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Sample records for pentanedione 2,3

  1. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  2. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  3. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Spicer, Lauren J; Adams, Rebecca E; Finley, Brent L

    2014-05-01

    Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione inhalation have been suggested as causes of severe respiratory disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, in food/flavoring manufacturing workers. Both compounds are present in many food items, tobacco, and other consumer products, but estimates of exposures associated with the use of these goods are scant. A study was conducted to characterize exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with cigarette smoking. The yields (μg/cigarette) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke were evaluated for six tobacco products under three smoking regimens (ISO, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and Health Canada Intense) using a standard smoking machine. Mean diacetyl concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 250 to 361 ppm for all tobacco products and smoking regimens, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 ppm-years. Mean 2,3-pentanedione concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 32.2 to 50.1 ppm, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 ppm-years. We found that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures from cigarette smoking far exceed occupational exposures for most food/flavoring workers who smoke. This suggests that previous claims of a significant exposure-response relationship between diacetyl inhalation and respiratory disease in food/flavoring workers were confounded, because none of the investigations considered or quantified the non-occupational diacetyl exposure from cigarette smoke, yet all of the cohorts evaluated had considerable smoking histories. Further, because smoking has not been shown to be a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans, our findings are inconsistent with claims that diacetyl and/or 2,3-pentanedione exposure are risk factors for this disease.

  4. 76 FR 1434 - Request for Information on 2,3-Pentanedione and Other Alpha-Diketones Used As Diacetyl Substitutes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... evaluate the scientific data on 2,3-pentanedione (CAS 600- 14-6, also known as pentane-2,3-dione; acetyl... Intelligence Bulletin, Criteria Document and/or other informational products, and potentially establish a... exposure data, and (6) information on control measures (e.g., engineering controls, work practices...

  5. Chemical Reactivity and Respiratory Toxicity of the α-Diketone Flavoring Agents: 2,3-Butanedione, 2,3-Pentanedione and 2,3-Hexanedione

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Daniel L.; Jokinen, Micheal P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Price, Herman C.; Gwinn, William M.; Bousquet, Ronald W.; Flake, Gordon P.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to 2,3-butanedione (BD) vapors has been associated with severe respiratory disease leading to the use of potentially toxic substitutes. We compared the reactivity and respiratory toxicity of BD with that of two structurally-related substitutes, 2,3-pentanedione (PD) and 2,3-hexanedione (HD). Chemical reactivity of the diketones with an arginine substrate decreased with increasing chain length (BD≥PD>HD). Animals were evaluated the morning after a 2-week exposure to 0, 100, 150, or 200 ppm BD, PD, or HD (post-exposure), or 2 weeks later (recovery). Bronchial fibrosis was observed in 5/5 BD and 5/5 PD rats at 200 ppm, and in 4/6 BD and 6/6 PD rats at 150 ppm in the post-exposure groups. Following recovery, bronchial fibrosis was observed in all surviving rats exposed to 200 ppm BD (5/5) or PD (3/3), and in 2/10 BD and 7/9 PD rats exposed to 150 ppm. Bronchial fibrosis was observed only in 2/12 HD-exposed rats in the 200 ppm post-exposure group. Patchy interstitial fibrosis affected lungs of recovery groups exposed to 200 ppm PD (3/3) or BD (1/5) and 150 ppm PD (4/9) or BD (7/10) and correlated with pulmonary function deficits. BD and PD were more reactive and produced more bronchial fibrosis than HD. PMID:27025954

  6. Chemical Reactivity and Respiratory Toxicity of the α-Diketone Flavoring Agents: 2,3-Butanedione, 2,3-Pentanedione, and 2,3-Hexanedione.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel L; Jokinen, Micheal P; Johnson, Crystal L; Price, Herman C; Gwinn, William M; Bousquet, Ronald W; Flake, Gordon P

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposure to 2,3-butanedione (BD) vapors has been associated with severe respiratory disease leading to the use of potentially toxic substitutes. We compared the reactivity and respiratory toxicity of BD with that of two structurally related substitutes, 2,3-pentanedione (PD) and 2,3-hexanedione (HD). Chemical reactivity of the diketones with an arginine substrate decreased with increasing chain length (BD > PD > HD). Animals were evaluated the morning after a 2-week exposure to 0, 100, 150, or 200 ppm BD, PD, or HD (postexposure) or 2 weeks later (recovery). Bronchial fibrosis was observed in 5/5 BD and 5/5 PD rats at 200 ppm and in 4/6 BD and 6/6 PD rats at 150 ppm in the postexposure groups. Following recovery, bronchial fibrosis was observed in all surviving rats exposed to 200 ppm BD (5/5) or PD (3/3) and in 2/10 BD and 7/9 PD rats exposed to 150 ppm. Bronchial fibrosis was observed only in 2/12 HD-exposed rats in the 200 ppm postexposure group. Patchy interstitial fibrosis affected lungs of recovery groups exposed to 200 ppm PD (3/3) or BD (1/5) and to 150 ppm PD (4/9) or BD (7/10) and correlated with pulmonary function deficits. BD and PD were more reactive and produced more bronchial fibrosis than HD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Photolysis of 2,3-pentanedione and 2,3-hexanedione: Kinetics, quantum yields, and product study in a simulation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidi, H.; Fittschen, C.; Coddeville, P.; Tomas, A.

    2014-01-01

    The gas phase photolysis of two α-diketones, 2,3-pentanedione (PTD) and 2,3-hexanedione (HEX), has been studied in a Teflon simulation chamber using UV lamps in the 330-480 nm wavelength range. Photolysis rates have been determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Using NO2 actinometry allows estimating the lifetime of PTD and HEX in the atmosphere to be about 2.5 h, assessing the dominance of the photolysis loss process over the OH reaction for such α-dicarbonyl compounds. Effective quantum yields for PTD and HEX have also been calculated over the whole wavelength range: ΦPTD = 0.20 ± 0.02 and ΦHEx = 0.18 ± 0.03, consistent with literature values on α-dicarbonyls. Various end-products from the photolysis of PTD and HEX have been identified and quantified. For PTD, CH2O and CH3CHO have been detected with molar yields of (48 ± 0.5)% and (41 ± 0.7)%, respectively. For HEX, CH2O and C2H5CHO have been detected with molar yields of (45 ± 1.1)% and (37 ± 0.8)%, respectively. Small amounts of CO have also been observed, with yields of about 2%, as well as organic acids. Experiments performed in the absence of OH-radical scavengers showed significantly faster photolysis rates and higher CO yields (˜7%), indicating clear formation of OH radicals in the chemical systems. A reaction mechanism was developed for PTD and HEX photolysis based on the product observations, which allowed simulating the reactant and product time profiles with very good agreement. The present work represents the first study of 2,3-pentanedione and 2,3-hexanedione photolysis, to our knowledge, and may contribute to a better understanding of the photolysis of the α-diketones in the troposphere.

  8. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro.

  9. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Shimko, Michael J.; Wells, J.R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A.; Case, Shannon L.; Thompson, Janet A.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport, without affecting Cl− transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  10. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Abelmann, Anders; Pierce, Jennifer S; Glynn, Meghan E; Henshaw, John L; McCarthy, Lauren A; Lotter, Jason T; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations ranged from 0.018 to 0.39 ppm, 0.0089 to 0.21 ppm, and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1) are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2) are likely to exceed some recommended

  11. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Conclusion: Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185 PMID:26642857

  12. Infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng

    2014-10-03

    The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide.

  13. Uptake and reaction kinetics of acetone, 2-butanone, 2,4-pentanedione, and acetaldehyde in sulfuric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Williams; Nozière, Barbara

    2005-12-08

    This work presents a study of the uptake of acetone, 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone), 2,4-pentanedione, and acetaldehyde by sulfuric acid solutions with an aim at understanding the reactivity of carbonyl compounds present in the atmosphere toward acidic aerosols. Experiments were performed in a rotating wetted-wall reactor coupled to a mass spectrometer at room temperature (298 +/- 3 K) with 0-96 wt % H(2)SO(4) solutions. For all compounds, a reactive uptake was observed at high acidity (>or=64 wt % H(2)SO(4)). The corresponding reactions were found to follow a second-order kinetics, and their rate constants, k (M(-1) s(-1)) were found to increase exponentially with acidity. These rate constants and their variations with acid concentration were in good agreement with the kinetic behavior of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reported in the organic chemical literature, except for 2,4-pentanedione. The results of this work suggest that aldol condensation should be too slow to account for the enhanced organic aerosol mass observed in smog chamber studies and should have an even smaller contribution under atmospheric conditions. The rate constants of other compounds, such as large aldehydes, remain however to be measured. However, in order to contribute significantly to organic aerosol formation, a liquid phase reaction would have to result in an uptake coefficient of the order of 10(-2).

  14. Modification of Lys-237 on actin by 2,4-pentanedione. Alteration of the interaction of actin with tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    El-Saleh, S C; Thieret, R; Johnson, P; Potter, J D

    1984-09-10

    It has been possible to specifically label rabbit skeletal muscle actin at Lys-237 with 2,4-pentanedione, producing an enamine. This reaction can be reversed with hydroxylamine. The modification can be carried out with actin in either the G- or F-forms and does not affect polymerization-depolymerization. The modification does affect, however, the interaction of tropomyosin (Tm) with the modified F-actin. In the absence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (mu = 0.12), Tm failed to bind to the modified F-actin whereas it did bind to unmodified F-actin (1 Tm:7 actins). Tm binding could be restored under these conditions by the addition of either troponin (Tn), Mg2+, or Mg2+ and Ca2+. Under certain conditions, Tm alone has been shown to inhibit actin-activated heavy meromyosin (HMM)-Mg2+-ATPase. This inhibition did not occur with the modified F-actin even though Tm was bound (approximately 1 Tm:7 actins). Even when Tn was added to this system (in the absence of Ca2+), no inhibition of ATPase could be observed. Thus, this modification appears to prevent F-actin X Tm from assuming the "blocking" inhibitory position (conformation). In addition, Tn appears to enhance the activation of heavy meromyosin-Mg2+-ATPase by the modified F-actin X Tm complex whether Ca2+ is present or not. This state may be analogous to the potentiated state (Murray, J. M., Knox, M. K., Trueblood, C. E., and Weber, A. (1982) Biochemistry 27, 906-915) seen with myosin subfragment 1-saturated actin at low ATP levels. Thus, using modified and unmodified F-actin, it is possible to produce three Tm X actin states: off (F-actin X Tm), on (modified F-actin X Tm), and "potentiated" (modified F-actin X Tm X Tn).

  15. Three-component reaction of tautomeric amidines with 3-ferrocenylmethylidene-2,4-pentanedione. Formation of polymeric coordination complexes of potassium ferrocenyl-(hexahydro)pyrimidoxides.

    PubMed

    Klimova, Elena I; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Klimova, Tatiana; Maya, Sandra Cortez; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2013-12-20

    Acetamidine hydrochloride and p-aminobenzamidine dihydrochloride interact with 3-ferrocenylmethylidene-2,4-pentanedione at 80-82 °C in the presence of K2CO3 in the water-alcohol medium in two tautomeric forms (the amidoimine and enediamine ones) with formation of mixtures of pyrimidine and piperidone derivatives and polymeric coordination complexes of potassium ferrocenyl(hexahydro)pyrimidoxides. The structure of the resultant compounds is elucidated on the basis of IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The crystal structures of 6-ferrocenyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-piperidone, potassium 6-ferrocenyl-4-methyl-2-methylidene(hexahydro)pyrimidin-4-oxide and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-6-methyl-pyrimidine were determined by X-ray analysis of suitable single crystals.

  16. Simple determination of hydrazine in waste water by headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization with trifluoro pentanedione.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin-Aa; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2017-01-15

    A headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) method is described to detect hydrazine after derivatization with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione (1,1,1-TFPD) to 3-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl) pyrazole in industrial waste water. The following optimal HS-SPME conditions were used: 85 μm-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fibre, 100 mg L(-1) TFPD, saturated NaCl, an extraction/derivatization temperature of 80 °C, a heating time of 40 min, and a pH of 9.5. Under the established conditions, the detection and quantification limits were 0.002 μg L(-1) and 0.007 μg L(-1) by using 5 mL of waste water and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 10.2% at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.1 μg L(-1). The calibration curve showed good linearity, with r(2) = 0.998; the accuracy was in the range of 98.0-103%; and the precision of the assay was less than 10.2% in industrial waste water. Hydrazine was detected over a concentration range of 0.011-0.074 μg L(-1) in 5 of 20 waste water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of photoluminescence of Y(2)O(3):Eu and Gd(2)O(3):Eu phosphors synthesized by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes.

    PubMed

    Antic, B; Rogan, J; Kremenovic, A; Nikolic, A S; Vucinic-Vasic, M; Bozanic, D K; Goya, G F; Colomban, P H

    2010-06-18

    Spherical shaped nanoparticles of series Y(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) (x = 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, and 2) and Gd(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) (x = 0.06, 0.10) were prepared by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes of Y, Gd, and Eu. The bixbyite phase of Gd(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) samples was formed at 500 degrees C, whereas the thermal decomposition of Y and Eu complexes' mixtures occurred at higher temperatures. Linearity in the concentration dependence on lattice parameter confirmed the formation of solid solutions. The distribution of Eu(3+) in Gd(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3) was changed with thermal annealing: in the as-prepared sample (x = 0.10) the distribution was preferential at C(3i) sites while in the annealed samples, Eu(3+) were distributed at both C(2) and C(3i) sites. Rietveld refinement of site occupancies as well as emission spectra showed a random distribution of cations in Y(2 - x)Eu(x)O(3). The photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the sample showed red emission with the main peak at 614 nm ((5)D(0)-(7)F(2)). The PL intensity increased with increasing concentration of Eu(3+) in both series. Infrared excitation was required to obtain good Raman spectra. The linear dependence of the main Raman peak wavenumber offers a non-destructive method for monitoring the substitution level and its homogeneity at the micron scale.

  18. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  19. Induction of oxidative stress in Prototheca zopfii by indole-3-acetic acid/HRP or 2,4-pentanedione/HRP systems and their oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Cunha, L T; Pugine, S M P; Lins, P G; Brunetti, I L; De Melo, M P

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the toxic effects on Prototheca zopfii of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-pentanedione (PD) combined with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) alongside the oxidation products of 3-methyl-2-oxindole (MOI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) from the IAA/HRP system and methylglyoxal (MGO) from the PD/HRP system. The microorganism was incubated in the absence (control) or presence of IAA, PD, IAA/HRP, PD/HRP, MOI, I3C and MGO and determined: (1) cytotoxicity by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay; (2) growth inhibitory concentration by resazurin assay and (3) antioxidant enzymes activities of: catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). P. zopfii was more susceptible to IAA at 40 mM than PD at the same concentration, which seems to indicate that IAA was more effective at initiating cell death. These data corroborate results from the resazurin assay. Concentrations of 40 mM of IAA, IAA/HRP and PD/HRP, 20 mM of PD/HRP, 10 mM of MOI, 2 mM of I3C and 8 mM of MGO inhibited the growth of P. zopfii. With sub-inhibitory concentrations of IAA and IAA/HRP at 30 mM, MOI at 8 mM and I3C at 1 mM, the activities of CAT and GR increased, whereas no statistical difference was observed for CAT activity with IAA/HRP. Thus, PD at 30 mM and MGO at 6 mM increased the activities of CAT and GR, whereas PD/HRP system at 15 mM decreased CAT activity and PD/HRP and MGO showed no statistical difference for SOD activity. In conclusion, IAA/HRP or PD/HRP systems and their oxidation products exert cytotoxic effects on P. zopffi; however, I3C and MGO appear to exert greater microbicidal effect on P. zopfii.

  20. 3-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione: Design of a novel photostabilizer with in vivo SPF boosting properties and its use in developing broad-spectrum sunscreen formulations.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, R K; Ollengo, M A; Singh, P; Martincigh, B S

    2017-02-01

    The study concerned the synthesis of a novel photostabilizer based on benzylidenepentanedione chemistry and the evaluation of its potential in developing a broad-spectrum sunscreen formulation containing avobenzone. 3-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzylidene)-2-4-pentanedione (TMBP) was synthesized through a condensation reaction and incorporated into a sunscreen formulation containing, inter alia, avobenzone. The SPF, critical wavelength and in vitro photostability of the product were measured. The photostability was compared with that afforded by current avobenzone photostabilizers, namely octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycrylene and diethylhexylsyringylidenemalonate. The photostability of TMBP either alone or in the presence of avobenzone in a methanolic solution was also evaluated by UV spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The optical properties of TMBP were estimated experimentally and supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The ability of TMBP to stabilize avobenzone under ultraviolet (UV) light exposure was shown both in formulated products and in solution. A comparative stability study incorporating various combinations of avobenzone, TMBP (vs. three commercial photostabilizers) and UVB sunscreens clearly showed TMBP to be a very effective stabilizer. The photostabilizing effect of TMBP arises from triplet-state energy transfer from avobenzone to TMBP and through light-induced reactions that preserve the main chromophores. Interestingly, a 50% in vivo SPF boosting was observed when TMBP was used with organic and inorganic sunscreens when alone it has no contribution to SPF. TMBP-containing sunscreen formulations clearly showed a critical wavelength of well over 370 nm and can thus be categorized as broad-spectrum sunscreens. We were able to design a very effective photostabilizer, trimethoxybenzylidene pentanedione (INCI name), based on benzylidenepentanedione chemistry. TMBP is very efficient in stabilizing avobenzone in formulated

  1. Effects of Eu3+ concentration on structural, optical and vibrational properties of multifunctional Ce(1-x)Eu(x)O2-delta) nanoparticles synthesized by thermolysis of 2,4-pentanedione complexes.

    PubMed

    Kremenovic, A; Bozanic, D K; Welsch, A M; Jancar, B; Nikolic, A S; Boskovic, M; Colomban, Ph; Fabian, Martin; Antic, B

    2012-12-01

    The 5-10 nm Ce(1-x)Eu(x)O(2-delta) (0 < or = x < or = 0.30) nanoparticles with fluorite structure were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Eu- and Ce-2,4-pentanedione complexes mixtures. X-ray line broadening analysis of mixed samples Ce(1-x)Eu(x)O(2-delta) (0.05 < or = x < or = 0.30) showed that the crystallite size was lower and root mean square strain higher than in pure ceria. However, within mixed samples Ce(1-x)Eu(x)O(2-delta) (0.05 < or = x < or = 0.30) crystallite size and root mean square strain were independent of Eu3+ concentration. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that europium ions yield disorder by breaking the phonon propagation and therefore making the non-centre Brillouin zone modes Raman active. The absorption bands in the spectra of mixed oxides were blue-shifted in comparison to pure CeO(2-delta) nanopowder. The samples show red emission typical for Eu ions. The biggest photoluminescent intensity was observed for the highest Eu3+ concentration (x = 0.30) and further enhanced with the increase in crystallinity.

  2. Active layer solution-processed NIR-OLEDs based on ternary erbium(III) complexes with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione and different N,N-donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ramos, P; Coya, C; Lavín, V; Martín, I R; Silva, M Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira; García-Vélez, M; Alvarez, A L; Martín-Gil, J

    2014-12-28

    Using a fluorinated 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione (Htfac) ligand and either 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), bathophenanthroline (bath) or 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (5NO2phen) as an ancillary ligand, three new ternary erbium(iii) octacoordinated complexes have been synthesized. The single crystal structures of the new complexes (namely [Er(tfac)3(bipy)], [Er(tfac)3(bath)] and [Er(tfac)3(5NO2phen)]) have been determined and their properties have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis. After ligand-mediated excitation of these complexes in the UV, they all show the characteristic near-infrared (NIR) luminescence of the corresponding Er(3+) ion at 1532 nm. The same emission in the C-band transmission window can also be obtained from the solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with structure: glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Er(tfac)3(N,N-donor)]/Ca/Al. In spite of the fact that the photoluminescence intensity of [Er(tfac)3(5NO2phen)] is stronger than those of [Er(tfac)3(bipy)] and [Er(tfac)3(bath)], the best electroluminescence results correspond to the OLED based on the [Er(tfac)3(bath)] complex, as a consequence of the superior electron transport capabilities of bathophenanthroline.

  3. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  4. 39 CFR 2.3 - Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offices. 2.3 Section 2.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE GENERAL AND TECHNICAL PROVISIONS (ARTICLE II) § 2.3 Offices. The principal office of the Postal Service is located in Washington, DC,...

  5. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit requirements...

  6. 39 CFR 2.3 - Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offices. 2.3 Section 2.3 Postal Service UNITED... (ARTICLE II) § 2.3 Offices. The principal office of the Postal Service is located in Washington, DC, with such regional and other offices and places of business as the Postmaster General establishes from...

  7. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  8. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  9. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  10. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  11. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3... § 3105.2-3 Requirements. (a) The communitization or drilling agreement shall describe the separate tracts... order. (c) The public interest requirement for an approved communitization agreement shall be satisfied...

  12. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3... § 3105.2-3 Requirements. (a) The communitization or drilling agreement shall describe the separate tracts... order. (c) The public interest requirement for an approved communitization agreement shall be satisfied...

  13. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3... § 3105.2-3 Requirements. (a) The communitization or drilling agreement shall describe the separate tracts... order. (c) The public interest requirement for an approved communitization agreement shall be satisfied...

  14. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Project Scope

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a cost estimate budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort. This report provides the cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the cost estimate.

  15. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  16. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  17. 5 CFR 2.3 - Apportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.3 Apportionment. Subject to such modifications as OPM finds to be necessary in the interest of good administration, appointments to positions in agencies' headquarters offices which are...

  18. 5 CFR 2.3 - Apportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.3 Apportionment. Subject to such modifications as OPM finds to be necessary in the interest of good administration, appointments to positions in agencies' headquarters offices which are...

  19. 5 CFR 2.3 - Apportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.3 Apportionment. Subject to such modifications as OPM finds to be necessary in the interest of good administration, appointments to positions in agencies' headquarters offices which are...

  20. 5 CFR 2.3 - Apportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.3 Apportionment. Subject to such modifications as OPM finds to be necessary in the interest of good administration, appointments to positions in agencies' headquarters offices which are...

  1. 5 CFR 2.3 - Apportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.3 Apportionment. Subject to such modifications as OPM finds to be necessary in the interest of good administration, appointments to positions in agencies' headquarters offices which are...

  2. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  3. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  4. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper.

  5. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  6. 2('),3(')-didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are degraded to furfuryl alcohol under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junxing; Ray, Adrian S; Mathew, Judy S; Anderson, Karen S; Chu, Chung K; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2004-05-03

    2('),3(')-Didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are clinically relevant antiviral agents. These nucleosides could be degraded under acidic conditions. Acidic stability studies showed the D4N had the following increasing stability order: D4G

  7. 4,4,5,5,5-Pentafluoro-1-(9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1,3-pentanedione complex of Eu3+ with 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene oxide as a promising light-conversion molecular device.

    PubMed

    Ambili Raj, D B; Biju, Silvanose; Reddy, M L P

    2009-09-28

    A novel beta-diketone ligand, 4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1-(9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1,3-pentanedione (Hpffpd), which contains a polyfluorinated alkyl group, as well as a long conjugated fluorene unit, and a chelate phosphine oxide ligand, 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene oxide (DDXPO) were synthesized and utilized for the synthesis of two new europium complexes [Eu(pffpd)3(C2H5OH)(H2O)] 1 and [Eu(pffpd)3(DDXPO)] 2. For comparison, the [Eu(pffpd)3(DPEPO)] 3 complex was also synthesized involving a known chelate phosphine oxide, bis(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl) ether oxide (DPEPO). The synthesized complexes have been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and their solid-state photophysical properties were investigated. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of 2 and 3 revealed that these complexes are mononuclear, and that the central Eu3+ ion is surrounded by eight oxygen atoms, six of which are from the three bidentate fluorinated beta-diketonates, and the other two oxygen atoms from the chelate phosphine oxide. The coordination polyhedra can be described as distorted square antiprism. Compound 2 has a solid-state photoluminescence quantum yield of 48%, which is about two times higher than that of compound 3 (28%). This may be due to the fact that DDXPO in 1 has the mezzo first triplet excited state energy level (T1) between the first singlet excited energy level (S1) and T1 of Hpffpd, which may support one more additional energy transfer from the T1 energy level of DDXPO to that of Hpffpd, and consequently improves the energy transfer in the Eu3+ complex. Furthermore, DDXPO (average Eu-O = 2.34 A) in complex 2 coordinates more strongly with the central Eu3+ as compared to DPEPO in complex 3 (average Eu-O = 2.38 A) which can improve the energy transfer between the ligands and central metal ion, and consequently enhances the photoluminescence efficiency of the corresponding Eu3+ complex.

  8. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  9. Synthesis of 2,3-trans-3,4-cis- and 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-2,3,4-triphenyltetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Munshi, K L; Dikshit, D K; Kapil, R S; Anand, N

    1974-04-01

    The synthesis of 2,3-trans-3,4-cis- and 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-2,3,4-triphenyltetrahydrofurans was undertaken because these compounds incorportae the essential structural features of certain 2,3-diphenyl-benzofurans and 1,2,3-triphenylalkanones reported earlier to have marked antifertility activity. The synthesis of the 2 tetrahydrofurans was achieved by the cyclization of corresponding 2,3,4-triphenylbutane-1,4-diols upon heating with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The butane 1,4-diols were in turn prepared either by direct litium aluminum hydride (LAH) reduction of methyl 3-benzoyl-2,3-diphenylpropionates or by conversion of these propionates to delta-3,4-butryrolactones followed by LAH reduction. The propionates were prepared from the Fiedel-Crafts reaction of 2,3-diphenylsuccinic anhydride with benzene. Tetrahydrofurans were tested for their antiimplantation activity in rats. 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-2,4-diphenyl-3-p -(beta-pyrrolidinoethoxy) phenyltetrahydrofuran oxalate was found to inhibit implantation completely at 50 mg/kg, but was inefective at a lower dose.

  10. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  16. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  17. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  18. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  19. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  20. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  1. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict...

  2. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict...

  3. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict...

  4. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special...

  5. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or other...

  6. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special...

  7. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or...

  8. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit for...

  10. Chemical and photochemical synthesis of substituted dihydro-thieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-c]quinolin-6-ones and tetrahydro-dithieno[2,3-b:2',3'-d]thieno[2'',3''c:2'',3''c']diquinolin-6,14-dione.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Jelena Blazević; Koruznjak, Jasna Dogan; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2005-01-31

    Some new substituted dihydrothieno[2',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-c]quinolin-6-ones 9- 12 and tetrahydrodithieno[2,3-b: 2',3'-d]thieno[2'',3''-c:2'',3''-c']diquinolin-6,14-dione (17) were prepared from the corresponding new anilides 5-8 and from the corresponding dianilide 15, respectively, by a multistep combination of chemical and photochemical reactions. All the prepared compounds are of particular interest because they might serve as DNA intercalators in anticancer therapy.

  11. Radiation-induced degradation of aqueous 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiewicz, Malgorzata; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Getoff, Nikola

    2006-02-01

    The degradation of aqueous 2,3-dihydroxynaphthaline (2,3-DHN) under the influence of γ-ray was investigated under various experimental conditions. Using 2.5×10 -5 mol L -1 2,3-DHN in aerated media (pH=6-6.8) an initial degradation yield, Gi-(2,3-DHN)=0.32 was obtained, whereas in solutions saturated with N 2O the yield come to Gi-(2,3-DHN)=0.50. In airfree media the substrate decomposition was negligible. Possible reaction mechanisms are presented. Further, the rate constant, k(OH+2,3-DHN)=2.14×10 10 L mol -1 s -1 was determined by competition reactions with PNDA.

  12. 1-Arylmethyl-2,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydroindole thiosemicarbazones as leads for developing cytotoxins and anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    KARKI, SUBHAS S.; BAHADURIA, VIVEK SINGH; RANA, VIVEK; KUMAR, SUJEET; SUBBARO, PRASANNA G.; DAS, UMASHANKAR; BALZARINI, JAN; DE CLERCQ, ERIK; DIMMOCK, JONATHAN R.

    2012-01-01

    Various substituted 1-arylmethyl-2,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydroindole thiosemicarbazones 3a-h, 1-benzyl-2,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydroin-dole N4-aryl thiosemicarbazones 4a-i and 1-benzyl-2,3-dioxy-2,3-dihydroindole N4-cyclohexylthiocarbazone 5 were synthesized. All of these compounds were evaluated against human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 leukemia cells. Nearly 40% of these compounds possess low micromolar IC50 values and some are either more potent than, or equipotent with, melphalan. Various correlations between the structures of these compounds and cytotoxic potencies were obtained which included the use of QSAR and molecular modeling techniques. Representative compounds displayed anticonvulsant properties in rats and were well tolerated by these animals. The encouraging biodata noted affords adequate rationale for outlining guidelines for further development of these molecular scaffolds. PMID:18608748

  13. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS...

  14. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND.... Before parole is ordered by the Commission, the Surgeon General or his designated representative must... released. Recertification by the Surgeon General prior to reparole consideration is not required (18 U.S.C...

  15. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND.... Before parole is ordered by the Commission, the Surgeon General or his designated representative must... released. Recertification by the Surgeon General prior to reparole consideration is not required (18 U.S.C...

  16. 43 CFR 3712.2-3 - Contents of published notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of published notice. 3712.2-3... Proceedings Under the Act § 3712.2-3 Contents of published notice. Section 5(a) of the Act specifies in detail what the published notice shall contain, as follows: Such notice shall describe the lands covered by...

  17. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...

  18. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION...

  19. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases...

  20. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO...

  1. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS...

  2. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS...

  3. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  4. 22 CFR 2.3 - Notification of foreign officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of foreign officials. 2.3 Section 2.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER....C. 1116(b)(2), 1116(c)(4); sec. 4 of the Act of May 26, 1949, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2658)) ...

  5. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60 days...

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60 days...

  7. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of Land...

  8. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of Land...

