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Sample records for pentobarbital induced hypnotic

  1. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. Objectives The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. Materials and Methods This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. Results HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. Conclusions The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug. PMID:27651944

  2. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. Objectives The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. Materials and Methods This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. Results HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. Conclusions The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug.

  3. Flos Albiziae aqueous extract and its active constituent quercetin potentiate the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital via the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    YE, MENG-FEI; LIU, ZHENG; LOU, SHU-FANG; CHEN, ZHEN-YONG; YU, AI-YUE; LIU, CHUN-YAN; YU, CHAO-YANG; ZHANG, HUA-FANG; ZHANG, JIAN

    2015-01-01

    Flos albiziae (FA) is reportedly used for treatment of insomnia and anxiety in traditional medicine. The hypnotic effect of an extract of FA (FAE) and its constituent quercetin [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one, QR] was examined in mice. QR is a widely distributed natural flavonoid abundant in FA flowers and other tissues. The possible mechanisms underlying the hypnotic effects of FAE and QR were investigated using behavioral pharmacology. FAE and QR significantly potentiated pentobarbital-induced [50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip)] sleep (prolonged sleeping time; shortened sleep latency) in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were augmented by administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine. With a sub-hypnotic dose of pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, ip), FAE and QR significantly increased the rate of sleep onset and were synergistic with 5-HTP (2.5 mg/kg, ip). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, significantly decreased sleeping time and prolonged sleep latency in pentobarbital-treated mice, whereas FAE and QR significantly reversed this effect. Data show that FAE and QR have hypnotic activity, possibly mediated by the serotonergic system. The present study offers a rationale for the use of FA in treating sleep disorders associated with serotonin system dysfunction. PMID:26623026

  4. Objective assessment of hypnotically induced time distortion.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, P G; Marshall, G; White, G; Maslach, C

    1973-07-20

    The objective precision of operant conditioning methodology validates the power of hypnosis to induce alterations in time perception. Personal tempo was systematically modified by instructions to trained hypnotic subjects, with significant behavioral effects observed on a variety of response rate measures.

  5. Hypnotically induced somatosensory alterations: Toward a neurophysiological understanding of hypnotic anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zeev-Wolf, Maor; Goldstein, Abraham; Bonne, Omer; Abramowitz, Eitan G

    2016-07-01

    Whereas numerous studies have investigated hypnotic analgesia, few have investigated hypnotic anaesthesia. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) we investigated and localized brain responses (event-related fields and oscillatory activity) during sensory processing under hypnotic anaesthesia. Nineteen right handed neurotypical individuals with moderate-to-high hypnotizability received 100 vibrotactile stimuli to right and left index fingers in a random sequence. Thereafter a hypnotic state was induced, in which anaesthetic suggestion was applied to the left hand only. Once anaesthetic suggestion was achieved, a second, identical, session of vibrotactile stimuli was commenced. We found greater brain activity in response to the stimuli delivered to the left (attenuated) hand before hypnotic anaesthesia, than under hypnotic anaesthesia, in both the beta and alpha bands. In the beta band, the reduction of activity under hypnotic anaesthesia was found around 214-413ms post-stimuli and was located mainly in the right insula. In the alpha band, it was found around 253-500ms post-stimuli and was located mainly in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In a second experiment, attention modulation per se was ruled out as the underlying cause of the effects found. These findings may suggest that the brain mechanism underlying hypnotic anaesthesia involves top-down somatosensory inhibition and, therefore, a reduction of somatosensory awareness. The result of this mechanism is a mental state in which individuals lose bodily sensation. PMID:27212058

  6. Gomisin N isolated from Schisandra chinensis augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenning; Mao, Xin; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Zhi; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2014-07-01

    The fruits of Schisandra chinensis have been used for the treatment of insomnia in oriental countries for more than thousands of years. However, the pharmacological properties and the mechanism of sedative and hypnotic effects have not yet been studied. Gomisin N is one of the major bioactive constituents from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, and in this paper we reported a detailed study on the effects and mechanisms of Gomisin N on its sedative and hypnotic activity for the first time. These results implied that Gomisin N possessed weak sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice, and produced a dose-dependent(5-45 mg/kg, i.p.) increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice, thus, itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment (45 mg/kg, i.p.). It also can reverse the rodent models of insomnia induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and caffeine, which could exhibit a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well; furthermore, the hypnotic effects of Gomisin N were inhibited by flumazenil (a specific GABAA-BZD receptor antagonist). Altogether, these results indicated that Gomisin N produced beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivity, which might be mediated by the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system.

  7. Pavlovian inhibitory conditioning and tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia in rats.

    PubMed

    Hinson, R E; Siegel, S

    1986-10-01

    In this experiment we investigated inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning in the development of tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia. During an initial phase, one group of rats (discrimination group) received training in which, on alternate days, one conditional stimulus (CS+) was associated with administration of 30 mg/kg pentobarbital, and a different conditional stimulus (CS-) was associated with administration of physiological saline. During the phase, control groups received either exposure to both CSs but not the drug or to the drug but no CSs or to neither the CSs nor the drug. Subsequently, half the rats in each group received injections of pentobarbital in the presence of one of the CSs and the remaining half in the presence of the other CS. Rats from the discrimination group injected with pentobarbital in the presence of CS+ displayed the most tolerance (i.e., smallest drug effect), whereas rats from the discrimination group injected with pentobarbital in the presence of CS- displayed the least tolerance (i.e., greatest drug effect). The attenuation of tolerance seen in rats of the discrimination group injected in the presence of CS- provides evidence of inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning. Additional evidence of inhibitory conditioning was provided by the fact that CS2 enhanced the hypothermic effects of pentobarbital in the discrimination group, whereas CS1 attenuated these effects. Implications of the results for the nature of inhibitory conditioning are discussed.

  8. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pentobarbital is a common anesthetic agent used in animal research that is known to alter sympathetic function and may also affect carbohydrate metabolism. The in vivo effects of iv pentobarbital on glucose homeostasis were studied in chronically catheterized fasted rats. Whole body glucose kinetics, assessed by the constant iv infusion of (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose, were determined in all rats in the conscious state. Thereafter, glucose metabolism was followed over the next 4 hr in 3 subgroups of rats; conscious, anesthetized with body temperature maintained, and anesthetized with body temperature not maintained. Hypothermia (a 5/sup 0/C decrease) developed spontaneously in anesthetized rats kept at ambient temperature (22/sup 0/C). No differences were seen in MABP and heart rate between conscious and normothermic anesthetized rats; however, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a decrease in MABP (20%) and heart rate (35%). Likewise, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations, the rate of glucose appearance (Ra), recycling and metabolic clearance (MCR) did not differ between conscious and normothermic anesthetized animals. In contrast, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a 50% reduction in plasma lactate, a 40% drop in glucose Ra, and a 30-40% decrease in glucose recycling and MCR. Thus, pentobarbital does not appear to alter in vivo glucose kinetics, compared to unanesthetized controls, provided that body temperature is maintained.

  9. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Hargrove, D.M.; Hyde, P.M.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1987-12-01

    Because pentobarbital is often used in investigations related to carbohydrate metabolism, the in vivo effect of this drug on glucose homeostasis was studied. Glucose kinetics assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose, were determined in three groups of catheterized fasted rats: conscious, anesthetized and body temperature maintained, and anesthetized but body temperature not maintained. After induction of anesthesia, marked hypothermia developed in rats not provided with external heat. Anesthetized rats that developed hypothermia showed a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (25%) and heart rate (40%). Likewise, the plasma lactate concentration and the rates of glucose appearance, recycling, and metabolic clearance were reduced by 30-50% in the hypothermic anesthetized rats. Changes in whole-body carbohydrate metabolism were prevented when body temperature was maintained. Because plasma pentobarbital levels were similar between the euthermic and hypothermic rats during the first 2 h of the experiment, the rapid reduction in glucose metabolism in this latter group appears related to the decrease in body temperature. The continuous infusion of epinephrine produced alterations in glucose kinetics that were not different between conscious animals and anesthetized rats with body temperature maintained. Thus pentobarbital-anesthetized rats became hypothermic when kept at room temperature and exhibited marked decreases in glucose metabolism. Such changes were absent when body temperature was maintained during anesthesia.

  10. Effects of acute low-level microwaves on pentobarbital-induced hypothermia depend on exposure orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two series of experiments were performed to study the effects of acute exposure (45 min) to 2,450-MHz circularly polarized, pulsed microwaves (1 mW/cm2, 2-mus pulses, 500 pps, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.6 W/kg) on the actions of pentobarbital in the rat. In the first experiment, rats were irradiated with microwaves and then immediately injected with pentobarbital. Microwave exposure did not significantly affect the extent of the pentobarbital-induced fall in colonic temperature. However, the rate of recovery from the hypothermia was significantly slower in the microwave-irradiated rats and they also took a significantly longer time to regain their righting reflex. In a second experiment, rats were first anesthetized with pentobarbital and then exposed to microwaves with their heads either pointing toward the source of microwaves (anterior exposure) or pointing away (posterior exposure). Microwave radiation significantly retarded the pentobarbital-induced fall in colonic temperature regardless of the orientation of exposure. However, the recovery from hypothermia was significantly faster in posterior-exposed animals compared to those of the anterior-exposed and sham-irradiated animals. Furthermore, the posterior-exposed rats took a significantly shorter time to regain their righting reflex than both the anterior-exposed and sham-irradiated animals.

  11. Ursolic acid enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAergic neurotransmission in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Ho Jae; Gao, Qingtao; Pena, Irene Joy Dela; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Hyung Eun; Woo, Hyun; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Hong, Eunyoung; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Prunella vulgaris is widely used as a herbal medicine for cancers, inflammatory diseases, and other infections. Although it has long been used, few studies have examined its effects on central nervous system function. Here, we first observed that ethanolic extracts of P. vulgaris (EEPV) prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep duration in mice. It is known that EEPV consists of many active components including triterpenoid (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid), which have many biological activities. Therefore, we evaluated which EEPV components induced sleep extension in pentobarbital-mediated sleeping model in mice. Surprisingly, despite their structural similarity and other common functions such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and tissue protection, only ursolic acid enhanced sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice. These results were attenuated by bicuculline treatment, which is a GABAA receptor antagonist. The present results suggest that ursolic acid from P. vulgaris enhances sleep duration through GABAA receptor activation and could be a therapeutic candidate for insomnia treatment.

  12. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kavi, Tapan; Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  13. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  14. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

  15. Effects of olfactory stimulation with jasmin and its component chemicals on the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Tanida, M; Uenoyama, S; Nakayama, Y

    1992-01-01

    The effect of olfactory stimulation with jasmin and its component chemicals on pentobarbital sleep time was investigated using mice. In the present study we sought to determine which component of jasmin influences pentobarbital sleep time via olfactory stimulation. Sleep time was defined as the time elapsed between intraperitoneal pentobarbital administration and the first time that the animal was able to spontaneously right itself. Sleep time was significantly decreased by olfactory stimulation with jasmin, and also by one of the fractions obtained by fractional distillation at 150 degrees C and 0.1 mmHg. The fraction which influenced the sleep time was found to consist of benzyl benzoate, isophytol, geranyl linalool, phytol and phytyl acetate, which were identified using gas chromatography with mass and infrared spectrometry. In experiments using authentic samples of these components, phytol significantly shortened the pentobarbital sleep time, while the others had no effect. We conclude that phytol is the component of jasmin which reduces the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep. PMID:1556904

  16. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p<0.05) and significantly increased duration of sleep (p<0.05) induced by pentobarbital. These effects of P. eldarica were reversed by flumazenil. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. HAE and its fractions did not show neurotoxic effects in cultured PC12-cell line. Conclusion: The present data indicate that P. eldarica potentiated pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. Most probably, the main components responsible for this effect are non-polar agents which are found in NBF of this plant. PMID:27516986

  17. Milk Collected at Night Induces Sedative and Anxiolytic-Like Effects and Augments Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Hong, Eunyoung; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Hee Jin; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Hong, Ye Seul; Hwang, Ye Seul; Moon, Byoung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Milk has long been known and used to promote sleep. The sleep-promoting effect of milk has been attributed to its psychological associations (i.e., the memory of a mother giving milk at bedtime) and its rich store of sleep-promoting constituents (e.g., tryptophan). Studies have shown that milk harvested at night (Night milk) contains exceptionally high amounts of tryptophan and melatonin. In the present study, we evaluated the psychopharmacological properties of Night milk, particularly its probable sleep-promoting/enhancing, and anxiolytic effects. Night milk was orally administered to ICR mice at various concentrations (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg). An hour after administration, assessment of its sedative (open-field and rotarod tests) and sedative sleep-potentiating effects (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test) was conducted. For comparison, the effects of Day milk (daytime milking) were also assessed. In addition, the effects of Night milk on anxiety behavior (elevated plus maze [EPM] test) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waves were evaluated. Night milk-treated animals exhibited decreased spontaneous locomotion (open-field test) and impaired motor balance and coordination (rotarod test). Furthermore, Night milk shortened the sleep onset and prolonged the sleep duration induced by pentobarbital sodium. These effects were comparable to that of diazepam. In addition, Night milk significantly increased the percentage of time spent and entries into the open arms of the EPM, indicating that it also has anxiolytic effects. No significant changes in EEG waves were observed. Altogether, these findings suggest that Night milk is a promising natural aid for sleep- and anxiety-related disturbances.

  18. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Muluken Walle; Walle, Bizuayehu; Rebba, Kidist

    2016-01-01

    Background Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. Methods Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively. Results There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. PMID:27574478

  19. Positive effects of β-amyrin on pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via GABAergic neurotransmitter system.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Ho Jae; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Hong, Eunyoung; Jang, Dae Sik; Shin, Chan Young; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-09-15

    Sleep loss, insomnia, is considered a sign of imbalance of physiological rhythm, which can be used as pre-clinic diagnosis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study is to understand the pharmacological actions of α- or β-amyrin, natural triterpene compound, on the sleep in mice. To analyze the sleeping behavior, we used the well-known pentobarbital-induced sleeping model after single administration of either α- or β-amyrin. The sleeping onset time was remarkably decreased and duration was prolonged by β-amyrin (1, 3, or 10mg/kg) but not by α-amyrin (1, 3, or 10mg/kg). These effects were significantly blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Moreover, β-amyrin increased brain GABA level compared to the vehicle administration. Overall, the present study suggests that β-amyrin would enhance the total sleeping behavior in pentobarbital-induced sleeping model via the activation of GABAergic neurotransmitter system through GABA content in the brain.

  20. Potentiating effect of spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid of Semen Ziziphi spinosae, on pentobarbital-induced sleep may be related to postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-E; Cui, X-Y; Cui, S-Y; Cao, J-X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y-H; Zhang, Q-Y; Bai, Y-J; Zhao, Y-Y

    2010-05-01

    Previous results have suggested that spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid of Semen Ziziphi spinosae, potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via the serotonergic system. The present study investigated whether spinosin potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT(1A)) receptors. The results demonstrated that spinosin significantly augmented pentobarbital (35 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced sleep in rats, reflected by reduced sleep latency and increased total sleep time, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time, and REM sleep time. With regard to NREM sleep duration, spinosin mainly increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Additionally, spinosin (15mg/kg, i.g.) significantly antagonized 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.1mg/kg, i.p.)-induced reductions in total sleep time, NREM sleep, REM sleep, and SWS in pentobarbital-treated rats. These results suggest that spinosin may be an antagonist at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors because these effects of 8-OH-DPAT were considered to be mediated via postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. Moreover, co-administration of spinosin and the 5-HT(1A) antagonist 4-iodo-N-{2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-N-2-pyridinylbenzamide (p-MPPI), at doses that are ineffective when administered alone (spinosin 5mg/kg, p-MPPI 1mg/kg), had significant augmentative effects on pentobarbital-induced sleep, reflected by reduced sleep latency and increased total sleep time, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. In contrast to the attenuating effects of p-MPPI on REM sleep via presynaptic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, 15mg/kg spinosin significantly increased REM sleep. These results suggest that the effect of spinosin on REM sleep in pentobarbital-treated rats may be related to postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:20171860

  1. Lotus Leaf Alkaloid Extract Displays Sedative-Hypnotic and Anxiolytic Effects through GABAA Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Zhu; Chang, Qi; Zhong, Yu; Xiao, Bing-Xin; Feng, Li; Cao, Fang-Rui; Pan, Rei-Le; Zhang, Ze-Sheng; Liao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Xin-Min

    2015-10-28

    Lotus leaves have been used traditionally as both food and herbal medicine in Asia. Open-field, sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping and light/dark box tests were used to evaluate sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects of the total alkaloids (TA) extracted from the herb, and the neurotransmitter levels in the brain were determined by ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of picrotoxin, flumazenil, and bicuculline on the hypnotic activity of TA, as well as the influence of TA on Cl(-) influx in cerebellar granule cells, were also investigated. TA showed a sedative-hypnotic effect by increasing the brain level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the hypnotic effect could be blocked by picrotoxin and bicuculline, but could not be antagonized by flumazenil. Additionally, TA could increase Cl(-) influx in cerebellar granule cells. TA at 20 mg/kg induced anxiolytic-like effects and significantly increased the concentrations of serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and dopamine (DA). These data demonstrated that TA exerts sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects via binding to the GABAA receptor and activating the monoaminergic system. PMID:26448283

  2. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  3. Purification and characterization of pentobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450BM-1 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581.

    PubMed

    Schwalb, H; Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1985-03-01

    When Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 is grown in the presence of barbiturates, a cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase (Mr 120000) is induced (Kim, B.-H. and Fulco, A.J. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 116, 843-850). Gel filtration chromatography of a crude monooxygenase preparation from pentobarbital-induced B. megaterium indicated that not all of the induced cytochrome P-450 present in the extract was accounted for by this high-molecular-weight component. Further purification revealed the presence of two additional but smaller cytochrome P-450 species. The minor component, designated cytochrome P-450BM-2, had a molecular mass of about 46 kDa, but has not yet been completely purified or further characterized. The major component, designated cytochrome P-450BM-1, was obtained in pure form, exhibited fatty acid monooxygenase activity in the presence of iodosylbenzenediacetate, and has been extensively characterized. Its Mr of 38000 makes it the smallest cytochrome P-450 yet purified to homogeneity. Although it is a soluble protein, a complete amino acid analysis indicated that it contains 42% hydrophobic residues. By the dansyl chloride procedure the NH2-terminal amino acid is proline; the penultimate NH2-terminal residue is alanine. The absolute absorption spectra of cytochrome P-450BM-1 show maxima in the same general regions as do P-450 cytochromes from mammalian or other bacterial sources, but they differ in detail. The oxidized form of P-450BM-1 has absorption maxima at 414, 533 and 567 nm, while the reduced form has peaks at 410 and 540 nm. The absorption maxima for the CO-reduced form of P-450BM-1 are found at 415, 448 and 550 nm. Antisera from rabbits immunized with pure P-450BM-1 strongly reacted with and precipitated this P-450, but showed no detectable affinity for either the 46 kDa P-450 or the 120 kDa fatty acid monooxygenase. PMID:3918581

  4. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  5. Influence of ozone on pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Menzel, D.B.; Mole, M.L.; Miller, F.J.; Gardner, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    It had been shown that 3- to 5-hr exposures to ambient concentrations of ozone (O/sub 3/) increase pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in female mice, hamsters, and rats without decreasing heptatic cytochrome P-450 levels or selected mixed function oxidases. To elucidate potential mechanisms involved, clearance of pentobarbital from the blood of O/sub 3/-exposed mice was examined. Pentobarbital clearance followed first-order kinetics with a one-compartment model. Mice exposed to 1960 micrograms per cu. m. (1ppm) for 5 hr had a 71% increase in the plasma half-life of pentobarbital. It therefore appears possible that pentobarbital-induced sleeping time is increased due to a decrease in hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital.

  6. Effect of tetracaine-induced spinal anesthesia on pial microcirculation in pentobarbital anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Lu, Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    Local anesthetic is administrated intrathecally to produce spinal anesthesia. This study examines the effect of spinal anesthesia induced by intrathecal tetracaine on cerebral pial microcirculation in rats. We monitored changes in the mean arterial pressure, internal diameter (ID) of the pial arteriole, intracranial pressure, and red blood cell velocity. The regional cerebral blood flow was calculated from the product of cross sectional area and red blood cell velocity. To induce spinal anesthesia, tetracaine was administered via a polyethylene tube at the L4-5 intervertebral space after laminectomy. Arterial blood pressure was monitored via a catheter in the femoral artery. A left parietal craniotomy with an encapsulated cranial window was prepared for biomicroscopy. Change in the arteriolar ID was measured by image shearing. Red blood cell velocity was measured by the dual-slit photometric method and correlation technique. Three levels of spinal anesthesia were evaluated. Tetracaine at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, which produced T10 and T6 sensory block, respectively, did not cause significant change of ID of the pial arteriole and red blood cell velocity. Tetracaine (0.3 mg/kg) produced total spinal block, resulting in a significant decrease of the calculated cerebral blood flow and caused brief pial arteriolar vasodilation followed by vasoconstriction. Our results show that total spinal anesthesia with tetracaine causes significant changes in rat cerebral microcirculation.

  7. Hypnotic hiccups

    PubMed Central

    Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Ware, James Catesby

    2014-01-01

    Our patient presented with repetitive, self-limited bouts of forceful hiccups in sleep. Eszopiclone, a commonly prescribed hypnotic, appeared to cause these intermittent hiccups. This case is a reminder that eszopiclone may cause this adverse effect, and that it may be the bed partner and not the patient who furnishes critical sleep medicine history. PMID:24614774

  8. Sedative-Hypnotic and Receptor Binding Studies of Fermented Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Hye-Young; Kang, Young Mi; Lee, Bae-Jin; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the sedative-hypnotic activity of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched fermented marine organisms (FMO), including sea tangle (FST) and oyster (FO) by Lactobacillus brevis BJ20 (L. brevis BJ20). FST and FO were tested for their binding activity of the GABAA-benzodiazepine and 5-HT2C receptors, which are well-known molecular targets for sleep aids. We also measured the sleep latency and sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice after oral administration of FST and FO. In GABAA and 5-HT2C receptor binding assays, FST displayed an effective concentration-dependent binding affinity to GABAA receptor, similar to the binding affinity to 5-HT2C receptor. FO exhibited higher affinity to 5-HT2C receptor, compared with the GABAA receptor. The oral administration of FST and FO produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. The data demonstrate that FST and FO possess sedative-hypnotic activity possibly by modulating GABAA and 5-HT2C receptors. We propose that FST and FO might be effective agents for treatment of insomnia. PMID:26336589

  9. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  10. A tryptic hydrolysate from bovine milk αs1-casein enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Kim, Mikyung; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; You, Kyung Yi; Woo, Taeseon; Lee, Yong Soo; Jung, Jae-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-10-15

    Studies have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis of casein, the primary protein component of cow's milk, produces peptides with various biological activities, and some of these peptides may have sleep-promoting effects. In the present study, we evaluated the sedative and sleep-promoting effects of bovine αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate (CH), containing a decapeptide αS1-casein known as alpha-casozepine. CH was orally administered to ICR mice at various concentrations (75, 150, 300, or 500mg/kg). An hour after administration, assessment of its sedative (open-field and rota-rod tests) and sleep-potentiating effects (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test and EEG monitoring) were conducted. Although a trend can be observed, CH treatment did not significantly alter the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor function of mice in the open-field and rota-rod tests. On the other hand, CH (150mg/kg, respectively) enhanced the sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. It also promoted slow-wave (delta) EEG activity in rats; a pattern indicative of sleep or relaxation. These behavioral results indicate that CH has sleep-promoting effects, but no or has minimal sedative effects. To elucidate the probable mechanism behind the effects of CH, we examined its action on intracellular chloride ion influx in cultured human neuroblastoma cells. CH dose-dependently increased chloride ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a competitive GABAA receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that CH has sleep-promoting properties which are probably mediated through the GABAA receptor-chloride ion channel complex. PMID:27401107

  11. Rescue of Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 Dysfunction-induced Defects in Newborn Neurons by Pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongliang; Yoon, Su-In; Yang, Chih-Hao; Marcy, Guillaume; Zhao, Na; Leong, Wan-Ying; Ganapathy, Vinu; Han, Ju; Van Dongen, Antonius M J; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Ming, Guo-Li; Augustine, George J; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2015-04-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that usually arises from mutations or deletions in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a transcriptional regulator that affects neuronal development and maturation without causing cell loss. Here, we show that silencing of MeCP2 decreased neurite arborization and synaptogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons from rat fetal brains. These structural defects were associated with alterations in synaptic transmission and neural network activity. Similar retardation of dendritic growth was also observed in MeCP2-deficient newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult mouse brains in vivo, demonstrating direct and cell-autonomous effects on individual neurons. These defects, caused by MeCP2 deficiency, were reversed by treatment with the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, pentobarbital, in vitro and in vivo, possibly caused by modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid signaling. The results indicate that drugs modulating γ-aminobutyric acid signaling are potential therapeutics for Rett syndrome.

  12. Role of effective composition on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative-hypnotic capacities of 6 common edible Lilium varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Huang, Hanhan; Zhang, Yao; Li, Xia; Li, Hongfa; Jiang, Qianqian; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-04-01

    Nine Lilium samples (belong to 6 different cultivars with different maturity stage) were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), total saponins (TS), total carbohydrates (TC, polysaccharides), and soluble proteins contents (SP), and the monomeric components were quantified utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) associated with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Antioxidant activity (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity), anti-inflammatory (xylene-induced mouse ear edema detumescent assay and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema detumescent assay), and sedative-hypnotic capacities (sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep assay) were comparatively evaluated in mouse model. Additionally, correlation analysis and principal component analysis were carried out to detect clustering and elucidate relationships between components' concentrations and bioactivities to clarify the role of effective composition. Lilium bulbs in later maturity stage preliminary evidenced higher saponins content, and lower phenolic acids and flavonoids content. The result demonstrated that Lilium bulbs generally had distinct antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and sedative-hypnotic capacities. Varieties statistically differed (P < 0.05) in chemical composition and bioactivities. Lilium varieties of Dongbei and Lanzhou presented potent sedative-hypnotic effect and anti-inflammatory activity. The antioxidant capacity was related to the phenolic acids and flavonoids contents, the anti-inflammatory and sedative-hypnotic capacities were related to the saponins content. This is first study presenting comprehensive description of common edible Lilium bulbs' chemical compositions, sedative-hypnotic, and anti-inflammatory capacities grown in China. It would informatively benefit the genetic selection and cultivated optimization of Lilium varieties to improve nutritional quality, and

  13. Out-of-illness experience: hypnotically induced dissociation as a therapeutic resource in treating people with obstinate mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Joseph; Myerson, Joseph; Konichezy, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Psychological dissociation is commonly perceived by mental health professionals as the pathological splitting of consciences or as an impairment in adaptive integration. In hypnotherapy dissociation is considered one of the most significant features of hypnosis, constituting a major therapeutic resource. In the present article, we use hypnotically induced dissociation (HID) to treat patients with obstinate mental disorders (OMD). These disorders are characterized by persistent, problematic behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that become organizing principals of identity and form enduring psychopathologies. To promote psychological change in patients with OMD, we use HID to enhance dissociative processes that enable the differentiation of health from pathology and allow the emergence of experiences previously overshadowed by pathological personality patterns. Three clinical cases of OMD (chronic depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and a personality disorder) illustrate the effects of HID as an effective therapeutic tool that facilitates emotional processing, consolidates therapeutic achievements, and secures therapeutic results.

  14. Potentiation of morphine analgesia by subanesthetic doses of pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L; Misra, A L

    1985-03-01

    Pentobarbital pretreatment reportedly either inhibits, enhances or has no effect on morphine analgesia. The effect of subanesthetic doses of sodium pentobarbital (8-12 mg kg-1, SC) delivered via a delivery system on analgesia of morphine (5 mg kg-1, SC or 1 mg kg-1, IV) acutely administered 45 min after the sodium pentobarbital pellet implantation was assessed using the warm water (55 degrees C)-induced tail-withdrawal reflex in male Wistar rats. Significant potentiation of morphine analgesia was observed in sodium pentobarbital as compared to the placebo-pelleted animals. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors were not involved in this potentiation, which was possibly due to the activation of the descending inhibitory control pathways of nociceptive spinal tail-withdrawal reflex by a combined interaction of two drugs at spinal and supraspinal sites of action, that mediate opiate antinociception. PMID:3991755

  15. Effect of hypnotic and anxiolytic agents on regional concentration of acetylcholine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sethy, V H

    1978-01-01

    Pentobarbital (30 and 60 mg/kg) and chloral hydrate (300 and 600 mg/kg) administered in anesthetic/hypnotic doses produced significant increases in acetylcholine concentration in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and brainstem. Hypnotic/anxiolytic agents like diazepam, flurazepam (100 mg/kg each) and triazolam (30 mg/kg) significantly increased the acetylcholine concentration only in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Alprazolam and ketazolam had no significant effect on regional distribution of acetylcholine in the brain. The results have been discussed with respect to the role of central cholinergic system in anesthetic and hypnotic actions of these drugs.

  16. Pharmacological studies on the sedative-hypnotic effect of Semen Ziziphi spinosae (Suanzaoren) and Radix et Rhizoma Salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) extracts and the synergistic effect of their combinations.

    PubMed

    Fang, X Sh; Hao, J F; Zhou, H Y; Zhu, L X; Wang, J H; Song, F Q

    2010-01-01

    Semen Ziziphi spinosae (Suanzaoren in China) and Radix et Rhizoma Salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in China) are conventional herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and have been used widely for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the active fractions extracted from Suanzaoren and Danshen were studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. Qualitative analysis of the standardized extracts was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The results showed that the water extract of Suanzaoren (SWE) (400 and 800 mg/kg body wt.) and the ether extract of Danshen (DTT) (300 and 600 mg/kg body wt.) can shorten sleep latency significantly, increase sleeping time and prolong movement convalescence time induced by sodium pentobarbital (55 mg/kg body wt.) administration in mice. Furthermore, the combination of SWE and DTT showed significant synergistic effect (p<0.05) in decreasing sleep latency and increasing sleeping time, but not in prolonging the movement convalescence time, which might be helpful for energy recovery in the treatment of insomnia. The results suggest that SWE, DTT, and the combination of SWE and DTT possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of Suanzaoren and Danshen for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the combination of SWE and DTT may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia. PMID:19682877

  17. Interactions of cocaine with barbital, pentobarbital and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with the interactions of cocaine with barbital, pentobarbital and ethanol in nontolerant and tolerant male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cocaine hydrochloride (50 mg) pellets implanted s.c. in rats prior to the i.p. injections of sodium barbital (150 mg/kg dose once daily for 4 days) potentiated the hypothermic response 2 hr after the barbital injection, when maximum hypothermia occurred. The s.c. implantation of the same type of pellets prior to the i.p. injections of sodium pentobarbital (75 mg/kg dose once daily for 5 days) potentiated the pentobarbital hypnosis as measured by the duration of loss of the righting reflex in animals. Cocaine pellets (12.5 mg) implanted s.c. in rats potentiated the hypnosis induced by ethanol (3.2 g/kg i.p.) and the implantation of the same type of pellets (12.5, 25 mg) in ethanol-tolerant rats restored the ethanol hypnosis to levels observed in acutely treated animals. The course of tolerance development to barbital-induced hypothermia or pentobarbital hypnosis did not appear to be affected by cocaine. The possible role of central monoamines in the potentiation of barbital hypothermia and pentobarbital and ethanol hypnosis by cocaine is discussed. PMID:2774771

  18. Effects of thalidomide and pentobarbital on neuronal activity in the preoptic area during sleep and wakefulness in the cat.

    PubMed

    Kaitin, K I

    1985-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sleep produced by thalidomide, unlike that of pentobarbital, is associated with increased neuronal activity in the preoptic area (POA), the spontaneous activity of 96 POA neurons was recorded in chronically prepared cats during alert wakefulness (W), deep slow-wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep in a drug-free preparation and after administration of thalidomide (4 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (4 or 8 mg/kg). Thalidomide, unlike pentobarbital, at a dose that significantly increased the amount of SWS, failed to depress neuronal activity in the POA compared to drug-free controls. Mean discharge rates during thalidomide treatment were similar to drug-free rates. In contrast, rates during low-dose pentobarbital treatment were significantly less than those of drug-free and thalidomide-treated animals. Rates during high-dose pentobarbital treatment were significantly less than those in all other groups. Thalidomide, compared with the other groups, in addition to increasing the amount of SWS, significantly increased the total amount of REM sleep as well as REM sleep as a percent of total sleep, but did not produce ataxia or behavioral excitement. These results do not confirm the initial hypothesis, but suggest that hypnotic drugs that do not depress neuronal activity in the POA may be devoid of some of the unwanted side effects often associated with the more commonly prescribed hypnotic medications.

  19. Hypnotic dreams as a lens into hypnotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Raz, Amir; Schweizer, Heather R; Zhu, Hongtu; Bowles, Elizabeth Nellie

    2010-01-01

    The hypnotic relationship is an important parameter for both experimental and therapeutic contexts. Hypnotic dreams may serve as a lens to examine the hypnotic relationship. By answering 5 questions per item, 70 judges rated 12 accounts of brief hypnotic dreams conducted as part of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C. The data show that the judges were able to correctly discern highly from less hypnotizable individuals. Interestingly, highly hypnotizable females coached by a male hypnotic operator had more sexually charged dreams than either less hypnotizable females or males regardless of hypnotizability. These findings contextualize for further research and therapy transference issues related to the hypnotic relationship and the use of hypnotic dreams.

  20. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  1. Artemisia capillaris Thunberg Produces Sedative-Hypnotic Effects in Mice, Which are Probably Mediated Through Potentiation of the GABAA Receptor.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Woo, Tae Sun; Lee, Yong Soo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Artemisia group of plants has long been used as a traditional remedy for various conditions. The present study assessed the sleep-promoting (sedative-hypnotic) effects of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (A. capillaris), and elucidated a possible mechanism behind its effect. ICR mice were given A. capillaris extract (oral) at different dosages (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg), distilled water (oral; control), or diazepam (intraperitoneal; reference drug). One hour after administration, locomotion (open-field test) and motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. The extract's effect on pentobarbital-induced sleep was also evaluated. Additionally, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were measured in rats. To evaluate a possible mechanism behind its effects, changes in chloride ( Cl (-)) ion influx were measured in human neuroblastoma cells. As compared to the control group, mice treated with A. capillaris demonstrated significantly decreased locomotor activity and impaired motor balance and coordination. The extract also shortened the onset and lengthened the duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium. These effects were comparable to that induced by diazepam. Furthermore, A. capillaris-treated rats showed increased delta and decreased alpha EEG waves; an electroencephalographic pattern indicative of relaxation or sedation. In neuroblastoma cells, the extract dose-dependently increased Cl (-) ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor competitive antagonist, suggesting that its effects are mediated through the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate that A. capillaris possesses potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are probably mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex.

