine, S M P; Lins, P G; Brunetti, I L; De Melo, M P

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the toxic effects on Prototheca zopfii of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-pentanedione (PD) combined with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) alongside the oxidation products of 3-methyl-2-oxindole (MOI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) from the IAA/HRP system and methylglyoxal (MGO) from the PD/HRP system. The microorganism was incubated in the absence (control) or presence of IAA, PD, IAA/HRP, PD/HRP, MOI, I3C and MGO and determined: (1) cytotoxicity by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay; (2) growth inhibitory concentration by resazurin assay and (3) antioxidant enzymes activities of: catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). P. zopfii was more susceptible to IAA at 40 mM than PD at the same concentration, which seems to indicate that IAA was more effective at initiating cell death. These data corroborate results from the resazurin assay. Concentrations of 40 mM of IAA, IAA/HRP and PD/HRP, 20 mM of PD/HRP, 10 mM of MOI, 2 mM of I3C and 8 mM of MGO inhibited the growth of P. zopfii. With sub-inhibitory concentrations of IAA and IAA/HRP at 30 mM, MOI at 8 mM and I3C at 1 mM, the activities of CAT and GR increased, whereas no statistical difference was observed for CAT activity with IAA/HRP. Thus, PD at 30 mM and MGO at 6 mM increased the activities of CAT and GR, whereas PD/HRP system at 15 mM decreased CAT activity and PD/HRP and MGO showed no statistical difference for SOD activity. In conclusion, IAA/HRP or PD/HRP systems and their oxidation products exert cytotoxic effects on P. zopffi; however, I3C and MGO appear to exert greater microbicidal effect on P. zopfii. PMID:25173924

  20. Solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, cyclohexanone, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and water at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C has been determined. The concentration of DMNB was measured by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The relative standard deviation of the measurements was between about 1% and 7%.

  1. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  2. 25 CFR 2.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability. 2.3 Section 2.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.3... administrative appeal procedure applicable to a specific type of decision....

  3. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  4. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  5. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  6. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  7. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  8. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  9. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  10. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper.

  11. Validating SMAP L2/3 Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Bindlish, R.; Chan, S.; Das, N. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Kim, S.; Chen, F.; Crow, W. T.; Burgin, M. S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A. A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Pacheco, A. M.; Su, Z.; Thibeault, M.; Walker, J. P.; Njoku, E. G.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission entered its one year calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. This began with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and has now evolved to the geophysical products that include three different spatial resolutions of Level 2/3 surface soil moisture (36, 9, and 3 km) and freeze-thaw state. The goal is to provide validated products by May, 2016. SMAP utilizes five methodologies in soil moisture cal/val: core validation sites, sparse networks of in situ sensors, inter-comparisons with products from other satellite programs, inter-comparisons with model-based products, and field campaigns. Each methodology has a role in the process. Examples of each methodology will be presented including recent field campaigns. The evaluation of the beta version will the explained and plans for the providing the validated products presented.

  12. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  13. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  14. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  15. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  16. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  17. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  7. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  8. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  9. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and use. In developed camping and...

  10. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  11. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  12. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  13. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  14. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  15. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  16. 76 FR 44338 - Notice of Public Meeting on the NIOSH Document Titled: “Criteria for a Recommended Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Titled: ``Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and 2,3- pentanedione..., ``Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione''. A copy of... following topics: 1. Hazard identification, risk estimation, and discussion of health effects for...

  17. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or other part...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...) Before initiating procurement action for the building of the project, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  19. 10 CFR 960.4-2-3 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.4-2-3 Section 960.4-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... environment and (2) the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60.113 for radionuclide releases from the...

  20. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... governing the mineral leasing of Indian lands are found in 25 CFR Chapter I Subchapter I. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-3 Lands in Indian reservations. All lands...

  1. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  2. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  3. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  4. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  5. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  7. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  8. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  9. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  10. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  11. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  12. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  13. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  14. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  15. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  16. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  17. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  18. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  19. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  20. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  1. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  2. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  3. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  4. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  5. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  7. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  8. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL... or less according to the most recent U.S. Census; (b) The total Step 3 building cost is estimated...

  9. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  11. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  12. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  13. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  15. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  16. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  17. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  18. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  19. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  20. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  1. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  2. 43 CFR 3436.2-3 - Exchange procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2-3 Exchange procedures. (a) Any person meeting the... owner of the coal deposit underlying an alluvial valley floor identify Federal coal deposits that are... deposit underlying or near an alluvial valley floor, the Secretary shall proceed as though there were...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  9. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  10. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  11. Radioimmunoassay for quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Lawson, L.D.; Corbett, J.T.; McKinney, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay is described for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in commercial preparations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as environmental samples including animal tissues. A feature of the assay method is the use of nonionic detergent to solubilize the hydrophobic dibenzofurans in a manner permitting their binding to antibodies. The detection limits of the assay range between 20 pg and 4.0 ng of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Extensive cross-reactivity studies indicated that the antiserum was fairly specific for TCDF although some cross-reactivity was found to structurally similar compounds. Values for TCDF in various Aroclors and animal tissues by radioimmunoassay correlated with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The radioimmunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening and should be simple enough to be performed in most clinical laboratories. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  12. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  13. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J W; Antane, M; Nguyen, T T; Collini, M D; Antane, S; Bender, R; Hartupee, D; White, V; McCallum, J; Park, C H

    1994-02-18

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II (A II) antagonists was synthesized and tested for antagonism of A II. Compounds with a biphenylyltetrazole pharmacophore and small alkyl groups at the 2- and 4-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring were found to be the most potent in an AT1 receptor binding assay and in blocking the A II pressor response in anesthetized, ganglion-blocked A II-infused rats. 5,8-Dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-8-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one (4a) was one of the more potent compounds in the binding assay and was the most efficacious compound in the A II-infused rat model. Further study of 4a in Goldblatt (2K-1C) rats showed the compound to have oral bioavailability and to be an efficacious and potent compound in a high renin form of hypertension.

  15. Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s.

    PubMed

    Oseki, Yosuke; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Hara, Michihiro; Cai, Xichen; Ie, Yutaka; Aso, Yoshio; Majima, Tetsuro

    2005-06-01

    Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s (nTE, n denotes the number of thiophene rings, n = 2, 3) in benzene were investigated using steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies. For 2TE, generation of the radiative S2 and nonradiative S1 states was confirmed. Upon excitation, the S2 state was initially generated and deactivated to the S1 state within 10 ps. The S1 state exhibited the transient absorption band at 470 nm, of which the lifetime was estimated to be 5.3 ns. In the case of 3TE, on the other hand, it was revealed that the radiative S1 state with a transient absorption peak at 650 nm was generated upon excitation. The T1 states of nTE were generated from the S1 states. The quantum yields were estimated to be 0.52 and 0.54 for 2TE and 3TE, respectively. Extremely fast reactions in the higher triplet excited state were indicated for both 2TE and 3TE.

  16. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  17. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  18. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  19. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  20. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  1. Does 2,3-butanedione monoxime inhibit nonmuscle myosin?

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Fabian, Lacramioara

    2005-04-01

    BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime) has been used extensively to inhibit nonmuscle myosin. However, recent articles raise the question of what BDM actually does, because of experiments in which BDM did not affect the actin-activated ATPase of nonmuscle myosins. We describe results that indicate that BDM indeed inhibits motility due to nonmuscle myosins: in many different cells BDM has the same effects as anti-actin agents and/or as other anti-myosin agents, and BDM slows or stops the sliding between actin filaments and myosin in vitro. We discuss how the two sets of apparently contradictory results might be resolved, and we suggest possible experiments that might clarify the contradictory interpretations. PMID:15868207

  2. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  3. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  4. Deexcitation of helium 2 3S, 2 1S, and 2 3P atoms at Ar and Xe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oró, D. M.; Soletsky, P. A.; Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Walters, G. K.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of ejected electron energy distributions are used in conjunction with electron spin labeling techniques to probe the mechanisms by which He(2 3S), He(2 1S), and He(2 3P) atoms are deexcited at Ar and Xe films adsorbed on a cooled Cu(100) substrate. The data for both surfaces contain features similar to those observed in gas-phase Penning ionization, indicating that ejection results, in part, from Auger deexcitation, i.e., surface Penning ionization. For Xe, however, additional features are observed that can be attributed to resonance ionization of an incident excited atom followed by neutralization of the resulting He+ ion through an interaction that involves neighboring Xe atoms in the film. Indeed, the Xe data provide an exceptional example of a surface at which Auger deexcitation and resonance ionization occur in parallel with one another, with a branching ratio that changes significantly as the internal energy of the incident atoms increases. The ejected electron yield from both Ar and Xe films is substantially higher than for clean Cu(100), indicating that such films might form the basis of an efficient thermal-energy helium metastable-atom detector.

  5. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  6. Identification of cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate in Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 culture.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Emily; Oberc, Christopher; Ameen, Eve; da Silva, Amanda Mendes; Yan, Hongbin

    2014-09-15

    Cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cCMP) and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cUMP) were isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 cell extracts by semi-preparative reverse phase HPLC. The structures of the two compounds were confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopy against commercially available authentic samples. Concentrations of both intracellular and extracellular 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP were determined. Addition of 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP to P. fluorescens pfo-1 culture did not significantly affect the level of biofilm formation in static liquid cultures. PMID:25139571

  7. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  9. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  10. Ferryl derivatives of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2011-06-17

    The critical role of the ferryl intermediate in catalyzing the oxygen chemistry of monooxygenases, oxidases, or peroxidases has been known for decades. In contrast, its involvement in heme-based dioxygenases, such as human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), was not recognized until recently. In this study, H(2)O(2) was used as a surrogate to generate the ferryl intermediate of hIDO. Spectroscopic data demonstrate that the ferryl species is capable of oxidizing azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) but not L-Trp. Kinetic studies reveal that the conversion of the ferric enzyme to the ferryl intermediate facilitates the L-Trp binding rate by >400-fold; conversely, L-Trp binding to the enzyme retards the peroxide reaction rate by ∼9-fold, because of the significant elevation of the entropic barrier. The unfavorable entropic factor for the peroxide reaction highlights the scenario that the structure of hIDO is not optimized for utilizing H(2)O(2) as a co-substrate for oxidizing L-Trp. Titration studies show that the ferryl intermediate possesses two substrate-binding sites with a K(d) of 0.3 and 440 μM and that the electronic properties of the ferryl moiety are sensitive to the occupancy of the two substrate-binding sites. The implications of the data are discussed in the context of the structural and functional relationships of the enzyme. PMID:21502325

  11. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  12. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  13. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  14. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  15. Review of Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 (2007).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Reviews the book, Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 by I. A. Serlin, M. A. DiCowden, K. Rockefeller, S. Brown, J. Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (2007). With the more-than-1,000-page tour de force titled Whole Person Healthcare, Ilene Serlin, current president of the San Francisco Psychological Association, has purposefully edited a three-volume series aimed at humanizing the fields of psychotherapy and health care. Throughout the series, all of the authors carry the message that integrative treatment strategies in psychotherapy and health care are more valuable than reductionist "treat the symptom rather than the person" approaches as a way to humanize patient-client interaction. Whole Person Healthcare persuasively presents the principle reasons for integrating human-centered strategies into psychotherapeutic and health care practices. Volume 1 of the series, Humanizing Healthcare, sets the tone for the other two volumes, providing a conceptual scaffold for framing humanistic and positive psychological theories within an applied health care setting. Volume 2 of the series, Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, focuses on presenting concrete, evidence-based examples of integrative therapeutic techniques such as imagery and visualization, meditation, meaning finding, prayer and psychospiritual practices, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong. Volume 3 of the series, The Arts and Health, provides a critically important contribution to the field because the art therapies are so often forgotten in the world of managed health care. Volume 3 gives evidence-based examples of the valuable contributions of artistic interactions within therapeutic contexts. The collection of readings in Whole Person Healthcare covers a wide spectrum of modern healing approaches, and this series is a must for any practitioner of integrative, holistic therapies. However, there are two practical barriers of note. First is cost: The price is too steep for most readers

  16. Contribution of Intracolumnar Layer 2/3-to-Layer 2/3 Excitatory Connections in Shaping the Response to Whisker Deflection in Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarid, Leora; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Gidon, Albert; Sakmann, Bert; Segev, Idan

    2015-01-01

    This computational study integrates anatomical and physiological data to assess the functional role of the lateral excitatory connections between layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells (PCs) in shaping their response during early stages of intracortical processing of a whisker deflection (WD). Based on in vivo and in vitro recordings, and 3D reconstructions of connected pairs of L2/3 PCs, our model predicts that: 1) AMPAR and NMDAR conductances/synapse are 0.52 ± 0.24 and 0.40 ± 0.34 nS, respectively; 2) following WD, connection between L2/3 PCs induces a composite EPSPs of 7.6 ± 1.7 mV, well below the threshold for action potential (AP) initiation; 3) together with the excitatory feedforward L4-to-L2/3 connection, WD evoked a composite EPSP of 16.3 ± 3.5 mV and a probability of 0.01 to generate an AP. When considering the variability in L4 spiny neurons responsiveness, it increased to 17.8 ± 11.2 mV; this 3-fold increase in the SD yielded AP probability of 0.35; 4) the interaction between L4-to-L2/3 and L2/3-to-L2/3 inputs is highly nonlinear; 5) L2/3 dendritic morphology significantly affects L2/3 PCs responsiveness. We conclude that early stages of intracortical signaling of WD are dominated by a combination of feedforward L4–L2/3 and L2/3–L2/3 lateral connections. PMID:24165834

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  18. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...

  19. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  6. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  7. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  8. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 2-3 - Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities. Sec. 2-3 Section 2-3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-3 Distribution of revenues and expenses...

  10. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  11. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  12. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  13. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  14. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  1. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  2. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  3. Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-20

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.

  4. Popcorn flavoring effects on reactivity of rat airways in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Eric J; Thompson, Janet A; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Jackson, Mark C; Kashon, Michael L; Frazer, David G; Hubbs, Ann F; Shimko, Michael J; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    "Popcorn workers' lung" is an obstructive pulmonary disease produced by inhalation of volatile artificial butter flavorings. In rats, inhalation of diacetyl, a major component of butter flavoring, and inhalation of a diacetyl substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, produce similar damage to airway epithelium. The effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione and mixtures of diacetyl, acetic acid, and acetoin, all components of butter flavoring, on pulmonary function and airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) were investigated. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were negligibly changed 18 h after a 6-h inhalation exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione (100-360 ppm). Reactivity to MCh was not markedly changed after diacetyl, but was modestly decreased after 2,3-pentanedione inhalation. Inhaled diacetyl exerted essentially no effect on reactivity to mucosally applied MCh, but 2,3-pentanedione (320 and 360 ppm) increased reactivity to MCh in the isolated, perfused trachea preparation (IPT). In IPT, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione (≥3 mM) applied to the serosal and mucosal surfaces of intact and epithelium-denuded tracheas initiated transient contractions followed by relaxations. Inhaled acetoin (150 ppm) exerted no effect on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in vivo; acetic acid (27 ppm) produced hyperreactivity to MCh; and exposure to diacetyl + acetoin + acetic acid (250 + 150 + 27 ppm) led to a diacetyl-like reduction in reactivity. Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism. PMID:23941636

  5. POPCORN FLAVORING EFFECTS ON REACTIVITY OF RAT AIRWAYS IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Thompson, Janet A.; Ponnoth, Dovenia S.; Cumpston, Amy M.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Jackson, Mark C.; Kashon, Michael L.; Frazer, David G.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Shimko, Michael J.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    “Popcorn workers’ lung” is an obstructive pulmonary disease produced by inhalation of volatile artificial butter flavorings. In rats, inhalation of diacetyl, a major component of butter flavoring, and inhalation of a diacetyl substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, produce similar damage to airway epithelium. The effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione and mixtures of diacetyl, acetic acid, and acetoin, all components of butter flavoring, on pulmonary function and airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) were investigated. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were negligibly changed 18 h after a 6-h inhalation exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione (100–360 ppm). Reactivity to MCh was not markedly changed after diacetyl, but was modestly decreased after 2,3-pentanedione inhalation. Inhaled diacetyl exerted essentially no effect on reactivity to mucosally applied MCh, but 2,3-pentanedione (320 and 360 ppm) increased reactivity to MCh in the isolated, perfused trachea preparation (IPT). In IPT, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione (≥3 mM) applied to the serosal and mucosal surfaces of intact and epithelium-denuded tracheas initiated transient contractions followed by relaxations. Inhaled acetoin (150 ppm) exerted no effect on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in vivo; acetic acid (27 ppm) produced hyperreactivity to MCh; and exposure to diacetyl + acetoin + acetic acid (250 + 150 + 27 ppm) led to a diacetyl-like reduction in reactivity. Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism. PMID:23941636

  6. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm.

  7. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm. PMID:26625973

  8. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  13. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, F.L.; Raymond, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to a compound of the formula given in the patent wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO[sub 3]H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes. No Drawings

  14. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L. [Martinez, CA; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  15. Process for preparing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  16. Determination of the crystal structure of EntA, a 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sundlov, Jesse A; Garringer, Julie A; Carney, Jill M; Reger, Albert S; Drake, Eric J; Duax, William L; Gulick, Andrew M

    2006-07-01

    The Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetic cluster is composed of six proteins, EntA-EntF, that form the enterobactin molecule from three serine molecules and three molecules of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). EntC, EntB and EntA catalyze the three-step synthesis of DHB from chorismate. EntA is a member of the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of proteins and catalyzes the final step in DHB synthesis, the NAD+-dependent oxidation of 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid to DHB. The structure of EntA has been determined by multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods. Here, the 2.0 A crystal structure of EntA in the unliganded form is presented. Analysis of the structure in light of recent structural and bioinformatic analysis of other members of the SCOR family provides insight into the residues involved in cofactor and substrate binding.

  17. Bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs to marine benthos from passaic river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, N.I.; Pruell, R.J.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta) and shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment from the Passaic River, New Jersey for up to 180 days. Worms accumulated the highest concentrations of these compounds. Uptake and depuration rates were slowest in the worms and most rapid in the clams.

  18. Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives☆

    PubMed Central

    Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ω-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

  19. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds. PMID:27589713

  20. Efficient bioconversion of 2,3-butanediol into acetoin using Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol is a platform and fuel biochemical that can be efficiently produced from biomass. However, a value-added process for this chemical has not yet been developed. To expand the utilization of 2,3-butanediol produced from biomass, an improved derivative process of 2,3-butanediol is desirable. Results In this study, a Gluconobacter oxydans strain DSM 2003 was found to have the ability to transform 2,3-butanediol into acetoin, a high value feedstock that can be widely used in dairy and cosmetic products, and chemical synthesis. All three stereoisomers, meso-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol, could be transformed into acetoin by the strain. After optimization of the bioconversion conditions, the optimum growth temperature for acetoin production by strain DSM 2003 was found to be 30°C and the medium pH was 6.0. With an initial 2,3-butanediol concentration of 40 g/L, acetoin at a high concentration of 89.2 g/L was obtained from 2,3-butanediol by fed-batch bioconversion with a high productivity (1.24 g/L · h) and high yield (0.912 mol/mol). Conclusions G. oxydans DSM 2003 is the first strain that can be used in the direct production of acetoin from 2,3-butanediol. The product concentration and yield of the novel process are both new records for acetoin production. The results demonstrate that the method developed in this study could provide a promising process for efficient acetoin production and industrially produced 2,3-butanediol utilization. PMID:24176113

  1. Metabolic engineering of Zymomonas mobilis for 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass sugars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Shihui; Mohagheghi, Ali; Franden, Mary Ann; Chou, Yat -Chen; Chen, Xiaowen; Dowe, Nancy; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-09-02

    To develop pathways for advanced biofuel production, and to understand the impact of host metabolism and environmental conditions on heterologous pathway engineering for economic advanced biofuels production from biomass, we seek to redirect the carbon flow of the model ethanologen Zymomonas mobilis to produce desirable hydrocarbon intermediate 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). 2,3-BDO is a bulk chemical building block, and can be upgraded in high yields to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathways from various bacterial species were examined, which include three genes encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase. Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to pinpoint potential bottlenecks formore » high 2,3-BDO production. Different combinations of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis metabolic pathways using genes from different bacterial species have been constructed. Our results demonstrated that carbon flux can be deviated from ethanol production into 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, and all three heterologous genes are essential to efficiently redirect pyruvate from ethanol production for high 2,3-BDO production in Z. mobilis. The down-selection of best gene combinations up to now enabled Z. mobilis to reach the 2,3-BDO production of more than 10 g/L from glucose and xylose, as well as mixed C6/C5 sugar streams derived from the deacetylation and mechanical refining process. In conclusion, this study confirms the value of integrating bioinformatics analysis and systems biology data during metabolic engineering endeavors, provides guidance for value-added chemical production in Z. mobilis, and reveals the interactions between host metabolism, oxygen levels, and a heterologous 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, this work provides guidance for future metabolic engineering efforts aimed at boosting 2,3-BDO titer anaerobically.« less

  2. 75 FR 17349 - Operations of Wireless Communications Services in the 2.3 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... December 2007, the Commission released a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 73 FR 2437 (January 15, 2008) (NPRM... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 27 Operations of Wireless Communications Services in the 2.3 GHz Band AGENCY: Federal...) seeks comment on revising the performance requirements for the 2.3 GHz Wireless Communications...

  3. 41 CFR 302-2.3 - What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation? 302-2.3 Section 302-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  10. Striatal Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Treatment Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ruhé, Eric H. G.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD) after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group) and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75) in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics) relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001) but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs. PMID:25411966

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  15. 43 CFR 2812.2-3 - Construction in advance of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction in advance of permit. 2812.2-3 Section 2812.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING...

  16. Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

  17. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  4. Engineering of cofactor regeneration enhances (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol production from diacetyl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    (2S,3S)-2,3-Butanediol ((2S,3S)-2,3-BD) is a potentially valuable liquid fuel and an excellent building block in asymmetric synthesis. In this study, cofactor engineering was applied to improve the efficiency of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD production and simplify the product purification. Two NADH regeneration enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), were introduced into Escherichia coli with 2,3-BD dehydrogenase, respectively. Introduction of FDH resulted in higher (2S,3S)-2,3-BD concentration, productivity and yield from diacetyl, and large increase in the intracellular NADH concentration. In fed-batch bioconversion, the final titer, productivity and yield of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD on diacetyl reached 31.7 g/L, 2.3 g/(L·h) and 89.8%, the highest level of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD production thus far. Moreover, cosubstrate formate was almost totally converted to carbon dioxide and no organic acids were produced. The biocatalytic process presented should be a promising route for biotechnological production of NADH-dependent microbial metabolites. PMID:24025762

  5. Application of a liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method to the biodistribution and excretion studies of novel 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo (2', 3': 2, 3) betulinic acid (DRF-4012) in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gautam; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Awasthi, Anshumali; Singh, Anu T; Jaggi, Manu; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-06-01

    Novel betulinic acid derivative 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo [2', 3': 2, 3] betulinic acid (DRF-4012) is a new effective lupane type triterpenes with greater anticancer activity and efficacy than betulinic acid and currently under advanced preclinical investigation phase. In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method has been developed for the determination of DRF-4012 in tumour-bearing mice plasma, urine, feces and tissues (liver, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, stomach, thigh muscle, kidneys, urinary bladder, small intestine and tumour). Biodistribution and excretion studies were performed for DRF-4012 nanoparticle (30 mg/kg body weight) after intravenous (i.v.) injection in tumour-bearing mice. DRF-4012 rapidly distributed throughout the body. After 0.5 h, tumour showed the second highest concentration, which was nearly half of the liver. After 4 and 24 h, the highest concentration of DRF-4012 was found in tumour indicating its retention in tumour site for a longer time. Excretion studies revealed that very low amount of unchanged DRF-4012 was observed in urine and primarily excreted through fecal route. This study may be useful to explain the manner in which DRF-4012 can inhibit tumour growth without apparent toxicity and preclinical/clinical evaluation of this potential antitumour agent.