  9. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of Land...

  10. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of Land...

  11. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  12. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  13. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  14. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  15. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Qualifications and Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of grazing preference...

  16. Determination of 2,3-dibromopropanol in air.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G

    1987-09-01

    One of the starting materials for the preparation of TRIS-BP (tris-2,3-dibromopropanol phosphate), which is used in the treatment of fabrics and various materials to make them nonflammable, is 2,3-dibromopropanol. Because of the reported toxic nature of its parent phosphate compound, 2,3-dibromopropanol recently has been used by itself as a fire retardant. The manufacture and use of 2,3-dibromopropanol as a fire retardant, however, have been a matter of great concern in the workplace because of its mutagenic, carcinogenic and nephrotoxic nature. A sensitive air sampling and analytical method has been developed as part of a complete field survey protocol. This paper describes the development of an air sampling and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis procedure for 2,3-dibromopropanol. The detection limit for the method is 5 microg per sample and the relative standard deviation for the method is 5%.

  17. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  18. Synthesis of genistein 2,3-anhydroglycoconjugates -- potential antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Goj, Katarzyna; Rusin, Aleksandra; Szeja, Wiesław; Kitel, Radosław; Komor, Roman; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The title compounds, variously protected 2.3-anhydrosugars linked with genistein through an alkyl chain, were synthesized in a sequence of reactions. First step involved Ferrier rearragement of 3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-rhamnal with 3-bromopropanol to obtain 2,3-unsaturated bromoalkylglycosides. The next step was epoxidation with m-CPBA and finally these compounds were connected with genistein in reaction of 7-O-genistein tetra-butylamonium salt with 2,3-anhydro bromoalkylglycosides. Obtained glycoconjugates differ in orientation of an oxirane ring and the protecting group in a sugar moiety. All compounds were tested in vitro for antiproliferative potential in cancer cells.

  19. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties

  20. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  1. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties;

  2. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  3. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  4. 11. View of interior courtyard between Buildings #1, #2, #3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of interior courtyard between Buildings #1, #2, #3, and #4. Photo taken from Building #4, facing west toward Building #1. - Merrill Silk Mill, 233 Canisteo Street, Hornell, Steuben County, NY

  5. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regional Administrator review and written approval the information required under § 35.2040(b)(7). (b) Before initiating procurement action for the building of the project, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit for...

  6. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  8. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  9. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  10. Characterization of Long Baseline Calibrators at 2.3 GHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    determine their suitability as phase calibrators for long baseline radio interferometry at 2.3 GHz. For this purpose, we have used a set of complementary...baseline radio interferometry at 2.3 GHz. For this purpose, we have used a set of complementary metrics to classify these 31 southern sources into five...southern radio sources and determine their suitability as calibrators for southern VLBI experiments, especially those using MeerKAT and the SKA when

  11. Nonlinear realizations of the W(2)3 algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Gribanov, V.; Krivonos, S.; Pashnev, A.

    1994-08-01

    In this Letter we consider the nonlinear realizations of the classical Polyakov's algebra W(2)3. The coset space method and the covariant reduction procedure allow us to deduce the Boussinesq equation with interchanged space and evolution coordinates. By adding one more space coordinate and introducing two copies of the W(2)3 algebra, the same method yields the sl(3, R) Toda lattice equations.

  12. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  13. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  14. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  15. Exploring the mechanism of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Sarah J.; Mowat, Christopher G.; Chapman, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    The haem proteins TDO (tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase) and IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) are specific and powerful oxidation catalysts that insert one molecule of dioxygen into L-tryptophan in the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway. Recent crystallographic and biochemical analyses of TDO and IDO have greatly aided our understanding of the mechanisms employed by these enzymes in the binding and activation of dioxygen and tryptophan. In the present paper, we briefly discuss the function, structure and possible catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. PMID:19021508

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (External ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. This Tox Review provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

  17. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established.

  18. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  20. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  1. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  2. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  3. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  4. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  5. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  6. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  7. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  9. 1,2,3-Triazolylalkylribitol derivatives as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, A; McNaughton, M; Bal, G; Surpateanu, G; Van der Veken, P; De Prol, S; Versées, W; Steyaert, J; Apers, S; Haemers, A; Augustyns, K

    2007-05-01

    A range of novel 1,2,3-triazolylalkylribitol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors. The most active compound (11a) has low micromolar potency and is structurally diverse from previously reported nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors, which, along with the simplicity of the chemistry involved in its synthesis, makes it a good lead for the further development of novel nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

  10. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  11. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  12. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  13. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND ROUTINE...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND ROUTINE...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND ROUTINE...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND ROUTINE...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND ROUTINE...

  20. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  1. Health Risk Assessment Approach for 2,3,7,8 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects various organ systems and is probably carcinogenic as well. The report documents the methodologies utilized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its development of health risk assessment from exposure to TCDD. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects various organ systems and is probably carcinogenic as well.

  2. Click chemistry: 1,2,3-triazoles as pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Agalave, Sandip G; Maujan, Suleman R; Pore, Vandana S

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole-forming reaction between azides and terminal alkynes has become the gold standard of 'click chemistry' due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. Applications of click chemistry are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery; they range from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in vitro chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research by using bioconjugation reactions. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen-bonding and dipole interactions. The present review will focus mainly on the recent literature for applications of this reaction in the field of medicinal chemistry, in particular on use of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety as pharmacophore.

  3. Pyrrolo[2,3-d]Pyrimidines as Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Francesca; Sanna, Monica; Grossi, Giancarlo; Brullo, Chiara; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Schenone, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleus is a deaza-isostere of adenine, the nitrogenous base of ATP, and is present in many ATP-competitive inhibitors of different kinases. In the last few years the number of articles and patents that have appeared involving this type of inhibitors has dramatically increased and some compounds have been approved for the treatment of inflammatory or myeloproliferative diseases. Other derivatives are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. This review deals with pyrrolo[2,3- d]pyrimidine derivatives active as kinase inhibitors that have been reported in the literature from 2011 to 2016, with a particular interest on the recently patented compounds. The molecules are classified depending on the inhibited kinase, focusing on their chemical structures. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-trichloropropane ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On September 30, 2009, the IRIS Summary and Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) was finalized and loaded onto the IRIS database. The Toxicological Review of TCP was reviewed internally by EPA, by other federal agencies and White House Offices, by expert external peer reviewers, and by the public. In the new IRIS process, introduced by the EPA Administrator, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices will be made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency draft of the TCP IRIS assessment are posted on this site. This Tox Review provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

  5. The 2-3 Symmetry and Large Reactor Mixing Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Ahmed; Datta, Alakabha

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a 2-3 symmetric structure of the charged lepton mass matrix except for one breaking by the muon mass. Symmetry breaking effects are provided both in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector to produce corrections to the leptonic mixing and explain the recent θ13 measurements. A model that extends the SM by three right-handed neutrinos, an extra Higgs doublet, and multi-singlet scalars is introduced to generate the leptonic mixing.

  6. Area Equivalent Method on LOTUS 1-2-3TM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    727200 23 KTETP 56 727100 24 DCH6 57 727D15 25 4EP so 72709 26 T&P 59 72707 27 CONTEP 60 727015 26 CONSEP 61 727D17 29 KD135 62 A300 30 C10 63 767 31 F4...LOTUS 1-2-3 4-5 Instruction Comment STEP 7. Wait for the cursor to appear [FG] invokes the GOTO command in coordinate H15 . If you are and H5 indicates

  7. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate and ATP dissociate erythrocyte membrane skeletons.

    PubMed

    Sheetz, M P; Casaly, J

    1980-10-25

    Since ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate cause an increase in the lateral mobility of integral membrane proteins in the erythrocyte (Schindler, M., Koppel, D., and Sheetz, M. P. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 1457-1461), we have studied their effects on the membrane skeletal complex or shell (composed of spectrin, actin, and bands 4.1 (78,000 daltons) and 4.9 (50,000 daltons)) and its interaction with the erythrocyte membrane. Both phosphate compounds dissociated the delipidated shell complex, with half-maximal dissociation at 2.5 mM 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and 8 mM ATP, whereas equivalent concentrations of EDTA did not. Concomitant with complex dissociation, spectrin was solubilized but band 4.1 and actin remained in a complexed or polymeric form. When proteins which were involved in linking spectrin to the membrane were present on the shell, higher concentrations of the phosphate compounds still dissociated the complex but less spectrin was solubilized. Treatment of erythrocyte membranes with the same phosphate compounds caused membrane vesiculation but no proteins were solubilized. We suggest that ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, at concentrations which are normally present in erythrocytes, can weaken associations in the shell but will not dissociate the complex from membrane attachment sites.

  8. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. GC-MS and GC-IRD analysis of 2-, 3- and 4-methylmethamphetamine and 2-, 3- and 4-methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sean; Blakey, Karen; Rands-Trevor, Karen

    2012-07-10

    4-Methylmethamphetamine has been detected in samples submitted for analysis in several states throughout Australia. Six ring substituted methyl isomers of methamphetamine and amphetamine were synthesised and analysed. As the regioisomeric 2-, 3- and 4-methylmethamphetamine and 2-, 3- and 4-methylamphetamine have virtually identical mass spectra, the use of MS is an ineffective technique to discriminate between these closely related compounds. We set out to determine whether the regioisomers could be differentiated by a combination of GC-MS, acetyl derivatisation and GC-IRD. We demonstrate that the three isomers of methylmethamphetamine and methylamphetamine can be separated by GC, and a combination of acetyl derivatisation and vapour phase IR can identify the specific ring substituted compound.

  10. Induction of pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, R; Imanishi, J; Oku, T; Kishida, T; Hayaishi, O

    1981-01-01

    Pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase [indoleamine: oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase(decyclizing)] has been found to be induced (30- to 100-fold) in the mouse after a single intraperitoneal administration of bacterial endotoxin [Yoshida, R. & Hayaishi, O. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3998-4000] or during in vivo virus infection [Yoshida, R., Urade, Y., Tokuda M. & Hayaishi, O. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 4084-4086]. In the present study, an in vitro system with mouse lung slices was developed in which bacterial endotoxin (5 micrograms/ml)produced an induction (approximately 10-fold) of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. The endotoxin was substituted by interferon from mouse L cells or mouse brain. The pulmonary enzyme activity increased almost linearly for 48 hr after addition of mouse interferon (10(4) units/ml) to lung slices. Interferon from mouse L cells or mouse brain produced a 10- to 15-fold increase in the enzyme activity, whereas that from human leukocytes was all but ineffective. The effect also was observed using highly purified L-cell interferon, prepared by poly(U) affinity column chromatography. When interferon was treated either by heat, alpha-chymotrypsin, or anti-interferon serum, such increase in the enzyme activity was diminished essentially to the same extent as seen in the antiviral activity. The increase in the enzyme activity was blocked when actinomycin D or cycloheximide was added to the slices before interferon treatment. These results suggest that the enzyme induction was produced by interferon and not by possible contaminants in the interferon preparations. Images PMID:6165986

  11. Uncovering the Protocatechuate 2,3-Cleavage Pathway Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Daisuke; Fujinami, Toshihiro; Abe, Tomokuni; Mase, Kohei; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. (formerly Bacillus macerans) strain JJ-1b is able to grow on 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HB) as a sole source of carbon and energy and is known to degrade 4HB via the protocatechuate (PCA) 2,3-cleavage pathway. However, none of the genes involved in this pathway have been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized the JJ-1b genes for the 4HB catabolic pathway via the PCA 2,3-cleavage pathway, which consisted of praR and praABEGFDCHI. Based on the enzyme activities of cell extracts of Escherichia coli carrying praI, praA, praH, praB, praC, and praD, these genes were found to code for 4HB 3-hydroxylase, PCA 2,3-dioxygenase, 5-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 4-oxalocrotonate (OCA) tautomerase, and OCA decarboxylase, respectively, which are involved in the conversion of 4HB into 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate (HPD). The praE, praF, and praG gene products exhibited 45 to 61% amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding enzymes responsible for the catabolism of HPD to pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A. The deduced amino acid sequence of praR showed similarity with those of IclR-type transcriptional regulators. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that praABEGFDCHI constitute an operon, and these genes were expressed during the growth of JJ-1b on 4HB and PCA. praR-praABEGFDCHI conferred the ability to grow on 4HB to E. coli, suggesting that praEGF were functional for the conversion of HPD to pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A. A promoter analysis suggested that praR encodes a repressor of the pra operon. PMID:19717587

  12. Exotic Hadrons and Underlying Z2,3 Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adil, Belhaj; Salah Eddine, Ennadifi; Moulay Brahim, Sedra

    2015-12-01

    The recent observation of higher quark combinations, tetraquarks and pentaquarks, is a strong indication of more exotic hadrons. Using Z2 and Z3 symmetries and standard model data, a general quark combination producing new hadronic states is proposed in terms of polygon geometries according to the Dynkin diagrams of Ân affine Lie algebras. It has been shown that Z2,3 invariance is crucial in the determination of the mesonic or the baryonic nature of these states. The hexagonal geometry is considered in some details producing both mesonic and baryonic states. A general class of this family is also presented.

  13. The Partial Aminolysis of (NPF2)3 or 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    as (NPC1 2)3 ~ , with primary or secondary amines or with alkoxides or aryl - oxides have b:en studied in detail.2 Under suitable reaction conditions...reactions between II and n—butylamine carried out in the presence of lithium bromide gave products that were virtually identical to those fo rmed in...g, 0.006 ml) in 10 ml of TN! was added to a solution of sodium phenoxide (prepared from 11.04 g (0.48 aol) sodium and 58.7 g (0.62 aol) of phenol in

  14. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  15. ?`Caos en la Resonancia 2:3 con Urano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Nicotra, M. A.

    The 2:3 resonace with Uranus and 3:2 with Neptune define limits in the semi -major axis interval, where some objects like 7066 Nessus (semi-major axis 24.456 au) has been observed. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of a mass-less test particle near the critical value of the semi-major axis for each resonance. We analize the structure of the phase space in each case, using the restricted three-body planar approach, for different values of the Jacobi constant. Although this aproximation does not reflect the whole complexity of this region, it constitutes a good first solution, since there are not first or second order orbital resonances with the major planets. For the 2:3 resonance with Uranus, we find a smooth curve of quasi-periodical orbits surrounding the periodic orbit corresponding to the critical value of the semi-major axis. This region is also surrounded by chaotic orbits, probably due to the presence of other conmensurabilities of first or second order with Uranus. At the internal resonance 3:2 with Neptune, the structure of the section surfaces varies with the value of the C constant. In general, periodic orbits are found for the critical semi-major axis, but for other values of the Jacobi constant, which are obtained modifying the eccentricity of the particle orbit, the region is not closed anymore, so the test particle crosses the Neptune orbit, and escapes from this region.

  16. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  17. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  18. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyanobacterial conversion of carbon dioxide to 2,3-butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, John W. K.; Machado, Iara M. P.; Yoneda, Hisanari; Atsumi, Shota

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of CO2 for the synthesis of chemicals by photosynthetic organisms is an attractive target for establishing independence from fossil reserves. However, synthetic pathway construction in cyanobacteria is still in its infancy compared with model fermentative organisms. Here we systematically developed the 2,3-butanediol (23BD) biosynthetic pathway in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 as a model system to establish design methods for efficient exogenous chemical production in cyanobacteria. We identified 23BD as a target chemical with low host toxicity, and designed an oxygen-insensitive, cofactor-matched biosynthetic pathway coupled with irreversible enzymatic steps to create a driving force toward the target. Production of 23BD from CO2 reached 2.38 g/L, which is a significant increase for chemical production from exogenous pathways in cyanobacteria. This work demonstrates that developing strong design methods can continue to increase chemical production in cyanobacteria. PMID:23297225

  20. 1-Do-decyl-indoline-2,3-dione.

    PubMed

    Qachchachi, Fatima-Zahrae; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Misbahi, Houria; Bodensteiner, Michael; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-02-01

    The structure of the title compound, C20H29NO2, is isotypic to that of its homologue 1-octylindoline-2,3-dione. The indoline ring and the two carbonyl-group O atoms are approximately coplanar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.0760 (10) Å. The mean plane through the fused-ring system is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane passing through the 1-dodecyl chain [dihedral angle = 77.69 (5)°]. All C atoms of the dodecyl group are in an anti-periplanar arrangement. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  1. Elastic Behavior of Y-1-2-3/SILVER Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, S.; Reddy, R. Ravinder; Reddy, P. Venugopal; Mulay, V. N.

    A series of Y-1-2-3/Ag high Tc superconducting composites have been prepared using the sol-gel method by sintering at three different sintering temperatures, viz. 910°C, 945°C, and 975°C. After the usual characterization by XRD, electrical resistance, bulk density, and porosity measurements, the longitudinal (V1) and shear wave (Vs) velocities were measured by the pulse transmission technique. Using the experimental data, several elasticity parameters such as Young's modulus (E), rigidity modulus (G), etc. were evaluated. The variation of elastic constants with dopant concentration has been explained in terms of the binding forces between various atoms of the superconductor. A linear relationship between the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the Debye temperature (θD) has also been obtained.

  2. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  3. Relativistic (2,3)-threshold quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Wu, Ya-Dong; Sanders, Barry C.

    2017-09-01

    In quantum secret sharing protocols, the usual presumption is that the distribution of quantum shares and players' collaboration are both performed inertially. Here we develop a quantum secret sharing protocol that relaxes these assumptions wherein we consider the effects due to the accelerating motion of the shares. Specifically, we solve the (2,3)-threshold continuous-variable quantum secret sharing in noninertial frames. To this aim, we formulate the effect of relativistic motion on the quantum field inside a cavity as a bosonic quantum Gaussian channel. We investigate how the fidelity of quantum secret sharing is affected by nonuniform motion of the quantum shares. Furthermore, we fully characterize the canonical form of the Gaussian channel, which can be utilized in quantum-information-processing protocols to include relativistic effects.

  4. Molecules in focus: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas J C; Thomas, Shane R

    2007-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme enzyme that initiates the oxidative degradation of the least abundant, essential amino acid, l-tryptophan, along the kynurenine pathway. The local cellular depletion of l-tryptophan that results may enable the host to inhibit the growth of various infectious pathogens in vivo. However, over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that IDO also represents an important immune control enzyme. Thus, cells expressing IDO, seemingly paradoxically, are capable of suppressing local T cell responses to promote immune tolerance under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of medical importance, including infectious diseases, foetal rejection, organ transplantation, neuropathology, inflammatory and auto-immune disorders and cancer. In this review, we briefly outline the biochemical properties of IDO, its known and hypothetical functions and the medical implications for inhibition or induction of IDO and/or its downstream catabolites in health and disease.

  5. Metabolism of allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide and estragole 2',3'-oxide in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1995-02-01

    The metabolism of allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide, estragole 2',3'-oxide, allylbenzene and estragole was studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Formation of dihydrodiol and glutathione conjugate metabolites was detected for both epoxides and the presence of dihydrodiol metabolites after perfusion of allylbenzene or estragole indicated the formation of allylic epoxide intermediates in the intact liver. A comparison of elimination kinetics for parent compounds and epoxides indicated that epoxides were relatively rapidly detoxified and probably do not accumulate on formation in vivo. Acute toxicity of epoxides, measured as the release of alanine aminotransferase activity into the perfusate, or genetic toxicity, determined as covalent binding of radiolabeled epoxide to DNA, were not observed. It was concluded that both epoxide hydrolases and glutathione S-transferases can effectively detoxify the allylic epoxides derived from either allylbenzene or estragole and effectively prevent cellular or genetic toxicity of these reactive intermediates. Epoxide hydrolases appear to play the major role in the detoxication of these epoxides in vivo.

  6. Resonance-stabilized 1,2,3-dithiazolo-1,2,3-dithiazolyls as neutral pi-radical conductors.

    PubMed

    Beer, Leanne; Brusso, Jaclyn L; Cordes, A Wallace; Haddon, Robert C; Itkis, Mikhail E; Kirschbaum, Kristin; MacGregor, Douglas S; Oakley, Richard T; Pinkerton, A Alan; Reed, Robert W

    2002-08-14

    Alkylation of the zwitterionic heterocycle 8-chloro-bis[1,2,3]dithiazolo[4,5-b:5',4'-e]pyridine (ClBP) with alkyl triflates affords 8-chloro-4-alkyl-4H-bis[1,2,3]dithiazolo[4,5-b:5',4'-e]pyridin-2-ium triflates [ClBPR][OTf] (R = Me, Et, Pr). Reduction of these salts with decamethylferrocene affords the corresponding ClBPR radicals as thermally stable crystalline solids. The radicals have been characterized in solution by cyclic voltammetry and EPR spectroscopy. Measured electrochemical cell potentials and computed (B3LYP/6-31G) gas-phase disproportionation enthalpies are consistent with a low on-site Coulombic barrier U to charge transfer in the solid state. The crystal structures of ClBPR (R = Me, Et, Pr) have been determined by X-ray crystallography (at 293 K). All three structures consist of slipped pi-stacks of undimerized radicals, with many close intermolecular S.S contacts. ClBPMe undergoes a phase transition at 93 K to a slightly modified slipped pi-stack arrangement, the structure of which has also been established crystallographically (at 25 K). Variable-temperature magnetic and conductivity measurements have been performed, and the results interpreted in light of extended Hückel band calculations. The room-temperature conductivities of ClBPR systems (sigma(RT) approximately 10(-)(5) to 10(-)(6) S cm(-)(1)), as well as the weak 1D ferromagnetism exhibited by ClBPMe, are interpreted in terms of weak intermolecular overlap along the pi-stacks. The latter is caused by slippage of the molecular plates, a feature necessitated by the steric size of the R and Cl groups on the pyridine ring.

  7. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  8. Broad spectrum antiretroviral activity of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, J E; Mitsuya, H; Blam, S B; Broder, S; Aaronson, S A

    1987-01-01

    Certain dideoxynucleosides have been shown to markedly inhibit the infectivity of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our present studies demonstrate that these drugs are broad spectrum antiretroviral agents capable of inhibiting the infectivity of evolutionarily divergent mammalian type C and animal lentiviruses. Under some conditions, virus infectivity could be inhibited by more than six orders of magnitude. However, the potency of these agents was shown to be greatly influenced by cell-specified determinants. Drug exposure during the initial 24 hr was almost as effective as prolonged treatment on the inhibition of a single cycle of virus infection and expression. Moreover, virus infection was shown directly to be inhibited at the level of proviral DNA synthesis. Thus the time period during which reverse transcription and provirus integration occur is the critical period required for drug action. Our findings have implications concerning strategies to be considered in attempts to utilize 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides in control and treatment of retrovirus-induced diseases of animals and humans. Images PMID:3470806

  9. Synthesis of Deuterated 1,2,3-Triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Hari K.; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) is a highly effective method for the selective incorporation of deuterium atom into the C-5 position of the 1,2,3-triazole structure. Reactions of alkynes and azides can be conveniently carried out in a biphasic medium of CH2Cl2/D2O, using the CuSO4/Na ascorbate system. The mildness of the method renders it applicable to substrates of relatively high complexity, such as nucleosides. Good yields and high levels of deuterium incorporation were observed. A reaction conducted in equimolar H2O and D2O showed 2.7 times greater incorporation of hydrogen atom as compared to deuterium. This is consistent with the H+ and D+ ion concentrations in H2O and D2O, respectively. With appropriately deuterated precursors, partially to fully deuterated triazoles were assembled where the final deuterium atom was incorporated in the triazole-forming step. PMID:23016757

  10. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  11. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  13. Metabolic engineering strategies for acetoin and 2,3-butanediol production: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-12-01

    Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) have a large number of industrial applications. The production of acetoin and 2,3-BD has traditionally relied on oil supplies. Microbial production of acetoin and 2,3-BD will alleviate the dependence on oil. Acetoin and 2,3-BD are neighboring metabolites in the 2,3-BD metabolic pathway of bacteria. This review summarizes metabolic engineering strategies for improvement of microbial acetoin and 2,3-BD production. We also propose enhancements to current acetoin and 2,3-BD production strategies, by offering a metabolic engineering approach that is guided by systems biology and synthetic biology.

  14. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  15. Investigation of relationship between 2,3-butanediol toxicity and production during growth of Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Christopher Chukwudi; Ujor, Victor; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2017-01-25

    Understanding the capacity of Paenibacillus polymyxa DSM 365 to tolerate increasing concentrations of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is critical to engineering a 2,3-BD-overproducing strain. Hence, we investigated the response of P. polymyxa to high 2,3-BD concentrations. In fed-batch cultures (6-L bioreactor) 2,3-BD was accumulated to a maximum concentration of 47g/L despite the presence of residual 13g/L glucose in the medium. Concomitantly, accumulation of acetoin, the precursor of 2,3-BD increased after maximum 2,3-BD concentration was reached, suggesting that 2,3-BD was reconverted to acetoin after the concentration tolerance threshold of 2,3-BD was exceeded. Cultures of P. polymyxa were then challenged with levo-2,3-BD (20, 40 and 60g/L) at 0h in a glucose medium, and a concentration dependent growth inhibition response to levo-2,3-BD was observed. The growth of P. polymyxa was completely inhibited by 60g/L levo-2,3-BD. Furthermore, P. polymyxa was challenged with incremental 2,3-BD concentrations (20, 40 and 60g/L at 12, 24 and 36h, respectively) to mimic 2,3-BD accumulation during fermentation. Interestingly, 2,3-BD was reconverted to acetoin when its concentration reached 60g/L, possibly to alleviate 2,3-BD toxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that 2,3-BD-mediated toxicity is a major metabolic impediment to 2,3-BD overproduction, thus, making it an important metabolic engineering target towards rational design of a 2,3-BD-overproducing strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectroscopy of the helium 2 3S 2 3P transition above 0.01 Tesla application to optical pumping studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtade, E.; Marion, F.; Nacher, P. J.; Tastevin, G.; Dohnalik, T.; Kiersnowski, K.

    2000-08-01

    Optical pumping of helium makes use of the 2 3S-2 3P transition at 1083 nm. We report on a study of this transition in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. Based on these results, an optical method to measure nuclear polarisation in arbitrary field has been developed. Preliminary results on optical pumping at 0.1 T are presented.

  17. Visible light photoredox catalysis: synthesis of indazolo[2,3-a]quinolines from 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chung; Yang, Ding-Yah

    2013-09-20

    The synthesis of indazolo[2,3-a]quinoline derivatives in moderate to good yields from 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines via visible light photoredox catalysis is reported. The reaction involves a novel ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular formation of the N-N bond of the indazole ring.

  18. I. Generation and mechanistic study of t-butyl exo-methylene-substituted 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans and a thiophene analogue. II. Generation and study of the dimerization of alkyl ring-substituted 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans. III. Diels-alder reaction of 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran and o-xylylene. IV. Formation of the 2,5-dimethylene-2,5-dihydrothiophene trimer and its synthetic application

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    In Section I, the generation and a mechanistic study of t-butyl exo-methylene-substituted 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans and a thiophene analogue are reported. The results not only unambiguously support the previous proposed two-step mechanism for the dimerization of 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran (1), they also provide them with two of the most unreactive o-quinodimethanes, namely, 2-methylene-3-t-butylmethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran (2), and 2,3-di-t-butylmethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran. In Section II, the preparation and the dimerization of a series of alkyl ring-substituted and carbomethoxy ring-substituted derivatives of 1 are presented. This study concludes that bulky alkyl substituents on the ring of furan monomers do not promote the (4 + 2) dimerization process. In Section III, a Diels-Alder reaction of 1 and its two deuterated analogues with methyl acrylate reveals the presence of a secondary deuterium isotope effect which strongly supports a stepwise mechanism. This conclusion is further strengthened by the fact that the Diels-Alder reaction of 1 with cis dienophiles proceeds non-stereospecifically. A comparison study of o-xylylene with dienophiles reaches the same conclusion. In Section IV, a convenient synthesis of cyclooctadecane from the thiophene trimer of 2,5-dimethylene-2,5-dihydrothiophene is described. This synthesis offers an efficient alternative to existing routes.

  19. Nucleophilic addition to 2,3-pyridyne and synthesis of benzonaphthyridinones.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuesi; Larock, Richard C

    2012-04-01

    A study of the nucleophilic addition of amines to 2,3-pyridyne has been carried out. 2-Aminopyridines have been generated exclusively. A series of benzonaphthyridinones have been synthesized by reacting 2,3-pyridyne and o-aminobenzoates.

  20. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  2. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  3. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  4. Improved production of 2,3-butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by over-expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD(+)-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms.

  5. Improved Production of 2,3-Butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Over-Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Methodology/Principal Findings In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Conclusions/Significance Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe

  6. Deletion of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene budC for enhanced D-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background D-2,3-butanediol has many industrial applications such as chiral reagents, solvents, anti-freeze agents, and low freezing point fuels. Traditional D-2,3-butanediol producing microorganisms, such as Klebsiella pneumonia and K. xoytoca, are pathogenic and not capable of producing D-2,3-butanediol at high optical purity. Bacillus licheniformis is a potential 2,3-butanediol producer but the wild type strain (WX-02) produces a mix of D- and meso-type isomers. BudC in B. licheniformis is annotated as 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase or acetoin reductase, but no pervious experiment was performed to verify this hypothesis. Results We developed a genetically modified strain of B. licheniformis (WX-02 ΔbudC) as a D-2,3-butanediol producer with high optimal purity. A marker-less gene deletion protocol based on a temperature sensitive knock-out plasmid T2-Ori was used to knock out the budC gene in B. licheniformis WX-02. The budC knock-out strain successfully abolished meso-2,3-butanediol production with enhanced D-2,3-butanediol production. No meso-BDH activity was detectable in cells of this strain. On the other hand, the complementary strain restored the characteristics of wild strain, and produced meso-2,3-butanediol and possessed meso-BDH activity. All of these data suggested that budC encoded the major meso-BDH catalyzing the reversible reaction from acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol in B. licheniformis. The budC knock-out strain produced D-2,3-butanediol isomer only with a high yield of 30.76 g/L and a productivity of 1.28 g/L-h. Conclusions We confirmed the hypothesis that budC gene is responsible to reversibly transfer acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol in B. licheniformis. A mutant strain of B. licheniformis with depleted budC gene was successfully developed and produced high level of the D-2,3-butanediol with high optimal purity. PMID:24475980

  7. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  8. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of compliance...