  2. Mortality Risk of Hypnotics: Strengths and Limits of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-02-01

    Sleeping pills, more formally defined as hypnotics, are sedatives used to induce and maintain sleep. In a review of publications for the past 30 years, descriptive epidemiologic studies were identified that examined the mortality risk of hypnotics and related sedative-anxiolytics. Of the 34 studies estimating risk ratios, odds ratios, or hazard ratios, excess mortality associated with hypnotics was significant (p < 0.05) in 24 studies including all 14 of the largest, contrasted with no studies at all suggesting that hypnotics ever prolong life. The studies had many limitations: possibly tending to overestimate risk, such as possible confounding by indication with other risk factors; confusing hypnotics with drugs having other indications; possible genetic confounders; and too much heterogeneity of studies for meta-analyses. There were balancing limitations possibly tending towards underestimates of risk such as limited power, excessive follow-up intervals with possible follow-up mixing of participants taking hypnotics with controls, missing dosage data for most studies, and over-adjustment of confounders. Epidemiologic association in itself is not adequate proof of causality, but there is proof that hypnotics cause death in overdoses; there is thorough understanding of how hypnotics euthanize animals and execute humans; and there is proof that hypnotics cause potentially lethal morbidities such as depression, infection, poor driving, suppressed respiration, and possibly cancer. Combining these proofs with consistent evidence of association, the great weight of evidence is that hypnotics cause huge risks of decreasing a patient's duration of survival. PMID:26563222

  3. [Unexpected interactions of some psychotropic drugs with barbital and pentobarbital effects in mice (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Chermat, R; Doaré, L; Bourin, M; Farinotti, R

    1982-01-01

    Some of the substances studied modified the effects of the two barbiturates as expected and in the same direction: --chlorpromazine and diazepam increased the effects; --amphetamine and caffeine decreased them. Barbital, unlike pentobarbital, undergoes almost no metabolic transformation. This explains why pentobarbital is potentiated in the presence of proadifen, an inhibitor of liver microsomial enzymes, whereas the effect of barbital is unchanged, and probably explains similar results obtained with iproniazide and imipramine. For the same reason, rifampicine, an enzyme inducer, antagonizes the effect of pentobarbital without affecting that of barbital. The dissociated effects obtained with other substances are more difficult to explain: --increased effects of barbital without modification of the effects of pentobarbital (sulpiride); --decreased effects of barbital without modification of the effects of pentobarbital (methylphenidate, nomifensine, amineptine, oxolinic acid, methysergide); --decreased effects of barbital with increased effects of pentobarbital (viloxazine). Two hypotheses may be considered: 1. The study of barbital and pentobarbital concentrations in blood and brain would allow to exclude a pharmacokinetic interaction; 2. Barbital does not act through the same mechanism as pentobarbital.

  4. A Selective Orexin-1 Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Stress-Induced Hyperarousal without Hypnotic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sujin; Johnson, Philip L.; Shekhar, Anantha; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Shireman, Brock T.; Lebold, Terry P.; Nepomuceno, Diane; Lord, Brian; Wennerholm, Michelle; Shelton, Jonathan; Carruthers, Nicholas; Lovenberg, Timothy; Dugovic, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Orexins (OXs) are peptides produced by perifornical (PeF) and lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes, including stress. A critical role for the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) in complex emotional behavior is emerging, such as overactivation of the OX1R pathway being associated with panic or anxiety states. Here we characterize a brain-penetrant, selective, and high-affinity OX1R antagonist, compound 56 [N-({3-[(3-ethoxy-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)carbonyl]-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-4-yl}methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-amine]. Ex vivo receptor binding studies demonstrated that, after subcutaneous administration, compound 56 crossed the blood-brain barrier and occupied OX1Rs in the rat brain at lower doses than standard OX1R antagonists GSK-1059865 [5-bromo-N-({1-[(3-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)carbonyl]-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl}methyl)pyridin-2-amine], SB-334867 [1-(2-methyl-1,3-benzoxazol-6-yl)-3-(1,5-naphthyridin-4-yl)urea], and SB-408124 [1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea]. Although compound 56 did not alter spontaneous sleep in rats and in wild-type mice, its administration in orexin-2 receptor knockout mice selectively promoted rapid eye movement sleep, demonstrating target engagement and specific OX1R blockade. In a rat model of psychological stress induced by cage exchange, the OX1R antagonist prevented the prolongation of sleep onset without affecting sleep duration. In a rat model of panic vulnerability (involving disinhibition of the PeF OX region) to threatening internal state changes (i.e., intravenous sodium lactate infusion), compound 56 attenuated sodium lactate–induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses without altering baseline locomotor or autonomic activity. In conclusion, OX1R antagonism represents a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders associated with stress or hyperarousal states. PMID:25583879

  5. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time.

  6. Noise-induced sleep maintenance insomnia: hypnotic and residual effects of zaleplon

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Barbara M; Turner, Claire; Mills, Sue L; Paty, Isabelle; Patat, Alain; Darwish, Mona; Danjou, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Aims The primary objective of the study was to assess the residual effects of zaleplon in the morning, 4 h after a middle-of-the-night administration. The secondary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of zaleplon in promoting sleep in healthy volunteers with noise-induced sleep maintenance insomnia. Methods Thirteen healthy male and female volunteers (aged 20–30 years) with normal hearing, who were sensitive to the sleep-disrupting effects of noise, participated in a double-blind, placebo-and active-drug controlled, four-period cross-over study. The subjects were permitted to sleep for 5 h (22.45–03.45 h) in a quiet environment before they were awoken. At 04.00 h they ingested 10 mg zaleplon, 20 mg zaleplon, 7.5 mg zopiclone (active control), or placebo before a second period of sleep (04.00–08.00 h), during which they were exposed to an 80 dB(A) 1 kHz pure tone pulse with an inter-tone interval of 1 s and a duration of 50 ms. The sound stimulus was stopped after 10 min of persistent sleep or after 2 h if the subject had not fallen asleep. Residual effects were assessed at 08.00 h (4 h after drug administration) using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), choice reaction time (CRT), critical flicker fusion (CFF), and immediate and delayed free recall of a 20 word list. The data were analysed by analysis of variance. A Bonferroni adjustment was made for the three active treatments compared with placebo. Results There were no residual effects of zaleplon (10 and 20 mg) compared with placebo. Zopiclone impaired memory by delaying the free recall of words (P = 0.001) and attenuated performance on DSST (P = 0.004) and CRT (P = 0.001), compared with placebo. Zaleplon reduced the latency to persistent sleep (10 mg, P = 0.001; 20 mg, P = 0.014) and the 20 mg dose reduced stage 1 sleep (P = 0.012) compared with placebo. Zopiclone reduced stage 1 sleep (P = 0.001), increased stage 3

  7. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work. PMID:16342574

  8. Investigation of sedative and hypnotic effects of Amygdalus communis L. extract: behavioral assessments and EEG studies on rat.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Najafi, Forough; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-04-01

    Amygdalus communis L. (almond) has been traditionally used as a natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. The present research studied the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous fraction of seeds of almond in rats. In order to investigate these effects, a combination of behavioral methods (open field test and loss of righting reflex test) as well as quantitative and analytic methods (EEG and EMG) were applied. The results of the open field test showed that a dose of 400 mg/kg of the almond extract significantly inhibited the locomotion activity of rats compared to normal. The results also illustrated that the almond extract affected pentobarbital-induced sleep through increasing the number of fallings asleep and prolongation of sleeping time. Analysis of EEG recordings of the animals which had received the same dose of the almond extract as the open field test demonstrated marked changes in the animals' sleep architecture. Significant prolongation of total sleeping time as well as significant increase in NREM sleep were the main observed changes compared to the normal condition. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of almond has significant sedative and hypnotic effects, which may support its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:26711831

  9. Hypnotic effects and GABAergic mechanism of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) ethanol extract and its major flavonoid constituent glabrol.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suengmok; Park, Ji-Hae; Pae, Ae Nim; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Dongsoo; Cho, Nam-Chul; No, Kyoung Tai; Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Lee, Changho; Shimizu, Makoto; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, GG) is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines worldwide, and its various biological activities have been widely studied. GG is reported to have neurological properties such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, its hypnotic effects and the mechanism of GG and its active compounds have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, GG ethanol extract (GGE) dose-dependently potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleep and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice without decreasing delta activity. The hypnotic effect of GGE was completely inhibited by flumazenil, which is a well-known γ-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine (GABA(A)-BZD) receptor antagonist, similar to other GABA(A)-BZD receptor agonists (e.g., diazepam and zolpidem). The major flavonoid glabrol was isolated from the flavonoid-rich fraction of GGE; it inhibited [(3)H] flumazenil binding to the GABA(A)-BZD receptors in rat cerebral cortex membrane with a binding affinity (K(i)) of 1.63 μM. The molecular structure and pharmacophore model of glabrol and liquiritigenin indicate that the isoprenyl groups of glabrol may play a key role in binding to GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Glabrol increased sleep duration and decreased sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10, 25, and 50mg/kg); its hypnotic effect was also blocked by flumazenil. The results imply that GGE and its flavonoid glabrol induce sleep via a positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-BZD receptors.

  10. [Benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of insomnia shows an age-associated increase. Especially, persons with age over 60 years frequently suffer from arousal during sleep and early-morning awakening. The reason of this phenomenon can be explained by age-related change in sleepwake regulation, comorbid diseases and psycho-social status. Benzodiazepine derivatives and benzodiazepine agonists have been widely used for treatment of insomnia. These GABA-A receptor agonist hypnotics have sedative effect, possibly causing various adverse events, i.e. falls and hip fracture, anterograde amnesia, next morning hangover especially in the elderly. When making a choice of treatment drugs for the elderly, low dose benzodiazepine hypnotics with relatively high Ω1-selectivity, and newer hypnotics including melatonic receptor agonist or orexin receptor antagonist can become important candidates considering their comorbid diseases or drug interaction with other medications.

  11. Pentobarbital anesthesia modifies pulmonary vasoregulation after hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, B B; Nyhan, D P; Goll, H M; Clougherty, P W; Fehr, D M; Murray, P A

    1988-09-01

    Our objectives were 1) to investigate the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to increasing cardiac index after a period of hypotension and hypoperfusion (defined as reperfusion) measured in conscious dogs is altered during pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and 2) to determine whether pentobarbital anesthesia modifies autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the pulmonary circulation during reperfusion. Base-line and reperfusion pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were generated by stepwise inflation and deflation, respectively, of an inferior vena caval occluder to vary Q in conscious and pentobarbital-anesthetized (30 mg/kg iv) dogs. During pentobarbital anesthesia, controlled ventilation (without positive end-expiratory pressure) allowed matching of systemic arterial and mixed venous blood gases to conscious values. Marked pulmonary vasoconstriction (P less than 0.01) was observed during reperfusion in pentobarbital-anesthetized but not in conscious dogs. Both sympathetic alpha-adrenergic receptor block and total ANS ganglionic block attenuated, but did not abolish, the pulmonary vasoconstriction during reperfusion in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Neither sympathetic beta-adrenergic receptor block nor cholinergic receptor block enhanced the magnitude of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to reperfusion during pentobarbital anesthesia. Thus, in contrast to the conscious state, the pulmonary vascular response to reperfusion is characterized by active, non-flow-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction during pentobarbital anesthesia. This response is primarily, but not exclusively, mediated by sympathetic alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction and is not offset by either sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic vasodilation. These results indicate, that, compared with the conscious state, pentobarbital anesthesia modifies pulmonary vasoregulation, during reperfusion following hypotension and hypoperfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  12. [Metacommunication in waking and hypnotic states].

    PubMed

    Granone, F

    1981-10-27

    A definition is given of the terms "communication" and "metacommunication", "language" and "metalanguage", and the several types of relationships that may arise in communication: "symmetrical competitive", "integrative complementary", "metacomplementary", and "paradoxical", Reference is made to the "spontaneity" and "simulation" that may arise in communication and metacommunication, during both wakefulness, conscious states in barbituric subnarcosis, and hypnosis. The question of metacommunication during the induction of hypnosis and during the hypnotic relationship is examined, stress being placed on the parapsycholgical metacommunications that may take place during some forms of self- or hetero-induced hypnotic consciousness.

  13. Furnishing hypnotic instructions with implementation intentions enhances hypnotic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Pfau, Florian; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Forming implementation intentions has been consistently shown to be a powerful self-regulatory strategy. As the self-regulation of thoughts is important for the experience of involuntariness in the hypnotic context, investigating the effectiveness of implementation intentions on the suppression of thoughts was the focus of the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (hypnotic instruction plus implementation intention, hypnotic instruction, implementation intention, and control condition). Results showed that participants who received information included in the "Carleton Skill Training Program" and in addition formed implementation intentions improved their hypnotic responsiveness as compared to all of the other three groups on measures of objective responding and involuntary responding. Thus, in line with the nonstate or cognitive social-psychological view of hypnosis stating that an individual's hypnotic suggestibility is not dispositional but modifiable, our results suggest that hypnotic responsiveness can be heightened by furnishing hypnotic instructions with ad hoc implementation intentions. PMID:22487594

  14. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pentobarbital injection. 522.1704 Section... § 522.1704 Sodium pentobarbital injection. (a)(1) Specifications. Sodium pentobarbital injection is sterile and contains in each milliliter 64.8 milligrams of sodium pentobarbital. (2) Sponsor. See...

  15. Clobazam--a new hypnotic?

    PubMed Central

    Kesson, C M; Gray, J M; Lawson, D H

    1978-01-01

    1 A double-blind randomized trial to compare the relative efficacy of the 1,5-benzodiazepine, clobazam, the 1,4-benzodiazepine nitrazepam, and placebo as hypnotics was carried out. 2 A preference technique was used and the analyses were performed sequentially. 3. The results confirmed that nitrazepam was superior to placebo as a hypnotic but failed to show that clobazam was superior to either placebo or nitrazepam in a ratio of 2:1. Thus, it seems likely that the hypnotic properties of clobazam are minimal. 4 Clobazam is not suitable for use as a hypnotic in hospitalized patients. PMID:687502

  16. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  17. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  18. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  19. Hypnotics and Sedatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Pokar M.; Koo, Howard Y.; Marton, Laurence J.

    In recent years, most large hospitals have observed a marked increase in the admission of patients suffering from drug overdose. Overdose of narcotic drugs, such as the opiates, represent less of a problem on a day-to-day basis than do overdoses of prescribed drugs, such as sedatives and hypnotics. Clinical signs and symptoms for a narcotic drug overdose are very distinct, and in the majority of cases can be easily recognized by the attending physicians without the help of a toxicology laboratory. Loomis (1) reported that the majority of fatal poisonings owed to one, or a combination, of four agents: barbiturates, carbon monoxide, ethyl alcohol, and salicylates. Berry (2) estimated that 5-5'-disubstituted barbiturates were the second commonest cause of fatal poisoning in England, and that the frequency of their use was increasing. Other nonbarbiturate hypnotics involved in coma-producing incidents include glutethimide (Doriden®), methyprylon (Noludar®), and meprobamate (3, 4). In the last five years, diazepam (Valium®) has become one of the leading misused drugs (5).

  20. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  1. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  2. Hypnotic metaphor and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L G

    1987-01-01

    Although hypnosis can be very effective in alleviating sexual problems, few sex therapists use hypnotic methods. This paper seeks to encourage a greater use of hypnosis among clinicians by presenting: a description of the new hypnosis exemplified in the work of Milton H. Erickson; an explanation of one of Erickson's most important and innovative methods, the use of multiple embedded metaphors; and case histories illustrating the application of hypnotic approaches to sexual dysfunction.

  3. Effects of pentobarbital on upper airway patency during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Eikermann, M.; Eckert, D.J.; Chamberlin, N.L.; Jordan, A.S.; Zaremba, S.; Smith, S.; Rosow, C.; Malhotra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesised that pentobarbital would improve upper airway mechanics based on an increase in latency to arousal and amplitude of the phasic genioglossus electromyogram (EMG), and a decrease in the active upper airway critical closing pressure (Pcrit). 12 healthy subjects received pentobarbital (100 mg) or placebo in a double-blind, crossover protocol. During wakefulness, we measured the genioglossus reflex response to negative pressure pulses. During sleep, carbon dioxide was insufflated into the inspired air. Airway pressure was then decreased in a stepwise fashion until arousal from sleep. With basal breathing during sleep: flow rate was lower in volunteers given pentobarbital; end-tidal CO2 concentration and upper airway resistance were greater; and Pcrit was unaffected (pentobarbital mean±sd -11.7±4.5 versus placebo -10.25±3.6 cmH2O; p=0.11). Pentobarbital increased the time to arousal (297±63s versus 232±67 s; p<0.05), at which time phasic genioglossus EMG was higher (6.2±4.8% maximal versus 3.1±3%; p<0.05) as were CO2 levels. The increase in genioglossus EMG after CO2 administration was greater after pentobarbital versus placebo. Pentobarbital did not affect the genioglossus negative-pressure reflex. Pentobarbital increases the time to arousal and stimulates genioglossus muscle activity, but it also increases upper airway resistance during sleep. PMID:20032012

  4. Effects of pentobarbital on upper airway patency during sleep.

    PubMed

    Eikermann, M; Eckert, D J; Chamberlin, N L; Jordan, A S; Zaremba, S; Smith, S; Rosow, C; Malhotra, A

    2010-09-01

    We hypothesised that pentobarbital would improve upper airway mechanics based on an increase in latency to arousal and amplitude of the phasic genioglossus electromyogram (EMG), and a decrease in the active upper airway critical closing pressure (P(crit)). 12 healthy subjects received pentobarbital (100 mg) or placebo in a double-blind, crossover protocol. During wakefulness, we measured the genioglossus reflex response to negative pressure pulses. During sleep, carbon dioxide was insufflated into the inspired air. Airway pressure was then decreased in a stepwise fashion until arousal from sleep. With basal breathing during sleep: flow rate was lower in volunteers given pentobarbital; end-tidal CO(2) concentration and upper airway resistance were greater; and P(crit) was unaffected (pentobarbital mean ± SD -11.7 ± 4.5 versus placebo -10.25 ± 3.6 cmH(2)O; p = 0.11). Pentobarbital increased the time to arousal (297 ± 63s versus 232 ± 67 s; p<0.05), at which time phasic genioglossus EMG was higher (6.2 ± 4.8% maximal versus 3.1 ± 3%; p<0.05) as were CO(2) levels. The increase in genioglossus EMG after CO(2) administration was greater after pentobarbital versus placebo. Pentobarbital did not affect the genioglossus negative-pressure reflex. Pentobarbital increases the time to arousal and stimulates genioglossus muscle activity, but it also increases upper airway resistance during sleep.

  5. Pentobarbital anesthesia alters pulmonary vascular response to neural antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Goll, H M; Chen, B B; Fehr, D M; Clougherty, P W; Murray, P A

    1989-05-01

    We investigated the effects of pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on vasoregulation of the pulmonary circulation. Our specific objectives were to 1) assess the net effect of pentobarbital on the base-line pulmonary vascular pressure-to-cardiac index (P/Q) relationship compared with that measured in conscious dogs, and 2) determine whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the intact P/Q relationship is altered during pentobarbital. P/Q plots were constructed by graded constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava, which produced stepwise decreases in Q. Pentobarbital (30 mg/kg iv) had no net effect on the base-line P/Q relationship. In contrast, changes in the conscious intact P/Q relationship in response to ANS antagonists were markedly altered during pentobarbital. Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic receptor block with prazosin caused active pulmonary vasodilation (P less than 0.01) in conscious dogs but caused vasoconstriction (P less than 0.01) during pentobarbital. Sympathetic beta-adrenergic receptor block with propranolol caused active pulmonary vasoconstriction (P less than 0.01) in both groups, but the magnitude of the vasoconstriction was attenuated (P less than 0.05) during pentobarbital at most levels of Q. Finally, cholinergic receptor block with atropine resulted in active pulmonary vasodilation (P less than 0.01) in conscious dogs, whereas vasoconstriction (P less than 0.01) was observed during pentobarbital. Thus, although pentobarbital had no net effect on the base-line P/Q relationship measured in conscious dogs, ANS regulation of the intact pulmonary vascular P/Q relationship was altered during pentobarbital anesthesia. PMID:2566280

  6. Interaction of pentobarbital with gabaergic drugs acting on the Cl(-)-ATPase activity of the plasma membranes from bream brain (Abramis brama L.).

    PubMed

    Menzikov, Sergey; Menzikova, Olga

    2002-12-16

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the interaction of pentobarbital with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic drugs acting on the Cl(-)-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)ase activity of the plasma membranes fraction of bream brain. The preincubation and then incubation of the membranes with pentobarbital as well as with other GABAergic ligands was conducted at physiologic pH (7.4), i.e. at the condition where the Cl(-)-ATPase activity is not detected. Pentobarbital (1-100 microM) induces Cl(-)-ATPase activity, however at high concentration (1,000 microM) no effect of the ligand was found. In addition pentobarbital (50 microM) enhances the effect of low concentration of GABA (1 microM) on the Cl(-)-ATPase activity, but inhibits the action of high concentration of GABA (100 microM) on the enzyme. Whereas no activating effect of pentobarbital in the presence of baclofen (1 microM) was found. The blocker of GABA(A)-receptors, picrotoxin (50 microM) and bicuculline (5 microM) eliminated the action of pentobarbital on the enzyme. The present results provide evidence for the first time that at physiologic pH in incubation medium the interaction of pentobarbital with GABAergic drugs on the Cl(-)-ATPase activity is similar to the effects of these ligands on the GABA(A)-receptor.

  7. Temperature dependence and independence of effects of pentobarbital on visual evoked potentials of rats.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, B E; Krekow, L K

    1999-01-01

    Visual cortex flash evoked potentials (FEPs), pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs), and body temperature were measured in hooded rats following IP injections on separate days of saline, and of 15 and 30 mg pentobarbital/kg body weight. Two experiments were performed, differentiated by standard (23 degrees C) and warm (31 degrees C) room temperatures. The 30 mg/kg dose produced hypothermia of 2.6 degrees C in the standard environment, but not in the warm environment. Early components of FEPs were generally increased in amplitude by the 15 mg/kg dose, and decreased by the 30 mg/kg dose at 23 degrees C. At 31 degrees C, the 30 mg/kg dose did not decrease early component amplitude, suggesting that hypothermia can potentiate some effects of pentobarbital. Amplitudes of late FEP components were depressed at both ambient temperatures. The main PREP components N1P1 and P1N3 were increased in amplitude by the 15 mg/kg dose, but returned to near baseline levels at 30 mg/kg, at both temperatures. PREP component N2P2 was reduced in amplitude by the 30 mg/kg dose only at 23 degrees C. Treatment with 30 mg/kg pentobarbital increased FEP and PREP latencies at both ambient temperatures, but the magnitudes of the increases at 31 degrees C were typically less than half those observed at 23 degrees C. These results indicate that hypothermia contributes to some pentobarbital-induced changes in both FEPs and PREPs, but that pentobarbital also produces effects independent of hypothermia.

  8. Hypnotic approaches for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Ria; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2008-07-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease leading to loss of scalp hairs. The disease seems triggered by stress. Data on the possibility of using hypnotherapy in the treatment of AA are very limited. Twenty-eight patients with extensive AA, all refractory to previous conventional treatment, were treated with hypnosis at the Academic Hospital UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. This paper describes in detail the authors' hypnotherapeutic approach combining symptom-oriented suggestions with suggestions to improve self-esteem. Twelve out of 21 patients, including 4 with total loss of scalp hair, presented a significant hair growth. All patients presented a significant decrease in scores for anxiety and depression. Although the exact mechanism of hypnotic interventions has not been elucidated, the authors' results demonstrate that hypnotic interventions may ameliorate the clinical outcome of patients with AA and may improve their psychological well-being.

  9. Effect of an imidazobenzodiazepine, Ro15-4513, on the incoordination and hypothermia produced by ethanol and pentobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.; Szabo, G.; Suzdak, P.D.; Paul, S.M.

    1987-08-03

    The imidazobenzodiazepine, Ro15-4513, which is a partial inverse agonist at brain benzodiazepine receptors, reversed the incoordinating effect of ethanol in mice, as measured on an accelerating Rotarod. This effect was blocked by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. In contrast, Ro15-4513 had no effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia in mice. However, Ro15-4513 reversed the hypothermic effect of pentobarbital, and, at higher dose, also reversed the incoordinating effect of pentobarbital in mice. The data support the hypothesis that certain of the pharmacological effects of ethanol are mediated by actions at the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor-coupled chloride channel. 35 references, 2 figures.

  10. Can motor imagery and hypnotic susceptibility explain Conversion Disorder with motor symptoms?

    PubMed

    Srzich, Alexander J; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, James W; Cirillo, John; Anson, J Greg

    2016-08-01

    Marked distortions in sense of agency can be induced by hypnosis in susceptible individuals, including alterations in subjective awareness of movement initiation and control. These distortions, with associated disability, are similar to those experienced with Conversion Disorder (CD), an observation that has led to the hypothesis that hypnosis and CD share causal mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationships among motor imagery (MI), hypnotic susceptibility, and CD, then to propose how MI ability may contribute to hypnotic responding and CD. Studies employing subjective assessments of mental imagery have found little association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. A positive association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility becomes apparent when objective measures of imagery ability are employed. A candidate mechanism to explain motor responses during hypnosis is kinaesthetic MI, which engages a strategy that involves proprioception or the "feel" of movement when no movement occurs. Motor suppression imagery (MSI), a strategy involving inhibition of movement, may provide an alternate objective measurable phenomenon that underlies both hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Evidence to date supports the idea that there may be a positive association between kinaesthetic MI ability and hypnotic susceptibility. Additional evidence supports a positive association between hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Disturbances in kinaesthetic MI performance in CD patients indicate that MI mechanisms may also underlie CD symptoms. Further investigation of the above relationships is warranted to explain these phenomena, and establish theoretical explanations underlying sense of agency.

  11. Can motor imagery and hypnotic susceptibility explain Conversion Disorder with motor symptoms?

    PubMed

    Srzich, Alexander J; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, James W; Cirillo, John; Anson, J Greg

    2016-08-01

    Marked distortions in sense of agency can be induced by hypnosis in susceptible individuals, including alterations in subjective awareness of movement initiation and control. These distortions, with associated disability, are similar to those experienced with Conversion Disorder (CD), an observation that has led to the hypothesis that hypnosis and CD share causal mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationships among motor imagery (MI), hypnotic susceptibility, and CD, then to propose how MI ability may contribute to hypnotic responding and CD. Studies employing subjective assessments of mental imagery have found little association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. A positive association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility becomes apparent when objective measures of imagery ability are employed. A candidate mechanism to explain motor responses during hypnosis is kinaesthetic MI, which engages a strategy that involves proprioception or the "feel" of movement when no movement occurs. Motor suppression imagery (MSI), a strategy involving inhibition of movement, may provide an alternate objective measurable phenomenon that underlies both hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Evidence to date supports the idea that there may be a positive association between kinaesthetic MI ability and hypnotic susceptibility. Additional evidence supports a positive association between hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Disturbances in kinaesthetic MI performance in CD patients indicate that MI mechanisms may also underlie CD symptoms. Further investigation of the above relationships is warranted to explain these phenomena, and establish theoretical explanations underlying sense of agency. PMID:27346334

  12. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

  13. The effect of nicotinic acid on the depressant action of ethanol and pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Basilio, C M; Toro, A; Bernstein, J; Yojay, L

    1987-01-01

    The effect of nicotinic acid (NA) on sleeping time induced by a single dose of ethanol or pentobarbital was studied in rats. It was found that sleeping time was markedly reduced by NA in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was observed when NA was administered 10 min before or after ethanol or pentobarbital, but not when given 60 min in advance. NA did not affect the rate of ethanol elimination measured up to 5 hr after ethanol administration. Rats pretreated with NA 60 min before ethanol slept longer than controls. This latter effect was not observed with pentobarbital. These observations, together with the known lack of effect of high liver NAD+ levels on ethanol metabolism and the rather stable NAD+ concentration in brain cells, suggest that the effect of NA on sleeping time is not mediated by an increase in ethanol metabolism in liver or by NAD+ or NAD+-dependent reactions in brain. Our results are consistent with a direct action of NA, or some rapidly formed derivative, on a structure or process associated with brain cell functions or membranes.

  14. Hypnotic recall and flashback: the remembrance of things present.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R

    1976-01-01

    There are two kinds of flashbacks: the self-programed or intra-individual variety and pre-programed or inter-individual flashbacks re-presenting mythical and narrative event structures which contribute to the survival of the species. Both types of experiences are arousal-state bound and stage (set and setting) or culture bound. Flashbackers may be characterized by (1) their variability (large SD) on perceptual-behavioural tasks pointing to their extensive cognitive or interpretive repertoire, (2) they are minimizers (or reducers) of sensory input (particularly at the peak of a hallucinogenic drug experience), (3) as a group they display high resting heart rates, (4) are hypnotizable and experience), (3) as group they display high resting heart rates, (4) are hypnotizable and hence (5) prefer righ cerebral hemispheric cognition, (6) displaying EEG-alpha dominance in the resting, waking state. Flashback and hypnotic recall differ only in the ways and means by which they are induced. Hypnotic induction, however, is not to be confused with the induced state that may be any ordinary or non-ordinary state of consciousness on the perception-hallucination-meditation continuum which the subject has a least once experienced before. If mind is an open system comprising the individual's mind and the minds of his total environment, i.e. his past and present sets and settings, then for many of us thoughts and actions are hypnotically induced, and memories are flashbacks of those experiences.

  15. Sedative hypnotic activity of manahshila (realgar) -an experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Doddamani, M S; Vishwanath, Y; Patgiri, B J

    2011-01-01

    Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) which is a commonly used Shodhana reagent of Manahshila is reported to be sedative, the potential sedative hypnotic activity is inferred and an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila. Effect of Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila (ASM) on the spontaneous motor activity of albino rats in actophotometer and on diazepam induced sleeping time was evaluated. There was a statistically significant reduction in the spontaneous motor activity (P<0.001) in the ASM treated Manahshila and there was early onset and hypnotic potentiation in the diazepam induced sleep in rats (P<0.01). PMID:22557432

  16. What Happens When You're Hypnotized?

    MedlinePlus

    ... very hypnotizable. Using MRI, researchers measured the subjects' brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow. Each was ... it's a legitimate neurobiological phenomenon, by revealing the brain activity that underlies the hypnotic state." However, Montgomery added ...

  17. Hypnotic Approaches for Chronic Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

  18. 21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.380 Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. (a) (b)(1) Specifications. Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium...

  19. 21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.380 Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. (a) (b)(1) Specifications. Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium...

  20. 21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.380 Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate. (a... pentobarbital, and 21.2 mg of magnesium sulfate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  1. Hypnotically enhanced dreaming to achieve symptom reduction: a case study of 11 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linden, Julie H; Bhardwaj, Anuj; Anbar, Ran D

    2006-04-01

    Theories about dreams have shaped our thinking about mind-body unity and the influence of thought on the body. In this article, the authors review the sparse literature regarding the use of hypnosis with children's dreams and nightmares, summarize how hypnotically induced dreams have been used to resolve psychological symptoms, and note five themes in the literature worthy of further investigation. Building on the value of both dreams and hypnosis for working through conflicts, the authors united mind-body medicine and hypnotically induced dreaming in a pediatric pulmonary practice. A case series is presented of 11 patients who were offered an opportunity to review their reported nightmares through hypnosis in order to uncover their potential meaning. The recurrent nightmares among these patients decreased greatly in frequency or resolved following the hypnosis enhanced dream review. Thus, we demonstrate that hypnotically induced dream review may be useful in a pediatric population.

  2. What Can a Hypnotic Induction Do?

    PubMed

    Woody, Erik; Sadler, Pamela

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to how recent definitions of hypnosis describe the induction, a work-sample perspective is advocated that characterizes the induction as an initial, stage-setting phase encompassing everything in a hypnotic session up to the first hypnotic suggestion of particular relevance to the therapeutic or research goals at hand. Four major ways are then discussed in which the induction could affect subsequent hypnotic responses: It may provide information about how subsequent behaviors are to be enacted; it may provide cues about the nature of the interpersonal interaction to be expected in hypnosis; it may provide meta-suggestions, defined as suggestive statements intended to enhance responses to subsequent hypnotic suggestions; and it may provide a clear transition to help allow new behaviors and experiences to emerge. Several ideas for future research are advanced, such as mapping hypnosis style onto the interpersonal circumplex, evaluating whether attentional-state changes measured at the end of the induction actually mediate subsequent hypnotic responsiveness, and systematically examining the impact of ritual-like aspects of inductions. PMID:27586044

  3. The mysterious persistence of hypnotic analgesia.

    PubMed

    Barber, J

    1998-01-01

    Hypnotic treatment of pain has a long history and, among hypnotic phenomena, pain relief is a relatively commonplace focus for intervention, yet we lack a conceptual explanation for this treatment. Hilgard's neodissociation theory accounts for the phenomenon of acute hypnotic analgesia, but not of persistent pain relief. Perhaps the enduring effect of hypnotic treatment can be explained at either of two levels: a neurophysiological model or a learning model. This explanation leads to the further question: How does hypnotic treatment of recurring pain achieve enduring relief? Clinical experience suggests a two-component model. First, the clinician communicates specific ideas that strengthen the patient's ability to derive therapeutic support and to develop a sense of openness to the unexplored possibilities for pain relief within the security of nurturing therapeutic relationship. Second, the clinician employs posthypnotic suggestions that capitalize on the patient's particular pain experiences, which simultaneously ameliorate the pain experience, and which, in small, repetitive increments, tend to maintain persistent pain relief over increasing periods of time.

  4. Neurophysiological correlates of post-hypnotic alexia: a controlled study with Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Schiff, Sami; Facco, Enrico; Gabbana, Amos; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Schiavon, Laura; Bascelli, Anna; Avdia, Marsel; Tosello, Maria Teresa; Rossi, Augusto Mario; Haxhi Nasto, Hilda; Guidotti, Federica; Giacomello, Margherita; Amodio, Piero

    2010-01-01

    To clarify whether hypnotically-induced alexia was able to reduce the Stroop effect due to color/word interference, 12 volunteers (6 with high and 6 with low hypnotizability according to Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C) underwent a Stroop test consisting of measuring, both in basal conditions and during post-hypnotic alexia, the reaction times (RT) at appearance of a colored word indicating a color. In basal conditions, RT were greater in case of incongruence. In highly hypnotizable participants, the interference was less pronounced during post-hypnotic alexia (-34%, p = 0.03). During alexia, late positive complexamplitude was also greater for congruent than incongruent conditions (p < 0.03), and cardiovascular response to stress was less pronounced as well. In participants showing low hypnotizability, no reduction of Stroop effect was detected during post-hypnotic alexia. Posthypnotic alexia is therefore a real and measurable phenomenon, capable of reducing the color-word interference and the haemodynamic effects of the Stroop test.

  5. EEG sLORETA functional imaging during hypnotic arm levitation and voluntary arm lifting.

    PubMed

    Cardeña, Etzel; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Jönsson, Peter; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-01-01

    This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions. Hypnotizability did not have a significant effect on EEG activity, but hypnotic depth correlated with left hemisphere increased anterior slow EEG and decreased central fast EEG activity. Hypnosis had a minimal effect on depth reports among lows, a moderate one among mediums, and a large one among highs. Because only left-arm data were available, the full role of the hemispheres remains to be clarified. PMID:22098568

  6. The effect of prior knowledge of hypnotic items on hypnotic performance and depth.

    PubMed

    Page, R A; Handley, G W

    1992-10-01

    First we exposed experimental subjects to either the hypnotic items they were about to experience or to those items embedded in a longer list of hypnotic items. We then asked them to give item-difficulty ratings prior to administration of a standard group susceptibility scale. Controls received no prior exposure to any hypnotic items. We obtained four dependent measures: hypnotic susceptibility score, an in-hypnosis depth report, Field (1965) Depth Inventory score, and retrospective depth reports. The three groups did not differ significantly on any of the dependent measures. Although this result differs from that of Shor, Pistole, Easton, and Kihlstrom (1984), who found that prior knowledge of items depressed susceptibility scores, this may be due to procedural differences between the two studies. Subjects' self-predictions of item difficulty were poor to modest, and accuracy of predictions was not related to any of the four dependent measures.