  6. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-08-01

    The 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (3',5'-cAMP→5'-AMP→adenosine) and the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP→2'-AMP/3'-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway to the 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP, 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 3',5'-cAMP, and 5'-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2',3'-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2'-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2',3'-cAMP to 3'-AMP or 3',5'-cAMP to either 3'-AMP or 5'-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2',3'-cAMP and 2'-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2',3'-cAMP and extracellular 2'-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway but do have a 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2'-AMP formation rather than 3'-AMP, and because the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2'-AMP. Accumulation of 2'-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:25998049

  7. Synthesis, antimicrobial and in vitro antitumor activities of a series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole and 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Nizar M; Al-Smadi, Mousa; Al-Momani, Fouad; Alzoubi, Karem H; Mansi, Iman; Al-Balas, Qosay

    2015-01-01

    Three derivatives of substituted 1,2,3-thia- or 1,2,3-selenadiazole (4a–c) were prepared and characterized by different chemical techniques. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Compounds 4a (propenoxide derivative), 4b (carbaldehyde derivative), and 4c (benzene derivative) were active against the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans. Compound 4a was active against gram-negative Escherichia coli, and compound 4c was active against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. For the antitumor activity, both compounds 4b and 4c were active against all tested tumor cell lines, namely, SW480, HCT116, C32, MV3, HMT3522, and MCF-7. The activity of compound 4c was greater than that of compound 4b and more than that of the reference antitumor 5-flourouracil against the SW480, HCT116, and MCF-7 tumor cell lines. In conclusion, a number of the prepared 1,2,3-thia- or 1,2,3-selenadiazole compounds showed promising antifungal, antibacterial, and in vitro antitumor activities. Further investigations are required to explore the mechanism by which active compound are inducing their cytotoxicity. PMID:26316694

  8. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  9. Mechanism-based design of 2,3-benzodiazepine inhibitors for AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine (2,3-BDZ) compounds represent a group of structurally diverse, small-molecule antagonists of (R, S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Antagonists of AMPA receptors are drug candidates for potential treatment of a number of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). How to make better inhibitors, such as 2,3-BDZs, has been an enduring quest in drug discovery. Among a few available tools to address this specific question for making better 2,3-BDZs, perhaps the best one is to use mechanistic clues from studies of the existing antagonists to design and discover more selective and more potent antagonists. Here I review recent work in this area, and propose some ideas in the continuing effort of developing newer 2,3-BDZs for tighter control of AMPA receptor activities in vivo. PMID:26713266

  10. Preclinical pharmacology of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists: novel agents for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    DD, Darryle D Schoepp; Marek, Gerard J

    2002-04-01

    Agonists for mGlu2/3 receptors decrease the evoked release of glutamate at certain (ie. forebrain / limbic) glutamatergic synapses, indicating that the functional role of mGlu2 and/or mGlu3 receptors is to suppress glutamate excitations. This offers a mechanism for dampening glutamate excitation under pathological states resulting from excessive glutamate release. Based, in part, on the psychotomimetic actions of phencyclidine (PCP)- like drugs, excessive or pathological glutamate release has been implicated in a number of clinical conditions including psychosis. With this in mind, the pharmacology of multiple mGlu2/3 receptor agonists have been investigated in PCP treated rats. Agonists for mGlu2/3 receptors such as LY354740 and LY379268 have been shown to block certain behavioral responses to PCP in rats. The effects of mGlu2/3 agonists on PCP-induced behaviors are blocked by a low doses of a selective mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, indicating that these actions are mediated via mGlu2/3 receptors. In addition, mGlu2/3 agonists potently suppress glutamate release in rat prefrontal cortex, as reflected by excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) induced by serotonin (5-HT) acting on 5HT(2A) receptors. These actions of LY354740 and LY379268 are also blocked by a selective mGlu2/3 antagonist. Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine also suppress 5-HT-induced EPSPs in this brain region, thus suggesting a common pathway for the actions of atypical antipsychotic drugs and mGlu2/3 receptor agonists. As glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in psychotic states and possibly in the etiology of schizophrenia, clinical studies with mGlu2/3 agonists may be warranted to further explore the validity of the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:12769628

  11. Production of 2,3-butanediol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol is a chemical compound of increasing interest due to its wide applications. It can be synthesized via mixed acid fermentation of pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses three different 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathways, but produces minute amount of 2,3-butanediol. Hence, we attempted to engineer S. cerevisiae strain to enhance 2,3-butanediol production. Results We first identified gene deletion strategy by performing in silico genome-scale metabolic analysis. Based on the best in silico strategy, in which disruption of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) pathway is required, we then constructed gene deletion mutant strains and performed batch cultivation of the strains. Deletion of three ADH genes, ADH1, ADH3 and ADH5, increased 2,3-butanediol production by 55-fold under microaerobic condition. However, overproduction of glycerol was observed in this triple deletion strain. Additional rational design to reduce glycerol production by GPD2 deletion altered the carbon fluxes back to ethanol and significantly reduced 2,3-butanediol production. Deletion of ALD6 reduced acetate production in strains lacking major ADH isozymes, but it did not favor 2,3-butanediol production. Finally, we introduced 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathway from Bacillus subtilis and E. aerogenes to the engineered strain and successfully increased titer and yield. Highest 2,3-butanediol titer (2.29 g·l-1) and yield (0.113 g·g-1) were achieved by Δadh1 Δadh3 Δadh5 strain under anaerobic condition. Conclusions With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering, we have successfully designed and constructed S. cerevisiae strains with improved 2,3-butanediol production. PMID:22640729

  12. Molecular Structure of WlbB, a Bacterial N-Acetyltransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2010-09-08

    The pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bordetella pertussis contain in their outer membranes the rare sugar 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of this sugar starting from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. One of these, referred to as WlbB, is an N-acetyltransferase that converts UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAc3NA) to UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAc3NAcA). Here we report the three-dimensional structure of WlbB from Bordetella petrii. For this analysis, two ternary structures were determined to 1.43 {angstrom} resolution: one in which the protein was complexed with acetyl-CoA and UDP and the second in which the protein contained bound CoA and UDP-GlcNAc3NA. WlbB adopts a trimeric quaternary structure and belongs to the L{beta}H superfamily of N-acyltransferases. Each subunit contains 27 {beta}-strands, 23 of which form the canonical left-handed {beta}-helix. There are only two hydrogen bonds that occur between the protein and the GlcNAc3NA moiety, one between O{sup {delta}1} of Asn 84 and the sugar C-3{prime} amino group and the second between the backbone amide group of Arg 94 and the sugar C-5{prime} carboxylate. The sugar C-3{prime} amino group is ideally positioned in the active site to attack the si face of acetyl-CoA. Given that there are no protein side chains that can function as general bases within the GlcNAc3NA binding pocket, a reaction mechanism is proposed for WlbB whereby the sulfur of CoA ultimately functions as the proton acceptor required for catalysis.

  13. The structural basis of actin filament branching by the Arp2/3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Rouiller, Isabelle; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Amann, Kurt J.; Egile, Coumaran; Nickell, Stephan; Nicastro, Daniela; Li, Rong; Pollard, Thomas D.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit

    2008-01-01

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex mediates the formation of branched actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells and in the comet tails moving certain intracellular pathogens. Crystal structures of the Arp2/3 complex are available, but the architecture of the junction formed by the Arp2/3 complex at the base of the branch was not known. In this study, we use electron tomography to reconstruct the branch junction with sufficient resolution to show how the Arp2/3 complex interacts with the mother filament. Our analysis reveals conformational changes in both the mother filament and Arp2/3 complex upon branch formation. The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits reorganize into a dimer, providing a short-pitch template for elongation of the daughter filament. Two subunits of the mother filament undergo conformational changes that increase stability of the branch. These data provide a rationale for why branch formation requires cooperative interactions among the Arp2/3 complex, nucleation-promoting factors, an actin monomer, and the mother filament. PMID:18316411

  14. The structural basis of actin filament branching by the Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, Isabelle; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Amann, Kurt J; Egile, Coumaran; Nickell, Stephan; Nicastro, Daniela; Li, Rong; Pollard, Thomas D; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit

    2008-03-10

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex mediates the formation of branched actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells and in the comet tails moving certain intracellular pathogens. Crystal structures of the Arp2/3 complex are available, but the architecture of the junction formed by the Arp2/3 complex at the base of the branch was not known. In this study, we use electron tomography to reconstruct the branch junction with sufficient resolution to show how the Arp2/3 complex interacts with the mother filament. Our analysis reveals conformational changes in both the mother filament and Arp2/3 complex upon branch formation. The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits reorganize into a dimer, providing a short-pitch template for elongation of the daughter filament. Two subunits of the mother filament undergo conformational changes that increase stability of the branch. These data provide a rationale for why branch formation requires cooperative interactions among the Arp2/3 complex, nucleation-promoting factors, an actin monomer, and the mother filament.

  15. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (-)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers. PMID:27651816

  16. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (-)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers.

  17. 2,3-Dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    James Bound, D; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. Their MIC and MFC values indicated that the 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol and thymol exhibited more fungicidal activity than the other compounds. Further, the 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of carvacrol and thymol, exhibited antitoxigenic effects against A. ochraceus and A. flavus and inhibited the production of ochratoxin and aflatoxin-B2. Propidium iodide influx assay demonstrated the lysis of C. albicans cells by carvacrol and its 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside and the loss of the membrane integrity. These new 2,3-dideoxyglucosides can be useful as antifungal agents and condiments in foods. PMID:27211660

  18. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (–)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers.

  19. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (–)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers. PMID:27651816

  20. Spin-dependent, optogalvanic effects of laser-pumped He(2/3/S1) atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schearer, L. D.; Tin, Pedetha

    1989-10-01

    Spin-dependent optogalvanic effects of laser-pumped He(2/3/S1) atoms are demonstrated. As helium atoms are excited with an IR tunable laser, changes in the conductivity of helium radio-frequency discharge are observed. With approximately 1 mW/sq cm of tunable laser power near 1.083 microns, the intensity-modulated optogalvanic effect signals are obtained as the laser is tuned through the D0(2/3/S1-2/3/P0), D1(2/3/S1-2/3/P1), and D2(2/3/S1-2/3/P2) transitions at 1.082908, 1.083025, and 1.083034 microns, respectively. If the laser emission is now circularly polarized and directed onto the helium discharge cell with the applied field parallel to the pump axis, some of the metastable atoms are oriented with their electronic spins along the field direction, modulating the coil current. One of the important applications of spin-polarized ensembles of metastable 4He is in extremely sensitive magnetic-field measuring devices.

  1. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  2. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  3. Clathrin- and Arp2/3-Independent Endocytosis in the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Elias; Nazarova, Elena; Regan, Hannah; Douglas, Lois M.; Konopka, James B.; Vogel, Jackie; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is conserved among eukaryotes and has been extensively analyzed at a molecular level. Here, we present an analysis of CME in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans that shows the same modular structure as those in other fungi and mammalian cells. Intriguingly, C. albicans is perfectly viable in the absence of Arp2/3, an essential component of CME in other systems. In C. albicans, Arp2/3 function remains essential for CME as all 15 proteins tested that participate in CME, including clathrin, lose their characteristic dynamics observed in wild-type (WT) cells. However, since arp2/3 cells are still able to endocytose lipids and fluid-phase markers, but not the Ste2 and Mup1 plasma membrane proteins, there must be an alternate clathrin-independent pathway we term Arp2/3-independent endocytosis (AIE). Characterization of AIE shows that endocytosis in arp2 mutants relies on actin cables and other Arp2/3-independent actin structures, as inhibition of actin functions prevented cargo uptake in arp2/3 mutants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that arp2/3 mutants still formed invaginating tubules, cell structures whose proper functions are believed to heavily rely on Arp2/3. Finally, Prk1 and Sjl2, two proteins involved in patch disassembly during CME, were not correctly localized to sites of endocytosis in arp2 mutants, implying a role of Arp2/3 in CME patch disassembly. Overall, C. albicans contains an alternative endocytic pathway (AIE) that relies on actin cable function to permit clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) and provides a system to further explore alternate endocytic routes that likely exist in fungal species. PMID:23982070

  4. Synthesis of 1H-indole-2,3-dione-3-thiosemicarbazone ribonucleosides as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Shaymaa E; Hegazy, Gehan H; Eid, Nahed M; Amin, Kamelia M; El-Gendy, Adel A

    2010-01-01

    A new isatin ribonucleoside (3) was synthesized in a good yield by trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) catalyzed coupling reaction between the silylated nitrogenated base of 1H-Indole-2,3-dione (1) and 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribfuranose (2). Thiosemicarbazides 4a-e were utilized by the prepared ribonucleoside (3) to give new series of 1H-indole-2,3-dione-3-thiosemicarbazone ribonucleosides 5a-e. All compounds tested as antibacterial agents showed slight inhibitory activity against the selected bacterial strains.

  5. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  6. Anti-cancer agents based on N-acyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] quinoline derivatives and a method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. In particular, the invention relates to N-acyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines having the structural Formula (I), ##STR00001## stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. The meaning of R1 is independently selected from H; C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl substituents; R2 is selected from C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl; substituted or non-substituted, fused or non-fused to substituted or non-substituted aromatic ring, aryl or heteroaryl groups. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  7. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2&3 and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Primate Multispecies Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E.; Kapoor, Amita; Hedman, Curtis J.; Binkley, Neil; Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are widely studied for their roles in bone health, immune functions and other potential physiologic roles in humans. However, the optimal blood levels of vitamin D metabolites are still unclear. Various methods for measuring vitamin D metabolites have been used and recently liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) has been adopted as the gold standard for vitamin D metabolite measurement. Here we report the use of LC-MS/MS to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D2&3), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D2&3), in three laboratory nonhuman primate species: common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and compare them to humans using the same technique. The nonhuman primates showed blood levels for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly higher than human values with marmosets having the highest levels. Marmoset samples showed significantly more variability among individuals than those from macaques for both metabolites, but all three nonhuman primate species exhibited large variation within species for both 25(OH)D2&3 and 1,25(OH)2D2&3. Marmoset females had significantly lower values than the males for 25(OH)D3, while rhesus males showed a significant decrease in 25(OH)D3 with age. The most striking finding is the variation within species for vitamin D levels even in laboratory primates that have a controlled diet, UV exposure, and in some cases, genetic constraints. Similar variation in 25(OH)D responses to a fixed dose of oral vitamin D supplementation has been reported in humans. We suggest that these species can provide primate models for examining the factors influencing variation in the levels of vitamin D necessary for human and nonhuman primate health. PMID:25845705

  8. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed...

  9. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed...

  10. [Bicyclic furano[2,3-D] derivatives of pyrimidine nucleosides--synthesis and antiviral properties].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, M A; Aleksandrova, L A

    2013-01-01

    The methods of synthesis of furano- and pyrrolo[2,3-dlpyrimidine nucleosides as well as structure activity relationship of obtained compounds towards viruses of varicella zoster, hepatitis C, bovine viral diarrhea and some others are reviewed. PMID:23844505

  11. The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the use of spreadsheet programs in chemical engineering calculations using Lotus 1-2-3 macros. Discusses the macro commands, subroutine operations, and solution of partial differential equation. Provides examples of the subroutine programs and spreadsheet solution. (YP)

  12. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  13. INHIBITION OF INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE DOES NOT IMPEDE ORAL TOLERANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, regulates immune tolerance through inhibition of T-cell proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO, which causes fetal rejection and increased tumor resistance in mice, may prove useful in cancer...

  14. Fetal ADH2*3, maternal alcohol consumption, and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Arfsten, Darryl P; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2004-01-01

    There is some evidence suggesting the allele for alcohol dehydrogenase 2*3 (ADH2*3) is associated with a protective effect against alcohol-related intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). This study was conducted to explore the affect of the ADH2*3 allele on fetal growth. Bloodspots (n = 1016) belonging to individual infants of a subgroup of the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (BWIS) were assayed for the presence of the ADH2*3 allele by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Infants genotyped for ADH2*3 were those for whom bloodspots were identified and obtained from the Maryland Newborn Screening Program. The effect of ADH2*3 and maternal alcohol consumption on intrauterine growth was explored by multivariable linear regression analysis. Twenty-six percent of the 306 blood spots belonging to African-American infants were positive for ADH2*3 (4% were homozygous and 22% were heterozygous). Only a small percentage of bloodspots for Caucasian (1.3%) were positive for the ADH2*3 allele. Consequently, further analysis concentrated on gene-exposure interactions for African-American infants. It was found that the incidence of being small-for-gestation-age (SGA) was lower for ADH2*3-positive infants (2.5% versus 8.8%; p = .08). SGA infants had elevated odds for being ADH2*3 negative (OR: 3.15, 95% C.I.: 0.70-14.26) and for being born to mothers that consumed alcohol during pregnancy (OR: 2.31, 95% C.I.: 0.77-6.91). A negative trend between maternal alcohol consumption and mean offspring birthweight was found; however, ADH2*3 did not have a significant impact on mean birthweight for infants born to mothers that drank during pregnancy. These results could be interpreted as possible support for the hypothesis that ADH2 genotype in the infant may impact risk for alcohol-related IUGR. However, this study has limitations in that it is a "nested study of convenience" and involves a relatively small number of infants born to mothers reporting moderate to heavy alcohol

  15. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]dichloropropene in rats after inhalation.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A; Medinsky, M A; Dutcher, J S; Henderson, R F; Cheng, Y S; Mewhinney, J A; Birnbaum, L S

    1985-03-30

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. Human exposure potential exists during manufacture of the chemicals or during bulk handling activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-[14C]DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25 degrees C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of 14C (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of 14C in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (means +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of 14C feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (means +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-[14C]DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-[14C]DCP or 14CO2, respectively. Concentrations of 14C in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of 14C were seen. 14C was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-[14C]DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of 14C immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the 14C in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of 14C from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted.

  16. Role of CNPase in the oligodendrocytic extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Bansal, Rashmi; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP) is an endogenous source of localized adenosine production in many organs. Recent studies suggest that extracellular 2',3'-cAMP (positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) is also a source of adenosine, particularly in the brain in vivo post-injury. Moreover, in vitro studies show that both microglia and astrocytes can convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to adenosine. Here, we examined the ability of primary mouse oligodendrocytes and neurons to metabolize extracellular 2',3'-cAMP and their respective adenosine monophosphates (2'-AMP and 3'-AMP). Cells were also isolated from mice deficient in 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Oligodendrocytes metabolized 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP with 10-fold greater efficiency than did neurons (and also more than previously examined microglia and astrocytes); whereas, the production of 3'-AMP was minimal in both oligodendrocytes and neurons. The production of 2'-AMP from 2',3'-cAMP was reduced by 65% in CNPase -/- versus CNPase +/+ oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes also converted 2'-AMP to adenosine, and this was also attenuated in CNPase -/- oligodendrocytes. Inhibition of classic 3',5'-cAMP-3'-phosphodiesterases with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine did not block metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP and inhibition of classic ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) with α,β-methylene-adenosine-5'-diphosphate did not attenuate the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine. These studies demonstrate that oligodendrocytes express the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP → 2'-AMP → adenosine). This pathway is more robustly expressed in oligodendrocytes than in all other CNS cell types because CNPase is the predominant enzyme that metabolizes 2',3'-cAMP to 2-AMP in CNS cells. By reducing levels of 2',3'-cAMP (a mitochondrial toxin) and increasing levels of adenosine (a neuroprotectant), oligodendrocytes may protect axons from injury. PMID:23922219

  17. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)dichloropropene in rats after inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Henderson, R.F.; Cheng, Y.S.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-( UC)DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of UC (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of UC in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (anti x +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of UC feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (anti x +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-( UC)DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-( UC)DCP or UCO2, respectively. Concentrations of UC in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of UC were seen. UC was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-( UC)DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of UC immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the UC in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of UC from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted. 21 references. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)arylamides via oxidative esterification

    PubMed Central

    More, Satish S; Chaitanya, T Krishna; Kumar, Yadla Sateesh; Meruva, Suresh Babu; Rao, L Vaikunta

    2013-01-01

    Summary A highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S) and (R)-isomers of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)arylamides has been developed with good overall yields in a two step process. The key step involves the ring opening of the chiral epoxide with a nitrogen heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and further rearrangement to chiral N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)arylamides in high yields and enantioselectivity. During the reaction, no erosion in chiral purity was observed. PMID:24204425

  19. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Greg; Kaplan, Greg; Hall, Leslie; Hawkins, Tommy; Larue, Joann

    2004-01-01

    A new class of ionic liquids based upon 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrates (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 2-propeny1, and n-butyl) have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectra, multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and DSC studies. A single crystal x-ray study was carried out for 1-amino-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrate and the details will be presented.

  20. Tropomyosin Promotes Lamellipodial Persistence by Collaborating with Arp2/3 at the Leading Edge.

    PubMed

    Brayford, Simon; Bryce, Nicole S; Schevzov, Galina; Haynes, Elizabeth M; Bear, James E; Hardeman, Edna C; Gunning, Peter W

    2016-05-23

    At the leading edge of migrating cells, protrusion of the lamellipodium is driven by Arp2/3-mediated polymerization of actin filaments [1]. This dense, branched actin network is promoted and stabilized by cortactin [2, 3]. In order to drive filament turnover, Arp2/3 networks are remodeled by proteins such as GMF, which blocks the actin-Arp2/3 interaction [4, 5], and coronin 1B, which acts by directing SSH1L to the lamellipodium where it activates the actin-severing protein cofilin [6, 7]. It has been shown in vitro that cofilin-mediated severing of Arp2/3 actin networks results in the generation of new pointed ends to which the actin-stabilizing protein tropomyosin (Tpm) can bind [8]. The presence of Tpm in lamellipodia, however, is disputed in the literature [9-19]. Here, we report that the Tpm isoforms 1.8/9 are enriched in the lamellipodium of fibroblasts as detected with a novel isoform-specific monoclonal antibody. RNAi-mediated silencing of Tpm1.8/9 led to an increase of Arp2/3 accumulation at the cell periphery and a decrease in the persistence of lamellipodia and cell motility, a phenotype consistent with cortactin- and coronin 1B-deficient cells [2, 7]. In the absence of coronin 1B or cofilin, Tpm1.8/9 protein levels are reduced while, conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 with CK666 leads to an increase in Tpm1.8/9 protein. These findings establish a novel regulatory mechanism within the lamellipodium whereby Tpm collaborates with Arp2/3 to promote lamellipodial-based cell migration. PMID:27112294

  1. Aromatic derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, V.D.; Desenko, S.M.; Kiroga, Kh.

    1987-09-01

    The formation of 2,2,4-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepines in the reactions of acetylarenes with 4-ethoxy- and 3,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine was studied. The effect of the substituents on the individual stages of the reactions is discussed. A quantum-chemical calculation of the relative nucleophilicity of 1,2-phenylenediamine, 2,3-diaminopyridine, and 3,4-diaminofurazan was undertaken.

  2. One-Pot Synthesis of Substituted Trifluoromethylated 2,3-Dihydro-1H-imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Amrei; Jessen, Christoph; Deutsch, Carl; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Hoffmann-Röder, Anja

    2016-07-15

    An operationally simple one-pot reaction for the preparation of a novel class of racemic trifluoromethylated 2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazoles derived from electron-poor N,O-acetals and aryl Grignard reagents is described. In addition, access to highly functionalized 2-trifluoromethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazoles was accomplished by reaction of N-aryl hemiaminal ethers and N-aryl trifluoroethylamines in the presence of an excess of n-butyllithium. PMID:27359260

  3. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons IV : 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamberti, J M; Reynolds, T W; Chanan, H H

    1946-01-01

    A six gallon quantity of 1,2,3-trimethylbenezene was prepared and purified in a four-step synthesis involving the condensation of 1,3-pentadiene with crotonaldehyde. The dimethylcyclohexencarboxaldehydes formed were hydrogenated to give the corresponding isomeric dimethylcyclohexylcarbinols. The dehydration of the carbinols and the subsequent dehydrogenation of the trimethylcyclohexenes yielded the 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. The overall yield was 24 percent; the physical properties of the materials are given.

  4. Silybin and 2,3-Dehydrosilybin Flavonolignans as Free Radical Scavengers.

    PubMed

    Reina, Miguel; Martínez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    The electronic properties of six derivatives of silybin (characterized by the absence of the 2,3 double bond) and six derivatives of 2,3-dehydrosilybin (characterized by the presence of the 2,3 double bond) have been studied by applying density functional theory to fully understand the free radical scavenger's mechanism for action and the relationship between reactivity and chemical structure. Optimized geometries, Raman spectra, and λmax values are reported, enabling us to characterize the systems. These spectra may be useful for monitoring the oxidation between silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin, thus providing important experimental information. The relative abundance of deprotonated species under physiological conditions is also reported. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), ∼70% of silybin is protonated, but 60% of 2,3-dehydrosilybin is deprotonated. The free radical scavenger capacity is analyzed in terms of two mechanisms: electron transfer and adduct formation. Deprotonated molecules are better electron donors and worse electron acceptors than non-deprotonated species. The conclusions derived from this investigation completely concur with previous experimental results. The free radical scavenging activity of 2,3-dehydrosilybin derivatives is higher than that for silybin derivatives. What was not previously considered was the importance of the deprotonated species, which is remarkable and may be important for future experiments.

  5. Erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, ATP and oxygen affinity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ninness, J R; Kimber, R W; McDonald, J W

    1974-10-01

    Patients on a chronic hemodialysis regimen were studied with respect to their erythrocyte adaptation to anemia. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) concentration was suboptimal compared with that of anemic patients who were not uremic. In uremic patients erythrocyte 2,3-DPG correlated poorly with hemoglobin level but more strongly with plasma pH. Differences between observed levels of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG and the values predicted using data from other anemic patients also correlated with pH. Gradual correction of plasma pH with oral sodium bicarbonate resulted in a substantial increase in erythrocyte 2,3-DPG and a decrease in oxygen affinity. Therefore, maintenance of normal pH in uremic subjects may improve tissue oxygenation. On the other hand, the rapid correction of acidosis during dialysis resulted in increased oxygen affinity. This response was due to the direct effect of pH on oxygen affinity in the absence of a significant change in erythrocyte 2,3-DPG or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during hemodialysis. Erythrocyte ATP but not 2,3-DPG correlated with serum inorganic phosphate in uremic subjects. A 21% reduction of serum phosphate produced by ingestion of aluminum hydroxide gel had no significant effect on these variables.

  6. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Krasimira T; Potewar, Taterao M; Correia-da-Silva, Paula; Barros, M Teresa; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćiric, Ana; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-11-19

    A library of 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles have been investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Most of the target compounds showed good inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically and food contaminant important microbial pathogens. In particular, 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-(4-pentylphenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (5) was highly active against all the tested bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 1.1 and 4.4 µM and bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) from 2.2 and 8.4 µM. The compound 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (3) showed antifungal activity with MICs from 0.6 to 4.8 µM and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranging between 1.2 and 8.9 µM. Furthermore, some of the compounds possessed moderate cytotoxicity against human breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, without showing toxicity for non-tumor liver cells. The above mentioned derivatives represent promising leads for the development of new generation of sugar-triazole antifungal agents.

  7. UNC-51-like kinase regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2/3.

    PubMed

    Avery, Adam W; Figueroa, Claudia; Vojtek, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    UNC-51-like kinases (ULK) are members of an evolutionarily conserved sub-family of ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. Here we report that fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate (FRS) 2/3 are novel ULK2 carboxy-terminal domain interacting proteins. FRS2/3 are homologs that function as adaptor proteins to mediate signaling of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. ULK2 interacts with the phospho-tyrosine binding (PTB) domain of FRS2/3. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting ULK2 in mouse P19 cells results in elevated FGFR1 mediated FRS3 and SHP2 tyrosyl phosphorylation. In addition, RNAi-mediated decrease in ULK2 causes increased interaction between FGFR1 and FRS3. ULK2 phosphorylates FRS2/3 in vitro, suggesting that ULK2 mediated phosphorylation may be a mechanism of FRS2/3 regulation. The data presented support a model in which ULK2, by interaction with FRS2/3 and inhibition of SynGAP, functions to negatively regulate tyrosyl phosphorylation of signaling proteins downstream of FGFR1.