  9. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of compliance...

  10. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of compliance...

  11. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of compliance...

  12. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of compliance...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene...

  2. 45 CFR 2.3 - Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.3 Policy on Presentation...

  3. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  4. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number 126-72-7...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number 126-72-7...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number 126-72-7...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number 126-72-7...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number 126-72-7...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  15. Microbial hydroxylation of o-bromophenylacetic acid: synthesis of 4-substituted-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Prashant P; Nanduri, Venkata B; Pullockaran, Annie; Christie, Hamish; Mueller, Richard H; Patel, Ramesh N

    2008-08-01

    Microbial hydroxylation of o-bromophenylacetic acid provided 2-bromo-5-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. This enabled a route to the key intermediate 4-bromo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran for synthesizing a melatonin receptor agonist and sodium hydrogen exchange compounds. Pd-mediated coupling reactions of 4-bromo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran provided easy access to the 4-substituted-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

  16. Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-20

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.

  17. Structural Basis of Arp2/3 Complex Inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Olga S; Chemeris, Angelina; Guo, Siyang; Alioto, Salvatore L; Gandhi, Meghal; Padrick, Shae; Pechnikova, Evgeniya; David, Violaine; Gautreau, Alexis; Goode, Bruce L

    2017-01-20

    The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex plays a central role in nucleating the branched actin filament arrays that drive cell migration, endocytosis, and other processes. To better understand Arp2/3 complex regulation, we used single-particle electron microscopy to compare the structures of Arp2/3 complex bound to three different inhibitory ligands: glia maturation factor (GMF), Coronin, and Arpin. Although the three inhibitors have distinct binding sites on Arp2/3 complex, they each induced an "open" nucleation-inactive conformation. Coronin promoted a standard (previously described) open conformation of Arp2/3 complex, with the N-terminal β-propeller domain of Coronin positioned near the p35/ARPC2 subunit of Arp2/3 complex. GMF induced two distinct open conformations of Arp2/3 complex, which correlated with the two suggested binding sites for GMF. Furthermore, GMF synergized with Coronin in inhibiting actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. Arpin, which uses VCA-related acidic (A) motifs to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Furthermore, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF. Together, these data suggest that Arp2/3 complex conformation is highly polymorphic and that its activities can be controlled combinatorially by different inhibitory ligands. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural basis of Arp2/3 complex inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Olga S.; Chemeris, Angelina; Guo, Siyang; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Gandhi, Meghal; Padrick, Shae; Pechnikova, Evgeniya; David, Violaine; Gautreau, Alexis; Goode, Bruce L.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex plays a central role in nucleating the branched actin filament arrays that drive cell migration, endocytosis, and other processes. To better understand Arp2/3 complex regulation, we used single particle electron microscopy to compare the structures of Arp2/3 complex bound to three different inhibitory ligands: GMF, Coronin, and Arpin. Although the three inhibitors have distinct binding sites on Arp2/3 complex, they each induced an ‘open’ nucleation-inactive conformation. Coronin promoted a standard (previously described) open conformation of Arp2/3 complex, with the N-terminal β-propeller domain of Coronin positioned near the p35/ARPC2 subunit of Arp2/3 complex. GMF induced two distinct open conformations of Arp2/3 complex, which correlated with two suggested binding sites for GMF. Further, GMF synergized with Coronin in inhibiting actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. Arpin, which uses VCA-related acidic (A) motifs to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Further, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF. Together, these data suggest that Arp2/3 complex conformation is highly polymorphic and that its activities can be controlled combinatorially by different inhibitory ligands. PMID:27939292

  19. Measurement of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in cells.

    PubMed

    Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard

    2014-08-01

    Recently, the occurrence of 2',3'-cyclic nucleoside monophosphates (2',3'-cNMPs) in addition to 3',5'-cNMPs in mammalian tissues was reported. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the measurement of four 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides, i.e., 2',3'-cAMP, 2',3'-cCMP, 2',3'-cGMP, 2',3'-cUMP, in cell samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax eclipse XCB-C18 (50 mm×4.6 mm; 1.8 μm column; Agilent) connected to a QTRAP5500 system (AB Sciex) operating in positive ionization mode. Calibration curves were constructed in the range 0.41 fmol/μL to 1666.6 fmol/μL for 2',3'-cAMP, 2',3'-cCMP, and 2',3'-cGMP, and 3.3-1666.6 fmol/μL for 2',3'-cUMP, respectively, showing squared correlation coefficients >0.9992. Accuracy and inter- and intra-day precision lay within the required ranges of <20% for LLOQ and <15% for higher concentration levels. The method was applied to the analysis of nucleotides in two different cell lines (Hek293T and HuT-78). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2, 3-butanediol production through insertional inactivation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Du, Jun; Li, Shuang

    2010-02-01

    Ethanol was a major byproduct of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) fermentation by Klebsiella oxytoca ME-UD-3. In order to achieve a high efficiency of 2,3-BD production, K. oxytoca mutants deficient in ethanol formation were successfully constructed by replace the aldA gene coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase with a tetracycline resistance cassette. The results suggested that inactivation of aldA led to a significantly improved 2,3-BD production. The carbon flux to 2,3-BD was enhanced by eliminating the byproducing ethanol and at the same time reducing the accumulation of another byproduct acetoin. At last, by fed-batch culturing of the mutant, the final 2,3-BD titer up to 130 g/l with the productivity of 1.63 g/l.h and the 2,3-BD yield relative to glucose of 0.48 g/g was obtained.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Ye-Gi; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a work horse for production of valuable biofuels and biochemicals including 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), a platform chemical with wide industrial applications for synthetic rubber, biosolvents and food additives. Recently, a cutting-edge technology of metabolic engineering has enabled S. cerevisiae to produce 2,3-BDO with high yield and productivity. These include (i) amplification of the 2,3-BDO biosynthetic pathway, (ii) redirection of carbon flux from ethanol or glycerol toward 2,3-BDO, and (iii) 2,3-BDO production from sugars derived from renewable biomass. These breakthroughs enforced S. cerevisiae to become a promising microbial host for production of 2,3-BDO.

  2. Cascade Amination/Cyclization/Aromatization Process for the Rapid Construction of [2,3-c]Dihydrocarbazoles and [2,3-c]Carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Yu, Liu-Zhu; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2017-09-01

    An intramolecular cascade amination/cyclization/aromatization reaction of functionalized alkylidenecyclopropanes has been developed in the presence of silver acetate, affording a variety of [2,3-c]dihydrocarbazoles and [2,3-c]carbazoles in moderate to excellent yields. The mechanistic investigations revealed that this cascade reaction proceeds through a radical initiated process. Moreover, further transformations for the synthesis of eustifoline-D and an OLED exhibit a potential synthetic utility of this method.

  3. Condensed imidazo-1,2,4-azines. 15. Reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglenko, V.P.; Gnidets, V.P.; Klyuev, N.A.; Povstyanoi, M.V.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione in acetic acid gave a mixture of 2-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino (2,3-..cap alpha..)-benzimidazol-4H-3-one and 3-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazol-1H-2-one, the intramolecular cyclization of which gave isomeric 2-phenylfuro-(5,4-e)- and 2-phenylfuro(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazoles. Only the corresponding furo(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazole was isolated when the reaction was carried out in sulfuric acid. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a UR-20 spectrometer. The electronic absorption spectra of solutions in dioxane were obtained with a Specord UV-vis spectrophotometer. The mass spectra were recorded with a Varian MAT-311a spectrometer. The quantum-chemical calculations were made by the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) method with the standard parametrization.

  4. The Oxime Derivatives of 1-R-1H-Naphtho[2.3-d][1.2.3]triazole-4.9-dione 2-oxides: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Shtil, Alexander A; Gornostaev, Leonid M; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Markova, Alina A; Lavrikova, Tatyana I; Khalyavina, Yulia G; Kuznetsova, Anastasia S; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Shunayev, Alexei V; Tsvetkova, Maria V; Glazunova, Valeria A; Chernyshev, Vladimir V

    2017-03-27

    Derivatives of naphthoquinone, although potent anticancer agents, can exert heart toxicity due to generation of free oxygen species. In this study we modified the scaffold by replacing one carbonyl group with the oxime moiety. Interestingly, only one carbonyl group in 1-R-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-4,9-dione 2-oxides reacted with hydroxylamine. The resulting 1-R-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-4,9-dione 4-oxime 2-oxides were further acylated to produce a series of 1-R-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-4,9-dione 4-(O-acyloxime) 2-oxides. Newly synthesized compounds demonstrated a higher (in submicromolar or low micromolar range) cytotoxic potency against human colon and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines than to non-malignant skin fibroblasts. Spectroscopic measurements revealed that, unlike other classes of quinone derivatives, new naphthotriazoledione oxides did not form stable complexes with double stranded DNA regardless of their fitting to the DNA minor groove (as determined by molecular modeling). Thus, our chemical modifications yielded a new chemotype with good cytotoxic properties and yet-to-be-identified intracellular target(s). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. POPCORN FLAVORING EFFECTS ON REACTIVITY OF RAT AIRWAYS IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Thompson, Janet A.; Ponnoth, Dovenia S.; Cumpston, Amy M.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Jackson, Mark C.; Kashon, Michael L.; Frazer, David G.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Shimko, Michael J.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    “Popcorn workers’ lung” is an obstructive pulmonary disease produced by inhalation of volatile artificial butter flavorings. In rats, inhalation of diacetyl, a major component of butter flavoring, and inhalation of a diacetyl substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, produce similar damage to airway epithelium. The effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione and mixtures of diacetyl, acetic acid, and acetoin, all components of butter flavoring, on pulmonary function and airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) were investigated. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were negligibly changed 18 h after a 6-h inhalation exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione (100–360 ppm). Reactivity to MCh was not markedly changed after diacetyl, but was modestly decreased after 2,3-pentanedione inhalation. Inhaled diacetyl exerted essentially no effect on reactivity to mucosally applied MCh, but 2,3-pentanedione (320 and 360 ppm) increased reactivity to MCh in the isolated, perfused trachea preparation (IPT). In IPT, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione (≥3 mM) applied to the serosal and mucosal surfaces of intact and epithelium-denuded tracheas initiated transient contractions followed by relaxations. Inhaled acetoin (150 ppm) exerted no effect on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in vivo; acetic acid (27 ppm) produced hyperreactivity to MCh; and exposure to diacetyl + acetoin + acetic acid (250 + 150 + 27 ppm) led to a diacetyl-like reduction in reactivity. Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism. PMID:23941636

  6. Popcorn flavoring effects on reactivity of rat airways in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Eric J; Thompson, Janet A; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Jackson, Mark C; Kashon, Michael L; Frazer, David G; Hubbs, Ann F; Shimko, Michael J; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    "Popcorn workers' lung" is an obstructive pulmonary disease produced by inhalation of volatile artificial butter flavorings. In rats, inhalation of diacetyl, a major component of butter flavoring, and inhalation of a diacetyl substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, produce similar damage to airway epithelium. The effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione and mixtures of diacetyl, acetic acid, and acetoin, all components of butter flavoring, on pulmonary function and airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) were investigated. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were negligibly changed 18 h after a 6-h inhalation exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione (100-360 ppm). Reactivity to MCh was not markedly changed after diacetyl, but was modestly decreased after 2,3-pentanedione inhalation. Inhaled diacetyl exerted essentially no effect on reactivity to mucosally applied MCh, but 2,3-pentanedione (320 and 360 ppm) increased reactivity to MCh in the isolated, perfused trachea preparation (IPT). In IPT, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione (≥3 mM) applied to the serosal and mucosal surfaces of intact and epithelium-denuded tracheas initiated transient contractions followed by relaxations. Inhaled acetoin (150 ppm) exerted no effect on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in vivo; acetic acid (27 ppm) produced hyperreactivity to MCh; and exposure to diacetyl + acetoin + acetic acid (250 + 150 + 27 ppm) led to a diacetyl-like reduction in reactivity. Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism.

  7. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241. PMID:26753612

  8. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-12

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241.

  9. Engineering Bacillus licheniformis for the production of meso-2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yimin; Zhang, Jinyan; Li, Lu; Wen, Zhiyou; Nomura, Christopher T; Wu, Shuilin; Chen, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) can be used as a liquid fuel additive to replace petroleum oil, and as an important platform chemical in the pharmaceutical and plastic industries. Microbial production of 2,3-BD by Bacillus licheniformis presents potential advantages due to its GRAS status, but previous attempts to use this microorganism as a chassis strain resulted in the production of a mix of D-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD isomers. The aim of this work was to develop an engineered strain of B. licheniformis suited to produce the high titers of the pure meso-2,3-BD isomer. Glycerol dehydrogenase (Gdh) was identified as the catalyst for D-2,3-BD biosynthesis from its precursor acetoin in B. licheniformis. The gdh gene was, therefore, deleted from the wild-type strain WX-02 to inhibit the flux of acetoin to D-2,3-BD biosynthesis. The acoR gene involved in acetoin degradation through AoDH ES was also deleted to provide adequate flux from acetoin towards meso-2,3-BD. By re-directing the carbon flux distribution, the double-deletion mutant WX-02ΔgdhΔacoR produced 28.2 g/L of meso-2,3-BD isomer with >99 % purity. The titer was 50 % higher than that of the wide type. A bench-scale fermentation by the double-deletion mutant was developed to further improve meso-2,3-BD production. In a fed-batch fermentation, meso-2,3-BD titer reached 98.0 g/L with a purity of >99.0 % and a productivity of 0.94 g/L-h. This work demonstrates the potential of producing meso-2,3-BD with high titer and purity through metabolic engineering of B. licheniformis.

  10. 2,3-butanediol production from cellobiose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hong; Seo, Seung-Oh; Oh, Eun Joong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2014-06-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass is a critical step towards energy sustainability and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Microbial cells have been engineered for producing chemicals from cellulosic sugars. Among these chemicals, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a compound of interest due to its diverse applications. While microbial production of 2,3-BDO with high yields and productivities has been reported, there are concerns associated with utilization of potential pathogenic bacteria and inefficient utilization of cellulosic sugars. To address these problems, we engineered 2,3-BDO production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially from cellobiose, a prevalent sugar in cellulosic hydrolysates. Specifically, we overexpressed alsS and alsD from Bacillus subtilis to convert pyruvate into 2,3-BDO via α-acetolactate and acetoin in an engineered cellobiose fermenting S. cerevisiae. Under oxygen-limited conditions, the resulting strain was able to produce 2,3-BDO. Still, major carbon flux went to ethanol, resulting in substantial amounts of ethanol produced as a byproduct. To enhance pyruvate flux to 2,3-BDO through elimination of the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction, we employed a deletion mutant of both PDC1 and PDC5 for producing 2,3-BDO. When a cellobiose utilization pathway, consisting of a cellobiose transporter and intracellular β-glucosidase, and the 2,3-BDO producing pathway were introduced in a pyruvate decarboxylase deletion mutant, the resulting strain produced 2,3-BDO without ethanol production from cellobiose under oxygen-limited conditions. A titer of 5.29 g/l 2,3-BDO with a productivity of 0.22 g/l h and yield of 0.29 g 2,3-BDO/g cellobiose was attained. These results suggest the possibility of producing 2,3-BDO safely and sustainably from cellulosic hydrolysates.

  11. Synthesis and antihistaminic activity of 3H-benzo [4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-ones

    PubMed Central

    Viswanatha, Gollapalle L.; Priyadarshini, B. Janaki; Krishnadas, Nandakumar; Janardhanan, Saravanan; Rangappa, Srinath; Hanumanthappa, Shylaja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the antihistaminic activity of tricyclic benzothieno 1,2,3-triazine derivatives namely CP-3 (3-(phenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one), CP-5 (3-(3-methyl phenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one) and CP-8 (3-(4-chloro phenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one) were evaluated using in vitro (isolated guinea pig ileum) and in vivo (bronchodilator activity in guinea pigs) models and the sedative potential of the test compounds were evaluated using actophotometer in mice. In in vitro antihistaminic study, the CP-3, CP-5, CP-8 and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) have shown a rightward shift in concentration response curve (CRC) of histamine with a change in EC50 values of histamine in all the four tissue preparations. The slope obtained in the schild plot indicated that CP-5, CP-8 and CPM were competitive in nature for H1-receptors. However, CP-3 has shown non-competitive antagonism. In in vivo antihistaminic study, the CP-3, CP-5, CP-8 and CPM have shown mean increase in exposition time against histamine challenge compared to control group (p < 0.001). All the test drugs (10 mg/kg) and CPM (2 mg/kg) have offered a significant (p < 0.001) protection against preconvulsive dyspnoea (PCD) compared to control. In conclusion, all the test drugs have shown very good antihistaminic activity and the test drugs have very little sedative action compared to CPM. PMID:24109203

  12. Synthesis of aluminum hydrazides by hydroalumination of 2,3-diazabutadienes--formation of an Al4(N2)3 cage compound and an Al3(N2)3 macrocyclic ligand.

    PubMed

    Uhl, W; Molter, J; Neumüller, B

    2001-04-01

    Treatment of 1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-2,3-diazabutadiene with the alane adduct [AlH3(NMe2Et)] yielded the hydrazine derivative (AlH2)2-(AlH)2(N2iPr2)3 (1) by the hydroalumination of both C N double bonds. Compound 1 has a complicated cage structure formed by three hydrazido groups and four aluminium atoms. As a particularly interesting structural motif it contains a N-N group side-on-coordinated to one aluminium atom through its lone pairs of electrons. Sublimation of 1 gave a heterocubane-type compound (HAlNiPr)4 (2) by the complete cleavage of all N-N bonds, one face of which is bridged by weakly coordinated diisopropyldiazene with a N-N double bond. Repeated sublimation gave the pure, unsupported heterocubane molecule 3. Heating of the rough product of the reaction of alane and diazabutadiene to 90 degrees C in a closed vessel yielded another product Al(AlH2)3(N2iPr2)3 (4), which contains a cyclic chelating ligand formed by three hydrazido groups and three aluminium atoms. This heterocycle coordinates a fourth aluminum atom in the molecular center by close contacts to all six nitrogen atoms. A strongly flattened, distorted octahedral coordination sphere results for the inner metal atom.

  13. Synthesis, antitubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities of 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mojahidul; Siddiqui, Anees A; Rajesh, Ramadoss

    2008-01-01

    A series of 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-ones has been synthesized. An appropriate aromatic hydrocarbon reacts with succinic anhydride in presence of AlCl3 to yield beta-aroyl propionic acid. The corresponding acid was cyclized with hydrazine hydrate to give 6-(substituted aryl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-pyridazinone, which was heated on steam bath with phosphorus(V) oxychloride to yield 3-chloro 6-substituted phenyl pyridazine. This intermediate after reaction with hydrazine hydrate was converted into 3-hydrazino-6-substituted phenyl pyridazine. The resulting product was converted into 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one by reacting with substituted aroyl propionic acid. Spectral data (IR, NMR, mass spectra) confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro antitubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results indicated that the synthesized compounds have mild to potent activities with reference to their appropriate reference standards.

  14. Inhibitory effect of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides on infectivity, cytopathic effects, and replication of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Y; Nakashima, H; Matsui, T; Matsuda, A; Ueda, T; Yamamoto, N

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. In this report, we demonstrate the antiviral effect of nucleoside analogs 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (DHT) and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DHC) by using human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-carrying MT-4 cells, which are extremely susceptible to HIV infection. These agents efficiently inhibited the cytopathic effects and expression of HIV-specific antigens in MT-4 cells after infection of the virus. Both DHT and DHC also strongly blocked viral replication as determined by our quantitative bioassay system using a plaque-forming assay. These antiviral effects were obtained at concentrations at which the drugs produced little or no toxicity and were comparable to those with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. These findings warrant further investigation of the use of DHT and DHC for the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. PMID:3039911

  15. Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol by a newly-isolated strain of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Litao; Gao, Songsong; Yu, Yue; Yang, Hongjiang

    2014-05-01

    A newly-isolated strain of Serratia marcescens, G12, was characterized for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production. In shake-flask and batch fermentations, 2,3-BD reached 48.5 and 51 g l(-1), respectively. Low amounts of (~8 g l(-1)) of acetoin were also formed. In fed-batch fermentations, strain G12 produced 72.8 g 2,3-BD l(-1) with glucose initially at 130 g l(-1). When aeration rate was increased to 2.5 vvm for the fermentation process, 2,3-BD reached 87.8 g l(-1) and the highest productivity was 1.6 g l(-1 )h(-1). Acetoin was at 6.2 g l(-1). G12 therefore may be a suitable candidate strain for large-scale production of 2,3-BD.

  16. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine-triphosphate in cretins living at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Adams, W H

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in the red cells of cretins and normal controls living at 3,700 m in the Nepal Himalayas has shown that 2,3-DPG and ATP levels were higher in the cretins. A negative correlation between hemoglobin and 2.3-DPG level was found. Chronic hypoxia appears to have provided the additional stress required to differentiate the significance of thyroid hormone deficiency in producing anemia from its effect on 2,3-DPG levels. If thyroid hormone is in fact one regulator of 2,3-DPG, the anemia of hypothyroidism appears to be more significant. This also suggest that the anemia of hypothyroidism, is at least in part, "pathologic" as opposed to "adaptive".

  18. Lack of detectable metabolism for solubilized 2,3,4-trimethylpentane by rat kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    DelRaso, N J; Mattie, D R; Godin, C S

    1990-12-01

    Primary proximal tubule suspension cultures exposed to solubilized 2,3,4-trimethylpentane (2,3,4-TMP) resulted in a linear dose response, as determined by cellular lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The EC50 for 2,3,4-TMP was 16.3 mM. Metabolite analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of supernate and cell extracts from cultures exposed to 2,3,4-TMP (12.0 mM) failed to detect the presence of metabolites. Electron-microscopic examination of proximal tubules exposed to 2,3,4-TMP indicated ultrastructural changes that included increased mitochondrial swelling, increased vesiculation, decreased microvilli and pyknotic nuclei. This study indicates that kidney proximal tubules do not appear to metabolize 2,3,4-TMP.

  19. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN P...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN P...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN P...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN P...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN P...

  4. Process for preparing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  5. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L. [Martinez, CA; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  6. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, F.L.; Raymond, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to a compound of the formula given in the patent wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO[sub 3]H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes. No Drawings

  7. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. 177.841... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.841 Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. (See also § 177... by other appropriate method, and the marking removed. (b) (c) Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) or...

  8. Industrial Production of 2,3-Butanediol from the Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongmo; Kim, Borim; Kim, Hyunsu; Kweon, Yuhyeon; Lee, Soojin; Lee, Jinwon

    2015-08-01

    The platform chemical 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a valuable product that can be converted into several petroleum-based chemicals via simple chemical reactions. Here, we produced 2,3-BDO with the non-pathogenic and rapidly growing Corynebacterium glutamicum. To enhance the 2,3-BDO production capacity of C. glutamicum, we introduced budA encoding acetolactate decarboxylase from Klebsiella pneumoniae, a powerful 2,3-BDO producer. Additionally, budB (encoding α-acetolactate synthase) and budC (encoding acetoin reductase) were introduced from K. pneumoniae to reinforce the carbon flux in the 2,3-BDO production. Because budC had a negative effect on 2,3-BDO production in C. glutamicum, the budB and budA introduced strain, SGSC102, was selected for 2,3-BDO production, and batch culture was performed at 30 °C, 250 rpm and pH 6.86 with pure glucose, molasses, and cassava powder as carbon substrates. After batch culture, significant amount of 2,3-BDO (18.9 and 12.0 g/L, respectively) was produced from 80 g/L of pure glucose and cassava powder.

  9. New insights into the regulation and cellular functions of the ARP2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Rotty, Jeremy D; Wu, Congying; Bear, James E

    2013-01-01

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex nucleates branched actin filament networks, but requires nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) to stimulate this activity. NPFs include proteins such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), neural WASP (NWASP), WASP family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE; also known as SCAR) and the recently identified WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The mechanisms underlying NPF-dependent regulation and the cellular functions of ARP2/3 are being unravelled using new chemical and genetic approaches. Of particular interest is the role of the ARP2/3 complex in vesicular trafficking and directional cell motility.

  10. Nucleosides of 4-methylthio-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shingarova, I.D.; Yartseva, I.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, M.N.

    1987-08-01

    2-..beta..-D-Ribofuranosyl-4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole was obtained by fusing 4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole together with tetraacyl-D-ribofuranose, followed by deacylation, and its amide and hydrazide were prepared. The structures of the new nucleosides were established by converting them into known 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives. By comparing PMR spectra with previously reported PMR spectra for the isomeric 1- and 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives, the synthesized nucleosides could be assigned to 2-substituted triazoles.

  11. Biotransformations of racemic 2,3-allenenitriles in biphasic systems: synthesis and transformations of enantioenriched axially chiral 2,3-allenoic acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ao, Yu-Fei; Wang, De-Xian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2014-04-04

    Catalyzed by Rhodococcus erythropolis AJ270 whole cells in an aqueous phosphate buffer-n-hexane biphasic system, racemic axially chiral 2,3-allenenitriles underwent hydrolysis to afford enantioenriched (aR)-2,3-allenamides and (aS)-2,3-allenoic acids with ee's up to >99.5%. Overall biotransformations proceeded through the nitrile hydratase-catalyzed efficient but nonselective hydration of nitriles followed by the amide hydrolysis catalyzed by the substrate-dependent enantioselective amidase. The application of the method has been demonstrated by the transformations of the resulting allene products into highly functionalized heterocyclic compounds with axial chirality of reactants being entirely transferred into or expressed as point chirality of products.

  12. Charting the Chemical Reactivity Space of 2,3-Substituted Furo[2,3-b]pyridines Synthesized via the Heterocyclization of Pyridine-N-oxide Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Fernando; da Silva Emery, Flavio

    2016-11-04

    A concise strategy for the synthesis of 2,3-substituted furo[2,3-b]pyridines is described. Mild, metal-free conditions were successfully applied to produce a range of 2-(alkyl or aryl)-3-ethylcarboxylate-furo[2,3-b]pyridines in yields of 50-91%. Then, the chemical reactivity of this heterocyclic framework was explored to develop straightforward methods for its functionalization. The pyridine moiety reactivity was successfully explored by C-H amination and borylation reactions, although C-H fluorination and radical C-H arylation processes were not as efficient. In addition, while the furopyridine core proved stable under basic conditions, the ring-opening reaction of the furan moiety with hydrazine generated a valuable new pyridine-dihydropyrazolone scaffold.

  13. Crystal structures of two 2,3-di­ethyl­naphtho­[2,3-g]quinoxaline-6,11-dione derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    Two new 5,12-disubstituted 2,3-di­ethyl­naphtho­[2,3-g]quinoxaline-6,11-dione compounds were readily synthesized from the commercial dye quinizarin. For 2,3-diethyl-5,12-di­hydroxy­naphtho­[2,3-g]quinoxaline-6,11-dione, (II), C20H16N2O4, the mol­ecule displays a near planar conformation and both hy­droxy groups participate in intra­molecular O—H⋯O(carbon­yl) hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, π–π ring inter­actions [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.5493 (9) Å] form stacks of co-planar mol­ecules down the c axis, while only minor inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions are present. In contrast, in 2,3-diethyl-5,12-bis­(piperidin-1-yl)naphtho­[2,3-g]quinoxaline-6,11-dione, (IV), C30H34N4O2, which contains two independent, but similar, mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, the polycyclic cores have a significant twist, with dihedral angles of 29.79 (6) and 29.31 (7)° between the terminal rings and only minor inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions are present. Electron density associated with additional solvent mol­ecules disordered about a fourfold axis was accounted for using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. PMID:28932420

  14. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  15. Efficient synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones catalyzed by dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in aqueous media under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Hua; Li, Ji-Tai; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives catalyzed by dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid was carried out in 80-92% yields at 40-42 °C within 1-2 h in aqueous media via one-pot three-component condensation of isatoic anhydride, aromatic aldehyde and amine under ultrasound irradiation. Convenient work-up procedures, mild reaction conditions, avoiding the use of organic solvents, and friendly to environment are the salient features of this protocol.

  16. Bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs to marine benthos from passaic river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, N.I.; Pruell, R.J.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta) and shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment from the Passaic River, New Jersey for up to 180 days. Worms accumulated the highest concentrations of these compounds. Uptake and depuration rates were slowest in the worms and most rapid in the clams.

  17. Stereospecificity of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and implications for the stereochemical purity of bioproduced 2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Radoš, Dušica; Turner, David L; Catarino, Teresa; Hoffart, Eugenia; Neves, Ana Rute; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian; Santos, Helena

    2016-12-01

    The stereochemistry of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis in microbial fermentations is important for many applications. In this work, we showed that Corynebacterium glutamicum endowed with the Lactococcus lactis genes encoding α-acetolactate synthase and decarboxylase activities produced meso-2,3-BD as the major end product, meaning that (R)-acetoin is a substrate for endogenous 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH) activity. This is curious in view of the reported absolute stereospecificity of C. glutamicum BDH for (S)-acetoin (Takusagawa et al. Biosc Biotechnol Biochem 65:1876-1878, 2001). To resolve this discrepancy, the enzyme encoded by butA (Cg) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and the stereospecific properties of the pure protein were examined. Activity assays monitored online by (1)H-NMR using racemic acetoin and an excess of NADH showed an initial, fast production of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD, followed by a slow (∼20-fold lower apparent rate) formation of meso-2,3-BD. Kinetic parameters for (S)-acetoin, (R)-acetoin, meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-BD were determined by spectrophotometric assays. V max values for (S)-acetoin and (R)-acetoin were 119 ± 15 and 5.23 ± 0.06 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), and K m values were 0.23 ± 0.02 and 1.49 ± 0.07 mM, respectively. We conclude that C. glutamicum BDH is not absolutely specific for (S)-acetoin, though this is the preferred substrate. Importantly, the low activity of BDH with (R)-acetoin was sufficient to support high yields of meso-2,3-BD in the engineered strain C. glutamicum ΔaceEΔpqoΔldhA(pEKEx2-als,aldB,butA (Cg) ). Additionally, we found that the BDH activity was nearly abolished upon inactivation of butA (Cg) (from 0.30 ± 0.03 to 0.004 ± 0.001 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)), indicating that C. glutamicum expresses a single BDH under the experimental conditions examined.