  7. Hypnotic induction decreases anterior default mode activity.

    PubMed

    McGeown, William J; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Venneri, Annalena; Kirsch, Irving

    2009-12-01

    The 'default mode' network refers to cortical areas that are active in the absence of goal-directed activity. In previous studies, decreased activity in the 'default mode' has always been associated with increased activation in task-relevant areas. We show that the induction of hypnosis can reduce anterior default mode activity during rest without increasing activity in other cortical regions. We assessed brain activation patterns of high and low suggestible people while resting in the fMRI scanner and while engaged in visual tasks, in and out of hypnosis. High suggestible participants in hypnosis showed decreased brain activity in the anterior parts of the default mode circuit. In low suggestible people, hypnotic induction produced no detectable changes in these regions, but instead deactivated areas involved in alertness. The findings indicate that hypnotic induction creates a distinctive and unique pattern of brain activation in highly suggestible subjects. PMID:19782614

  8. Hypnotic Induction: Enhancing Trance or Mostly Myth?

    PubMed

    Reid, David B

    2016-10-01

    Hypnosis has often, and primarily, been portrayed as a mystical means that controls and exploits vulnerable and defenseless people. Sources accused of perpetuating hypnosis myths and misconceptions have included numerous media productions and stage demonstrations at state fairs and festivals. Ironically, one largely unexamined potential culprit disseminating misinformation about hypnosis is the field of clinical hypnosis itself. This article not only questions the legitimacy of the term "hypnotic induction" and its derivatives but also explores the potential impact these terms have on the perpetuation of hypnosis myths and misconceptions. Through an examination of a selective history of hypnotic induction, the customary language of hypnosis, and information promoted by professional hypnosis societies, some of the contributing terminology is identified. Alternative terms that more appropriately embody the manifestation of trance are offered and discussed. PMID:27586043

  9. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  10. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  11. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  12. Hypnosis and Hypnotism in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Gaetan

    1992-01-01

    This article attempts to define and demystify hypnosis and to present the range of its applications in family medicine. The author reviews definitions and describes hypnotic phenomena, suggestibility, and the use of suggestion, as well as traditional, semitraditional, and Ericksonian induction methods, precautions, and dangers. Clinical uses are then presented for the family physician to apply to surgery, obstetrics, pain treatment, psychosomatic disorders, and psychotherapy. Imagesp2076-a PMID:21221278

  13. The effects of hypnotic susceptibility on reducing smoking behavior treated by an hypnotic technique.

    PubMed

    Perry, C; Mullen, G

    1975-07-01

    This study sought to obtain empirical data on the issue of whether susceptibility to hypnosis influences the outcome of an hypnotic therapy. At the first of two sessions, Ss had their susceptibility evaluated unobtrusively. At the second session, they learned Spiegel's self-hypnotic method to stop smoking. At the end of 3 months' follow-up 7 of 54 volunteers were completely abstinent (13%), while 31% had reduced smoking by 50% or more. Of the 7 totally abstaining Ss, 1 was high, 1 was low and 5 were medium susceptible, which is not unlike the distribution of hypnotic susceptibility in the general population. However, it was found that significantly more Ss of higher susceptibility reduced by 50% or more than did less susceptible Ss.

  14. Quinpirole Increases Melatonin-Augmented Pentobarbital Sleep via Cortical ERK, p38 MAPK, and PKC in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sa-Ik; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Young; Ma, Shi-Xun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-03-01

    Sleep, which is an essential part of human life, is modulated by neurotransmitter systems, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine signaling. However, the mechanisms that initiate and maintain sleep remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between melatonin (MT) and dopamine D2-like receptor signaling in pentobarbital-induced sleep and the intracellular mechanisms of sleep maintenance in the cerebral cortex. In mice, pentobarbital-induced sleep was augmented by intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg MT. To investigate the relationship between MT and D2-like receptors, we administered quinpirole, a D2-like receptor agonist, to MT- and pentobarbital-treated mice. Quinpirole (1 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the duration of MT-augmented sleep in mice. In addition, locomotor activity analysis showed that neither MT nor quinpirole produced sedative effects when administered alone. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying quinpirole-augmented sleep, we measured protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cortical protein kinases related to MT signaling. Treatment with quinpirole or MT activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and protein kinase C (PKC) in the cerebral cortex, while protein kinase A (PKA) activation was not altered significantl. Taken together, our results show that quinpirole increases the duration of MT-augmented sleep through ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PKC signaling. These findingssuggest that modulation of D2-like receptors might enhance the effect of MT on sleep. PMID:26902082

  15. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  16. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing. PMID:24340808

  17. Smoking Cessation: Uni-Modal and Multi-Modal Hypnotic and Non-Hypnotic Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    A survey of Queensland's population in 1993 determined that 24% of the adults were smokers. National data compiled in 1992 indicated that 72% of the drug-related deaths were related to tobacco use. In light of the need for effective smoking cessation approaches, a literature review was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hypnotic and…

  18. Alterations in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in response to parenteral and enteral alimentation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Knodell, R G; Spector, M H; Brooks, D A; Keller, F X; Kyner, W T

    1980-12-01

    Recent in vitro observations suggest that the intestine, in addition to the liver, may be an important organ of first-pass drug metabolism. While a variety of changes in intestinal morphology and function in response to continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition have been documented, the effect of different routes of alimentation on intestinal drug metabolism has not been previously investigated. Objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of intestinal pentobarbital metabolism to overall in vivo pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in the rat and to determine if differences in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics were seen between parenterally and enterally nourished animals. After 7 days of continuous infusion of amino acid-glucose mixture via a gastric or jugular vein catheter, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after 40 mg/kg of pentobarbital was given orally or into the portal or femoral vein. Reduced systemic availability of pentobarbital after oral administration as compared to portal vein injection was seen in both alimentation groups indicating that significant intestinal metabolism of pentobarbital occurred in vivo. Total area under the pentobarbital plasma concentration-time curve was significantly greater in parenterally nourished animals as compared with enterally alimented animals after oral, portal vein and systemic vein drug administration. Differences in pentobarbital, pharmacokinetics between the two alimentation groups appeared to be primarly due to effects on hepatic pentobarbital metabolism. While the mechanism producing these changes has not been defined, differences in gut hormones release and/or pancreatic secretion in response to the two routes of alimentation may be contributory. The widespread use of enteral and parenteral alimentation in clinical medicine suggests that studies to determine if nutrition route of administration similarly influences drug metabolism in humans may be indicated.

  19. Effects of hypnotic drugs on performance before and after sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kales, A.; Bixler, E. O.; Kales, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of various hypnotics on sleep stage parameters and on the parameters of effectiveness were evaluated along with the effects of several commonly used yet distinctly different hypnotics on daytime performance. The effects on daytime performance of two nonhypnotics commonly used in the space program were also examined.

  20. Hidden Hypnotic Patterns: Implications for Counseling and Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, Hugh; Renick, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that subtle hypnotic patterns used by Milton H. Erickson are found in the person-centered approach to counseling of Carl Rogers. Points out that counselors and supervisors should be aware of the possible hypnotic elements in simple suggestions. Presents examples of counselor-client and supervisor-trainee dialogue to…

  1. Hypnotics and the control of breathing; a review

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    1 Hypnotics are central depressants. In sufficient doses, they suppress respiration, and so their effects on respiration are important considerations in their safety. 2 The paper reviews mechanisms of respiratory control and methods of assessment, the effects of hypnotics on control of breathing and new methods of non-invasive respiratory monitoring. PMID:6140945

  2. Age-dependent inhibition of pentobarbital sleeping time by ozone in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Leonard, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of age on the metabolism of pentobarbital in mice and rats was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 3.75 hr. Young animals were 2.5 months of age and the mature were 18 months. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly prolonged following the ozone exposure in both the mice and rats when compared with an air control. No ozone effect on sleeping time was found in the young animals. The results indicate that there may be an age-related sensitivity to the occurrence of ozone-related inhibition of pentobarbital metabolism.

  3. Inhaled toluene produces pentobarbital-like discriminative stimulus effects in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, D.C.; Coggeshall, E.; Balster, R.L.

    1985-10-07

    The abuse of volatile solvents may be due to their ability to produce an intoxication similar to that produced by classical central nervous system depressants such as the barbiturates and ethanol. To evaluate this hypothesis, mice were trained to discriminate pentobarbital from saline injections in a two-lever operant task. Stimulus generalization was examined following 20-min inhalation exposures to toluene (300-5400 ppm). In 8 of 10 subjects, pentobarbital-lever responding occurred following toluene exposure indicating an overlap in the discriminative stimulus properties of toluene and pentobarbital.

  4. Hypnotic Taper with or without Self-Help Treatment of Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Genevieve; Guay, Catherine; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a minimal intervention focusing on hypnotic discontinuation and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. Fifty-three adult chronic users of hypnotics were randomly assigned to an 8-week hypnotic taper program, used alone or combined with a self-help CBT. Weekly hypnotic use decreased in both…

  5. Effects of pentobarbital on plasma glucose and free fatty acids in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furner, R. L.; Neville, E. D.; Talarico, K. S.; Feller, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypolipemia were observed in rats after the injection of sodium pentobarbital. The observed changes were independent of whether the blood was collected by decapitation or by needle puncture of the aorta. The hyperglycemic response was caused by two factors including the stress of the injection per se and the pharmacological action of the drug. Hyperlipemia was observed at 5 min postinjection. However, pentobarbital decreased plasma free fatty acids by 15 min postinjection. Both the hyperglycemia and hypolipemia responses were dose dependent.

  6. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film.

  7. Association of sedative-hypnotic medications with suicidality.

    PubMed

    Pae, Chi-Un; Koh, Jun Sung; Lee, Soo-Jung; Han, Changsu; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S

    2011-03-01

    Evaluation of: Brower KJ, McCammon RJ, Wojnar M, Ilgen MA, Wojnar J, Valenstein M. Prescription sleeping pills, insomnia, and suicidality in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. J. Clin. Psychiatry DOI: 10.4088/JCP.09m05484gry (2010) (Epub ahead of print). Several studies have investigated the association between sedative-hypnotics and suicidality, as such medications not only serve as a method for suicide, but are also involved in the usual options for treating psychiatric and medico-surgical disorders. According to population-based studies in Europe, Asia and the USA, sedative-hypnotic medications were significantly associated with suicide. However, these studies failed to address psychiatric comorbidities, new hypnotic medications, such as zolpidem, and the specific times at which such medications were used. Recently, Brower and colleagues have investigated the association of the prescription of sedative-hypnotic drugs with suicidality, to determine whether such medications were associated with suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts in a large-cohort sample. They found that the use of sedative-hypnotic medications was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts. In addition, the use of sedative-hypnotic medications was a stronger predictor than insomnia of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This article will discuss the relationship between prescription of sedative-hypnotic medications and suicide in the context of the potential limitations and significance of this recent research. PMID:21375440

  8. Cross-evidence for hypnotic susceptibility through nonlinear measures on EEGs of non-hypnotized subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Madeo, Dario; Loffredo, Maria I.; Castellani, Eleonora; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of hypnotic susceptibility is usually obtained through the application of psychological instruments. A satisfying classification obtained through quantitative measures is still missing, although it would be very useful for both diagnostic and clinical purposes. Aiming at investigating the relationship between the cortical brain activity and the hypnotic susceptibility level, we propose the combined use of two methodologies - Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis - both inherited from nonlinear dynamics. Indicators obtained through the application of these techniques to EEG signals of individuals in their ordinary state of consciousness allowed us to obtain a clear discrimination between subjects with high and low susceptibility to hypnosis. Finally a neural network approach was used to perform classification analysis.

  9. Cross-evidence for hypnotic susceptibility through nonlinear measures on EEGs of non-hypnotized subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Madeo, Dario; Loffredo, Maria I.; Castellani, Eleonora; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of hypnotic susceptibility is usually obtained through the application of psychological instruments. A satisfying classification obtained through quantitative measures is still missing, although it would be very useful for both diagnostic and clinical purposes. Aiming at investigating the relationship between the cortical brain activity and the hypnotic susceptibility level, we propose the combined use of two methodologies - Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis - both inherited from nonlinear dynamics. Indicators obtained through the application of these techniques to EEG signals of individuals in their ordinary state of consciousness allowed us to obtain a clear discrimination between subjects with high and low susceptibility to hypnosis. Finally a neural network approach was used to perform classification analysis. PMID:25002038

  10. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Atikur Rahman, Md; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  11. Hypnotics' association with mortality or cancer: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Robert D; Kline, Lawrence E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives An estimated 6%–10% of US adults took a hypnotic drug for poor sleep in 2010. This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. Setting A large integrated health system in the USA. Design Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. Subjects Subjects (mean age 54 years) were 10 529 patients who received hypnotic prescriptions and 23 676 matched controls with no hypnotic prescriptions, followed for an average of 2.5 years between January 2002 and January 2007. Main outcome measures Data were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol use and prior cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for death were computed from Cox proportional hazards models controlled for risk factors and using up to 116 strata, which exactly matched cases and controls by 12 classes of comorbidity. Results As predicted, patients prescribed any hypnotic had substantially elevated hazards of dying compared to those prescribed no hypnotics. For groups prescribed 0.4–18, 18–132 and >132 doses/year, HRs (95% CIs) were 3.60 (2.92 to 4.44), 4.43 (3.67 to 5.36) and 5.32 (4.50 to 6.30), respectively, demonstrating a dose–response association. HRs were elevated in separate analyses for several common hypnotics, including zolpidem, temazepam, eszopiclone, zaleplon, other benzodiazepines, barbiturates and sedative antihistamines. Hypnotic use in the upper third was associated with a significant elevation of incident cancer; HR=1.35 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.55). Results were robust within groups suffering each comorbidity, indicating that the death and cancer hazards associated with hypnotic drugs were not attributable to pre-existing disease. Conclusions Receiving hypnotic prescriptions was associated with greater than threefold increased hazards of death even when prescribed <18 pills/year. This association held in separate analyses for several commonly used

  12. Fibromyalgia pain and its modulation by hypnotic and non-hypnotic suggestion: an fMRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G; Whalley, Matthew G; Oakley, David A

    2009-05-01

    The neuropsychological status of pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, commonly categorized as 'psychosomatic' or 'functional' disorders, remains controversial. Activation of brain structures dependent upon subjective alterations of fibromyalgia pain experience could provide an insight into the underlying neuropsychological processes. Suggestion following a hypnotic induction can readily modulate the subjective experience of pain. It is unclear whether suggestion without hypnosis is equally effective. To explore these and related questions, suggestions following a hypnotic induction and the same suggestions without a hypnotic induction were used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to increase and decrease the subjective experience of fibromyalgia pain. Suggestion in both conditions resulted in significant changes in reported pain experience, although patients claimed significantly more control over their pain and reported greater pain reduction when hypnotised. Activation of the midbrain, cerebellum, thalamus, and midcingulate, primary and secondary sensory, inferior parietal, insula and prefrontal cortices correlated with reported changes in pain with hypnotic and non-hypnotic suggestion. These activations were of greater magnitude, however, when suggestions followed a hypnotic induction in the cerebellum, anterior midcingulate cortex, anterior and posterior insula and the inferior parietal cortex. Our results thus provide evidence for the greater efficacy of suggestion following a hypnotic induction. They also indicate direct involvement of a network of areas widely associated with the pain 'neuromatrix' in fibromyalgia pain experience. These findings extend beyond the general proposal of a neural network for pain by providing direct evidence that regions involved in pain experience are actively involved in the generation of fibromyalgia pain.

  13. [Hypnotic communication and hypnosis in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy.

  14. Blockage of induced pseudopregnancy by electrochemical stimulation of the limbic system.

    PubMed

    Peters, J A; Gala, R R

    1975-01-01

    Pseudopregnancy induced by cervical stimulation was inhibited by acute electrochemical stimulation of the corticomedial amygdala or dorsal hippocampus under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia (40 mg/kg) in adult, cyclic female Sprague-Dawley rats. The degree to which pseudopregnancy was blocked depended on temporal conditions of brain stimulation and sodium pentobarbital administration. Pentobarbital alone had a suppressing effect on the incidence of pseudopregnancy, especially when it preceded cervical stimulation. Limbic stimulation before cervical stimulation had a tendency to potentiate the suppression of pseudopregnancy by pentobarbital. After cervical stimulation, hippocampal stimulation tended to inhibit the development of pseudopregnancy, potentiating the pentobarbital suppression, while amygdala stimulation tended to override the pentobarbital blockage of pseudopregnancy. These findings suggest a negative influence of these two limbic structures and pentobarbital on the secretion of prolactin.

  15. Therapy of vaginismus by hypnotic desensitization.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, K

    1980-05-01

    Fear and anxiety are of tremendous importance in the production and maintenance of a symptom. Vaginismus, as a reaction of avoidance of an anxiety-producing situation, is readily amenable to treatment by systematic desensitization. This may proceed mainly in two ways: "in vitro" or "in vivo." In order to strengthen and speed up the densensitization process, we used hypnotic techniques in a dynamic approach. The "in vitro" treatment proceeds with imagery, under hypnosis, of an "anxiety hierarchy" of increasingly erotic and sexually intimate situations which will be reproduced at home with the partner, until sexual intercourse is achieved. In the "in vivo" method the patient learns self-hypnosis and then inserts in the vagina first a finger, and then Hegar dilators of gradually increasing sizes. The partner, the patient, and the physician will then successively proceed to insertion, forming a team-referred work situation. This continues until the "female superior position," practiced first with the largest dilator, is reproduced at home by intercourse. Between 1965 and 1974 we treated 71 women with this method. Good results were obtained in 16 of 18 by the "in vitro" technique and in 53 of 54 by the "in vivo" technique. One patient was referred from the "in vitro" group to the "in vivo" group. In follow-up of 2 to 5 years there was no relapse or symptom substitution. PMID:6102843

  16. Therapy of vaginismus by hypnotic desensitization.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, K

    1980-05-01

    Fear and anxiety are of tremendous importance in the production and maintenance of a symptom. Vaginismus, as a reaction of avoidance of an anxiety-producing situation, is readily amenable to treatment by systematic desensitization. This may proceed mainly in two ways: "in vitro" or "in vivo." In order to strengthen and speed up the densensitization process, we used hypnotic techniques in a dynamic approach. The "in vitro" treatment proceeds with imagery, under hypnosis, of an "anxiety hierarchy" of increasingly erotic and sexually intimate situations which will be reproduced at home with the partner, until sexual intercourse is achieved. In the "in vivo" method the patient learns self-hypnosis and then inserts in the vagina first a finger, and then Hegar dilators of gradually increasing sizes. The partner, the patient, and the physician will then successively proceed to insertion, forming a team-referred work situation. This continues until the "female superior position," practiced first with the largest dilator, is reproduced at home by intercourse. Between 1965 and 1974 we treated 71 women with this method. Good results were obtained in 16 of 18 by the "in vitro" technique and in 53 of 54 by the "in vivo" technique. One patient was referred from the "in vitro" group to the "in vivo" group. In follow-up of 2 to 5 years there was no relapse or symptom substitution.

  17. [Sleep disorders and hypnotic agents: medical, social and economical impact].

    PubMed

    Touitou, Y

    2007-07-01

    Insomnia is a subjective complaint relating to approximately 30% of the adult population in France, described by the patient as a difficulty of initiating and/or maintaining sleep. Its prevalence increases with age and sex: women are more affected than men (24% vs 14%). Insomnia is either occasional (20%), or chronic (10%). Chronic insomnia has an important impact on patients' everyday life e.g. fatigue, perturbed diurnal waking state, impaired quality-of-life... which results in lower work productivity and drowsiness as well as relational difficulties, absenteeism. About 80% of patients consult their general practitioner first. The aim of a hypnotic agent is to obtain sleep as physiological as possible. Benzodiazepines and benzodiazepines-like agents (zopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon) are the most widely used hypnotics. However, their indications must be limited to occasional insomnia with a limited duration: less than four weeks. There is no advantage with using a combination of hypnotic agents, a practice which should be prohibited. Adverse effects can be serious, e.g. diurnal somnolence associated with risks of road accidents and, in the elderly, the risk of falls. After chronic use, hypnotics can be addictive, as their effects wear off in three to four weeks. After withdrawal, insomnia rebound is frequent. Use of hypnotics in association with alcohol is a well-known drug-addiction behavior. According to the French health insurance fund, 9% of the general population use hypnotics and about half of them regularly. Insurance refunds for hypnotics and sedatives reach more than 110 million euros annually. The efficiency of hypnotics wears off, quickly for benzodiazepines (three - four weeks), or less quickly for zopiclone and zolpidem (a few months). Insomnia is a major public health issue, each year 10% of the incident cases of insomnia treated by hypnotics joint the group of subjects with chronic insomnia. This failure to treat insomnia properly can be explained, at

  18. The Existence of a Hypnotic State Revealed by Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Sakari; Hyönä, Jukka; Revonsuo, Antti; Sikka, Pilleriin; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Hypnosis has had a long and controversial history in psychology, psychiatry and neurology, but the basic nature of hypnotic phenomena still remains unclear. Different theoretical approaches disagree as to whether or not hypnosis may involve an altered mental state. So far, a hypnotic state has never been convincingly demonstrated, if the criteria for the state are that it involves some objectively measurable and replicable behavioural or physiological phenomena that cannot be faked or simulated by non-hypnotized control subjects. We present a detailed case study of a highly hypnotizable subject who reliably shows a range of changes in both automatic and volitional eye movements when given a hypnotic induction. These changes correspond well with the phenomenon referred to as the “trance stare” in the hypnosis literature. Our results show that this ‘trance stare’ is associated with large and objective changes in the optokinetic reflex, the pupillary reflex and programming a saccade to a single target. Control subjects could not imitate these changes voluntarily. For the majority of people, hypnotic induction brings about states resembling normal focused attention or mental imagery. Our data nevertheless highlight that in some cases hypnosis may involve a special state, which qualitatively differs from the normal state of consciousness. PMID:22039474

  19. An approach to long-term sedative-hypnotic use

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Azmeh; Chung, Sharon A; Phillipson, Ron; Shapiro, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a common, often chronic medical disorder with significant medical and socioeconomic repercussions. However, unlike other medical conditions, there is intense debate as to whether the long-term treatment of insomnia is clinically appropriate. The perceived deleterious side effect of sedative-hypnotic medications may result in patients remaining untreated or undertreated. This review proposes that a more subtle approach needs to be taken in the management of patients with chronic insomnia and that long-term use of the newer sedative-hypnotics may be a feasible and effective treatment option when used in conjunction with thorough medical assessment and regular patient follow-up. This review discusses these issues and discusses the pros and cons of long-term sedative-hypnotic use. PMID:23620678

  20. Is suvorexant a better choice than alternative hypnotics?

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Suvorexant is a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) newly introduced in the U.S. as a hypnotic, but no claim of superiority over other hypnotics has been offered.  The manufacturer argued that the 5 and 10 mg starting doses recommended by the FDA might be ineffective.  The manufacturer's main Phase III trials had not even included the 10 mg dosage, and the 5 mg dosage had not been tested at all in registered clinical trials at the time of approval.  Popular alternative hypnotics may be similarly ineffective, since the FDA has also reduced the recommended doses for zolpidem and eszopiclone.  The "not to exceed" suvorexant dosage of 20 mg does slightly increase sleep.  Because of slow absorption, suvorexant has little effect on latency to sleep onset but some small effect in suppressing wakening after sleep onset and in improving sleep efficiency. The FDA would not approve the manufacturer's preferred 40 mg suvorexant dosage, because of concern with daytime somnolence, driving impairment, and possible narcolepsy-like symptoms.  In its immediate benefits-to-risks ratio, suvorexant is unlikely to prove superior to currently available hypnotics—possibly worse—so there is little reason to prefer over the alternatives this likely more expensive hypnotic less-tested in practice.  Associations are being increasingly documented relating hypnotic usage with incident cancer, with dementia risks, and with premature death.  There is some basis to speculate that suvorexant might be safer than alternative hypnotics in terms of cancer, dementia, infections, and mortality.  These safety considerations will remain unproven speculations unless adequate long-term trials can be done that demonstrate suvorexant advantages. PMID:26594338

  1. Stability-Indicating Assay for the Determination of Pentobarbital Sodium in Liquid Formulations.

    PubMed

    Ajemni, Myriam; Balde, Issa-Bella; Kabiche, Sofiane; Carret, Sandra; Fontan, Jean-Eudes; Cisternino, Salvatore; Schlatter, Joël

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating assay by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of pentobarbital sodium in oral formulations: a drug used for infant sedation in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column, using isocratic elution and a detector set at 214 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a 0.01 M potassium buffer pH 3 and methanol (40 : 60, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the run time of analysis was 5 min. The linearity of the method was demonstrated in the range of 5 to 250 μg/mL pentobarbital sodium solution (r (2) = 0.999). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.10 and 3.97 μg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 2.1%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 99.2 to 101.3%. Stability studies indicate that the drug is stable to sunlight and in aqueous solution. Accelerated pentobarbital sodium breakdown by strong alkaline, acidic, or oxidative stress produced noninterfering peaks. This method allows accurate and reliable determination of pentobarbital sodium for drug stability assay in pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26543481

  2. Stability-Indicating Assay for the Determination of Pentobarbital Sodium in Liquid Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ajemni, Myriam; Balde, Issa-Bella; Kabiche, Sofiane; Carret, Sandra; Fontan, Jean-Eudes; Cisternino, Salvatore; Schlatter, Joël

    2015-01-01

    A stability-indicating assay by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of pentobarbital sodium in oral formulations: a drug used for infant sedation in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column, using isocratic elution and a detector set at 214 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a 0.01 M potassium buffer pH 3 and methanol (40 : 60, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the run time of analysis was 5 min. The linearity of the method was demonstrated in the range of 5 to 250 μg/mL pentobarbital sodium solution (r2 = 0.999). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.10 and 3.97 μg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 2.1%. Accuracy of the method ranged from 99.2 to 101.3%. Stability studies indicate that the drug is stable to sunlight and in aqueous solution. Accelerated pentobarbital sodium breakdown by strong alkaline, acidic, or oxidative stress produced noninterfering peaks. This method allows accurate and reliable determination of pentobarbital sodium for drug stability assay in pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26543481

  3. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Personality as Measured by the MMPI-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Wayne D.

    This study evaluated personality variables that underlie hypnotic susceptibility. It was correlational, did not require ongoing contact with participants, and included a validation study as an integral component. The subjects were 359 college students (250 in the original sample and 109 in the cross validation study) taking undergraduate courses…

  4. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Ghildiyal, Shivani; Nath, Gopal; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently, we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP) fruit hairs extract (MPE). In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute) and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute) induced paw edema and while granuloma pouch (subacute) in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation in rats. Results: MPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 h after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw edema by 41.60% (P < 0.001) and carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55.30% (P < 0.001). After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P < 0.001) inhibition against formalin-induced paw edema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P < 0.01) and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P < 0.01), respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in the hot-plate test while the reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P < 0.001). The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Conclusion: Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and subacute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. PMID:27069718

  5. Punishment-specific effects of pentobarbital: dependency on the type of punisher.

    PubMed

    Branch, M N; Nicholson, G; Dworkin, S I

    1977-11-01

    Pigeons were trained to peck a key under a multiple random-interval 1-minute, random-interval 6-minute schedule of food presentation. Subsequently, over three phases, additions were made during the random-interval 1-minute component as follows: pecks during the component occasionally were punished by timeout presentation (Phase 1), timeouts were presented independently of responding during the component (Phase 2), pecks during the component occasionally were punished by electric-shock presentation (Phase 3). In Phases 1 and 3, response-dependent timeout and shock suppressed responding and established equivalent rates in both components of the multiple schedule. Intermediate doses of pentobarbital increased responding suppressed by electric-shock punishment but had little or no effect on responding suppressed by timeout punishment. Response-independent presentation of timeouts did not result in suppression of responding (thus showing that response-dependent timeout acted as a punisher), and pentobarbital did not reliably increase unpunished responding. Pentobarbital's selective "punishment-attenuating" properties depend on the nature of the punisher. PMID:562919

  6. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  7. Punishment-specific effects of pentobarbital: dependency on the type of punisher.

    PubMed

    Branch, M N; Nicholson, G; Dworkin, S I

    1977-11-01

    Pigeons were trained to peck a key under a multiple random-interval 1-minute, random-interval 6-minute schedule of food presentation. Subsequently, over three phases, additions were made during the random-interval 1-minute component as follows: pecks during the component occasionally were punished by timeout presentation (Phase 1), timeouts were presented independently of responding during the component (Phase 2), pecks during the component occasionally were punished by electric-shock presentation (Phase 3). In Phases 1 and 3, response-dependent timeout and shock suppressed responding and established equivalent rates in both components of the multiple schedule. Intermediate doses of pentobarbital increased responding suppressed by electric-shock punishment but had little or no effect on responding suppressed by timeout punishment. Response-independent presentation of timeouts did not result in suppression of responding (thus showing that response-dependent timeout acted as a punisher), and pentobarbital did not reliably increase unpunished responding. Pentobarbital's selective "punishment-attenuating" properties depend on the nature of the punisher.

  8. Spatiotemporal Changes of Neuronal Responses in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Noxious Tail Stimulation in Awake and Pentobarbital-Anesthetized Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lee, Jye-Chang; Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2015-10-31

    Primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is a key area in the processing of nociceptor inputs to our consciousness. To clarify the columnar and laminar organization of SI for pain processing, we compared spatiotemporal changes in neuronal activities of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) of the rat in response to noxious laser heat stimulation applied to the mid-tail. Longitudinal and vertical array microelectrodes were chronically implanted in the cerebral cortex. Evoked neuronal activities, including intracortical local field potentials (LFP) and ensemble single-unit activity (SU) around SmI were simultaneously recorded. The effect of pentobarbital on the neuronal responses was evaluated in comparison with the neuronal responses in conscious animals to explore the potential substrate of nociceptive processing in the conscious state. The results from the experiment with longitudinal microelectrode arrays indicated that noxious stimulation induced a neuronal response which was spread widely around the SmI of the conscious rat, and the range of neuronal responses was limited to the tail region of the SmI under anesthesia. The results from the experiment with vertical microelectrode arrays showed the universal neuronal responses through all cortical layers of the SmI in conscious rats, and sodium pentobarbital suppressed these neuronal responses in the supragranular layers significantly relative to the deeper layers and basal activity. These results imply that a wider range of cortical activation, both in the horizontal or vertical dimension, might be important for nociceptive processing in the conscious state. PMID:26387657

  9. Neuro-Hypnotism: Prospects for Hypnosis and Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of hypnosis have been subject to speculation since the phenomenon got its name. Until recently, much of this research has been geared toward understanding hypnosis itself, including the biological bases of individual differences in hypnotizability, state-dependent changes in cortical activity occurring with the induction of hypnosis, and the neural correlates of response to particular hypnotic suggestions (especially the clinically useful hypnotic analgesia). More recently, hypnosis has begun to be employed as a method for manipulating subjects' mental states, both cognitive and affective, to provide information about the neural substrates of experience, thought, and action. This instrumental use of hypnosis is particularly well-suited for identifying the neural correlates of conscious and unconscious perception and memory, and of voluntary and involuntary action. PMID:22748566

  10. Adverse reactions to benzodiazepine hypnotics: spontaneous reporting system.

    PubMed

    Bixler, E O; Kales, A; Brubaker, B H; Kales, J D

    1987-01-01

    The rates of reported adverse drug reactions involving the central nervous system were compared among patients taking any of three benzodiazepine hypnotics: flurazepam, temazepam, and triazolam. These rates, based upon data collected through the spontaneous reporting system of the Food and Drug Administration, were controlled for the number and size of new prescriptions for each drug. In general, triazolam had much higher overall rates than did the other two drugs. Hyperexcitability and withdrawal effects were greatest for triazolam and least for flurazepam. Amnesia was reported almost exclusively with triazolam. Rates for other cognitive as well as affective and other behavioral effects were also much greater for triazolam and about equal for the other two drugs. Finally, daytime sedation was reported slightly more for flurazepam than triazolam and least for temazepam which was also reported most frequently as lacking hypnotic effect. PMID:2892212

  11. Hypnotic color blindness and performance on the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Mallard, D; Bryant, R A

    2001-10-01

    A suggestion for hypnotic color blindness was investigated by administering a reverse Stroop color-naming task. Prior to the suggestion for color blindness, participants learned associations between color names and shapes. Following the color blindness suggestion, participants were required to name the shapes when they appeared in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the learned associations. The 18 high hypnotizable participants who passed the suggestion were slower to name (a) shapes in which the color name was incongruent with the color in which it was printed, (b) "unseen" rather than "seen" shapes, and (c) color-incongruent shapes that were printed in the color in which they were "color-blind." These patterns are discussed in terms of potential cognitive and social mechanisms that may mediate responses to hypnotic color blindness.

  12. [Value of trimeprazine among hypnotics in a psychiatric facility].

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, R; Gaudoneix-Taieb, M; Armand-Branger, S; Beauverie, P; Poisson, N

    2000-01-01

    Trimeprazine (TPZ) has been marketed in France since 1959, as tablets and solution containing respectively 5 mg and 40 mg/ml. TPZ is a phenothiazine derivative with known antihistaminic and sedative effects. The first approved indication for TPZ is in the treatment of allergy. However, its frequent sedative effects are undesirable in this indication. The second approved indication is in the treatment of insomnia (5-20 mg/day) and TPZ is an alternative to conventional hypnotics as diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, butobarbital... Due to the prescription frequency of this medicine in our hospital, we analyzed the naturalistic prescriptions mode and the clinical end point in patients hospitalized for mental illness. On the one hand, using the hospital prescription software, we analyzed: prescriptions frequency, dose regimen and drug associations with hypnotics, anxiolytics and sedative antipsychotics. On the other hand, we came into contact with physicians in order to know their opinion on TPZ and the whole point of that indication. The results showed a very high prescription frequency (139/400 patients; 35%), a marked increase in dose compared to those approved by the French Drug Administration (5-20 mg/day: 5%; 20-200 mg/day: 95%) and main drug association with hypnotics, tranquilizers or antipsychotics, respectively 38%, 65% and 91%. Clinical end points are: non addictive properties and an easily adequation of posology for the drinkable drop form in contrast with tablets. Thus, TPZ appears as a first-line hypnotic in spite of its adverse effects common to phenothiazine (atropinic and antidopaminergic effects) and is a usefull medicine for the treatment of insomnia in psychotic patients. PMID:11192808

  13. Improved obstetric outcomes using hypnotic analgesia and skill mastery combined with childbirth education.

    PubMed

    Harmon, T M; Hynan, M T; Tyre, T E

    1990-10-01

    The benefits of hypnotic analgesia as an adjunct to childbirth education were studied in 60 nulliparous women. Subjects were divided into high and low hypnotic susceptibility groups before receiving 6 sessions of childbirth education and skill mastery using an ischemic pain task. Half of the Ss in each group received a hypnotic induction at the beginning of each session; the remaining control Ss received relaxation and breathing exercises typically used in childbirth education. Both hypnotic Ss and highly susceptible Ss reported reduced pain. Hypnotically prepared births had shorter Stage 1 labors, less medication, higher Apgar scores, and more frequent spontaneous deliveries than control Ss' births. Highly susceptible, hypnotically treated women had lower depression scores after birth than women in the other 3 groups. We propose that repeated skill mastery facilitated the effectiveness of hypnosis in our study. PMID:2254498

  14. A cross-validation of two differing measures of hypnotic depth.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J; Maurer, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Several sets of regression analyses were completed, attempting to predict 2 measures of hypnotic depth: the self-reported hypnotic depth score and hypnoidal state score from variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). When attempting to predict self-reported hypnotic depth, an R of .78 with Study 1 participants shrank to an r of .72 with Study 2 participants, suggesting mild shrinkage for this more attributional measure of hypnotic depth. Attempting to predict hypnoidal state (an estimate of trance) using the same procedure, yielded an R of .56, that upon cross-validation shrank to an r of .48. These and other results suggest that, although there is some variance in common, the self-reported hypnotic depth score appears to be tapping a different construct from the hypnoidal state score.

  15. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by 'Isolation-induced aggression' model, sedation by 'Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer' and hypnotic activity by 'Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time'. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.

  16. Mediation and Moderation of Psychological Pain Treatments: Response Expectancies and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milling, Leonard S.; Reardon, John M.; Carosella, Gina M.