  8. 2,3-Butanediol recovery from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sangjun; Kim, Duk-Ki; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Park, Sunghoon; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a new and effective downstream process to recover 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from fermentation broth which is produced by a recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. The ldhA-deficient K. pneumoniae strain yielded about 90 g/L of 2,3-BD, along with a number of by-products, such as organic acids and alcohols, in a 65 h fed-batch fermentation. The pH-adjusted cell-free fermentation broth was firstly concentrated until 2,3-BD reached around 500 g/L by vacuum evaporation at 50°C and 50 mbar vacuum pressure. The concentrated solution was further treated using light alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, for the precipitation of organic acids and inorganic salts. Isopropanol showed the highest removal efficiency, in which 92.5% and 99.8% of organic acids and inorganic salts were precipitated, respectively. At a final step, a vacuum distillation process enabled the recovery of 76.2% of the treated 2,3-BD, with 96.1% purity, indicating that fermentatively produced 2,3-BD is effectively recovered by a simple alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

  9. Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca from various sugars in microalgal hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jae; Joo, Hyun Woo; Park, Juyi; Kim, Duk-Ki; Jeong, Ki Jun; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    A new fermentation process using a mixed sugar medium is proposed in this study for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production. The medium contained seven different monosugars known to be present in Nannochloropsis oceanica hydrolysate. The performance of each sugar when existing alone or together with glucose was evaluated. All the sugars except fucose were successfully metabolized for 2,3-BDO production. A 2,3-BDO yield of 0.31g/g was achieved with the mixed sugar medium, which was very close to that with the glucose-only medium. However, the 2,3-BDO productivity (0.28 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was found to be about 30% lower than that with glucose, implying, as expected, the existence of glucose repression on the uptake of other sugars. Strain development is in need to remove such negative effect of glucose for improved process efficiency. Fucose with the lowest uptake rate and no contribution to 2,3-BDO production can be a high value-added byproduct, once recovered and purified. PMID:26400837

  10. 2,3-Butanediol recovery from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sangjun; Kim, Duk-Ki; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Park, Sunghoon; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a new and effective downstream process to recover 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from fermentation broth which is produced by a recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. The ldhA-deficient K. pneumoniae strain yielded about 90 g/L of 2,3-BD, along with a number of by-products, such as organic acids and alcohols, in a 65 h fed-batch fermentation. The pH-adjusted cell-free fermentation broth was firstly concentrated until 2,3-BD reached around 500 g/L by vacuum evaporation at 50°C and 50 mbar vacuum pressure. The concentrated solution was further treated using light alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, for the precipitation of organic acids and inorganic salts. Isopropanol showed the highest removal efficiency, in which 92.5% and 99.8% of organic acids and inorganic salts were precipitated, respectively. At a final step, a vacuum distillation process enabled the recovery of 76.2% of the treated 2,3-BD, with 96.1% purity, indicating that fermentatively produced 2,3-BD is effectively recovered by a simple alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation. PMID:24144809

  11. Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol by a mutagenized strain of Serratia marcescens H30.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Yang, Yunlong; Sun, Jian'an; Shen, Yaling; Wei, Dongzhi; Zhu, Jiawen; Chu, Ju

    2010-03-01

    The production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) by Serratia marcescens H30 from sucrose was studied. Medium composition for 2,3-BD production by S. marcescens H30 was optimized in shake flask fermentations using Plackett-Burman design (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). Results indicated that yeast extract and sodium acetate had significant effects on the 2,3-BD production. And their optimal concentrations were determined by RSM. The optimal medium was used to perform fermentation experiments by S. marcescens H30 in a 3.7l bioreactor. Several feeding strategies including interim feeding, exponential feeding and constant residual sucrose concentration feeding were compared for improving 2,3-BD production. Ultimately, a suitable control strategy which combined the respiratory quotient (RQ) control with the constant residual sucrose concentration fed-batch was developed. Using this strategy, the maximum 2,3-BD concentration of 139.92 g/l with the diol (AC+BD) productivity of 3.49 g/lh and the yield of 94.67% was obtained.

  12. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel polynuclear heterocyclic compounds derived from 2,3-diaminophenazine.

    PubMed

    Mahran, Asma M; Ragab, Sherif Sh; Hashem, Ahmed I; Ali, Mamdouh M; Nada, Afaf A

    2015-01-27

    2,3-Diaminophenazine 1 was used as a precursor for the preparation of some novel phenazine derivatives such as imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine-2-thione 2, its methylthio 3, ethyl 1-aryl-3H-[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a]imidazo[4,5-b]phenazines 8a-c, ethyl (2Z)-[3-aminophenazin-2-yl)amino](phenylhydrazono)ethanoate 9, pyrazino[2,3-b]phenazine derivatives 10, 12, 15-17, [1,4]diazepino[2,3-b]phenazine derivatives 13, 14, 2,3-dibenzoylaminophenazine 18, 1H-Imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine derivatives 20, 23a-c, 24, 25 and 4-[(E)-(3-amino phenazin-2-yl)diazenyl] derivatives 27-29. All compounds were tested as inhibitors of the proliferation of human lung carcinoma and colorectal cancer cell lines through inhibition of Tyrosine Kinases. Most of compounds exert good activity against the two cancer cell lines. Five compounds (1, 2, 3, 25 and 28) were found to possess the same activity as the standard drug Cisplatin.

  13. Carvedilol inhibits Kir2.3 channels by interference with PIP₂-channel interaction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Tania; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; López-Izquierdo, Angélica; Aréchiga-Figueroa, Ivan A; de Boer, Teun P; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Sánchez-Chapula, José A

    2011-10-01

    Carvedilol, a β- and α-adrenoceptor blocker, is used to treat congestive heart failure, mild to moderate hypertension, and myocardial infarction. It has been proposed to block K(ATP) channels by binding to the bundle crossing region at a domain including cysteine at position 166, and thereby plugging the pore region. However, carvedilol was reported not to affect Kir2.1 channels, which lack 166 Cys. Here, we demonstrate that carvedilol inhibits Kir2.3 carried current by an alternative mechanism. Carvedilol inhibited Kir2.3 channels with at least 100 fold higher potency (IC(50)=0.49 μM) compared to that for Kir2.1 (IC(50)>50 μM). Kir2.3 channel inhibition was concentration-dependent and voltage-independent. Increasing Kir2.3 channel affinity for PIP(2), by a I213L point mutation, decreased the inhibitory effect of carvedilol more than twentyfold (IC(50)=11.1 μM). In the presence of exogenous PIP(2), Kir2.3 channel inhibition by carvedilol was strongly reduced (80 vs. 2% current inhibition). These results suggest that carvedilol, as other cationic amphiphilic drugs, inhibits Kir2.3 channels by interfering with the PIP(2)-channel interaction.

  14. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, C.E.; Cooper, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study evaluated the sensitivity of the fathead minnow larvae to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. There are no reported studies that have examined 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic effects on fathead minnow larvae (0.0017--0.0094 g). One month old fathead minnow larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of [H{sup 3}]2,3,7,8-TCDD for 24h, and then were transferred into clean water. The no-treatment, acetone-control and 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposed larvae were observed for at least 32 days after exposure. Mortality, growth and appearance of a wasting-type syndrome were noted. The tissue dose were based on larvae wet weight. One hundred percent mortality was observed at a tissue dose of 163 ng/g at 32 days. The wasting-type syndrome appeared at day 7 after the 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure. Statistically significant differences in growth (total length and weight) were observed at tissue doses as low as 20 ng/g. The wasting-type syndrome was observed in all fish by day 20. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD tissue level showing this effect was 44 ng/g. These results suggested that the fathead minnow larvae are more sensitive than the Japanese medaka larvae, and not as sensitive as the lake trout.

  15. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes to enhance 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Ng, Chiam Yu; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2012-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol is an important bio-based chemical product, because it can be converted into several C4 industrial chemicals. In this study, a lactate dehydrogenase-deleted mutant was constructed to improve 2,3-butanediol productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes. To delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase, λ Red recombination method was successfully adapted for E. aerogenes. The resulting strain produced a very small amount of lactate and 16.7% more 2,3-butanediol than that of the wild-type strain in batch fermentation. The mutant and its parental strain were then cultured with six different carbon sources, and the mutant showed higher carbon source consumption and microbial growth rates in all media. The 2,3-butanediol titer reached 69.5 g/l in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant,which was 27.4% higher than that with the parental strain.With further optimization of the medium and aeration conditions,118.05 g/l 2,3-butanediol was produced in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-butanediol with E. aerogenes achieved by metabolic pathway engineering.

  16. Impact of a Bacterial Volatile 2,3-Butanediol on Bacillus subtilis Rhizosphere Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Ahn, Yeo-Rim; Song, Geun C.; Ghim, Sa-Youl; Lee, Soohyun; Lee, Gahyung; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds, such as short chain alcohols, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol, produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) elicit induced systemic resistance in plants. The effects of bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) on plant and fungal growth have been extensively studied; however, the impact of bacterial BVCs on bacterial growth remains poorly understood. In this study the effects of a well-characterized bacterial volatile, 2,3-butanediol, produced by the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis, were examined in the rhizosphere. The nature of 2,3-butanediol on bacterial cells was assessed, and the effect of the molecule on root colonization was also determined. Pepper roots were inoculated with three B. subtilis strains: the wild type, a 2,3-butanediol overexpressor, and a 2,3-butanediol null mutant. The B. subtilis null strain was the first to be eliminated in the rhizosphere, followed by the wild-type strain. The overexpressor mutant was maintained at roots for the duration of the experiment. Rhizosphere colonization by a saprophytic fungus declined from 14 days post-inoculation in roots treated with the B. subtilis overexpressor strain. Next, exudates from roots exposed to 2,3-butanediol were assessed for their impact on fungal and bacterial growth in vitro. Exudates from plant roots pre-treated with the 2,3-butanediol overexpressor were used to challenge various microorganisms. Growth was inhibited in a saprophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.), the 2,3-butanediol null B. subtilis strain, and a soil-borne pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. Direct application of 2,3-butanediol to pepper roots, followed by exposure to R. solanacearum, induced expression of Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes such as CaPR2, CaSAR8.2, and CaPAL. These results indicate that 2,3-butanediol triggers the secretion of root exudates that modulate soil fungi and rhizosphere bacteria. These data broaden our knowledge regarding bacterial volatiles in the rhizosphere and

  17. Impact of a Bacterial Volatile 2,3-Butanediol on Bacillus subtilis Rhizosphere Robustness.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Ahn, Yeo-Rim; Song, Geun C; Ghim, Sa-Youl; Lee, Soohyun; Lee, Gahyung; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds, such as short chain alcohols, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol, produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) elicit induced systemic resistance in plants. The effects of bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) on plant and fungal growth have been extensively studied; however, the impact of bacterial BVCs on bacterial growth remains poorly understood. In this study the effects of a well-characterized bacterial volatile, 2,3-butanediol, produced by the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis, were examined in the rhizosphere. The nature of 2,3-butanediol on bacterial cells was assessed, and the effect of the molecule on root colonization was also determined. Pepper roots were inoculated with three B. subtilis strains: the wild type, a 2,3-butanediol overexpressor, and a 2,3-butanediol null mutant. The B. subtilis null strain was the first to be eliminated in the rhizosphere, followed by the wild-type strain. The overexpressor mutant was maintained at roots for the duration of the experiment. Rhizosphere colonization by a saprophytic fungus declined from 14 days post-inoculation in roots treated with the B. subtilis overexpressor strain. Next, exudates from roots exposed to 2,3-butanediol were assessed for their impact on fungal and bacterial growth in vitro. Exudates from plant roots pre-treated with the 2,3-butanediol overexpressor were used to challenge various microorganisms. Growth was inhibited in a saprophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.), the 2,3-butanediol null B. subtilis strain, and a soil-borne pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. Direct application of 2,3-butanediol to pepper roots, followed by exposure to R. solanacearum, induced expression of Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes such as CaPR2, CaSAR8.2, and CaPAL. These results indicate that 2,3-butanediol triggers the secretion of root exudates that modulate soil fungi and rhizosphere bacteria. These data broaden our knowledge regarding bacterial volatiles in the rhizosphere and

  18. Rapid transformation of 1,2,3,4-TCDD by Pd/Fe catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Fennell, Donna E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) in the presence of Pd/Fe, Cu/Fe and Ni/Fe bimetallic catalysts or zero-valent iron (ZVI) under aqueous and ambient temperature conditions. It was found that the Pd/Fe catalyst can rapidly transform 1,2,3,4-TCDD to chlorine-free dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) with >95% of conversion and half lives on the order of 5h, whereas Cu/Fe, Ni/Fe and ZVI were not reactive over 10d. The dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD in the Pd/Fe systems was found to be stepwise, with 1,2,3-tri (TrCDD), 1,2-di (DCDD), and mono-(MCDD) chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins as the three intermediate products at low concentrations and DD as the final and dominant product. The reaction rate of 1,2,3,4-TCDD dechlorination appeared to decrease as the coverage of palladium on iron particle surface increases from 0.0060 mol% to 0.0228 mol%. Compared to our prior study of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD with zero valent zinc (ZVZ) as the reductant, the reactions with Pd/Fe bimetallic materials were relatively slower for TCDD, but much faster for TrCDDs and DCDDs, yielding DD as the major product. The study suggested that Pd/Fe bimetallic catalyst-based reactions may be suitable for rapid decontamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) polluted soils and sediments.

  19. The reaction of 4,5-dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazolium chloride with sulfimides: a new synthesis of N-aryl-1,2,3-dithiazolimines.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Andreas S; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2009-01-01

    N-Aryl-S,S-dimethylsulfimides 3(Ar = 4-NO(2)C(6)H(4)), 4 (Ar = Ph) and 5 (Ar = 4-Tol)react with Appel salt 1 to give the corresponding N-aryl-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazolylidene)benzenamines 8 (Ar = 4-NO(2)C(6)H(4)), 9 (Ar = Ph) and 10 (Ar = 4-Tol) in 84, 94 and 87% yields, respectively. The reaction proceeds in the absence of base and a proposed reaction mechanism is given. PMID:19633609

  20. The Dynamics of Atom-Surface Interactions Involving HELIUM(2(1)S), HELIUM(2(3)P) and Electron-Spin HELIUM(2(3)S) Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oro, David Michael

    1994-01-01

    For several years Metastable Atom Deexcitation Spectroscopy (MDS) has been employed as a probe of surface electronic structure offering unparalleled surface specificity. In MDS a thermal-energy beam of rare-gas metastable atoms is directed at the surface under study, and the energy distribution of electrons ejected as a result of metastable atom deexcitation is measured. However, correct interpretation of the data requires detailed knowledge of the dynamics of the deexcitation process. In the present work spin -labeling techniques, specifically the use of electron-spin -polarized metastable He(2^3S) atoms, coupled with spin analysis of the ejected electrons, are used to probe the dynamics of He(2^3S) deexcitation at a variety of surfaces. Such measurements, coupled with studies of the deexcitation of He(2 ^1S) and He(2^3P) atoms at Cu(100) and Au(100) show that each species deexcites exclusively through resonance ionization followed by Auger neutralization. The data also provide the first direct confirmation of spin correlation in the Auger neutralization of ions outside a paramagnetic surface. Two proposed models for spin correlation are discussed and potential experimental tests for distinguishing between them are suggested. Studies of SPMDS at surfaces comprising layers of Ar or Xe atoms frozen onto a cryogenically cooled substrate are described and exhibit behavior similar to that observed in gas phase Penning ionization studies indicating that ejection results, in part, from surface Penning ionization (SPI). For Xe, however, additional features are observed and can be attributed to resonance ionization of the incident excited atoms followed by neutralization of the resulting He^+ ions through an interaction involving neighboring Xe atoms in the film. These results provide a rare example of a surface at which the rates for resonance ionization and Auger deexcitation are comparable. Also, the data show that the electron yield from both films is substantially

  1. Observation of two sequential pathways of (CO2 ) 3 + dissociation by heavy-ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhang, P.; Ma, X.; Feng, W. T.; Gao, Y.; Xu, S.; Zhao, Q. S.; Zhang, S. F.; Guo, D. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Zhang, R. T.; Huang, Z. K.; Wang, H. B.; Zhang, X. J.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the breakup of (CO2 ) 3 + induced by N e4 + ion impact at incident energies of 1.12 MeV was performed. By analyzing the momentum distributions and the kinetic energies of the three fragment ions, the nonsequential and sequential dissociation mechanisms are verified. In contrast to highly charged ion impact, two different sequential decay pathways were observed in the present experiment. One pathway originates from the primary cation (CO2 ) 3 + populated into +4Σ states by collision charge exchange and its daughter cation (CO) 2 + populated into the two excited states (3Π and X 1Π ) by the first fragmentation step, resulting in a lower KER peak. The other pathway originates from the primary cation (CO2 ) 3 + locating at 6Π state, and its daughter cation (CO) 2 + populated into the metastable excited states 3Π , X 1Π , and +3Σ, leading to the higher KER peak. Our work is a breakup experiment of (CO2 ) 3 + presenting the initial states of the parent cation (CO2 ) 3 + and the metastable states of C O2 + ion simultaneously.

  2. ox-LDL induces endothelial dysfunction by promoting Arp2/3 complex expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Zhao, Jianting; Shen, Liming; Jin, Yiqi; Zhang, Zhixuan; Xu, Guoxiong; Huang, Xianchen

    2016-06-24

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) play a critical role in endothelial injury including cytoskeleton reorganization, which is closely related to actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Arp2/3 complex in ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we found that Arp2 and Arp3 expression was increased under atherosclerotic conditions both in ApoE-/- mice and in ox-LDL-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Arp2/3 complex inhibitor CK666 significantly reduced ox-LDL-induced ROS generation and cytoskeleton reorganization, and increased NO release in HCAECs. Pretreatment with LOX-1- but not CD36-blocking antibody markedly decreased ox-LDL-induced Arp2 and Arp3 expression. Moreover, Rac-1 siRNA remarkably suppressed ox-LDL-stimulated Arp2 and Arp3 expression. Additionally, CK666 reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice. Collectively, ox-LDL induces endothelial dysfunction by activating LOX-1/Rac-1 signaling and upregulating Arp2/3 complex expression. PMID:27181356

  3. Characterization and regulation of the 2,3-butanediol pathway in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liao Yuan; Sun, Jian'an; Su, Gang; Wei, Dongzhi; Chu, Ju; Zhu, Jiawen; Shen, Yaling

    2012-03-01

    Serratia marcescens has been proved to be a potential strain for industrial 2,3-butanediol production for its high yield, productivity, and other advantages. In this study, the genes slaA, slaB, slaC, and slaR were successfully cloned which were further confirmed to be encoding acetolactate decarboxylase, acetolactate synthase, 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, and a LysR-like regulator, respectively. Unlike in Klebsiella sp. or Klebsiella pneumonie and Vibrio sp. or Vibrio cholerae, the gene slaC is separated from other genes. Then it showed that two regulators, SwrR and SlaR, are in charge of this process by exerting effect on the transcription of genes slaA and slaB. By contrast, the expression of gene slaC is unaffected by the two regulators. It means that these two regulators affect the production of 2,3-butanediol by regulating the production of acetoin. Based on these findings, we successfully accelerated the 2,3-butanediol production by inactivation of gene swrR. The obtained results and further investigations should lead to a more suitable fermentation strategy and strain improvement which would be applicable to the industrial production of 2,3-butanediol.

  4. Characterization of Two Classes of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Arp2/3 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, B.; Tomasevic, N; Russell, A; Pierce, D; Jia, Z; McCormick, C; Hartman, J; Sakowicz, R; Pollard, T

    2009-01-01

    Polymerization of actin filaments directed by the actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex supports many types of cellular movements. However, questions remain regarding the relative contributions of Arp2/3 complex versus other mechanisms of actin filament nucleation to processes such as path finding by neuronal growth cones; this is because of the lack of simple methods to inhibit Arp2/3 complex reversibly in living cells. Here we describe two classes of small molecules that bind to different sites on the Arp2/3 complex and inhibit its ability to nucleate actin filaments. CK-0944636 binds between Arp2 and Arp3, where it appears to block movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into their active conformation. CK-0993548 inserts into the hydrophobic core of Arp3 and alters its conformation. Both classes of compounds inhibit formation of actin filament comet tails by Listeria and podosomes by monocytes. Two inhibitors with different mechanisms of action provide a powerful approach for studying the Arp2/3 complex in living cells.

  5. Fragrance material review on 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE).

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. OTNE is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for OTNE were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

  6. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  7. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  8. Poly[diaqua(μ2-3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylato)(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)potassium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmis; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [K(C6H3N2O4)(C6H4N2O4)(H2O)2]n, consists of one potassium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules; this is twice the asymmetric unit, since the potassium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol­ecule is linked to two potassium cations, while the potassium cation has contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each potassium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid retains its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol­ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds in which water acts as the donor. PMID:21200587

  9. Poly[diaqua(μ(2)-3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)potassium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmis; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [K(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one potassium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules; this is twice the asymmetric unit, since the potassium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two potassium cations, while the potassium cation has contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each potassium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid retains its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds in which water acts as the donor. PMID:21200587

  10. Dynamic characterization and substrate binding of cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase-an enzyme used in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Stefano; Musiani, Francesco; Giorgetti, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, techniques involving the use of organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from contaminated sites have attracted great attention. The aim of bioremediation is to use naturally occurring organisms to degrade dangerous substances to less toxic or non toxic molecules. The gram-negative bacterium Pandoraea pnomenusa strain B-356 (Pp) has been found to be able to transform a persistent class of organic pollutant compounds, namely the biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A key enzyme in the PCB catabolic pathway is NAD-dependent cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (BphB), for which the crystal structure from Pp has been crystallized in apo-, NAD-bound and biphenyldiol-/NAD-bound forms. The substrate binding loop structure has not been completely resolved to date in the former two bound states. Here we report the results of the first extensive molecular dynamics simulations on the three different states of PpBphB. This allowed an in depth characterization of the mechanism of ligand uptake and binding, including unraveling of the gating mechanism. Our simulations give a deep insight into several dynamic features of the enzyme that were not captured by crystal structures.

  11. Chemical characterization of Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid and 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, A P; Rietschel, E T; Kosunen, T U; Zähringer, U

    1991-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of four nonencapsulated strains of the human enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni were chemically characterized. When applied to two of the strains, extraction by a modified phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether method (H. Brade and C. Galanos, Eur. J. Biochem. 122:233-237, 1982) gave better yields of LPS than did extraction by the conventional hot phenol-water technique. Constituents common to all LPS were D-glucose, D-galactose, L-glycero-D-manno-heptose, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid, D-glucuronic acid, D-galactosamine, and phosphorylethanolamine. Phosphate was present in a relatively high amount. In addition, the LPS of three strains contained N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas the LPS of the strain lacking this component contained 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. The lipid A component contained phosphate with D-glucosamine and 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose as the major amino sugars. Ethanolamine-phosphate was present also. The major fatty acids were ester- and amide-bound 3-hydroxytetradecanoic and ester-bound hexadecanoic acids, with a minor amount of ester-bound tetradecanoic acid. This is the first report of N-acetylneuraminic acid in the oligosaccharide moiety and diaminoglucose in the lipid A of C. jejuni LPS. PMID:1987154

  12. Rho GTPases and the Downstream Effectors Actin-related Protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) Complex and Myosin II Induce Membrane Fusion at Self-contacts*

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Grant M.; Yamada, Soichiro

    2015-01-01

    Actin regulation is required for membrane activities that drive cell adhesion and migration. The Rho GTPase family plays critical roles in actin and membrane dynamics; however, the roles of the Rho GTPase family are not limited to cell adhesion and migration. Using micron-sized obstacles to induce the formation of self-contacts in epithelial cells, we previously showed that self-adhesion is distinct from cell-to-cell adhesion in that self-contacts are eliminated by membrane fusion. In the current study, we identified Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, as potential upstream regulators of membrane fusion. The RhoA downstream effector myosin II is required for fusion as the expression of mutant myosin light chain reduced membrane fusion. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the Arp2/3 complex, a downstream effector of Rac1 and Cdc42, also reduced self-contact-induced membrane fusion. At self-contacts, while the concentration of E-cadherin diminished, the intensity of GFP-tagged Arp3 rapidly fluctuated then decreased and stabilized after membrane fusion. Taken together, these data suggest that the Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization brings two opposing membranes into close apposition by possibly excluding E-cadherin from contact sites, thus promoting membrane fusion at self-contacts. PMID:25527498

  13. catena-Poly[[diaqua-rubidium(I)](μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil-ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms. PMID:21581808

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 2,3-pyrrolidinedione derivatives against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dhavan, Atul A; Ionescu, Andrei C; Kaduskar, Rahul D; Brambilla, Eugenio; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Varoni, Elena Maria; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    Among the novel approaches applied to antimicrobial drug development, natural product-inspired synthesis plays a major role, by providing biologically validated starting points. Tetramic acids, a class of natural products containing a 2,4-pyrrolidinedione ring system, have attracted considerable attention for their antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anticancer activities. On the contrary, compounds with a 2,3-pyrrolidinedione skeleton have been considerably less investigated. In this work, we established chemical routes to the substituted 2,3-pyrrolidinedione core, which enabled the introduction of a wide range of diversity. In the perspective of a potential application for oral healthcare, a number of analogues with various substituents on the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione core were investigated for their antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The most promising compound showed a significant antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, comparable to that of chlorhexidine, the gold standard in oral healthcare. PMID:26860735

  15. Preparation and structural elucidation of (-)-tetrahydroberberine-(+)-2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wei-Tao; Li, Man-Lin; Liu, Han-Wei; Zhang, Xing-Chang; Li, Zong-Xiao

    2008-12-01

    A new (2:1) complex of (-)-13a S-tetrahydroberberine [(-)-13a S-THB] with (+)-2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid (DTTA), i.e. 5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-9,10-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxy- 6H dibenzo[a,g] quinolizine·2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid [2C 20H 20NO 4·C 20H 18O 8], as well as its optical active component (-)-THB, has been obtained from the resolution process of (±)-THB in methanol. The structures of this complex and an enantiomer (-)-13a S-THB have been characterized by CD, IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray single crystal diffraction.

  16. Amino­silanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Two new mol­ecular structures, namely 1,3-bis­(tri­methyl­silyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-tri­methyl­silyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π inter­actions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R 2 2(8) rings via N—H⋯S inter­actions, along with parallel π–π inter­actions between imidazole and benzene rings. PMID:26322611

  17. Biodegradation-inspired bioproduction of methylacetoin and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinglin; Zhang, Haibo; Yang, Jianming; Zheng, Yanning; Feng, Dexin; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Zhang, Rubin; Cheng, Tao; Jiao, Fengjiao; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Methylacetoin (3-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-2-one) and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol are currently obtained exclusively via chemical synthesis. Here, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first alternative route, using engineered Escherichia coli. The biological synthesis of methylacetoin was first accomplished by reversing its biodegradation, which involved modifying the enzyme complex involved, switching the reaction substrate, and coupling the process to an exothermic reaction. 2-Methyl-2,3-butanediol was then obtained by reducing methylacetoin by exploiting the substrate promiscuity of acetoin reductase. A complete biosynthetic pathway from renewable glucose and acetone was then established and optimized via in vivo enzyme screening and host metabolic engineering, which led to titers of 3.4 and 3.2 g l−1 for methylacetoin and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol, respectively. This work presents a biodegradation-inspired approach to creating new biosynthetic pathways for small molecules with no available natural biosynthetic pathway. PMID:23945710

  18. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.; Deng, S. H.; Zheng, A. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Chen, X. B.; Zeng, X. H.; Hu, Y. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 3-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 3 by sequential reaction of iminophosphorane 1, aromatic isocyanates and various nucleophiles (HY), found some compounds showed good antitumor and antibacterial activities. Meanwhile, aliphatic isocyanates were applied in the reaction to prepare 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidinones, but there are no reports of their antifungal activities. As a continuation of our research for new biologically active heterocycles, we herein wish to report a facile synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 6 via easily accessible iminophosphorane 1. The growth inhibitory effect of one concentration (50mg/L) of compounds 6 against five fungus(Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Gibberella zeae and Dothiorella gregaria) in vitro was tested by the method of toxic medium. Compound 6d showed the best inhibition rate against Gibberella zeae with 85.68%.