  18. Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives☆

    PubMed Central

    Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ω-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

  19. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for chiral pure meso-2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Huo, Guangxin; Feng, Lili; Mao, Yufeng; Wang, Zhiwen; Ma, Hongwu; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) with low toxicity to microbes, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production. However, most of the 2,3-BD producers are opportunistic pathogens that are not suitable for industrial-scale fermentation. In our previous study, wild-type Bacillus subtilis 168, as a class I microorganism, was first found to generate only d-(-)-2,3-BD (purity >99 %) under low oxygen conditions. In this work, B. subtilis was engineered to produce chiral pure meso-2,3-BD. First, d-(-)-2,3-BD production was abolished by deleting d-(-)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase coding gene bdhA, and acoA gene was knocked out to prevent the degradation of acetoin (AC), the immediate precursor of 2,3-BD. Next, both pta and ldh gene were deleted to decrease the accumulation of the byproducts, acetate and l-lactate. We further introduced the meso-2,3-BD dehydrogenase coding gene budC from Klebsiella pneumoniae CICC10011, as well as overexpressed alsSD in the tetra-mutant (ΔacoAΔbdhAΔptaΔldh) to achieve the efficient production of chiral meso-2,3-BD. Finally, the pool of NADH availability was further increased to facilitate the conversion of meso-2,3-BD from AC by overexpressing udhA gene (coding a soluble transhydrogenase) and low dissolved oxygen control during the cultivation. Under microaerobic oxygen conditions, the best strain BSF9 produced 103.7 g/L meso-2,3-BD with a yield of 0.487 g/g glucose in the 5-L batch fermenter, and the titer of the main byproduct AC was no more than 1.1 g/L. This work offered a novel strategy for the production of chiral pure meso-2,3-BD in B. subtilis. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that metabolic engineered B. subtilis could produce chiral meso-2,3-BD with high purity under limited oxygen conditions. These results further demonstrated that B. subtilis as a class I microorganism is a competitive industrial-level meso-2,3-BD producer.

  20. Metabolic engineering of Zymomonas mobilis for 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass sugars

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Shihui; Mohagheghi, Ali; Franden, Mary Ann; ...

    2016-09-02

    To develop pathways for advanced biofuel production, and to understand the impact of host metabolism and environmental conditions on heterologous pathway engineering for economic advanced biofuels production from biomass, we seek to redirect the carbon flow of the model ethanologen Zymomonas mobilis to produce desirable hydrocarbon intermediate 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). 2,3-BDO is a bulk chemical building block, and can be upgraded in high yields to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathways from various bacterial species were examined, which include three genes encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase. Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to pinpoint potential bottlenecks formore » high 2,3-BDO production. Different combinations of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis metabolic pathways using genes from different bacterial species have been constructed. Our results demonstrated that carbon flux can be deviated from ethanol production into 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, and all three heterologous genes are essential to efficiently redirect pyruvate from ethanol production for high 2,3-BDO production in Z. mobilis. The down-selection of best gene combinations up to now enabled Z. mobilis to reach the 2,3-BDO production of more than 10 g/L from glucose and xylose, as well as mixed C6/C5 sugar streams derived from the deacetylation and mechanical refining process. In conclusion, this study confirms the value of integrating bioinformatics analysis and systems biology data during metabolic engineering endeavors, provides guidance for value-added chemical production in Z. mobilis, and reveals the interactions between host metabolism, oxygen levels, and a heterologous 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, this work provides guidance for future metabolic engineering efforts aimed at boosting 2,3-BDO titer anaerobically.« less

  1. Efficient bioconversion of 2,3-butanediol into acetoin using Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuqing; Lv, Min; Zhang, Lijie; Li, Kun; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-10-31

    2,3-Butanediol is a platform and fuel biochemical that can be efficiently produced from biomass. However, a value-added process for this chemical has not yet been developed. To expand the utilization of 2,3-butanediol produced from biomass, an improved derivative process of 2,3-butanediol is desirable. In this study, a Gluconobacter oxydans strain DSM 2003 was found to have the ability to transform 2,3-butanediol into acetoin, a high value feedstock that can be widely used in dairy and cosmetic products, and chemical synthesis. All three stereoisomers, meso-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol, could be transformed into acetoin by the strain. After optimization of the bioconversion conditions, the optimum growth temperature for acetoin production by strain DSM 2003 was found to be 30°C and the medium pH was 6.0. With an initial 2,3-butanediol concentration of 40 g/L, acetoin at a high concentration of 89.2 g/L was obtained from 2,3-butanediol by fed-batch bioconversion with a high productivity (1.24 g/L · h) and high yield (0.912 mol/mol). G. oxydans DSM 2003 is the first strain that can be used in the direct production of acetoin from 2,3-butanediol. The product concentration and yield of the novel process are both new records for acetoin production. The results demonstrate that the method developed in this study could provide a promising process for efficient acetoin production and industrially produced 2,3-butanediol utilization.

  2. Redistribution of carbon flux toward 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Borim; Lee, Soojin; Jeong, Daun; Yang, Jeongmo; Oh, Min-Kyu; Lee, Jinwon

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2242 has high potential in the production of a high-value chemical, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). However, accumulation of metabolites such as lactate during cell growth prevent large-scale production of 2,3-BDO. Consequently, we engineered K. pneumoniae to redistribute its carbon flux toward 2,3-BDO production. The ldhA gene deletion and gene overexpression (budA and budB) were conducted to block a pathway that competitively consumes reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and to redirect carbon flux toward 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, respectively. These steps allowed efficient glucose conversion to 2,3-BDO under slightly acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The engineered strain SGSB105 showed a 40% increase in 2,3-BDO production from glucose compared with that of the host strain, SGSB100. Genes closely related to 2,3-BDO biosynthesis were observed at the gene transcription level by cultivating the SGSB100, SGSB103, SGSB104, and SGSB105 strains under identical growth conditions. Transcription levels for budA, budB, and budC increased approximately 10% during the log phase of cell growth relative to that of SGSB100. Transcription levels of 2,3-BDO genes in SGSB105 remained high during the log and stationary phases. Thus, the carbon flux was redirected toward 2,3-BDO production. Data on batch culture and gene transcription provide insight into improving the metabolic network for 2,3-BDO biosynthesis for industrial applications.

  3. Redistribution of Carbon Flux toward 2,3-Butanediol Production in Klebsiella pneumoniae by Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Daun; Yang, Jeongmo; Oh, Min-Kyu; Lee, Jinwon

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2242 has high potential in the production of a high-value chemical, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). However, accumulation of metabolites such as lactate during cell growth prevent large-scale production of 2,3-BDO. Consequently, we engineered K. pneumoniae to redistribute its carbon flux toward 2,3-BDO production. The ldhA gene deletion and gene overexpression (budA and budB) were conducted to block a pathway that competitively consumes reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and to redirect carbon flux toward 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, respectively. These steps allowed efficient glucose conversion to 2,3-BDO under slightly acidic conditions (pH 5.5). The engineered strain SGSB105 showed a 40% increase in 2,3-BDO production from glucose compared with that of the host strain, SGSB100. Genes closely related to 2,3-BDO biosynthesis were observed at the gene transcription level by cultivating the SGSB100, SGSB103, SGSB104, and SGSB105 strains under identical growth conditions. Transcription levels for budA, budB, and budC increased approximately 10% during the log phase of cell growth relative to that of SGSB100. Transcription levels of 2,3-BDO genes in SGSB105 remained high during the log and stationary phases. Thus, the carbon flux was redirected toward 2,3-BDO production. Data on batch culture and gene transcription provide insight into improving the metabolic network for 2,3-BDO biosynthesis for industrial applications. PMID:25329548

  4. Metabolic engineering of Zymomonas mobilis for 2,3-butanediol production from lignocellulosic biomass sugars.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shihui; Mohagheghi, Ali; Franden, Mary Ann; Chou, Yat-Chen; Chen, Xiaowen; Dowe, Nancy; Himmel, Michael E; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    To develop pathways for advanced biofuel production, and to understand the impact of host metabolism and environmental conditions on heterologous pathway engineering for economic advanced biofuels production from biomass, we seek to redirect the carbon flow of the model ethanologen Zymomonas mobilis to produce desirable hydrocarbon intermediate 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). 2,3-BDO is a bulk chemical building block, and can be upgraded in high yields to gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathways from various bacterial species were examined, which include three genes encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase. Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to pinpoint potential bottlenecks for high 2,3-BDO production. Different combinations of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis metabolic pathways using genes from different bacterial species have been constructed. Our results demonstrated that carbon flux can be deviated from ethanol production into 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, and all three heterologous genes are essential to efficiently redirect pyruvate from ethanol production for high 2,3-BDO production in Z. mobilis. The down-selection of best gene combinations up to now enabled Z. mobilis to reach the 2,3-BDO production of more than 10 g/L from glucose and xylose, as well as mixed C6/C5 sugar streams derived from the deacetylation and mechanical refining process. This study confirms the value of integrating bioinformatics analysis and systems biology data during metabolic engineering endeavors, provides guidance for value-added chemical production in Z. mobilis, and reveals the interactions between host metabolism, oxygen levels, and a heterologous 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, this work provides guidance for future metabolic engineering efforts aimed at boosting 2,3-BDO titer anaerobically.

  5. Treatment of hypertension by increasing impaired endothelial TRPV4-KCa2.3 interaction.

    PubMed

    He, Dongxu; Pan, Qiongxi; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Chunyuan; Zhang, Peng; Mao, Aiqin; Zhu, Yaodan; Li, Hongjuan; Lu, Chunxiao; Xie, Mingxu; Zhou, Yin; Shen, Daoming; Tang, Chunlei; Yang, Zhenyu; Jin, Jian; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Nilius, Bernd; Ma, Xin

    2017-09-12

    The currently available antihypertensive agents have undesirable adverse effects due to systemically altering target activity including receptors, channels, and enzymes. These effects, such as loss of potassium ions induced by diuretics, bronchospasm by beta-blockers, constipation by Ca(2+) channel blockers, and dry cough by ACEI, lead to non-compliance with therapies (Moser, 1990). Here, based on new hypertension mechanisms, we explored a new antihypertensive approach. We report that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) interacts with Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel 3 (KCa2.3) in endothelial cells (ECs) from small resistance arteries of normotensive humans, while ECs from hypertensive patients show a reduced interaction between TRPV4 and KCa2.3. Murine hypertension models, induced by high-salt diet, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine intake, or angiotensin II delivery, showed decreased TRPV4-KCa2.3 interaction in ECs. Perturbation of the TRPV4-KCa2.3 interaction in mouse ECs by overexpressing full-length KCa2.3 or defective KCa2.3 had hypotensive or hypertensive effects, respectively. Next, we developed a small-molecule drug, JNc-440, which showed affinity for both TRPV4 and KCa2.3. JNc-440 significantly strengthened the TRPV4-KCa2.3 interaction in ECs, enhanced vasodilation, and exerted antihypertensive effects in mice. Importantly, JNc-440 specifically targeted the impaired TRPV4-KCa2.3 interaction in ECs but did not systemically activate TRPV4 and KCa2.3. Together, our data highlight the importance of impaired endothelial TRPV4-KCa2.3 coupling in the progression of hypertension and suggest a novel approach for antihypertensive drug development. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Efficient bioconversion of 2,3-butanediol into acetoin using Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol is a platform and fuel biochemical that can be efficiently produced from biomass. However, a value-added process for this chemical has not yet been developed. To expand the utilization of 2,3-butanediol produced from biomass, an improved derivative process of 2,3-butanediol is desirable. Results In this study, a Gluconobacter oxydans strain DSM 2003 was found to have the ability to transform 2,3-butanediol into acetoin, a high value feedstock that can be widely used in dairy and cosmetic products, and chemical synthesis. All three stereoisomers, meso-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol, could be transformed into acetoin by the strain. After optimization of the bioconversion conditions, the optimum growth temperature for acetoin production by strain DSM 2003 was found to be 30°C and the medium pH was 6.0. With an initial 2,3-butanediol concentration of 40 g/L, acetoin at a high concentration of 89.2 g/L was obtained from 2,3-butanediol by fed-batch bioconversion with a high productivity (1.24 g/L · h) and high yield (0.912 mol/mol). Conclusions G. oxydans DSM 2003 is the first strain that can be used in the direct production of acetoin from 2,3-butanediol. The product concentration and yield of the novel process are both new records for acetoin production. The results demonstrate that the method developed in this study could provide a promising process for efficient acetoin production and industrially produced 2,3-butanediol utilization. PMID:24176113

  7. Identification and biochemical characterization of two novel UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronic acid 2-epimerases from respiratory pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Erin L.; Mcnally, David J.; Rejzek, Martin; Miller, Wayne L.; Kannathasan, Vellupillai Sri; Preston, Andrew; Maskell, Duncan J.; Field, Robert A.; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Lam, Joseph S.

    2007-01-01

    The heteropolymeric O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O5 as well as the band-A trisaccharide from Bordetella pertussis contain the di-N-acetylated mannosaminuronic acid derivative, β-D-ManNAc3NAcA (2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-β-D-mannuronic acid). The biosynthesis of the precursor for this sugar is proposed to require five steps, through which UDP-α-D-GlcNAc (UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine) is converted via four steps into UDP-α-D-GlcNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronic acid), and this intermediate compound is then epimerized by WbpI (P. aeruginosa), or by its orthologue, WlbD (B. pertussis), to form UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid). UDP-α-D-GlcNAc3NAcA, the proposed substrate for WbpI and WlbD, was obtained through chemical synthesis. His6–WbpI and His6–WlbD were overexpressed and then purified by affinity chromatography using FPLC. Capillary electrophoresis was used to analyse reactions with each enzyme, and revealed that both enzymes used UDP-α-D-GlcNAc3NAcA as a substrate, and reacted optimally in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0). Neither enzyme utilized UDP-α-D-GlcNAc, UDP-α-D-GlcNAcA (UDP-2-acetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronic acid) or UDP-α-D-GlcNAc3NAc (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucose) as substrates. His6–WbpI or His6–WlbD reactions with UDP-α-D-GlcNAc3NAcA produce a novel peak with an identical retention time, as shown by capillary electrophoresis. To unambiguously characterize the reaction product, enzyme–substrate reactions were allowed to proceed directly in the NMR tube and conversion of substrate into product was monitored over time through the acquisition of a proton spectrum at regular intervals. Data collected from one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments showed that His6–WbpI catalysed the 2-epimerization of UDP-α-D-GlcNAc3NAcA, converting it into UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA. Collectively, these results provide

  8. Chemistry of 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans and other reactive olefins prepared by the flash vacuum pyrolysis of substituted furylmethyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Cassady, T.J.

    1985-03-01

    The flash vacuum pyrolysis chemistry of a series of methyl-substituted, furfuryl benzoates and methyl-substituted, 3-furylmethyl benzoates has been investigated. Mechanisms were proposed for the formation of the pyrolysis products, from each of the compounds studied, which involved either ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. eliminations of benzoic acid after one or more (3,3) sigmatropic shifts of the benzoate group. These reactions provide a method for the preparation of the bis(methylene)-dihydrofurans which are the furan analogs of the ortho- and para-quinodimethanes, an actively investigated group of reactive intermediates. The chemical reactions of the 2,3-bis(methylene)-2,3-dihydrofurans, which were investigated in this study, included thermal dimerization reactions, Diels-Alder reactions and chelatropic reactions with sulfur dioxide. Pyrolysis of diesters of 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dimethylfuran formed furanoradialene as the only major, nonpolymeric product. Warming the product solutions to room temperature converted furanoradialene into one (4+2) dimer. Several approaches toward the synthesis of (2.2.2.2.)-(2,3,4,5)furanophane were investigated. The failure to produce the desired furanophane was attributed to a retro(4+4) reaction which occurred during the pyrolysis of 4,4'-bis(acetoxymethyl)-5,5'-dimethyl-(2,2)(2,3)furanophane. 277 references, 15 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Phosphine-Catalyzed Annulations of Azomethine Imines: Allene-Dependent [3 + 2], [3 + 3], [4 + 3], and [3 + 2 + 3] Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Na, Risong; Jing, Chengfeng; Xu, Qihai; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Xi; Shi, Jiayan; Zhong, Jiangchun; Wang, Min; Benitez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Goddard, William A.; Guo, Hongchao; Kwon, Ohyun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the phosphine-catalyzed [3 + 2], [3 + 3], [4 + 3], and [3 + 2 + 3] annulations of azomethine imines and allenoates. These processes mark the first use of azomethine imines in nucleophilic phosphine catalysis, producing dinitrogen-fused heterocycles, including tetrahydropyrazolo-pyrazolones, -pyridazinones, -diazepinones, and -diazocinones. Counting the two different reaction modes in the [3 + 3] cyclizations, there are five distinct reaction pathways—the choice of which depends on the structure and chemical properties of the allenoate. All reactions are operationally simple and proceed smoothly under mild reaction conditions, affording a broad range of 1,2-dinitrogen–containing heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. A zwitterionic intermediate formed from a phosphine and two molecules of ethyl 2,3-butadienoate acted as a 1,5-dipole in the annulations of azomethine imines, leading to the [3 + 2 + 3] tetrahydropyrazolodiazocinone products. The incorporation of two molecules of an allenoate into an eight-membered-ring product represents a new application of this versatile class of molecules in nucleophilic phosphine catalysis. The salient features of this protocol—the facile access to a diverse range of nitrogen-containing heterocycles and the simple preparation of azomethine imine substrates—suggest that it might find extensive applications in heterocycle synthesis. PMID:21812448

  10. Improvement of the Cathode Electrolyte Interphase on P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Judith; Ma, Chuze; Wang, Shen; Nguyen, Kimberly; Kodur, Moses; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-08-09

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a commonly used coating technique for lithium ion battery electrodes. Recently, it has been applied to sodium ion battery anode materials. ALD is known to improve the cycling performance, Coulombic efficiency of batteries, and maintain electrode integrity. Here, the electrochemical performance of uncoated P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 electrodes is compared to that of ALD-coated Al2O3 P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 electrodes. Given that ALD coatings are in the early stage of development for NIB cathode materials, little is known about how ALD coatings, in particular aluminum oxide (Al2O3), affect the electrode-electrolyte interface. Therefore, full characterizations of its effects are presented in this work. For the first time, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to elucidate the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) on ALD-coated electrodes. It contains less carbonate species and more inorganic species, which allows for fast Na kinetics, resulting in significant increase in Coulombic efficiency and decrease in cathode impedance. The effectiveness of Al2O3 ALD coating is also surprisingly reflected in the enhanced mechanical stability of the particle which prevents particle exfoliation.

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 2-3 - Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities. Sec. 2-3 Section 2-3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 2-3 - Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities. Sec. 2-3 Section 2-3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin (2...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  17. 41 CFR 302-2.3 - What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation? 302-2.3 Section 302-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  18. Synthesis and acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity of 4-amino-2, 3-diaryl-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydrofuro(and thieno)[2, 3-b]-quinolines, and 4-amino-5, 6, 7, 8, 9-pentahydro-2, 3-diphenylcyclohepta[e]furo(and thieno)-[2, 3-b]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Marco, José L; De Los Ríos, Cristóbal; Carreiras, María C; Baños, Josep E; Badia, Albert; Vivas, Nuria M

    2002-07-01

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition activities of a series of 4-amino-2, 3-diaryl-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydrofuro[2, 3-b]quinolines (10-12)/4-amino-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-2, 3-diphenylthieno[2, 3-b]quinoline (14) and 4-amino-5, 6, 7, 8, 9-pentahydro-2, 3-diphenylcyclohepta[e]furo[2, 3-b]pyridine (13)/4-amino-5, 6, 7, 8, 9-pentahydro-2, 3-phenylcyclohepta[e]thieno[2, 3-b]pyridine (15) are described. These compounds are tacrine (THA) analogues which have been prepared either from readily available 2-amino-3-cyano-4, 5-diarylfurans (16-18) or from 2-amino-3-cyano-4, 5-diphenylthiophene (19), via Friedländer condensation with cyclohexanone or cycloheptanone. These compounds are competitive inhibitors for acetylcholinesterase, the more potent being compound (13) which is three-fold less active than tacrine. The butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity is significant only in compounds 10 and133, which are ten-fold less active than tacrine. It is found that the products 11 and 12 strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and show excellent selectivity regarding butyrylcholinesterase.

  19. Nucleophilic addition to 2,3-pyridyne and synthesis of benzonaphthyridinones

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuesi; Larock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the nucleophilic addition of amines to 2,3-pyridyne has been carried out. 2-Aminopyridines have been generated exclusively. A series of benzonaphthyridinones have been synthesized by reacting 2,3-pyridyne and o-aminobenzoates. PMID:23519554

  20. Screening of novel bacteria for the 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Kallbach, Malee; Horn, Sonja; Kuenz, Anja; Prüße, Ulf

    2017-02-01

    Biotechnologically produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a potential starting material for industrial bulk chemicals such as butadiene or methyl ethyl ketone which are currently produced from fossil feedstocks. So far, the highest 2,3-BDO concentrations have been obtained with risk group 2 microorganisms. In this study, three risk group 1 microorganisms are presented that are so far unknown for an efficient production of 2,3-BDO. The strains Bacillus atrophaeus NRS-213, Bacillus mojavensis B-14698, and Bacillus vallismortis B-14891 were evaluated regarding their ability to produce high 2,3-BDO concentrations with a broad range of different carbon sources. A maximum 2,3-BDO concentration of 60.4 g/L was reached with the strain B. vallismortis B-14891 with an initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L within 55 h in a batch cultivation. Besides glucose, B. vallismortis B-14891 converts 14 different substrates that can be obtained from residual biomass sources to 2,3-BDO. Therefore B. vallismortis B-14891 is a promising candidate for the large-scale production of 2,3-BDO with low-cost substrates.

  1. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in paragraph...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35...+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required by... preliminary plan of operation. The Regional Administrator shall give written approval of these...

  4. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35...+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required by... preliminary plan of operation. The Regional Administrator shall give written approval of these...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  7. Metabolic engineering of a novel Klebsiella oxytoca strain for enhanced 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-Ki; Rathnasingh, Chelladurai; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2013-08-01

    Fermentative 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production has been receiving increasing interest for its potential as a platform chemical intended for the production of synthetic rubbers, plastics, and solvents. In this study, Klebsiella oxytoca GSC 12206, a 2,3-BD native hyper-producing and nonpathogenic bacterium, was isolated from a cattle farm. Since this isolate produced a significant amount of lactic acid along with 2,3-BD, its mutant deficient in lactic acid formation was constructed by disrupting the ldhA gene which encodes lactate dehydrogenase. The ldhA gene was deleted precisely by using the pKGS plasmid. When compared to the wild-type strain, the mutant deleted with the ldhA gene in glucose fermentation resulted in an increase of 54%, 13%, 60%, and 78% of 2,3-BD titer, productivity, yield, and selectivity, respectively. A fed-batch fermentation by this mutant with intermittent glucose feeding produced 115 g/L of 2,3-BD with an yield and productivity of 0.41 g 2,3-BD per g glucose and 2.27 g/L h, respectively, indicating the usefulness for the industrial production of 2,3-BD.

  8. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(2)-3 - Window transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Window transactions. 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(b)(2)-3 Window transactions. (a) Requirement to backup withhold. Withholding under section 3406 applies to a window transaction (as defined in...

  11. 43 CFR 2.3 - Where should you send a FOIA request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where should you send a FOIA request? 2.3...; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY How To Make a Request § 2.3 Where should you send a FOIA request? (a) The Department... records, you must write directly to the bureau that you believe maintains those records. (c) Address...

  12. 43 CFR 2.3 - Where should you send a FOIA request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where should you send a FOIA request? 2.3...; RECORDS AND TESTIMONY How To Make a Request § 2.3 Where should you send a FOIA request? (a) The Department... records, you must write directly to the bureau that you believe maintains those records. (c) Address...

  13. Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  19. Mechanism-based design of 2,3-benzodiazepine inhibitors for AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine (2,3-BDZ) compounds represent a group of structurally diverse, small-molecule antagonists of (R, S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Antagonists of AMPA receptors are drug candidates for potential treatment of a number of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). How to make better inhibitors, such as 2,3-BDZs, has been an enduring quest in drug discovery. Among a few available tools to address this specific question for making better 2,3-BDZs, perhaps the best one is to use mechanistic clues from studies of the existing antagonists to design and discover more selective and more potent antagonists. Here I review recent work in this area, and propose some ideas in the continuing effort of developing newer 2,3-BDZs for tighter control of AMPA receptor activities in vivo. PMID:26713266

  20. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield.

  1. Molecular Structure of WlbB, a Bacterial N-Acetyltransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2010-09-08

    The pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bordetella pertussis contain in their outer membranes the rare sugar 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of this sugar starting from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. One of these, referred to as WlbB, is an N-acetyltransferase that converts UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAc3NA) to UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAc3NAcA). Here we report the three-dimensional structure of WlbB from Bordetella petrii. For this analysis, two ternary structures were determined to 1.43 {angstrom} resolution: one in which the protein was complexed with acetyl-CoA and UDP and the second in which the protein contained bound CoA and UDP-GlcNAc3NA. WlbB adopts a trimeric quaternary structure and belongs to the L{beta}H superfamily of N-acyltransferases. Each subunit contains 27 {beta}-strands, 23 of which form the canonical left-handed {beta}-helix. There are only two hydrogen bonds that occur between the protein and the GlcNAc3NA moiety, one between O{sup {delta}1} of Asn 84 and the sugar C-3{prime} amino group and the second between the backbone amide group of Arg 94 and the sugar C-5{prime} carboxylate. The sugar C-3{prime} amino group is ideally positioned in the active site to attack the si face of acetyl-CoA. Given that there are no protein side chains that can function as general bases within the GlcNAc3NA binding pocket, a reaction mechanism is proposed for WlbB whereby the sulfur of CoA ultimately functions as the proton acceptor required for catalysis.

  2. Enhanced production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol by metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Myoung; Rathnasingh, Chelladurai; Song, Hyohak

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fermentation produces a racemic mixture of 2,3-butanediol ((R,R)-BD, (S,S)-BD, and meso-BD), and the compositions and physiochemical properties vary from microorganism to microorganism. Although the meso form is much more difficult to transport and store because of its higher freezing point than those of the optically active forms, most microorganisms capable of producing 2,3-BD mainly yield meso-2,3-BD. Thus, we developed a metabolically engineered (R,R)-2,3-BD overproducing strain using a Klebsiella oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain, which shows an outstanding 2,3-BD production performance with more than 90 % of the meso form. A budC gene encoding 2,3-BD dehydrogenase in the K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain was replaced with an exogenous gene encoding (R,R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase from Paenibacillus polymyxa (K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB ΔbudC::PBDH strain), and then its expression level was further amplified with using a pBBR1MCS plasmid. The fed-batch fermentation of the K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB ΔbudC::PBDH (pBBR-PBDH) strain with intermittent glucose feeding allowed the production of 106.7 g/L of (R,R)-2,3-BD [meso-2,3-BD, 9.3 g/L], with a yield of 0.40 g/g and a productivity of 3.1 g/L/h, which should be useful for the industrial application of 2,3-BD.

  3. Precision frequency measurements of He,43 2 3P→3 3D transitions at 588 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Peng, Jin-Long; Hu, Jinmeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2016-12-01

    We report the frequency measurements of the 2 3P→3 3D transitions in He,43 at 588 nm using an optical frequency comb stabilized laser system. The Doppler-free spectra of the 2 3P→3 3D transitions are demonstrated in an rf discharged sealed-off helium cell using intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy. The measured absolute frequency of the 4He2 3P0→3 3D1 transition is 510 059 755.352(28) MHz, which is more precise than the previous measurement by two orders of magnitude. The ionization energies of the 4He2 3P0 and 2 3S1 states can be derived from our result and agree very well with the previous experimental values. More importantly, the Lamb shift of the 2 3S1 state can be deduced to be 4057.086(34) MHz, which is two times more precise than the previous result. In addition, the absolute frequencies of the 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D1,3 /2 , 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D1,1 /2 , and 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D2,3 /2 transitions in 3He are measured. Our precision surpasses the theoretical calculations by more than one to two orders of magnitude. The hyperfine separations of the 3 3D states in 3He and the frequency differences between 4He and 3He transitions are also presented.