    2006-01-01

    The mediator role of response expectancies and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility were evaluated in the analogue treatment of pain. Approximately 1,000 participants were assessed for hypnotic suggestibility. Later, as part of a seemingly unrelated experiment, 188 of these individuals were randomly assigned to distraction,…

  17. Effects of pentobarbital, isoflurane, or medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol anesthesia on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood chemistry in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Oshima, Yutaka; Hashizume, Naoki; Nakai, Makoto; Ajimi, Shozo; Imatanaka, Nobuya

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly examined for pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. Two common means of anesthesia before euthanasia and bronchoalveolar lavage in rats are intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital and inhalation of isoflurane. Medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol is an alternative anesthesia to pentobarbital for animal welfare; however, the effect of this combination on BALF and blood chemistry is unknown. Here, we compared the effects of anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital or one of two combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (dose, 0.375-2.0-2.5 or 0.15-2.0-2.5 mg/kg) or by inhalation of isoflurane on BALF and blood chemistry in rats with or without pulmonary inflammation. In BALF, we determined total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count and neutrophil count. In serum, we conducted a general chemistry screen. After anesthesia with pentobarbital or isoflurane, there were no significant differences between any of the BALF or blood chemistry parameters with or without inflammation. After anesthesia with either of the combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count, neutrophil count, and almost all of the blood chemistry parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane; however, BALF albumin and serum glucose were significantly increased in rats without inflammation. After the combination of low-dose medetomidine in rats with inflammation, BALF parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane. Our results show that, of the anesthetics examined, inhalation of isoflurane is the most appropriate means of anesthesia when examining BALF or serum for toxicity studies in rats. PMID:27665769

  18. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  19. Placebo versus "standard" hypnosis rationale: attitudes, expectancies, hypnotic responses, and experiences.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Michelle; Cleere, Colleen; Lynn, Steven Jay; Kirsch, Irving

    2013-10-01

    In this study participants were provided with either the standard rationale that accompanies the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: A (Shor & Orne, 1962) or a rationale that presented hypnosis as a nondeceptive placebo, consistent with Kirsch's (1994) sociocognitive perspective of hypnosis. The effects of the placebo and standard rationales were highly comparable with respect to hypnotic attitudes; prehypnotic expectancies; objective, subjective, and involuntariness measures of hypnotic responding; as well as a variety of subjective experiences during hypnosis, as measured by the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (Pekala, 1982). Differences among correlations were not evident when measures were compared across groups. However, indices of hypnotic responding were correlated with attitudes in the hypnosis but not the placebo condition, and, generally speaking, the link between subjective experiences during hypnosis and measures of hypnotic responding were more reliable in the placebo than the hypnosis group. Researcher findings are neutral with respect to providing support for altered state versus sociocognitive models of hypnosis.

  20. Effects of anesthetics pentobarbital sodium and chloral hydrate on urine proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mindi; Li, Xundou; Li, Menglin

    2015-01-01

    Urine can be a better source than blood for biomarker discovery since it accumulates many changes. The urine proteome is susceptible to many factors, including anesthesia. Pentobarbital sodium and chloral hydrate are commonly used anesthetics in animal experiments. This study demonstrated the effects of these two anesthetics on the rat urine proteome using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With anesthesia, the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio of all rats increased twofold. The relative abundance of 22 and 23 urinary proteins were changed with pentobarbital sodium or chloral hydrate anesthesia, respectively, as determined by label-free quantification. Among these changed proteins, fifteen had been considered as candidate biomarkers such as uromodulin, and sixteen had been considered stable in healthy human urine, which are more likely to be considered as potential biomarkers when changed, such as transferrin. The pattern of changed urinary proteins provides clues to the discovery of urinary proteins regulatory mechanisms. When determining a candidate biomarker, anesthetic-related effects can be excluded from future biomarker discovery studies. Since anesthetics take effects via nervous system, this study is the first to provide clues that the protein handling function of the kidney may possibly be regulated by the nervous system. PMID:25789206

  1. Middle-of-the-Night Hypnotic Use in a Large National Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Berglund, Patricia; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C.; Stephenson, Judith J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) is the most common nighttime insomnia symptom among US adults, many FDA-approved hypnotics have indications only for sleep onset, stipulating bedtime administration to offset residual sedation. Given the well-known self-medication tendencies of insomniacs, concern arises that maintenance insomniacs might be prone to self-administer their prescribed hypnotics middle-of-the-night (MOTN) after nocturnal awakenings, despite little efficacy-safety data supporting such use. However, no US data characterize the actual population prevalence or correlates of MOTN hypnotic use. Methods: Telephone interviews assessed patterns of prescription hypnotic use in a national sample of 1,927 commercial health plan members (ages 18-64) receiving prescription hypnotics within 12 months of study. The Brief Insomnia Questionnaire assessed insomnia symptoms. Results: 20.2% of respondents reported MOTN hypnotic use, including 9.0% who sometimes used twice-per-night (once at bedtime plus once MOTN) and another 11.2% who sometimes used MOTN, but never twice-per-night. The remaining 79.8% used exclusively at bedtime. Among exclusive MOTN users, only 14.0% used MOTN on the advice of their physician (52.6% of those seen by sleep medicine specialists and 42.6% by psychiatrists vs. 5.2% to 13.6% seen by other physicians). MOTN use predictors included DMS being the most bothersome sleep problem, long duration of hypnotic use, and low frequency of DMS. Conclusions: One-fifth of patients with prescription hypnotics used MOTN, only a minority on advice from their physicians. Since significant next-day cognitive and psychomotor impairment is documented with off-label MOTN hypnotic use, prescribing physicians should question patients about unsupervised MOTN dosing. Citation: Roth T; Berglund P; Shahly V; Shillington AC; Stephenson JJ; Kessler RC. Middle-of-the-night hypnotic use in a large national health plan. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  2. Decreased sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol early in ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Silveri, M M; Spear, L P

    1998-05-01

    Sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol was examined in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats at 16, 26, 36, 46, 56, or 96 days postnatally. Following administration of 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, or 5.0 g/kg of a 17% v/v ethanol solution, sleep times were recorded and blood alcohol levels (BALs) and brain alcohol levels (BrALs) were measured upon awakening. In addition to examining ethanol sleep time during ontogeny, data were used to estimate acute tolerance (indexed by the slope of the linear regressions of waking BALs and BrALs as a function of dose) and initial brain sensitivity to ethanol (indexed by calculating the y-intercept from the linear regression of BrALs as a function of sleep time). The results showed a marked increase in sensitivity to ethanol hypnosis during ontogeny, with young animals exhibiting shorter ethanol-induced sleep times and high waking BALs and BrALs. This ontogenetic increase in ethanol sensitivity was associated with a developmental decline in acute tolerance, with acute tolerance being most pronounced at postnatal day (P) 16 and evident only up to P36. Initial sensitivity conversely increased with age, with P16 pups showing lower initial brain sensitivity to ethanol than at all other ages. Gender differences emerged in adulthood, with males sleeping significantly longer than females at P56 and P96. These findings suggest that the marked insensitivity of young animals to the hypnotic effects of ethanol is related to both pronounced acute tolerance, as well as reduced initial brain sensitivity to ethanol early in life. PMID:9622449

  3. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate on hypercapnic depression of diaphragmatic contractility in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yoshitaka; Uemura, Aki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypercapnia is associated with diaphragm muscle dysfunction that causes a reduction of diaphragmatic force generated for a constant elective myographic activity. No published data are available concerning hypercapnic depression of diaphragmatic contractility during dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophospate (DBcAMP) administration. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DBcAMP on hypercapnic depression of diaphragmatic contractility in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Methods: This experimental study was conducted from July to December 2008 at the Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. Adult (aged >5 years) mongrel dogs weighing 10 to 15 kg were randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Hypercapnia (80–90 mm Hg) was induced with 10% carbon dioxide added to the inspired gas. When hypercapnia was established, group 1 was infused with low-dose DBcAMP (0.05 mg/kg/min); group 2 was infused with high-dose DBcAMP (0.2 mg/kg/min); and group 3 received placebo (saline). Study drug was administered intravenously for 60 minutes. Diaphragmatic contractility was assessed by transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) at baseline, induction of hypercapnia, and study drug administration. Results: Twenty-one dogs were divided into 3 groups of 7. There were no significant differences observed at baseline. In the presence of hypercapnia, Pdi (mean [SD], cm H2O) at low- (20-Hz) and high-frequency (100-Hz) stimulation was significantly decreased from baseline in each group (all, P = 0.001). In groups 1 and 2, Pdi at both stimuli was significantly increased during DBcAMP administration compared with hypercapnia-induced values (group 1: 20-Hz, 13.5 [2.2] vs 15.0 [2.4], respectively, P = 0.001, 100-Hz, 21.2 [1.6] vs 22.5 [1.6], P = 0.001; group 2: 20-Hz, 13.7 [1.4] vs 19.2 [1.7], P = 0.001, 100-Hz, 21.0 [2.4] vs 27.2 [2.5], P = 0.001). The Pdi at both stimuli during DBcAMP administration was significantly

  4. Early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and postoperative delirium after anaesthesia with various hypnotics: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial - The PINOCCHIO trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium can result in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, major demand for postoperative care and higher hospital costs. Hypnotics serve to induce and maintain anaesthesia and to abolish patients' consciousness. Their persisting clinical action can delay postoperative cognitive recovery and favour postoperative delirium. Some evidence suggests that these unwanted effects vary according to each hypnotic's specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and its interaction with the individual patient. We designed this study to evaluate postoperative delirium rate after general anaesthesia with various hypnotics in patients undergoing surgical procedures other than cardiac or brain surgery. We also aimed to test whether delayed postoperative cognitive recovery increases the risk of postoperative delirium. Methods/Design After local ethics committee approval, enrolled patients will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. In all patients anaesthesia will be induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with the anaesthetics desflurane, or sevoflurane, or propofol and the analgesic opioid fentanyl. The onset of postoperative delirium will be monitored with the Nursing Delirium Scale every three hours up to 72 hours post anaesthesia. Cognitive function will be evaluated with two cognitive test batteries (the Short Memory Orientation Memory Concentration Test and the Rancho Los Amigos Scale) preoperatively, at baseline, and postoperatively at 20, 40 and 60 min after extubation. Statistical analysis will investigate differences in the hypnotics used to maintain anaesthesia and the odds ratios for postoperative delirium, the relation of early postoperative cognitive recovery and postoperative delirium rate. A subgroup analysis will be used to categorize patients according to demographic variables relevant to the risk of postoperative delirium (age, sex, body weight) and to the preoperative score index

  5. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies.

  6. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041

  7. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics' mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  8. Dependence of pentobarbital kinetics upon the dose of the drug and its pharmacodynamic effects.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, K H; Szaykowski, A; Danysz, A

    1977-01-01

    Pentobarbital (PB), at dose range of 20--50 mg/kg, displays in rabbits non-linear, dose-dependent kinetics. Pharmacokinetics parameters of drug elimination depend largely upon the dose, while the distribution phase is dose-independent. The rate of disappearance of PB from the central compartment (plasma) decreases with the increase of the dose. The analysis of pharmacodynamic parameters has shown that this dose-dependent retardation of PB elimination is probably caused by an impairment of metabolic processes, resulting from disturbance of the circulatory system. A close correlation has been found between the hypotensive effect of PB and the elimination constant, k13, and also between the hypotensive effect and beta.Vd(extrap), a coefficient proportional to the rate of metabolism of PB [23, 29]. The results indicate the necessity of considering the changes in the functional state of the organism, related to the action of a drug, in pharmacokinetic studies.

  9. Intrathecal administration of substance P enhances cutaneous plasma protein extravasation in pentobarbital anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; Jacques, L; Couture, R

    1987-01-13

    In pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats, the intrathecal administration of substance P (SP) at T9 spinal cord level enhances plasma protein extravasation (PE) in cutaneous tissues of the back, the hind paws and the ears. This vascular response is maximum at 15 min after administration of SP (6.5 nmol), and the most striking in the skin of the hind paws. Contrary to SP, neurotensin (NT) administered intrathecally failed to enhance PE. Both peptides are however potent enhancers of PE following intravenous injection. PE elicited by intrathecal administration of SP is significantly reduced in both spinal rats and in capsaicin treated animals. These results suggest that SP but not NT may play a role as a spinal chemical mediator in peripheral vascular permeability through a supraspinal reflex mechanism involving sensory afferents.

  10. Effects of diazepam, pentobarbital, scopolamine and the timing of saline injection on learned immobility in rats.

    PubMed

    De Pablo, J M; Ortiz-Caro, J; Sanchez-Santed, F; Guillamón, A

    1991-11-01

    The rat forced-swimming test (FST) is widely used for screening substances with a potential antidepressant effect. Rat immobility shown in the FST has been interpreted as "behavioral despair" and has been suggested as an animal model of human depression. In the following series of experiments, it is shown that pentobarbital and scopolamine administered immediately after the first phase, and diazepam administered 15 minutes before the first phase, behave as false positives in the FST. It is concluded that the learning-memory hypothesis seems to cope better with the behavior of rats during the FST than the "behavioral despair" hypothesis. It is also shown that the sensitivity of the FST is affected by the fact that the last saline injection, one hour before the second phase, increases the animals' mobility.

  11. Hypnosis and belief: A review of hypnotic delusions.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    Hypnosis can create temporary, but highly compelling alterations in belief. As such, it can be used to model many aspects of clinical delusions in the laboratory. This approach allows researchers to recreate features of delusions on demand and examine underlying processes with a high level of experimental control. This paper reviews studies that have used hypnosis to model delusions in this way. First, the paper reviews studies that have focused on reproducing the surface features of delusions, such as their high levels of subjective conviction and strong resistance to counter-evidence. Second, the paper reviews studies that have focused on modelling underlying processes of delusions, including anomalous experiences or cognitive deficits that underpin specific delusional beliefs. Finally, the paper evaluates this body of research as a whole. The paper discusses advantages and limitations of using hypnotic models to study delusions and suggests some directions for future research.

  12. Hypnotizing Libet: Readiness potentials with non-conscious volition.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander; Alexander, Prescott; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Roskies, Adina; Tse, Peter Ulric; Wheatley, Thalia

    2015-05-01

    The readiness potential (RP) is one of the most controversial topics in neuroscience and philosophy due to its perceived relevance to the role of conscious willing in action. Libet and colleagues reported that RP onset precedes both volitional movement and conscious awareness of willing that movement, suggesting that the experience of conscious will may not cause volitional movement (Libet, Gleason, Wright, & Pearl, 1983). Rather, they suggested that the RP indexes unconscious processes that may actually cause both volitional movement and the accompanying conscious feeling of will (Libet et al., 1983; pg. 640). Here, we demonstrate that volitional movement can occur without an accompanying feeling of will. We additionally show that the neural processes indexed by RPs are insufficient to cause the experience of conscious willing. Specifically, RPs still occur when subjects make self-timed, endogenously-initiated movements due to a post-hypnotic suggestion, without a conscious feeling of having willed those movements.

  13. Expanding hypnotic pain management to the affective dimension of pain.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    Experimental (Price & Barber, 1987) and neuroimaging studies (Rainville, Carrier, Hofbauer, Bushnell, & Duncan, 1999), suggest that it is the affective dimension of pain as processed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that is most associated with suffering and autonomic arousal. Conversely, pain related emotions (Rainville, Bao, & Chretien, 2005) and expectations (Koyama, McHaffie, Laurenti, & Coghill, 2005) modulate pain perception and associated pain affect. This paper presents both the scientific background and the general clinical steps involved in a practical hypnotic approach that uses emotion specific wording and the elicitation of prior positive experience to intervene at both the affective and sensory dimensions of pain. Such an approach enables patients to therapeutically use hypnosis to reduce their subjective distress even if they are not able to greatly reduce the sensation of pain. The utilization of positive state dependent learning (Rossi, 1986), following the advice of Milton Erickson to "discover their patterns of happiness" (Parsons-Fein, 2005) is emphasized.

  14. The Psychophysics of Cold Pressor Pain and Its Modification through Hypnotic Suggestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgard, Ernest R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Earlier reports of the pain of putting hand and forearm in circulating ice water were recomputed to study how subjects scale that pain and to find appropriate measures of its reduction under hypnotic analgesia. (Editor)

  15. Temazepam 'Planpak': a multicentre general practice trial in planned benzodiazepine hypnotic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Drake, J

    1991-01-01

    A trial was carried out in 44 patients to demonstrate the efficacy of planned withdrawal of benzodiazepine hypnotics in general practice using Temazepam 'Planpak'. The withdrawal period was 6 weeks during which time the dose of temazepam was reduced every 2 weeks from 10 mg to 5 mg to 2 mg. Patients were followed up for between 3 and 6 months after withdrawal. Four patients failed to complete the withdrawal phase due to sleep disturbance. Adverse events reported were minor. Twenty-six (59%) patients were able to sleep without a hypnotic after the withdrawal phase. Patients on 10 mg temazepam on entry into the trial had a higher success rate than those on 15 mg or 20 mg nightly (p = 0.002). At follow-up 12 to 35 weeks after completion of the trial, 52% of the patients who entered were sleeping without the use of a hypnotic. A patient management plan for hypnotic withdrawal is proposed. PMID:2044399

  16. Hypnotic depth and response to suggestion under standardized conditions and during FMRI scanning.

    PubMed

    Oakley, David A; Deeley, Quinton; Halligan, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Hypnosis is a potentially valuable cognitive tool for neuroimaging studies. However, understandable concern that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in particular may adversely affect hypnotic procedures remains. Measurements of hypnotic depth and responsiveness to suggestions were taken using a standardized procedure that met all the requirements for functional MRI (fMRI). Testing outside the scanning environment showed reliable and stable changes in subjective hypnotic depth, with no carryover once the hypnosis had been terminated. Within-subject comparisons showed that the magnitude and pattern of these changes and the degree of responsiveness to hypnotic suggestion were not discernibly affected by the fMRI environment. It is concluded that hypnosis can be employed as a discrete and reliable cognitive tool within fMRI neuroimaging settings.

  17. Increased brain monoaminergic tone after the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit gene knockout is responsible for resistance to the hypnotic effect of nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Andrey B; Yamakura, Tomohiro; Kohno, Tatsuro; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors can be inhibited by inhalational anesthetics in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations. Here, to clarify the role of NMDA receptors in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, we examined the hypnotic properties of isoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit knockout mice. The hypnotic properties of inhalational anesthetics were evaluated in mice in the loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay by measuring the 50% concentration for LORR (LORR ED(50)). Knockout mice displayed isoflurane and sevoflurane LORR ED(50) values similar to wild-type controls, indicating no significant contribution of these receptors to the hypnotic action of halogenated anesthetics. However, compared with wild-type controls, mutant mice displayed larger isoflurane LORR ED(50) values in the presence of nitrous oxide, indicating a resistance to this gaseous anesthetic. Knockout mice have enhanced brain monoaminergic activity which occurs secondary to NMDA receptor dysfunction, and the observed resistance to the isoflurane LORR ED(50)-sparing effect of nitrous oxide could be abolished by pretreatment with the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist droperidol or with the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. Thus, resistance to nitrous oxide in knockout mice appears to be a secondary phenomenon of monoaminergic origin and not a direct result of impaired NMDA receptor function. Our results indicate that NMDA receptors are not critically involved in the hypnotic action of conventionally-used inhalational anesthetics. Also, they suggest that increased brain monoaminergic tone can diminish the effects of general anesthesia. Finally, they provide further evidence that changes secondary to genetic manipulation can explain the results obtained in global knockouts. PMID:23123346

  18. Chronic use of hypnotics in a family practice--patients' reluctance to stop treatment.

    PubMed

    Matalon, A; Yinnon, A M; Hurwitz, A

    1990-12-01

    Insomnia is a common symptom in family practice, and hypnotics are frequently prescribed for its treatment. A survey was performed in an urban clinic serving 1900 persons in order to detect the prevalence of this disorder and to reassess the need for hypnotics. Sixty-one patients were identified who were taking prescribed hypnotic drugs, mainly benzodiazepines. All were over the age of 40, and they comprised 8.1% of this age group. Forty-five were chronic users, taking hypnotics for more than 4 months during a 6-month study period. Eighty-nine percent of these chronic users were above 60 years of age. Seventy-seven percent had difficulty initiating sleep and 23% had problems maintaining sleep. Information was given to these patients on the side effects and possible addictive nature of chronic hypnotic use. Different kinds of psychological support were offered as alternatives to drug treatment, but these were refused by all. We conclude that in view of the addiction associated with chronic use and the difficulty of weaning patients off the sleeping pill, there is a place for more careful evaluation and management before hypnotics are prescribed. PMID:2289635

  19. Chronic use of hypnotics in a family practice--patients' reluctance to stop treatment.

    PubMed

    Matalon, A; Yinnon, A M; Hurwitz, A

    1990-12-01

    Insomnia is a common symptom in family practice, and hypnotics are frequently prescribed for its treatment. A survey was performed in an urban clinic serving 1900 persons in order to detect the prevalence of this disorder and to reassess the need for hypnotics. Sixty-one patients were identified who were taking prescribed hypnotic drugs, mainly benzodiazepines. All were over the age of 40, and they comprised 8.1% of this age group. Forty-five were chronic users, taking hypnotics for more than 4 months during a 6-month study period. Eighty-nine percent of these chronic users were above 60 years of age. Seventy-seven percent had difficulty initiating sleep and 23% had problems maintaining sleep. Information was given to these patients on the side effects and possible addictive nature of chronic hypnotic use. Different kinds of psychological support were offered as alternatives to drug treatment, but these were refused by all. We conclude that in view of the addiction associated with chronic use and the difficulty of weaning patients off the sleeping pill, there is a place for more careful evaluation and management before hypnotics are prescribed.

  20. The use of sedative-hypnotic drugs in a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, R; Rusnak, C

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed the charts of 476 patients admitted to a university teaching hospital to determine whether sedative-hypnotic drugs (SHDs) were being used excessively and to examine the use of SHDs as hypnotics. The frequency of medical and surgical indications for barbiturates and benzodiazepines or other minor tranquillizers as well as the use of such drugs were compared among different groups of patients and specialty wards. Of the patients 29% had a regular order and 40% had a PRN order; only 77% of the PRN orders were administered. A total of 215 patients (45%) received an SHD during their hospital stay, and 160 (34%) received the drug as a hypnotic. Medical indications accounted for 49% of the regular orders but only 2% of the PRN orders; moreover, 89% of all the PRN orders were for insomnia. On average, patients receiving SHDs as hypnotics were older (p less than 0.05) and stayed longer in hospital (p less than 0.01) than those who did not; however, no patient on the geriatric or pediatric ward received an SHD as a hypnotic during the hospital stay. The differences in use between patient groups may have been influenced by orientation of ward staff. Physicians should review their rationale for prescribing hypnotics and avoid routine orders on admission. PMID:2369436

  1. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics’ mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  2. Hypnotic Hypersensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics and Dexmedetomidine in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frances Y.; Hanna, George M.; Han, Wei; Mardini, Feras; Thomas, Steven A.; Wyner, Abraham J.; Kelz, Max B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the adrenergic system can modulate sensitivity to anesthetic-induced immobility and anesthetic-induced hypnosis as well. However, several considerations prevent the conclusion that the endogenous adrenergic ligands norepinephrine and epinephrine alter anesthetic sensitivity. METHODS Using dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh−/−) mice genetically engineered to lack the adrenergic ligands and their siblings with normal adrenergic levels, we test the contribution of the adrenergic ligands upon volatile anesthetic induction and emergence. Moreover, we investigate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in adrenergic-deficient mice and their siblings using both righting reflex and processed electroencephalographic measures of anesthetic hypnosis. RESULTS We demonstrate that the loss of norepinephrine and epinephrine and not other neuromodulators copackaged in adrenergic neurons is sufficient to cause hypersensitivity to induction of volatile anesthesia. However, the most profound effect of adrenergic deficiency is retarding emergence from anesthesia, which takes two to three times as long in Dbh−/− mice for sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane. Having shown that Dbh−/− mice are hypersensitive to volatile anesthetics, we further demonstrate that their hypnotic hypersensitivity persists at multiple doses of dexmedetomidine. Dbh−/− mice exhibit up to 67% shorter latencies to loss of righting reflex and up to 545% longer durations of dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia. Central rescue of adrenergic signaling restores control-like dexmedetomidine sensitivity. A novel continuous electroencephalographic analysis illustrates that the longer duration of dexmedetomidine-induced hypnosis is not due to a motor confound, but occurs because of impaired anesthetic emergence. CONCLUSIONS Adrenergic signaling is essential for normal emergence from general anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia does

  3. Assessment of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Dioxide/Oxygen, Isoflurane and Pentobarbital Killing Methods in Adult Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a killing method is aversive and exposure to high concentrations is likely to be painful. Bradycardia during exposure to CO2 is associated with nociception and pain. However, it is unclear if bradycardia occurs before loss of consciousness as definitions of loss of consciousness vary in the literature. The objectives of this study were to explore the relationship between recumbency, loss of righting reflex (LORR) and a quiescent electromyograph as measures of loss of consciousness, and identify the onset of bradycardia in relation to these measures. Our primary hypothesis was that CO2 exposure would result in bradycardia, which would precede LORR. Methods Thirty-two adult, female Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with a telemetry device and randomly assigned to one of four killing methods (concentrations of 100% CO2, CO2 (70%)/O2 (30%), isoflurane (5%) and intraperitoneal pentobarbital (200 mg/kg). Time to achieve recumbency, LORR, quiescent electromyograph, isoelectric electrocorticograph, heart rate and apnea were recorded. Results The general order of progression was recumbency, LORR, quiescent electromyograph, isoelectric electrocorticograph and apnea. Recumbency preceded LORR in the majority of animals (CO2; 7/8, CO2/O2; 8/8, isoflurane; 5/8, pentobarbital; 4/8). Bradycardia occurred before recumbency in the CO2 (p = 0.0002) and CO2/O2 (p = 0.005) groups, with a 50% reduction in heart rate compared to baseline. The slowest (time to apnea) and least consistent killing methods were CO2/O2 (1180 ± 658.1s) and pentobarbital (875 [239 to 4680]s). Conclusion Bradycardia, and consequently nociception and pain, occurs before loss of consciousness during CO2 exposure. Pentobarbital displayed an unexpected lack of consistency, questioning its classification as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. PMID:27648836

  4. Role of Beliefs About Hypnotic States as a Moderator Variable: A Reexamination of the Relationship Between Reactance and Hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that beliefs about hypnosis determine the amount of psychological reactance aroused was tested. Participants were administered a measure of trait reactance to therapist directives (Therapeutic Reactance Scale; TRS), the Beliefs about Hypnotic State Questionnaire (BHSQ-R), and behavioral and subjective scales concerning hypnotic response. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed significant interactions between BHSQ-R subscales and TRS. The findings suggest that the arousal of psychological reactance to hypnosis is determined by individuals' trait reactance levels acting together with their interpretations of the hypnotic situation. The role of beliefs about hypnotic states as a moderator of the relationship between personality and hypnotizability was discussed.

  5. Postoperative use of hypnotics is associated with increased length of stay after uncomplicated surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Morten Westergaard; Bisgård, Anne Sofie; Klein, Mads; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hypnotics are used to treat perioperative sleep disorders. These drugs are associated with a higher risk of adverse effects among patients undergoing surgery. This study aims to quantify the use of hypnotics and factors influencing the administration of hypnotics in relation to colorectal cancer surgery. Method: A retrospective cohort study of 1979 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Results: In all, 381 patients (19%) received new treatment with hypnotics. Two of the six surgical centres used hypnotics less often (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.24 (0.16–0.38) and 0.20 (0.12–0.35)). Active smokers (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.57 (1.11–2.24)) and patients receiving perioperative blood transfusion (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.58 (1.10–2.26)) had increased likelihood of receiving hypnotics. In the uncomplicated cases, a multivariable linear regression analysis showed that consumption of hypnotics postoperatively was significantly associated with increased length of stay (1.5 (0.9–2.2) days). Conclusion: One in five patients began treatment with hypnotics after colorectal cancer surgery. Postoperative use of hypnotics was associated with an increased length of stay for uncomplicated cases of colorectal cancer surgery.

  6. Postoperative use of hypnotics is associated with increased length of stay after uncomplicated surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Morten Westergaard; Bisgård, Anne Sofie; Klein, Mads; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hypnotics are used to treat perioperative sleep disorders. These drugs are associated with a higher risk of adverse effects among patients undergoing surgery. This study aims to quantify the use of hypnotics and factors influencing the administration of hypnotics in relation to colorectal cancer surgery. Method: A retrospective cohort study of 1979 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Results: In all, 381 patients (19%) received new treatment with hypnotics. Two of the six surgical centres used hypnotics less often (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.24 (0.16–0.38) and 0.20 (0.12–0.35)). Active smokers (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.57 (1.11–2.24)) and patients receiving perioperative blood transfusion (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.58 (1.10–2.26)) had increased likelihood of receiving hypnotics. In the uncomplicated cases, a multivariable linear regression analysis showed that consumption of hypnotics postoperatively was significantly associated with increased length of stay (1.5 (0.9–2.2) days). Conclusion: One in five patients began treatment with hypnotics after colorectal cancer surgery. Postoperative use of hypnotics was associated with an increased length of stay for uncomplicated cases of colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:27660704

  7. Zolpidem, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. II. Effects on cerebellar cyclic GMP levels and cerebral monoamines.

    PubMed

    Scatton, B; Claustre, Y; Dennis, T; Nishikawa, T

    1986-05-01

    The effect of zolpidem, a novel nonbenzodiazepine short-acting hypnotic, on cerebellar cyclic GMP (cGMP) and biochemical indices of cerebral norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine metabolism has been investigated in the rat and mouse. Zolpidem diminished the levels of cerebellar cGMP in the rat markedly (ED50 = 0.7 mg/kg i.p.). This effect was antagonized, in a competitive manner, by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788. The zolpidem-induced decrease of cerebellar cGMP levels was rapid in onset and of short duration (less than 1 hr). When given in combination with muscimol (in a dose which by itself did not alter cerebellar cGMP content) zolpidem potentiated the diminution of the cyclic nucleotide levels induced by the gamma-aminobutyric acid mimetic. Zolpidem (up to 30 mg/kg i.p.) failed to alter the rate of utilization of norepinephrine or the levels of total 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol or 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate in the rat brain. However, the compound (10-30 mg/kg) diminished serotonin synthesis in the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex. At high doses (30-100 mg/kg i.p.), zolpidem also decreased the rate of utilization of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the rat striatum. Moreover, zolpidem (10 mg/kg i.p.) prevented partially the haloperidol-induced increase in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations in both striatum and frontal cortex. Finally, zolpidem prevented the increase in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the frontal cortex induced by electric footshock stress in rats (ED50 = 2 mg/kg i.p.) and BALB/C mice. This effect was antagonized by coadministration of Ro 15-1788. PMID:2871179

  8. Antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Daya; Gandotra, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Untreated perinatal depression and anxiety disorders are known to have significant negative impact on both maternal and fetal health. Dilemmas still remain regarding the use and safety of psychotropics in pregnant and lactating women suffering from perinatal depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of the current paper was to review the existing evidence base on the exposure and consequences of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics in women during pregnancy and lactation and to make recommendations for clinical decision making in management of these cases. Materials and Methods: We undertook a bibliographic search of Medline/PubMed (1972 through 2014), Science Direct (1972 through 2014), Archives of Indian Journal of Psychiatry databases was done. References of retrieved articles, reference books, and dedicated websites were also checked. Results and Conclusions: The existing evidence base is extensive in studying multiple outcomes of the antidepressant or anxiolytic exposure in neonates, and some of the findings appear conflicting. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most researched antidepressants in pregnancy and lactation. The available literature is criticized mostly on the lack of rigorous well designed controlled studies as well as lacunae in the methodologies, interpretation of statistical information, knowledge transfer, and translation of information. Research in this area in the Indian context is strikingly scarce. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of untreated mental illness versus medication exposure, tailor-made to each patient's past response and preference within in the context of the available evidence should guide clinical decision making. PMID:26330654

  9. Meta-Analyses of Hypnotics and Infections: Eszopiclone, Ramelteon, Zaleplon, and Zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Florendo L.; Kripke, Daniel F.; Loving, Richard T.; Dawson, Arthur; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent meta-analyses raising concern about risks of hypnotics suggest a need for more clarification of these risks. Methods: Because of preliminary suggestions that eszopiclone causes infections, we studied US Food and Drug Administration files on the 4 most-recently approved hypnotics, combined with published studies, to compile the risk ratios of infections for groups randomly assigned to receive hypnotics versus those assigned to receive placebos in controlled trials. Parallel controlled clinical trials of eszopiclone, ramelteon, zaleplon, and zolpidem were included when data on subjects, duration of exposure, and adverse effects were available. Results of trials were combined by meta-analyses. Results: Of 8828 participants assigned to the 4 hypnotics and 4383 participants who randomly received placebos, 606 in the hypnotics groups and 200 in the placebo groups were reported to develop some kind of infection (risk ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.64, p < 0.00001). Most infections were apparently mild and did not lead to dropouts. Subanalyses for individual drugs indicated that eszopiclone and zolpidem individually were associated with reported infections. There were insufficient data concerning individual studies of zaleplon and ramelteon for valid secondary meta-analyses of zaleplon or ramelteon by themselves. Conclusions: Research is needed to objectively determine whether the use of hypnotics increases the risk of infections. Immune compromise or esophageal reflux and aspiration should be studied as possible mechanisms. Citation: Joya FL; Kripke DF; Loving RT; Dawson A; Kline LE. Meta-analyses of hypnotics and infections: eszopiclone, ramelteon, zaleplon, and zolpidem. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):377-383. PMID:19968019

  10. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication.

    PubMed

    Crellin, Steven Jason; Katz, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS' arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; "Euthasol" had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient's coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended. PMID:26881149

  11. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    PubMed Central

    Crellin, Steven Jason; Katz, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS' arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient's coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended. PMID:26881149

  12. Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance.

    PubMed

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Bate, Sarah; Gothard, Stace

    2014-07-01

    The ability to enhance sensitivity to relevant (post)hypnotic suggestions has implications for creating clinically informed analogues of psychological and neuropsychological conditions and for the use of hypnotic interventions in psychological and medical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of oxytocin inhalation on a post-hypnotic suggestion that previously has been shown to improve the selectivity of attention in the Stroop task. In a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects study, medium hypnotizable individuals performed the Stroop task under normal conditions and when they had been given a post-hypnotic suggestion that they would perceive words as meaningless symbols. In line with previous research, Stroop interference was substantially reduced by the suggestion in the placebo condition. However, contrary to expectations, oxytocin impeded the effect of the word blindness suggestion on performance. The results are explained in terms of the requirement for the re-implementation of the word blindness suggestion on a trial-by-trial basis and the need to sustain activation of the suggestion between trials. The findings contrast with a recent study showing a beneficial effect of oxytocin on sensitivity to (post)hypnotic suggestions but are consistent with findings showing a detrimental effect of oxytocin on memory processes.

  13. Shifting self, shifting memory: testing the self-memory system model with hypnotic identity delusions.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    According to Conway's self-memory system (SMS) model, autobiographical memories may be facilitated, inhibited, or misremembered to be consistent with current self. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this by hypnotically suggesting an identity delusion and indexing whether this shift in self produced a corresponding shift in autobiographical memory. High hypnotizable participants displayed a compelling identity delusion and elicited specific autobiographical events that they could justify when challenged. These memories were reinterpretations of previous experiences that supported the suggested identity. Importantly, autobiographical memories that were no longer consistent with the hypnotically deluded self were less accessible than other memories. The authors discuss these findings in the context of Conway's SMS model and propose 2 accounts of autobiographical remembering during hypnotic and clinical delusions.