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 2,3-pyrrolidinedione derivatives against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dhavan, Atul A; Ionescu, Andrei C; Kaduskar, Rahul D; Brambilla, Eugenio; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Varoni, Elena Maria; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    Among the novel approaches applied to antimicrobial drug development, natural product-inspired synthesis plays a major role, by providing biologically validated starting points. Tetramic acids, a class of natural products containing a 2,4-pyrrolidinedione ring system, have attracted considerable attention for their antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anticancer activities. On the contrary, compounds with a 2,3-pyrrolidinedione skeleton have been considerably less investigated. In this work, we established chemical routes to the substituted 2,3-pyrrolidinedione core, which enabled the introduction of a wide range of diversity. In the perspective of a potential application for oral healthcare, a number of analogues with various substituents on the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione core were investigated for their antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The most promising compound showed a significant antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, comparable to that of chlorhexidine, the gold standard in oral healthcare.

  20. Fused 1,2,3-Dithiazoles: Convenient Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Lidia S; Baranovsky, Ilia V; Irtegova, Irina G; Bagryanskaya, Irina Y; Shundrin, Leonid A; Zibarev, Andrey V; Rakitin, Oleg A

    2016-01-01

    A new general protocol for synthesis of fused 1,2,3-dithiazoles by the reaction of cyclic oximes with S₂Cl₂ and pyridine in acetonitrile has been developed. The target 1,2,3-dithiazoles fused with various carbocycles, such as indene, naphthalenone, cyclohexadienone, cyclopentadiene, and benzoannulene, were selectively obtained in low to high yields. In most cases, the hetero ring-closure was accompanied by chlorination of the carbocyclic moieties. With naphthalenone derivatives, a novel dithiazole rearrangement (15→13) featuring unexpected movement of the dithiazole ring from α- to β-position, with respect to keto group, was discovered. Molecular structure of 4-chloro-5H-naphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]dithiazol-5-one 13 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical properties of 13 were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a complex behavior was observed, most likely including hydrodechlorination at a low potential. PMID:27164072

  1. Optimization of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca through oxygen transfer rate control

    SciTech Connect

    Beronio, P.B. Jr. . Amoco Research Center); Tsao, G.T. . Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is influenced by the degree of oxygen limitation. During batch culture studies, two phases of growth are observed: energy-coupled growth, during which cell growth and oxygen supply are coupled; and, energy-uncoupled growth, which arises when the degree of oxygen limitation reaches a critical value. Optimal 2,3-butanediol productivity occurs during the energy-coupled growth phase. In this article, a control system which maintains the batch culture at a constant level of oxygen limitation in the energy-coupled growth regime has been designed. Control, which involves feedback control on the oxygen transfer coefficient, is achieved by continually increasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed gas, which in turn continually increases the oxygen transfer rate. Control has resulted in a balanced state of growth, a repression of ethanol formation, and an increase in 2,3-butanediol productivity of 18%.

  2. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione.

    PubMed

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V; Contreras, Rosalinda; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-09-01

    Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C-H···π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R2(2)(8) rings via N-H···S interactions, along with parallel π-π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  3. Biodegradation-inspired bioproduction of methylacetoin and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinglin; Zhang, Haibo; Yang, Jianming; Zheng, Yanning; Feng, Dexin; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Zhang, Rubin; Cheng, Tao; Jiao, Fengjiao; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Methylacetoin (3-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-2-one) and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol are currently obtained exclusively via chemical synthesis. Here, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first alternative route, using engineered Escherichia coli. The biological synthesis of methylacetoin was first accomplished by reversing its biodegradation, which involved modifying the enzyme complex involved, switching the reaction substrate, and coupling the process to an exothermic reaction. 2-Methyl-2,3-butanediol was then obtained by reducing methylacetoin by exploiting the substrate promiscuity of acetoin reductase. A complete biosynthetic pathway from renewable glucose and acetone was then established and optimized via in vivo enzyme screening and host metabolic engineering, which led to titers of 3.4 and 3.2 g l(-1) for methylacetoin and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol, respectively. This work presents a biodegradation-inspired approach to creating new biosynthetic pathways for small molecules with no available natural biosynthetic pathway.

  4. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent. PMID:27304610

  5. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent.

  6. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  7. Pyranosides with 2,3-trans carbamate groups: exocyclic or endocyclic cleavage reaction?

    PubMed

    Manabe, Shino; Ito, Yukishige

    2014-06-01

    Pyranosides with 2,3-trans carbamate groups exhibit high 1,2-cis selectivity in glycosylation reactions. Using glycosyl donors with N-benzyl 2,3-trans carbamate groups, an anti-Helicobacter pylori oligosaccharide was synthesized in an efficient manner. Moreover, pyranosides with 2,3-trans carbamate groups readily undergo anomerization from the β to the α configuration under mild acidic conditions via endocyclic cleavage. Acyclic cations generated during the endocyclic cleavage reaction were captured using reduction and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. By exploiting this anomerization, multiply aligned 1,2-trans glycosyl bonds can be transformed to 1,2-cis glycosyl bonds in a single operation. PMID:24914008

  8. Cortical Layer 1 and Layer 2/3 Astrocytes Exhibit Distinct Calcium Dynamics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Norio; Hirase, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative evidence supports bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons, suggesting glial involvement of neuronal information processing in the brain. Cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration is important for astrocytes as Ca2+ surges co-occur with gliotransmission and neurotransmitter reception. Cerebral cortex is organized in layers which are characterized by distinct cytoarchitecture. We asked if astrocyte-dominant layer 1 (L1) of the somatosensory cortex was different from layer 2/3 (L2/3) in spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ activity and if it was influenced by background neural activity. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscope, we compared spontaneous Ca2+ activity of astrocytic somata and processes in L1 and L2/3 of anesthetized mature rat somatosensory cortex. We also assessed the contribution of background neural activity to the spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics by investigating two distinct EEG states (“synchronized” vs. “de-synchronized” states). We found that astrocytes in L1 had nearly twice higher Ca2+ activity than L2/3. Furthermore, Ca2+ fluctuations of processes within an astrocyte were independent in L1 while those in L2/3 were synchronous. Pharmacological blockades of metabotropic receptors for glutamate, ATP, and acetylcholine, as well as suppression of action potentials did not have a significant effect on the spontaneous somatic Ca2+ activity. These results suggest that spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ surges occurred in large part intrinsically, rather than neural activity-driven. Our findings propose a new functional segregation of layer 1 and 2/3 that is defined by autonomous astrocytic activity. PMID:18575586

  9. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River.

    PubMed

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints. PMID:25726763

  10. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  11. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River

    PubMed Central

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1485–1498. © 2015 The Authors. Published by SETAC. PMID:25726763

  12. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River.

    PubMed

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints.

  13. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.

  14. [(3)H]-girisopam, a novel selective benzodiazepine for the 2, 3-benzodiazepine binding site.

    PubMed

    Horváth, E J; Salamon, C; Bakonyi, A; Fekete, M I; Palkovits, M

    1999-07-01

    Several members of the 2,3-benzodiazepine family, such as tofisopam (Grandaxin((R))) nerisopam (GYKI-52 322) [F. Andrási, K. Horváth, E. Sineger, P. Berzsenyi, J. Borsy, A. Kenessey, M. Tarr, T. Láng, J. Korösi, T. Hámori, Neuropharmacology of a new psychotropic 2, 3-benzodiazepine, Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug. Res., 37 (1987) 1119-1124.] [1] or girisopam (GYKI-51 189) [K. Horváth, F. Andrási, P. Berzsenyi, M. Pátfalusi, M. Patthy, G. Szabó, L. Sebestyén, J. Korösi, P. Botka, T. Hámori, T. Láng, A new psychoactive 5H-2, 3-benzodiazepine with a unique spectrum of activity, Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug. Res., 39 (1989) 894-899.] [2] proved anxiolytic in man and various animal models. Moreover, girisopam could also be characterized as an atypical neuroleptic agent. In spite of the structural similarity, their pharmacological profiles differ significantly from that of the 'classical' 1,4-benzodiazepines. Importantly, according to the data obtained so far these drugs do not have an addiction potential. The novel 2,3-benzodiazepine antagonist girisopam binds with high affinity (K(d)=10.3+/-1.21 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=6.94+/-1.8 pmol/mg protein) to a single class of recognition sites in rat striatum [J.E. Horváth, J. Hudák, M. Palkovits, Zs. Lenkei, M.I.K. Fekete, P. Arányi, A novel specific binding site for homophthalazines (formerly 2, 3-benzodiazepines) in the rat brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 236 (1993) 151-153.]. This protocol describes the use of [(3)H]-girisopam as a specific radioligand for the 2,3-benzodiazepines receptor.

  15. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  16. Cycloadditions of 1,2,3-Triazines Bearing C5-Electron Donating Substituents: Robust Pyrimidine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Glinkerman, Christopher M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines 17–19, bearing electron-donating substituents at C5, are described. Despite the noncomplementary 1,2,3-triazine C5 substituents, amidines were found to undergo a powerful cycloaddition to provide 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines in excellent yields (42–99%; EDG = SMe > OMe > NHAc). Even select ynamines and enamines were capable of cycloadditions with 17, but not 18 or 19, to provide trisubstituted pyridines in modest yields (37–40% and 33% respectively). PMID:26172042

  17. Pyrano-[2,3b]-pyridines as potassium channel antagonists.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Heather J; Lloyd, John; Nyman, Michael; Conder, Mary Lee; West, Tonya; Levesque, Paul; Atwal, Karnail

    2008-04-15

    The design and synthesis of a series of highly functionalized pyrano-[2,3b]-pyridines is described. These compounds were assayed for their ability to block the I(Kur) channel encoded by the gene hKV1.5 in patch-clamped L-929 cells. Six of the compounds in this series showed sub-micromolar activity, the most potent being 4-(4-ethyl-benzenesulfonylamino)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3b]-pyridine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl-phenyl-amide with an IC(50) of 378 nM.

  18. The MOSDEF Survey: Electron Density and Ionization Parameter at z ~ 2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Using observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we investigate the physical conditions of star-forming regions in z ˜ 2.3 galaxies, specifically the electron density and ionization state. From measurements of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 and [S ii]λλ6716,6731 doublets, we find a median electron density of ˜250 cm-3 at z ˜ 2.3, an increase of an order of magnitude compared to measurements of galaxies at z ˜ 0. While z ˜ 2.3 galaxies are offset toward significantly higher O32 values relative to local galaxies at fixed stellar mass, we find that the high-redshift sample follows a similar distribution to the low-metallicity tail of the local distribution in the O32 versus R23 and O3N2 diagrams. Based on these results, we propose that z ˜ 2.3 star-forming galaxies have the same ionization parameter as local galaxies at fixed metallicity. In combination with simple photoionization models, the position of local and z ˜ 2.3 galaxies in excitation diagrams suggests that there is no significant change in the hardness of the ionizing spectrum at fixed metallicity from z ˜ 0 to z ˜ 2.3. We find that z ˜ 2.3 galaxies show no offset compared to low-metallicity local galaxies in emission line ratio diagrams involving only lines of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, but show a systematic offset in diagrams involving [N ii]λ6584. We conclude that the offset of z ˜ 2.3 galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [N ii] BPT diagram is primarily driven by elevated N/O at fixed O/H compared to local galaxies. These results suggest that the local gas-phase and stellar metallicity sets the ionization state of star-forming regions at z ˜ 0 and z ˜ 2. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a natural 2,3-pyrrolidinedione with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Dhavan, Atul A; Kaduskar, Rahul D; Musso, Loana; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Martino, Piera Anna; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The first total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a fungal metabolite with a rare 2,3-pyrrolidinedione nucleus linked to an ureido dipeptide, was designed and carried out. Crucial steps for the strategy include a Dieckmann cyclization to obtain the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione ring and a Wittig olefination to install the polymethylene chain. An oxazolidinone-containing leopolic acid A analogue was also synthesized. The antibacterial activity showed by both compounds suggests that they could be considered as promising candidates for future developments. PMID:27559415

  20. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: ELECTRON DENSITY AND IONIZATION PARAMETER AT z ∼ 2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Groot, Laura de; Coil, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Using observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we investigate the physical conditions of star-forming regions in z ∼ 2.3 galaxies, specifically the electron density and ionization state. From measurements of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 and [S ii]λλ6716,6731 doublets, we find a median electron density of ∼250 cm{sup −3} at z ∼ 2.3, an increase of an order of magnitude compared to measurements of galaxies at z ∼ 0. While z ∼ 2.3 galaxies are offset toward significantly higher O{sub 32} values relative to local galaxies at fixed stellar mass, we find that the high-redshift sample follows a similar distribution to the low-metallicity tail of the local distribution in the O{sub 32} versus R{sub 23} and O3N2 diagrams. Based on these results, we propose that z ∼ 2.3 star-forming galaxies have the same ionization parameter as local galaxies at fixed metallicity. In combination with simple photoionization models, the position of local and z ∼ 2.3 galaxies in excitation diagrams suggests that there is no significant change in the hardness of the ionizing spectrum at fixed metallicity from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 2.3. We find that z ∼ 2.3 galaxies show no offset compared to low-metallicity local galaxies in emission line ratio diagrams involving only lines of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, but show a systematic offset in diagrams involving [N ii]λ6584. We conclude that the offset of z ∼ 2.3 galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [N ii] BPT diagram is primarily driven by elevated N/O at fixed O/H compared to local galaxies. These results suggest that the local gas-phase and stellar metallicity sets the ionization state of star-forming regions at z ∼ 0 and z ∼ 2.

  1. Isolation of a Moderately Stable but Sensitive Zwitterionic Diazonium Tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate.

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Pflüger, Carolin

    2016-07-15

    An unexpected formation of a diazonium compound was observed by nitration of an amino substituted triazolyl tetrazole with mixed acid. The crystal structure determination revealed a zwitterionic diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, whose constitution was supported by NMR and vibrational spectroscopic analysis. The thermal stability and sensitivity toward impact and friction were determined. In contrast, diazotriazoles are rather unstable and are mainly handled in solution and/or low temperatures, which is not the case for this diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, being stable at ambient temperature. PMID:27352144

  2. Total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a natural 2,3-pyrrolidinedione with antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Dhavan, Atul A; Kaduskar, Rahul D; Musso, Loana; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Martino, Piera Anna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a fungal metabolite with a rare 2,3-pyrrolidinedione nucleus linked to an ureido dipeptide, was designed and carried out. Crucial steps for the strategy include a Dieckmann cyclization to obtain the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione ring and a Wittig olefination to install the polymethylene chain. An oxazolidinone-containing leopolic acid A analogue was also synthesized. The antibacterial activity showed by both compounds suggests that they could be considered as promising candidates for future developments. PMID:27559415

  3. Origin of the metal-insulator transition in ultrathin films of L a2 /3S r2 /3Mn O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Li, Fengmiao; Gao, Peng; Li, Lin; Guo, Jiandong; Pan, Xiaoqing; Jin, R.; Plummer, E. W.; Zhang, Jiandi

    2015-09-01

    Many ultrathin films of transition metal oxides exhibit nonmetallic behavior, in contrast to their metallic bulk counterpart, thus displaying a metal-insulator transition (MIT) as the film thickness is reduced. The nature of this MIT has been a long-standing issue in the epitaxial oxide research community. Here, we report the processing dependence of the critical thickness (tc) of MIT and the origin of the insulating phase in L a2 /3S r1 /3Mn O3 (LSMO) films. A tc of 3 unit cells (u.c.) is achieved by minimizing oxygen vacancies under optimal growth conditions, diminishing the epitaxial strain with a tunable buffer layer and suppressing surface strain by film capping. The electrical transport measurements demonstrate that the nonmetallic behavior in LSMO thin films is an unavoidable result of localization initiated by inherent disorder but amplified by the reduction in dimensionality.

  4. Sorption-desorption capacity of oil shale materials. Volume 2. Experimental methods and results. [2-hydroxynaphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, G.D.; Godrej, A.N.; Cowher, D.M.; Lu, Y.W.

    1985-12-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the sorption/desorption (S/D) behavior of several inorganic and organic agents in the presence of four shales (Antrim, Anvil Points, Oxy 6, and Run 16) and a western soil. In addition, an attempt was made to relate batch test results to data obtained in continuous-flow, column trials, and to develop a spectrophotometric method for the analysis of organic compound mixtures. With respect to the results of studies with the inorganic agents, it appeared that retort temperature and porosity (and/or hydraulic conductivity) was strongly correlated to the distribution and quantity of inorganic agents which eluted from the shales. Most of the inorganic agents eluted from columns of the shales in the first two to eight pore volumes of effluent. Shales retorted at a lower temperature appeared to have a greater capacity for arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride removals than the other shales considered. Arsenic, cadmium, and iron were generally removed to below detection limits. In the case of cadmium and iron, removals were effected largely by precipitation due to the relatively high pH of the shale surfaces and associated fluids. Experiments with the organic agents indicated that 2-hydroxy-naphthalene was generally sorbed better than 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline which in most trials was more completely sorbed than 2,3,5-trimethylphenol. Overall, it appeared that Antrim shale was the best sorbent for the organic agents considered and Run 16 was generally the worst. Anvil Points and Oxy 6 shales often ranked intermediate to the other shales as sorbents and provided similar results. The western soil provided for sorption levels of the organics which were nearly as good, if not better, than those accomplished by the shales. 188 refs., 100 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Structural and Functional Studies of WlbA: A Dehydrogenase Involved in the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2010-09-08

    2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid (ManNAc3NAcA) is an unusual dideoxy sugar first identified nearly 30 years ago in the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O:3a,d. It has since been observed in other organisms, including Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of UDP-ManNAc3NAcA starting from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Here we describe a structural study of WlbA, the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step in the pathway, namely, the oxidation of the C-3{prime} hydroxyl group on the UDP-linked sugar to a keto moiety and the reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH. This enzyme has been shown to use {alpha}-ketoglutarate as an oxidant to regenerate the oxidized dinucleotide. For this investigation, three different crystal structures were determined: the enzyme with bound NAD(H), the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate, and the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and its substrate (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminuronic acid). The tetrameric enzyme assumes an unusual quaternary structure with the dinucleotides positioned quite closely to one another. Both {alpha}-ketoglutarate and the UDP-linked sugar bind in the WlbA active site with their carbon atoms (C-2 and C-3{prime}, respectively) abutting the re face of the cofactor. They are positioned {approx}3 {angstrom} from the nicotinamide C-4. The UDP-linked sugar substrate adopts a highly unusual curved conformation when bound in the WlbA active site cleft. Lys 101 and His 185 most likely play key roles in catalysis.

  6. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35.935-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step...

  7. Polyimides from 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride and Aromatic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to polyimides. It relates particularly to novel polyimides prepared from 2,3, 3',4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and aromatic diamines. These novel polyimides have low color, good solubility, high thermal emissivity, low solar absorptivity and high tensile strength.

  8. Catalytic C6 functionalization of 2,3-disubstituted indoles by scandium triflate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Zheng, Chao; You, Shu-Li

    2014-02-01

    We report herein an unprecedented direct catalytic C6 functionalization reaction of 2,3-disubstituted indoles with various N-Ts aziridines catalyzed by Sc(OTf)3 under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies revealed that a kinetically favored but reversible formal [3 + 2] annulation occurs initially. The direct C6 functionalization, although having a relatively higher energetic barrier, delivers the thermodynamically favorable products.

  9. Journeys and Destinations: The Challenge of Change. A Language Arts Unit for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Carol; And Others

    This unit of study for high-ability language arts students in grades 2-3 uses an inquiry-based approach to investigate literature in an interdisciplinary curriculum. The guiding theme of the unit is the recognition of change as a concept that affects people and their relationships as well as the world around them. The unit provides the vehicle for…

  10. An Information Analysis of 2-, 3-, and 4-Word Verbal Discrimination Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arima, James K.; Gray, Francis D.

    Information theory was used to qualify the difficulty of verbal discrimination (VD) learning tasks and to measure VD performance. Words for VD items were selected with high background frequency and equal a priori probabilities of being selected as a first response. Three VD lists containing only 2-, 3-, or 4-word items were created and equated for…

  11. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects v...

  12. 43 CFR 2.3 - Where should you send a FOIA request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY How To Make a Request § 2.3 Where should you send a FOIA request? (a) The Department... maintained by various bureaus and offices throughout the country. (b) To make a request for Department records, you must write directly to the bureau that you believe maintains those records. (c)...

  13. 43 CFR 2.3 - Where should you send a FOIA request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY How To Make a Request § 2.3 Where should you send a FOIA request? (a) The Department... maintained by various bureaus and offices throughout the country. (b) To make a request for Department records, you must write directly to the bureau that you believe maintains those records. (c)...

  14. Synthesis, electrochemistry and liquid crystal properties of 1,2,3-(NH)-triazolylferrocene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hai-Ying; Guo, Le; Chen, Shu-Feng; Bian, Zhan-Xi

    2013-12-01

    A series of aryl(5-ferrocenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methanone 3a-3d have been firstly synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure of phenyl(5-ferrocenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methanone 3a confirms that 1,2,3-triazole ring exists in the crystal as the 2H isomer form. The UV-vis absorption spectra of these compounds correspond to the assembled spectra of ferrocene and aryl substitute groups, and the fluorescence spectra show a maximum at 374 nm in CH2Cl2. The cyclic voltammograms of 3b-3d show the reversible oxidation waves of the ferrocenyl groups, and these waves anodically shift in comparison with ferrocene standard due to the electron withdrawing effect of the 1,2,3-triazoles ring. According to thermal polarizing microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies, compounds 3b-3d display liquid crystal behaviors over wider mesophase range during first heating.

  15. 2,2\\',3,3\\',4,4\\',5,5\\',6,6\\'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2 ' , 3,3 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' , 6,6 ' - Decabromodiphenyl ether ( BDE - 209 ) ; CASRN 1163 - 19 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process

  16. Asymmetric hydrogenation of 2- and 2,3-substituted quinoxalines with chiral cationic ruthenium diamine catalysts.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie; Chen, Fei; Ding, Ziyuan; He, Yan-Mei; Xu, Lijin; Fan, Qing-Hua

    2011-12-16

    The enantioselective hydrogenation of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-subsituted quinoxalines and 2,3-disubstituted quinoxalines was developed by using the cationic Ru(η(6)-cymene)(monosulfonylated diamine)(BArF) system in high yields with up to 99% ee. The counteranion was found to be critically important for the high enantioselectivity and/or diastereoselectivity. PMID:22098608

  17. WAVE binds Ena/VASP for enhanced Arp2/3 complex-based actin assembly.

    PubMed

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Noguera, Philippe; Abou-Ghali, Majdouline; Manzi, John; Faqir, Fahima; Lamora, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The WAVE complex is the main activator of the Arp2/3 complex for actin filament nucleation and assembly in the lamellipodia of moving cells. Other important players in lamellipodial protrusion are Ena/VASP proteins, which enhance actin filament elongation. Here we examine the molecular coordination between the nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex and the elongating activity of Ena/VASP proteins for the formation of actin networks. Using an in vitro bead motility assay, we show that WAVE directly binds VASP, resulting in an increase in Arp2/3 complex-based actin assembly. We show that this interaction is important in vivo as well, for the formation of lamellipodia during the ventral enclosure event of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. Ena/VASP's ability to bind F-actin and profilin-complexed G-actin are important for its effect, whereas Ena/VASP tetramerization is not necessary. Our data are consistent with the idea that binding of Ena/VASP to WAVE potentiates Arp2/3 complex activity and lamellipodial actin assembly.

  18. A Habitability Test of the Exoplanetary System K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Perez, Ryan; Kipping, David M.; Johnson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The question of habitability is one of the most interesting questions in exoplanetary science. By studying the orbital properties of a planet, like it's eccentricity and habitable zone inner edge distance we can answer this question. Here we answer the habitability question for the planets in the exoplanetary system K2-3 discovered by the Kepler 2 spacecraft. The system is compose of three planets with radii 1.61-2.17 Rearth, and with orbital periods of 10-45 days. The most outer planet in this system known as K2-3d is particularly interesting due to its proximity towards the habitable zone. The eccentricities of the planets in K2-3 were calculated using a method known as stellar density profiling, and from these eccentricities the range of the semi-major axis were determined. The planet K2-3d was calculated to have a semi-major axis of 0.18 AU, which puts it outside the habitable zone where inner edge of the habitable zone is 0.27 AU from its host star. This project was supported by the The Harvard Banneker Institute.

  19. Isopropyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyran­oside

    PubMed Central

    Mönch, Bettina; Emmerling, Franziska; Kraus, Werner; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C17H26O10, was formed by a Koenigs–Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and propan-2-ol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant inter­molecular inter­actions. PMID:23424447

  20. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase: EVIDENCE FOR A COMMON REACTION MECHANISM.

    PubMed

    Booth, Elizabeth S; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L

    2015-12-25

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD(+). The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of L-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237-244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of L-Trp, 1-methyl-L-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues.

  1. Diary of a Conversion--Lotus 1-2-3 to Symphony 1.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnewin, Larry

    1986-01-01

    Describes the uses of Lotus 1-2-3 (a spreadsheet-graphics-database program created by Lotus Development Corporation) and Symphony 1.1 (a refinement and expansion of Symphony 1.01 providing memory efficiency, speed, ease of use, greater file compatibility). Spreadsheet and graphics capabilities, the use of windows, database environment, and…

  2. ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TUMOR PROMOTION ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a high estimated cancer potency in animals which has been reasoned to imply that TCDD might be carcinogenic to man. The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other ...

  3. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands...

  4. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands...

  5. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands...

  6. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands...

  7. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2002: Lesson Plans for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide on the 50 state quarters emitted by the United States Mint includes 6 "teacher-friendly" lesson plans that fit easily into the curriculum for grades 2-3; reproducible student worksheets that coincide with each lesson; "fun" state facts and information on the new quarter designs; and USA map template with state outlines. These…

  8. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2001: Lesson Plans for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide on the 50 state quarters produced by the United States Mint includes six lesson plans that fit easily into the social studies curriculum for grades 2-3. The lesson plans include reproducible student work pages that coincide with each lesson; state facts and information about the 2001 states quarter designs (New York, North…

  9. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen. [Teaching Guide]. Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide for grades 2-3 focuses on the 1999-2000 United States Mint 50 State Quarters Program, which includes new quarter designs for the following states: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, and Virginia. The guide includes six lesson plans that fit easily…

  10. Synaptic computation and sensory processing in neocortical layer 2/3.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carl C H; Crochet, Sylvain

    2013-04-10

    Computations in neocortical circuits are predominantly driven by synaptic integration of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic inputs. New optical, electrophysiological, and genetic methods allow detailed in vivo investigation of the superficial neocortical layers 2 and 3 (L2/3). Here, we review current knowledge of mouse L2/3 sensory cortex, focusing on somatosensory barrel cortex with comparisons to visual and auditory cortex. Broadly tuned, dense subthreshold synaptic input accompanied by sparse action potential (AP) firing in excitatory neurons provides a simple and reliable neural code useful for associative learning. Sparse AP firing is enforced by strong inhibition from genetically defined classes of GABAergic neurons. Subnetworks of strongly and specifically connected excitatory neurons may drive L2/3 network function, with potential contributions from dendritic spikes evoked by spatiotemporally clustered synaptic input. These functional properties of L2/3 are under profound regulation by brain state and behavior, providing interesting avenues for future mechanistic investigations into context-specific processing of sensory information.