  4. Production of 2,3-butanediol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol is a chemical compound of increasing interest due to its wide applications. It can be synthesized via mixed acid fermentation of pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses three different 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathways, but produces minute amount of 2,3-butanediol. Hence, we attempted to engineer S. cerevisiae strain to enhance 2,3-butanediol production. Results We first identified gene deletion strategy by performing in silico genome-scale metabolic analysis. Based on the best in silico strategy, in which disruption of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) pathway is required, we then constructed gene deletion mutant strains and performed batch cultivation of the strains. Deletion of three ADH genes, ADH1, ADH3 and ADH5, increased 2,3-butanediol production by 55-fold under microaerobic condition. However, overproduction of glycerol was observed in this triple deletion strain. Additional rational design to reduce glycerol production by GPD2 deletion altered the carbon fluxes back to ethanol and significantly reduced 2,3-butanediol production. Deletion of ALD6 reduced acetate production in strains lacking major ADH isozymes, but it did not favor 2,3-butanediol production. Finally, we introduced 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathway from Bacillus subtilis and E. aerogenes to the engineered strain and successfully increased titer and yield. Highest 2,3-butanediol titer (2.29 g·l-1) and yield (0.113 g·g-1) were achieved by Δadh1 Δadh3 Δadh5 strain under anaerobic condition. Conclusions With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering, we have successfully designed and constructed S. cerevisiae strains with improved 2,3-butanediol production. PMID:22640729

  5. Smad2/3 Proteins Are Required for Immobilization-induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tando, Toshimi; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Funayama, Atsushi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Hao, Wu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Oike, Takatsugu; Miyamoto, Kana; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tomita, Masaru; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-03

    Skeletal muscle atrophy promotes muscle weakness, limiting activities of daily living. However, mechanisms underlying atrophy remain unclear. Here, we show that skeletal muscle immobilization elevates Smad2/3 protein but not mRNA levels in muscle, promoting atrophy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myostatin, which negatively regulates muscle hypertrophy, is dispensable for denervation-induced muscle atrophy and Smad2/3 protein accumulation. Moreover, muscle-specific Smad2/3-deficient mice exhibited significant resistance to denervation-induced muscle atrophy. In addition, expression of the atrogenes Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, which underlie muscle atrophy, did not increase in muscles of Smad2/3-deficient mice following denervation. We also demonstrate that serum starvation promotes Smad2/3 protein accumulation in C2C12 myogenic cells, an in vitro muscle atrophy model, an effect inhibited by IGF1 treatment. In vivo, we observed IGF1 receptor deactivation in immobilized muscle, even in the presence of normal levels of circulating IGF1. Denervation-induced muscle atrophy was accompanied by reduced glucose intake and elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids, effects that were Smad2/3-dependent. Thus, muscle immobilization attenuates IGF1 signals at the receptor rather than the ligand level, leading to Smad2/3 protein accumulation, muscle atrophy, and accompanying metabolic changes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Metabolic engineering of acetoin and meso-2, 3-butanediol biosynthesis in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, David R; Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Yuan, Clara J; Prather, Kristala L J

    2010-03-01

    The functional reconstruction of acetoin and meso-2,3-butanediol (meso-2,3-BD) biosynthetic pathways in Escherichia coli have been explored systematically. Pathway construction involved the in vsivo screening of prospective pathway isozymes of yeast and bacterial origin. After substantial engineering of the host background to increase pyruvate availability, E. coli YYC202(DE3) ldhA(() ilvC( expressing ilvBN from E. coli and aldB from L. lactis (encoding acetolactate synthase and acetolactate decarboxylase activities, respectively) was able to produce up to 870 mg/L acetoin, with no coproduction of diacetyl observed. These strains were also found to produce small quantities of meso-2,3-BD, suggesting the existence of endogenous 2,3-BD dehydrogenase activity. Finally, the coexpression of bdh1 from S. cerevisiae, encoding 2,3-BD dehydrogenase, in this strain resulted in the production of up to 1120 mg/L meso-2,3-BD, with glucose a yield of 0.29 g/g. While disruption of the native lactate biosynthesis pathway increased pyruvate precursor availability to this strain, increased availability of NADH for acetoin reduction to meso-2,3-BD was found to be the most important consequence of ldhA deletion.

  7. Smad2/3 Proteins Are Required for Immobilization-induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Tando, Toshimi; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Funayama, Atsushi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Hao, Wu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Oike, Takatsugu; Miyamoto, Kana; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nomura, Masatoshi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tomita, Masaru; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy promotes muscle weakness, limiting activities of daily living. However, mechanisms underlying atrophy remain unclear. Here, we show that skeletal muscle immobilization elevates Smad2/3 protein but not mRNA levels in muscle, promoting atrophy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myostatin, which negatively regulates muscle hypertrophy, is dispensable for denervation-induced muscle atrophy and Smad2/3 protein accumulation. Moreover, muscle-specific Smad2/3-deficient mice exhibited significant resistance to denervation-induced muscle atrophy. In addition, expression of the atrogenes Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, which underlie muscle atrophy, did not increase in muscles of Smad2/3-deficient mice following denervation. We also demonstrate that serum starvation promotes Smad2/3 protein accumulation in C2C12 myogenic cells, an in vitro muscle atrophy model, an effect inhibited by IGF1 treatment. In vivo, we observed IGF1 receptor deactivation in immobilized muscle, even in the presence of normal levels of circulating IGF1. Denervation-induced muscle atrophy was accompanied by reduced glucose intake and elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids, effects that were Smad2/3-dependent. Thus, muscle immobilization attenuates IGF1 signals at the receptor rather than the ligand level, leading to Smad2/3 protein accumulation, muscle atrophy, and accompanying metabolic changes. PMID:27129272

  8. 2,3-butanediol production from starch by engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae G31-A.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanova, Flora; Petrova, Penka; Petrov, Kaloyan

    2014-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is an organic compound, which is widely used as a fuel and fuel additive and applied in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Contemporary strategies for its economic synthesis include the development of microbial technologies that use starch as cheap and renewable feedstock. The present work encompasses the metabolic engineering of the excellent 2,3-BD producer Klebsiella pneumoniae G31. In order to perform direct starch conversion into 2,3-BD, the amyL gene encoding quite active, liquefying α-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis was cloned under lac promoter control in the recombinant K. pneumoniae G31-A. The enhanced extracellular over-expression of amyL led to the highest extracellular amylase activity (68 U/ml) ever detected in Klebsiella. The recombinant strain was capable of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of potato starch to 2,3-BD. In SSF batch process by the use of 200 g/l starch, the amount of total diols produced was 60.9 g/l (53.8 g/l 2,3-BD and 7.1 g/l acetoin), corresponding to 0.31 g/g conversion rate. The presented results are the first to show successful starch conversion to 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae in a one-step process.

  9. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (-)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers.

  10. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (–)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers. PMID:27651816

  11. 2,3-Dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    James Bound, D; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. Their MIC and MFC values indicated that the 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol and thymol exhibited more fungicidal activity than the other compounds. Further, the 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of carvacrol and thymol, exhibited antitoxigenic effects against A. ochraceus and A. flavus and inhibited the production of ochratoxin and aflatoxin-B2. Propidium iodide influx assay demonstrated the lysis of C. albicans cells by carvacrol and its 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside and the loss of the membrane integrity. These new 2,3-dideoxyglucosides can be useful as antifungal agents and condiments in foods.

  12. Inactivation of the virulence factors from 2,3-butanediol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Duyen Thi Ngoc; Kim, Ah-Young; Seol, In-Hye; Jung, Samuel; Lim, Min-Cheol; Lee, Jeong-A; Jo, Mi-Rae; Choi, Soo-Jin; Kim, Borim; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Wooki; Kim, Young-Rok

    2015-11-01

    The microbiological production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) has attracted considerable attention as an alternative way to produce high-value chemicals from renewable sources. Among the number of 2,3-BDO-producing microorganisms, Klebsiella pneumoniae has been studied most extensively and is known to produce large quantity of 2,3-BDO from a range of substrates. On the other hand, the pathogenic characteristics of the bacteria have limited its industrial applications. In this study, two major virulence traits, outer core LPS and fimbriae, were removed through homologous recombination from 2,3-BDO-producing K. pneumoniae 2242 to expand its uses to the industrial scale. The K. pneumoniae 2242 ∆wabG mutant strain was found to have an impaired capsule, which significantly reduced its ability to bind to the mucous layer and evade the phagocytic activity of macrophage. The association with the human ileocecal epithelial cell, HCT-8, and the bladder epithelial cell, T-24, was also reduced dramatically in the K. pneumoniae 2242 ∆fimA mutant strain that was devoid of fimbriae. However, the growth rate and production yield for 2,3-BDO were unaffected. The K. pneumoniae strains developed in this study, which are devoid of the major virulence factors, have a high potential for the efficient and sustainable production of 2,3-BDO.

  13. Adaptive laboratory evolution of Klebsiella pneumoniae for improving 2,3-butanediol production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbiao; Zhang, Genlin; Dang, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol is limited by the toxic components in the lignocellulose hydrolysate. To improve the 2,3-butanediol production via Klebsiella pneumoniae from cotton stalk hydrolysate, a method coupling a high tolerance of strain and detoxification of the hydrolysate was thus investigated in this study. The strain tolerance of K. pneumoniae to the cotton stalk hydrolysate was improved via an adaptive laboratory evolution, which involved a stepwise increase in the hydrolysate concentration in the medium. Compared with the initial strain, the resulting strain increased the biomass 3.2-fold in a medium of 20 g/L hydrolysate and produced 10.45 g/L of 2,3-butanediol at an optimal concentration of 60 g/L hydrolysate. After detoxification of cotton stalk hydrolysate, the cell metabolism of K. pneumoniae was further promoted, and the 2,3-butanediol production increased by 1.2 folds. Using fed-batch fermentation, the concentration of 2,3-butanediol reached 35.5 g/L with a yield of 0.43 g/g. The results demonstrated that the bioconversion of low-cost cotton stalk hydrolysate into 2,3-butanediol improves the economics of microbial 2,3-butanediol production. PMID:27442598

  14. A shortened, two-enzyme pathway for 2,3-butanediol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Deb, Shalini S; Lali, Arvind M

    2017-05-25

    The platform chemical 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is produced by a number of microorganisms via a three-enzyme pathway starting from pyruvate. Here, we report production of 2,3-BDO via a shortened, two-enzyme pathway in Escherichia coli. A synthetic operon consisting of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetoin reductase (AR) genes from Enterobacter under control of the T7 promoter was cloned in an episomal plasmid. E. coli transformed with this plasmid produced 2,3-BDO and the pathway intermediate acetoin, demonstrating that the shortened pathway was functional. To assemble a synthetic operon for inducer- and plasmid-free production of 2,3-BDO, ALS and AR genes were integrated in the E. coli genome under control of the constitutive ackA promoter. Shake flask-level cultivation led to accumulation of ~1 g/L acetoin and ~0.66 g/L 2,3-BDO in the medium. The novel biosynthetic route for 2,3-BDO biosynthesis described herein provides a simple and cost-effective approach for production of this important chemical.

  15. Identification of acetoin reductases involved in 2,3-butanediol pathway in Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taek Ho; Rathnasingh, Chelladurai; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung

    2014-02-20

    The acetoin reductase (AR) of Klebsiella oxytoca is responsible for converting acetoin into 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) during sugar fermentation. Deleting the AR encoding gene (budC) in the 2,3-BDO operon does not block production of 2,3-BDO, as another similar gene exists in addition to budC called diacetyl/acetoin reductase (dar) which shares 53% identity with budC. In the present study, both budC and dar of K. oxytoca were independently cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli along with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), which are responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. The recombinant E. coli expressing budABC and budAB-dar produced 2,3-BDO from glucose but E. coli expressing only budAB did not and produced acetoin alone. This demonstrates that Dar functions similar to BudC. Mutants of budC, dar, and both genes together were developed in K. oxytoca ΔldhA (lactate dehydrogenase). K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔbudC Δdar, deficient in both AR genes, showed reduced 2,3-BDO concentration when compared to K. oxytoca ΔldhA and K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔbudC by 84% and 69%, respectively. Interestingly, K. oxytoca ΔldhA Δdar resulted in a significant reduction in the reversible conversion of 2,3-BDO into acetoin than that of K. oxytoca ΔldhA, which was observed in a glucose depleted fermentation culture. In addition, we observed that Dar played a key role in dissimilation of 2,3-BDO in media containing 2,3-BDO alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategies for efficient and economical 2,3-butanediol production: new trends in this field.

    PubMed

    Białkowska, Aneta M

    2016-12-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a promising bulk chemical with a potentially wide range of applications e.g., in the manufacture of printing inks, perfumes, synthetic rubber, fumigants, antifreeze agents, fuel additives, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals. Its high heating value and ability to increase the octane number of fuels make 2,3-BD a promising drop-in fuel. It can also be converted to methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), which is considered an effective liquid fuel additive. After combination with MEK and hydrogenation reaction, 2,3-BD can be converted to octane, which is used to produce high-quality aviation fuel. Currently 2,3-BD is mainly produced on an industrial scale by chemical methods. However, microbiological production of 2,3-BD offers a less expensive and more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional synthesis. This alcohol is generated from hexoses and pentoses mainly by bacterial strains of the genera Klebsiella, Bacillus, Serratia, and Enterobacter, which can convert waste products (such as glycerol and agricultural residues) and excess biomass (such as wood hydrolysates) to 2,3-BD. Recently, a significant improvement in microbial production has been achieved by the screening of efficient natural microbial strains, the application of alternative cost-effective substrates, and the genetic improvement of microbial producers. Furthermore, Klebsiella strains, which are regarded the most efficient natural 2,3-BD producers, have been subjected to genetic modifications aiming at the removal of pathogenic factors and the development of avirulent strains that could be used for the safe production of the diol. This review summarizes existing knowledge and experience concerning various strategies for efficient and economical microbial production of 2,3-BD.

  17. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  18. Click approach to the discovery of 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamides as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Doohee; Park, Yunjeong; Yoon, Jieun; Aman, Waqar; Hah, Jung-Mi; Ryu, Jae-Sang

    2014-09-01

    A series of 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamide derivatives has been developed from the antiproliferative agent 7 and was evaluated for their Aurora kinase inhibitory activity. The novel 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamide scaffold could be readily assembled by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, allowing rapid access to the structurally diverse analogues. The synthesized 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamide derivatives revealed a significant Aurora kinase inhibitory activity. In particular, 8g inhibited Aurora A with IC50 values of 0.37μM. The critical role of phenolic -OH in the binding was confirmed by a molecular modeling study.

  19. Spectroscopic identification of dichlorobenzyl radicals: Jet-cooled 2,3-dichlorobenzyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sang Youl; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2015-07-01

    The vibronically excited but jet-cooled 2,3-dichlorobenzyl radical was generated from the corona discharge of precursor 2,3-dichlorotoluene seeded in a large amount of carrier gas He using a pinhole-type glass nozzle. From an analysis of the visible vibronic emission spectrum observed, we obtained the electronic energy of the D1 → D0 transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the D0 state of the 2,3-dichlorobenzyl radical by comparing the observation with the results of ab initio calculations. In addition, we discussed substituent effect of Cls on electronic transition energy in terms of substituent orientation for the first time.

  20. A 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 for mainly producing R,R-2,3-butanediol: purification, characterization and cloning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Yang, Huan-Huan; Feng, Xiao-Hai; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2013-09-01

    A 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH) from Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 was purified to homogeneity via fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by two steps of anion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose and Source 15Q, obtaining a 35-fold increase in specific activity and 34.9% yield. The molecular weights of the purified BDH subunit and holoenzyme were 44.5 and 90.0 kDa, respectively, as detected via SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. These results were significantly different from those of other reported BDHs. Substrate specificity experiments showed that the enzyme could function preferentially as a reductase rather than as a dehydrogenase, and was mainly responsible for the reduction of R-acetoin to R,R-2,3-butanediol. Gene cloning, sequencing, and expression experiments further demonstrate that this enzyme was a new type of BDH.

  1. Collisional quenching of Pb 6p2 3P1 and 6p2 3P2 metastables by ground state Pb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, C.; Djeu, N.; Burnham, R.

    1982-03-01

    Collisional quenching of the two lowest Pb atom metastable levels, 6p2 3P1 and 6p2 3P2, has been studied at Pb vapor densities of (1-20)×1016 cm-3. The metastable atoms were created in a heat pipe oven by stimulated Raman scattering using an XeCl laser pump. Their subsequent decay was then probed with tunable, single-frequency UV on the 266.3 and 261.4 nm Pb resonance lines. The observed rate constants are 2.0×10-13 cm3 sec-1 for 3P1 and 3.2×10-13 cm3 sec-1 for 3P2.

  2. Moderately anisotropic field-effect mobility in dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thiopheno[3,2-b]thiophenes single-crystal transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Mayumi; Tominari, Y.; Yamagishi, M.; Doi, I.; Miyazaki, E.; Takimiya, K.; Takeya, J.

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy of carrier mobility is measured for dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thiopheno[3,2-b]thiophenes single-crystal transistors. We have developed a method of "local gating" to restrict carrier-accumulated channels elongated radially within the herringbone planes of submillimeter crystals so that mixture of conductivity off the intended directions is minimized in the measurement. The highest mobility 4 cm2/V s is achieved for the a-axis direction due to the highest orbital overlaps, while the lowest mobility measured in the perpendicular direction is still as high as 2.5 cm2/V s. The moderate anisotropy favors high performance in polycrystalline thin-film transistors of the compound, where charge transport is inevitably mixed for all directions.

  3. Anti-cancer agents based on N-acyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] quinoline derivatives and a method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. In particular, the invention relates to N-acyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines having the structural Formula (I), ##STR00001## stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. The meaning of R1 is independently selected from H; C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl substituents; R2 is selected from C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl; substituted or non-substituted, fused or non-fused to substituted or non-substituted aromatic ring, aryl or heteroaryl groups. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  4. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2&3 and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Primate Multispecies Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E.; Kapoor, Amita; Hedman, Curtis J.; Binkley, Neil; Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are widely studied for their roles in bone health, immune functions and other potential physiologic roles in humans. However, the optimal blood levels of vitamin D metabolites are still unclear. Various methods for measuring vitamin D metabolites have been used and recently liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) has been adopted as the gold standard for vitamin D metabolite measurement. Here we report the use of LC-MS/MS to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D2&3), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D2&3), in three laboratory nonhuman primate species: common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and compare them to humans using the same technique. The nonhuman primates showed blood levels for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly higher than human values with marmosets having the highest levels. Marmoset samples showed significantly more variability among individuals than those from macaques for both metabolites, but all three nonhuman primate species exhibited large variation within species for both 25(OH)D2&3 and 1,25(OH)2D2&3. Marmoset females had significantly lower values than the males for 25(OH)D3, while rhesus males showed a significant decrease in 25(OH)D3 with age. The most striking finding is the variation within species for vitamin D levels even in laboratory primates that have a controlled diet, UV exposure, and in some cases, genetic constraints. Similar variation in 25(OH)D responses to a fixed dose of oral vitamin D supplementation has been reported in humans. We suggest that these species can provide primate models for examining the factors influencing variation in the levels of vitamin D necessary for human and nonhuman primate health. PMID:25845705

  5. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  6. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  7. INHIBITION OF INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE DOES NOT IMPEDE ORAL TOLERANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, regulates immune tolerance through inhibition of T-cell proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO, which causes fetal rejection and increased tumor resistance in mice, may prove useful in cancer...

  8. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and... provision requiring an expenditure of $500 as a basis for patent as to all of the claims of the...

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of allenamides via sulfimide [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alan; Emmerson, Daniel P G

    2009-04-02

    Chiral allenamides are prepared with high levels of enantiomeric purity by [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of propargylic sulfimides. The required branched propargylic sulfides are prepared by an enantioselective organocatalytic aldehyde alpha-sulfenylation followed by Corey-Fuchs alkynylation.

  10. INHIBITION OF INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE DOES NOT IMPEDE ORAL TOLERANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, regulates immune tolerance through inhibition of T-cell proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO, which causes fetal rejection and increased tumor resistance in mice, may prove useful in cancer...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Shun-ichiro; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2006-03-01

    Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a haem-containing dioxygenase, was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a haem-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the pyrrole ring of indoleamines by the insertion of molecular oxygen. This reaction is the first and the rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway, the major Trp catabolic pathway in mammals. Recombinant human IDO was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The addition of 4-phenylimidazole as a haem ligand was essential for crystallization. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.1, b = 98.0, c = 131.0 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution.

  12. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed addition...

  13. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed addition...

  14. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed addition...

  15. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed addition...

  16. 41 CFR 51-2.3 - Notice of proposed addition or deletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.3 Notice of proposed addition...

  17. The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the use of spreadsheet programs in chemical engineering calculations using Lotus 1-2-3 macros. Discusses the macro commands, subroutine operations, and solution of partial differential equation. Provides examples of the subroutine programs and spreadsheet solution. (YP)

  18. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol by engineered Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ranjita; Yamaoka, Masaru; Nakayama, Hideki; Kondo, Takashi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Bisaria, Virendra S; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-05-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Bacillus subtilis takes place in late-log or stationary phase, depending on the expression of bdhA gene encoding acetoin reductase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. The present work focuses on the development of a strain of B. subtilis for enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol in early log phase of growth cycle. For this, the bdhA gene was expressed under the control of P( alsSD ) promoter of AlsSD operon for acetoin fermentation which served the substrate for 2,3-butanediol production. Addition of acetic acid in the medium induced the production of 2,3-butanediol by 2-fold. Two-step aerobic-anaerobic fermentation further enhanced 2,3-butanediol production by 4-fold in comparison to the control parental strain. Thus, addition of acetic acid and low dissolved oxygen in the medium are involved in activation of bdhA gene expression from P( alsSD ) promoter in early log phase. Under the conditions tested in this work, the maximum production of 2,3-butanediol, 2.1 g/l from 10 g/l glucose, was obtained at 24 h. Furthermore, under the optimized microaerophilic condition, the production of 2,3-butanediol improved up to 6.1 g/l and overall productivity increased by 6.7-fold to 0.4 g/l h in the engineered strain compared to that in the parental control.

  19. Investigating the Role of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Courtney Smith, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Investigating the Role of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0667...the malignant 4T1 breast carcinoma cell line exhibit metastatic spread to organs similar to that seen in human breast cancer with pulmonary metastases

  20. [System metabolic engineering strategies for 2,3-butandione production by Torulopsis glabrata].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Nan; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-04-04

    We regulated the carbon flux distribution of Torulopsis glabrata CCTCC M202019, an efficient pyruvate-producing microorganism, for improved 2, 3-butandione production. We overexpressed the acetolactate synthase (ALS) from Bacillus subtilis and then used the genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) for T. glabrata (named iNX804) to evaluate the importance of deleting the ILV5 gene. In addition, the BDH gene was deleted to restrict the degradation of 2,3-butanedione. Overexpression of the ALS resulted in a 4.6-fold increase in ALS activity and increased the extracellular concentration of 2,3-butanedione to 0.57 g/L from 0.01 g/L. The deletion of the ILV5 gene was found to increase the 2,3-butanedione accumulation level by 28.1%, attributed to the disruption of L-valine and L-leucine biosynthetic pathway. With the deletion of the BDH gene, the enzyme activity levels of butanedione reductase and butanediol dehydrogenase were decreased by 74.4% and 76.1%, respectively. And the accumulations of 3-hydroxybutanone and 2,3-butanediol were decreased by 52.2% and 71.4%, respectively. The final 2,3-butanedione concentration was 0.95 g/L, which was 30.1% higher than that of the control strain. The GSMM based system metabolic engineering can be a functional strategy to redistribute the carbon flux from pyruvate node to 2,3-butanedione and achieve efficient accumulation of 2,3-butanedione.

  1. Nuclear Emulsion Measurements of the Astronauts’ Radiation Exposures on Skylab Missions 2, 3 and 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-10

    AD-AO19 804 NUCLEAR EMULSION MEASUREMENTS OF THE ASTRONAUTS’ RADIATION EXPOSURES ON SKYLAB MISSIONS 2, 3 AND 4 Hermann J. Schaefer, et al Naval...N/A NUCLEAR EMULSION MEASUREMENTS OF THE ASTRONAUTS’ RADIATION EXPOSURES ON SKYLAB MISSIONS 2, 3, AND 4. N/ ___ _ _ ANZ Hermann J. Schaefer and...corresponding shield distribution of the entire vehicle tesi alirections ofetionable whether the very large effort involved in this eask isd• ~~really

  2. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons IV : 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamberti, J M; Reynolds, T W; Chanan, H H

    1946-01-01

    A six gallon quantity of 1,2,3-trimethylbenezene was prepared and purified in a four-step synthesis involving the condensation of 1,3-pentadiene with crotonaldehyde. The dimethylcyclohexencarboxaldehydes formed were hydrogenated to give the corresponding isomeric dimethylcyclohexylcarbinols. The dehydration of the carbinols and the subsequent dehydrogenation of the trimethylcyclohexenes yielded the 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. The overall yield was 24 percent; the physical properties of the materials are given.

  3. Aromatic derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, V.D.; Desenko, S.M.; Kiroga, Kh.

    1987-09-01

    The formation of 2,2,4-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepines in the reactions of acetylarenes with 4-ethoxy- and 3,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine was studied. The effect of the substituents on the individual stages of the reactions is discussed. A quantum-chemical calculation of the relative nucleophilicity of 1,2-phenylenediamine, 2,3-diaminopyridine, and 3,4-diaminofurazan was undertaken.

  4. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Greg; Kaplan, Greg; Hall, Leslie; Hawkins, Tommy; Larue, Joann

    2004-01-01

    A new class of ionic liquids based upon 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrates (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 2-propeny1, and n-butyl) have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectra, multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and DSC studies. A single crystal x-ray study was carried out for 1-amino-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrate and the details will be presented.

  5. Low-Quantum-Defect Solid State Lasers: 2-, 3-, or 4-Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    IPG Photonics develop the world’s first 10 kW single-mode production fiber laser [6]. Another...Low-Quantum-Defect Solid State Lasers : 2-, 3 -, or 4-level? by Jeffrey O. White ARL-RP-0298 August 2010 A...Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-RP-0298 August 2010 Low-Quantum-Defect Solid State Lasers : 2-, 3 -, or 4-level? Jeffrey

  6. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Greg; Kaplan, Greg; Hall, Leslie; Hawkins, Tommy; Larue, Joann

    2004-01-01

    A new class of ionic liquids based upon 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrates (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 2-propeny1, and n-butyl) have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectra, multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and DSC studies. A single crystal x-ray study was carried out for 1-amino-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrate and the details will be presented.

  7. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)arylamides via oxidative esterification

    PubMed Central

    More, Satish S; Chaitanya, T Krishna; Kumar, Yadla Sateesh; Meruva, Suresh Babu; Rao, L Vaikunta

    2013-01-01

    Summary A highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S) and (R)-isomers of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)arylamides has been developed with good overall yields in a two step process. The key step involves the ring opening of the chiral epoxide with a nitrogen heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and further rearrangement to chiral N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)arylamides in high yields and enantioselectivity. During the reaction, no erosion in chiral purity was observed. PMID:24204425

  8. Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-1 Regulates Arp2/3-dependent Actin Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Yu-Kemp, Hui-Chia; Brieher, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial parasite that uses host proteins to assemble an Arp2/3-dependent actin comet tail to power its movement through the host cell. Initiation of comet tail assembly is more efficient in cytosol than it is under defined conditions, indicating that unknown factors contribute to the reaction. We therefore fractionated cytosol and identified CRMP-1 as a factor that facilitates Arp2/3-dependent Listeria actin cloud formation in the presence of Arp2/3 and actin alone. It also scored as an important factor for Listeria actin comet tail formation in brain cytosol. CRMP-1 does not nucleate actin assembly on its own, nor does it directly activate the Arp2/3 complex. Rather, CRMP-1 scored as an auxiliary factor that promoted the ability of Listeria ActA protein to activate the Arp2/3 complex to trigger actin assembly. CRMP-1 is one member of a family of five related proteins that modulate cell motility in response to extracellular signals. Our results demonstrate an important role for CRMP-1 in Listeria actin comet tail formation and open the possibility that CRMP-1 controls cell motility by modulating Arp2/3 activation. PMID:26598519

  9. Comprehensive identification of SUMO2/3 targets and their dynamics during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Schou, Julie; Kelstrup, Christian D; Hayward, Daniel G; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    During mitosis large alterations in cellular structures occur rapidly, which to a large extent is regulated by post-translational modification of proteins. Modification of proteins with the small ubiquitin-related protein SUMO2/3 regulates mitotic progression, but few mitotic targets have been identified so far. To deepen our understanding of SUMO2/3 during this window of the cell cycle, we undertook a comprehensive proteomic characterization of SUMO2/3 modified proteins in mitosis and upon mitotic exit. We developed an efficient tandem affinity purification strategy of SUMO2/3 modified proteins from mitotic cells. Combining this purification strategy with cell synchronization procedures and quantitative mass spectrometry allowed for the mapping of numerous novel targets and their dynamics as cells progressed out of mitosis. This identified RhoGDIα as a major SUMO2/3 modified protein, specifically during mitosis, mediated by the SUMO ligases PIAS2 and PIAS3. Our data provide a rich resource for further exploring the role of SUMO2/3 modifications in mitosis and cell cycle regulation.

  10. Arp2/3 complex activity in filopodia of spreading cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Simon A; Bramble, Jonathan P; Yeung, Chun L; Mendes, Paula M; Machesky, Laura M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cells use filopodia to explore their environment and to form new adhesion contacts for motility and spreading. The Arp2/3 complex has been implicated in lamellipodial actin assembly as a major nucleator of new actin filaments in branched networks. The interplay between filopodial and lamellipodial protrusions is an area of much interest as it is thought to be a key determinant of how cells make motility choices. Results We find that Arp2/3 complex localises to dynamic puncta in filopodia as well as lamellipodia of spreading cells. Arp2/3 complex spots do not appear to depend on local adhesion or on microtubules for their localisation but their inclusion in filopodia or lamellipodia depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Arp2/3 complex spots in filopodia are capable of incorporating monomeric actin, suggesting the presence of available filament barbed ends for polymerisation. Arp2/3 complex in filopodia co-localises with lamellipodial proteins such as capping protein and cortactin. The dynamics of Arp2/3 complex puncta suggests that they are moving bi-directionally along the length of filopodia and that they may be regions of lamellipodial activity within the filopodia. Conclusion We suggest that filopodia of spreading cells have regions of lamellipodial activity and that this activity affects the morphology and movement of filopodia. Our work has implications for how we understand the interplay between lamellipodia and filopodia and for how actin networks are generated spatially in cells. PMID:19068115

  11. Arp2/3 complex activity in filopodia of spreading cells.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Simon A; Bramble, Jonathan P; Yeung, Chun L; Mendes, Paula M; Machesky, Laura M

    2008-12-09

    Cells use filopodia to explore their environment and to form new adhesion contacts for motility and spreading. The Arp2/3 complex has been implicated in lamellipodial actin assembly as a major nucleator of new actin filaments in branched networks. The interplay between filopodial and lamellipodial protrusions is an area of much interest as it is thought to be a key determinant of how cells make motility choices. We find that Arp2/3 complex localises to dynamic puncta in filopodia as well as lamellipodia of spreading cells. Arp2/3 complex spots do not appear to depend on local adhesion or on microtubules for their localisation but their inclusion in filopodia or lamellipodia depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Arp2/3 complex spots in filopodia are capable of incorporating monomeric actin, suggesting the presence of available filament barbed ends for polymerisation. Arp2/3 complex in filopodia co-localises with lamellipodial proteins such as capping protein and cortactin. The dynamics of Arp2/3 complex puncta suggests that they are moving bi-directionally along the length of filopodia and that they may be regions of lamellipodial activity within the filopodia. We suggest that filopodia of spreading cells have regions of lamellipodial activity and that this activity affects the morphology and movement of filopodia. Our work has implications for how we understand the interplay between lamellipodia and filopodia and for how actin networks are generated spatially in cells.