  14. A Comparison of Hypnotic Induction, Task Motivation, and a "Cold Start" Control Group on Hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Krystek, Stephen; Kumar, V K

    2016-10-01

    Groups of participants (N = 164) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Group 1 received a trance induction, Group 2 received task-motivational instructions, and Group 3-"cold start" control-was simply told, "We will begin the hypnosis procedure now." All participants received the Creative Imagination Scale suggestions and then completed the Creative Imagination Scale and Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The three conditions did not differ significantly either on the Creative Imagination Scale or in reported hypnotic depth. These results are consistent with prior studies which show that trance induction and task-motivational yield similar results, but they are inconsistent inasmuch as the trance induction and task-motivational groups did not differ from the control group. These results, however, are predictable from socio-cognitive perspectives that the context of hypnosis itself can elicit hypnotic behaviors. PMID:27586049

  15. Self-administration of cocaine-pentobarbital mixtures by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, W L; Wang, Zhixia

    2009-03-01

    A number of experiments have evaluated self-administration of the combination of a stimulant and an opioid. Less is known about the combination of a stimulant and a CNS depressant. The present experiment was designed to examine self-administration of the mixture of cocaine and pentobarbital (PB). Rhesus monkeys (n=4) prepared with i.v. catheters were allowed to self-administer cocaine or saline under a progressive-ratio schedule. When responding was stable, doses of cocaine and PB, alone or in combination, were made available in test sessions. Cocaine functioned as a positive reinforcer in a dose-related manner in all monkeys. PB functioned as a relatively weaker reinforcer in one of four monkeys. Self-administration of intermediate doses of cocaine (0.025-0.1mg/kg per injection) was decreased when mixed with PB (0.05-0.2mg/kg per injection); full maximum responding was re-established when cocaine dose was increased. The magnitude of the shift to the right in the cocaine dose-response function was directly related to PB dose. When PB was given as an i.v. pretreatment there was no effect on cocaine self-administration up to a sedative dose of PB (5.6 mg/kg), suggesting that responding was not non-specifically suppressed by PB. Thus, simultaneous self-administration of PB diminished the potency but not the strength of cocaine as a reinforcer, potentially encouraging self-administration of larger doses of cocaine. PMID:19054630

  16. Hypnotics use but not insomnia increased the risk of dementia in traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Lin, En-Yuan; Wei, Li; Lin, Jiann-Her; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Fan, Yen-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2015-12-01

    This study was intended to determine whether the use of hypnotics is associated with dementia in traumatic-brain-injury (TBI) patients. Data retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. TBI patients who received a diagnosis of insomnia at 2 or more independent examinations after the index date of TBI were included. The comparison cohort consisted of randomly selected TBI patients who were matched to insomnia cohort patients based on sex and age. The 2 cohorts of TBI patients were subsequently divided into the following 4 study groups: hypnotics users with insomnia (TBI-IH, N=599), insomniacs who did not use hypnotics (TBI-I, N=931), hypnotics users without insomnia (TBI-H, N=199), and people without insomnia who did not use hypnotics (TBI-C, N=4271). Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to determine the difference in dementia-free survival among the 4 study groups, after adjusting for the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the TBI-IH and TBI-H groups showed that they had a higher risk of dementia (aHRs: 1.86 and 3.98; 95% CIs: 1.15-3.00 and 2.44-6.47, respectively), compared with that of the TBI-C group. However, the risk of dementia in the TBI-I group was not significantly different from that of the TBI-C group (aHR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.85-2.19). This study suggests that the use of hypnotics is associated with an increased risk of dementia in TBI patients with or without insomnia, whereas insomnia alone is not.

  17. The benefits of working with a "dead" patient: hypnotically facilitated pseudo near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Schenk, P W

    1999-07-01

    The literature on near-death experiences is consistent in describing how such events are typically transformative. Utilizing standard hypnotic techniques, therapists can approximate many of the therapeutic aspects of such experiences, without the life-or-death crisis, to facilitate both first and second order change in psychotherapy. This article explores the use of hypnotically facilitated waking dreams as an interactive projective technique. The focus is on the varied ways that the dream components that correlate with near-death experiences can evoke durable change.

  18. Norms of German adolescents for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Geiger, Emilia; Prade, Tanja; Vogel, Sarah; Piesbergen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) has not been explicitly tested on an adolescent population. In this study, the German version of the HGSHS:A was administered to 99 German adolescents aged 15 to 19. In contrast to other studies, the gender distribution was relatively balanced: 57% female and 43% male. Results were comparable to 14 earlier studies with regard to distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Some peculiarities in contrast to the 14 previous studies are pointed out. It is concluded that the HGSHS:A can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure hypnotic suggestibility in adolescent samples.

  19. Alert Hypnotic Inductions: Use in Treating Combat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eads, Bruce; Wark, David M

    2015-10-01

    Alert hypnosis can be a valuable part of the treatment protocol for the resolution of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research indicates that combat veterans with PTSD are more hypnotically susceptible than the general population. For that reason, it is hypothesized that they should be better able to use hypnosis in treatment. As opposed to the traditional modality, eyes-open alert hypnosis allows the patient to take advantage of hypnotic phenomena while participating responsibly in work, social life, and recreation. Three case studies are reported on combat veterans with PTSD who learned to overcome their symptoms using alert hypnosis.

  20. Activity of the hypnotics, flunitrazepam and triazolam, in man

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A. N.; Stone, Barbara M.

    1980-01-01

    1 Effects of flunitrazepam and triazolam (0.25 and 0.5 mg) on sleep and on performance were studied in six healthy adult males. Sleep was assessed by electroencephalography and analogue scales, and performance by a visuo-motor coordination task. 2 Over the same dose range triazolam had a more pronounced effect than flunitrazepam. Total sleep time was increased by 0.25 and 0.5 mg triazolam, and by 0.5 mg flunitrazepam. Both drugs decreased awake activity and drowsy sleep, though the effect of flunitrazepam was limited to the 0.5 mg dose and restricted to the first 6 h after sleep onset. There were no changes in slow wave sleep. 3 Latency to the first period of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was increased with 0.5 mg triazolam, and when doses were combined (0.25-0.5 mg) the latencies with both drugs were increased. Both doses of triazolam reduced the duration and percentage of REM sleep during the early part of the night, though the whole night duration of REM sleep was not changed. 4 After the morning ingestion of 0.25 mg flunitrazepam performance was impaired for 2.0 h, but there were no residual effects when 0.25 or 0.5 mg were taken at night. With the morning ingestion of 0.25 mg triazolam performance was impaired from 0.5 to at least 5.0 h after ingestion. There were no residual effects with 0.25 mg overnight, but with 0.5 mg triazolam there was an effect on performance 10 h after ingestion with recovery within 1.5 h (11.5 h of ingestion). 5 Triazolam (0.25 mg) and 0.5 mg flunitrazepam provide useful hypnotic activity when impaired performance the next day is to be avoided. The activity of 0.5 mg triazolam is accompanied by only limited residual sequelae compared with some other benzodiazepines of comparable efficacy, and so may prove to be useful when a more powerful effect is required. PMID:6101959

  1. A case of a false confession after an inadvertent hypnotic induction.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Robert H

    2012-07-01

    This article presents the case of a highly hypnotizable 28-year-old man who gave a false confession under police interrogation following an unintended hypnotic induction, but who was exonerated years later on the basis of DNA evidence. The author proposes that assessment of possible high hypnotizability be conducted in instances of otherwise unsubstantiated confessions. PMID:22913227

  2. Achievement Motivation, Socialization, and Hypnotic Susceptibility Among Youths from Four Israeli Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Mordechai; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The impact of child rearing practices on achievement motivation, hypnotic susceptibility, and brain wave patterns of children from Israeli subcultures are examined. Of the four subgroups studied, although they differed in school performance, their need achievement scores were similiar. (Author/DEP)

  3. Characteristics and Trends in Hypnotics Consumption in the Largest Health Care System in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Rennert, G.; Stein, N.; Landsman, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify and characterize hypnotics consumption habits among adult patients insured by Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest health care provider in Israel, in 2000 and 2010. Methods. A retrospective analysis of CHS computerized pharmacy records. Data were collected for all patients over the age of 18 years who were prescribed hypnotics in 2000 and in 2010. Results. Sleep medications were consumed by 8.7% of the adult CHS population in 2000 and by 9.6% in 2010. About one-quarter of consumers were treated for more than 6 months in both years. Multiple sleeping drugs were consumed more often in 2010 (45.2%) than a decade before (22%). While in 2000 benzodiazepines accounted for 84.5% of hypnotics, in 2010 this was reduced to 73.7% (p < 0.05). Of all patients treated for longer than 6 months only 11% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 required a dose escalation suggesting the absence of tolerance. Conclusions. Nine percent of the Israeli population consumes hypnotics. There is a major increase in prescription of combination of medications between 2000 and 2010, with an increase in Z class medications use and reduction in benzodiazepines. Most patients chronically treated did not escalate dosage, suggesting the absence of tolerance. PMID:27660727

  4. The Role of Expectancy in Eliciting Hypnotic Responses as a Function of Type of Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irving; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between expectancy and suggestibility in hypnosis as a function of type of induction (N=100). Results showed subjects were able to predict their responses to a cognitive skill induction with great accuracy but were not very accurate in predicting responses to a hypnotic trance induction. (JAC)

  5. Predisposition for Nightmares: A Study of Hypnotic Ability, Vividness of Imagery, and Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belicki, Kathryn; Belicki, Denis

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationships of nightmare frequency to hypnotic ability, vividness of visual imagery, and the tendency to become absorbed in fantasy-like experiences. Use of Mark's Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Rotenberg and Bowers' Absorption scale showed individuals with frequent nightmares to score higher on hypnotizability,…

  6. The treatment of incest offenders--a hypnotic approach: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Guyer, C G; Van Patten, I T

    1995-07-01

    Incest has become more prominent in public awareness over the past 15 years. The major focus of this interest has been on the incest survivor. The incest offender has received less attention. A hypnotic approach to treating incest offenders is outlined that involves a seven-stage approach. A case example is presented and future research directions suggested.

  7. Psychological Treatment of Hypnotic-Dependent Insomnia in a Primarily Older Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Nau, Sidney D.; Wilson, Nancy M.; Aguillard, R. Neal; Lester, Kristin W.; Bush, Andrew J.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study tested cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in hypnotic-dependent, late middle-age and older adults with insomnia. Method Seventy volunteers age 50 and older were randomized to CBT plus drug withdrawal, placebo biofeedback (PL) plus drug withdrawal, or drug withdrawal (MED) only. The CBT and PL groups received eight, 45 minute weekly treatment sessions. The drug withdrawal protocol comprised slow tapering monitored with about six biweekly, 30 minute sessions. Assessment including polysomnography (PSG), sleep diaries, hypnotic consumption, daytime functioning questionnaires, and drug screens collected at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up. Results Only the CBT group showed significant sleep diary improvement, sleep onset latency significantly decreased at posttreatment. For all sleep diary measures for all groups, including MED, sleep trended to improvement from baseline to follow-up. Most PSG sleep variables did not significantly change. There were no significant between group differences in medication reduction. Compared to baseline, the three groups decreased hypnotic use at posttreatment, down 84%, and follow-up, down 66%. There was no evidence of withdrawal side-effects. Daytime functioning, including anxiety and depression, improved by posttreatment. Rigorous methodological features, including documentation of strong treatment implementation and the presence of a credible placebo, elevated the confidence due these findings. Conclusions Gradual drug withdrawal was associated with substantial hypnotic reduction at posttreatment and follow-up, and withdrawal side-effects were absent. When supplemented with CBT, participants accrued incremental self-reported, but not PSG, sleep benefits. PMID:24121096

  8. Characteristics and Trends in Hypnotics Consumption in the Largest Health Care System in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Rennert, G.; Stein, N.; Landsman, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify and characterize hypnotics consumption habits among adult patients insured by Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest health care provider in Israel, in 2000 and 2010. Methods. A retrospective analysis of CHS computerized pharmacy records. Data were collected for all patients over the age of 18 years who were prescribed hypnotics in 2000 and in 2010. Results. Sleep medications were consumed by 8.7% of the adult CHS population in 2000 and by 9.6% in 2010. About one-quarter of consumers were treated for more than 6 months in both years. Multiple sleeping drugs were consumed more often in 2010 (45.2%) than a decade before (22%). While in 2000 benzodiazepines accounted for 84.5% of hypnotics, in 2010 this was reduced to 73.7% (p < 0.05). Of all patients treated for longer than 6 months only 11% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 required a dose escalation suggesting the absence of tolerance. Conclusions. Nine percent of the Israeli population consumes hypnotics. There is a major increase in prescription of combination of medications between 2000 and 2010, with an increase in Z class medications use and reduction in benzodiazepines. Most patients chronically treated did not escalate dosage, suggesting the absence of tolerance.

  9. Repressed Fear of Inexistence and its Hypnotic Recovery in Religious Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzendorf, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    When 50 college students were hypnotized and instructed to rate their "subconscious" fears of death, they expressed greater fear of inexistence than when they were awake. Findings suggest that the subconscious fear of inexistence is a primary phenomenon, from which religious and other death-dying behaviors may be derived. (Author/NRB)

  10. Experiential Response to Auditory and Visual Hallucination Suggestions in Hypnotic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Nicholas P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several attitudinal, cognitive skill, and personality variables in response to auditory and visual hallucination suggestions to hypnotic subjects are assessed. Cooperative attitudes toward hypnosis and involvement in everyday imaginative activities (absorption) correlated with response to auditory and visual hallucination…

  11. Characteristics and Trends in Hypnotics Consumption in the Largest Health Care System in Israel.

    PubMed

    Marom, O; Rennert, G; Stein, N; Landsman, K; Pillar, G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify and characterize hypnotics consumption habits among adult patients insured by Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest health care provider in Israel, in 2000 and 2010. Methods. A retrospective analysis of CHS computerized pharmacy records. Data were collected for all patients over the age of 18 years who were prescribed hypnotics in 2000 and in 2010. Results. Sleep medications were consumed by 8.7% of the adult CHS population in 2000 and by 9.6% in 2010. About one-quarter of consumers were treated for more than 6 months in both years. Multiple sleeping drugs were consumed more often in 2010 (45.2%) than a decade before (22%). While in 2000 benzodiazepines accounted for 84.5% of hypnotics, in 2010 this was reduced to 73.7% (p < 0.05). Of all patients treated for longer than 6 months only 11% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 required a dose escalation suggesting the absence of tolerance. Conclusions. Nine percent of the Israeli population consumes hypnotics. There is a major increase in prescription of combination of medications between 2000 and 2010, with an increase in Z class medications use and reduction in benzodiazepines. Most patients chronically treated did not escalate dosage, suggesting the absence of tolerance. PMID:27660727

  12. Electroencephalographic and Hypnotic Recoveries Following Brief and Prolonged Infusions of Etomidate and Optimized Soft Etomidate Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rile; Pejo, Ervin; Husain, S. Shaukat; Cotten, Joseph F.; Raines, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Methoxycarbonyl etomidate is the prototypical soft etomidate analog. Because it has relatively low potency and is extremely rapidly metabolized, large quantities must be infused to maintain hypnosis. Consequently with prolonged infusion, metabolite reaches sufficient concentrations to delay recovery. Dimethyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (DMMM) and cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) are methoxycarbonyl etomidate analogs with higher potencies and slower clearance. Because of these properties, we hypothesized that dosing would be lower and electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries would be faster - and less context-sensitive - with DMMM or CPMM versus methoxycarbonyl etomidate or etomidate. Methods Etomidate, DMMM, and CPMM where infused into rats (n=6 per group) for either 5 min or 120 min. After infusion termination, electroencephalographic and hypnotic recovery times were measured. The immobilizing ED50 infusion rates were determined using a tail clamp assay. Results Upon terminating 5-minute infusions, electroencephalographic and hypnotic recovery times were not different among hypnotics. However upon terminating 120-minute infusions, recovery times varied significantly with respective values (mean ± SD) 48 ± 13 min and 31 ± 6.5 min (etomidate), 17 ± 7.0 min and 14 ± 3.4 min (DMMM), and 4.5 ± 1.1 min and 4.2 ± 1.6 min (CPMM). The immobilizing ED50 infusion rates were (mean ± SD) 0.19 ± 0.03 mg/kg·min (etomidate), 0.60 ± 0.12 mg/kg·min (DMMM), and 0.89 ± 0.18 mg/kg·min (CPMM). Conclusions Electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries following prolonged infusions of DMMM and CPMM are faster than those following methoxycarbonyl etomidate or etomidate. In the case of CPMM infusion, recovery times are 4 min and context-insensitive. PMID:22929726

  13. Influence of self-induced hypnosis on thermal responses during immersion in 25 degrees C water.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, K D; Doubt, T J; Gravitz, M A

    1992-08-01

    The efficacy of self-induced post-hypnotic suggestion to improve thermogenic responses to head-out immersion in 25 degrees C water was evaluated in 12 males. An on-line computerized system permitted the change in body heat storage to be used as the independent variable and immersion time as the dependent variable. Test-retest reliability was good, exhibiting a coefficient of variation of less than 5% for exposure time. Immersion profiles consisted of the following: rest until 200 kJ of heat were lost, leg exercise at VO2 approximately 1.5 L.min-1 to regain 200 kJ, rest until 100 kJ were lost, and repeat the exercise to regain 100 kJ. A control immersion was done prior to two 1-h hypnotic training sessions. A second immersion (hypnotic) occurred within 24 h after training. There were no differences in rates of heat production, heat loss, mean skin temperature, or rectal temperature between control and hypnotic immersions. Individual hypnotic susceptibility scores did not correlate with changes in thermal status. Ratings of perceived exertion during exercise were similar for both immersions, but perceived sensation of cold was lower during the second rest period of the hypnotic immersion. Three subjects used images of warm environments during their hypnotic immersion and lost heat at a faster rate than during control immersions. These results indicate that brief hypnotic training did not enhance the thermogenic response to cool water immersion.

  14. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain.

  15. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  16. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain.

  17. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  18. Treatment outcome expectancies and hypnotic susceptibility as moderators of pain reduction in patients with chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, P; ter Kuile, M M

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hypnotic susceptibility (a) predicts pain reduction posttreatment and at follow-up independent of generic expectations of treatment outcome and mode of treatment and (b) predicts persistence of pain reduction during the follow-up period. In 169 patients with chronic tension-type headaches randomly allocated to either self-hypnosis or autogenic training, pain reduction posttreatment and at follow-up was significantly associated with hypnotic susceptibility independent of generic expectations of treatment outcome and treatment condition. Moreover, it was found that early responders obtained significantly higher hypnotic susceptibility scores than nonresponders, although there were no significant differences in hypnotic susceptibility between late responders in comparison to early and nonresponders. However, almost one fourth of those who were nonresponders posttreatment did respond at follow-up.

  19. The Impact of Hypnotic Suggestions on Reaction Times in Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25962151

  20. Insomnia and hypnotic medications are associated with suicidal ideation in a community population.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Woosley, Julie A; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal ideation (SI), a significant predictor of suicide, is associated with sleep disturbance, which is seldom assessed using stringent diagnostic criteria and validated sleep instruments in community samples. Cross-sectional data, including sleep diaries and validated instruments, from 767 community adults were used to identify variables associated with SI and subsequently entered into a regression model to predict SI. Suicidal ideation was endorsed by 9.3% of the sample. This group differed from non-ideators on several variables, but only insomnia diagnosis, depression severity, and hypnotic medication use predicted SI. Findings confirm an association of insomnia with SI using stringent criteria and controlling for depression. If treating insomnia is a conceivable pathway to reduce SI, the apparent risk posed by hypnotics may limit treatment options. PMID:24620814

  1. Belgian norms for the Waterloo-Stanford Group C (WSGC) Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    de Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A Magalhães; Davy, Thomas; Cleeremans, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Belgian norms of the Waterloo-Stanford Group C Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (WSGC) are presented. A French translation of the WSGC was administered to 150 Belgium college students between October and December 2009. Belgium has 2 main linguistic groups, Dutch and French speakers. The present translation was conceived for all French-speaking populations. Score distribution, item analysis, and reliability of the WSGC are presented and compared to the normative sample of the WSGC. The results were also compared with 2 North American norms (University of Connecticut and Seton Hall University) and a Portuguese (translated) norm. The findings show that normative data from the French (Belgium) sample are in line with the reference samples. The only significant difference was the lower proportion of participants scoring within the high range of hypnotic suggestibility on the WSGC.

  2. [Anxiolytic agents and hypnotic drugs in Bretagne. Pharmaco-epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J M; Allain, H; Martinet, J P; Beneton, C; Reymann, J M; Decombe, R

    1991-01-01

    A pharmacoepidemiological survey was carried out in a rural region of France (Brittany) with the help of 54 general practitioners, all of whom belong to a clinical research group. The aim of the survey was 3-fold: to determine the frequency (incidence and prevalence) of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions, the sociological characteristics of these drug consumers, and the indications and reasons for prescribing this class of drugs. The population of hypnotic drug and sedative consumers was strikingly dominated by women, 60 years old and over, retired or without a profession. Prescription analysis revealed that these drugs were essentially benzodiazepines whose prevalence and incidence were 17 and 1.76%, respectively. A high frequency of prescription renewals (78%) and an elevated percentage of long-term treatments (more than 9 years) were also noted. Insomnia and dependence are the two main "risk factors" for drug treatments lasting more than one year.

  3. Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Költő, András; Gősi-Greguss, Anna C; Varga, Katalin; Bányai, Éva I

    2015-01-01

    Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) are presented. The Hungarian translation of the HGSHS:A was administered under standard conditions to 434 participants (190 males, 244 females) of several professions. In addition to the traditional self-scoring, hypnotic behavior was also recorded by trained observers. Female participants proved to be more hypnotizable than males and so were psychology students and professionals as compared to nonpsychologists. Hypnotizability varied across different group sizes. The normative data-including means, standard deviations, and indicators of reliability-are comparable with previously published results. The authors conclude that measuring observer-scores increases the ecological validity of the scale. The Hungarian version of the HGSHS:A seems to be a reliable and valid measure of hypnotizability.

  4. Anxiety Reduction Among Breast-Cancer Survivors Receiving Hypnotic Relaxation Therapy for Hot Flashes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alisa J; Marcus, Joel; Hickman, Kimberly; Barton, Debra; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common among breast-cancer survivors. This analysis examined the effect of a hypnotic relaxation therapy, developed to reduce hot flashes, on anxiety levels of female breast-cancer survivors. Anxiety was assessed using a numeric analog scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale. Significant reductions in anxiety were found from pre- to postintervention for each weekly session and were predictive of overall reductions in anxiety from baseline to after the last intervention. In this analysis, hypnotizability did not significantly predict for anxiety reductions measured before and after each session or from baseline to exit. These data provide initial support for the use of hypnotic relaxation therapy to reduce anxiety among breast-cancer survivors.

  5. Anxiety Reduction Among Breast-Cancer Survivors Receiving Hypnotic Relaxation Therapy for Hot Flashes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alisa J; Marcus, Joel; Hickman, Kimberly; Barton, Debra; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common among breast-cancer survivors. This analysis examined the effect of a hypnotic relaxation therapy, developed to reduce hot flashes, on anxiety levels of female breast-cancer survivors. Anxiety was assessed using a numeric analog scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale. Significant reductions in anxiety were found from pre- to postintervention for each weekly session and were predictive of overall reductions in anxiety from baseline to after the last intervention. In this analysis, hypnotizability did not significantly predict for anxiety reductions measured before and after each session or from baseline to exit. These data provide initial support for the use of hypnotic relaxation therapy to reduce anxiety among breast-cancer survivors. PMID:27585723

  6. The neural correlates of movement intentions: A pilot study comparing hypnotic and simulated paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Seitz, Jochen; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Höse, Annett; Abler, Birgit; Hole, Günter; Goebel, Rainer; Walter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    The distinct feeling of wanting to act and thereby causing our own actions is crucial to our self-perception as free human agents. Disturbances of the link between intention and action occur in several disorders. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of wanting or intending to act. To investigate these for simple voluntary movements, we used a paradigm involving hypnotic paralysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy women were instructed to sequentially perform left and right hand movements during a normal condition, as well as during simulated weakness, simulated paralysis and hypnotic paralysis of the right hand. Right frontopolar cortex was selectively hypoactivated for attempted right hand movement during simulated paralysis while it was active in all other conditions. Since simulated paralysis was the only condition lacking an intention to move, the activation in frontopolar cortex might be related to the intention or volition to move. PMID:26036837

  7. Effects of a Hypnotic Induction and an Unpleasantness-Focused Analgesia Suggestion on Pain Catastrophizing to an Experimental Heat Stimulus: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tomonori; Nakae, Aya; Sasaki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing is associated with greater levels of pain. While many studies support the efficacy of hypnosis for pain, the effect on pain catastrophizing remains unclear. The present study evaluated the effect of hypnosis on pain catastrophizing using experimental heat stimulation. Twenty-two pain patients engaged in 3 conditions: baseline (no suggestion), hypnotic induction, and hypnotic induction plus analgesia suggestion. Participants with higher baseline pain showed a significant reduction in rumination following hypnotic induction plus analgesia suggestion and significant reductions in pain due to both the hypnotic induction alone and the hypnotic induction plus analgesia suggestion. The findings suggest that unpleasantness-focused hypnotic analgesia reduces pain via its effect on the rumination component of pain catastrophizing. PMID:27585727

  8. [Impacts of the new flunitrazepam regulations on the consumption of hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Basset, Gilles; Bourin, Michel; Jolliet, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    The frequent misuse of flunitrazepam has led the French drug agency (AFSSAPS [Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des produits de santé]) to subject this agent to the regulatory regime for drugs known to produce dependency; this drug may now be prescribed for no more than 14 days, is available only on an "ordonnance sécurisée" (prescribing and dispensing subject to stupefacient regulations), and pharmacists must dispense no more than 7 days' supply. We identified, in a French medical-care database, 738 patients who had received at least one flunitrazepam prescription in January 2001, and monitored the hypnotics delivered to this cohort over a period of 8 months. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had replaced flunitrazepam by another hypnotic without any further change. The most surprising result of our survey was the discovery that nearly half of the selected patients stopped using hypnotics during the review period. Although many hypotheses can be offered to account for this phenomenon, it seems that many consumers halted their consumption of flunitrazepam as a result of the new regulatory regime.

  9. An Intersubjective View of Empathy and Hypnotic Trance: Response to Wickramasekera II.

    PubMed

    Henning, Janna A

    2016-01-01

    In response to Wickramasekera II's description of his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis in "Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy" (Wickramasekera II, 2015), Henning offers further reflections on what empathy might be and what it allows therapists to do, particularly in conditions of hypnotic trance. She defines her intersubjective view of hypnotic trance as an experience in which client and therapist mutually engage in a shared state of consciousness, and a mutual bidirectional or multidirectional exchange of verbal and nonverbal, as well as conscious and unconscious, material occurs, and which may include shared taking on of roles and expectations in each party, as suggested by the other, particularly when both client and therapist are highly hypnotizable. Research on the concept of "mutual hypnosis," or co-trance, is reviewed, and barriers to scholarly discussions about intersubjectivity in therapy relationships are described. Concepts from other disciplines and traditions, including quantum physics, transpersonal psychology, contemplative Christianity, and shamanistic practices and trance in other cultures are then offered to clarify the processes of intersubjectivity, and perspectives about empathy and hypnotic co-trance are offered from the context of the author's own clinical work as a trauma therapist. Finally, suggestions are provided for future research approaches and methods to further explore and understand these phenomena.

  10. Nuances and Uncertainties Regarding Hypnotic Inductions: Toward a Theoretically Informed Praxis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin B; Cardeña, Etzel

    2016-10-01

    Although most definitions of hypnosis consider inductions as the initial stage in a hypnosis protocol, knowledge of inductions remains poor and uninformed by recent developments in theory and research. It is frequently argued that inductions play a critical role in hypnotic responding or, by contrast, are largely interchangeable and unimportant. Drawing on the literature on suggestibility, spontaneous phenomenology, neurophysiology, and cognition, this article argues that the value of inductions, as well as the potential value of inductions, is more nuanced and uncertain. Certain components of standard inductions appear to be efficacious in enhancing suggestibility, whereas others do not have any clear benefits. The impact of inductions on suggestibility seems to vary across suggestions and modes of assessment with the sources of this variability being unknown. Considering these effects, and the broader impact of inductions on spontaneous conscious states and cognition, through the lens of heterogeneity in high hypnotic suggestibility and componential models of hypnotic suggestibility may offer novel research avenues in this area. The article concludes by arguing for the practical and theory-driven optimization of inductions. PMID:27586045

  11. Effects of hypnosis on regional cerebral blood flow during ischemic pain with and without suggested hypnotic analgesia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H J; Gur, R C; Skolnick, B; Gur, R E; Benson, D M

    1993-11-01

    Using 133Xe regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging, two male groups having high and low hypnotic susceptibility were compared in waking and after hypnotic induction, while at rest and while experiencing ischemic pain to both arms under two conditions: attend to pain and suggested analgesia. Differences between low and highly-hypnotizable persons were observed during all hypnosis conditions: only highly-hypnotizable persons showed a significant increase in overall CBF, suggesting that hypnosis requires cognitive effort. As anticipated, ischemic pain produced CBF increases in the somatosensory region. Of major theoretical interest is a highly-significant bilateral CBF activation of the orbito-frontal cortex in the highly-hypnotizable group only during hypnotic analgesia. During hypnotic analgesia, highly-hypnotizable persons showed CBF increase over the somatosensory cortex, while low-hypnotizable persons showed decreases. Research is supportive of a neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis (Crawford, 1991; Crawford and Gruzelier, 1992) and suggests that hypnotic analgesia involves the supervisory, attentional control system of the far-frontal cortex in a topographically specific inhibitory feedback circuit that cooperates in the regulation of thalamocortical activities. PMID:8166843

  12. Hypnotic medication in the treatment of chronic insomnia: non nocere! Doesn't anyone care?

    PubMed

    Kramer, Milton

    2000-12-01

    Chronic primary insomnia is a recurrent condition that negatively effects the daily functioning of patients, diminishing the quality of their lives. It is associated with, and in some situations, is a risk factor in both psychiatric (depression) and physical (cardiovascular) illness. Treatment effectiveness has been shown in the short term for both drug (benzodiazepine and benzodiazepine agonists) and behavioral treatment. Expert opinion has strongly advised against long-term drug treatment because of concerns about residual sedative effects, memory impairment, falls, respiratory depression, rebound insomnia, medication abuse, dose escalation, dependency and withdrawal difficulties, and an increased risk of death possibly associated with the current hypnotic medications. Many of these concerns could be made against using these agents at all. Worries about these potential problems are challenged by the widespread clinical practice of using hypnotic drugs long-term without any of these difficulties developing and with patients who feel their sleep and daily function function is improved with the nightly use of their sleeping pill. The ability to mount a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double-blind trial of hypnotic medication in primary insomnia may not be possible. We may have to develop large systematic clinical databases, a number of case series in effect, to monitor both emergent symptoms and possible clinical effectiveness. There is the additional concern that there is a reluctance to examine the long-term drug treatment of insomnia. This reluctance may reflect a negative moral judgement about treating primary insomnia with drugs, a sort of , rather than just a data based judiciousness. PMID:12531035

  13. Dissection of the Factors Driving the Placebo Effect in Hypnotic Treatment of Depressed Insomniacs

    PubMed Central

    McCall, W. Vaughn; D’Agostino, Ralph; Rosenquist, Peter B.; Kimball, James; Boggs, Niki; Lasater, Barbara; Blocker, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our prior work has shown that there is improvement in self-reported sleep in persons receiving placebo in hypnotic clinical trials. We examined the components of the ‘placebo response’ in a hypnotic clinical trial. Methods This was an exploratory analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of eszopiclone versus placebo in the treatment of persons with depression and insomnia who were also receiving fluoxetine at a clinic of a teaching hospital. Sixty adults with both depression and insomnia symptoms, who were free of significant primary sleep disorders, received open-label fluoxetine for 9 weeks. Patients were further randomized 1:1 to receive either masked eszopiclone 3 mg or placebo at bedtime after the first week of fluoxetine. We examined the respective contributions of three factors associated with the “placebo effect”: (1) regression to the mean, (2) expectancy, and (3) social desirability. Results There was evidence for regression to the mean for the continuous measurement of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. There was evidence for expectancy in self-reported Wake After Sleep Onset, continuous measurement of ISI, and dichotomous remission/non-remitter measurement of ISI. There was evidence of social desirability affecting self-reported Total Sleep Time. Conclusions Factors that have been associated with the “placebo effect” are operating in hypnotic clinical trials. However, the role of each factor differs depending upon which self-reported variable is being considered. The findings have implications for clinical trial design in insomnia. PMID:21601519

  14. Hypnotic medication in the treatment of chronic insomnia: non nocere! Doesn't anyone care?

    PubMed

    Kramer, Milton

    2000-12-01

    Chronic primary insomnia is a recurrent condition that negatively effects the daily functioning of patients, diminishing the quality of their lives. It is associated with, and in some situations, is a risk factor in both psychiatric (depression) and physical (cardiovascular) illness. Treatment effectiveness has been shown in the short term for both drug (benzodiazepine and benzodiazepine agonists) and behavioral treatment. Expert opinion has strongly advised against long-term drug treatment because of concerns about residual sedative effects, memory impairment, falls, respiratory depression, rebound insomnia, medication abuse, dose escalation, dependency and withdrawal difficulties, and an increased risk of death possibly associated with the current hypnotic medications. Many of these concerns could be made against using these agents at all. Worries about these potential problems are challenged by the widespread clinical practice of using hypnotic drugs long-term without any of these difficulties developing and with patients who feel their sleep and daily function function is improved with the nightly use of their sleeping pill. The ability to mount a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double-blind trial of hypnotic medication in primary insomnia may not be possible. We may have to develop large systematic clinical databases, a number of case series in effect, to monitor both emergent symptoms and possible clinical effectiveness. There is the additional concern that there is a reluctance to examine the long-term drug treatment of insomnia. This reluctance may reflect a negative moral judgement about treating primary insomnia with drugs, a sort of , rather than just a data based judiciousness.

  15. A single dose of hypnotic corrects sleep and EEG abnormalities in symptomatic Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities are prominent early features of Huntington's disease (HD) that typically appear before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms. The changes in sleep and electroencephalogram seen in HD patients are largely recapitulated in mouse models of HD such as transgenic R6/2 lines. To test whether or not drugs with hypnotic properties can correct the sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities seen in HD mice, we treated male wild-type (WT; N = 7) and R6/2 mice (N = 9) acutely with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, zolpidem (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or amitriptyline (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), and then monitored their sleep-wake behavior. In R6/2 mice, both zolpidem and amitriptyline suppressed the abnormally high REM sleep amount and electroencephalographic gamma (30-46 Hz) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Amitriptyline's effect on sleep was similar in both genotypes, whereas zolpidem showed significant genotype differences. Zolpidem exerted a strong hypnotic effect in WT mice by increasing electroencephalographic delta power, doubling the mean bout duration and the total amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, no such effect was seen in R6/2 mice. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiological changes seen in sleep and electroencephalogram are not 'hard-wired' in HD brain and can be reversed even at late stages of the disease. The diminished hypnotic effect of zolpidem suggests that the GABAergic control of sleep-wake states is impaired in HD mice. A better understanding of the neurochemical basis underlying these abnormalities should lead to more effective and rational therapies for HD. PMID:26805423

  16. Increased response time of primed associates following an "episodic" hypnotic amnesia suggestion: a case of unconscious volition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caleb Henry; Oakley, David A; Morton, John

    2013-12-01

    Following a hypnotic amnesia suggestion, highly hypnotically suggestible subjects may experience amnesia for events. Is there a failure to retrieve the material concerned from autobiographical (episodic) memory, or is it retrieved but blocked from consciousness? Highly hypnotically suggestible subjects produced free-associates to a list of concrete nouns. They were then given an amnesia suggestion for that episode followed by another free association list, which included 15 critical words that had been previously presented. If episodic retrieval for the first trial had been blocked, the responses on the second trial should still have been at least as fast as for the first trial. With semantic priming, they should be faster. In fact, they were on average half a second slower. This suggests that the material had been retrieved but blocked from consciousness. A goal-oriented information processing framework is outlined to interpret these and related data.

  17. Hypnotizability and opinions about hypnosis in a clinical trial for the hypnotic control of pain and anxiety during pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Alexandra; Rainville, Pierre; Dodin, Sylvie; Barré, Patrick; Masse, Benoît; Verreault, René; Marc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study evaluates the hypnoanalgesic experience's effect on participants' hypnotizability and opinions about hypnosis and identifies factors associated with hypnotizability. Hypnotizability was assessed using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form A in 290 women 1 month after their participation in a randomized clinical trial evaluating hypnotic intervention for pain/anxiety versus standard care during pregnancy termination. Opinions were collected before and after the intervention. The regression model describing hypnotizability (F = 13.55; p < .0001; R(2) = 0.20) retained 5 variables but not the intervention group. The variable explaining most of total variance (62.9%) was the level of perceived automaticity/involuntariness. Opinions about hypnosis were modified by the hypnotic experience compared to standard care but were not associated with hypnotizability. Exposure to hypnoanalgesia did not influence hypnotizability but modifies significantly the opinions about hypnosis. Consistent with previous findings, perceived automaticity appears to best predict hypnotizability. PMID:20183740

  18. Observed differences in learning ability of heart rate self-regulation as a function of hypnotic susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of eight male and female subjects (aged 20-27 yr) categorized by low and high hypnotic susceptibility were taught to control their heart rates by means of an appropriate autogenic therapy/biofeedback technique. The experimental groups were trained by autogenic therapy and biofeedback, while the control group received only biofeedback. Significant differences are observed in all psychological test scores between subjects of high and low hypnotic susceptibility. The results confirm that (1) there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the performance of individuals with high and low hypnotic susceptibility; (2) interindividual-variability tests yield data relevant to individual performance in visceral learning tasks; (3) the combined autogenic therapy/biofeedback/verbal feedback technique is suitable for conditioning large stable autonomic responses in humans; and (4) this kind of conditioning is effective in eliminating or alleviating physiological reactions to some environmental stressors.