  11. Trifluoromethyl sulfoxides from allylic alcohols and electrophilic SCF3 donor by [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Mayaka; Shibata, Norio; Cahard, Dominique

    2015-04-17

    An electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolation of allylic alcohols produces the corresponding allylic trifluoromethanesulfenates, which spontaneously rearrange into trifluoromethyl sulfoxides via a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. The reaction is straightforward and proceeds in good to high yields for the preparation of various allylic trifluoromethyl sulfoxides.

  12. 3D UHDTV contents production with 2/3-inch sensor cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Alaric; Pardeshi, Sunil; Whangboo, Taeg-Keun; Kim, Sang-Il; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Most UHDTV content is presently created using single large CMOS sensor cameras as opposed to 2/3-inch small sensor cameras, which is the standard for HD content. The consequence is a technical incompatibility that does not only affect the lenses and accessories of these cameras, but also the content creation process in 2D and 3D. While UHDTV is generally acclaimed for its superior image quality, the large sensors have introduced new constraints in the filming process. The camera sizes and lens dimensions have also introduced new obstacles for their use in 3D UHDTV production. The recent availability of UHDTV broadcast cameras with traditional 2/3-inch sensors can improve the transition towards UHDTV content creation. The following article will evaluate differences between the large-sensor UHDTV cameras and the 2/3-inch 3 CMOS solution and address 3D-specific considerations, such as possible artifacts like chromatic aberration and diffraction, which can occur when mixing HD and UHD equipment. The article will further present a workflow with solutions for shooting 3D UHDTV content on the basis of the Grass Valley LDX4K compact camera, which is the first available UHDTV camera with 2/3-inch UHDTV broadcast technology.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed C–H Arylation of 1,2,3-Triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengwei; You, Lin; Chen, Chuo

    2016-01-01

    Palladium(II) acetate, in combination with triphenylphosphine, catalyzes direct arylation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles effectively. This C–H arylation reaction provides facile access to fully substituted triazoles with well-defined regiochemistry. PMID:27669198

  14. A 2.3-GHz low-noise cryo-FET amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loreman, J.

    1988-01-01

    A cryogenic cooled, low-noise Field Effect Transistor (FET) amplifier assembly for use at 2.2 to 2.3 GHz was developed for the DSN to meet the requirements of a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) upgrade. An amplifier assembly was developed at JPL that uses a commercial closed-cycle helium refrigerator (CCR) to cool a FET amplifier to an operating temperature of 15 K. A cooled probe waveguide-to-coaxial transition similar to that used in the research and development Ultra-Low-Noise S-band Traveling Wave Maser (TWM) is used to minimize input line losses. Typical performance includes an input flange equivalent noise contribution of 14.5 K, a gain slope of less than 0.05 dB/MHz across a bandwidth of 2.2 to 2.3 GHz, an input VSWR of 1.5:1 at 2.25 GHz, and an insertion gain of 45 + or - 1 dB across the bandwidth of 2.2 to 2.3 GHz. Three 2.3 GHz FET/CCR assemblies were delivered to the DSN in the spring of 1987.

  15. Crucial roles of the Arp2/3 complex during mammalian corticogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Shan; Chou, Fu-Sheng; Ramachandran, Sreekumar; Xia, Sheng; Chen, Huei-Ying; Guo, Fengli; Suraneni, Praveen; Maher, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    The polarity and organization of radial glial cells (RGCs), which serve as both stem cells and scaffolds for neuronal migration, are crucial for cortical development. However, the cytoskeletal mechanisms that drive radial glial outgrowth and maintain RGC polarity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Arp2/3 complex – the unique actin nucleator that produces branched actin networks – plays essential roles in RGC polarity and morphogenesis. Disruption of the Arp2/3 complex in murine RGCs retards process outgrowth toward the basal surface and impairs apical polarity and adherens junctions. Whereas the former is correlated with an abnormal actin-based leading edge, the latter is consistent with blockage in membrane trafficking. These defects result in altered cell fate, disrupted cortical lamination and abnormal angiogenesis. In addition, we present evidence that the Arp2/3 complex is a cell-autonomous regulator of neuronal migration. Our data suggest that Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly might be particularly important for neuronal cell motility in a soft or poorly adhesive matrix environment. PMID:27385014

  16. User's Guide to the Testing 1-2-3 Test Development and Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ethan A.

    Testing 1-2-3 is a general purpose testing system developed at the Computer-Based Education Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois for use on NovaNET computer-based education systems. The testing system can be used for: short, teacher-made quizzes, individualized examinations, computer managed instruction curriculum testing,…

  17. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    SciTech Connect

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V.; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-08-12

    In two trimethylsilyl-substituted 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thiones, noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in one, and dimerization results in the formation of R{sub s} {sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings, in the second compound. Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 13}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}SSi{sub 2}, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 10}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R{sub 2}{sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  18. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  19. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  20. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  1. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui...

  2. Effectiveness of 1-2-3 Magic for Teachers to Improve Classroom Management and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    It was not known how and to what extent the implementation of "1-2-3 Magic for Teachers" would change the behaviors of disruptive students. The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of behavioral incidents and improve student engagement in learning to produce a learning environment conducive to academic success. The target…

  3. Literacy Skill Development of Children with Familial Risk for Dyslexia through Grades 2, 3, and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography in children through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared 2 groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia--1 group with dyslexia (Dys _FR, n = 35) and 1 group without (NoDys_FR, n = 66) in Grade 2--with a group of children without…

  4. Sodium and Manganese Stoichiometry of P2-Type Na2/3 MnO2.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Shinichi; Tahara, Yoshiyuki; Kubota, Kei; Chihara, Kuniko; Komaba, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    To realize a reversible solid-state Mn(III/IV) redox couple in layered oxides, co-operative Jahn-Teller distortion (CJTD) of six-coordinate Mn(III) (t2g (3) -eg (1) ) is a key factor in terms of structural and physical properties. We develop a single-phase synthesis route for two polymorphs, namely distorted and undistorted P2-type Na2/3 MnO2 having different Mn stoichiometry, and investigate how the structural and stoichiometric difference influences electrochemical reaction. The distorted Na2/3 MnO2 delivers 216 mAh g(-1) as a 3 V class positive electrode, reaching 590 Wh (kg oxide)(-1) with excellent cycle stability in a non-aqueous Na cell and demonstrates better electrochemical behavior compared to undistorted Na2/3 MnO2 . Furthermore, reversible phase transitions correlated with CJTD are found upon (de)sodiation for distorted Na2/3 MnO2 , providing a new insight into utilization of the Mn(III/IV) redox couple for positive electrodes of Na-ion batteries.

  5. 12 CFR 2.3 - Distribution of credit life insurance income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of credit life insurance income. 2... CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.3 Distribution of credit life insurance income. (a) Distribution of credit life... percent), who is involved in the sale of credit life insurance to loan customers of the national bank,...

  6. Personal Care and the Healthy Hare Family Coloring and Activity Book for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This activity and coloring booklet has been designed to supplement health lessons for students in grades 2-3. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the activities is varied in order to…

  7. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) was added to the IRIS database in 1990. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for TCP. This update will incorporate health effects information published since t...

  8. Virtual venue management users manual : access grid toolkit documentation, version 2.3.

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, I. R.; Lefvert, S.; Olson, E.; Uram, T. D.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-10-24

    An Access Grid Venue Server provides access to individual Virtual Venues, virtual spaces where users can collaborate using the Access Grid Venue Client software. This manual describes the Venue Server component of the Access Grid Toolkit, version 2.3. Covered here are the basic operations of starting a venue server, modifying its configuration, and modifying the configuration of the individual venues.

  9. Aerial view looking northwest showing location of seaplane ramps 2,3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view looking northwest showing location of seaplane ramps 2,3, and 4. Ramps lead from buildings 1 and 2, bayside left center, into San Diego Bay. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  10. View looking west toward southern end of seaplane ramps 2,3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west toward southern end of seaplane ramps 2,3, and 4 area. Building 2 at right, building 1 on right edge of photograph. Ramp 2 is located center photograph. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that scie...

  12. Structure of the catalytic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS2-3 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz,I.; Marcotrigiano, J.; Dentzer, T.; Rice, C.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major global health problem affecting an estimated 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection is common and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. There is no vaccine available and current therapies have met with limited success. The viral RNA genome encodes a polyprotein that includes two proteases essential for virus replication. The NS2-3 protease mediates a single cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, whereas the NS3-4A protease cleaves at four downstream sites in the polyprotein. NS3-4A is characterized as a serine protease with a chymotrypsin-like fold, but the enzymatic mechanism of the NS2-3 protease remains unresolved. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the NS2-3 protease at 2.3 Angstroms resolution. The structure reveals a dimeric cysteine protease with two composite active sites. For each active site, the catalytic histidine and glutamate residues are contributed by one monomer, and the nucleophilic cysteine by the other. The carboxy-terminal residues remain coordinated in the two active sites, predicting an inactive post-cleavage form. Proteolysis through formation of a composite active site occurs in the context of the viral polyprotein expressed in mammalian cells. These features offer unexpected insights into polyprotein processing by hepatitis C virus and new opportunities for antiviral drug design.

  13. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  14. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  15. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  16. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  17. Synthesis and diversification of 1,2,3-triazole-fused 1,4-benzodiazepine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Donald, James R; Martin, Stephen F

    2011-03-01

    A substituted heterocyclic scaffold comprising a 1,4-benzodiazepine fused with a 1,2,3-triazole ring has been synthesized and diversified via a variety of refunctionalizations. The strategy features the rapid assembly of the scaffold by combining 3-4 reactants in an efficient multicomponent assembly process, followed by an intramolecular Huisgen cycloaddition.

  18. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  19. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  20. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  5. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  6. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  7. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  8. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  9. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  10. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  11. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  12. WAVE binds Ena/VASP for enhanced Arp2/3 complex–based actin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Noguera, Philippe; Abou-Ghali, Majdouline; Manzi, John; Faqir, Fahima; Lamora, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The WAVE complex is the main activator of the Arp2/3 complex for actin filament nucleation and assembly in the lamellipodia of moving cells. Other important players in lamellipodial protrusion are Ena/VASP proteins, which enhance actin filament elongation. Here we examine the molecular coordination between the nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex and the elongating activity of Ena/VASP proteins for the formation of actin networks. Using an in vitro bead motility assay, we show that WAVE directly binds VASP, resulting in an increase in Arp2/3 complex–based actin assembly. We show that this interaction is important in vivo as well, for the formation of lamellipodia during the ventral enclosure event of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. Ena/VASP's ability to bind F-actin and profilin-complexed G-actin are important for its effect, whereas Ena/VASP tetramerization is not necessary. Our data are consistent with the idea that binding of Ena/VASP to WAVE potentiates Arp2/3 complex activity and lamellipodial actin assembly. PMID:25355952

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  14. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  15. GC/FT-IR ANALYSIS OF THE THERMALLY LABILE COMPOUND TRIS (2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fast and convenient GC method has been developed for a compound [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate] that poses a difficult analytical problem for both GC (thermal instability/low volatility) and LC (not amenable to commonly available, sensitive detectors) analysis. his method em...

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Arylation of 1,2,3-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengwei; You, Lin; Chen, Chuo

    2016-01-01

    Palladium(II) acetate, in combination with triphenylphosphine, catalyzes direct arylation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles effectively. This C-H arylation reaction provides facile access to fully substituted triazoles with well-defined regiochemistry. PMID:27669198

  17. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase activity by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Anne; Grant, Ross; Austin, Chris J D; Jamie, Joanne F; Willows, Robert D; Takikawa, Osamu; Littlejohn, Tamantha K; Truscott, Roger J W; Walker, Mark J; Sachdev, Perminder; Smythe, George A

    2006-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is the first and rate limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, has potent effects on cell proliferation and mediates antimicrobial, antitumorogenic, and immunosuppressive effects. As a potent cytotoxic effector, the mechanisms of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition deserve greater attention. The work presented here represents the first systematic study exploring the mechanisms by which low levels of hydrogen peroxide (10-100 microM) inhibit indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in vitro. Following brief peroxide exposure both enzyme inhibition and structural changes were observed. Loss of catalysis was accompanied by oxidation of several cysteine residues to sulfinic and sulfonic acids, observed by electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry. Enzyme activity could in part be preserved in the presence of sulfhydryl containing compounds, particularly DTT and methionine. However, these structural alterations did not prevent substrate (l-tryptophan) binding. Some enzyme activity could be recovered in the presence of thioredoxin, indicating that the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) is at least partially reversible in vitro. We present evidence that cysteine oxidation represents one mechanism of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition.

  18. Sodium and Manganese Stoichiometry of P2-Type Na2/3 MnO2.

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Shinichi; Tahara, Yoshiyuki; Kubota, Kei; Chihara, Kuniko; Komaba, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    To realize a reversible solid-state Mn(III/IV) redox couple in layered oxides, co-operative Jahn-Teller distortion (CJTD) of six-coordinate Mn(III) (t2g (3) -eg (1) ) is a key factor in terms of structural and physical properties. We develop a single-phase synthesis route for two polymorphs, namely distorted and undistorted P2-type Na2/3 MnO2 having different Mn stoichiometry, and investigate how the structural and stoichiometric difference influences electrochemical reaction. The distorted Na2/3 MnO2 delivers 216 mAh g(-1) as a 3 V class positive electrode, reaching 590 Wh (kg oxide)(-1) with excellent cycle stability in a non-aqueous Na cell and demonstrates better electrochemical behavior compared to undistorted Na2/3 MnO2 . Furthermore, reversible phase transitions correlated with CJTD are found upon (de)sodiation for distorted Na2/3 MnO2 , providing a new insight into utilization of the Mn(III/IV) redox couple for positive electrodes of Na-ion batteries. PMID:27630078

  19. Relationship between indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and lymphatic invasion propensity of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Atilla; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Engin, Ayse Basak; Karamercan, Ahmet; Sepici Dincel, Aylin; Dursun, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether serum and tumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activities can predict lymphatic invasion (LI) or lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: The study group consisted of 44 colorectal carcinoma patients. The patients were re-grouped according to the presence or absence of LI and lymph node metastasis. Forty-three cancer-free subjects without any metabolic disturbances were included into the control group. Serum neopterin was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary neopterin and biopterin, serum tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn) concentrations of all patients were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Kyn/Trp was calculated and its correlation with serum neopterin was determined to estimate the serum indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Tissue sections from the studied tumors were re-examined histopathologically and were stained by immunohistochemistry with indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase antibodies. RESULTS: Neither serum nor urinary neopterin was significantly different between the patient and control groups (both P > 0.05). However, colorectal carcinoma patients showed a significant positive correlation between the serum neopterin levels and Kyn/Trp (r = 0.450, P < 0.01). Urinary biopterin was significantly higher in cancer cases (P < 0.05). Serum Kyn/Trp was significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma patients (P < 0.01). Lymphatic invasion was present in 23 of 44 patients, of which only 12 patients had lymph node metastasis. Eleven patients with LI had no lymph node metastasis. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase intensity score was significantly higher in LI positive cancer group (44.56% ± 6.11%) than negative colorectal cancer patients (24.04% ± 6.90%), (P < 0.05). Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression correlated both with the presence of LI and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). A significant difference between the accuracy of diagnosis by using either total indoleamine-2,3

  20. Environmental characterization of a coffee processing workplace with obliterative bronchiolitis in former workers.

    PubMed

    Duling, Matthew G; LeBouf, Ryan F; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Kreiss, Kathleen; Martin, Stephen B; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-10-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis in five former coffee processing employees at a single workplace prompted an exposure study of current workers. Exposure characterization was performed by observing processes, assessing the ventilation system and pressure relationships, analyzing headspace of flavoring samples, and collecting and analyzing personal breathing zone and area air samples for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione vapors and total inhalable dust by work area and job title. Mean airborne concentrations were calculated using the minimum variance unbiased estimator of the arithmetic mean. Workers in the grinding/packaging area for unflavored coffee had the highest mean diacetyl exposures, with personal concentrations averaging 93 parts per billion (ppb). This area was under positive pressure with respect to flavored coffee production (mean personal diacetyl levels of 80 ppb). The 2,3-pentanedione exposures were highest in the flavoring room with mean personal exposures of 122 ppb, followed by exposures in the unflavored coffee grinding/packaging area (53 ppb). Peak 15-min airborne concentrations of 14,300 ppb diacetyl and 13,800 ppb 2,3-pentanedione were measured at a small open hatch in the lid of a hopper containing ground unflavored coffee on the mezzanine over the grinding/packaging area. Three out of the four bulk coffee flavorings tested had at least a factor of two higher 2,3-pentanedione than diacetyl headspace measurements. At a coffee processing facility producing both unflavored and flavored coffee, we found the grinding and packaging of unflavored coffee generate simultaneous exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione that were well in excess of the NIOSH proposed RELs and similar in magnitude to those in the areas using a flavoring substitute for diacetyl. These findings require physicians to be alert for obliterative bronchiolitis and employers, government, and public health consultants to assess the similarities and differences across the industry to

  1. Environmental characterization of a coffee processing workplace with obliterative bronchiolitis in former workers.

    PubMed

    Duling, Matthew G; LeBouf, Ryan F; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Kreiss, Kathleen; Martin, Stephen B; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-10-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis in five former coffee processing employees at a single workplace prompted an exposure study of current workers. Exposure characterization was performed by observing processes, assessing the ventilation system and pressure relationships, analyzing headspace of flavoring samples, and collecting and analyzing personal breathing zone and area air samples for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione vapors and total inhalable dust by work area and job title. Mean airborne concentrations were calculated using the minimum variance unbiased estimator of the arithmetic mean. Workers in the grinding/packaging area for unflavored coffee had the highest mean diacetyl exposures, with personal concentrations averaging 93 parts per billion (ppb). This area was under positive pressure with respect to flavored coffee production (mean personal diacetyl levels of 80 ppb). The 2,3-pentanedione exposures were highest in the flavoring room with mean personal exposures of 122 ppb, followed by exposures in the unflavored coffee grinding/packaging area (53 ppb). Peak 15-min airborne concentrations of 14,300 ppb diacetyl and 13,800 ppb 2,3-pentanedione were measured at a small open hatch in the lid of a hopper containing ground unflavored coffee on the mezzanine over the grinding/packaging area. Three out of the four bulk coffee flavorings tested had at least a factor of two higher 2,3-pentanedione than diacetyl headspace measurements. At a coffee processing facility producing both unflavored and flavored coffee, we found the grinding and packaging of unflavored coffee generate simultaneous exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione that were well in excess of the NIOSH proposed RELs and similar in magnitude to those in the areas using a flavoring substitute for diacetyl. These findings require physicians to be alert for obliterative bronchiolitis and employers, government, and public health consultants to assess the similarities and differences across the industry to

  2. Thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by a novel Geobacillus strain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are two important biorefinery platform chemicals. They are currently fermented below 40°C using mesophilic strains, but the processes often suffer from bacterial contamination. Results This work reports the isolation and identification of a novel aerobic Geobacillus strain XT15 capable of producing both of these chemicals under elevated temperatures, thus reducing the risk of bacterial contamination. The optimum growth temperature was found to be between 45 and 55°C and the medium initial pH to be 8.0. In addition to glucose, galactose, mannitol, arabionose, and xylose were all acceptable substrates, enabling the potential use of cellulosic biomass as the feedstock. XT15 preferred organic nitrogen sources including corn steep liquor powder, a cheap by-product from corn wet-milling. At 55°C, 7.7 g/L of acetoin and 14.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen source. Thirteen volatile products from the cultivation broth of XT15 were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a total of about 96% of all the volatile products. In contrast, organic acids and other products were minor by-products. α-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin metabolic pathway, were found to be both moderately thermophilic with the identical optimum temperature of 45°C. Conclusions Geobacillus sp. XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. This work has demonstrated the attractive prospect of developing it as an industrial strain in the thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol with improved anti-contamination performance. The novel metabolites and enzymes identified in XT15 also indicated its strong promise as a precious

  3. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  4. A New Assay for Determining Ganglioside Sialyltransferase Activities Lactosylceramide-2,3-Sialyltransferase (SAT I) and Monosialylganglioside-2,3-Sialyltransferase (SAT IV)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cynthia Q.; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K.; Johnson, Keryn D.

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin. PMID:24718572

  5. A new assay for determining ganglioside sialyltransferase activities lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I) and monosialylganglioside-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT IV).

    PubMed

    Sun, Cynthia Q; Hubl, Ulrike; Hoefakker, Petra; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan K; Johnson, Keryn D

    2014-01-01

    A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 2.4.99.9) and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 2.4.99.2) is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY) lactosylceramide (LacCer), and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV) were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin. PMID:24718572

  6. Antihypertensive activity of 6-arylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-amine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L R; Blankley, C J; Fleming, R W; Smith, R D; Tessman, D K

    1981-04-01

    A series of 51 6-arylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-amine derivatives was prepared and evaluated for antihypertensive activity in the conscious spontaneously hypertensive rat. A number of these compounds, notably 6-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-amine (36), lowered blood pressure in these rats in a gradual and sustained manner to normotensive levels at oral doses of 10-50 mg/kg. Normalized blood pressure levels could then be maintained by single daily oral doses. The effect of structural variation in the 6-aryl group and in the 2 and 4 positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring on activity is reported and discussed.

  7. Hydrogen isotope effect on storage behavior of U2Ti and UZr2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Sawant, S. G.; Rajan, M. B.; Dhanuskar, J. R.; Kaity, Santu; Parida, S. C.

    2013-11-01

    U2Ti and UZr2.3 alloys were prepared by arc melting method, vacuum annealed and characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX methods. Hydrogen isotope effect on the storage behavior of these alloys were studied by measuring the hydrogen/deuterium desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) profiles in the temperature range of 573-678 K using a Sievert's type volumetric apparatus. It was observed that, in the temperature and pressure range of investigation, all the isotherms show a single desorption plateau. The PCT data reveals that both U2Ti and UZr2.3 alloys had normal isotope effects on hydrogen/deuterium desorption at all experimental temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters for dehydrogenation and dedeuteration reactions of the corresponding hydrides and deuterides of the above alloys were deduced from the PCT data.

  8. Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J K P; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M; Benner, Jack S; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A

    2013-12-01

    Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5(m)C) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation.

  9. Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J.K.P.; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M.; Benner, Jack S.; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A.

    2013-01-01

    Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation. PMID:24063805

  10. NaCo(H2PO2)3: Crystal structure and physical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bali, Brahim; Lachkar, Mohammed; Essehli, Rachid; Dusek, Michal; Rohlicek, Jan; Mircescu, Nicoleta; Haisch, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    NaCo(H2PO2)3 was synthesized in solution and its structure was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the cubic space group P213 (#198), Z = 4, a = 9.2563(16) Å, V = 793.1(2) Å3. Final residual factors of the refined structure model R/Rw were 0.0367/0.0941. The cations Na+ and Co2+ are both octahedrally coordinated. [NaO6] and [CoO6] share edges to form channels propagating along [1,-1, -1] with the [H2PO2] pseudo-pyramids adjusted inside the channels to the above mentioned octahedra. The IR and Raman spectroscopic studies show the expected bands of the hypophosphite anion. NaCo(H2PO2)3 did not show any electrochemical activity under the electrochemical test conditions (2.4-4.5 V vs. Na/Na+).

  11. A Novel Type of Macrothrombocytopenia Associated with a Defect in α2,3-Sialylation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire; Denecke, Jonas; Sträter, Ronald; Stölting, Torsten; Schunicht, Yvonne; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Klumperman, Judith; Lefeber, Dirk J.; Spelten, Oliver; Zarbock, Alexander; Kelm, Sørge; Strenge, Karen; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lühn, Kerstin; Stahl, Dorothea; Gentile, Luca; Schreiter, Thomas; Hilgard, Philip; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Marquardt, Thorsten; Wild, Martin K.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel type of human thrombocytopenia characterized by the appearance of giant platelets and variable neutropenia. Searching for the molecular defect, we found that neutrophils had strongly reduced sialyl-Lewis X and increased Lewis X surface expression, pointing to a deficiency in sialylation. We show that the glycosylation defect is restricted to α2,3-sialylation and can be detected in platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes. Platelets exhibited a distorted structure of the open canalicular system, indicating defective platelet generation. Importantly, patient platelets, but not normal platelets, bound to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), a liver cell-surface protein that removes desialylated thrombocytes from the circulation in mice. Taken together, this is the first type of human thrombocytopenia in which a specific defect of α2,3-sialylation and an induction of platelet binding to the liver ASGP-R could be detected. PMID:21864493

  12. A novel type of macrothrombocytopenia associated with a defect in α2,3-sialylation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Claire; Denecke, Jonas; Sträter, Ronald; Stölting, Torsten; Schunicht, Yvonne; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Klumperman, Judith; Lefeber, Dirk J; Spelten, Oliver; Zarbock, Alexander; Kelm, Sørge; Strenge, Karen; Haslam, Stuart M; Lühn, Kerstin; Stahl, Dorothea; Gentile, Luca; Schreiter, Thomas; Hilgard, Philip; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Marquardt, Thorsten; Wild, Martin K

    2011-10-01

    We describe a novel type of human thrombocytopenia characterized by the appearance of giant platelets and variable neutropenia. Searching for the molecular defect, we found that neutrophils had strongly reduced sialyl-Lewis X and increased Lewis X surface expression, pointing to a deficiency in sialylation. We show that the glycosylation defect is restricted to α2,3-sialylation and can be detected in platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes. Platelets exhibited a distorted structure of the open canalicular system, indicating defective platelet generation. Importantly, patient platelets, but not normal platelets, bound to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), a liver cell-surface protein that removes desialylated thrombocytes from the circulation in mice. Taken together, this is the first type of human thrombocytopenia in which a specific defect of α2,3-sialylation and an induction of platelet binding to the liver ASGP-R could be detected. PMID:21864493

  13. Metabolism of tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in Corynebacterium sp. strain C125.

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, J; de Bont, J A

    1993-01-01

    Corynebacterium sp. strain C125, originally isolated on o-xylene, was selected for its ability to grow on tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The catabolism of tetralin in Corynebacterium sp. strain C125 was shown to proceed via initial hydroxylation of the benzene nucleus at positions C-5 and C-6, resulting in the formation of the corresponding cis-dihydro diol. Subsequently, the dihydro diol was dehydrogenated by a NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2-naphthalene diol. The aromatic ring was cleaved in the extradiol position by a catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. The ring fission product was subject to a hydrolytic attack, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid-substituted cyclohexanone. This is the first report of the catabolism of tetralin via degradation of the aromatic moiety. PMID:8434923

  14. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on the oxygen dissociation curve of human haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Goodford, P J; Norrington, F E; Paterson, R A; Wootton, R

    1977-01-01

    1. Oxygen dissociation curves for concentrated human haemoglobin solutions (1.6 mmol dm-3 in haem) have been measured by mixing known quantities of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin solutions and measuring the resulting partial pressure of oxygen with an oxygen electrode. 2. Observations in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate support previous conclusions derived from experiments at low haemoglobin concentrations, the validity of which has been questioned. 3. The two affinity state model of Monod, Wyman & Changeux (1965) does not fully describe the actions of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and a model in which this allosteric effector not only binds preferentially to the T state but also lowers the oxygen affinity of this state gives an improved fit to the data. PMID:604451

  15. Source of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanglu, Jia; Ping'an, Peng; Chiling, Yu; Zhongyao, Xiao

    2007-07-01

    1-Alkyl-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes and a high relative amount of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene (TTMB) have been previously detected in the marine oils and asphaltenes in the oils from the Tarim Basin. In the present study, the stable carbon isotopic compositions of TTMB and n-alkanes in the pyrolysates of asphaltenes in the marine oils from the northern Tarim Basin and Silurian tar sands from the Tarim Basin were determined. TTMB has stable carbon isotopic compositions in the range from -23‰ to -24‰ and are about 12‰ more enriched in 13C than concomitant n-alkanes (-35‰ to -37‰) in the pyrolysates. The results indicate a contribution from green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiaceae) to TTMB. Thus, the depositional environments of the source rocks for the marine oils and the bitumen in tar sands from the Tarim Basin are characterized by periods of euxinic conditions within the photic zone.