  12. Characterization of an acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Liu, Zi-Yong; Liu, Zhen; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-11-01

    Acetoin reductase catalyzes the formation of 2,3-butanediol from acetoin. In Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528, the gene CLJU_c23220 encoding the putative Zn(2+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme, CLAR, can catalyze the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol with NADPH as the cofactor. Furthermore, the gene CLJU_c23220 was introduced into Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and the transformant was conferred the capacity of 2,3-butanediol production. In batch fermentation the transformant produced up to 3.1g/L of 2,3-butanediol, as well as acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE, 17.8 g/L) in amounts similar to those produced by the wild type strain. This study provides conclusive evidence at the protein level that CLJU_c23220 is the key gene responsible for the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528. Moreover, the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was modified via one-step metabolic engineering to produce 2,3-butanediol without influencing the ABE production.

  13. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes to enhance 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Ng, Chiam Yu; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2012-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol is an important bio-based chemical product, because it can be converted into several C4 industrial chemicals. In this study, a lactate dehydrogenase-deleted mutant was constructed to improve 2,3-butanediol productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes. To delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase, λ Red recombination method was successfully adapted for E. aerogenes. The resulting strain produced a very small amount of lactate and 16.7% more 2,3-butanediol than that of the wild-type strain in batch fermentation. The mutant and its parental strain were then cultured with six different carbon sources, and the mutant showed higher carbon source consumption and microbial growth rates in all media. The 2,3-butanediol titer reached 69.5 g/l in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant,which was 27.4% higher than that with the parental strain.With further optimization of the medium and aeration conditions,118.05 g/l 2,3-butanediol was produced in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-butanediol with E. aerogenes achieved by metabolic pathway engineering.

  14. Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca from various sugars in microalgal hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jae; Joo, Hyun Woo; Park, Juyi; Kim, Duk-Ki; Jeong, Ki Jun; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-01-01

    A new fermentation process using a mixed sugar medium is proposed in this study for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production. The medium contained seven different monosugars known to be present in Nannochloropsis oceanica hydrolysate. The performance of each sugar when existing alone or together with glucose was evaluated. All the sugars except fucose were successfully metabolized for 2,3-BDO production. A 2,3-BDO yield of 0.31g/g was achieved with the mixed sugar medium, which was very close to that with the glucose-only medium. However, the 2,3-BDO productivity (0.28 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was found to be about 30% lower than that with glucose, implying, as expected, the existence of glucose repression on the uptake of other sugars. Strain development is in need to remove such negative effect of glucose for improved process efficiency. Fucose with the lowest uptake rate and no contribution to 2,3-BDO production can be a high value-added byproduct, once recovered and purified.

  15. 2,3-Butanediol recovery from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sangjun; Kim, Duk-Ki; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Park, Sunghoon; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a new and effective downstream process to recover 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from fermentation broth which is produced by a recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. The ldhA-deficient K. pneumoniae strain yielded about 90 g/L of 2,3-BD, along with a number of by-products, such as organic acids and alcohols, in a 65 h fed-batch fermentation. The pH-adjusted cell-free fermentation broth was firstly concentrated until 2,3-BD reached around 500 g/L by vacuum evaporation at 50°C and 50 mbar vacuum pressure. The concentrated solution was further treated using light alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, for the precipitation of organic acids and inorganic salts. Isopropanol showed the highest removal efficiency, in which 92.5% and 99.8% of organic acids and inorganic salts were precipitated, respectively. At a final step, a vacuum distillation process enabled the recovery of 76.2% of the treated 2,3-BD, with 96.1% purity, indicating that fermentatively produced 2,3-BD is effectively recovered by a simple alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

  16. Poly[μ-aqua-diaqua-(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ato)dilithium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-11-28

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(2)(C(6)H(2)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(3)](n), consists of two independent Li(+) cations, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate dianion and three water mol-ecules. One of the Li(+) cations has a distorted tetra-hedral geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl-ate O atoms of the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand and three O atoms from three water mol-ecules, whereas the other Li(+) cation has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by a carboxyl-ate O atom of a symmetry-related pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand, two water mol-ecules and a chelating pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand (by utilizing both N and O atoms) of an adjacent mol-ecule. The synthesis of a hydrated polymeric dinuclear lithium complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands has been reported previously [Tombul et al. (2008a ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m491-m492]. By comparision to the complex reported here, the dinuclear complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands differs in the coordination geometry of both Li atoms. The crystal structure further features O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  17. Calculation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent concentrations of complex environmental contaminant mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Eadon, George; Kaminsky, Laurence; Silkworth, Jay; Aldous, Kenneth; Hilker, David; O'Keefe, Patrick; Smith, Robert; Gierthy, John; Hawley, John; Kim, Nancy; DeCaprio, Anthony

    1986-01-01

    Sufficient toxicological data are now available to permit use of conventional risk assessment techniques to estimate the hazards associated with human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). However, many real-world exposures involve complex mixtures of dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds. Historical approaches to risk assessment on such mixtures have ranged from ignoring all compounds except 2,3,7,8-TCDD itself to assuming that all compounds have potencies equal to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. An alternative approach which uses existing literature data and analytical results to calculate the “2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent” concentration of a mixture in order to “predict” its biological potency relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD itself is advanced here. Previously reported in vivo acute and subchronic studies and some recently obtained analytical chemistry data are integrated here to clarify the utility of this important approach and to assess the uncertainties associated with its use. This predictive approach, and various conceptually similar ones, have now found wide applicability to the risk assessment process associated with exposure to complex mixtures of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds. PMID:3830107

  18. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel polynuclear heterocyclic compounds derived from 2,3-diaminophenazine.

    PubMed

    Mahran, Asma M; Ragab, Sherif Sh; Hashem, Ahmed I; Ali, Mamdouh M; Nada, Afaf A

    2015-01-27

    2,3-Diaminophenazine 1 was used as a precursor for the preparation of some novel phenazine derivatives such as imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine-2-thione 2, its methylthio 3, ethyl 1-aryl-3H-[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a]imidazo[4,5-b]phenazines 8a-c, ethyl (2Z)-[3-aminophenazin-2-yl)amino](phenylhydrazono)ethanoate 9, pyrazino[2,3-b]phenazine derivatives 10, 12, 15-17, [1,4]diazepino[2,3-b]phenazine derivatives 13, 14, 2,3-dibenzoylaminophenazine 18, 1H-Imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine derivatives 20, 23a-c, 24, 25 and 4-[(E)-(3-amino phenazin-2-yl)diazenyl] derivatives 27-29. All compounds were tested as inhibitors of the proliferation of human lung carcinoma and colorectal cancer cell lines through inhibition of Tyrosine Kinases. Most of compounds exert good activity against the two cancer cell lines. Five compounds (1, 2, 3, 25 and 28) were found to possess the same activity as the standard drug Cisplatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and pharmacological studies of ferrocene-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ashanul; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Hassan, Syed Imran; Haque Faizi, Md. Serajul; Saha, Anannya; Dege, Necmi; Rather, Jahangir Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad S.

    2017-10-01

    A series of ferrocene-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids namely 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (1), 1-(4,4‧-dinitro-2-biphenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (2), 1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (3), 1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (4) and 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (5) were designed and synthesized by copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. All the new hybrids were characterized by microanalyses, NMR (1H and 13C), UV-vis, IR, ESI-MS and electrochemical techniques. Crystal structure of the compound (3) was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The structural (single crystal) and spectroscopic (UV-Vis. and IR) properties of the compound 3 have been analyzed and compared by complementary quantum modeling. Hybrids 1-5 exhibited low toxicity and demonstrated neuroprotective effect.

  20. A Cost Analysis of the 1-2-3 Pap Intervention.

    PubMed

    Rabarison, Kristina M; Li, Rui; Bish, Connie L; Vanderpool, Robin C; Crosby, Richard A; Massoudi, Mehran S

    Cervical cancer places a substantial economic burden on our healthcare system. The three-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series is a cost-effective intervention to prevent HPV infection and resultant cervical cancer. Despite its efficacy, completion rates are low in young women aged 18 through 26 years. 1-2-3 Pap is a video intervention tested and proven to increase HPV vaccination completion rates. To provide the full scope of available evidence for 1-2-3 Pap, this study adds economic evidence to the intervention's efficacy. This study tested the economies of scale hypothesis that the cost of 1-2-3 Pap intervention per number of completed HPV vaccine series would decrease when offered to more women in the target population. Using cost and efficacy data from the Rural Cancer Prevention Center, a cost analysis was done through a hypothetical adaptation scenario in rural Kentucky. Assuming the same success rate as in the efficacy study, the 1-2-3 Pap adaptation scenario would cover 1000 additional women aged 18 through 26 years (344 in efficacy study; 1346 in adaptation scenario), and almost three times as many completed series (130 in efficacy study; 412 in adaptation scenario) as in the original 1-2-3 Pap efficacy study. Determination of the costs of implementing 1-2-3 Pap is vital for program expansion. This study provides practitioners and decision makers with objective measures for scalability.

  1. Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of 2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Radoš, Dušica; Carvalho, Ana Lúcia; Wieschalka, Stefan; Neves, Ana Rute; Blombach, Bastian; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Santos, Helena

    2015-10-29

    2,3-Butanediol is an important bulk chemical with a wide range of applications. In bacteria, this metabolite is synthesised from pyruvate via a three-step pathway involving α-acetolactate synthase, α-acetolactate decarboxylase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Thus far, the best producers of 2,3-butanediol are pathogenic strains, hence, the development of more suitable organisms for industrial scale fermentation is needed. Herein, 2,3-butanediol production was engineered in the Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) organism Corynebacterium glutamicum. A two-stage fermentation process was implemented: first, cells were grown aerobically on acetate; in the subsequent production stage cells were used to convert glucose into 2,3-butanediol under non-growing and oxygen-limiting conditions. A gene cluster, encoding the 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathway of Lactococcus lactis, was assembled and expressed in background strains, C. glutamicum ΔldhA, C. glutamicum ΔaceEΔpqoΔldhA and C. glutamicum ΔaceEΔpqoΔldhAΔmdh, tailored to minimize pyruvate-consuming reactions, i.e., to prevent carbon loss in lactic, acetic and succinic acids. Producer strains were characterized in terms of activity of the relevant enzymes in the 2,3-butanediol forming pathway, growth, and production of 2,3-butanediol under oxygen-limited conditions. Productivity was maximized by manipulating the aeration rate in the production phase. The final strain, C. glutamicum ΔaceEΔpqoΔldhAΔmdh(pEKEx2-als,aldB,Ptuf butA), under optimized conditions produced 2,3-butanediol with a 0.66 mol mol(-1) yield on glucose, an overall productivity of 0.2 g L(-1) h(-1) and a titer of 6.3 g L(-1). We have successfully developed C. glutamicum into an efficient cell factory for 2,3-butanediol production. The use of the engineered strains as a basis for production of acetoin, a widespread food flavour, is proposed.

  2. Impact of a Bacterial Volatile 2,3-Butanediol on Bacillus subtilis Rhizosphere Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Ahn, Yeo-Rim; Song, Geun C.; Ghim, Sa-Youl; Lee, Soohyun; Lee, Gahyung; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds, such as short chain alcohols, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol, produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) elicit induced systemic resistance in plants. The effects of bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) on plant and fungal growth have been extensively studied; however, the impact of bacterial BVCs on bacterial growth remains poorly understood. In this study the effects of a well-characterized bacterial volatile, 2,3-butanediol, produced by the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis, were examined in the rhizosphere. The nature of 2,3-butanediol on bacterial cells was assessed, and the effect of the molecule on root colonization was also determined. Pepper roots were inoculated with three B. subtilis strains: the wild type, a 2,3-butanediol overexpressor, and a 2,3-butanediol null mutant. The B. subtilis null strain was the first to be eliminated in the rhizosphere, followed by the wild-type strain. The overexpressor mutant was maintained at roots for the duration of the experiment. Rhizosphere colonization by a saprophytic fungus declined from 14 days post-inoculation in roots treated with the B. subtilis overexpressor strain. Next, exudates from roots exposed to 2,3-butanediol were assessed for their impact on fungal and bacterial growth in vitro. Exudates from plant roots pre-treated with the 2,3-butanediol overexpressor were used to challenge various microorganisms. Growth was inhibited in a saprophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.), the 2,3-butanediol null B. subtilis strain, and a soil-borne pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. Direct application of 2,3-butanediol to pepper roots, followed by exposure to R. solanacearum, induced expression of Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes such as CaPR2, CaSAR8.2, and CaPAL. These results indicate that 2,3-butanediol triggers the secretion of root exudates that modulate soil fungi and rhizosphere bacteria. These data broaden our knowledge regarding bacterial volatiles in the rhizosphere and

  3. Synthesis of 2,3-di- and 2,2,3-trisubstituted-3-methoxycarbonyl-γ-butyrolactones as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Camille; Le Gall, Erwan; Sengmany, Stéphane; Renevret, Patrice; Léonel, Eric; Martens, Thierry; Cresteil, Thierry

    2015-01-07

    Various 2,3-substituted γ-butyrolactones have been synthesized by three-component reaction of aryl bromides, dimethyl itaconate and carbonyl compounds. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of these products was evaluated against a representative panel of cancer cell lines (KB, HCT116, MCF7, MCF7R, PC3, SK-OV3, HL60 and HL60R). One compound (4x) displays a good anti-proliferative activity with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range. The mechanism of action has been investigated using flow cytometry.

  4. Production of 2,3-butanediol by a low-acid producing Klebsiella oxytoca NBRF4.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2013-01-25

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a value-added chemical with great potential for the industrial production of synthetic rubber, plastic and solvent. For microbial production of 2,3-BDO, in this study, Klebsiella oxytoca NBRF4 was constructed by chemical mutation and screening against NaBr, NaBrO(3) and fluoroacetate. Among metabolic enzymes involved in the production of lactate, acetate and 2,3-BDO, K. oxytoca NBRF4 possessed 1.2 times lower specific activities of lactate dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase, and 22% higher specific acetoin reductase activity than the K. oxytoca ATCC43863 control strain. A series of batch fermentations in a defined medium and application of a statistical tool of response surface method led to the determination of optimal culture conditions: 10% dissolved oxygen level, pH 4.3 and 38°C. The actual results of batch fermentation at the optimal conditions using 44 g/L glucose were coincident with the predetermined values: 14.4 g/L 2,3-BDO concentration, 0.32 g/g yield. To increase 2,3-BDO titer, fed-batch fermentation of K. oxytoca NBRF4 was performed by an intermittent feeding of 800 g/L glucose to control its concentration around 5-20 g/L in the culture broth. Finally, 34.2g/L 2,3-BDO concentration and 0.35 g/g yield were obtained without organic acid production in 70 hours of the fed-batch culture, which were 2.4 and 1.2 times higher than those of the batch fermentation using 44 g/L glucose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Threshold of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Occupancy for Hyperprolactinemia in Older Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Yusuke; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Suzuki, Takefumi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K; Mamo, David C; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-12-01

    Although hyperprolactinemia carries a long-term risk of morbidity, the threshold of dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) occupancy for hyperprolactinemia has not been investigated in older patients with schizophrenia. Data were taken from a positron emission tomography (PET) study conducted between August 2007 and August 2015. The present post hoc study included 42 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) (mean ± SD age = 60.2 ± 6.7 years) taking olanzapine or risperidone. Subjects underwent [¹¹C]-raclopride PET scans to measure D2/3R occupancy before and after reducing their dose of antipsychotic by up to 40%. Blood samples were collected before each PET scan to measure prolactin levels. The relationship between prolactin levels and D2/3R occupancy was examined using stepwise linear regression analyses. The D2/3R occupancy thresholds for hyperprolactinemia were explored using Fisher exact tests. Prolactin levels decreased following dose reduction (mean ± SD = 24.1 ± 30.2 ng/mL to 17.2 ± 15.1 ng/mL; P < .001). Prolactin levels were associated with female gender (β = .32, P = .006, vs male), antipsychotics (β = .23, P = .02, risperidone vs olanzapine), and D2/3R occupancy (β = .23, P = .04). Those with D2/3R occupancy of 66% or higher were more likely to have hyperprolactinemia than those with D2/3R occupancy lower than 66% (P = .03). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this threshold were 0.44, 0.81, 0.78, and 0.48, respectively. We identified a D2/3R occupancy threshold for hyperprolactinemia of 66% in older patients with schizophrenia, which is lower than that reported in younger patients (73%) by other researchers. Our results suggest a higher sensitivity to antipsychotics in older patients. Prolactin levels could assist in the determination of appropriate antipsychotic dosing to minimize adverse effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00716755.

  6. Coexpression and activation of TRPV1 suppress the activity of the KCNQ2/3 channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Han, Ping; Neelands, Torben R.; McGaraughty, Steve; Honore, Prisca; Surowy, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel expressed predominantly in peripheral nociceptors. By detecting and integrating diverse noxious thermal and chemical stimuli, and as a result of its sensitization by inflammatory mediators, the TRPV1 receptor plays a key role in inflammation-induced pain. Activation of TRPV1 leads to a cascade of pro-nociceptive mechanisms, many of which still remain to be identified. Here, we report a novel effect of TRPV1 on the activity of the potassium channel KCNQ2/3, a negative regulator of neuronal excitability. Using ion influx assays, we revealed that TRPV1 activation can abolish KCNQ2/3 activity, but not vice versa, in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. Electrophysiological studies showed that coexpression of TRPV1 caused a 7.5-mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of KCNQ2/3 activation compared with control expressing KCNQ2/3 alone. Furthermore, activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin led to a 54% reduction of KCNQ2/3-mediated current amplitude and attenuation of KCNQ2/3 activation. The inhibitory effect of TRPV1 appears to depend on Ca2+ influx through the activated channel followed by Ca2+-sensitive depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and activation of protein phosphatase calcineurin. We also identified physical interactions between TRPV1 and KCNQ2/3 coexpressed in HEK293 cells and in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. Mutation studies established that this interaction is mediated predominantly by the membrane-spanning regions of the respective proteins and correlates with the shift of KCNQ2/3 activation. Collectively, these data reveal that TRPV1 activation may deprive neurons from inhibitory control mediated by KCNQ2/3. Such neurons may thus have a lower threshold for activation, which may indirectly facilitate TRPV1 in integrating multiple noxious signals and/or in the establishment or maintenance of chronic pain. PMID:21844219

  7. Molecular dynamics study of thermal transport in a dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Jingchao; Chen, Yue; Chan, Paddy K L

    2017-02-09

    The thermal transport in a high-mobility and air-stable small molecule organic semiconductor, dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT), is simulated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. We find that the thermal conductivity of DNTT has a strong dependence on crystal size and orientation directions (a*, b* and c*). The bulk thermal conductivities of DNTT along the a*, b* and c* directions are 0.73, 0.33 and 0.95 W m(-1) K(-1), respectively. The polycrystalline nature of the DNTT thin film in the experiment means that it is essential to consider the effects of thermal boundary resistance (TBR) and vacancy on the thermal conductivity. The TBRs across different interfaces are calculated as 7.00 ± 0.26, 6.15 ± 0.13 and 3.20 ± 0.09 × 10(-9) m(2) K W(-1) for the a*-b*, a*-c* and b*-c* interfaces, respectively. On the other hand, the thermal conductivities of DNTT with a vacancy concentration of 6% can be reduced by 44%, 33% and 35% in the a*, b* and c* directions. Our findings indicate that the boundary and defect scattering of phonons has significant effects on the thermal conductivity of organic semiconductors. This work contributes fundamental knowledge to control the thermal properties of organic semiconductors in organic electronic devices.

  8. Photoresponsive character in double-doped La-2/3(Ca2/3Sr1/3)(1/3)MnO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Ren, R.; Chen, C. L.; Ren, D. A.; Jin, K. X.; Yuan, X.; Zhao, S. G.; Song, Z. M.

    2005-07-01

    A Ca, Sr double-doped La-2/3(Ca2/3Sr1/3)(1/3)MnO3 thin film with a thickness of about 60 nm was deposited on (100) LaAlO3 substrates using the RF magnetron sputtering method from the bulk compound prepared using the solid-state reaction method. The experimental results show that a phase transition from the ferromagnetic metallic state to the paramagnetic insulating state occurs at 341 K (near to T-p, the highest peak temperature). The R-T curve deviation of the thin film with the application of CW laser is dramatic in the low-temperature range and Delta R/R is positive. At 276 K, the Delta R/R reaches the maximum, about 41 %, and the temperature of the photo-induced resistance maximum of this double-doped thin film appears near to room temperature range, which offers a new method for the application of CMR photo-electric devices.

  9. Chemical characterization of Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid and 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, A P; Rietschel, E T; Kosunen, T U; Zähringer, U

    1991-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of four nonencapsulated strains of the human enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni were chemically characterized. When applied to two of the strains, extraction by a modified phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether method (H. Brade and C. Galanos, Eur. J. Biochem. 122:233-237, 1982) gave better yields of LPS than did extraction by the conventional hot phenol-water technique. Constituents common to all LPS were D-glucose, D-galactose, L-glycero-D-manno-heptose, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid, D-glucuronic acid, D-galactosamine, and phosphorylethanolamine. Phosphate was present in a relatively high amount. In addition, the LPS of three strains contained N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas the LPS of the strain lacking this component contained 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. The lipid A component contained phosphate with D-glucosamine and 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose as the major amino sugars. Ethanolamine-phosphate was present also. The major fatty acids were ester- and amide-bound 3-hydroxytetradecanoic and ester-bound hexadecanoic acids, with a minor amount of ester-bound tetradecanoic acid. This is the first report of N-acetylneuraminic acid in the oligosaccharide moiety and diaminoglucose in the lipid A of C. jejuni LPS. PMID:1987154

  10. Fragrance material review on 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE).

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. OTNE is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for OTNE were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of 2,3,6,7-tetramethoxyphenanthren-9-amine: An efficient precursor to access new 4-aza-2,3-dihydropyridophenanthrenes as apoptosis inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niggula Praveen; Sharma, Pankaj; Reddy, T Srinivasa; Nekkanti, Shalini; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Lalita, Guntuku; Sujanakumari, S; Bhargava, Suresh K; Naidu, V G M; Kamal, Ahmed

    2017-02-15

    A new route for the synthesis of novel 2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy phenanthrene amine precursor has been successfully accomplished. Subsequently, this amine precursor has been directly utilized for the synthesis of a new series of 4-aza-2,3-dihydropyridophenanthrene derivatives via a three component reaction with tetronic acid and substituted aldehydes. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against human lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), breast (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1), gastric (HGC-27), colon (Caco-2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Compound 10l showed significant anticancer profile against DU145 cell line with an IC50 value of 2.6 ± 0.34 μM. Disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton structure and cell migration inhibition in DU145 cells clearly indicate that the tumor progression and metastasis are affected by this compound (10l). Cell cycle analysis revealed that it arrests the cells in G2/M phase. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, Hoechst staining and annexin-V binding assays showed that cell proliferation is inhibited through induction of apoptosis. Moreover, its treatment leads to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DΨm).

  12. Poly[diaqua(μ(2)-3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)potassium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmis; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2007-12-15

    The structural unit of the title compound, [K(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one potassium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules; this is twice the asymmetric unit, since the potassium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two potassium cations, while the potassium cation has contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each potassium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid retains its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds in which water acts as the donor.

  13. Discovery of novel 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[4, 5]thieno[2, 3-c]pyridine derivatives as potent and selective CYP17 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingliang; Fang, Yanjia; Gu, Shoulai; Chen, Fangfang; Zhu, Zhengjiang; Sun, Xun; Zhu, Jidong

    2017-03-21

    The inhibition of CYP17 to block androgen biosynthesis is a well validated strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Herein we reported the design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for a series of novel 1,2,3,4- tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives. Some analogs demonstrated a potent inhibition to both rat and human CYP17 protein and reduced testosterone production in human H295R cell line. Some analogs also showed high selectivity against other CYP enzymes such as 3A4, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6, which may limit side effects due to drug-drug interactions. Among these analogs, the most potent compound 9c showed 1.5 fold more potent against rat and human CYP17 protein than that of abiraterone (IC50 = 16 nM and 20 nM vs. 25 nM and 36 nM respectively). In NCI-H295R cells, the inhibitory effect of compound 9c on testosterone production (52± 2%) was also more potent than that of abiraterone (74± 15%) at the concentration of 1 μM. Further, it was shown that 9c reduced plasma testosterone level in a dose-dependent manner in Sprague-Dawley rats. Thus, analog 9c maybe a potential agent used for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. catena-Poly[[diaqua-rubidium(I)](μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-23

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil-ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  15. catena-Poly[[diaqua­rubidium(I)](μ2-3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C6H3N2O4)(C6H4N2O4)(H2O)2]n, consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol­ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol­ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil­ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21581808

  16. Poly[diaqua(μ2-3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylato)(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)potassium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmis; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [K(C6H3N2O4)(C6H4N2O4)(H2O)2]n, consists of one potassium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules; this is twice the asymmetric unit, since the potassium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol­ecule is linked to two potassium cations, while the potassium cation has contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each potassium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid retains its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol­ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds in which water acts as the donor. PMID:21200587

  17. Near-infrared variability study of the central 2.3 arcmin × 2.3 arcmin of the Galactic Centre - I. Catalogue of variable sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Schödel, Rainer; Williams, Benjamin F.; Nogueras-Lara, Francisco; Gallego-Cano, Eulalia; Gallego-Calvente, Teresa; Wang, Q. Daniel; Morris, Mark R.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    We used 4-yr baseline Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 IR observations of the Galactic Centre in the F153M band (1.53 μm) to identify variable stars in the central ∼2.3 arcmin × 2.3 arcmin field. We classified 3845 long-term (periods from months to years) and 76 short-term (periods of a few days or less) variables among a total sample of 33 070 stars. For 36 of the latter ones, we also derived their periods (<3 d). Our catalogue not only confirms bright long period variables and massive eclipsing binaries identified in previous works but also contains many newly recognized dim variable stars. For example, we found δ Scuti and RR Lyrae stars towards the Galactic Centre for the first time, as well as one BL Her star (period < 1.3 d). We cross-correlated our catalogue with previous spectroscopic studies and found that 319 variables have well-defined stellar types, such as Wolf-Rayet, OB main sequence, supergiants and asymptotic giant branch stars. We used colours and magnitudes to infer the probable variable types for those stars without accurately measured periods or spectroscopic information. We conclude that the majority of unclassified variables could potentially be eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries and Type II Cepheids. Our source catalogue will be valuable for future studies aimed at constraining the distance, star formation history and massive binary fraction of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster.

  18. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  19. Agonist signalling properties of radiotracers used for imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) agonist radiopharmaceuticals are considered superior to antagonists to detect dopamine release, e.g. induced by amphetamines. Agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2R, which has been proposed as the reason why agonists are more sensitive to detect dopamine release than antagonist radiopharmaceuticals, but this theory has been challenged. Interestingly, not all agonists similarly activate the classic cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP) and the ?-arrestin-2 pathway, some stimulate preferentially one of these pathways; a phenomenon called biased agonism. Because these pathways can be affected separately by pathologies or drugs (including dopamine releasers), it is important to know how agonist radiotracers act on these pathways. Therefore, we characterized the intracellular signalling of the well-known D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals NPA and PHNO and of several novel D2/3R agonists. Methods cAMP accumulation and ?-arrestin-2 recruitment were measured on cells expressing human D2R. Results All tested agonists showed (almost) full agonism in both pathways. Conclusions The tested D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals did not exhibit biased agonism in vitro. Consequently, it is likely that drugs (including psychostimulants like amphetamines) and/or pathologies that influence the cAMP and/or the ?-arrestin-2 pathway may influence the binding of these radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:25977878

  20. Observation of two sequential pathways of (CO2 ) 3 + dissociation by heavy-ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhang, P.; Ma, X.; Feng, W. T.; Gao, Y.; Xu, S.; Zhao, Q. S.; Zhang, S. F.; Guo, D. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Zhang, R. T.; Huang, Z. K.; Wang, H. B.; Zhang, X. J.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the breakup of (CO2 ) 3 + induced by N e4 + ion impact at incident energies of 1.12 MeV was performed. By analyzing the momentum distributions and the kinetic energies of the three fragment ions, the nonsequential and sequential dissociation mechanisms are verified. In contrast to highly charged ion impact, two different sequential decay pathways were observed in the present experiment. One pathway originates from the primary cation (CO2 ) 3 + populated into +4Σ states by collision charge exchange and its daughter cation (CO) 2 + populated into the two excited states (3Π and X 1Π ) by the first fragmentation step, resulting in a lower KER peak. The other pathway originates from the primary cation (CO2 ) 3 + locating at 6Π state, and its daughter cation (CO) 2 + populated into the metastable excited states 3Π , X 1Π , and +3Σ, leading to the higher KER peak. Our work is a breakup experiment of (CO2 ) 3 + presenting the initial states of the parent cation (CO2 ) 3 + and the metastable states of C O2 + ion simultaneously.