  19. Functional sites involved in modulation of the GABAA receptor channel by the intravenous anesthetics propofol, etomidate and pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Maldifassi, Maria C; Baur, Roland; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptors are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are the target for many clinically important drugs. Among the many modulatory compounds are also the intravenous anesthetics propofol and etomidate, and barbiturates. The mechanism of receptor modulation by these compounds is of mayor relevance. The site of action of these compounds has been located to subunit interfaces in the intra-membrane region of the receptor. In α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors there are five such interfaces, two β+/α- and one each of α+/β-, α+/γ- and γ+/β- subunit interfaces. We have used reporter mutations located in the second trans-membrane region in different subunits to probe the effects of changes at these subunit interfaces on modulation by propofol, etomidate and pentobarbital. We provide evidence for the fact that each of these compounds either modulates through a different set of subunit interfaces or through the same set of subunit interfaces to a different degree. As a GABAA receptor pentamer harbors two β+/α- subunit interfaces, we used concatenated receptors to dissect the contribution of individual interfaces and show that only one of these interfaces is important for receptor modulation by etomidate. PMID:26767954

  20. Influence of sodium pentobarbital on pH, sarcomere length, and muscle tenderness of broiler Pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, J P; Papa, C M; Fletcher, D L

    1989-02-01

    Six trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium pentobarbital (SP) anesthesia on broiler muscle pH, sarcomere length, and Allo-Kramer shear values. Birds were divided into six groups, three of which were anesthetized with SP prior to slaughter. Birds from both the anesthetized and nonanesthetized groups were subjected to one of three processing treatments: 1) muscles hot boned as soon as possible after death and immediately analyzed (HB/0); 2) muscles hot boned and aged 24 h in ice/water slush (HB/24); and 3) muscles left on carcass (conventional process) and aged 24 h in ice/water slush (CP/24) before deboning. The SP/HB/0 group was found to have significantly higher (P less than .05) pH values and longer sarcomere lengths than those of the other five treatment groups. No significant differences were observed for pH among the four 24-h aged groups. Sarcomere lengths were found to be shortest in the SP/HB/24 and HB/24 groups followed by SP/CP/24, HB/0, and CP/24 groups. The CP/24 and SP/CP/24 groups had the lowest shear values, with the HB/0, HB/24, and SP/HB/24 groups exhibiting three-fold higher shear values. These results indicate that SP can delay the effects of ante-mortem stress on early rigor processes; however, no such effects were apparent following 24-h aging. PMID:2704679

  1. The use of hypnotic age progressions as interventions with acute psychosomatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Frederick, C; Phillips, M

    1992-10-01

    Patients with the physical manifestations and physiological disturbances engendered by serious psychosomatic conditions often present with special needs in therapy. On a conscious level, these patients may have pessimistic views of the future, including the specter of imminent death, which, for some, is a real possibility. In this paper we review four clinical cases in which hypnotic age progressions reveal the patients' deepest positive hopes for survival and serve as ego-strengthening, integrating, and prognostic tools in the face of ominous symptoms of physical distress.

  2. Phenyl acetate derivatives, fluorine-substituted on the phenyl group, as rapid recovery hypnotic agents with reflex depression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of novel, potentially hypnotic fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives. We describe the structure-activity relationship that led us to the promising derivative: ethyl 2-(4-(2-(diethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy)-5-ethoxy-2-fluorophenyl) acetate (55). The unique pharmacological features of compound 55 are its relatively high affinity for the GABAA receptor, together with a unique affinity for the NMDA receptor, different to propanidid and AZD3043. In animal models, compound 55 showed stronger hypnotic potency and longer duration of LORR than propanidid and AZD3043, but also maintained a rapid recovery time to walking and behavioral recovery. In particular, compound 55 displayed reflex depression during infusion.

  3. Perceiving Time Differences When You Should Not: Applying the El Greco Fallacy to Hypnotic Time Distortions

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jean-Rémy; Sackur, Jérôme; Anlló, Hernan; Naish, Peter; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The way we experience and estimate time – subjective time – does not systematically correspond to objective time (the physical duration of an event). Many factors can influence subjective time and lead to mental dilation or compression of objective time. The emotional valence of stimuli or the levels of attention or expectancy are known to modulate subjective time even though objective time is constant. Hypnosis too is known to alter people’s perception of time. However, it is not known whether hypnotic time distortions are intrinsic perceptual effects, based for example on the changing rate of an internal clock, or rather the result of a response to demand characteristics. Here we distinguished the theories using the logic of the El Greco fallacy. When participants initially had to compare the duration of two successive events —with the same duration — while in “trance,” they responded that the second event was on average longer than the first event. As both events were estimated in “trance,” if hypnosis had impacted on an internal clock, they should have been affected to the same extent. Conversely, when only the first event was in “trance,” there was no difference in perceived duration. The findings conform to an El Greco fallacy effect and challenge theories of hypnotic time distortion arguing that “trance” itself changes subjective time. PMID:27625623

  4. Talking to the senses: modulation of tactile extinction through hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Maravita, Angelo; Cigada, Mario; Posteraro, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Following brain damage, typically of the right hemisphere, patients can show reduced awareness of sensory events occurring in the space contralateral to the brain damage. The present work shows that a hypnotic suggestion can temporarily reduce tactile extinction to double bilateral stimulation, i.e., a loss of contralesional stimuli when these are presented together with ipsilesional ones. Patient EB showed an improved detection of contralesional targets after a single 20-min hypnosis session, during which specific suggestions were delivered with the aim of increasing her insight into somatosensory perception on both sides of the body. Simple overt attention orienting toward the contralesional side, or a hypnotic induction procedure not accompanied by specifically aimed suggestions, were not effective in modulating extinction. The present result is the first systematic evidence that hypnosis can temporarily improve a neuropsychological condition, namely Extinction, and may open the way for the use of this technique as a fruitful rehabilitative tool for brain-damaged patients affected by neuropsychological deficits.

  5. Perceiving Time Differences When You Should Not: Applying the El Greco Fallacy to Hypnotic Time Distortions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Rémy; Sackur, Jérôme; Anlló, Hernan; Naish, Peter; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The way we experience and estimate time - subjective time - does not systematically correspond to objective time (the physical duration of an event). Many factors can influence subjective time and lead to mental dilation or compression of objective time. The emotional valence of stimuli or the levels of attention or expectancy are known to modulate subjective time even though objective time is constant. Hypnosis too is known to alter people's perception of time. However, it is not known whether hypnotic time distortions are intrinsic perceptual effects, based for example on the changing rate of an internal clock, or rather the result of a response to demand characteristics. Here we distinguished the theories using the logic of the El Greco fallacy. When participants initially had to compare the duration of two successive events -with the same duration - while in "trance," they responded that the second event was on average longer than the first event. As both events were estimated in "trance," if hypnosis had impacted on an internal clock, they should have been affected to the same extent. Conversely, when only the first event was in "trance," there was no difference in perceived duration. The findings conform to an El Greco fallacy effect and challenge theories of hypnotic time distortion arguing that "trance" itself changes subjective time. PMID:27625623

  6. Classes of multichannel EEG microstates in light and deep hypnotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hitoshi; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Isotani, Toshiaki; Faber, Pascal L; Sasada, Kyohei; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The study assessed the brain electric mechanisms of light and deep hypnotic conditions in the framework of EEG temporal microstates. Multichannel EEG of healthy volunteers during initial resting, light hypnosis, deep hypnosis, and eventual recovery was analyzed into temporal EEG microstates of four classes. Microstates are defined by the spatial configuration of their potential distribution maps ([Symbol: see text]potential landscapes') on the head surface. Because different potential landscapes must have been generated by different active neural assemblies, it is reasonable to assume that they also incorporate different brain functions. The observed four microstate classes were very similar to the four standard microstate classes A, B, C, D [Koenig, T. et al. Neuroimage, 2002;16: 41-8] and were labeled correspondingly. We expected a progression of microstate characteristics from initial resting to light to deep hypnosis. But, all three microstate parameters (duration, occurrence/second and %time coverage) yielded values for initial resting and final recovery that were between those of the two hypnotic conditions of light and deep hypnosis. Microstates of the classes B and D showed decreased duration, occurrence/second and %time coverage in deep hypnosis compared to light hypnosis; this was contrary to microstates of classes A and C which showed increased values of all three parameters. Reviewing the available information about microstates in other conditions, the changes from resting to light hypnosis in certain respects are reminiscent of changes to meditation states, and changes to deep hypnosis of those in schizophrenic states.

  7. Sedative-Hypnotic Use in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Plante, David T.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common, yet poorly understood, phenomenon in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We examined the use of sedative-hypnotic medication in BPD, as part of a larger naturalistic study. In comparison to other personality disorder (OPD) comparison subjects, a significantly higher percentage of BPD subjects than OPD subjects used both as needed (prn) and standing medications to help them sleep. Specifically, over the course of the study, BPD subjects were approximately 4 times more likely to have used prn (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 2.22–8.22) and standing sleeping medications (OR = 3.81, 95% CI: 1.88–7.72). When adjusted for differences in depression, anxiety, and age among BPD and OPD subjects, BPD subjects were approximately 3 times more likely to have used prn (adjusted OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.73–6.61) and standing sleeping medications (adjusted OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.33–5.95). These results indicate that sedative-hypnotic use is greater among BPD than OPD subjects. They also confirm clinical observations that subjective sleep disturbance is a significant problem in BPD. PMID:20001175

  8. Sedative-hypnotic Effect of Ash of Silver in Mice: A Reverse Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Inder, Deep; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Ash of silver is used in traditional systems of medicine for various neurological conditions like insomnias, neuralgias, anxiety disorders, and convulsions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic activity of ash of silver in comparison to pentobarbitone (standard drug) in albino mice. The mice were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (control): Gum acacia [GA; 1% per os (p.o.)], group 2 (standard): Pentobarbitone [50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)], group 3 (test): Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.), and group 4: Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.) given 30 min prior to administration of pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg i.p.). Time of onset, recovery, and total duration of loss of righting reflex were studied. Ash of silver (test) produced significant sedation (P < 0.01) compared to control (GA 1%), but the effect was significantly less compared to that of standard pentobarbitone at the doses used. Also, significant potentiation (P < 0.001) of the sedative-hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone was observed with the test drug. PMID:25379470

  9. Talking to the senses: modulation of tactile extinction through hypnotic suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Maravita, Angelo; Cigada, Mario; Posteraro, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Following brain damage, typically of the right hemisphere, patients can show reduced awareness of sensory events occurring in the space contralateral to the brain damage. The present work shows that a hypnotic suggestion can temporarily reduce tactile extinction to double bilateral stimulation, i.e., a loss of contralesional stimuli when these are presented together with ipsilesional ones. Patient EB showed an improved detection of contralesional targets after a single 20-min hypnosis session, during which specific suggestions were delivered with the aim of increasing her insight into somatosensory perception on both sides of the body. Simple overt attention orienting toward the contralesional side, or a hypnotic induction procedure not accompanied by specifically aimed suggestions, were not effective in modulating extinction. The present result is the first systematic evidence that hypnosis can temporarily improve a neuropsychological condition, namely Extinction, and may open the way for the use of this technique as a fruitful rehabilitative tool for brain-damaged patients affected by neuropsychological deficits. PMID:22822395

  10. The interaction of age, performance and hypnotics in the sleep of insomniacs.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M H; Kramer, M

    1981-11-01

    Scant attention has been paid to the objective evaluation of insomnia as a function of age, particularly with reference to increased drug sensitivity and resulting loss in balance performance. Therefore, the electroencephalographic sleep and the balance-board performance of 10 young and 12 geriatric insomniacs were studied under baseline and hypnotic drug (ketazolam) conditions. In terms of objectively measured sleep, the geriatric insomniacs had worse sleep on every dimension except sleep latency and percentage of stage-2 sleep. These differences between aged and young insomniacs, however, were no greater than might be expected as a function of normal aging. Drug-age interactions indicated that ketazolam differentially increased sleep efficiency, decreased the percentage of REM sleep, and eliminated any learning improvement on the balance board in geriatric versus young insomniacs. The findings indicate that the geriatric subjects were more sensitive to the hypnotic drug, in that their sleep improved to a greater extent. However, an important loss in balance performance was also observed.

  11. Perceiving Time Differences When You Should Not: Applying the El Greco Fallacy to Hypnotic Time Distortions

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jean-Rémy; Sackur, Jérôme; Anlló, Hernan; Naish, Peter; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The way we experience and estimate time – subjective time – does not systematically correspond to objective time (the physical duration of an event). Many factors can influence subjective time and lead to mental dilation or compression of objective time. The emotional valence of stimuli or the levels of attention or expectancy are known to modulate subjective time even though objective time is constant. Hypnosis too is known to alter people’s perception of time. However, it is not known whether hypnotic time distortions are intrinsic perceptual effects, based for example on the changing rate of an internal clock, or rather the result of a response to demand characteristics. Here we distinguished the theories using the logic of the El Greco fallacy. When participants initially had to compare the duration of two successive events —with the same duration — while in “trance,” they responded that the second event was on average longer than the first event. As both events were estimated in “trance,” if hypnosis had impacted on an internal clock, they should have been affected to the same extent. Conversely, when only the first event was in “trance,” there was no difference in perceived duration. The findings conform to an El Greco fallacy effect and challenge theories of hypnotic time distortion arguing that “trance” itself changes subjective time.

  12. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A

    2013-03-01

    The continuous two-bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and FVB/NJ×C57BL/6JF1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16-18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism.

  13. Hypnotic Seminar.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    In this transcription of a lecture given in 2000, Jay Haley begins by answering the question, "What is hypnosis?"  Haley reviews the circumstances of Gregory Bateson encouraging him to meet with Milton Erickson to discuss the history of hypnosis and the paradoxical nature of trance induction. Haley expresses many original thoughts about multiple personalities, regression to past lives, and how to handle memories that historically may be false. Sophisticated and subtle, this is Haley at his best.

  14. Hypnotic Seminar.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    In this transcription of a lecture given in 2000, Jay Haley begins by answering the question, "What is hypnosis?"  Haley reviews the circumstances of Gregory Bateson encouraging him to meet with Milton Erickson to discuss the history of hypnosis and the paradoxical nature of trance induction. Haley expresses many original thoughts about multiple personalities, regression to past lives, and how to handle memories that historically may be false. Sophisticated and subtle, this is Haley at his best. PMID:26305134

  15. Changes in ventral respiratory column GABAaR ε- and δ-subunits during hibernation mediate resistance to depression by EtOH and pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Hengen, K B; Gomez, T M; Stang, K M; Johnson, S M; Behan, M

    2011-02-01

    During hibernation in the 13-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, the cerebral cortex is electrically silent, yet the brainstem continues to regulate cardiorespiratory function. Previous work showed that neurons in slices through the medullary ventral respiratory column (VRC) but not the cortex are insensitive to high doses of pentobarbital during hibernation, leading to the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) in the VRC undergo a seasonal modification in subunit composition. To test whether alteration of GABA(A)R subunits are responsible for hibernation-associated pentobarbital insensitivity, we examined an array of subunits using RT-PCR and Western blots and identified changes in ε- and δ-subunits in the medulla but not the cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that during hibernation, the expression of ε-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs nearly doubles in the VRC. We also identified a population of δ-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs adjacent to the VRC that were differentially expressed during hibernation. As δ-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs are particularly sensitive to ethanol (EtOH), multichannel electrodes were inserted in slices of medulla and cortex from hibernating squirrels and EtOH was applied. EtOH, which normally inhibits neuronal activity, excited VRC but not cortical neurons during hibernation. This excitation was prevented by bicuculline pretreatment, indicating the involvement of GABA(A)Rs. We propose that neuronal activity in the VRC during hibernation is unaffected by pentobarbital due to upregulation of ε-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs on VRC neurons. Synaptic input from adjacent inhibitory interneurons that express δ-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs is responsible for the excitatory effects of EtOH on VRC neurons during hibernation.

  16. Method for screening and quantitative determination of serum levels of salicylic Acid, acetaminophen, theophylline, phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, and amobarbital using liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasushi; Fujisawa, Manami; Shimada, Kenji; Hirose, Yasuo; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated a method for the simultaneous screening, identification, and quantitative determination of salicylic acid, acetaminophen, theophylline, barbiturates, and bromvalerylurea, drugs that frequently cause acute poisoning in Japan and therefore require rapid analysis for effective treatment in the clinical setting. The method employs liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS) of solid-phase extracted serum samples. For LC/MS ionization, the electrospray-ionization method was used, with acetaminophen in the positive-ion mode, and salicylic acid, theophylline, phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, amobarbital, and o-acetamidophenol (internal standard) in the negative-ion mode, the base ions were used in each case for quantitative analysis. Quantitation was possible for the following sample concentration ranges: salicylic acid and acetaminophen, 100 to 5 microg/ml; theophylline, 100 to 0.5 microg/ml; and phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, and amobarbital, 100 to 1 microg/ml. Using full-scan mass spectrometry, the lower detection limits of 1 microg/ml for salicylic acid and acetaminophen, 0.1 microg/ml for theophylline, and 0.5 microg/ml for phenobarbital, bromvalerylurea, pentobarbital, and amobarbital were adequate for identifying acute poisoning. When each compound was added to serum to a final concentration of 5 microg/ml and solid-phase extraction was performed using Oasis HLB 1-cc (30-mg), the mean recovery rate of each compound was 89.2 to 96.1% (n=5), and the coefficients of variation of the intraday and interday assays were 3.55 to 6.05% (n=5) and 3.68 to 6.38% (n=5), respectively, which are acceptable. When this method of analysis was applied in testing the sera of a female patient who had consumed a large amount of an unknown commercial drug, salicylic acid and bromvalerylurea were identified, and the treatment strategy could be determined in accordance with the serum concentration of those drugs.

  17. The enhancement of diazepam and muscimol binding by pentobarbital and (+)-etomidate: size of the molecular arrangement estimated by electron irradiation inactivation of rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Maksay, G; Nielsen, M; Simonyi, M

    1986-09-25

    Synaptosomal membranes were prepared from frozen rat cortices irradiated by 10 MeV electrons and the enhancement of [3H]diazepam and [3H]muscimol binding by pentobarbital (PB) and (+)-etomidate was studied. The target sizes of the corresponding parts of the receptor complex were estimated from the decrease in the enhancement as a function of irradiation dose. Different radiation inactivation constants suggest different regulatory units for the enhancement by PB and (+)-etomidate. Target sizes for PB and (+)-etomidate enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding were 127 +/- 14 and 360 + 124 kDa, respectively.

  18. Pharmacological properties of thalidomide (alpha-phthalimido glutarimide), a new sedative hypnotic drug.

    PubMed

    SOMERS, G F

    1960-03-01

    Thalidomide (alpha-phthalimidoglutarimide, "Distaval," "Contergan") is a new sedative hypnotic drug which produces no toxic effects when administered orally to animals in massive doses. This lack of toxicity may be due to limited absorption. The drug has a quietening effect on the central nervous system, reducing the voluntary activity of laboratory animals and promoting sleep. Unlike the barbiturate drugs it does not cause an initial excitation in mice, incoordination or narcosis. It potentiates the actions of other central nervous system depressants, in particular the barbiturates. Its sedative effects are counteracted by central nervous system stimulants. It has no deleterious side effects and does not affect the heart, respiration or autonomic nervous system. PMID:13832739

  19. Pharmacological properties of thalidomide (α-phthalimido glutarimide), a new sedative hypnotic drug

    PubMed Central

    Somers, G. F.

    1960-01-01

    Thalidomide (α-phthalimidoglutarimide, “Distaval,” “Contergan”) is a new sedative hypnotic drug which produces no toxic effects when administered orally to animals in massive doses. This lack of toxicity may be due to limited absorption. The drug has a quietening effect on the central nervous system, reducing the voluntary activity of laboratory animals and promoting sleep. Unlike the barbiturate drugs it does not cause an initial excitation in mice, incoordination or narcosis. It potentiates the actions of other central nervous system depressants, in particular the barbiturates. Its sedative effects are counteracted by central nervous system stimulants. It has no deleterious side effects and does not affect the heart, respiration or autonomic nervous system. PMID:13832739

  20. The use of hypnotic age progressions as prognostic, ego-strengthening, and integrating techniques.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M; Frederick, C

    1992-10-01

    Age progression as a hypnotherapeutic technique is mentioned infrequently in the literature when compared with its counterpart, age regression. In this paper we explore the use of progressions, or "views of the future," as prognostic indicators of therapeutic progress and as valuable tools for ego strengthening and for the integration of clinical material. Age progressions vary in the types of suggestions given and can be used to promote growth on multiple levels, facilitating treatment goals and deepening the working-through process. We present six cases in which we used different types of age progressions, and we discuss the significance of the progressions used in each case, within the context of relevant clinical material. We conclude from our observations that the use of hypnotic progressions can be a sustaining, valuable aspect of hypnotherapy, particularly in providing an index of the current direction and progression of the therapy process itself.

  1. The center core in ego state therapy and other hypnotically facilitated psychotherapies.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    Center core phenomena have been utilized in the practice of ego state therapy and other forms of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy for nearly 40 years. Despite the frequency with which they are employed, many confusions, contradictions, and questions remain concerning them. In this article relevant center core phenomena literature is reviewed and an essential differentiation between two different kinds of center core phenomena is clarified. Psychodynamic explanations are offered for the therapeutic benefits of archetypal center core experiences such as inner strength and inner wisdom. The information provided offers clinicians a sturdier platform from which to decide whether to incorporate center core experiences into clinical practice. The persistent question of whether center core phenomena are ego states is revisited and addressed. PMID:24660338

  2. Conscious/Unconscious Dissociation Induction: Increasing Hypnotic Performance With "Resistant" Clients.

    PubMed

    Lankton, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Milton H. Erickson promoted several approaches to psychotherapy using hypnosis. In the last decades of his life, his work moved away from the use of redundant suggestion and a predominance of direct suggestion in favor of indirect suggestion. In addition, he frequently employed a type of storytelling (that has come to be called therapeutic metaphor) to indirectly convey learning. Another change that occurred during the last decade was his definition of the cause of a symptom. However, there were two important areas of his work that he did not change during his career. These two components of his work he did not change were his definition of a cure and the importance of a naturalistic induction. This article concerns his naturalistic approach to hypnotic induction and especially his use of conscious/unconscious dissociation in the induction process and how indirect suggestion and therapeutic binds can be used to facilitate that type of induction and a cure.

  3. Use of Neurofeedback to Enhance Response to Hypnotic Analgesia in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Gianas, Ann; George, Holly R; Sherlin, Leslie H; Kraft, George H; Ehde, Dawn M

    2016-01-01

    This proof of principle study examined the potential benefits of EEG neurofeedback for increasing responsiveness to self-hypnosis training for chronic pain management. The study comprised 20 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) who received 5 sessions of self-hypnosis training--1 face-to-face session and 4 prerecorded sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to have the prerecorded sessions preceded by either (a) EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) training to increase left anterior theta power (NF-HYP) or (b) a relaxation control condition (RLX-HYP). Eighteen participants completed all treatment sessions and assessments. NF-HYP participants reported greater reductions in pain than RLX-HYP participants. The findings provide support for the potential treatment-enhancing effects of neurofeedback on hypnotic analgesia and also suggest that effective hypnosis treatment can be provided very efficiently. PMID:26599991

  4. [Attitude and perceived control of the elderly towards the consumption of anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic medications].

    PubMed

    Guindon, Marilyn; Cappeliez, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the importance of variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (i.e., attitudes toward behaviour, subjective norms, and perceived control) for the prediction of consumption of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic (ASH) medications in a sample of older persons, aged 69 years on average, 62 consumers and 92 non-consumers. A favourable attitude toward ASH and a sense of having less control regarding these drugs predict both current usage and intention to continue. Perceived control predicts intention to start consumption of ASH in current non-consumers. This study underlines the importance of considering the role of the older person's decisional power in the consumption of these medications. PMID:21470438

  5. Conscious/Unconscious Dissociation Induction: Increasing Hypnotic Performance With "Resistant" Clients.

    PubMed

    Lankton, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Milton H. Erickson promoted several approaches to psychotherapy using hypnosis. In the last decades of his life, his work moved away from the use of redundant suggestion and a predominance of direct suggestion in favor of indirect suggestion. In addition, he frequently employed a type of storytelling (that has come to be called therapeutic metaphor) to indirectly convey learning. Another change that occurred during the last decade was his definition of the cause of a symptom. However, there were two important areas of his work that he did not change during his career. These two components of his work he did not change were his definition of a cure and the importance of a naturalistic induction. This article concerns his naturalistic approach to hypnotic induction and especially his use of conscious/unconscious dissociation in the induction process and how indirect suggestion and therapeutic binds can be used to facilitate that type of induction and a cure. PMID:27586046

  6. Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Sakari; Koivisto, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals. PMID:27267673

  7. Are there gender differences in the prescribing of hypnotic medications for insomnia?

    PubMed

    Brownlee, K; Devins, G M; Flanigan, M; Fleming, J A E; Morehouse, R; Moscovitch, A; Plamondon, J; Reinish, L; Shapiro, C M

    2003-01-01

    Gender differences in the prescribing patterns of general classes of medications for insomnia were examined. The classes of medications included: zopiclone, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antihistamines and no medication. The sample comprised a sub-set of respondents from 2620 questionnaires of the Canadian Multicentre Sleep Database. Respondents for this database were contacted through physicians, announcements in the media and local pharmacies. The results indicated that gender alone was not associated with differential prescribing for insomnia, nor was gender associated with patterns of medication use such as frequency of taking medication, length of use, taking more or less medication than prescribed or attempts to stop taking medication. Demographic factors were included in the analysis and age and marital status were associated with different prescribing patterns for men and women with insomnia. It is possible that physicians refer to stereotypic expectations when prescribing hypnotics.

  8. Hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic exercises in the treatment of stuttering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yalcin; Alladin, Assen

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0-4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy was utilized to alleviate anxiety, to boost self-confidence, and to increase motivation for weightlifting exercise. The pre- and postmeasures were statistically significant (p < .001). Results of the study provide support for the effectiveness of hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic training in the management of stuttering but should be further studied in controlled trials.

  9. Crime, hysteria and belle époque hypnotism: the path traced by Jean-Martin Charcot and Georges Gilles de la Tourette.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Walusinski, Olivier; Veyrunes, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Hysteria and hypnotism became a favorite topic of studies in the fin de siècle neurology that emerged from the school organized at La Salpêtrière by Jean-Martin Charcot, where he had arrived in 1861. Georges Gilles de la Tourette started working with Charcot in 1884 and probably remained his most faithful student, even after his mentor's death in 1893. This collaboration was particularly intense on 'criminal hypnotism', an issue on which Hippolyte Bernheim and his colleagues from the Nancy School challenged the positions taken by the Salpêtrière School. Bernheim claimed that hypnotism was not a diagnostic feature of hysteria and that there were real-life examples of murders suggested under hypnosis, while hypnosis susceptibility was identified with hysteria by Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette, who saw rape as the only crime associated with hypnotism. The quarrel was particularly virulent during a series of famous criminal cases which took place between 1888 and 1890. At the time, it was considered that La Salpêtrière had succeeded over Nancy, since the role of hypnotism was discarded during these famous trials. However, the theories of Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette were also damaged by the fight, which probably triggered the conceptual evolution leading to Joseph Babinski's revision of hysteria in 1901. Gilles de la Tourette's strong and public interest in hypnotism nearly cost him his life, when a young woman who claimed to have been hypnotized against her will shot him in the head at his own home in 1893. It was subsequently shown that hypnotism had nothing to do with it. The delusional woman was interned at Sainte-Anne for mental disturbance, thus escaping trial. Ironically, Gilles de la Tourette may have been partly responsible, since he had been one of the strongest proponents of placing mentally-ill criminals in asylums instead of prisons.

  10. Enhancing witness memory with techniques derived from hypnotic investigative interviewing: focused meditation, eye-closure, and context reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Caddick, Andrea M; Kirby, Lara J; Lamont, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Due to several well-documented problems, hypnosis as a forensic interviewing tool has been largely replaced by the cognitive interview; however, the latter is problematic in time and complexity. This article builds on previous research showing that some procedures used in traditional hypnotic forensic interviewing might still be useful in developing alternative procedures for use in investigative interviewing. Two experiments are described that include a focused meditation with eye-closure technique with similarities to conventional hypnotic induction but without the label of hypnosis. In the first, focused meditation was comparable to a context reinstatement, or revivification, technique in facilitating memory in children aged 6 to 7 without increasing errors or inflating confidence. In the second, when used in combination with context reinstatement, focused meditation was resistant to the effects of misleading information in adults. Implications are discussed.

  11. [Gazing into the depths of the soul: hypnotism in documentary and instructional film (1920-1936)].

    PubMed

    Ledebur, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    Although part of the medical fold since the 1870s, hypnosis was long relegated to the margins, recognised and used by only a relatively small group of medical professionals. In the decades around 1900 hypnotic techniques were monopolised as a form of medical treatment through a long and in no way linear process. Hypnosis of laymen was vehemently opposed, however, denounced as being far too dangerous. And yet, medical participation in the aura of spectacular intervention into the human psyche garnered support. The medium of both documentary and instructional film served an important function in this regard, conveying popular interest in acknowledging hypnosis as a scientific method. On the basis of four medically accredited films on hypnosis from 1920 to 1936, this paper attempts to investigate how medical experts and these genres, as part of their effort to claim hypnosis from the realm of public spectacle and parapsychological experimentation, worked to stabilise hypnosis as a purified form of medical and psychiatric practice. PMID:25671970

  12. Effect of hypnotic suggestion on fibromyalgic pain: comparison between hypnosis and relaxation.

    PubMed

    Castel, Antoni; Pérez, Magdalena; Sala, José; Padrol, Anna; Rull, Maria

    2007-05-01

    The main aims of this experimental study are: (1) to compare the relative effects of analgesia suggestions and relaxation suggestions on clinical pain, and (2) to compare the relative effect of relaxation suggestions when they are presented as "hypnosis" and as "relaxation training". Forty-five patients with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental conditions: (a) hypnosis with relaxation suggestions; (b) hypnosis with analgesia suggestions; (c) relaxation. Before and after the experimental session, the pain intensity was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the sensory and affective dimensions were measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The results showed: (1) that hypnosis followed by analgesia suggestions has a greater effect on the intensity of pain and on the sensory dimension of pain than hypnosis followed by relaxation suggestions; (2) that the effect of hypnosis followed by relaxation suggestions is not greater than relaxation. We discuss the implications of the study on our understanding of the importance of suggestions used in hypnosis and of the differences and similarities between hypnotic relaxation and relaxation training. PMID:16889999

  13. Hypnotics and the Occurrence of Bone Fractures in Hospitalized Dementia Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study Using a National Inpatient Database

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing falls and bone fractures in hospital care is an important issue in geriatric medicine. Use of hypnotics is a potential risk factor for falls and bone fractures in older patients. However, data are lacking on the association between use of hypnotics and the occurrence of bone fracture. Methods We used a national inpatient database including 1,057 hospitals in Japan and included dementia patients aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized during a period of 12 months between April 2012 and March 2013. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bone fracture during hospitalization. Use of hypnotics was compared between patients with and without bone fracture in this matched case-control study. Results Of 140,494 patients, 830 patients suffered from in-hospital fracture. A 1:4 matching with age, sex and hospital created 817 cases with fracture and 3,158 matched patients without fracture. With adjustment for the Charlson comorbidity index, emergent admission, activities of daily living, and scores for level walking, a higher occurrence of fractures were seen with short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.73; P<0.001), ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (1.66; 1.37–2.01; P<0.001), hydroxyzine (1.45; 1.15–1.82, P=0.001), risperidone and perospirone (1.37; 1.08–1.73; P=0.010). Other drug groups were not significantly associated with the occurrence of in-hospital fracture. Conclusions Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics and ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics may increase risk of bone fracture in hospitalized dementia patients. PMID:26061231

  14. Integrating the Forensic Sciences in Wildlife Case Investigations: A Case Report of Pentobarbital and Phenytoin Toxicosis in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C

    2016-09-01

    The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case.

  15. Integrating the Forensic Sciences in Wildlife Case Investigations: A Case Report of Pentobarbital and Phenytoin Toxicosis in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C

    2016-09-01

    The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case. PMID:27030371

  16. Enhanced tonic inhibition influences the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics etomidate and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmannova, Karla; Hines, Rochelle M.; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Terunuma, Miho; Tretter, Verena; Jurd, Rachel; Kelz, Max B.; Moss, Stephen J.; Davies, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition are mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of α1-3βγ2 subunits, while tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from α4-6βδ subunits. To explore the contribution that these distinct forms of inhibition play in mediating intravenous anesthesia we have used mice in which tyrosine residues 365/7 within the γ2 subunit are mutated to phenyalanines (Y365/7F). Here we demonstrate that this mutation leads to increased accumulation of the α4 subunit containing GABAARs in the thalamus and dentate gyrus of female Y365/7F but not male Y365/7F mice. Y365/7F mice exhibited a gender specific enhancement of tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus that was more sensitive to modulation by the anesthetic etomidate, together with a deficit in long-term potentiation. Consistent with this, female Y365/7F, but not male Y365/7F mice exhibited a dramatic increase in the duration of etomidate and propofol mediated hypnosis. Moreover, the amnestic actions of etomidate were selectively potentiated in female Y365/7F mice. Collectively these observations suggest potentiation of tonic inhibition mediated by α4 subunit containing GABAARs contributes to the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics, etomidate and propofol. PMID:23616535

  17. [Tolerance to exertion after sleep reduction and after taking a hypnotic: zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Mougin, F; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Davenne, D; Bourdin, H; Guilland, J C; Kantelip, J P; Magnin, P

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a delayed bedtime (3 a.m.), an advanced rising (3 a.m.), a sleep under placebo and under a hypnotic compound, i.e. 10 mg of zolpidem (Stilnox) on sleep structure and on the adaptations to a subsequent exercise in 8 male athletes. The chronology of these nights was randomized and each treatment administered in a double blind fashion. During each experimental night, subjects were monitored with conventional EEG/EOG/EMG polygraphic recordings. The next day, athletic performance was tested using a bicycle ergometer. A codified exercise was performed and consisted to a 10 min warm up followed by a 30 min steady state cycling corresponding to 75% of predetermined VO2 max. Then the work load increased progressively by steps of 10 W every minute until exhaustion. The recovery lasted 30 min. Heart rate, ventilation, VO2, ERO2 were monitored during all exercise and recovery. Plasma lactates and catecholamines were also measured at the same time. The data concerning sleep recordings showed that both nights with partial sleep deprivation resulted in a drop of time spent in slow wave sleep II (decrease of 55%) and in rapid eye movement sleep (decrease of 45%) while the amount of slow wave sleep III and IV were identical to that observed after the reference night. The sleep onset latency and the amount of sleep in stage I was reduced only after the delayed bedtime. Sleep data under zolpidem did not show any significantly difference in the amount of different sleep stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. GPs' attitudes to benzodiazepine and ‘Z-drug’ prescribing: a barrier to implementation of evidence and guidance on hypnotics

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Qureshi, Zubair; Gibson, Steve; Collier, Sarah; Latham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone (‘Z-drugs’) prescribing is gradually rising in the UK, while that of benzodiazepine hypnotics is falling. This situation is contrary to current evidence and guidance on hypnotic prescribing. The aim of this study was to determine and compare primary care physicians' perceptions of benefits and risks of benzodiazepine and Z-drug use, and physicians' prescribing behaviour in relation to hypnotics using a cross-sectional survey. In 2005 a self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to all GPs in West Lincolnshire Primary Care Trust. The questionnaire investigated perceptions of benefits and disadvantages of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. Of the 107 questionnaires sent to GPs, 84 (78.5%) analysable responses were received. Responders believed that Z-drugs were more effective than benzodiazepines in terms of patients feeling rested on waking (P<0.001), daytime functioning (P<0.001), and total sleep time (P = 0.03). Z-drugs were also thought to be safer in terms of tolerance (P<0.001), addiction (P<0.001), dependence (P<0.001), daytime sleepiness (P<0.001), and road traffic accidents (P = 0.018), and were thought to be safer for older people (P<0.001). There were significant differences between GPs' perceptions of the relative benefits and risk of Z-drugs compared with benzodiazepines. The majority of practitioners attributed greater efficacy and lower side effects to Z-drugs. GPs' beliefs about effectiveness and safety are not determined by current evidence or national (NICE) guidance which may explain the increase in Z-drug prescribing relative to benzodiazepine prescribing. PMID:17132386

  19. Effect of pretreatment with pentobarbital on the extent of (/sup 14/C) incorporation from (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into various rat brain glycolytic intermediates: relevance to regulation at hexokinase and phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.P.; Mayer, S.; Braun, L.D.; Geiger, P.; Oldendorf, W.H.