  16. Chiral 2 + 3 Keto-Enamine Pseudocyclophanes Derived from 1,3,5-Triformylphloroglucinol.

    PubMed

    Kieryk, Przemysław; Janczak, Jan; Panek, Jarosław; Miklitz, Marcin; Lisowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The reactions of 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol with (1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane, (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine, or (R)-2,2'-diamino-1,1'-binaphthyl result in the formation of enantiopure [2 + 3] keto-enamine condensation products, in contrast to analogous reactions of 1,3,5-triformylbenzene, where [4 + 6] Schiff base cages are formed. The X-ray crystal structure of the diaminocyclohexane 2 + 3 derivative as well as modeled structures of other compounds of this type show cyclophane-like molecules with close contact between the phloroglucinol rings. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations confirm that there is a sizable π-π interaction between these rings influencing the conformation of these molecules. PMID:26653342

  17. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A peculiarity of the Flaviviridae is the critical function of nonstructural (NS) proteins for virus particle formation. For pestiviruses, like bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), uncleaved NS2-3 represents an essential factor for virion morphogenesis, while NS3 is an essential component of the viral replicase. Accordingly, in natural pestivirus isolates, processing at the NS2-3 cleavage site is not complete, to allow for virion morphogenesis. Virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows a major deviation from that of pestiviruses: while RNA replication also requires free NS3, virion formation does not depend on uncleaved NS2-NS3. Recently, we described a BVDV-1 chimera based on strain NCP7 encompassing the NS2-4B*-coding region of strain Osloss (E. Lattwein, O. Klemens, S. Schwindt, P. Becher, and N. Tautz, J Virol 86:427–437, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06133-11). This chimera allowed for the production of infectious virus particles in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3. The Osloss sequence deviates in the NS2-4B* part from NCP7 in 48 amino acids and also has a ubiquitin insertion between NS2 and NS3. The present study demonstrates that in the NCP7 backbone, only two amino acid exchanges in NS2 (E1576V) and NS3 (V1721A) are sufficient and necessary to allow for efficient NS2-3-independent virion morphogenesis. The adaptation of a bicistronic virus encompassing an internal ribosomal entry site element between the NS2 and NS3 coding sequences to efficient virion morphogenesis led to the identification of additional amino acids in E2, NS2, and NS5B that are critically involved in this process. The surprisingly small requirements for approximating the packaging schemes of pestiviruses and HCV with respect to the NS2-3 region is in favor of a common mechanism in an ancestral virus. IMPORTANCE For positive-strand RNA viruses, the processing products of the viral polyprotein serve in RNA replication as well as virion morphogenesis. For bovine viral

  18. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  19. ARP2/3-dependent growth in the plant kingdom: SCARs for life

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zhang, Chunhua; Szymanski, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    In the human experience SCARs (suppressor of cAMP receptors) are permanent reminders of past events, not always based on bad decisions, but always those in which an interplay of opposing forces leaves behind a clear record in the form of some permanent watery mark. During plant morphogenesis, SCARs are important proteins that reflect an unusual evolutionary outcome, in which the plant kingdom relies heavily on this single class of actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex activator to dictate the time and place of actin filament nucleation. This unusually simple arrangement may serve as a permanent reminder that cell shape control in plants is fundamentally different from that of crawling cells in mammals that use the power of actin polymerization to define and maintain cell shape. In plant cells, actin filaments indirectly affect cell shape by determining the transport properties of organelles and cargo molecules that modulate the mechanical properties of the wall. It is becoming increasingly clear that polarized bundles of actin filaments operate at whole cell spatial scales to organize the cytoplasm and dictate the patterns of long-distance intracellular transport and secretion. The number of actin-binding proteins and actin filament nucleators that are known to participate in the process of actin network formation are rapidly increasing. In plants, formins and ARP2/3 are two important actin filament nucleators. This review will focus on ARP2/3, and the apparent reliance of most plant species on the SCAR/WAVE (WASP family verprolin homologous) regulatory complex as the sole pathway for ARP2/3 activation. PMID:23802001

  20. Thermal Decomposition of 2(3H) and 2(5H) Furanones: Theoretical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Würmel, Judith; Simmie, John M; Losty, Michelle M; McKenna, Cathal D

    2015-07-01

    The thermal decomposition reactions of 2(3H) and 2(5H) furanones and their methyl derivatives are explored. Theoretical calculations of the barriers, reaction enthalpies, and the properties of these and intermediate species are reported using the composite model chemistry CBS-QB3 and also the functional M06-2X allied to the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Thus, the bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and unimolecular chemical kinetic rate constants in the high-pressure limit were computed. We show that flow reactor experiments that intimated that heating the 2(3H) furanone converts it to the isomeric 2(5H) furanone occurs via a 1 → 2 H-transfer reaction to an open ring ketenoic aldehyde. The latter can then ring close to the other isomeric structure. The final products acrolein and carbon monoxide are only formed from 2(3H), and acrolein will further decompose to ethylene and CO. Comparable channels explain the interconversion of 5-methyl-2(3H) furanone to its 2(5H) isomer and to the formation of methyl vinyl ketone and CO. The influence of the methyl group at other positions on the ring is hardly of significance except in the case of 5-methyl-2(5H) furanone where a hydrogen atom transfer from the methyl group leads to the formation of a doubly unsaturated carboxylic compound, 2,4-pentadienoic acid. Studies of the UV photolysis of the parent compounds in both low-temperature inert argon matrices and in solution are broadly in accord with the thermal findings insofar as product formation is concerned and with our theoretical calculations. The dominant features of the early decomposition chemistry of these compounds are simple hydrogen transfer and simultaneous ring opening reactions, which do however result in some quite unusual species.

  1. beta-1,2,3-Triazolyl-nucleosides as nicotinamide riboside mimics.

    PubMed

    Amigues, E J; Armstrong, E; Dvorakova, M; Migaud, M E; Huang, M

    2009-03-01

    The synthesis of a series of pyridine- and piperidine-substituted 1,2,3-triazolides linked to a riboside moiety is described. The presence of a triazolide substituent on the pyridine moiety permitted the facile reduction of the latter under mild hydrogenation conditions. These analogues were modelled as to define their similarity to nicotinamide riboside and quantify their ability to bind NAD-dependent protein deacetylases. PMID:19333861

  2. Discovery and optimization of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Keith R; Berger, Dan M; Crew, Andrew P; Dong, Hanqing; Kleinberg, Andrew; Li, An-Hu; Medeiros, Matthew R; Mulvihill, Mark J; Siu, Kam; Tarrant, James; Wang, Jing; Weng, Felix; Wilde, Victoria L; Albertella, Mark; Bittner, Mark; Cooke, Andrew; Gray, Michael J; Maresca, Paul; May, Earl; Meyn, Peter; Peick, William; Romashko, Darlene; Tanowitz, Michael; Tokar, Brianna

    2013-08-15

    The discovery and potency optimization of a series of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1 is described. Micromolar hits taken from high-throughput screening were optimized for biochemical and cellular mechanistic potency to ~10nM, as exemplified by compound 12az. Application of structure-based drug design aided by co-crystal structures of TAK1 with inhibitors significantly shortened the number of iterations required for the optimization. PMID:23850198

  3. Interactions between oscillatory modes near a 2:3 resonant Hopf-Hopf bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Revel, G; Alonso, D M; Moiola, J L

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the dynamics near a 2:3 resonant Hopf-Hopf bifurcation is studied. The main result is the identification of a distinctive structure connecting 1:2 and 1:3 strong resonances of limit cycles. This structure is found near the Hopf-Hopf point revealing that it may be associated to the resonant case, and may provide useful information about the dynamics generated by this codimension 3 bifurcation.

  4. Replication of N[superscript 2],3-Ethenoguanine by DNA Polymerases

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Linlin; Christov, Plamen P.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Pence, Matthew G.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2014-10-02

    The unstable DNA adduct N2,3-ethenoguanine, a product of both exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride and of oxidative stress, was built into an oligonucleotide, using an isostere strategy to stabilize the glycosidic bond. This modification was then used to examine the cause of mutations by DNA polymerases, in terms of both the biochemistry of the lesion and a structure of the lesion within a polymerase.

  5. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  6. Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.

    1981-03-01

    We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

  7. 1,2,3-Triazoles from carbonyl azides and alkynes: filling the gap.

    PubMed

    Haldón, Estela; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Nicasio, M Carmen; Pérez, Pedro J

    2014-08-18

    Electron deficient azides are challenging substrates in CuAAC reactions. Particularly, when N-carbonyl azides are applied the formation of N-carbonyl triazoles has not yet been observed. We report herein the first example of this class of reaction, with a copper-based system that efficiently enables the synthesis of N-carbamoyl 1,2,3-triazoles by [3+2] cycloaddition of N-carbamoyl azides and alkynes.

  8. Gadolinium-Catalyzed Regio- and Enantioselective Aminolysis of Aromatic trans-2,3-Epoxy Sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-07-20

    The first enantioselective aminolysis of aromatic trans-2,3-epoxy sulfonamides has been accomplished, which was efficiently catalyzed by a Gd-N,N'-dioxide complex. Under the directing effect of the sulfonamide moiety the ring-opening reaction proceeded selectively at the C-3 position in a highly enantioselective manner furnishing various Ts- and SES-protected 3-amino-3-phenylpropan-2-olamines as products.

  9. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: MASS, METALLICITY, AND STAR-FORMATION RATE AT z ∼ 2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; De Groot, Laura; Coil, Alison L.

    2015-02-01

    We present results on the z ∼ 2.3 mass-metallicity relation (MZR) using early observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey. We use an initial sample of 87 star-forming galaxies with spectroscopic coverage of Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584 rest-frame optical emission lines, and estimate the gas-phase oxygen abundance based on the N2 and O3N2 strong-line indicators. We find a positive correlation between stellar mass and metallicity among individual z ∼ 2.3 galaxies using both the N2 and O3N2 indicators. We also measure the emission-line ratios and corresponding oxygen abundances for composite spectra in bins of stellar mass. Among composite spectra, we find a monotonic increase in metallicity with increasing stellar mass, offset ∼0.15-0.3 dex below the local MZR. When the sample is divided at the median star-formation rate (SFR), we do not observe significant SFR dependence of the z ∼ 2.3 MZR among either individual galaxies or composite spectra. We furthermore find that z ∼ 2.3 galaxies have metallicities ∼0.1 dex lower at a given stellar mass and SFR than is observed locally. This offset suggests that high-redshift galaxies do not fall on the local ''fundamental metallicity relation'' among stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR, and may provide evidence of a phase of galaxy growth in which the gas reservoir is built up due to inflow rates that are higher than star-formation and outflow rates. However, robust conclusions regarding the gas-phase oxygen abundances of high-redshift galaxies await a systematic reappraisal of the application of locally calibrated metallicity indicators at high redshift.

  10. Transmissivity of carbon monoxide in the 2.3 microns band region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drayson, S. R.; Tallamraju, R. K.; Chaney, L. W.; Matthias, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Line strengths and self and nitrogen broadened half-widths have been determined from high resolution spectroscopic measurements of selected lines in the 2.3 micrometer band region of CO. The CO 0-2 total band strength is estimated to be 2.086 + or - 0.146 cm/1 (ATM-cm)/1 STP which is higher than most previously reported values. The line half-widths are also generally higher than those in the literature.

  11. 1,2,3-Triazoles from carbonyl azides and alkynes: filling the gap.

    PubMed

    Haldón, Estela; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Nicasio, M Carmen; Pérez, Pedro J

    2014-08-18

    Electron deficient azides are challenging substrates in CuAAC reactions. Particularly, when N-carbonyl azides are applied the formation of N-carbonyl triazoles has not yet been observed. We report herein the first example of this class of reaction, with a copper-based system that efficiently enables the synthesis of N-carbamoyl 1,2,3-triazoles by [3+2] cycloaddition of N-carbamoyl azides and alkynes. PMID:24980244

  12. Structure of EvaA: a paradigm for sugar 2,3-dehydratases.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Rachel L; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2013-03-26

    Unusual deoxysugars found appended to natural products often provide or enhance the pharmacokinetic activities of the parent compound. The preferred carbohydrate donors for the biosynthesis of such glycosylated natural products are the dTDP-linked sugars. Many of the biologically relevant dTDP-deoxysugars are constructed around the 2,6-dideoxyhexoses or the 2,3(4),6-trideoxyhexoses. A key step in the biosynthesis of these sugars is the removal of the hexose C-2' hydroxyl group and the oxidation of the C-3' hydroxyl group to a carbonyl moiety. Enzymes that catalyze these reactions are referred to as 2,3-dehydratases and have been, for the most part, largely uncharacterized. Here we report the first structural analysis of a sugar 2,3-dehydratase. For this investigation, the enzyme, EvaA, was cloned from Amycolatopsis orientalis, and the structure was solved and refined to a nominal resolution of 1.7 Å. On the basis of the resulting model, it is clear that EvaA belongs to the large Nudix hydrolase superfamily and is most similar to GDP-mannose hydrolase. Each subunit of the EvaA dimer folds into two domains that clearly arose via gene duplication. Two dTDP-sugar binding pockets, A and B, are present in each EvaA subunit. On the basis of site-directed mutagenesis experiments and activity assays, it appears that pocket A functions as the active site and pocket B is simply a remnant left behind from the gene duplication event. As 2,3-dehydration is crucial for the biosynthesis of many unusual deoxysugars, this investigation provides key structural insight into this widely conserved reaction. PMID:23473392

  13. The p150 subunit of CAF-1 causes association of SUMO2/3 with the DNA replication foci

    SciTech Connect

    Uwada, Junsuke; Tanaka, Niina; Yamaguchi, Yutaro; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Shibahara, Kei-ichi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Hisato

    2010-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-related modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) can be post-translationally conjugated to a wide variety of proteins constituting chromatin, the platform for genetic and epigenetic regulation. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SUMO2/3 and SUMO2/3-modified proteins are delivered to the chromatin fibers. Here we report that the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), human p150, interacts directly and preferentially with SUMO2/3. Amino acid residue of 98-105 in p150 is essential and sufficient for SUMO2/3 interaction. p150-SUMO2/3 interaction coincided with regions that replicate chromatin fibers, because accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were detected at foci co-localized with both p150 and SUMO2/3 during the S-phase in a cell line expressing epitope-tagged p150. Although inhibition of SUMO2/3 expression had only a small effect on p150 deposition on the replication sites, depletion of p150 led to delocalization of SUMO2/3 from the replication foci. Furthermore, p150 mutants deficient in SUMO2/3 interaction, caused a major reduction of SUMO2/3 at the replication foci. Thus, our findings suggest an expanded role of p150 as a SUMO2/3-interacting factor, and raise the intriguing possibility that p150 plays a role in promoting delivery of SUMO2/3 or SUMO2/3-modified proteins (or both) on chromatin fibers during replication.

  14. Helical Poly(5-alkyl-2,3-thiophene)s: Controlled Synthesis and Structure Characterization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Ma, Chuanxu; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Zhu, Jiahua; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Yin, Panchao; Wang, Yangyang; Li, An-Ping; Hong, Kunlun

    2016-07-12

    Whereas Poly(3-alkyl-2,5-thiophene)s (P3AT), with many potential applications, have been extensively investigated, their ortho-connected isomers, poly(5-alkyl-2,3-thiophene)s (P5AT), have never been reported because of the difficulty in their syntheses. We herein present the first synthesis of regioregular P5AT via controlled Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization with PEPPSI-IPr as catalyst, affording the polymers with tunable molecular weight, narrow polydispersity (PDI) and well-defined functional end groups at the gram scale. The helical geometry of P5AT was studied by a combination of NMR, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Particularly, the single polymer chain of poly(5- 2 butyl-2,3-thiophene) (P5BT) on highly oriented pyrolyticmore » graphite (HOPG) substrates with either M or P helical conformation was directly observed by STM. The comparison of UV-vis absorption between poly(5-hexyl-2,3-thiophene) (P5HT) (λ = 345 nm) and poly(3-hexyl-2,5- thiophene) (P3HT) (λ = 450 nm) indicated that the degree of conjugation of the backbone in P5HT is less than in P3HT, which may be a consequence of the helical geometry of the former compared to the more planar geometry of the latter. Moreover, we found that P5HT can emit green fluorescence under UV (λ = 360 nm) irradiation« less

  15. Ethyl-2-(3,5-Dihidroxyfenol): Phloroglucinol derivatives as potential anticancer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, Triana; Firdaus, Maulidan; Widyo Wartono, Muhammad; Nur Artanti, Anif; Suci Handayani, Desi; Eryanto Putro, Angga

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroxyfenol) based phloroglucinol compounds have been synthesized. Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroksifenol) were synthesized by reacting phloroglucinol with ethyl 2-chloro acetate in excess. Phloroglucinol reaction using 2-chloro ethyl acetate was carried out under reflux for 24 hours at a temperature of 56 oC. The reaction products were identified by a thin layer chromatography and were characterized by melting point test. Analysis of the structure of the products was obtained by FTIR spectrophotometer, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The result of the reaction between phloroglucinol and 2-chloro ethyl acetate was brownish black solid, and has a melting point of 191 oC. Based on the structural analysis by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the reaction product was a mixture of compounds which is ethyl 2- (3,5-dihidroksifenol) acetate, ethyl-2-(2,4,6-trioxocyclohexyl) acetate, and the rest of phloroglucinol which can not react.

  16. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Ho, Yuen Fern; Austin, Christopher J D; Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2009-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. Interestingly, the K(m) value of IDO2 for L-Trp was 500-1000 fold higher than that of IDO1. In this study, we isolated both IDO1 and IDO2 cDNA from a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We characterized the recombinant proteins and those of other known IDO1/IDO2 in intact cells and a cell-free system. It was found that methylene blue may not be suitable reductant for IDO2, hence resulting in an underestimation of recombinant IDO2 activity. In intact cells, the K(m) value of IDO2 for L-Trp was estimated to be much higher than that of IDO1 and this high K(m) value appears to have been conserved during the evolution of IDO2. The protein encoded by the ancestor gene of IDO1 and IDO2 is likely to have had properties more similar to present day IDO2 than to IDO1.

  17. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Ho, Yuen Fern; Austin, Christopher J D; Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2009-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. Interestingly, the Km value of IDO2 for L-Trp was 500-1000 fold higher than that of IDO1. In this study, we isolated both IDO1 and IDO2 cDNA from a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We characterized the recombinant proteins and those of other known IDO1/IDO2 in intact cells and a cell-free system. It was found that methylene blue may not be suitable reductant for IDO2, hence resulting in an underestimation of recombinant IDO2 activity. In intact cells, the Km value of IDO2 for L-Trp was estimated to be much higher than that of IDO1 and this high Km value appears to have been conserved during the evolution of IDO2. The protein encoded by the ancestor gene of IDO1 and IDO2 is likely to have had properties more similar to present day IDO2 than to IDO1.

  18. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  19. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-08-04

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted.

  20. Fragrance material review on 2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)cyclopentanone.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-10-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)cyclopentanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)cyclopentanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones. The common characteristic structural element of the group members is a cyclopentanone or cyclopentenone ring with a straight or branched chain alkane or alkene substituent. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)cyclopentanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones in fragrances.

  1. Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan

    There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.

  2. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  3. Characterization of an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein found in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Ball, Helen J; Sanchez-Perez, Angeles; Weiser, Silvia; Austin, Christopher J D; Astelbauer, Florian; Miu, Jenny; McQuillan, James A; Stocker, Roland; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2007-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (INDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) each catalyze the first step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. We describe the discovery of another enzyme with this activity, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein (INDOL1), which is closely related to INDO and is expressed in mice and humans. The corresponding genes have a similar genomic structure and are situated adjacent to each other on human and mouse chromosome 8. They are likely to have arisen by gene duplication before the origin of the tetrapods. The expression of INDOL1 is highest in the mouse kidney, followed by epididymis, and liver. Expression of mouse INDOL1 was further localized to the tubular cells in the kidney and the spermatozoa. INDOL1 was assigned its name because of its structural similarity to INDO. We demonstrate that INDOL1 catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine therefore a more appropriate nomenclature for the enzymes might be INDO-1 and INDO-2, or the more commonly-used abbreviations, IDO-1 and IDO-2. Although the two proteins have similar enzymatic activities, their different expression patterns within tissues and during malaria infection, suggests a distinct role for each protein. This identification of INDOL1 may help to explain the regulation of the diversity of physiological and patho-physiological processes in which the kynurenine pathway is involved.

  4. Is 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) a carcinogen for humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, S.M.; Webb, K.B.; Evans, R.G.; Mikes, J.

    1985-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has suddenly become the focal point of controversy over the relationship of chemical waste to human health. Specific concern exists regarding its potential association with human malignancy. Subcellular, cellular, and whole-animal experiments suggest that TCDD exerts much of its activity by inducing enzymes that protect the intact organism from the assault of environmental contamination. TCDD is a potent inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, although wide variations between species do exist. Conventional tests for mutagenicity have produced conflicting results. Animal experiments have shown the development of tumors following chronic low level ingestion of TCDD. The human evidence regarding the potential carcinogencity of TCDD comes from occupational, military and environmental exposures. Several studies have come out of Sweden suggesting an association between sarcoma and exposure to herbicides. Although there is little solid evidence that 2,3,7,8-TCDD produces substantial chronic disability or premature death in man, a significant body of experimental evidence for its carcinogenicity makes it likely that a small number of human malignancies may be due to its action. Since 2,3,7,8-TCDD is an unwanted contaminant it could be eliminated with little measurable consequence.

  5. Synthetic oligonucleotides recruit ILF2/3 to RNA transcripts to modulate splicing

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Frank; Hua, Yimin; Chun, Seung J; Prakash, Thazha P; Krainer, Adrian R; Bennett, C Frank

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new technology for recruiting specific proteins to RNA through selective recognition of heteroduplexes formed with chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). Typically, ASOs function by hybridizing to their RNA targets and blocking the binding of single-stranded RNA–binding proteins. Unexpectedly, we found that ASOs with 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro (2′-F) nucleotides, but not with other 2′ chemical modifications, have an additional property: they form heteroduplexes with RNA that are specifically recognized by the interleukin enhancer-binding factor 2 and 3 complex (ILF2/3). 2′-F ASO–directed recruitment of ILF2/3 to RNA can be harnessed to control gene expression by modulating alternative splicing of target transcripts. ILF2/3 recruitment to precursor mRNA near an exon results in omission of the exon from the mature mRNA, both in cell culture and in mice. We discuss the possibility of using chemically engineered ASOs that recruit specific proteins to modulate gene expression for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22504300

  6. Effective separation of dopamine from bananas on 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Luliński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2012-04-01

    A 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer (MIP(pt) ) was prepared via the precipitation polymerization together with a nonimprinted polymer (NIP). The morphology of particles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the specific surface areas were estimated by methylene blue adsorption (60.5 ± 3.5 and 36.9 ± 1.2 m(2)/g for MIP(pt) and NIP, respectively). The binding experiments were performed to determine the binding capacity of MIP(pt)/NIP particles toward dopamine. Next, the effects of solvents on loading, washing, and eluting steps were examined on solid-phase extraction (SPE). Methanol-water 85:15 v/v (loading step), methanol (washing step), and 0.04 M aqueous ammonium acetate-methanol 30:70 v/v (eluting step) were selected as the most effective systems. Described SPE protocol was successfully applied for separation of dopamine on 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted particles. Finally, the molecularly imprinted polymer was used for determination of dopamine in spiked banana extract. The total recovery of dopamine from MIP(pt) was equal to 88.5 ± 4.6%, but from NIP was only 12.8 ± 2.3%. The developed material and method were demonstrated to be applicable for the separation of dopamine from bananas. The commercial sorbent C18 was not suitable to such application.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling mediates expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christoph F A; Goth, Samuel R; Dong, Bin; Pessah, Isaac N; Matsumura, Fumio

    2008-10-24

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to immune suppression associated with the induction of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3. The immunological mechanisms of suppression are not well understood however dendritic cells (DC) are considered a key target for AhR-mediated immune suppression. Here we show that activation of AhR by TCDD induces DC indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein (IDO2). Induction of IDO1 and IDO2 was also found in lung and spleen associated with an increase of the T(reg) marker Foxp3 in spleen of TCDD-treated C57BL/6 mice, which is suppressed by inhibition of IDO. These data indicate that AhR-activation is an important signaling pathway for IDO expression and suggest a critical role of IDO in the mechanism leading to the generation of T(reg) that mediates the immune suppression through activation of AhR. PMID:18694728

  8. Is 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) a carcinogen for humans?

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, S M; Webb, K B; Evans, R G; Mikes, J

    1985-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has suddenly become the focal point of controversy over the relationship of chemical waste to human health. Specific concern exists regarding its potential association with human malignancy. Subcellular, cellular, and whole-animal experiments suggest that TCDD exerts much of its activity by inducing enzymes that protect the intact organism from the assault of environmental contamination. TCDD is a potent inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, although wide variations between species do exist. Conventional tests for mutagenicity have produced conflicting results. Animal experiments have shown the development of tumors following chronic low level ingestion of TCDD. The human evidence regarding the potential carcinogencity of TCDD comes from occupational, military and environmental exposures. Several studies have come out of Sweden suggesting an association between sarcoma and exposure to herbicides. Although there is little solid evidence that 2,3,7,8-TCDD produces substantial chronic disability or premature death in man, a significant body of experimental evidence for its carcinogenicity makes it likely that a small number of human malignancies may be due to its action. Since 2,3,7,8-TCDD is an unwanted contaminant it could be eliminated with little measurable consequence. PMID:3910419

  9. Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν =2 /3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael R.; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2015-07-01

    There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν =n +2 /3 , for integer n . Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν =n +2 /3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν =2 /3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν =8 /3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν =8 /3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively.