  1. The role of S-adenosylmethionine in the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine and L-{beta}-lysine. This study is divided into three parts. They are; the purification of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, the investigation of the role of the C-5{prime}-hydrogens of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, and the question of whether activation of enzyme by S-adenosylmethionine necessitates transformation of S-adenosylmethionine into a new form. To determine if the C-5{prime}-hydrogens of S-adenosylmethionine participate in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, enzyme is activated with S-(2,8,5{prime}-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine and the L-lysine and L-{beta}-lysine are analyzed for their tritium content. The tritium levels in the two isomers are significant and reflect the Keq for the reaction with (L-{beta}-lysine)/(L-lysine) = 5.3 {+-} 0.3 at a pH of 7.7 and 37{degree}C. When S-(2,8-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine or S-(methyl-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine serve as activators, no significant amount of tritium is found in L-{beta}-lysine and L-lysine. To test if S-adenosylmethionine is modified during activation of enzyme, lysine 2,3-aminomutase is activated with {sup 14}C-radiolabelled S-adenosylmethionine.

  2. Characterization of Two Classes of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Arp2/3 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, B.; Tomasevic, N; Russell, A; Pierce, D; Jia, Z; McCormick, C; Hartman, J; Sakowicz, R; Pollard, T

    2009-01-01

    Polymerization of actin filaments directed by the actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex supports many types of cellular movements. However, questions remain regarding the relative contributions of Arp2/3 complex versus other mechanisms of actin filament nucleation to processes such as path finding by neuronal growth cones; this is because of the lack of simple methods to inhibit Arp2/3 complex reversibly in living cells. Here we describe two classes of small molecules that bind to different sites on the Arp2/3 complex and inhibit its ability to nucleate actin filaments. CK-0944636 binds between Arp2 and Arp3, where it appears to block movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into their active conformation. CK-0993548 inserts into the hydrophobic core of Arp3 and alters its conformation. Both classes of compounds inhibit formation of actin filament comet tails by Listeria and podosomes by monocytes. Two inhibitors with different mechanisms of action provide a powerful approach for studying the Arp2/3 complex in living cells.

  3. Mathematical modeling of the effects of CK2.3 on mineralization in osteoporotic bone

    PubMed Central

    Lisberg, A; Ellis, R; Nicholson, K; Moku, P; Swarup, A; Dhurjati, P

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and new treatments for this disease are desperately needed. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is crucial for bone formation. The mimetic peptide CK2.3 acts downstream of BMP2 and increases BMD when injected systemically into the tail vein of mice. However, the most effective dosage needed to induce BMD in humans is unknown. We developed a mathematical model for CK2.3‐dependent bone mineralization. We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to derive the CK2.3 concentration needed to increase BMD. Based on our results, the ideal dose of CK2.3 for a healthy individual to achieve the maximum increase of mineralization was about 409 µM injected in 500 µL volume, while dosage for osteoporosis patients was about 990 µM. This model showed that CK2.3 could increase the average area of bone mineralization in patients and in healthy adults. PMID:28181418

  4. ox-LDL induces endothelial dysfunction by promoting Arp2/3 complex expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Zhao, Jianting; Shen, Liming; Jin, Yiqi; Zhang, Zhixuan; Xu, Guoxiong; Huang, Xianchen

    2016-06-24

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) play a critical role in endothelial injury including cytoskeleton reorganization, which is closely related to actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Arp2/3 complex in ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we found that Arp2 and Arp3 expression was increased under atherosclerotic conditions both in ApoE-/- mice and in ox-LDL-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Arp2/3 complex inhibitor CK666 significantly reduced ox-LDL-induced ROS generation and cytoskeleton reorganization, and increased NO release in HCAECs. Pretreatment with LOX-1- but not CD36-blocking antibody markedly decreased ox-LDL-induced Arp2 and Arp3 expression. Moreover, Rac-1 siRNA remarkably suppressed ox-LDL-stimulated Arp2 and Arp3 expression. Additionally, CK666 reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice. Collectively, ox-LDL induces endothelial dysfunction by activating LOX-1/Rac-1 signaling and upregulating Arp2/3 complex expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and regulation of the 2,3-butanediol pathway in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liao Yuan; Sun, Jian'an; Su, Gang; Wei, Dongzhi; Chu, Ju; Zhu, Jiawen; Shen, Yaling

    2012-03-01

    Serratia marcescens has been proved to be a potential strain for industrial 2,3-butanediol production for its high yield, productivity, and other advantages. In this study, the genes slaA, slaB, slaC, and slaR were successfully cloned which were further confirmed to be encoding acetolactate decarboxylase, acetolactate synthase, 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, and a LysR-like regulator, respectively. Unlike in Klebsiella sp. or Klebsiella pneumonie and Vibrio sp. or Vibrio cholerae, the gene slaC is separated from other genes. Then it showed that two regulators, SwrR and SlaR, are in charge of this process by exerting effect on the transcription of genes slaA and slaB. By contrast, the expression of gene slaC is unaffected by the two regulators. It means that these two regulators affect the production of 2,3-butanediol by regulating the production of acetoin. Based on these findings, we successfully accelerated the 2,3-butanediol production by inactivation of gene swrR. The obtained results and further investigations should lead to a more suitable fermentation strategy and strain improvement which would be applicable to the industrial production of 2,3-butanediol.

  6. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.; Deng, S. H.; Zheng, A. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Chen, X. B.; Zeng, X. H.; Hu, Y. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 3-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 3 by sequential reaction of iminophosphorane 1, aromatic isocyanates and various nucleophiles (HY), found some compounds showed good antitumor and antibacterial activities. Meanwhile, aliphatic isocyanates were applied in the reaction to prepare 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidinones, but there are no reports of their antifungal activities. As a continuation of our research for new biologically active heterocycles, we herein wish to report a facile synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 6 via easily accessible iminophosphorane 1. The growth inhibitory effect of one concentration (50mg/L) of compounds 6 against five fungus(Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Gibberella zeae and Dothiorella gregaria) in vitro was tested by the method of toxic medium. Compound 6d showed the best inhibition rate against Gibberella zeae with 85.68%.

  7. Degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene by Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71

    SciTech Connect

    Potrawfke, T.; Timmis, K.N.; Wittich, R.M.

    1998-10-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71 mineralized 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, a highly recalcitrant pollutant hitherto not known to be degraded by pure cultures, as a sole source of carbon and energy, thereby releasing stoichiometric amounts of chloride. The transient excretion of tetrachlorocatechol in the early growth phase suggests an initial attack by a dioxygenase to form the corresponding dihydrodiol which rearomatizes to the catechol. The activity of chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase in crude cell extracts was found to be extraordinarily high towards 3-chlorocatechol (ratio of 2.6 compared to catechol) and other chlorocatechols, including tetrachlorocatechol, which was transformed at a low but significant rate. Further identification of tetrachloromuconic acid, 2,3,5-trichlorodienelactone, 2,3,5-trichloromaleyl acetic acid, and 2,4-dichloro-3-oxoadipic acid as their methyl esters, together with high specific enzyme activities for chlorinated substrates, implicated a functioning chlorocatechol pathway to be induced during growth.

  8. Development of a Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed, [2,3]-Wittig Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Cullen, Lindsey R

    2015-12-04

    An investigation into the use of phase-transfer catalysis for the [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allyloxy carbonyl compounds is described. Initial studies focused on identifying viable substrate classes that would undergo selective [2,3]-rearrangement under phase-transfer catalysis. Under certain conditions, the [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allyloxy carbonyl compounds takes place in the presence of a phase-transfer agent, providing a rare example of a phase-transfer-catalyzed unimolecular reaction. In the course of this investigation, it was found that catalysis is dependent on several variables including base concentration, catalyst structure, and substrate lipophilicity. Preliminary testing of chiral, nonracemic phase-transfer catalysts has shown promising levels of enantioselectivity for future development.

  9. Biodegradation-inspired bioproduction of methylacetoin and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinglin; Zhang, Haibo; Yang, Jianming; Zheng, Yanning; Feng, Dexin; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Zhang, Rubin; Cheng, Tao; Jiao, Fengjiao; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Methylacetoin (3-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-2-one) and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol are currently obtained exclusively via chemical synthesis. Here, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first alternative route, using engineered Escherichia coli. The biological synthesis of methylacetoin was first accomplished by reversing its biodegradation, which involved modifying the enzyme complex involved, switching the reaction substrate, and coupling the process to an exothermic reaction. 2-Methyl-2,3-butanediol was then obtained by reducing methylacetoin by exploiting the substrate promiscuity of acetoin reductase. A complete biosynthetic pathway from renewable glucose and acetone was then established and optimized via in vivo enzyme screening and host metabolic engineering, which led to titers of 3.4 and 3.2 g l−1 for methylacetoin and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol, respectively. This work presents a biodegradation-inspired approach to creating new biosynthetic pathways for small molecules with no available natural biosynthetic pathway. PMID:23945710

  10. Microbial Hydroxylation of 5-Anilino-1,2,3,4-Thiatriazole

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Robert J.; Longfield, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five fungi, including 100 basidiomycetes and 35 yeasts, 75 actinomycetes, and 40 bacteria were screened for their ability to convert 5-anilino-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (AT) to 5-(p-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (p-HT). Eleven cultures were found that formed p-HT, which was isolated and whose structure was determined. Aspergillus tamarii NRRL 3280 formed 8.6 g of p-HT/liter from 10 g of AT/liter (78.9% conversion) in shaken flasks and 4.57 g of p-HT/liter from 6 g of AT/liter (69.8% conversion) in 30-liter fermentors. Washed cells of A. tamarii NRRL 3280 also carried out this conversion. 5-(o-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (o-HT) was identified as a second product formed by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960. PMID:4699219

  11. Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives and in vitro antifungal evaluation on Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G; Cavalcante, Nery N M; Srivastava, Rajendra M; Mendonça Junior, Francisco J B; Wanderley, Almir G; Neves, Rejane P; dos Anjos, Janaína V

    2012-05-16

    1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)propan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or click chemistry). Next the in vitro antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different Candida species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-(1,2,3)triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  12. Fused 1,2,3-Dithiazoles: Convenient Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Lidia S; Baranovsky, Ilia V; Irtegova, Irina G; Bagryanskaya, Irina Y; Shundrin, Leonid A; Zibarev, Andrey V; Rakitin, Oleg A

    2016-05-06

    A new general protocol for synthesis of fused 1,2,3-dithiazoles by the reaction of cyclic oximes with S₂Cl₂ and pyridine in acetonitrile has been developed. The target 1,2,3-dithiazoles fused with various carbocycles, such as indene, naphthalenone, cyclohexadienone, cyclopentadiene, and benzoannulene, were selectively obtained in low to high yields. In most cases, the hetero ring-closure was accompanied by chlorination of the carbocyclic moieties. With naphthalenone derivatives, a novel dithiazole rearrangement (15→13) featuring unexpected movement of the dithiazole ring from α- to β-position, with respect to keto group, was discovered. Molecular structure of 4-chloro-5H-naphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]dithiazol-5-one 13 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical properties of 13 were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a complex behavior was observed, most likely including hydrodechlorination at a low potential.

  13. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  14. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  15. Optimization of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca through oxygen transfer rate control

    SciTech Connect

    Beronio, P.B. Jr. . Amoco Research Center); Tsao, G.T. . Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is influenced by the degree of oxygen limitation. During batch culture studies, two phases of growth are observed: energy-coupled growth, during which cell growth and oxygen supply are coupled; and, energy-uncoupled growth, which arises when the degree of oxygen limitation reaches a critical value. Optimal 2,3-butanediol productivity occurs during the energy-coupled growth phase. In this article, a control system which maintains the batch culture at a constant level of oxygen limitation in the energy-coupled growth regime has been designed. Control, which involves feedback control on the oxygen transfer coefficient, is achieved by continually increasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed gas, which in turn continually increases the oxygen transfer rate. Control has resulted in a balanced state of growth, a repression of ethanol formation, and an increase in 2,3-butanediol productivity of 18%.

  16. Synthesis, photostability and bioactivity of 2,3-cyclopropanated abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wenjian, Liu; Xiaoqiang, Han; Yumei, Xiao; Jinlong, Fan; Yuanzhi, Zhang; Huizhe, Lu; Mingan, Wang; Zhaohai, Qin

    2013-12-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of plant development and adaptation to environmental stress. The isomerization of ABA to the biologically inactive 2E-isomer by light considerably limits its applications in agricultural fields. To overcome this shortcoming, an ABA analogue, cis-2,3-cyclopropanated ABA, was synthesized, and its photostability and biological activities were investigated. This compound showed high photostability under UV light exposure, which was 4-fold higher than that of (±)-ABA. cis-2,3-cyclopropanated ABA exhibited high ABA-like activity, including the ability to effectively inhibit seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movements of Arabidopsis. In some cases, its bioactivity approaches that of (±)-ABA. trans-2,3-cyclopropanated abscisic acid was also prepared, an isomer that was more photostable but which showed weak ABA-like activity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione.

    PubMed

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V; Contreras, Rosalinda; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-09-01

    Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C-H···π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R2(2)(8) rings via N-H···S interactions, along with parallel π-π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  18. Amino­silanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Two new mol­ecular structures, namely 1,3-bis­(tri­methyl­silyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C13H22N2SSi2, (2), and 1-tri­methyl­silyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C10H14N2SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π inter­actions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe3 groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R 2 2(8) rings via N—H⋯S inter­actions, along with parallel π–π inter­actions between imidazole and benzene rings. PMID:26322611

  19. Dendritic Branching and Homogenization of Actin Networks Mediated by Arp2/3 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis

    2004-12-01

    The cytoskeleton of motile cells exploits accessory proteins to locally modulate its organization and micromechanics. Here, we demonstrate that the Arp2/3 complex plays the role, unique among other cytoskeleton proteins, of an actin network “homogenizer,” promoting the extremely rapid formation of homogeneous and stiff networks. Nanotracking of microspheres imbedded in F-actin networks reveals that the Arp2/3 complex promotes the formation of networks that are remarkably more homogeneous than control networks, a distinctive feature that coordinates a dramatic burst of elasticity. These results suggest that the Arp2/3 complex possesses a unique function of stabilizing membrane protrusions through the formation of homogeneous and stiff actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge of crawling cells.

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of dihydrofurobenzoxazolin-2(3H)-ones and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhalerao, U T; Gawali, B B; Annapurna, J

    1994-09-01

    A series of dihydrofurobenzoxazolin-2(3H)-ones and their derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the compounds have been elucidated by IR, mass, 1H-NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The in vitro activity of these compounds was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also against Candida albicans. 7,7-Dimethyl-7,8-dihydro-furo[2,3-g]benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (compound 2) proved to be more potent than compound 1. Compound 3 also showed significant activity against all the microbes tested. Compounds 4 and 5 were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria but inactive against C. albicans.

  1. Nonsequential and sequential fragmentation of CO2(3+) in intense laser fields.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong; Wu, Chengyin; Song, Di; Su, Hongmei; Yang, Yudong; Wu, Zhifeng; Liu, Xianrong; Liu, Hong; Li, Min; Deng, Yongkai; Liu, Yunquan; Peng, Liang-You; Jiang, Hongbing; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-03-08

    We experimentally studied the three-body fragmentation dynamics of CO(2) initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses. Sequential and nonsequential fragmentations were precisely separated and identified for CO(2)(3+) to break up into O(+) + C(+) + O(+) ions. With accurate measurements of three-dimensional momentum vectors of the correlated atomic ions and calculations of the high-level ab initio potential of CO(2)(3+), we reconstructed the geometric structure of CO(2)(3+) before fragmentation, which turns out to be very close to that of the neutral CO(2) molecule before laser irradiation. Our study indicated that Coulomb explosion is a promising approach for imaging geometric structures of polyatomic molecules if the fragmentation dynamics can be clearly clarified and the appropriate dissociation potential is provided for multiply charged molecular ions.

  2. Thieno[2,3-b]pyridines--a new class of multidrug resistance (MDR) modulators.

    PubMed

    Krauze, Aivars; Grinberga, Signe; Krasnova, Laura; Adlere, Ilze; Sokolova, Elina; Domracheva, Ilona; Shestakova, Irina; Andzans, Zigmars; Duburs, Gunars

    2014-11-01

    To identify new potent multidrug resistance modulators, we have synthesized a series of novel thieno[2,3-b]pyridines and furo[2,3-b]pyridines, and examined their structure-activity relationships. All synthesized compounds were tested to determine BCRP1, P-gp, and MRP1 inhibitor activity, and most potent MDR modulators were also screened for their toxicity, cytotoxicity and Ca(2+) channel antagonist activity. Among these compounds, thieno[2,3-b]pyridine (6r) was found to exhibit a potent P-gp inhibitory action with EC50 = 0.3 ± 0.2 μM, MRP1 inhibitory action with EC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM and BCRP1 inhibitory action with EC50 = 0.2 ± 0.05 μM and may represent suitable candidate for further pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Terahertz Spectra of Ninhydrin and Indane-1,2,3-Trione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Tao; Li, Shaoping; Pan, Tingting; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Zheng; Li, Xindi; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhao, Hongwei

    2017-07-01

    Distinctive terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of ninhydrin and indane-1,2,3-trione ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 THz were observed firstly in our experiment by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The dehydration process of ninhydrin was also monitored online. The experimental results indicate that THz spectroscopy is highly sensitive to the crystal structure, weak intermolecular interactions, and the environmental change. Multitechniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were also carried out to further investigate ninhydrin and indane-1,2,3-trione. And the results support the reliability of THz spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the samples' crystalline structures were performed for better understanding the THz characteristic spectra. The calculations agree with the experimental observation, and the corresponding vibrational modes of ninhydrin and indane-1,2,3-trione are assigned.

  4. Catabolism of tryptophan, anthranilate, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate in Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J J; Dagley, S

    1981-01-01

    Trichosporon cutaneum degraded L-tryptophan by a reaction sequence that included L-kynurenine, anthranilate, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, catechol, and beta-ketoadipate as catabolites. All of the enzymes of the sequence were induced by both L-tryptophan and salicylate, and those for oxidizing kynurenine and its catabolites were induced by anthranilate but not by benzoate; induction was not coordinate. Molecular weights of 66,100 and 36,500 were determined, respectively, for purified 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase and its single subunit. Substrates for this enzyme were restricted to benzoic acids substituted with hydroxyl groups at C-2 and C-3; no added coenzyme was required for activity. Partially purified anthranilate hydroxylase (deaminating) catalyzed the incorporation of one atom of 18O, derived from either 18O2 or H2(18)O, into 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. PMID:7194334

  5. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent.

  6. Preparation and structural elucidation of (-)-tetrahydroberberine-(+)-2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jin-Ming; Liu, Wei-Tao; Li, Man-Lin; Liu, Han-Wei; Zhang, Xing-Chang; Li, Zong-Xiao

    2008-12-01

    A new (2:1) complex of (-)-13a S-tetrahydroberberine [(-)-13a S-THB] with (+)-2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid (DTTA), i.e. 5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-9,10-dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxy- 6H dibenzo[a,g] quinolizine·2,3-di( p-toluyl) tartaric acid [2C 20H 20NO 4·C 20H 18O 8], as well as its optical active component (-)-THB, has been obtained from the resolution process of (±)-THB in methanol. The structures of this complex and an enantiomer (-)-13a S-THB have been characterized by CD, IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray single crystal diffraction.

  7. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.

  8. Cortical Layer 1 and Layer 2/3 Astrocytes Exhibit Distinct Calcium Dynamics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Norio; Hirase, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative evidence supports bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons, suggesting glial involvement of neuronal information processing in the brain. Cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration is important for astrocytes as Ca2+ surges co-occur with gliotransmission and neurotransmitter reception. Cerebral cortex is organized in layers which are characterized by distinct cytoarchitecture. We asked if astrocyte-dominant layer 1 (L1) of the somatosensory cortex was different from layer 2/3 (L2/3) in spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ activity and if it was influenced by background neural activity. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscope, we compared spontaneous Ca2+ activity of astrocytic somata and processes in L1 and L2/3 of anesthetized mature rat somatosensory cortex. We also assessed the contribution of background neural activity to the spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics by investigating two distinct EEG states (“synchronized” vs. “de-synchronized” states). We found that astrocytes in L1 had nearly twice higher Ca2+ activity than L2/3. Furthermore, Ca2+ fluctuations of processes within an astrocyte were independent in L1 while those in L2/3 were synchronous. Pharmacological blockades of metabotropic receptors for glutamate, ATP, and acetylcholine, as well as suppression of action potentials did not have a significant effect on the spontaneous somatic Ca2+ activity. These results suggest that spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ surges occurred in large part intrinsically, rather than neural activity-driven. Our findings propose a new functional segregation of layer 1 and 2/3 that is defined by autonomous astrocytic activity. PMID:18575586

  9. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River.

    PubMed

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints.

  10. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River

    PubMed Central

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1485–1498. © 2015 The Authors. Published by SETAC. PMID:25726763

  11. Cellular mechanisms for response heterogeneity among L2/3 pyramidal cells in whisker somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Elstrott, Justin; Clancy, Kelly B; Jafri, Haani; Akimenko, Igor; Feldman, Daniel E

    2014-07-15

    Whisker deflection evokes sparse, low-probability spiking among L2/3 pyramidal cells in rodent somatosensory cortex (S1), with spiking distributed nonuniformly between more and less responsive cells. The cellular and local circuit factors that determine whisker responsiveness across neurons are unclear. To identify these factors, we used two-photon calcium imaging and loose-seal recording to identify more and less responsive L2/3 neurons in S1 slices in vitro, during feedforward recruitment of the L2/3 network by L4 stimulation. We observed a broad gradient of spike recruitment thresholds within local L2/3 populations, with low- and high-threshold cells intermixed. This recruitment gradient was significantly correlated across different L4 stimulation sites, and between L4-evoked and whisker-evoked responses in vivo, indicating that a substantial component of responsiveness is independent of tuning to specific feedforward inputs. Low- and high-threshold L2/3 pyramidal cells differed in L4-evoked excitatory synaptic conductance and intrinsic excitability, including spike threshold and the likelihood of doublet spike bursts. A gradient of intrinsic excitability was observed across neurons. Cells that spiked most readily to L4 stimulation received the most synaptic excitation but had the lowest intrinsic excitability. Low- and high-threshold cells did not differ in dendritic morphology, passive membrane properties, or L4-evoked inhibitory conductance. Thus multiple gradients of physiological properties exist across L2/3 pyramidal cells, with excitatory synaptic input strength best predicting overall spiking responsiveness during network recruitment.

  12. Actin and Arp2/3 localize at the centrosome of interphase cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Gettemans, Jan

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Actin was detected at the centrosome with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. {yields} Centrosomal actin was found in interphase but not mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. {yields} Neither the anti-actin antibody C4 that binds to globular, monomer actin, nor the anti-actin antibody 2G2 that recognizes the nuclear conformation of actin detect actin at the centrosome. {yields} The Arp2/3 complex transiently localizes at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. -- Abstract: Although many actin binding proteins such as cortactin and the Arp2/3 activator WASH localize at the centrosome, the presence and conformation of actin at the centrosome has remained elusive. Here, we report the localization of actin at the centrosome in interphase but not in mitotic MDA-MB-231 cells. Centrosomal actin was detected with the anti-actin antibody 1C7 that recognizes antiparallel ('lower dimer') actin dimers. In addition, we report the transient presence of the Arp2/3 complex at the pericentriolar matrix but not at the centrioles of interphase HEK 293T cells. Overexpression of an Arp2/3 component resulted in expansion of the pericentriolar matrix and selective accumulation of the Arp2/3 component in the pericentriolar matrix. Altogether, we hypothesize that the centrosome transiently recruits Arp2/3 to perform processes such as centrosome separation prior to mitotic entry, whereas the observed constitutive centrosomal actin staining in interphase cells reinforces the current model of actin-based centrosome reorientation toward the leading edge in migrating cells.

  13. Radiosensitizing activity of 1-alkyl-3-nitropyrrolo-(2,3-b)-pyridine derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Y.Z.; Stratford, I.J.

    1989-02-01

    Radiosensitization characteristics of a newly synthesized N-(3,N'-morpholinpropyl)-2-(3-nitropyrrolo-(2,3-b)-pyridine -1-yl) ethanoic acid amide and the chemical basis of the action were studied. Partition coefficient, redox potentials for the one electron reduction of the compound were determined. This was confirmed by studies on the radiosensitization effect and cytotoxicity of the compound tested in vitro using Chinese hamster V79 cells. The results show that the sensitizing efficiency for this compound is C1.6 at a concentration of 0.5 mmol dm-3, which is similar to MISO. Its toxicity was not lower than that of MISO or metronidazole.

  14. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  15. Accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid by Paecilomyces varioti.

    PubMed

    Ling, E T; Dibble, J T; Houston, M R; Lockwood, L B; Elliott, L P

    1978-06-01

    The biogenic acids 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid accumulate in decationized refiner's blackstrap molasses shake cultures of Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. The maximum accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid occurred in a medium which contained Cu2+ and Fe3+ at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mM, respectively. The maximum accumulation of succinic acid occurred in a culture medium which contained Cu2+ at a concentration of 0.01 mM and Fe3+ at a concentration of 1.0 mM.

  16. Accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid by Paecilomyces varioti.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E T; Dibble, J T; Houston, M R; Lockwood, L B; Elliott, L P

    1978-01-01

    The biogenic acids 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid accumulate in decationized refiner's blackstrap molasses shake cultures of Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. The maximum accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid occurred in a medium which contained Cu2+ and Fe3+ at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mM, respectively. The maximum accumulation of succinic acid occurred in a culture medium which contained Cu2+ at a concentration of 0.01 mM and Fe3+ at a concentration of 1.0 mM. PMID:567036

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of cationic low molecular weight amphipathic 1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Bakka, Thomas A; Strøm, Morten B; Andersen, Jeanette H; Gautun, Odd R

    2017-03-01

    A library of 28 small cationic 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles was prepared for studies of antimicrobial activity. The structures addressed the pharmacophore model of small antimicrobial peptides and an amphipathic motif found in marine antimicrobials. Eight compounds showed promising antimicrobial activity, of which the most potent compound 10b displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4-8μg/mL against Streptococcus agalacticae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The simple syntheses and low degree of functionalization make these 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles interesting for further optimizations.

  18. Allenyl Azide Cycloaddition Chemistry. 2,3-Cyclopentennelated Indole Synthesis through Indolidene Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Ken S.; Hester, D. Keith; Iyer, Malliga R.; Munson, Paul J.; López, Carlos Silva; Faza, Olalla Nieto

    2009-01-01

    The thermal, photochemical, and photochemical/CuI-mediated cascade cyclizations of a range of substituted 1-(2-azidophenyl)-3-alkenylallenes are described. These reactions provide both 1,2- and 2,3-cyclopentennelated indole products in varying ratios. In most cases, high regioselectivity for the 2,3-annelated isomer can be achieved under the hv/CuI conditions. Computational studies of this multistep reaction support the intermediacy of indolidene intermediates whose electrocyclizations (with or without copper present) define the regioselectivity branch point in the sequence. PMID:19472993

  19. Lifetime measurement of the metastable 2 3P 0 state in He-like uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toleikis, S.; Manil, B.; Bednarz, G.; Berdermann, E.; Beyer, H. F.; Bosch, F.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Indelicato, P.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Marrus, R.; Mokler, P. H.; Stachura, Z.; Stöhlker, T.; Warczak, A.

    2005-07-01

    The lifetime of the 2 3P0 state in He-like uranium has been measured in a beam-foil time-of-flight experiment at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility with the result τ(2 3P0) = 58.2(9.5) ps. With the measured lifetime it is possible to derive a value of Δ E2s Lamb = 76. 3 ± 20. 6 eV for the n = 2 Lamb shift in uranium.

  20. Photoluminescent lanthanide-organic bilayer networks with 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate and oxalate.

    PubMed

    Soares-Santos, Paula C R; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Ferreira, Rute A S; Rocha, João; Carlos, Luís D; Nogueira, Helena I S

    2010-04-05

    The hydrothermal reaction between lanthanide nitrates and 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid led to a new series of two-dimensional (2D) lanthanide-organic frameworks: [Ln(2)(2,3-pzdc)(2)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)](n) [where 2,3-pzdc(2-) = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate, ox(2-) = oxalate, and Ln(III) = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, or Er]. The structural details of these materials were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (for Ce(3+) and Nd(3+)) that revealed the formation of a layered structure. Cationic monolayers of {(infinity)(2)[Ln(2,3-pzdc)(H(2)O)](+)} are interconnected via the ox(2-) ligand leading to the formation of neutral (infinity)(2)[Ln(2)(2,3-pzdc)(2)(ox)(H(2)O)(2)] bilayer networks; structural cohesion of the crystalline packing is reinforced by the presence of highly directional O-H...O hydrogen bonds between adjacent bilayers. Under the employed hydrothermal conditions 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid can be decomposed into ox(2-) and 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (2-pzc(-)), as unequivocally proved by the isolation of the discrete complex [Tb(2)(2-pzc)(4)(ox)(H(2)O)(6)].10H(2)O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of this latter complex revealed its co-crystallization with an unprecedented (H(2)O)(16) water cluster. Photoluminescence measurements were performed for the Nd(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+), and Tb(3+) compounds which show, under UV excitation at room temperature, the Ln(3+) characteristic intra-4f(N) emission peaks. The energy level of the triplet states of 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (18939 cm(-1)) and oxalic acid (24570 cm(-1)) was determined from the 12 K emission spectrum of the Gd(3+) compound. The (5)D(0) and (5)D(4) lifetime values (0.333 +/- 0.006 and 0.577 +/- 0.017 ms) and the absolute emission quantum yields (0.13 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01) were determined for the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) compounds, respectively. For the Eu(3+) compound the energy transfer efficiency arising from the ligands' excited states was estimated (0.93 +/- 0.01).