    1988-04-01

    In the present investigation we monitored the incorporation of (14C) from (U-14C)glucose into various rat brain glycolytic intermediates of conscious and pentobarbital-anesthetized animals. Labeled glucose was delivered to brain by single bolus intracarotid injection and brain tissue was subsequently prepared at 15, 30, and 45 sec by freeze-blowing. Glycolytic intermediates were then separated by column chromatography. Our results showed a gradual decrease with time of 14C-labeled glucose which gave a calculated rate for glucose metabolism of 0.86 mumol/min/g and 0.56 mumol/min/g in conscious and anesthetized animals, respectively. Compared to the results obtained using conscious animals the administration of pentobarbital not only resulted in a significant attenuation of the rate of glucose metabolism but also caused a similar reduction in the amount of 14C incorporated into several glycolytic intermediates. These intermediates included: glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6 diphosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and post glycolytic compounds. In addition, pretreatment with pentobarbital resulted in a 75% increase in the endogenous concentration of glucose, 10% increase in glucose 6-phosphate, no change in fructose 6-phosphate and 42% decrease in lactate compared to levels in brains obtained from conscious animals. These results are discussed in relation to control of glycolysis through coupled regulation at hexokinase-phosphofructokinase.

  20. A Multifaceted GABAA Receptor Modulator: Functional Properties and Mechanism of Action of the Sedative-Hypnotic and Recreational Drug Methaqualone (Quaalude).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Harriet; Bader, Benjamin M; Ehnert, Corina; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Bunch, Lennart; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Schroeder, Olaf H-U; Bastlund, Jesper F; Gramowski-Voß, Alexandra; Jensen, Anders A

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we have elucidated the functional characteristics and mechanism of action of methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone, Quaalude), an infamous sedative-hypnotic and recreational drug from the 1960s-1970s. Methaqualone was demonstrated to be a positive allosteric modulator at human α1,2,3,5β2,3γ2S GABAA receptors (GABAARs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, whereas it displayed highly diverse functionalities at the α4,6β1,2,3δ GABAAR subtypes, ranging from inactivity (α4β1δ), through negative (α6β1δ) or positive allosteric modulation (α4β2δ, α6β2,3δ), to superagonism (α4β3δ). Methaqualone did not interact with the benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or neurosteroid binding sites in the GABAAR. Instead, the compound is proposed to act through the transmembrane β((+))/α((-)) subunit interface of the receptor, possibly targeting a site overlapping with that of the general anesthetic etomidate. The negligible activities displayed by methaqualone at numerous neurotransmitter receptors and transporters in an elaborate screening for additional putative central nervous system (CNS) targets suggest that it is a selective GABAAR modulator. The mode of action of methaqualone was further investigated in multichannel recordings from primary frontal cortex networks, where the overall activity changes induced by the compound at 1-100 μM concentrations were quite similar to those mediated by other CNS depressants. Finally, the free methaqualone concentrations in the mouse brain arising from doses producing significant in vivo effects in assays for locomotion and anticonvulsant activity correlated fairly well with its potencies as a modulator at the recombinant GABAARs. Hence, we propose that the multifaceted functional properties exhibited by methaqualone at GABAARs give rise to its effects as a therapeutic and recreational drug.

  1. A Multifaceted GABAA Receptor Modulator: Functional Properties and Mechanism of Action of the Sedative-Hypnotic and Recreational Drug Methaqualone (Quaalude)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Harriet; Bader, Benjamin M.; Ehnert, Corina; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Bunch, Lennart; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Schroeder, Olaf H.-U.; Bastlund, Jesper F.; Gramowski-Voß, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have elucidated the functional characteristics and mechanism of action of methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone, Quaalude), an infamous sedative-hypnotic and recreational drug from the 1960s–1970s. Methaqualone was demonstrated to be a positive allosteric modulator at human α1,2,3,5β2,3γ2S GABAA receptors (GABAARs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, whereas it displayed highly diverse functionalities at the α4,6β1,2,3δ GABAAR subtypes, ranging from inactivity (α4β1δ), through negative (α6β1δ) or positive allosteric modulation (α4β2δ, α6β2,3δ), to superagonism (α4β3δ). Methaqualone did not interact with the benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or neurosteroid binding sites in the GABAAR. Instead, the compound is proposed to act through the transmembrane β(+)/α(–) subunit interface of the receptor, possibly targeting a site overlapping with that of the general anesthetic etomidate. The negligible activities displayed by methaqualone at numerous neurotransmitter receptors and transporters in an elaborate screening for additional putative central nervous system (CNS) targets suggest that it is a selective GABAAR modulator. The mode of action of methaqualone was further investigated in multichannel recordings from primary frontal cortex networks, where the overall activity changes induced by the compound at 1–100 μM concentrations were quite similar to those mediated by other CNS depressants. Finally, the free methaqualone concentrations in the mouse brain arising from doses producing significant in vivo effects in assays for locomotion and anticonvulsant activity correlated fairly well with its potencies as a modulator at the recombinant GABAARs. Hence, we propose that the multifaceted functional properties exhibited by methaqualone at GABAARs give rise to its effects as a therapeutic and recreational drug. PMID:26056160

  2. Pain-reduction strategies in hypnotic context and hypnosis: ERPs and SCRs during a secondary auditory task.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bellusci, Anna; Gallo, Carlo; Magurano, Maria Rosaria; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-10-01

    Pain-rating scores were obtained from 10 high, 10 medium, and 10 low hypnotizable subjects who were holding a painful cold bottle in their left hands and were exposed to pain reduction treatments while they were performing a secondary oddball task. All subjects received suggestions of dissociative imagery and focused analgesia as cognitive strategies for pain reduction. The following measures were obtained for tone targets of the auditory oddball task: (a) reaction time; (b) P300 peak amplitude of the event-related potentials; (c) skin conductance levels and skin conductance responses. Focused analgesia produced the most pain reduction in high, but not medium or low, hypnotizable subjects who showed shorter reaction times, higher central and parietal P300 peaks, and higher skin conductance responses. These findings were discussed vis-a-vis the dissociated-control model assuming that capacity demands of hypnotic suggestion are low. PMID:15590503

  3. Screening of central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for sedative and hypnotic effects using chick models.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The chick has a practical advantage in the screening process in that chicks require only small quantities of drugs. The chick separation stress paradigm has traditionally been recognized as a valid form of anxiolytic screening. Further, chick behavior involving standing motionless with eyes closed or sitting motionless with head drooped is nearly always associated with electrophysiological sleep. When centrally administered, some DNA-encoded L-α-amino acids, as well as some DNA-non-encoded amino acids, such as metabolites of L-α-amino acids, D-amino acid and β-amino acid, have shown sedative and/or hypnotic effects in chicks. The effects of some of these amino acids have subsequently been confirmed in humans. In conclusion, the chick model is convenient and useful for screening central functions of amino acids and their metabolites for hypnosis and sedation.

  4. Adjunctive self-hypnotic relaxation for outpatient medical procedures: a prospective randomized trial with women undergoing large core breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elvira V; Berbaum, Kevin S; Faintuch, Salomao; Hatsiopoulou, Olga; Halsey, Noami; Li, Xinyu; Berbaum, Michael L; Laser, Eleanor; Baum, Janet

    2006-12-15

    Medical procedures in outpatient settings have limited options of managing pain and anxiety pharmacologically. We therefore assessed whether this can be achieved by adjunct self-hypnotic relaxation in a common and particularly anxiety provoking procedure. Two hundred and thirty-six women referred for large core needle breast biopsy to an urban tertiary university-affiliated medical center were prospectively randomized to receive standard care (n=76), structured empathic attention (n=82), or self-hypnotic relaxation (n=78) during their procedures. Patients' self-ratings at 1 min-intervals of pain and anxiety on 0-10 verbal analog scales with 0=no pain/anxiety at all, 10=worst pain/anxiety possible, were compared in an ordinal logistic regression model. Women's anxiety increased significantly in the standard group (logit slope=0.18, p<0.001), did not change in the empathy group (slope=-0.04, p=0.45), and decreased significantly in the hypnosis group (slope=-0.27, p<0.001). Pain increased significantly in all three groups (logit slopes: standard care=0.53, empathy=0.37, hypnosis=0.34; all p<0.001) though less steeply with hypnosis and empathy than standard care (p=0.024 and p=0.018, respectively). Room time and cost were not significantly different in an univariate ANOVA despite hypnosis and empathy requiring an additional professional: 46 min/161 dollars for standard care, 43 min/163 dollars for empathy, and 39 min/152 dollars for hypnosis. We conclude that, while both structured empathy and hypnosis decrease procedural pain and anxiety, hypnosis provides more powerful anxiety relief without undue cost and thus appears attractive for outpatient pain management.

  5. Electroencephalographic Recovery, Hypnotic Emergence, and the Effects of Metabolite Following Continuous Infusions of a Rapidly Metabolized Etomidate Analog in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pejo, Ervin; Ge, Rile; Banacos, Natalie; Cotten, Joseph F.; Husain, S. Shaukat; Raines, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Methoxycarbonyl etomidate is an ultra-rapidly metabolized etomidate analog. It is metabolized to methoxycarbonyl etomidate carboxylic acid (MOC-ECA), which has a hypnotic potency that is 350-fold lower than that of methoxycarbonyl etomidate. We explored the relationships between methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusion duration, recovery time, metabolite concentrations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and methoxycarbonyl etomidate metabolism in brain tissue and CSF to test the hypothesis that rapid metabolism of methoxycarbonyl etomidate may lead to sufficient accumulation of MOC-ECA in the brain to produce a pharmacological effect. Methods A closed-loop system with burst suppression ratio feedback was used to administer methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusions of varying durations to rats. After infusion, recovery of the electroencephalogram and righting reflexes were assessed. MOC-ECA concentrations were measured in blood and CSF during and after methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusion and the in vitro half-life of methoxycarbonyl etomidate was determined in rat brain tissue and CSF. Results Upon terminating continuous methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusions, the burst suppression ratio recovered in a biexponential manner with fast and slow components having time constants that differed by more than 100-fold and amplitudes that varied inversely with infusion duration. MOC-ECA concentrations reached hypnotic levels in the CSF with prolonged methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusion and then fell over several hours after infusion termination. The metabolic half-life of methoxycarbonyl etomidate in brain tissue and CSF was 11 and 20 min, respectively. Conclusion In rats, methoxycarbonyl etomidate metabolism is sufficiently fast to produce pharmacologically active MOC-ECA concentrations in the brain with prolonged methoxycarbonyl etomidate infusion. PMID:22417966

  6. Histamine as a punisher in squirrel monkeys: effects of pentobarbital, chlordiazepoxide and H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on behavior and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S R

    1980-09-01

    Squirrel monkeys pressed a key under a two-component, 30-response fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. In both nonpunishment and punishment components, every 30th key-pressing response resulted in food presentation. In the punishment component, the 11th and 22nd response in each 30-response fixed-ratio also produced a 200msec i.v. injection of 30 to 100 microgram/kg of histamine; this resulted in about an 80% suppression of responding in the punishment component. A second group of squirrel monkeys, with arterial catheters for monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate, received automatic i.v. injections of 30 and 100 microgram/kg of histamine; key presses had no programmed consequences. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 5 to 20 min Hg and heart rate increased by 60 to 120 beats/min after each injection of histamine. As an effective punisher, histamine was functionally similar to other noxious stimuli such as electric shock. Behavior suppressed by histamine could be markedly increased by presession i.m. treatment with pentobarbital (3-5.6 mg/kg) or chlordiazepoxide (10-30 mg/kg). Presession i.m. treatment with 1 to 3 mg/kg of the H1-receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, reversed the punishment effects of histamine but only enhanced the cardiovascular effects of histamine. In contrast, 10 to 30 mg/kg of the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, failed to reverse the punishment effects of histamine but markedly attenuated the cardiovascular effects of histamine. Thus, histamine's suppression of responding appeared to be an H1 effect and did not appear to be related to its effects on blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:6105208

  7. Can grapheme-color synesthesia be induced by hypnosis?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hazel P; Seth, Anil K; Dienes, Zoltan; Ward, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific color, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type) or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type). Here, we address the question of whether synesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic color suggestion to examine the possibility of "hypnotic synesthesia", i.e., subjectively experienced color hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an "embedded figures" test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square) composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-color synesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as colored. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of colored trials perceived). However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of color in those participants who reported a large proportion of colored trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognized (relative to trials in which it was not) were associated with reports of more intense colors occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic color was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via color-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colors are not directly comparable to synesthetic ones.

  8. Can grapheme-color synesthesia be induced by hypnosis?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hazel P; Seth, Anil K; Dienes, Zoltan; Ward, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific color, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type) or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type). Here, we address the question of whether synesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic color suggestion to examine the possibility of "hypnotic synesthesia", i.e., subjectively experienced color hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an "embedded figures" test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square) composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-color synesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as colored. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of colored trials perceived). However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of color in those participants who reported a large proportion of colored trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognized (relative to trials in which it was not) were associated with reports of more intense colors occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic color was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via color-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colors are not directly comparable to synesthetic ones. PMID:24829555

  9. ‘Looking as Little Like Patients as Persons Well Could’: Hypnotism, Medicine and the Problem of the Suggestible Subject in Late Nineteenth-Century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chettiar, Teri

    2012-01-01

    During the late nineteenth century, many British physicians rigorously experimented with hypnosis as a therapeutic practice. Despite mounting evidence attesting to its wide-ranging therapeutic uses publicised in the 1880s and 1890s, medical hypnosis remained highly controversial. After a decade and a half of extensive medical discussion and debate surrounding the adoption of hypnosis by mainstream medical professionals – including a thorough inquiry organised by the British Medical Association – it was decisively excluded from serious medical consideration by 1900. This essay examines the complex question of why hypnosis was excluded from professional medical practice by the end of the nineteenth century. Objections to its medical adoption rarely took issue with its supposed effectiveness in producing genuine therapeutic and anaesthetic results. Instead, critics’ objections were centred upon a host of social and moral concerns regarding the patient’s state of suggestibility and weakened ‘will-power’ while under the physician’s hypnotic ‘spell’. The problematic question of precisely how far hypnotic ‘rapport’ and suggestibility might depart from the Victorian liberal ideal of rational individual autonomy lay at the heart of these concerns. As this essay demonstrates, the hypnotism debate was characterised by a tension between physicians’ attempts to balance their commitment to restore patients to health and pervasive middle-class concerns about the rapid and ongoing changes transforming British society at the turn of the century. PMID:23002303

  10. Neuropharmacological profile of an ethanol extract of Ruta chalepensis L. in mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Trujano, M E; Carrera, D; Ventura-Martinez, R; Cedillo-Portugal, E; Navarrete, A

    2006-06-15

    The effects of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis on the central nervous system (CNS) and LD(50) determination were studied in mice. A crude extract was given systemically and its effects were tested on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, exploratory activity, anxiety and nociception. Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay in the onset of seizures and a dose-dependent suppression in the tonic phase and mortality induced by PTZ; (2) a prolongation of the time of sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response and (4) a reduction in the licking time and shaking behavior in the formalin-induced nociception test. The sedative-hypnotic potentiation, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects suggest that Ruta chalepensis induces a depressant activity on the CNS.

  11. Distinct roles of the Y1 and Y2 receptors on neuropeptide Y-induced sensitization to sedation.

    PubMed

    Naveilhan, P; Canals, J M; Arenas, E; Ernfors, P

    2001-09-01

    Intracranial injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases the sensitivity to sodium pentobarbital and ketamin sedation and has similar properties as GABA agonists on sleep. Mice sensitive to sedation have increased levels of NPY in many brain regions and Y1(-/-) mice show a marked resistance to barbiturates. Here we characterized the role of the NPY Y receptors in anesthetic-induced sedation. We show that Y1 and Y2, but not Y5, receptors participate in the modulation of sedation. Administration of a Y1 agonist increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sedation and Y1(-/-) mice were less sensitive to this anesthetic. However, Y2(-/-) mice display increased sensitivity, showing that Y2 modulates GABAergic induced sedation both pharmacologically and physiologically and has a functionally opposing role to the Y1 receptor. Analysis of Y1(-/-)/Y2(-/-) double mutant mice show that increased sensitivity by Y1 occurs independent of the Y2 receptor, while the decreased sensitivity mediated by Y2 depend on an intact Y1 receptor. In contrast to sodium pentobarbital, both Y1 and Y2 receptors increase the sensitivity in a collaborative fashion to NMDA antagonist-induced sedation. These data demonstrate the physiological and pharmacological impact of the Y1 and Y2 receptors on sedation.

  12. First Trimester Exposure to Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Drugs and the Risks of Major Congenital Anomalies: A United Kingdom Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Lu; West, Joe; Gibson, Jack E.; Fiaschi, Linda; Sokal, Rachel; Doyle, Pat; Hubbard, Richard; Smeeth, Liam; Tata, Laila J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite their widespread use the effects of taking benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics during pregnancy on the risk of major congenital anomaly (MCA) are uncertain. The objectives were to estimate absolute and relative risks of MCAs in children exposed to specific anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs taken in the first trimester of pregnancy, compared with children of mothers with depression and/or anxiety but not treated with medication and children of mothers without diagnosed mental illness during pregnancy. Methods We identified singleton children born to women aged 15–45 years between 1990 and 2010 from a large United Kingdom primary care database. We calculated absolute risks of MCAs for children with first trimester exposures of different anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs and used logistic regression with a generalised estimating equation to compare risks adjusted for year of childbirth, maternal age, smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Results Overall MCA prevalence was 2.7% in 1,159 children of mothers prescribed diazepam, 2.9% in 379 children with temazepam, 2.5% in 406 children with zopiclone, and 2.7% in 19,193 children whose mothers had diagnosed depression and/or anxiety but no first trimester drug exposures. When compared with 2.7% in 351,785 children with no diagnosed depression/anxiety nor medication use, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.02 (99% confidence interval 0.63–1.64) for diazepam, 1.07 (0.49–2.37) for temazepam, 0.96 (0.42–2.20) for zopiclone and 1.27 (0.43–3.75) for other anxiolytic/hypnotic drugs and 1.01 (0.90–1.14) for un-medicated depression/anxiety. Risks of system-specific MCAs were generally similar in children exposed and not exposed to such medications. Conclusions We found no evidence for an increase in MCAs in children exposed to benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in the first trimester of pregnancy. These findings suggest that prescription of these drugs during early

  13. Using Hypnotic Suggestion to Model Loss of Control and Awareness of Movements: An Exploratory fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, David A.; Bell, Vaughan; Koppel, Cristina; Mehta, Mitul A.; Halligan, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The feeling of voluntary control and awareness of movement is fundamental to our notions of selfhood and responsibility for actions, yet can be lost in neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. delusions of control, non-epileptic seizures) and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g. attributions of spirit possession). The brain processes involved remain poorly understood. We used suggestion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate loss of control and awareness of right hand movements in 15 highly hypnotically suggestible subjects. Loss of perceived control of movements was associated with reduced connectivity between supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor regions. Reduced awareness of involuntary movements was associated with less activation in parietal cortices (BA 7, BA 40) and insula. Collectively these results suggest that the sense of voluntary control of movement may critically depend on the functional coupling of SMA with motor systems, and provide a potential neural basis for the narrowing of awareness reported in pathological and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena. PMID:24205198

  14. To what extent is it possible to dissociate the anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic properties of GABAA receptors modulators?

    PubMed

    Chagraoui, A; Skiba, M; Thuillez, C; Thibaut, F

    2016-11-01

    The relatively common view indicates a possible dissociation between the anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic properties of benzodiazepines (BZs). Indeed, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subtypes have specific cerebral distribution in distinct neural circuits. Thus, GABAAR subtype-selective drugs may be expected to perform distinct functions. However, standard behavioral test assays provide limited direction towards highlighting new action mechanisms of ligands targeting GABAARs. Automated behavioral tests, lack sensitivity as some behavioral characteristics or subtle behavioral changes of drug effects or that are not considered in the overall analysis (Ohl et al., 2001) and observation-based analyses are not always performed. In addition, despite the use of genetically engineered mice, any possible dissociation between the anxiolytic and sedative properties of BZs remains controversial. Moreover, the involvement the different subtypes of GABAAR subtypes in the anxious behavior and the mechanism of action of anxiolytic agents remains unclear since there has been little success in the pharmacological investigations so far. This raises the question of the involvement of the different subunits in anxiolytic-like and/or sedative effects; and the actual implication of these subunits, particularly, α-subunits in the modulation of sedation and/or anxiety-related disorders. This present review was prompted by several conflicting studies on the degree of involvement of these subunits in anxiolytic-like and/or sedative effects. To this end, we explored the GABAergic system, particularly, the role of different subunits containing synaptic GABAARs. We report herein the targeting gene encoding the different subunits and their contribution in anxiolytic-like and/or sedative actions, as well as, the mechanism underlying tolerance to BZs. PMID:27495357

  15. Understanding and reducing the prescription of hypnotics and sedatives at the interface of hospital care and general practice: a protocol for a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stephanie; Weiß, Vivien; Straube, Kati; Nau, Roland; Grimmsmann, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypnotics and sedatives, especially benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, are frequently prescribed for longer periods than recommended—in spite of potential risks for patients. Any intervention to improve this situation has to take into account the interplay between different actors, interests and needs. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop—together with the professionals involved—ideas for reducing the use of hypnotics and sedatives and then to implement and evaluate adequate interventions in the hospital and at the primary and secondary care interface. Methods and analysis The study will take place in a regional hospital in northern Germany and in some general practices in this region. We will collect data from doctors, nurses, patients and a major social health insurer to define the problem from multiple perspectives. These data will be explored and discussed with relevant stakeholders to develop interventions. The interventions will be implemented and, in a final step, evaluated. Both quantitative and qualitative data, including surveys, interviews, chart reviews and secondary analysis of social health insurance data, will be collected to obtain a full understanding of the frequency and the reasons for using hypnotics and sedatives. Ethics and dissemination Approval has been granted from the ethics review committee of the University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany. Results will be disseminated to researchers, clinicians and policy makers in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications. One or more dissemination events will be held locally during continuous professional development events for local professionals, including (but not confined to) the study participants. PMID:27496238

  16. Pharmacological studies on Myristica fragrans--antidiarrheal, hypnotic, analgesic and hemodynamic (blood pressure) parameters.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Khandkar, S; Vats, V; Dhunnoo, Y; Das, D

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent diarrhea is prevalent in developing countries, particularly in tropical regions. A natural based antidiarrheal home remedy can serve as an ideal health tool to limit diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality. In the traditional Indian medical science of Ayurveda, nutmeg is one such plant said to possess antidiarrheal activity. A study was therefore planned to assess the various pharmacological effects (antidiarrheal, sedative, analgesic and blood pressure) of nutmeg. Both Nutmeg crude suspension (NMC) and petroleum ether (PE), but not aqueous extract (Aq), decreased the mean number of loose stools or increased the latency period. NMC increased intestinal tone while PE had no such effect. PE had no effect on guinea pig ileum, but inhibited the contraction produced by acetylcholine, histamine and prostaglandin. NMC but not PE extract showed a significant but weak analgesic effect. While PE effectively potentiated both phenobarbitone and pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, NMC was considerably less effective. NMC administered intraduodenally did not produce much effect on blood pressure (BP), but potentiated the action of exogenously administered adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. On the other hand, PE in higher, but not lower, doses caused a precipitous fall in BP not blocked by atropine. Thus, overall extracts of nutmeg showed a good antidiarrheal effect, with a significant sedative property. The extracts possessed only a weak analgesic effect, with no harmful effects on blood pressure and ECG.

  17. Synthesis, Anticonvulsant, Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Novel Annulated Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Sorra, Kumaraswamy; Chen, Chien-Shu; Chang, Chi-Fen; Pusuluri, Srinivas; Mukkanti, Khagga; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chuang, Ta-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13–16) were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic effects in our tests. There was no significant difference in potency between PBDT 13 and diazepam, and we proposed that the action mechanism of PBDT 13 could be similar to that of diazepam via benzodiazepine receptors. PMID:25238414

  18. Topiramate-induced somnambulism in a migraineur: a probable idiosyncratic adverse effect.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Thomas; Sarma, G R K; Nadig, Raghunandan; Varghese, Raji

    2012-04-15

    Somnambulism (sleepwalking) is a disorder of arousal that falls under "parasomnia" group and is more common in children. These phenomena occur as primary sleep events or secondary to systemic disease or can be drug induced. Medications that can cause sleepwalking include neuroleptics, hypnotics, lithium, amitriptyline, and β-blockers. This report presents an unusual adverse effect of topiramate on sleep in a patient with migraine. PMID:22505867

  19. Topiramate-induced somnambulism in a migraineur: a probable idiosyncratic adverse effect.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Thomas; Sarma, G R K; Nadig, Raghunandan; Varghese, Raji

    2012-04-15

    Somnambulism (sleepwalking) is a disorder of arousal that falls under "parasomnia" group and is more common in children. These phenomena occur as primary sleep events or secondary to systemic disease or can be drug induced. Medications that can cause sleepwalking include neuroleptics, hypnotics, lithium, amitriptyline, and β-blockers. This report presents an unusual adverse effect of topiramate on sleep in a patient with migraine.

  20. A new design of trial for hypnotics comparison: a double-blind cross-over trial with patient's preference assessment and continuation of the preferred treatment.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Malinge, M

    1996-04-01

    1. This study compared two hypnotics administrated at comparable therapeutic dosages: triazolam (0.25 mg) and loprazolam (1 mg), were administered using an original scheme (cross-over on the first 2 nights, and continuation of the preferred treatment or new randomization). 2. Sixty-seven outpatients complaining of common insomnia participated in this study conducted by general practitioners. 3. Both drugs provided improvement in sleep quality (decreased sleep latency, increased total duration of sleep, decreased number of night awakenings), and are equally well tolerated. 4. For the first 2 nights, triazolam was evaluated to be more efficient than loprazolam (p < 0.001), and patients felt more rested the following day (p < 0.01) with the former drug. Moreover, triazolam is more frequently preferred than loprazolam by 47.7% and 29.2%, respectively, (p = 0.09). 5. No interaction was found between treatment and order of administration or specific effects and order of administration.

  1. Use of Hypnotic Techniques in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pain: Do the Ages of Patients or Years of Practice and Theoretical Orientation of Clinicians Matter?

    PubMed

    Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Solé, Ester; Racine, Mélanie; de la Vega, Rocío; Castarlenas, Elena; Jensen, Mark P; Miró, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Hypnosis is known to be effective in the treatment of pediatric pain. To better understand which strategies might be most useful, more knowledge is needed regarding the strategies that are actually used by experienced clinicians and the factors that influence their use. To address this knowledge gap, 35 health care professionals completed an online survey on the use of hypnosis in the management of pediatric chronic pain. The findings indicate that clinicians vary their use of hypnotic strategies primarily as a function of a patient's age but not as a function of theoretical orientation or amount of experience. The findings may be useful for guiding clinicians in their selection of strategies and suggestions when working with children with pain. PMID:27585730

  2. Benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotics in blood of drivers under the influence and their association with other common illegal drug use and national sales figures.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Raaska, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-02-01

    The authors examined benzodiazepine and sedative-hypnotic positive cases of drivers under the influence (DUI) in Finland from 1997 to 2008. Factors studied were the number of cases positive for the most commonly encountered of these pharmaceuticals, simultaneous use of amphetamine and/or cannabis, and the relationship between the number of DUI cases and overall sales in Finland for the individual pharmaceuticals. Data for 20037 cases positive for the relevant drugs were retrieved from the laboratory database of the Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare. Toxicological results were from blood analysis. Drug sales figures for each pharmaceutical were obtained from the Finnish Medicines Agency. An increase in DUI cases that were positive for the drugs studied was evident, which reflected the overall increase in positive DUI cases detected annually. The proportion of relevant cases was typically 75% or higher of all positive DUI cases up to 2003, the year that the Finnish zero tolerance law was introduced, and then decreased to 66.2% in 2008. Diazepam was consistently the most commonly detected nonmetabolite drug. The prevalence of clonazepam and alprazolam increased sharply from 2004 onward. Metabolites of diazepam, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, were other common findings. Associated use of amphetamine and/or cannabis was also common in these DUI cases, typically between 56% and 66% of cases. An increase in the number of DUI cases showing combined use of benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotics with amphetamines in particular was apparent after zero tolerance legislation and the introduction in 2005 of an effective on-site screening device for the stimulant. Ratios of DUI cases to sales figures showed an increase in detection of clonazepam-positive DUI cases from 2003. Diazepam, midazolam, and alprazolam also exhibited relatively high ratios, which increased from 1997 to 2008.

  3. Central injection of L- and D-aspartate attenuates isolation-induced stress behavior in chicks possibly through different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Erwan, Edi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Nagasawa, Mao; Goda, Ryosei; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L- and D-aspartate (L- and D-Asp) has been shown to have a sedative effect with and without a hypnotic effect, respectively, in neonatal chicks experiencing isolation stress. However, the mechanisms of the different stress-attenuating functions of L- and D-Asp have not yet been fully clarified. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in order to reveal the receptor-mediated function of L- and D-Asp. To reveal whether L-and D-Asp act through the NMDA receptor, (+)-MK-801, which is an antagonist of NMDA receptors, was used in the current study. In experiment 1, the chicks were injected i.c.v. with either saline, (+)-MK-801, L-Asp or L-Asp plus (+)-MK-801. The sedative and hypnotic effects induced by L-Asp were blocked by co-administration with (+)-MK-801. In experiment 2, the chicks were injected i.c.v. with either saline, (+)-MK-801, D-Asp or D-Asp plus (+)-MK-801. Importantly, the sedative effects induced by D-Asp were shifted to hypnotic effects by co-administration with (+)-MK-801. Taken together, L-Asp could induce sedative and hypnotic effects for stress behaviors through the NMDA receptor, but the attenuation of stress behaviors by D-Asp might be via simultaneous involvement of other receptors besides the NMDA receptor in this process. These differences may explain the different functional mechanisms of L- and D-Asp in the central nervous system.

  4. Drug-Induced (Thalidomide) Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Ing, George M.; Olman, C. L.; Oyd, John R.

    1962-01-01

    Phocomelia (flipper-like limbs) has long been recognized as a rare malformation. Numerous cases of phocomelia and other congenital malformations have recently been reported in the United Kingdom, Australia, Europe and Canada in which the common factor appears to have been the administration of the hypnotic compound thalidomide during early pregnancy. Two additional cases of infants born with phocomelia, amelia and alimentary abnormalities are presented. In both of these cases the administration of thalidomide was initiated early during pregnancy (five to eight weeks after the last normal menstrual period) and maintained for several weeks. Thalidomide (alpha-phthalimido glutarimide) is related chemically to other glutarimides currently in clinical use. The possibility that these compounds and/or their metabolites may induce teratogenic effects warrants consideration. Emphasis is added to the view that caution should be exercised when prescribing new drugs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:20327332

  5. Zolpidem-induced amnesia and somnambulism: rare occurrences?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chung, Weilum; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class, is very effective in treating insomnia with previous claims of little adverse effects. However, zolpidem-induced somnambulism and amnesic sleep-related behavioral problems were begun to be reported in literature but no systemic investigation has been undertaken in non-Western cultures. In our current retrospective survey, 5.1% (13 out of 255) of Taiwanese patients reported change in sleep-related behavior as adverse effects. This serves as a reminder for clinicians to inquire regarding any unusual behavior of parasomniac activities when prescribing zolpidem. PMID:18819779

  6. Zolpidem-induced amnesia and somnambulism: rare occurrences?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chung, Weilum; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class, is very effective in treating insomnia with previous claims of little adverse effects. However, zolpidem-induced somnambulism and amnesic sleep-related behavioral problems were begun to be reported in literature but no systemic investigation has been undertaken in non-Western cultures. In our current retrospective survey, 5.1% (13 out of 255) of Taiwanese patients reported change in sleep-related behavior as adverse effects. This serves as a reminder for clinicians to inquire regarding any unusual behavior of parasomniac activities when prescribing zolpidem.

  7. Psychedelic drugs, hippie counterculture, speed and phenobarbital treatment of sedative-hypnotic dependence: a journey to the Haight Ashbury in the Sixties.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    The 1960s were a time of social upheaval, wars, vibrant creativity and missed opportunity. Mainstream culture and a psychedelic drug-using counterculture shared a belief in "better living through chemistry'," but they disagreed about the particular chemistry. The Vietnam war and the cold war with the Soviet Union, racial discrimination, and gender roles fueled political activism. "Yes we can" was not a slogan of the time but political activists clearly believed they could change the beliefs, attitudes and behavior of mainstream culture; and they did. Hippie counterculture on the other hand was largely alienated and strove primarily to develop a separate culture with its own mores, beliefs and lifestyles. Although there was some overlap between hippies and activists, hippies didn't generally have the same sense of political empowerment. Hippie enclaves developed in New York; Boston; Seattle; Austin, Texas and elsewhere; but the epicenter was arguably the Haight-Asbury District of San Francisco. Psychedelic drugs, marijuana and the Vietnam war were among many wedge issues. This paper conjures up a personal history related to the evolution of the hippie counterculture, changing drug use patterns in the Haight-Ashbury, and the origins of a technique of withdrawing patients from barbiturates and other sedative-hypnotics using phenobarbital variously known as the "Phenobarbital Withdrawal Protocol, or the "Smith and Wesson Protocol." PMID:21858961

  8. Topiramate-Induced Somnambulism in a Migraineur: A Probable Idiosyncratic Adverse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Thomas; Sarma, G. R. K.; Nadig, Raghunandan; Varghese, Raji

    2012-01-01

    Somnambulism (sleepwalking) is a disorder of arousal that falls under “parasomnia” group and is more common in children. These phenomena occur as primary sleep events or secondary to systemic disease or can be drug induced. Medications that can cause sleepwalking include neuroleptics, hypnotics, lithium, amitriptyline, and β-blockers.1 This report presents an unusual adverse effect of topiramate on sleep in a patient with migraine. Citation: Mathew T; Sarma GRK; Nadig R; Varghese R. Topiramate-induced somnambulism in a migraineur: a probable idiosyncratic adverse effect. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):197-198. PMID:22505867

  9. Preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tryptophan combined with fluoxetine to treat major depressive disorder: antidepressant and hypnotic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, R D; Shen, J H; Jindal, R; Driver, H S; Kennedy, S H; Shapiro, C M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because the initial phase of treatment of depression with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is often complicated by a delayed onset of action of the antidepressant or severe insomnia or both, we investigated whether tryptophan, an amino acid with both antidepressant-augmenting and hypnotic effects, would benefit patients with depression at the beginning of treatment with fluoxetine. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PATIENTS: Thirty individuals with major depressive disorder. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment over 8 weeks with 20 mg of fluoxetine per day and either tryptophan (2 to 4 g per day) or placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mood was assessed using the 29-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-29) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Laboratory sleep studies were done at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment using standard procedures. RESULTS: During the first week of treatment, there was a significantly greater decrease in HDRS-29 depression scores, and a similar trend in BDI scores, in the tryptophan/fluoxetine group than in the placebo/fluoxetine group. No significant differences were noted at later time points. With respect to sleep measures, there was a significant group-by-time interaction for slow-wave sleep at week 4. Further analysis revealed a significant decrease in slow-wave sleep after 4 weeks of treatment in the placebo/fluoxetine group, but not in the tryptophan/fluoxetine group. No cases of serotonin syndrome occurred, and the combination was well tolerated, although the 4 g per day dosage of tryptophan produced daytime drowsiness. CONCLUSIONS: Combining 20 mg of fluoxetine with 2 g of tryptophan daily at the outset of treatment for major depressive disorder appears to be a safe protocol that may have both a rapid antidepressant effect and a protective effect on slow-wave sleep. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these initial findings. PMID:11022398

  10. Kinetics of drug action in disease states. XLIII: Potentiating effect of L-tryptophan on the hypnotic action of phenobarbital and ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T C; Levy, G

    1994-10-01

    The essential amino acid L-tryptophan has been widely used as a sleeping aid because it can produce drowsiness and decrease sleep latency. Its concentrations in plasma and brain and its binding to plasma protein are markedly altered in hepatic encephalopathy and renal failure. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if L-tryptophan can enhance the sensitivity of the central nervous system to the hypnotic actions of a barbiturate and an alcohol. Female rats weighing approximately 200 g received an intravenous infusion of L-tryptophan (0.8 or 0.08 mg/min) for 30 min and then an infusion of phenobarbital (0.824 mg/min) with L-tryptophan (0.8 or 0.08 mg min-1) until the onset of loss of righting reflex (LRR). Control animals received an infusion of saline solution for 30 min and then phenobarbital without the amino acid. Similar experiments were performed with ethanol (16.3 mg/min), with and without L-tryptophan (0.8 mg/min). L-Tryptophan infused alone at a rate of 3.8 mg/min for 84 min did not cause LRR. Administration of L-tryptophan at a rate of 0.8 mg/min with phenobarbital was associated with statistically significant reductions in the total dose and concentrations of phenobarbital in serum, serum water, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at onset of LRR. The 0.08 mg/min infusion of L-tryptophan had a less pronounced effect, with statistically significant reductions of phenobarbital concentrations at onset of LRR in brain and CSF. L-Tryptophan also significantly reduced the total dose and the concentrations of ethanol in serum, brain, and CSF required to produce LRR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Pentobarbital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The drug is administered intravenously “to effect”. For general surgical anesthesia, the usual dose is... for use. The drug is indicated for use as a general anesthetic in dogs and cats. Although it may be used as a general surgical anesthetic for horses, it is usually given at a lower dose to cause...