  10. Energy related investment decision analyses for railroads using LOTUS 1-2-3

    SciTech Connect

    Clipp, F.P.; Law, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a project funded by the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center (SCERDC). The SCERDC wanted to encourage the consideration of energy efficiency in railway management decisions. To facilitate this, a LOTUS 1-2-3 based program called CRIDA (Clemson Rail Investment Decision Analysis) was developed. CRIDA builds on the results of a completed project that yields information on energy consumption of railway vehicles using LOTUS 1-2-3. The project resulted in a LOTUS 1-2-3 based program called CRCEP (Clemson Rail Car Energy Program). CRCEP permits the estimation of energy usage of rail cars due to grades, aerodynamic losses, and energy lost across the wheel-rail interfaces during curving and negotiation of randomly irregular track. CRCEP is both route and car specific. The work reported in this paper expands the usefulness of that already reported by applying investment decision analysis tools that enable us to translate the energy consumption output into language understandable and usable by management decision makers. The tools implemented in CRIDA are not specific to use with CRCEP. Any analysis model or data from real trials can be input to CRIDA for analysis.

  11. A biological pathway linking inflammation and depression: activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Christmas, David M; Potokar, Jp; Davies, Simon Jc

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the evidence linking depression to increased inflammatory drive and explores putative mechanisms for the association by reviewing both preclinical and clinical literature. The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is induced by proinflammatory cytokines and may form a link between immune functioning and altered neurotransmission, which results in depression. Increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity may cause both tryptophan depletion and increased neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway, two alterations which have been hypothesized to cause depression. The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is comprehensively described with a focus on the evidence linking metabolite alterations to depression. The use of immune-activated groups at high risk of depression have been used to explore these hypotheses; we focus on the studies involving chronic hepatitis C patients receiving interferon-alpha, an immune activating cytokine. Findings from this work have led to novel strategies for the future development of antidepressants including inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, moderating the cytokines which activate it, or addressing other targets in the kynurenine pathway.

  12. Long-Term Results of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced N2-3 Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Chen, Meng; Wu, Jing; Xu, Jian-Hua; Qian, Pu-Dong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Xue-Song; Zhu, Huan-Feng; Gu, Jia-Jia; Wu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Ye-wei; He, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background N-stage is related to distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of different nedaplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in advanced N2-3 stage NPC patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods Between April 2005 and December 2009, a total of 128 patients with N2-3 advanced NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with IMRT concurrent with 2 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of either nedaplatin plus paclitaxel (NP group, n = 67) or nedaplatin plus fluorouracil and paclitaxel (NFP group, n = 61). Two to four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were then administered every 21 days following concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Results With a median follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for all patients were 81.4%, 71.5%, 87.8% and 82.0%, respectively. No significant difference in PFS (66.6% vs. 76.7%, P = 0.212) and LRRFS rates (89.0% vs. 86.3%, P = 0.664) was observed between the NP and NFP groups. The 5-year OS (75.4% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.046) and DMFS (75.1% vs. 89.0%, P = 0.042) rate were superior in the NFP group compared with the NP group. The NFP group had a higher incidence of grade 3–4 acute toxicities including bone marrow suppression (leukopenia: χ2 = 3.935, P = 0.047; anemia: χ2 = 9.760, P = 0.002; thrombocytopenia: χ2 = 8.821, P = 0.003), and both liver and renal dysfunction (χ2 = 5.206, P = 0.023) compared with the NP group. Late toxicities were moderate and no difference was observed between the two groups. Conclusion IMRT concurrent with nedaplatin-based chemotherapy is an advocated regimen for patients with advanced N2-3 stage NPC. Patients with advanced N2-3 stage may be better candidates for the NFP regimen although this regimen was associated with a high acute

  13. Engineered Serratia marcescens for efficient (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fangmin; Dai, Lu; Fan, Jiying; Truong, Ngoctu; Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Shen, Yaling

    2015-05-01

    (3R)-Acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are important pharmaceutical intermediates. However, until now, the quantity of natural microorganisms with the ability to produce single configuration of optically pure (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol is rare. In this study, a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the slaC gene from Serratia marcescens MG1 was identified for meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Inactivation of the slaC gene could significantly decrease meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and result in a large quantity of (3R)-acetoin accumulation. Furthermore, a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the bdhA gene from Bacillus subtilis 168 was introduced into the slaC mutant strain of Serratia marcescens MG1. Excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase could accelerate the reaction from (3R)-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and lead to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol accumulation. In fed-batch fermentation, the excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase expression strain could produce 89.81 g/l (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol with a productivity of 1.91 g/l/h at 48 h. These results provided potential applications for (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

  14. Development of a second generation experiment to measure the 2(3)S(1) transition to 2(3)P(J) intervals in positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbrecht, Jason John

    Positronium has proven to be a rich testing ground for Quantum Electrodynamics over the last half of the twentieth century. The 23S1 → 23PJ intervals in positronium have previously been measured and disagreements currently exist amongst various experiments and between some experiments and theoretical predictions. Furthermore, recent advances in theory have produced predictions with much higher precision than the current experiments. Therefore, work has been done to develop a 2 nd generation experiment to measure the 23S1 → 23PJ intervals in positronium. Previous experiments used the enhancement of the Lyman-a radiation from the 23P J states in order to observe the 23S1 → 23PJ resonance line. In the 2nd generation experiment the 23S1 positronium is observed by photo-ionizing the positronium and detecting the photo-positron. This signal is then depleted when microwave radiation is applied on resonance as compared to the signal off resonance. The ultimate goal of the 2nd generation experiment is to improve the precision of the measurement of the 2 3S1 → 23P2 interval from 1.5 MHz to 100 kHz. This dissertation describes the current status of the development of this 2nd generation experiment. This includes the development of all of the major subsystems necessary for detecting the 23S 1 → 23PJ transition, including the accumulated positron beam, the pulsed laser beam, the microwave delivery apparatus, and the interaction region. Results are presented showing the first photo-positron signal using an accumulated positron beam. The rate of this signal is approximately 100 mHz as compared to 15 mHz in the 1st generation experiments. This rate is sufficient to produce a 23S1 → 23P2 interval measurement with precision of 3 MHz with 8 hours of data acquisition and 600 kHz after 30 days. Potential improvements to the technique are suggested to allow for a 100 kHz measurement. Additionally, results are presented for Doppler broadening measurements of thermalization of

  15. Pathways for nonsequential and sequential fragmentation of CO2 3 + investigated by electron collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enliang; Shan, Xu; Shen, Zhenjie; Gong, Maomao; Tang, Yaguo; Pan, Yi; Lau, Kai-Chung; Chen, Xiangjun

    2015-05-01

    We report nonsequential and sequential fragmentation dynamics of CO2 3 + investigated by electron collision at an impact energy of 500 eV. The dissociation mechanisms are clearly distinguished by combined use of the Dalitz plot together with momentum correlation spectra. The angular distributions and kinetic-energy releases (KERs) of different fragmentation processes are obtained. The dissociation channels of higher excited states of the CO2 3 + molecular ion are opened, which are quite different from the previous studies of heavy-ion collision [N. Neumann, D. Hant, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, J. Titze, T. Jahnke, A. Czasch, M. S. Schöffler, K. Kreidi, O. Jagutzki, H. Schmidt-Böcking, and R. Dörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103201 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.103201] and intense laser field [C. Wu, C. Wu, D. Song, H. Su, Y. Yang, Z. Wu, X. Liu, H. Liu, M. Li, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, L.-Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 103601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.103601]. By analyzing KERs together with the help of potential-energy curves exploration at the multireference configuration interaction level, we conclude that the sequential fragmentation occurs in the 2Π ,4Π , and 2Σ+ states of the CO2 3 + ion. The bond length and bond angle are also determined based on the linear fragmentation, indicating that electron impact fragmentation is a potential method to precisely reconstruct the geometry of neutral molecules.

  16. Discovery of ‘click’ 1,2,3-triazolium salts as potential anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ivana; Stojanovic, Nikolina; Bolje, Aljosa; Brozovic, Anamaria; Polancec, Denis; Ambriovic-Ristov, Andreja; Stojkovic, Marijana Radic; Piantanida, Ivo; Eljuga, Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment, new compounds with potential anticancer activities are synthesized and screened. Here we present the screening of a new class of compounds, 1-(2-picolyl)-, 4-(2-picolyl)-, 1-(2-pyridyl)-, and 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium salts and ‘parent’ 1,2,3-triazole precursors. Methods Cytotoxic activity of new compounds was determined by spectrophotometric MTT assay on several tumour and one normal cell line. Effect of the selected compound to bind double stranded DNA (ds DNA) was examined by testing its influence on thermal stability of calf thymus DNA while its influence on cell cycle was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by addition of specific substrate 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). Results Parent triazoles were largely inactive, while some of the triazolium salts were highly cytotoxic for HeLa cells. Triazolium salts exhibited high cell-type dependent cytotoxicity against different tumour cells. Selected compound (4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazolium hexafluorophosphate(V) (2b) was significantly more cytotoxic against tumour cells than to normal cells, with very high therapeutic index 7.69 for large cell lung carcinoma H460 cells. Additionally, this compound was similarly cytotoxic against parent laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells and their drug resistant 7T subline, suggesting the potential of this compound in treatment of drug resistant cancers. Compound 2b arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. It did not bind ds DNA, but induced ROS in treated cells, which further triggered cell death. Conclusions Our results suggest that the ‘click’ triazolium salts are worthy of further investigation as anti-cancer agents.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of 2,3-Diarylsubstituted Quinoxaline Derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Kaplum, Vanessa; Cogo, Juliana; Sangi, Diego Pereira; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Corrêa, Arlene Gonçalves; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries and territories worldwide. The therapies available for leishmaniasis have serious side effects, thus prompting the search for new therapies. The present study investigated the antileishmanial activities of 2,3-diarylsubstituted quinoxaline derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis The antiproliferative activities of 6,7-dichloro-2,3-diphenylquinoxaline (LSPN329) and 2,3-di-(4-methoxyphenyl)-quinoxaline (LSPN331) against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were assessed, and the cytotoxicities of LSPN329 and LSPN331 were determined. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations were examined by electron microscopy, and biochemical alterations, reflected by the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2·(-)) concentration, the intracellular ATP concentration, cell volume, the level of phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell membrane, cell membrane integrity, and lipid inclusions, were evaluated. In vivo antileishmanial activity was evaluated in a murine cutaneous leishmaniasis model. Compounds LSPN329 and LSPN331 showed significant selectivity for promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and low cytotoxicity. In promastigotes, ultrastructural alterations were observed, including an increase in lipid inclusions, concentric membranes, and intense mitochondrial swelling, which were associated with hyperpolarization of ΔΨm, an increase in the O2·(-) concentration, decreased intracellular ATP levels, and a decrease in cell volume. Phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation were not observed. The cellular membrane remained intact after treatment. Thus, the multifactorial response that was responsible for the cellular collapse of promastigotes was based on intense mitochondrial alterations. BALB/c mice treated with LSPN329 or LSPN331 showed a significant decrease in lesion thickness in the infected footpad. Therefore, the antileishmanial activity and mitochondrial mechanism of

  18. The MOSDEF Survey: Optical Active Galactic Nucleus Diagnostics at z ~ 2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Reddy, Naveen; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Freeman, William R.; Price, Sedona H.; Shivaei, Irene

    2015-03-01

    We present results from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey on rest-frame optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) identification and completeness at z ~ 2.3. With our sample of 50 galaxies and 10 X-ray and IR-selected AGNs with measured Hβ, [O III], Hα, and N II emission lines, we investigate the location of AGNs in the BPT, MEx (mass-excitation), and CEx (color-excitation) diagrams. We find that th BPT diagram works well to identify AGNs at z ~ 2.3 and that the z ~ 0 AGN/star-forming galaxy classifications do not need to shift substantially at z ~ 2.3 to robustly separate these populations. However, the MEx diagram fails to identify all of the AGN identified in the BPT diagram, and the CEx diagram is substantially contaminated at high redshift. We further show that AGN samples selected using the BPT diagram have selection biases in terms of both host stellar mass and stellar population, in that AGNs in low mass and/or high specific star formation rate galaxies are difficult to identify using the BPT diagram. These selection biases become increasingly severe at high redshift, such that optically selected AGN samples at high redshift will necessarily be incomplete. We also find that the gas in the narrow-line region appears to be more enriched than gas in the host galaxy for at least some MOSDEF AGNs. However, AGNs at z ~ 2 are generally less enriched than local AGNs with the same host stellar mass.

  19. Discovery of ‘click’ 1,2,3-triazolium salts as potential anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ivana; Stojanovic, Nikolina; Bolje, Aljosa; Brozovic, Anamaria; Polancec, Denis; Ambriovic-Ristov, Andreja; Stojkovic, Marijana Radic; Piantanida, Ivo; Eljuga, Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment, new compounds with potential anticancer activities are synthesized and screened. Here we present the screening of a new class of compounds, 1-(2-picolyl)-, 4-(2-picolyl)-, 1-(2-pyridyl)-, and 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium salts and ‘parent’ 1,2,3-triazole precursors. Methods Cytotoxic activity of new compounds was determined by spectrophotometric MTT assay on several tumour and one normal cell line. Effect of the selected compound to bind double stranded DNA (ds DNA) was examined by testing its influence on thermal stability of calf thymus DNA while its influence on cell cycle was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by addition of specific substrate 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). Results Parent triazoles were largely inactive, while some of the triazolium salts were highly cytotoxic for HeLa cells. Triazolium salts exhibited high cell-type dependent cytotoxicity against different tumour cells. Selected compound (4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazolium hexafluorophosphate(V) (2b) was significantly more cytotoxic against tumour cells than to normal cells, with very high therapeutic index 7.69 for large cell lung carcinoma H460 cells. Additionally, this compound was similarly cytotoxic against parent laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells and their drug resistant 7T subline, suggesting the potential of this compound in treatment of drug resistant cancers. Compound 2b arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. It did not bind ds DNA, but induced ROS in treated cells, which further triggered cell death. Conclusions Our results suggest that the ‘click’ triazolium salts are worthy of further investigation as anti-cancer agents. PMID:27679544

  20. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity of phosphoglycerate mutase: stimulation by vanadate and phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, P.J.; Gresser, M.J.; Tracey, A.S.; Hass, L.F.

    1987-03-10

    The binding of inorganic vanadate (V/sub i/) to rabbit muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), studied by using /sup 51/V nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, shows a sigmoidal dependence on vanadate concentration with a stoichiometry of four vanadium atoms per PGM molecule at saturating (V/sub i/). The data are consistent with binding of one divanadate ion to each of the two subunits of PGM in a noncooperative manner with an intrinsic dissociation constant of 4 x 10/sup -6/ M. The relevance of this result to other studies which have shown that the V/sub i/-stimulated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) phosphatase activity of PGM has a sigmoidal dependence on (V/sub i/) with a Hill coefficient of 2.0 is discussed. At pH 7.0, inorganic phosphate has little effect on the 2,3-DPG phosphatase activity of PGM, even at concentrations as high as 50 mM. Similarly, 25 ..mu..M V/sub i/ has little effect on the phosphatase activity. However, in the presence of 25 ..mu..M V/sub i/, a phosphate concentration of 20 mM increases the phosphatase activity by more than 3-fold. This behavior is rationalized in terms of activation of the phosphatase activity by a phosphate/vanadate mixed anhydride. This interpretation is supported by the observation of strong activation of the phosphatase activity by inorganic pyrophosphate. A molecular mechanism for the observed effects of vanadate is proposed, and the relevance of this study to the possible use of vanadate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of sickle cell anemia is discussed.

  1. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  2. The turbocharged and intercooled 2. 3 liter engine for the Volvo 760

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Eriksson, S.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981 Volvo launched the 2.1l turbocharged engine for the 240 model. Since then, the market interest for turbocharged engines has increased rapidly and along with this the demand for more efficient engines. The use of intercooler and micro-computer controlled fuel- and ignition systems in passenger car applications made it possible to develop a second generation of turbocharged engines with the capability to meet these demands. This paper describes the 2.3l turbocharged engine and its development for the US-version of the 1984 760 model.

  3. The motility of Chara corallina myosin was inhibited reversibly by 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM).

    PubMed

    Funaki, Keisuke; Nagata, Ayumi; Akimoto, Youka; Shimada, Kiyo; Ito, Kohji; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2004-09-01

    We studied the effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on the cytoplasmic streaming of Chara corallina and on the motility of myosin prepared from the same plant to examine whether this reagent really affects the plant class XI myosin. It was found that BDM inhibited both cytoplasmic streaming and the motility of myosin at a very similar concentration range (10-100 mM). BDM introduced directly into tonoplast-free cells also inhibited cytoplasmic streaming. These results suggested that effect of BDM on cytoplasmic streaming was exerted through myosin and not through ion channels at least in Chara corallina, though a very high concentration of BDM was required.

  4. Early senescence induced by 2-3H-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Martínez-Peñalver, Ana; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2011-06-15

    Measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, nutrient and trace elements, total protein content and malonyldialdehyde in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana between 1 and 192 h after treatment with 0, 1 or 3 mM 2-3H-benzoxazolinone (BOA), together with imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence and of the distributions of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, suggested that the primary phytotoxic action of BOA is the induction of premature senescence, and that oxidative stress is a secondary effect that sets in a day or two later.

  5. L2,3M1 satellites in soft x-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Steven; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1988-12-01

    A systematic study of the L2,3M1 (3s-2p) transition in elements from Cl to Cr reveals a satellite of unusually large intensity (~30% of parent line). Previous work on some of these elements led to the suggestion that the satellite is due to a two-electron shakeup (configuration-interaction) process. We compare our measurements of position, width, and intensity of the satellite as a function of atomic number with the predictions of this model and extend the theory to explain the apparent disappearance of the satellite outside this range.

  6. Reactions of Ar2+ (3P) ions with some neutrals at 30 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupeyrat, G.; Marquette, J. B.; Rowe, B. R.; Rebrion, C.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rate coefficients of Ar2+ (3P) with Ar, He, H2, O2 and CO2 at 30 K are reported. They have been performed using the Cinétique de Réaction en Encoulement Supersonique Uniforme apparatus with a newly designed Mach five argon nozzle which is briefly described. All the data remain close to previous selected-ion flow tube determinations at room temperature (D. Smith, D. Grief and N.G. Adams, Int. J. Mass Spectrom, Ion Phys., 30 (1979) 271). The present results are also compared to existing theoretical calculations.

  7. Superconductivity in 2-2-3 system Y2Ba2Cu2O(8+delta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, H. H.; Baldha, G. J.; Jotania, R. B.; Joshi, S. M.; Mohan, H.; Pandya, P. B.; Pandya, H. N.; Kulkarni, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers synthesized a new high T(sub c) 2-2-3 superconductor Y2Ba2Cu3O(8+delta) by a special preparation technique and characterized it by ac-susceptibility measurements. Diamagnetism and Meissner effect sets in at low fields and superconducting transition onsets at 90 K. The systematic investigation of the real and imaginary components of ac-susceptibility as a function of temperature and applied ac magnetic field reveals that the magnetic behavior is that of a granular type superconductor.

  8. 1-Benzyl-4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Sánchez, Juan I.; Aguirre, Gerardo; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H15N3, the benzyl group is almost perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 80.64 (8)°], while the napthyl group makes an angle of 30.27 (12)° with the plane of the triazole ring. This conformation is different from the 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole analogue, which has the benzyl ring system at an angle of 87.94° and the phenyl group at an angle of 3.35° to the plane of the triazole ring. PMID:21837221

  9. Removal of 2',3'-dideoxynucleotide residues from injected DNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Legerski, R J; Penkala, J E; Peterson, C A; Wright, D A

    1990-07-01

    Dideoxynucleotides have proved to be potent differential inhibitors of DNA polymerases in vitro and in vivo. Used extensively in studies of DNA repair and replication, they have more recently been used as antiviral agents particularly in treating patients for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Once incorporated, these sugar-modified analogues prevent the further extension of the polynucleotide chain because of the absence of a 3'-hydroxyl group. We demonstrated that, upon injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes, 2',3'-dideoxynucleotides are efficiently removed from plasmid DNA preterminated with these analogues allowing subsequent closure by ligation. The removal process is not sensitive to aphidicolin but is quantitatively inhibited by novobiocin. PMID:2366792

  10. Sensitivity to a flame retardant, Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Firemaster LVT 23 P).

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E

    1977-12-01

    Tris(2,3-dibromoprophyl) phosphate (TDB P) is marketed under many different trade names as a flame retardant, used in clothing and home furnishings. DTB P is chemically related to tricresylphosphate (TCP) and triphenylphosphate (TPP) used as plasticizers in plastics and lacquers. The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) in 1976 examined the incidence of sensitization to TDB P and found two positives among 1103 patients. One of these two cases is reported here in detail. It concerns a woman, aged 56, with spectacle frame dermatitis. The spectacle frame did not contain TDB P and sensitization with another phosphate ester is assumed. PMID:606484

  11. Summary of proceedings: Oklahoma and Texas wind energy forum, April 2-3, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. C.; Ball, D. E.

    1981-06-01

    The Wind Energy Forum for Oklahoma and Texas was held at the Amarillo Quality Inn in Amarillo, Texas on April 2-3, 1981. Its purpose was to bring together the diverse groups involved in wind energy development in the Oklahoma and Texas region to explore the future commercial potential and current barriers to achieving this potential. Major topics of discussion included utility interconnection of wind machines and the buy-back rate for excess power, wind system reliability and maintenance concerns, machine performance standards, and state governmental incentives. A short summary of each presentation is included.

  12. Probing the 2-3 leptonic mixing at high-energy neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2006-02-15

    We discuss the possibility to probe leptonic mixing parameters at high-energy neutrino telescopes in a model-independent way, using astrophysical neutron and pion sources. In particular we show how the octant of the 2-3 mixing angle might be determined independently of prior knowledge of the source, even when current uncertainties on the other mixing parameters are included. We also argue that nontrivial neutrino oscillation effects should be taken into account when using high-energy flavor ratios for astrophysical diagnostics.

  13. Challenges in the Discovery of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2015-12-24

    Since the discovery of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) as an attractive target for anticancer therapy in 2003, the search for inhibitors has been intensely pursued both in academia and in pharmaceutical companies. Many novel IDO1 inhibitor scaffolds have been described, and a few potent compounds have entered clinical trials. However, a significant number of the reported compounds contain problematic functional groups, suggesting that enzyme inhibition could be the result of undesirable side reactions instead of selective binding to IDO1. Here, we describe issues in the employed experimental protocols, review and classify reported IDO1 inhibitors, and suggest different approaches for confirming viable inhibitor scaffolds.

  14. A fixed-node Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the 1,2,3-tridehydrobenzene triradical

    SciTech Connect

    Koziol, Lucas; Morales, Miguel M.

    2014-06-14

    The electronic structure of 1,2,3-tridehydrobenzene was investigated using quantum Monte Carlo methods. The radical contains two low-lying electronic states that are nearly degenerate adiabatically (within 2 kcal/mol separation), according to previous coupled cluster calculations. We performed Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations starting from Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) trial wavefunctions, with a complete active space (CAS) containing 9 electrons in 9 orbitals, CAS(9,9). Our converged DMC results are in close agreement with the best coupled-cluster results, and further strengthen the assignment of a {sup 2}A{sub 1} ground state.

  15. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  16. Development of the Ariane 4 interstage 2-3 in CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaas, C.

    1986-02-01

    For the Ariane 4 interstage 2/3, stiffened skin panels of CFRP were developed. The panels are 1.0 m wide and 2.7 m long. Each panel has 15 blade-type stiffeners with a height of 25 mm on a pitch of 68 mm. The material used is Fiberite 976-T300 in laying sequences of 45 and 0 deg. The total mass reduction of the structure compared to the aluminum version is greater than 20%. In the design of the structure, classical laminate theory and the numerical programs BOSOR 4, NASTRAN and SINDA were used.

  17. Solar energy utilization in the direct photocarboxylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran using CO2.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela; Baran, Tomasz; Wojtyła, Szymon; Macyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of CO2 into high energy products (fuels) and the direct carboxylation of C-H bonds require a high energy input. Energy cannot be derived from fossil carbon, in this case. Solar energy can be used instead, with a low environmental impact and good profit. We have studied the use of white light or solar energy in the photoreduction of CO2 and in photocarboxylation reactions, using different semiconductors modified at their surface. Two examples of reduction of CO2 to methanol and CO will be shortly discussed, and two cases of carboxylation of organic substrates. The case of carboxylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran will be discussed in detail.

  18. A 2.3-GHz maser at Usuda, Japan, for TDRSS-orbiting VLBI experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. B.

    1988-01-01

    A 2.3 GHz traveling-wave maser/closed-cycle refrigerator (TWM/CCR) that is used in the DSN was installed and successfully operated on the 64 m antenna at Usuda, Japan. The TWM/CCR supported the first very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment to use an orbiting spacecraft as one of the receiving antennas. The experiment required a 15 K receiving system over a 2271 to 2285 MHz bandwidth. The maser installation was made during June 1986, and successful VLBI measurements were made during July and August 1986 and again in January 1987.

  19. One-Step Production of 1,3-Butadiene from 2,3-Butanediol Dehydration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Fabos, Viktoria; Taylor, Stuart; Knight, David W; Whiston, Keith; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-08-22

    We report the direct production of 1,3-butadiene from the dehydration of 2,3-butandiol by using alumina as catalyst. Under optimized kinetic reaction conditions, the production of methyl ethyl ketone and isobutyraldehyde, formed via the pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement, was markedly reduced and almost 80 % selectivity to 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-butadiene could be achieved. The presence of water plays a critical role in the inhibition of oligomerization. The amphoteric nature of γ-Al2 O3 was identified as important and this contributed to the improved catalytic selectivity when compared with other acidic catalysts. PMID:27392112

  20. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  1. 2.3-11.6 Micron Measurements of Nova Del 2013 Consistent with Presence of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-11-01

    Our 2.3-11.6 micron measurements of Nova Del 2013 on 24.04 November 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA) yielded the following magnitudes: K = +5.24 +/- 0.15, L = +3.25 +/- 0.38, M = +2.00 +/- 0.26, [10.3] = -0.17 +/- 0.38, and [11.6] = -0.19 +/- 0.21. An additional measurement on 19.08 November 2013 yielded [10.3] = -0.10 +/- 0.36.