  1. Size-Selective Cu Nanocrystals Growth on Single and 2-3 Layers Graphene Films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Yunfei; Guo, Haijie; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Cu nanoparticles decorated CVD growth single layer and 2-3 layers graphene films have been synthesized by sputtering deposition and annealing process. The wrinkles were observed on single layer graphene due to high annealing temperature (700 degrees C) and rapid cooling process, which were proved by HRSEM and Raman spectra. Smaller mean diameter and narrower size distribution of Cu nanoparticles were observed on 2-3 layers graphene film than that on single layer graphene. The large particles grow at the expense of small particles, and the particle growth was governed by the Ostwald ripening process.

  2. The MOSDEF Survey: Electron Density and Ionization Parameter at z ~ 2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Using observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we investigate the physical conditions of star-forming regions in z ˜ 2.3 galaxies, specifically the electron density and ionization state. From measurements of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 and [S ii]λλ6716,6731 doublets, we find a median electron density of ˜250 cm-3 at z ˜ 2.3, an increase of an order of magnitude compared to measurements of galaxies at z ˜ 0. While z ˜ 2.3 galaxies are offset toward significantly higher O32 values relative to local galaxies at fixed stellar mass, we find that the high-redshift sample follows a similar distribution to the low-metallicity tail of the local distribution in the O32 versus R23 and O3N2 diagrams. Based on these results, we propose that z ˜ 2.3 star-forming galaxies have the same ionization parameter as local galaxies at fixed metallicity. In combination with simple photoionization models, the position of local and z ˜ 2.3 galaxies in excitation diagrams suggests that there is no significant change in the hardness of the ionizing spectrum at fixed metallicity from z ˜ 0 to z ˜ 2.3. We find that z ˜ 2.3 galaxies show no offset compared to low-metallicity local galaxies in emission line ratio diagrams involving only lines of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, but show a systematic offset in diagrams involving [N ii]λ6584. We conclude that the offset of z ˜ 2.3 galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [N ii] BPT diagram is primarily driven by elevated N/O at fixed O/H compared to local galaxies. These results suggest that the local gas-phase and stellar metallicity sets the ionization state of star-forming regions at z ˜ 0 and z ˜ 2. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  3. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: ELECTRON DENSITY AND IONIZATION PARAMETER AT z ∼ 2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Groot, Laura de; Coil, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Using observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we investigate the physical conditions of star-forming regions in z ∼ 2.3 galaxies, specifically the electron density and ionization state. From measurements of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 and [S ii]λλ6716,6731 doublets, we find a median electron density of ∼250 cm{sup −3} at z ∼ 2.3, an increase of an order of magnitude compared to measurements of galaxies at z ∼ 0. While z ∼ 2.3 galaxies are offset toward significantly higher O{sub 32} values relative to local galaxies at fixed stellar mass, we find that the high-redshift sample follows a similar distribution to the low-metallicity tail of the local distribution in the O{sub 32} versus R{sub 23} and O3N2 diagrams. Based on these results, we propose that z ∼ 2.3 star-forming galaxies have the same ionization parameter as local galaxies at fixed metallicity. In combination with simple photoionization models, the position of local and z ∼ 2.3 galaxies in excitation diagrams suggests that there is no significant change in the hardness of the ionizing spectrum at fixed metallicity from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 2.3. We find that z ∼ 2.3 galaxies show no offset compared to low-metallicity local galaxies in emission line ratio diagrams involving only lines of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, but show a systematic offset in diagrams involving [N ii]λ6584. We conclude that the offset of z ∼ 2.3 galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [N ii] BPT diagram is primarily driven by elevated N/O at fixed O/H compared to local galaxies. These results suggest that the local gas-phase and stellar metallicity sets the ionization state of star-forming regions at z ∼ 0 and z ∼ 2.

  4. Cycloadditions of 1,2,3-Triazines Bearing C5-Electron Donating Substituents: Robust Pyrimidine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Glinkerman, Christopher M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines 17–19, bearing electron-donating substituents at C5, are described. Despite the noncomplementary 1,2,3-triazine C5 substituents, amidines were found to undergo a powerful cycloaddition to provide 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines in excellent yields (42–99%; EDG = SMe > OMe > NHAc). Even select ynamines and enamines were capable of cycloadditions with 17, but not 18 or 19, to provide trisubstituted pyridines in modest yields (37–40% and 33% respectively). PMID:26172042

  5. 2,3,17,18-Tetrahalohexaphyrins and the first phlorin-type hexaphyrins.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2013-09-01

    1-(Triisopropylsilyl)-3,4-dichloropyrrole and 1-(triisopropylsilyl)-3,4-difluoropyrrole were conveniently prepared from the corresponding 3,4-dibromopyrrole by lithiation followed by halogenation. 2,3,17,18-Tetrahalogeno [26]- and [28]hexaphyrins have been prepared by condensation of 3,4-dihalopyrroles and a dipyrromethane-dicarbinol. 2,3,17,18-Tetrahalogenated hexaphyrins display variable structural and electronic properties depending upon the halogen atom and the number of π-electrons. Tetrabromo[28]hexaphyrin and tetrachloro[28]hexaphyrin were further reduced with excess NaBH4 to furnish meso-reduced hexaphyrins as the first example of phlorin-type meso-aryl-substituted hexaphyrins.

  6. Multidrug Resistance Proteins and the Renal Elimination of Inorganic Mercury Mediated by 2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-Sulfonic Acid and Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2008-01-01

    Current therapies for inorganic mercury (Hg2+) intoxication include administration of a metal chelator, either 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). After exposure to either chelator, Hg2+ is rapidly eliminated from the kidneys and excreted in the urine, presumably as an S-conjugate of DMPS or DMSA. The multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) has been implicated in this process. We hypothesize that Mrp2 mediates the secretion of DMPS- or DMSA-S-conjugates of Hg2+ from proximal tubular cells. To test this hypothesis, the disposition of Hg2+ was examined in control and Mrp2-deficient TR− rats. Rats were injected i.v. with 0.5 μmol/kg HgCl2 containing 203Hg2+. Twenty-four and 28 h later, rats were injected with saline, DMPS, or DMSA. Tissues were harvested 48 h after HgCl2 exposure. The renal and hepatic burden of Hg2+ in the saline-injected TR− rats was greater than that of controls. In contrast, the amount of Hg2+ excreted in urine and feces of TR− rats was less than that of controls. DMPS, but not DMSA, significantly reduced the renal and hepatic content of Hg2+ in both groups of rats, with the greatest reduction in controls. A significant increase in urinary and fecal excretion of Hg2+, which was greater in the controls, was also observed following DMPS treatment. Experiments utilizing inside-out membrane vesicles expressing MRP2 support these observations by demonstrating that DMPS- and DMSA-S-conjugates of Hg2+ are transportable substrates of MRP2. Collectively, these data support a role for Mrp2 in the DMPS- and DMSA-mediated elimination of Hg2+ from the kidney. PMID:17940195

  7. Soluble Dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Derivatives for Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, Masanori; Kang, Myeong Jin; Miyazaki, Eigo; Sugino, Hiroyoshi; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2016-02-17

    We demonstrate a new approach to solution-processable dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) derivatives that can afford good thin-film transistors having mobilities higher than 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The key molecular design strategy is the introduction of one branched alkyl group at the edge of the DNTT core, which improves solubility while retaining semiconducting characteristics in the thin-film state. Dialkylation, i.e., the introduction of two branched alkyl groups on the DNTT core, had a detrimental effect on the semiconducting properties. Although the physicochemical properties of the mono- and dialkylated derivatives at the molecular level were almost the same, the thin-film absorption spectra and the ionization potentials (IPs) were markedly different, indicating that the intermolecular interaction in the thin-film state was affected by the number of alkyl groups. Indeed, the packing structures of the monoalkylated DNTTs in the thin-film state, which were estimated from the XRD patterns, were similar to that of parent DNTT, indicating the existence of the lamella structure with the herringbone packing motif. In sharp contrast, the XRD patterns of the dialkylated DNTT thin films showed poor crystallinity, and the packing structures were significantly different from that of parent DNTT. All the results of structural characterization in the thin-film state and evaluation of device characteristics of the DNTT derivatives with branched alkyl groups indicate that the introduction of a branched alkyl group in the molecular long-axis direction is an effective way to solubilize the rigid, largely π-extended organic semiconducting core without interfering with the semiconducting characteristics in the thin-film state.

  8. Structural and Functional Studies of WlbA: A Dehydrogenase Involved in the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2010-09-08

    2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid (ManNAc3NAcA) is an unusual dideoxy sugar first identified nearly 30 years ago in the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O:3a,d. It has since been observed in other organisms, including Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of UDP-ManNAc3NAcA starting from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Here we describe a structural study of WlbA, the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase that catalyzes the second step in the pathway, namely, the oxidation of the C-3{prime} hydroxyl group on the UDP-linked sugar to a keto moiety and the reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH. This enzyme has been shown to use {alpha}-ketoglutarate as an oxidant to regenerate the oxidized dinucleotide. For this investigation, three different crystal structures were determined: the enzyme with bound NAD(H), the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate, and the enzyme in a complex with NAD(H) and its substrate (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminuronic acid). The tetrameric enzyme assumes an unusual quaternary structure with the dinucleotides positioned quite closely to one another. Both {alpha}-ketoglutarate and the UDP-linked sugar bind in the WlbA active site with their carbon atoms (C-2 and C-3{prime}, respectively) abutting the re face of the cofactor. They are positioned {approx}3 {angstrom} from the nicotinamide C-4. The UDP-linked sugar substrate adopts a highly unusual curved conformation when bound in the WlbA active site cleft. Lys 101 and His 185 most likely play key roles in catalysis.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. A Habitability Test of the Exoplanetary System K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Perez, Ryan; Kipping, David M.; Johnson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The question of habitability is one of the most interesting questions in exoplanetary science. By studying the orbital properties of a planet, like it's eccentricity and habitable zone inner edge distance we can answer this question. Here we answer the habitability question for the planets in the exoplanetary system K2-3 discovered by the Kepler 2 spacecraft. The system is compose of three planets with radii 1.61-2.17 Rearth, and with orbital periods of 10-45 days. The most outer planet in this system known as K2-3d is particularly interesting due to its proximity towards the habitable zone. The eccentricities of the planets in K2-3 were calculated using a method known as stellar density profiling, and from these eccentricities the range of the semi-major axis were determined. The planet K2-3d was calculated to have a semi-major axis of 0.18 AU, which puts it outside the habitable zone where inner edge of the habitable zone is 0.27 AU from its host star. This project was supported by the The Harvard Banneker Institute.

  11. Aminosilanes derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione

    SciTech Connect

    Palomo-Molina, Juliana; García-Báez, Efrén V.; Pineda-Urbina, Kayim; Ramos-Organillo, Angel

    2015-08-12

    In two trimethylsilyl-substituted 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thiones, noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in one, and dimerization results in the formation of R{sub s} {sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings, in the second compound. Two new molecular structures, namely 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 13}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}SSi{sub 2}, (2), and 1-trimethylsilyl-1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione, C{sub 10}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}SSi, (3), are reported. Both systems were derived from 1H-benzimidazole-2(3H)-thione. Noncovalent C—H⋯π interactions between the centroid of the benzmidazole system and the SiMe{sub 3} groups form helicoidal arrangements in (2). Dimerization of (3) results in the formation of R{sub 2}{sup 2}(8) rings via N—H⋯S interactions, along with parallel π–π interactions between imidazole and benzene rings.

  12. Studies on cardiotonic agents. II. Synthesis of novel phthalazine and 1,2,3-benzotriazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Y; Obase, H; Takai, H; Teranishi, M; Nakamura, J; Kubo, K

    1990-08-01

    A series of phthalazine and 1,2,3-benzotriazine derivatives which have heterocyclylpiperidino groups was synthesized and tested for cardiotonic activity in anesthetized dogs. Several 6,7-dimethoxyphthalazine derivatives showed relatively potent cardiotonic activity comparable to that of amrinone.

  13. GC/FT-IR ANALYSIS OF THE THERMALLY LABILE COMPOUND TRIS (2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fast and convenient GC method has been developed for a compound [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate] that poses a difficult analytical problem for both GC (thermal instability/low volatility) and LC (not amenable to commonly available, sensitive detectors) analysis. his method em...

  14. Tunable, Single-frequency, Diode-pumped 2.3mum VECSEL.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, J-M; Maclean, A J; Burns, D; Riis, E; Schulz, N; Rattunde, M; Manz, C; Köhler, K; Wagner, J

    2007-06-25

    We report high-performance single-frequency operation of a directly diode-pumped GaSb-based vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) at 2.3mum. Tunability of 70nm and a maximum single frequency output of 0.68W is demonstrated.

  15. In situ recovery of 2,3-butanediol from fermentation by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Masumeh; Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Khayati, Gholam

    2009-02-01

    End-product conversion, low product concentration and large volumes of fermentation broth, the requirements for large bioreactors, in addition to the high cost involved in generating the steam required to distil fermentation products from the broth largely contributed to the decline in fermentative products. These considerations have motivated the study of organic extractants as a means to remove the product during fermentation and minimize downstream recovery. The aim of this study is to assess the practical applicability of liquid-liquid extraction in 2,3-butanediol fermentations. Eighteen organic solvents were screened to determine their biocompatibility, and bioavailability for their effects on Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. Candidate solvents at first were screened in shake flasks for toxicity to K. pneumoniae. Cell density and substrate consumption were used as measures of cell toxicity. The possibility of employing oleyl alcohol as an extraction solvent to enhance end product in 2,3-butanediol fermentation was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose concentration of 80 g/l. Oleyl alcohol did not inhibit the growth of the fermentative organism. 2,3-Butanediol production increased from 17.9 g/l (in conventional fermentation) to 23.01 g/l (in extractive fermentation). Applying oleyl alcohol as the extraction solvent, about 68% of the total 2,3-butanediol produced was extracted.

  16. Structure of the catalytic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS2-3 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz,I.; Marcotrigiano, J.; Dentzer, T.; Rice, C.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major global health problem affecting an estimated 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection is common and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. There is no vaccine available and current therapies have met with limited success. The viral RNA genome encodes a polyprotein that includes two proteases essential for virus replication. The NS2-3 protease mediates a single cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, whereas the NS3-4A protease cleaves at four downstream sites in the polyprotein. NS3-4A is characterized as a serine protease with a chymotrypsin-like fold, but the enzymatic mechanism of the NS2-3 protease remains unresolved. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the NS2-3 protease at 2.3 Angstroms resolution. The structure reveals a dimeric cysteine protease with two composite active sites. For each active site, the catalytic histidine and glutamate residues are contributed by one monomer, and the nucleophilic cysteine by the other. The carboxy-terminal residues remain coordinated in the two active sites, predicting an inactive post-cleavage form. Proteolysis through formation of a composite active site occurs in the context of the viral polyprotein expressed in mammalian cells. These features offer unexpected insights into polyprotein processing by hepatitis C virus and new opportunities for antiviral drug design.

  17. Effectiveness of 1-2-3 Magic for Teachers to Improve Classroom Management and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    It was not known how and to what extent the implementation of "1-2-3 Magic for Teachers" would change the behaviors of disruptive students. The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of behavioral incidents and improve student engagement in learning to produce a learning environment conducive to academic success. The target…

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that scie...

  19. A Survey of Recent Synthetic Applications of 2,3-Dideoxy-Hex-2-enopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ana M; Lobo, Fernando; Miranda, Silvia; Lopez, J Cristobal

    2015-05-08

    Unsaturated carbohydrate derivatives are useful intermediates in synthetic transformations leading to a variety of compounds. The aim of this review is to highlight the rich chemistry of ∆-2,3 unsaturated pyranosides, emphasizing the variety of transformations that have been carried out in these substrates during the last decade.

  20. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase: EVIDENCE FOR A COMMON REACTION MECHANISM.

    PubMed

    Booth, Elizabeth S; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L

    2015-12-25

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD(+). The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of L-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237-244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of L-Trp, 1-methyl-L-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues.

  1. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui que...

  2. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui que...

  3. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui que...

  4. 43 CFR 3862.2-3 - Trustee to disclose nature of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trustee to disclose nature of trust. 3862... Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.2-3 Trustee to disclose nature of trust. Any party applying for patent as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui que...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  6. Surprising photochemical and thermal isomerizations of a cyclic 1,2,3-butatriene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiyuan; Ma, Zhongxin; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Barton, T.J. |

    1997-12-31

    Photolysis of cyclic 1,2,3-butatriene 1 exclusively affords cyclopropane 2 for which an unprecedented initial isomerization to a methylenecyclopropanylidene is proposed. Thermolysis of 1 produces butadiene 3 in 83% yield. Formation of 3 is an apparent disallowed S, A [2+2] cycloaddition but we will argue that it is actually an allowed [4+2] cycloaddition.

  7. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1...

  8. 7 CFR 2.3 - Authority of the Secretary to delegate authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the Secretary to delegate authority. 2.3... delegate authority. (a) The general authority of the Secretary to make delegations of his authority is... delegate to any agency, office, officer, or employee of the Department the authority to perform any...

  9. Virtual venue management users manual : access grid toolkit documentation, version 2.3.

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, I. R.; Lefvert, S.; Olson, E.; Uram, T. D.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-10-24

    An Access Grid Venue Server provides access to individual Virtual Venues, virtual spaces where users can collaborate using the Access Grid Venue Client software. This manual describes the Venue Server component of the Access Grid Toolkit, version 2.3. Covered here are the basic operations of starting a venue server, modifying its configuration, and modifying the configuration of the individual venues.

  10. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  11. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  12. 43 CFR 3861.2-3 - Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-3 Mineral surveyor's report of expenditures...

  13. Effectiveness of 1-2-3 Magic for Teachers to Improve Classroom Management and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    It was not known how and to what extent the implementation of "1-2-3 Magic for Teachers" would change the behaviors of disruptive students. The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of behavioral incidents and improve student engagement in learning to produce a learning environment conducive to academic success. The target…

  14. Ruthenium catalyzed synthesis of 2,3-unsaturated C-glycosides from glycals.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Batthula; Reddy, Thurpu Raghavender; Kashyap, Sudhir

    2015-04-10

    A highly efficient and convenient C-glycosylation method was developed using ruthenium(III) chloride for the synthesis of 2,3-unsaturated C-glycosides. Various nucleophiles such as allyl trimethylsilane, triethylsilane, trimethylsilyl cyanide, trimethylsilyl azide and heterocycles such as thiophene and furan reacted smoothly with glycals in the presence of catalytic amount of ruthenium trichloride under mild reaction conditions.

  15. Polyimides from 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride and Aromatic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to polyimides. It relates particularly to novel polyimides prepared from 2,3, 3',4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and aromatic diamines. These novel polyimides have low color, good solubility, high thermal emissivity, low solar absorptivity and high tensile strength.

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) was added to the IRIS database in 1990. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for TCP. This update will incorporate health effects information published since t...

  17. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands of...

  18. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands of...

  19. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands of...

  20. 43 CFR 9185.2-3 - Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. 9185... Instructions and Methods § 9185.2-3 Unsurveyed islands and omitted lands. (a) Section 211(a) of the Federal... Recreation and Public Purposes Act of unsurveyed islands determined by the Secretary to be public lands of...

  1. Catalytic enantioselective [2,3]-rearrangements of amine N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hongli; Qi, Xiangbing; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-02-09

    The first Pd-catalyzed enantioselective [2,3]-rearrangement of allylic amine N-oxides is described, which formally represents an asymmetric Meisenheimer rearrangement. The mild reaction conditions enable the synthesis of chiral nonracemic aliphatic allylic alcohol derivatives with reactive functional groups. On the basis of preliminary studies, a cyclization-mediated mechanism is proposed.

  2. Personal Care and the Healthy Hare Family Coloring and Activity Book for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This activity and coloring booklet has been designed to supplement health lessons for students in grades 2-3. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the activities is varied in order to…

  3. Preparation of cyclic 2',3'-carbamate derivatives of erythromycin macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Audun; Undheim, Kjell

    2007-05-01

    Tricarbonylation of clarithromycin has been effected in a one-pot reaction with phosgene. The 11,12-diol moiety was closed into a cyclic carbonate, while the dimethylamino alcohol of the desosamine sugar was cyclised with loss of a methyl group to form a cyclic 2',3'-carbamate. The 4'' hydroxyl group in clarithromycin was converted into a chloroformate group and subsequently to an allyl carbonate which on Pd-catalysis furnished a novel N-demethylclarithromycin 2',3'-carbamate-11,12-carbonate. Hydrolytic removal of the cladinose sugar and a subsequent oxidation furnished the corresponding ketolide. The 11,12-cyclic carbonate moiety was cleaved by sodium azide to the 10,11-anhydro-9-ketone. 11-N-Arylated cyclic 11,12:2',3'-dicarbamate derivatives were prepared in a copper(I) chloride aided reaction between aryl isocyanates and 10,11-anhydro 9-ketones. The products are novel N-arylated-N'-demethylated 11,12:2',3'-dicarbamate ketolides derived from clarithromycin.

  4. Literacy Skill Development of Children with Familial Risk for Dyslexia through Grades 2, 3, and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography in children through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared 2 groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia--1 group with dyslexia (Dys _FR, n = 35) and 1 group without (NoDys_FR, n = 66) in Grade 2--with a group of children without…

  5. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca KCTC 1686, used in production of 2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Kim, Sewhan; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Soojin; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2012-05-01

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca KCTC 1686, which is used in production of 2,3-butanediol. The KCTC 1686 strain contains 5,974,109 bp with G+C content of 56.05 mol% and contains 5,488 protein-coding genes and 110 structural RNAs.

  7. WAVE binds Ena/VASP for enhanced Arp2/3 complex–based actin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Noguera, Philippe; Abou-Ghali, Majdouline; Manzi, John; Faqir, Fahima; Lamora, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The WAVE complex is the main activator of the Arp2/3 complex for actin filament nucleation and assembly in the lamellipodia of moving cells. Other important players in lamellipodial protrusion are Ena/VASP proteins, which enhance actin filament elongation. Here we examine the molecular coordination between the nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex and the elongating activity of Ena/VASP proteins for the formation of actin networks. Using an in vitro bead motility assay, we show that WAVE directly binds VASP, resulting in an increase in Arp2/3 complex–based actin assembly. We show that this interaction is important in vivo as well, for the formation of lamellipodia during the ventral enclosure event of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. Ena/VASP's ability to bind F-actin and profilin-complexed G-actin are important for its effect, whereas Ena/VASP tetramerization is not necessary. Our data are consistent with the idea that binding of Ena/VASP to WAVE potentiates Arp2/3 complex activity and lamellipodial actin assembly. PMID:25355952

  8. Health Risk Assessment Approach for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects v...

  9. Linkage isomerism in trimeric and polymeric 2,3-cis-procyanindins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Lai Yeap Foo; Lawrence J. Porter

    1982-01-01

    Procyanindins polymers consist of chains of 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-3-ol units linked by C(4)-C(6) or C(4)-C(8) bonds.1 Whereas the procyanidin-B group of dimers are known to exist as pairs of isomers with common flavan-3-ol units, but different interflavanoid linkages,2,3 the extent of such isomerism in...

  10. Literacy Skill Development of Children with Familial Risk for Dyslexia through Grades 2, 3, and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography in children through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared 2 groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia--1 group with dyslexia (Dys _FR, n = 35) and 1 group without (NoDys_FR, n = 66) in Grade 2--with a group of children without…

  11. Copper-mediated pyrazole synthesis from 2,3-allenoates or 2-alkynoates, amines and nitriles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Zhu, Can; Tang, Yang; Ma, Shengming

    2014-07-21

    An efficient copper-mediated three-component reaction of 2,3-allenoates or 2-alkynoates, amines, and nitriles affording fully substituted pyrazoles with a very nice diversity has been developed. A tandem conjugate addition, 1,2-addition, and N-N bond formation mechanism has been proposed for this diverse synthesis of pyrazoles based on mechanistic studies.

  12. 2.3 Micron High Power Continuous Wave Diode Laser Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    width is not reasonable since the SCR1 resistance becomes the dominant at this point. Figure 14 shows the corresponding changes in the conduction...represents the unintentionally p-doped layer. 14 Power Photonic FA9550-05-C-0043 Final Report 0 1 2 3 4 5 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 SCR1

  13. ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TUMOR PROMOTION ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a high estimated cancer potency in animals which has been reasoned to imply that TCDD might be carcinogenic to man. The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other ...

  14. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  15. Synthesis of Novel Functionalized 4-Aza-2,3-Didehydropodophyllotoxin Derivatives with Potential Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Alegria, Antonio E.

    2010-01-01

    Novel arylamino alcohols were synthesized and these alcohols were used to prepare 12 novel N-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-2,3-didehydroazapodophyllotoxins, in one step, by simple reflux in ethanol. Isolated yields in the range of 50–70% were obtained. PMID:21197118

  16. Personal Safety and the Healthy Hare Family Coloring & Activity Book for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This activity and coloring booklet has been designed to supplement health lessons on safety issues for students in grades 2-3. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the activities is…

  17. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1255 - 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid test system. 862.1255 Section 862.1255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  20. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2001: Lesson Plans for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide on the 50 state quarters produced by the United States Mint includes six lesson plans that fit easily into the social studies curriculum for grades 2-3. The lesson plans include reproducible student work pages that coincide with each lesson; state facts and information about the 2001 states quarter designs (New York, North…

  1. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2002: Lesson Plans for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide on the 50 state quarters emitted by the United States Mint includes 6 "teacher-friendly" lesson plans that fit easily into the curriculum for grades 2-3; reproducible student worksheets that coincide with each lesson; "fun" state facts and information on the new quarter designs; and USA map template with…

  2. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen. [Teaching Guide]. Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide for grades 2-3 focuses on the 1999-2000 United States Mint 50 State Quarters Program, which includes new quarter designs for the following states: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, and Virginia. The guide includes six lesson plans that fit easily…

  3. Alstonic acids A and B, unusual 2,3-secofernane triterpenoids from Alstonia scholaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Ren, Fu-Cai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2009-03-01

    2,3-Secofernane triterpenoids, alstonic acids A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris together with an indole alkaloid, N(1)-methoxymethyl picrinine (3). Their structures were established from MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  4. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  5. Scope of the Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Reactions of 1,2,3-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erin D.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the scope of the inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reactions of the parent unsubstituted 1,2,3-triazine is described including the first report of its unique capabilities for participating in previously unexplored [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions with heterodienophiles. PMID:21488676

  6. Health Risk Assessment Approach for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects v...

  7. Identification of SUMO-2/3-modified proteins associated with mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Srikumar, Tharan; Lee, Christine; Osula, Omoruyi; Subramonian, Divya; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Cotter, Robert J; Raught, Brian; Matunis, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Sumoylation is essential for progression through mitosis, but the specific protein targets and functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we used chromosome spreads to more precisely define the localization of SUMO-2/3 (small ubiquitin-related modifier) to the inner centromere and protein scaffold of mitotic chromosomes. We also developed methods to immunopurify proteins modified by endogenous, untagged SUMO-2/3 from mitotic chromosomes. Using these methods, we identified 149 chromosome-associated SUMO-2/3 substrates by nLC-ESI-MS/MS. Approximately one-third of the identified proteins have reported functions in mitosis. Consistent with SUMO-2/3 immunolocalization, we identified known centromere- and kinetochore-associated proteins, as well as chromosome scaffold associated proteins. Notably, >30 proteins involved in chromatin modification or remodeling were identified. Our results provide insights into the roles of sumoylation as a regulator of chromatin structure and other diverse processes in mitosis. Furthermore, our purification and fractionation methodologies represent an important compliment to existing approaches to identify sumoylated proteins using exogenously expressed and tagged SUMOs.

  8. Condensed tannins: A proposed route to 2R,3R-(2,3-cis)-proanthocyanidins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Peter E. Laks

    1985-01-01

    Roux,1 Haslam,2-4 and Stafford5-8 have proposed differing biogenetic schemes for the formation of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) in plants. All three schemes suffer from difficulties in explaining the formation of the 2R,3R-(2,3-cis)-proanthocyanidins that predominate in...

  9. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) was added to the IRIS database in 1990. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for TCP. This update will incorporate health effects information published since t...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that scie...

  11. GC/FT-IR ANALYSIS OF THE THERMALLY LABILE COMPOUND TRIS (2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fast and convenient GC method has been developed for a compound [tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate] that poses a difficult analytical problem for both GC (thermal instability/low volatility) and LC (not amenable to commonly available, sensitive detectors) analysis. his method em...

  12. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. One-pot synthesis of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-indazoles.

    PubMed

    Breton, Gary W; Lepore, Antonio J

    2011-11-16

    A copper(I)-mediated one-pot synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-1H-indazole heterocycles has been developed. This synthetic route provides the desired indazoles in moderate to good yields (55%-72%) which are substantially better than those achievable with an alternative two-step reaction sequence. The reaction is tolerant of functionality on the aromatic ring.

  14. Mathematics Pentathlon. A Manual of Directions and Official Tournament Rules. Division II. Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Regato, John C.; And Others

    The Mathematics Pentathlon is a tournament of mathematics games held each spring since 1979 to promote the development of mathematical concepts and skills while fostering interaction among the educational community. There are five games in each of four divisions, for grades K-1, 2-3, 4-5, and 6-7. The focus is on active problem solving and…

  15. 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene No Longer Regulated as a Volatile Organic Compound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency has issued a final rule that identified 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (also known as HFO-1234yf) as a chemical compound that will no longer be regulated as a VOC under the Clean Air Act.

  16. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  17. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  18. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  19. 27 CFR 555.214 - Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 3, and 4 magazines. 555.214 Section 555.214 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Storage § 555.214 Storage within types 1, 2, 3, and 4 magazines. (a) Explosive materials within a magazine... materials are not to be unpacked or repacked inside a magazine or within 50 feet of a magazine, and must...

  20. ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TUMOR PROMOTION ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a high estimated cancer potency in animals which has been reasoned to imply that TCDD might be carcinogenic to man. The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other ...