  2. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced Parkinson's disease in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sarath Babu, Nukala; Murthy, Ch Lakshmi N; Kakara, Sameera; Sharma, Rahul; Brahmendra Swamy, Cherukuvada V; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common age associated neurodegenerative disease, which has been extensively studied for its etiology and phenotype. PD has been widely studied in alternate model system such as rodents towards understanding the role of neurotoxin by inducing PD. This study is aimed to understand the biomechanism of PD in zebrafish model system induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The phenotype and role of various genes and proteins for Parkinsonism were tested and evaluated in this study using behavior, molecular and proteomic approaches. Zebrafish PD model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine showed a significant level of decrease in the movement with erratic swimming pattern and increased freezing bouts. CHCHD2, EEF2B, LRRK2, PARK7, PARK2, POLG, SNCGB and SYNB genes were differentially regulated at the transcript level in PD zebrafish. Similarly a total of 73 proteins were recognized as differentially expressed in the nervous system of zebrafish due to Parkinsonism based on quantitative proteomics approach. Proteins such as NEFL, MUNC13-1, NAV2 and GAPVD1 were down regulated in the zebrafish brain for the PD phenotype, which were associated with the neurological pathways. This zebrafish based PD model can be used as a potential model system for screening prospective drug molecules for PD. PMID:26959078

  3. Development of a Mutant Strain of Bacillus polymyxa Showing Enhanced Production of 2,3-Butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Mallonee, D. H.; Speckman, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic α-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant. PMID:16347522

  4. Physicochemical characterization of novel Schiff bases derived from developed bacterial cellulose 2,3-dialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Keshk, Sherif M A S; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Bondock, Samir

    2015-08-20

    The synthesis of two novel Schiff's bases (cellulose-2,3-bis-[(4-methylene-amino)-benzene-sulfonamide] (5) & cellulose-2,3-bis-[(4-methylene-amino)-N-(thiazol-2-yl)-benzenesulfonamide] (6) via condensation reactions of periodate oxidized developed bacterial cellulose ODBC (2) with sulfa drugs [sulfanilamide (3) & sulfathiazole (4)] was reported. The physicochemical characterization of the condensation products was performed using FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectral analyses, X-ray diffraction and DTA. The ODBC exhibited the highest degree of oxidation based on the aldehyde group number percentage (82.9%), which confirms the highest reactivity of developed bacterial cellulose [DBC (1)]. The X-ray diffractograms indicated an increase in the interplanar distance of the cellulose Schiff base (6) compared to ODBC (2) due to sulfathiazole (4) inclusion between ODBC (2) sheets corresponding to the 1 1 0 plane. In addition, the aldehyde content of Schiff base (6) was (20.8%) much lower than that of Schiff base (5) (41.5%). These results confirmed the high affinity of sulfathiazole (4) to the ODBC (2) chain, and the substantial changes in the original properties of ODBC were due to these chemical modifications rather than the sulfanilamide (3). PMID:25965481

  5. Production of 2,3-butylene glycol from citrus wastes. II. The Bacillus polymyxa fermentation.

    PubMed

    Long, S K; Patrick, R

    1965-11-01

    The conditions required for production of levo 2,3-butylene glycol by Bacillus polymyxa from citrus molasses were studied. Starter cultures required acclimatization to the substrate prior to inoculation of the fermentation medium. Maximal production of butylene glycol with minimal residual sugar was obtained with a medium consisting of molasses, diluted to 20 degrees Brix, and 0.4% urea. Optimal environmental conditions included aeration at 0.11 volumes of air per volume of medium per minute, maintenance of pH at 6.0 to 6.2, a fermentation temperature of 30 C, and a stirring rate of 420 rev/min. The concentration of butylene glycol obtained in the fermentation beer ranged from 2.3 to 4.4%. The optical rotation of the glycol ranged from [alpha](D) (23 degrees ) = -1.01 degrees to -10.45 degrees . The variation in rotation was probably due to the presence of contaminating substances in the distillate. PMID:5866043

  6. Star Formation in the Southern Dark Cloud DC 296.2-3.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Gómez, M.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; de Buizer, J. M.; Marenzi, A. R.

    2008-06-01

    We report near- and mid-infrared (IR) images of the southern hemisphere dark cloud DC 296.2-3.6 associated with IRAS 11431 - 6516. The Ks and L' images show the presence of an IR nebulosity at the center of the dark cloud (DC). From the analysis of the near-IR color-color diagrams we have identified a young stellar population in the region. Five of these young stellar objects, here named A, B, C, D, and E, were also detected in the mid-IR. Sources B, D, and E are Class I-II T Tauri as suggested by the analysis of their spectral energy distributions. In addition, source E shows a long-term near-IR variability. The near-IR color-color diagrams indicate the presence of circumstellar dust envelope in sources A, B, D, and E, while the fit of SEDs of the intermediate- and low-mass objects A and B with a radiation transfer model including infalling envelope+disk+central source suggests circumstellar disks around these two objects. These results indicate that DC 296.2-3.6, located in the far Carina arm, is associated with an embedded cluster of low-mass young stellar objects.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  8. Suzaku study on the ejecta of the supernova remnant G272.2-3.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Mori, Koji; Katsuda, Satoru; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    We report reanalyses of the Suzaku observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G272.2-3.2, for which previous studies were limited below 3 keV. With careful data reduction and background subtraction, we discover the K-shell lines of Ar, Ca, and Fe above 3 keV. The X-ray spectrum of G272.2-3.2 consists of two components, a low-temperature collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) plasma (kTe ˜ 0.2 keV) and a high-temperature non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) plasma (kTe = 0.6-3 keV). The CIE plasma has solar abundances over the entire area, hence it originates from the interstellar medium. On the other hand, the abundances of the NEI plasma increase toward the inner region, suggesting ejecta origin. The line center energy of the Fe K-shell emission (˜6.4 keV) suggests that the ejecta are recently heated by reverse shock, a common feature in Type Ia SNRs.

  9. Layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex moderate stress induced depressive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prerana; Mousa, Awni; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent illness that can be precipitated by acute or chronic stress. Studies of patients with Wolfram syndrome and carriers have identified Wfs1 mutations as causative for MDD. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be involved in depression and behavioral resilience, although the cell types and circuits in the mPFC that moderate depressive behaviors in response to stress have not been determined. Here, we report that deletion of Wfs1 from layer 2/3 pyramidal cells impairs the ability of the mPFC to suppress stress-induced depressive behaviors, and results in hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and altered accumulation of important growth and neurotrophic factors. Our data identify superficial layer 2/3 pyramidal cells as critical for moderation of stress in the context of depressive behaviors and suggest that dysfunction in these cells may contribute to the clinical relationship between stress and depression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08752.001 PMID:26371510

  10. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  11. In vitro susceptibility of fungi to acyclic inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases.

    PubMed

    Airaudi, D; Ceruti, M; Bianco, C; Filipello Marchisio, V

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we determine the antifungal properties of two acyclic inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases: 22,23-epoxy-2-aza-2,3-dihydrosqualene (EAS) and azasqualene alcohol (ASA). Fungistatic and fungicidal activity towards dermatophytes and other fungi involved in cutaneous and systemic infections was tested (48 isolates from 10 species). The tests were carried out by inoculating 10 microliters of mycelial homogenate in 1 ml of Sabouraud glucose liquid medium containing serial dilutions of 100 to 0.25 micrograms ml-1 of the substance. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of both compounds were determined. EAS was more active (MIC range 1.5-25 micrograms ml-1) than ASA (MIC range 3-50 micrograms ml-1). At the highest concentration tested, EAS also showed fungicidal action towards some isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis and Scopulariopsis brumptii. The most sensitive species was T. mentagrophytes, the most resistant T. rubrum. PMID:8786759

  12. Stereochemistry and spectroscopic analysis of bis-Betti base derivatives of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mehdi; Shafiee, Mehdi; Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the stereochemistry, thermodynamic stability, and spectra of recently synthesized bis-Betti base derivatives of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene obtained through multicomponent reactions of 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene with aminoisoxazole and benzaldehyde derivatives. The stereochemistry of the products was investigated by theoretically calculating the infrared (IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra of the diastereomers and comparing them to the corresponding experimental data. The thermochemical properties of the reactions, including the enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy, were also calculated. The diastereoselectivity of the reactions was estimated from the equilibrium distribution of diastereomers. According to the results, the synthesis of bis-Betti bases is exothermic and accompanied by a decrease in entropy. The energy difference between the diastereomers is quite small, but the Gibbs free energy change for the equilibrium syn <−> anti favors the anti over syn configuration. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:26994020

  13. Thermodynamic properties of 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Chirico, R.D.

    1991-04-01

    Removal of carbazole and its derivatives from heavy petroleum has proved to be particularly difficult using present technology. Studies have shown carbazole and its alkyl-homologs are the dominant nitrogen-containing components in clarified slurry oils, thereby indicating their low reactivity and/or formation during cat-cracking processes. The results reported here will point the way to the development of new methods of nitrogen removal from carbazole and its derivatives. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole. For studies on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Adiabatic heat-capacity and combustion calorimetric studies were reported previously for 9-methylcarbazole. Vapor pressures by comparative ebulliometry and inclined-piston gauge manometry, and heat-capacities for the liquid phase by d.s.c. are reported here. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and near 700 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathway of the initial hydrogenation step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} hydrodenitrogenation network. 52 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Monika; Salmimaa, Marja; Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    A stereoscopic 3-D version of the film Avatar was shown to 85 people who subsequently answered questions related to sickness, visual strain, stereoscopic image quality, and sense of presence. Viewing Avatar for 165 min induced some symptoms of visual strain and sickness, but the symptom levels remained low. A comparison between Avatar and previously published results for the film U2 3D showed that sickness and visual strain levels were similar despite the films' runtimes. The genre of the film had a significant effect on the viewers' opinions and sense of presence. Avatar, which has been described as a combination of action, adventure, and sci-fi genres, was experienced as more immersive and engaging than the music documentary U2 3D. However, participants in both studies were immersed, focused, and absorbed in watching the stereoscopic 3-D (S3-D) film and were pleased with the film environments. The results also showed that previous stereoscopic 3-D experience significantly reduced the amount of reported eye strain and complaints about the weight of the viewing glasses.

  15. Monoisoamyl 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid attenuates arsenic induced toxicity: behavioral and neurochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Ram Kumar, M; Flora, S J S; Reddy, G R

    2013-07-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, neurological effects, hypertension and high risk of cancer. The treatment in use at present employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) which are compromised with number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature. To address this problem, therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), an analog of DMSA having lipophilic character, was examined against chronic arsenic poisoning in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally exposed to arsenic (2mg sodium arsenite/kg body weight) for 10 weeks followed by treatment with MiADMSA (50mg/kg, orally, once daily for 5 consecutive days). As-exposed rats showed significant differences in behavioral functions (open field behavior, total locomotor activity, grip strength and exploratory behavior) and water maze learning. Further, the biochemical studies performed on three brain regions (cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus) also showed significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with a concomitant decrease in the oxidative stress marker enzymes Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The alterations were more pronounced in cortex compared to cerebellum and hippocampus. The results showed that MiADMSA significantly reversed the As-induced alterations in behavior and biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative injury.

  16. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  17. Poly(1,2,3-triazolium)s: a new class of functional polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Mona M; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2016-02-11

    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are a unique class of polyelectrolytes having properties suited for modern technological applications such as electrochemical devices (batteries, supercapacitors, light-emitting electrochemical cells), ion-gated field effect transistors, electrochromic devices, fuel cells, dye sensitized solar cells, catalysis, or soft robotics. Their structure and properties can be finely tuned by unlimited combinations issued from extended pools of cationic and anionic building blocks. In a constant quest for the development of solid polymer electrolytes with enhanced physical, mechanical and (electro)chemical properties, a new class of PILs based on 1,2,3-triazolium cations has been recently developed. Their preparation takes advantage of the beneficial features of the multiple combinations between the Click chemistry philosophy with macromolecular engineering techniques to afford tunable and highly functional ion conducting materials thus stretching out the actual boundaries of PILs macromolecular design. This feature article summarizes the different strategies developed so far for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazolium-based PILs (TPILs) since their first introduction in 2013. PMID:26732341

  18. Mobilization of lead by esters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, P.K.; Jones, M.M.; Xu, Z.; Gale, G.R.; Smith, A.B.; Atkins, L.M. )

    1989-01-01

    An examination was made of the relative efficacies of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL) and three diesters (CH(SH)COOR)2; DMDMS, R = CH3; DEDMS, R = C2H5; and Di-PDMS, R = CH(CH3)2 of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in mobilizing freshly injected lead from mice. These diesters, like BAL, reduced the lead levels resulting from freshly injected lead in both the soft tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain) and the bone (tibia). After treatment with the dimethyl (DMDMS), the diethyl (DEDMS), and the diisopropyl (Di-PDMS) esters the lead content of each of the organs was significantly less than that present in the untreated controls. Each of the diesters reduced lead levels in the kidneys, liver, and spleen significantly below those levels found after BAL treatment. The action of the diesters in reducing brain lead levels was comparable to that of BAL. Di-PDMS was the most effective of these compounds and was significantly superior to BAL. Each of the esters was also significantly more effective than BAL in reducing the whole body level of lead.

  19. A Pseudomonas putida Strain Genetically Engineered for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Samin, Ghufrana; Pavlova, Martina; Arif, M. Irfan; Postema, Christiaan P.; Damborsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a toxic compound that is recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Attempts to isolate TCP-degrading organisms using enrichment cultivation have failed. A potential biodegradation pathway starts with hydrolytic dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP), followed by oxidative metabolism. To obtain a practically applicable TCP-degrading organism, we introduced an engineered haloalkane dehalogenase with improved TCP degradation activity into the DCP-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida MC4. For this purpose, the dehalogenase gene (dhaA31) was cloned behind the constitutive dhlA promoter and was introduced into the genome of strain MC4 using a transposon delivery system. The transposon-located antibiotic resistance marker was subsequently removed using a resolvase step. Growth of the resulting engineered bacterium, P. putida MC4-5222, on TCP was indeed observed, and all organic chlorine was released as chloride. A packed-bed reactor with immobilized cells of strain MC4-5222 degraded >95% of influent TCP (0.33 mM) under continuous-flow conditions, with stoichiometric release of inorganic chloride. The results demonstrate the successful use of a laboratory-evolved dehalogenase and genetic engineering to produce an effective, plasmid-free, and stable whole-cell biocatalyst for the aerobic bioremediation of a recalcitrant chlorinated hydrocarbon. PMID:24973068

  20. Designing for Dissemination: Lessons in Message Design From “1-2-3 Pap”

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Elisia L.; Head, Katharine J.; McGladrey, Margaret J.; Hoover, Anna G.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Bridger, Colleen; Carman, Angela; Crosby, Richard A.; Darling, Elaine; Tucker-McLaughlin, Mary; Winterbauer, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large number of evidence-based health communication interventions tested in private, public, and community health settings, there is a dearth of research on successful secondary dissemination of these interventions to other audiences. This article presents the case study of “1-2-3 Pap,” a health communication intervention to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and Pap testing outcomes in Eastern Kentucky, and explores strategies used to disseminate this intervention to other populations in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Through this dissemination project, we identified several health communication intervention design considerations that facilitated our successful dissemination to these other audiences; these intervention design considerations include (a) developing strategies for reaching other potential audiences, (b) identifying intervention message adaptations that might be needed, and (c) determining the most appropriate means or channels by which to reach these potential future audiences. Using “1-2-3 Pap” as an illustrative case study, we describe how careful planning and partnership development early in the intervention development process can improve the potential success of enhancing the reach and effectiveness of an intervention to other audiences beyond the audience for whom the intervention messages were originally designed. PMID:25470444

  1. Plasticity during motherhood: changes in excitatory and inhibitory layer 2/3 neurons in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lior; Mizrahi, Adi

    2015-01-28

    Maternal behavior can be triggered by auditory and olfactory cues originating from the newborn. Here we report how the transition to motherhood affects excitatory and inhibitory neurons in layer 2/3 (L2/3) of the mouse primary auditory cortex. We used in vivo two-photon targeted cell-attached recording to compare the response properties of parvalbumin-expressing neurons (PVNs) and pyramidal glutamatergic neurons (PyrNs). The transition to motherhood shifts the average best frequency of PVNs to higher frequency by a full octave, with no significant effect on average best frequency of PyrNs. The presence of pup odors significantly reduced the spontaneous and evoked activity of PVN. This reduction of feedforward inhibition coincides with a complimentary increase in spontaneous and evoked activity of PyrNs. The selective shift of PVN frequency tuning should render pup odor-induced disinhibition more effective for high-frequency stimuli, such as ultrasonic vocalizations. Indeed, pup odors increased neuronal responses of PyrNs to pup ultrasonic vocalizations. We conclude that plasticity in the mothers is mediated, at least in part, via modulation of the feedforward inhibition circuitry in the auditory cortex. PMID:25632153

  2. Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptors and Epigenetic Modifications in Psychotic Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Matrisciano, Francesco; Panaccione, Isabella; Grayson, Danis R.; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder are chronic psychiatric disorders, both considered as “major psychosis”; they are thought to share some pathogenetic factors involving a dysfunctional gene x environment interaction. Alterations in the glutamatergic transmission have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Our group developed an epigenetic model of schizophrenia originated by Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) paradigm in mice. PRS mice developed some behavioral alterations observed in schizophrenic patients and classic animal models of schizophrenia, i.e. deficits in social interaction, locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition. They also showed specific changes in promoter DNA methylation activity of genes related to schizophrenia such as reelin, BDNF and GAD67, and altered expression and function of mGlu2/3 receptors in the frontal cortex. Interestingly, behavioral and molecular alterations were reversed by treatment with mGlu2/3 agonists. Based on these findings, we speculate that pharmacological modulation of these receptors could have a great impact on early phase treatment of psychosis together with the possibility to modulate specific epigenetic key protein involved in the development of psychosis. In this review, we will discuss in more details the specific features of the PRS mice as a suitable epigenetic model for major psychosis. We will then focus on key proteins of chromatin remodeling machinery as potential target for new pharmacological treatment through the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:26813121

  3. Metabolite transfer with the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol enhances virulence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Arvind; Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Werner, Jeffrey J; Winans, Stephen C; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harbor persistent microbial communities (CF airway microbiome) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa emerging as a dominant pathogen. Within a polymicrobial infection, interactions between co-habitant microbes can be important for pathogenesis, but even when considered, these interactions are not well understood. Here, we show with in vitro experiments that, compared with glucose, common fermentation products from co-habitant bacteria significantly increase virulence factor production, antimicrobial activity and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. The maximum stimulating effect was produced with the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol, which is a substrate for P. aeruginosa, resulting in a metabolic relationship between fermenters and this pathogen. The global transcription regulator LasI LasR, which controls quorum sensing, was upregulated threefold with 2,3-butanediol, resulting in higher phenazine and exotoxin concentrations and improved biofilm formation. This indicates that the success of P. aeruginosa in CF airway microbiomes could be governed by the location within the food web with fermenting bacteria. Our findings suggest that interbacterial metabolite transfer in polymicrobial infections stimulates virulence of P. aeruginosa and could have a considerable impact on disease progression. PMID:24401856

  4. The SU(2|3) dynamic two-loop form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandhuber, A.; Kostacinska, M.; Penante, B.; Travaglini, G.; Young, D.

    2016-08-01

    We compute two-loop form factors of operators in the SU(2|3) closed subsector of {N}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills. In particular, we focus on the non-protected, dimension-three operators Tr( X[ Y, Z]) and Tr( ψψ) for which we compute the four possible two-loop form factors, and corresponding remainder functions, with external states < overline{X}overline{Y}overline{Z}| and < overline{ψ}overline{ψ}| . Interestingly, the maximally transcendental part of the two-loop remainder of < overline{X}overline{Y}overline{Z}|Tr(X[Y, Z])|0rangle turns out to be identical to that of the corresponding known quantity for the half-BPS operator Tr( X 3). We also find a surprising connection between the terms subleading in transcendentality and certain a priori unrelated remainder densities introduced in the study of the spin chain Hamiltonian in the SU(2) sector. Next, we use our calculation to resolve the mixing, recovering anomalous dimensions and eigenstates of the dilatation operator in the SU(2|3) sector at two loops. We also speculate on potential connections between our calculations in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills and Higgs + multi-gluon amplitudes in QCD in an effective Lagrangian approach.

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: First evidence of expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jimena; Alvarez, Claudio; Santana, Paula; Torres, Elisa; Mercado, Luis

    2016-12-01

    The role of enzymes as active antimicrobial agents of the innate immunity in teleost fish is proposed in diverse works. Secretion of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been described in higher vertebrates; it degrades l-tryptophan in extracellular environments associated mainly with mucosal organs. The effect of IDO on decreasing amino acid concentration may inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In fish the study of this molecule is still. Here we report the identification of an Onchorhyncus mykiss IDO homologue (OmIDO). IDO was cloned, sequenced, and the primary structure shows conservation of key functional sites. The constitutive expression is altered when the fish is challenged with LPS as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs). Up-regulation of IDO was shown preferentially in the fish's mucosal cells. In order to obtain evidence of a possible regulation mechanism, an in vitro cell model was used for to show that OmIDO is induced by rIFN. These study has identified a Indoleamine 2,3-dyoxigenase in O. mykiss will contribute to expands our knowledge of the function this protein in fish immune response. These findings allow to propose the use of OmIDO as a molecular indicator of strength of the animal's immune response and wellbeing.

  6. Physicochemical characterization of novel Schiff bases derived from developed bacterial cellulose 2,3-dialdehyde.

    PubMed

    Keshk, Sherif M A S; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Bondock, Samir

    2015-08-20

    The synthesis of two novel Schiff's bases (cellulose-2,3-bis-[(4-methylene-amino)-benzene-sulfonamide] (5) & cellulose-2,3-bis-[(4-methylene-amino)-N-(thiazol-2-yl)-benzenesulfonamide] (6) via condensation reactions of periodate oxidized developed bacterial cellulose ODBC (2) with sulfa drugs [sulfanilamide (3) & sulfathiazole (4)] was reported. The physicochemical characterization of the condensation products was performed using FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectral analyses, X-ray diffraction and DTA. The ODBC exhibited the highest degree of oxidation based on the aldehyde group number percentage (82.9%), which confirms the highest reactivity of developed bacterial cellulose [DBC (1)]. The X-ray diffractograms indicated an increase in the interplanar distance of the cellulose Schiff base (6) compared to ODBC (2) due to sulfathiazole (4) inclusion between ODBC (2) sheets corresponding to the 1 1 0 plane. In addition, the aldehyde content of Schiff base (6) was (20.8%) much lower than that of Schiff base (5) (41.5%). These results confirmed the high affinity of sulfathiazole (4) to the ODBC (2) chain, and the substantial changes in the original properties of ODBC were due to these chemical modifications rather than the sulfanilamide (3).

  7. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability increases after long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; de Weijer, Barbara A; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke M; Janssen, Ignace; Berends, Frits J; van de Laar, Arnold; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Booij, Jan; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-07-01

    In several studies reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability was reported in obese subjects compared to lean controls. Whether this is a reversible phenomenon remained uncertain. We previously determined the short-term effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on striatal D2/3R availability (using [(123)I]IBZM SPECT) in 20 morbidly obese women. Striatal D2/3R availability was lower compared to controls at baseline, and remained unaltered after 6 weeks, despite significant weight loss. To determine whether long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss normalizes striatal D2/3R binding, we repeated striatal D2/3R binding measurements at least 2 years after RYGB in 14 subjects of the original cohort. In addition, we assessed long-term changes in body composition, eating behavior and fasting plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose. Mean body mass index declined from 46±7kg/m(2) to 32±6kg/m(2), which was accompanied by a significant increase in striatal D2/3R availability (p=0.031). Striatal D2/3R availability remained significantly reduced compared to the age-matched controls (BMI 22±2kg/m(2); p=0.01). Changes in striatal D2/3R availability did not correlate with changes in body weight/fat, insulin sensitivity, ghrelin or leptin levels. Scores on eating behavior questionnaires improved and changes in the General Food Craving Questionnaire-State showed a borderline significant correlation with changes in striatal D2/3R availability. These findings show that striatal D2/3R availability increases after long-term bariatric-surgery induced weight loss, suggesting that reduced D2/3R availability in obesity is a reversible phenomenon. PMID:27184782

  8. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI... Substances § 721.9662 Thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as thieno -1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in the red blood cells of anaemic pregnant women in various periods of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Zachara, B; Krajewski, J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration in anaemic (haemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/100 ml blood) and in normal pregnant women (haemoglobin concentration above 12.5 g/100 ml blood). The authors showed that the 2,3-DPG concentration increased systematically between the 16th and 42nd weeks of pregnancy, both in the control group and in pregnant women with anaemia. However, in the group of anaemic pregnant women the 2,3-DPG concentration was higher in each stage of pregnancy. PMID:6629145

  19. Phenolic compounds: Strong inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysate for 2,3-butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Kim, Sung Bong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass are attractive feedstocks for 2,3-butanediol production due to their abundant supply and low price. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, various byproducts are formed and their effects on 2,3-butanediol production were not sufficiently studied compared to ethanol production. Therefore, the effects of compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass (weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolics) on the cell growth, the 2,3-butanediol production and the enzymes activity involved in 2,3-butanediol production were evaluated using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007. The phenolic compounds showed the most toxic effects on cell growth, 2,3-butanediol production and enzyme activity, followed by furan derivatives and weak acids. The significant effects were not observed in the presence of acetic acid and formic acid. Also, feasibility of 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated using Miscanthus as a feedstock. In the fermentation of Miscanthus hydrolysate, 11.00 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was obtained from 34.62 g/L of reducing sugar. However, 2,3-butanediol was not produced when the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate increased to more than 1.5 g/L. The present study provides useful information to develop strategies for biological production of 2,3-butanediol and to establish biorefinery for biochemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26479290

  20. Phenolic compounds: Strong inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysate for 2,3-butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Kim, Sung Bong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass are attractive feedstocks for 2,3-butanediol production due to their abundant supply and low price. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, various byproducts are formed and their effects on 2,3-butanediol production were not sufficiently studied compared to ethanol production. Therefore, the effects of compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass (weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolics) on the cell growth, the 2,3-butanediol production and the enzymes activity involved in 2,3-butanediol production were evaluated using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007. The phenolic compounds showed the most toxic effects on cell growth, 2,3-butanediol production and enzyme activity, followed by furan derivatives and weak acids. The significant effects were not observed in the presence of acetic acid and formic acid. Also, feasibility of 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated using Miscanthus as a feedstock. In the fermentation of Miscanthus hydrolysate, 11.00 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was obtained from 34.62 g/L of reducing sugar. However, 2,3-butanediol was not produced when the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate increased to more than 1.5 g/L. The present study provides useful information to develop strategies for biological production of 2,3-butanediol and to establish biorefinery for biochemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.