  12. Partial characterization of a barbiturate-induced cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Kim, B H; Stevenson, P M; Fulco, A J

    1983-11-15

    A soluble cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase activity obtained from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced by at least 13 different barbiturates. In general, the potency of these compounds as inducers increases with their increasing lipophilicity. We have now shown that at least 4 of these barbiturates (phenobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital and methohexital) seem to induce the same active cytochrome P-450-containing enzyme by a non-substrate type mechanism. The partially purified enzymes obtained from cultures induced with each of the 4 barbiturates tested were all of similar molecular size (Mr = 130,000 +/- 10,000) and had similar turnover numbers (1400-1800 +/- 300) with either palmitoleate or myristate as substrates. None of the tested barbiturates served as substrates, activators or inhibitors of any of the monooxygenase preparations, nor did they appear to interact in any way with the monooxygenase enzyme or the P-450 component. PMID:6418173

  13. Development of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry method for the rapid detection and confirmation of illegal adulterated sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuyin; Tan, Huijie; Guo, Changchuan; Gong, Liping; Shi, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A novel method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) was developed and validated for the simultaneous screening, identification and quantification of sedative-hypnotics in dietary supplements. Chromatographic conditions were optimised and a full data-dependent MS(2) scan (MS/dd-MS(2)) in positive and negative ion mode was used. A single injection was sufficient to perform the simultaneous screening and identification/quantification of samples. The response showed a good linear relationship with analyte concentrations over wide ranges (e.g., 1.0-1000 ng g(-1) for diazepam) with all the determination coefficients (r(2)) > 0.9985. The method was validated, obtaining accuracy (intra- and inter-day) in the range of 94.5-105.3% and precision (intra- and inter-day) in the range of 0.4-8.9%, respectively. The detection limits (LODs) were in the range of 0.3-1.0 ng g(-1) for different analytes. Recoveries were performed and ranged from 74.1% to 90.2%, while all matrix effects were over the range of 85.4-93.6%. Finally, this method was used to detect sedative-hypnotics in commercial dietary supplements. Of a total of 45 batches of dietary supplements, only three batches were found to be positive samples with concentrations of diazepam, clonazepam and alprazolam at high levels (≥ 8.22 mg g(-1)).

  14. Cognitive Factors in Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert D.; Field, Peter B.

    1971-01-01

    This research explored the influence of cognitive variables on susceptibility to hypnosis. The three variables of concern in the present study are automatization, attention, and body experience. The results are summarized. (Author)

  15. Occurrence of a barbiturate-inducible catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Fulco, A J; Ruettinger, R T

    1987-05-01

    In a recent publication (Narhi, L.O. and Fulco, A.J.[1986] J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7160-7169) we described the characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 Dalton cytochrome P-450 fatty acid monooxygenase (P-450BM-3) induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581. We have now examined cell-free preparations from 12 distinct strains of B. megaterium and from one or two strains each of B. alvei, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. pumilis and B. subtilis for the presence of this inducible enzyme. Using Western blot analyses in combination with assays for fatty acid hydroxylase activity and cytochrome P-450, we were able to show that 11 of the 12 B. megaterium strains contained not only a strongly pentobarbital-inducible fatty acid monooxygenase identical to or polymorphic with P-450BM-3 but also significant levels of two smaller P-450 cytochromes that were the same as or similar to cytochromes P-450BM-1 and P-450BM-2 originally found in ATCC 14581. Unlike the 119,000 Dalton P-450, however, the two smaller P-450s were generally easily detectable in cultures grown to stationary phase in the absence of barbiturates and, with some exceptions, were not strongly induced by pentobarbital. None of the non-megaterium species of Bacillus tested exhibited significant levels of either fatty acid monooxygenase activity or cytochrome P-450. The one strain of B. megaterium that lacked inducible P-450BM-3 was also negative for BM-1 and BM-2. However, this strain (ATCC 13368) did contain a small but significant level of another P-450 cytochrome that others have identified as the oxygenase component of a steroid 15-beta-hydroxylase system. Our evidence suggests that the BM series of P-450 cytochromes is encoded by chromosomal (rather than by plasmid) DNA. PMID:3573977

  16. Endothelium attenuates ethanol induced vasoconstriction of arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, D.; Bove, A.A.; Walter, J. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously demonstrated that clinically relevant doses of ethanol (ETH) caused significant vasoconstriction of rabbit thoracic aorta. This study examined the role of endothelium in ethanol vasoconstriction. Thoracic aorta was harvested from 3 New Zealand White rabbits after anesthetization with sodium pentobarbital. Twelve aortic 3 mm rings were mounted in organ baths attached to force transducers and recording apparatus. Six of the twelve rings were denuded. Denudation was confirmed by challenge with acetylcholine (10-4 M). Resting tension was set at 10 grams and the rings equilibrated in 37 C Krebs-Heinsleit solution for 2 hours. Then, the response to norepinephrine (NE) was established (10-8 to 10-5 M). After reattaining resting tension, the response to ETH (500-2,500 ug/ml) was recorded. ETH produced significant vasoconstriction in both non-denuded (48{plus minus}7% of NE max) and denuded (58{plus minus}2% of NE max) arteries. Vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the denuded condition. The authors conclude that the predominant ETH action on arteries is based in vascular smooth muscle although endothelium acts to attenuate the ETH induced vasoconstrictor response.

  17. Jujuboside A, a neuroprotective agent from semen Ziziphi Spinosae ameliorates behavioral disorders of the dementia mouse model induced by Aβ 1-42.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Liu, Ai-jing; Li, Huan; Mao, Xin; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-shun; Jia, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) has been used as a hypnotic-sedative medicine for thousands of years. Recently, SZS has also shown notable neuroprotective activities via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in dementia animals. Jujuboside A (JuA), isolated from SZS, has been proved to be a major hypnotic-sedative component of SZS. In the present study, we firstly evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of JuA (0.02 and 0.2mg/kg) for five consecutive days on cognitive impairment induced by ICV injection of Aβ 1-42. The results showed that ICV treatment with JuA significantly mitigated learning and memory impairment in mice induced by Aβ 1-42 as measured by the Y-maze, active avoidance and Morris water maze. Furthermore, ICV treatment with JuA reduced the level of Aβ 1-42 in hippocampus, significantly inhibited the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and NO, and decreased the amount of the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice treated with ICV injection of Aβ 1-42. Shrinkage of nuclei, swollen and eccentrically dispersed neuronal bodies were observed in hippocampus of AD mice induced by Aβ 1-42, however, JuA noticeably improved the histopathological damage. Cumulatively, the present study indicates that JuA may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alzheimer' disease. PMID:24886882

  18. Desensitization of GABAergic receptors as a mechanism of zolpidem-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2011-08-01

    Sleepwalking is a frequently reported side effect of zolpidem which is a short-acting hypnotic drug potentiating activity of GABA(A) receptors. Paradoxically, the most commonly used medications for somnambulism are benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, which also potentiate activity of GABA(A) receptors. It is proposed that zolpidem-induced sleepwalking can be explained by the desensitization of GABAergic receptors located on serotonergic neurons. According to the proposed model, the delay between desensitization of GABA receptors and a compensatory decrease in serotonin release constitutes the time window for parasomnias. The occurrence of sleepwalking depends on individual differences in receptor desensitization, autoregulation of serotonin release and drug pharmacokinetics. The proposed mechanism of interaction between GABAergic and serotonergic systems can be also relevant for zolpidem abuse and zolpidem-induced hallucinations. It is therefore suggested that special care should be taken when zolpidem is used in patients taking at the same time selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:21565448

  19. Desensitization of GABAergic receptors as a mechanism of zolpidem-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2011-08-01

    Sleepwalking is a frequently reported side effect of zolpidem which is a short-acting hypnotic drug potentiating activity of GABA(A) receptors. Paradoxically, the most commonly used medications for somnambulism are benzodiazepines, especially clonazepam, which also potentiate activity of GABA(A) receptors. It is proposed that zolpidem-induced sleepwalking can be explained by the desensitization of GABAergic receptors located on serotonergic neurons. According to the proposed model, the delay between desensitization of GABA receptors and a compensatory decrease in serotonin release constitutes the time window for parasomnias. The occurrence of sleepwalking depends on individual differences in receptor desensitization, autoregulation of serotonin release and drug pharmacokinetics. The proposed mechanism of interaction between GABAergic and serotonergic systems can be also relevant for zolpidem abuse and zolpidem-induced hallucinations. It is therefore suggested that special care should be taken when zolpidem is used in patients taking at the same time selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  20. Inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced teratogenesis by beta-ionone.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Carneiro, M R; De-Oliveira, A C A X; De-Carvalho, R R; Araujo, I B; Souza, C A M; Kuriyama, S N; Paumgartten, F J R

    2003-03-01

    Beta-ionone (BI) is a degraded (C 13) sesquiterpene found in plant essential oils. It has been used in the synthesis of perfume chemicals and vitamin A. Recently, it was reported that BI is a rather potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP2B1-catalysed reactions in rat liver microsomes. The present study was performed to investigate whether inhibition of CYP2B1 reactions by BI could lead to an attenuation of cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced embryotoxicity in the rat. In a preliminary experiment, a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbital sleeping time in male and female Wistar rats suggested that BI inhibits CYP2B1 in vivo as well. In a second experiment, rats were treated by gavage with BI (0, 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg body wt) 45 min prior to a subcutaneous injection of either CP (7.5 mg/kg body wt) or its vehicle (saline) on day 11 of pregnancy. BI alone, at the highest dose tested, caused a high proportion of resorptions. Lower doses of BI, however, clearly attenuated CP-induced embryolethality and teratogenicity. These results seem to support the view that, as far as rats are concerned, CYP2B1 plays an important role in the conversion of CP into its embryolethal and teratogenic metabolites.

  1. Inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced teratogenesis by beta-ionone.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Carneiro, M R; De-Oliveira, A C A X; De-Carvalho, R R; Araujo, I B; Souza, C A M; Kuriyama, S N; Paumgartten, F J R

    2003-03-01

    Beta-ionone (BI) is a degraded (C 13) sesquiterpene found in plant essential oils. It has been used in the synthesis of perfume chemicals and vitamin A. Recently, it was reported that BI is a rather potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP2B1-catalysed reactions in rat liver microsomes. The present study was performed to investigate whether inhibition of CYP2B1 reactions by BI could lead to an attenuation of cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced embryotoxicity in the rat. In a preliminary experiment, a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbital sleeping time in male and female Wistar rats suggested that BI inhibits CYP2B1 in vivo as well. In a second experiment, rats were treated by gavage with BI (0, 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg body wt) 45 min prior to a subcutaneous injection of either CP (7.5 mg/kg body wt) or its vehicle (saline) on day 11 of pregnancy. BI alone, at the highest dose tested, caused a high proportion of resorptions. Lower doses of BI, however, clearly attenuated CP-induced embryolethality and teratogenicity. These results seem to support the view that, as far as rats are concerned, CYP2B1 plays an important role in the conversion of CP into its embryolethal and teratogenic metabolites. PMID:12565197

  2. Kinetics of drug action in disease states. XXXVII. Effects of acute fluid overload and water deprivation on the hypnotic activity of phenobarbital and the neurotoxicity of theophylline in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhi, J G; Levy, G

    1989-12-01

    Fluid overload and dehydration are potentially serious physiologic perturbations. Their effects on the pharmacodynamics of drugs are essentially unknown. This investigation was designed to determine the effects of acute fluid overload or water deprivation on the hypnotic activity of phenobarbital and on the neurotoxicity of theophylline in male Lewis rats. In the first experiment, 5% dextrose in water (D5W) was infused i.v. in an amount equal to 5 or 10% of body weight and phenobarbital was infused immediately thereafter until the onset of loss of righting reflex (LRR). The total infused dose and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of phenobarbital at that time were significantly lower than in control animals. When phenobarbital was infused about 2.5 hr after D5W, the infused dose and the serum and CSF concentrations of phenobarbital at LRR were normal. When the rats received D5W and an injection of vasopressin, 25 I.U./kg, or vasopressin only, the infused dose and the serum and CSF concentrations of phenobarbital at LRR were significantly lower than in controls despite the 2.5-hr interval between the respective pretreatments and the phenobarbital infusion. Water deprivation for 24 or 48 hr had no significant effect on phenobarbital dose and concentrations at LRR. Intravenous infusion of D5W to 10% of body weight immediately or 2.5 hr before theophylline infusion had no significant effect on the total infused dose and the serum and CSF concentrations of theophylline at onset of maximal seizures. This lack of effect occurred despite appreciable hyponatremia and hypomagnesemia immediately after D5W infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Kinetics of drug action in disease states. XXXIX. Effect of orally administered activated charcoal on the hypnotic activity of phenobarbital and the neurotoxicity of theophylline administered intravenously to rats with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A; Levy, G

    1990-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) sensitivity to the hypnotic (general anesthetic) action of phenobarbital and to the neurotoxic (convulsive) action of theophylline is greater in rats with acute renal failure than in normal animals, consistent with clinical observations. In the case of phenobarbital, this increased sensitivity can be produced in normal rats by infusion of a solution of the lyophilized dialysate of serum from rats with renal failure. It was hypothesized that the relevant constituent(s) of this dialysate may circulate between the blood and the intestinal lumen and that it (they) can be adsorbed by orally administered activated charcoal and thereby removed from the body. If so, treatment of renal failure rats with activated charcoal should partly reverse the increased CNS sensitivity to phenobarbital and to other drugs similarly affected. Accordingly, rats with renal failure produced by bilateral ligation of ureters were given an aqueous suspension of activated charcoal, about 1 g per kg body weight, orally every 8 hr for six doses. Uremic controls received equal volumes of water. About 2 hr after the last dose, the animals were infused i.v. with phenobarbital to onset of loss of righting reflex or with theophylline to onset of maximal seizures. In the phenobarbital study, charcoal treatment partly reversed the hypothermia associated with renal failure and caused a reduction of creatinine and total bilirubin concentrations in serum. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of phenobarbital at onset of loss of the righting reflex was significantly higher in charcoal treated rats than in their controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Drugs that antagonize limb flick behavior induced by D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in cats.

    PubMed

    Haigler, H J; Spring, D D

    1979-06-28

    In cats observed in their home cages limb flicks (LF) are a sensitive measure of the behavioral effects of LSD. LF induced by LSD (50 microgram/kg) were blocked by dextrorphan (0.6 mg/kg), dextromethorphan (0.6 mg/kg), and imipramine (5 mg/kg) at doses that did not produce ataxia or sleep. Levorphanol (0.6 mg/kg), a narcotic that is a congener of dextrorphan, did not block LF induced by LSD possibly because it produced an excitatory effect when given alone. Pentobarbital at low doses (2 and 4 mg/kg) increased the number of LF induced by LSD but at a high dose (8 mg/kg) decreased LF induced by LSD either by producing ataxia, so the cats tended to remain immobile, or by producing sleep. Chlorpromazine (CPZ) at three doses (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) attenuated the effects of LSD on LF, but did not block LF as completely as the above three blocking drugs, and produced ataxia and sleep.

  5. The Gastrointestinal Irritation of Polygala Saponins and Its Potential Mechanism In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Li; Xia, Nan; Tang, PeiPei; Hong, Yi; Wang, ZiZhen; Liu, YaJie; Liu, YanJu; Liu, JianJun; Li, XiangQiong

    2015-01-01

    Processing alters the pharmacological activity and reduces the gastrointestinal toxicity of the polygalae. To investigate the effect of processing, different glycosyl substituent products were tested. Hypnotic and subhypnotic doses of pentobarbital-induced sleep tests on mice were used to evaluate the sedative activity of polygala saponins with different glycosyl substituents; isolated gut motility experiment was employed to study excitatory effects of different polygala saponins; the gastrointestinal irritation effects of different polygala saponins were compared by measuring the levels of gastric PGE2 and intestinal TNF-α on mice. When compared with control, Onjisaponin B (OJB) and tenuifolin (TEN), but not senegenin (SNG), significantly increased the number of sleeping mice and prolonged the sleeping time (P < 0.05); 80, 40, and 20 mg/L of OJB and 80 mg/L of TEN, but not SNG, obviously changed the amplitude and frequency of isolated jejunum (P < 0.05); all the three compounds significantly decreased the level of gastric PGE2 but had no obvious influences on the reduction of intestinal TNF-α level. For sedative and hypnotic effects, OJB > TEN > SNG; for the protection form gastrointestinal irritation and damages, OJB > TEN > SNG. Therefore, in processing Polygala, glycosyl breaking may be related to the decline of pharmacological activity and gastrointestinal toxicity of polygala saponins. PMID:25705699

  6. Zolpidem, a clinical hypnotic that affects electronic transfer, alters synaptic activity through potential GABA receptors in the nervous system without significant free radical generation.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2009-01-01

    Zolpidem (trade name Ambien) has attracted much interest as a sleep-inducing agent and also in research. Attention has been centered mainly on receptor binding and electrochemistry in the central nervous system which are briefly addressed herein. A novel integrated approach to mode of action is presented. The pathways to be discussed involve basicity, reduction potential, electrostatics, cell signaling, GABA receptor binding, electron transfer (ET), pharmacodynamics, structure activity relationships (SAR) and side effects. The highly conjugated pyridinium salt formed by protonation of the amidine moiety is proposed to be the active form acting as an ET agent. Extrapolation of reduction potentials for related compounds supports the premise that zolpidem may act as an ET species in vivo. From recent literature reports, electrostatics is believed to play a significant role in drug action. The pyridinium cation displays molecular electrostatic potential which may well play a role energetically or as a bridging mechanism. An SAR analysis points to analogy with other physiologically active xenobiotics, namely benzodiazepines and paraquat in the conjugated iminium category. Inactivity of metabolites indicates that the parent is the active form of zolpidem. Absence of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress is in line with minor side effects. In contrast, generally, the prior literature contains essentially no discussion of these fundamental biochemical relationships. Pharmacodynamics may play an important role. Concerning behavior at the blood-brain barrier, useful insight can be gained from investigations of the related cationic anesthetics that are structurally related to acetyl choline. Evidently, the neutral form of the drug penetrates the neuronal membrane, with the salt form operating at the receptor. The pathways of zolpidem have several clinical implications since the agent affects sedation, electroencephalographic activity, oxidative metabolites and

  7. Effect of nicotinic acid on the sleep time and tolerance induced by ethanol in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Toro, A.; Yojay, L.

    1986-05-01

    The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (50 mg/kg) of nicotinic acid (NA), markedly decreased the sleep time of rats pretreated (10 min before), post-treated (10 min after) or simultaneously treated with ethanol (4 g/Kg i.p.). A similar effect was observed on the sleep time induced by pentobarbital (37 mg/Kg i.p.). Blood alcohol levels (BAL) were the same or slightly higher in the animals pretreated with NA than in the control animals pre-injected with saline. Nicotinamide and NAD had no effect. A total of three doses of ethanol, each one administered weekly or biweekly, induced tolerance, which persisted for approximately six weeks. After this period, a hypersensitivity to ethanol appeared to develop. This phenomenon was not observed when NA was pre-injected 10 min before each dose of ethanol. The sleep time of the latter animals did not change neither during the treatment period nor after six weeks without any treatment. BAL were slightly higher in NA treated than in control animals. The authors concluded that the effect of NA on the sleep time and tolerance induced by ethanol is not due to an increased rate of its metabolism and/or elimination but to a long-lasting effect that decreases the sensitivity of the nervous cells to ethanol. The mechanisms involved in the shortening of the sleep time as well as those responsible for the loss of the capacity to develop tolerance are under current investigation.

  8. Rabbit model of chest wall rigidity induced by fentanyl and the effects of apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Soares, João Henrique Neves; Brosnan, Robert J; Smith, Andrea; Mayhew, Philipp D

    2014-10-01

    A rabbit model for fentanyl-induced chest wall rigidity and the effect of apomorphine was evaluated. Eleven New Zealand adult rabbits were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. An esophageal balloon catheter was used to estimate pleural pressure (P(pl)). Chest wall compliance (C(cw)) at baseline was calculated during pentobarbital anesthesia. A loading dose of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of fentanyl followed by infusion of 0.01 mg kg(-1) min(-1) was started in all animals, and C(cw) reassessed. In the rabbits that developed decreased C(cw), apomorphine 0.4 mg kg(-1) followed by a 0.004 mg kg(-1) min(-1) was administered and C(cw) was reassessed. C(cw) at baseline and after fentanyl and fentanyl+apomorphine were compared with one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni-Holm test (P<0.05). In 5 rabbits, C(cw) decreased significantly after fentanyl administration and apomorphine was able to restore C(cw) to baseline values. Rabbits can be used as a model for fentanyl-induced chest wall rigidity. Results from this study support central dopaminergic pathways as being at least partially responsible for the opioid-induced chest wall rigidity.

  9. Assessment of the Anti-anginal Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine Using Vasopressin-Induced Angina Model Rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Nakamura, Yuji; Wada, Takeshi; Kishie, Takuya; Enkhsaikhan, Azjargal; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Zhu, Bingmei; Xu, Bin; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous tetramethylpyrazine has been widely used in China as a complementary and/or alternative medicine to treat patients with ischemic heart disease. We assessed the anti-anginal effect of tetramethylpyrazine (10 mg/kg, intravenously (i.v.), n=6) in comparison with that of its vehicle, saline (1 mL/kg, i.v., n=6), using vasopressin-induced angina model rats. First, Donryu rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and the surface lead I electrocardiogram was continuously monitored. Administration of vasopressin (0.5 IU/kg, i.v.) to the rats depressed the S-wave level of the electrocardiogram, indicating the onset of subendocardial ischemia. However, pretreatment with tetramethylpyrazine suppressed the vasopressin-induced depression of the S-wave level, which was not observed following pretreatment with its vehicle alone (saline), suggesting that tetramethylpyrazine ameliorated the vasopressin-induced subendocardial ischemia in vivo. These results may provide experimental evidence for the empirically known clinical efficacy of tetramethylpyrazine against ischemic heart disease, and could provide clues to better understanding its in vivo mechanism of action. PMID:27476945

  10. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... general anesthetic in dogs and cats. Although it may be used as a general surgical anesthetic for horses... local anesthetic. It may also be used in dogs for the symptomatic treatment of strychnine poisoning. (ii) The drug is administered intravenously “to effect”. For general surgical anesthesia, the usual dose...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general anesthetic in dogs and cats. Although it may be used as a general surgical anesthetic for horses... local anesthetic. It may also be used in dogs for the symptomatic treatment of strychnine poisoning. (ii) The drug is administered intravenously “to effect”. For general surgical anesthesia, the usual dose...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... general anesthetic in dogs and cats. Although it may be used as a general surgical anesthetic for horses... local anesthetic. It may also be used in dogs for the symptomatic treatment of strychnine poisoning. (ii) The drug is administered intravenously “to effect”. For general surgical anesthesia, the usual dose...

  13. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  14. Effect of trimebutine maleate on bethanechol-induced contractions of gastrointestinal tract in conscious and anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Iizuka, M; Takaiti, O

    1983-04-01

    The effect of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on bethanechol-induced contractions of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs was studied by means of chronically implanted force transducers, and it was compared with that of metoclopramide and atropine. During the period of motor quiescence in the fasted state of conscious dog, a bolus i.v. injection of 10 to 50 micrograms/kg bethanechol caused rhythmic contractions in the stomach and small intestine, in which an increase in basal tone was often accompanied in the distal ileum. The stomach responded to a less extent than the small intestine. Intravenous infusion of TM-906 at 3.0 mg/kg-hr for 20 to 60 min reduced the gastric contractions induced by 20 to 30 micrograms/kg bethanechol in five out of six conscious animals examined. The drug, however, enhanced the contractions of the duodenum and jejunum in a majority of the animals. Metoclopramide (1.8 mg/kg-hr) showed a tendency to potentiate the bethanechol-induced contractions in the stomach and small intestine, and atropine (0.06 mg/kg-hr) diminished them. In pentobarbital-Na anaesthetized dogs, effects of TM-906 on bethanechol-induced contractions resembled those in conscious dogs, inhibition in the stomach and potentiation in the small intestine. PMID:6136618

  15. Spontaneous hypnotic age regression: case report.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, D; Rosenfeld, A

    1984-12-01

    Age regression--reliving the past as though it were occurring in the present, with age appropriate vocabulary, mental content, and affect--can occur with instruction in highly hypnotizable individuals, but has rarely been reported to occur spontaneously, especially as a primary symptom. The psychiatric presentation and treatment of a 16-year-old girl with spontaneous age regressions accessible and controllable with hypnosis and psychotherapy are described. Areas of overlap and divergence between this patient's symptoms and those found in patients with hysterical fugue and multiple personality syndrome are also discussed.

  16. Neurobiology of nitrous oxide-induced antinociceptive effects.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, Masahiko; Maze, Mervyn

    2002-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), or laughing gas, has been used for clinical anesthesia for more than a century and is still commonly used. While the anesthetic/hypnotic mechanisms of N2O remain largely unknown, the underlying mechanisms of its analgesic/antinociceptive effects have been elucidated during the last several decades. Evidence to date indicate that N2O induces opioid peptide release in the periaqueductal gray area of the midbrain leading to the activation of the descending inhibitory pathways, which results in modulation of the pain/nociceptive processing in the spinal cord. The types of opioid peptide induced by N2O and the subtypes of opioid receptors that mediate the antinociceptive effects of N2O appear to depend on various factors including the species and/or strain, the regions of the brain, and the paradigms of behavior testing used for the experiments. Among three types of descending inhibitory pathways, the descending noradrenergic inhibitory pathway seems to play the most prominent role. The specific elements involved are now being resolved. PMID:11936558

  17. Chemically-induced alteration of UDP-glucuronic acid concentration in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1983-01-01

    Since many xenobiotics alter hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity, their effect on UDPGA concentration was determined. Rats were pretreated with: 1) microsomal enzyme inducers (7,8-benzoflavone, benzo(a)pyrene, butylated hydroxyanisole, isosafrole, 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital, pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, trans-stilbene oxide); 2) inhibitors of microsomal enzymes (cobaltous chloride, piperonyl butoxide, SKF 525-A, borneol, galactosamine); 3) hepatotoxins (allyl alcohol, aflatoxin B1, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate, bromobenzene, cadmium chloride, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethylene), and 4) commonly used anesthetics (pentobarbital, urethane, diethyl ether, halothane, enflurane, methoxyflurane). Rats were decapitated before removal of the liver. All inducers except PCN and isosafrole increased UDPGA 36-85% above control. Mixed-function oxidase inhibitors had no effect whereas borneol and galactosamine reduced UDPGA 85-90%. Aflatoxin B1 and cadmium produced decreases of 59 and 25%, respectively. Hepatic UDPGA content was diminished 70-95% after exposure to the inhalation anesthetics, whereas the other anesthetics reduced UDPGA about 25%. Thus, numerous xenobiotics alter the concentration of UDPGA in rat liver, which may influence the rate of glucoronidation.

  18. State-dependent amygdala stimulation-induced cardiovascular effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Liang, Keng-Chen; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2009-12-31

    Stimulation of the amygdala is known to produce pressor, depressor, or has no effects. The present study was performed to test whether amygdala cardiovascular effects are influenced by consciousness states and by different types of anesthetics. Adult rats were set up for stimulation amygdala and measurement of blood pressure in a chronic preparation. After recovery, same sites of the amygdala were stimulated electrically for several trials with the rat under conscious or anesthetic states induced by pentobarbital, urethane, ketamine, alpha-chloralose and urethane plus alpha-chloralose, respectively. The interval between any two stimulation trials was at least 2 days. The stimulation was an 80-Hz, 0.5-ms, 100-micro A square wave pulse train lasting for 15 s. Cardiovascular responsive sites were found in the central, medial, and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala. In stimulating these responsive sites, significantly different cardiovascular effects were induced under a conscious state and an anesthetized state of the animal, yet no significant differences were found among the various anesthetic agents. We conclude, that the cardiovascular influence of the amygdala is state-dependent in the rat.

  19. The neuroplastic index p-FADD/FADD and phosphoprotein PEA-15, interacting at GABAA receptor, are upregulated in brain cortex during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Álvaro-Bartolomé, María; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) adaptor is involved in the signaling of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors, whose agonists stimulate its phosphoryaltion (p) increasing p-FADD/FADD ratio in brain. Whether FADD might also participate in the activation of dissimilar receptors such as the ligand-gated ion channels is not known. This study investigated the role of FADD and phosphoprotein-enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15, a FADD partner) in the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor, which mediates the hypnotic effect of midazolam. The main findings revealed that during the time course of midazolam (60 mg/kg)-induced hypnosis in mice (about 2 h) p-FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio) as well as p-PEA (and its phosphorylating Akt1 kinase) were markedly increased (36-80%) in brain cortex, and these effects were partially (only p-FADD) or fully prevented by flumazenil (a neutral allosteric ligand) and FG 7142 (a partial negative allosteric ligand) acting at GABAA receptors. The upregulation of cortical p-FADD/FADD was exclusively observed in the nucleus (up to 2.8-fold), where the transciption factor NF-κB was also increased (up to 46%), and that of p-PEA/p-Akt1 only in the cytosol (up to 53%), suggesting that p-FADD/p-PEA/p-Akt1 are involved in sleep-induced neuroplasticity. Repeated treatment with midazolam (60 mg/kg, 4 days) induced behavioral (prolonged sleep latency and reduced sleeping time) and neurochemical (reduced p-FADD/p-PEA contents) tolerance. These findings indicated that p-FADD/p-PEA are novel molecules in GABAA receptor signaling and that cortical p-PEA and p-FADD, working in tandem, are involved in the complex molecular processes leading to the hypnotic effect of midazolam in mice.

  20. The neuroplastic index p-FADD/FADD and phosphoprotein PEA-15, interacting at GABAA receptor, are upregulated in brain cortex during midazolam-induced hypnosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Álvaro-Bartolomé, María; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) adaptor is involved in the signaling of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors, whose agonists stimulate its phosphoryaltion (p) increasing p-FADD/FADD ratio in brain. Whether FADD might also participate in the activation of dissimilar receptors such as the ligand-gated ion channels is not known. This study investigated the role of FADD and phosphoprotein-enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15, a FADD partner) in the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor, which mediates the hypnotic effect of midazolam. The main findings revealed that during the time course of midazolam (60 mg/kg)-induced hypnosis in mice (about 2 h) p-FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio) as well as p-PEA (and its phosphorylating Akt1 kinase) were markedly increased (36-80%) in brain cortex, and these effects were partially (only p-FADD) or fully prevented by flumazenil (a neutral allosteric ligand) and FG 7142 (a partial negative allosteric ligand) acting at GABAA receptors. The upregulation of cortical p-FADD/FADD was exclusively observed in the nucleus (up to 2.8-fold), where the transciption factor NF-κB was also increased (up to 46%), and that of p-PEA/p-Akt1 only in the cytosol (up to 53%), suggesting that p-FADD/p-PEA/p-Akt1 are involved in sleep-induced neuroplasticity. Repeated treatment with midazolam (60 mg/kg, 4 days) induced behavioral (prolonged sleep latency and reduced sleeping time) and neurochemical (reduced p-FADD/p-PEA contents) tolerance. These findings indicated that p-FADD/p-PEA are novel molecules in GABAA receptor signaling and that cortical p-PEA and p-FADD, working in tandem, are involved in the complex molecular processes leading to the hypnotic effect of midazolam in mice. PMID:26282360

  1. Effect of tramadol on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion: an experimental study*

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Jahanshahi, Amirali; Sotoudeh, Amir; Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Aslani, Kimia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tramadol has a protective effect against lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar male rats were allocated to one of two groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemia-reperfusion + tramadol (IR+T). The animals were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of ketamine and xylazine (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively). All of the animals underwent 2-h ischemia by occlusion of the femoral artery and 24-h reperfusion. Prior to the occlusion of the femoral artery, 250 IU heparin were administered via the jugular vein in order to prevent clotting. The rats in the IR+T group were treated with tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) immediately before reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, the animals were euthanized with pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), the lungs were carefully removed, and specimens were properly prepared for histopathological and biochemical studies. RESULTS: Myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the IR+T group (p = 0.001 for both). Histological abnormalities, such as intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, were significantly more common in the IR group than in the IR+T group. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that tramadol prevents lung tissue injury after skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:24068264

  2. Acute transient coronary sinus hypertension impairs left ventricular function and induces myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Pratt, J W; Schertel, E R; Schaefer, S L; Esham, K E; McClure, D E; Heck, C F; Myerowitz, P D

    1996-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of acute coronary sinus hypertension (CSH) on systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) function. Coronary sinus pressure was elevated to 25 mmHg for 3 h in eight pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs and then relieved. LV contractility was assessed by preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and end-systolic elastance (Ees). Diastolic function was assessed by the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau) and the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR). PRSW and Ees decreased progressively, and tau and the slope of the EDPVR increased progressively with CSH. These changes persisted after relief of CSH. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptor blockade, performed in six dogs, did not alter the effects of CSH on systolic or diastolic function. The LV wet-to-dry weight ratios of the groups with CSH were significantly greater than those of a control group without CSH. We conclude that CSH results in changes in the left ventricle that depress contractility, prolong active relaxation, and increase diastolic stiffness. The dysfunction was not the direct effect of CSH or autonomic reflex activation, but may have been induced by fluid accumulation within the interstitium.

  3. The volatile anesthetic isoflurane induces ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mihwa; Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The volatile anesthetic isoflurane protects against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury by releasing renal tubular TGF-β1. Since adenosine is a powerful cytoprotective molecule, we tested whether TGF-β1 generated by isoflurane induces renal tubular ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) and adenosine to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Isoflurane induced new CD73 synthesis and increased adenosine generation in cultured kidney proximal tubule cells and in mouse kidney. Moreover, a TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody prevented isoflurane-mediated induction of CD73 activity. Mice anesthetized with isoflurane after renal ischemia and reperfusion had significantly reduced plasma creatinine and decreased renal tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis compared to pentobarbital-anesthetized mice. Isoflurane failed to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in CD73 deficient mice, in mice pretreated with a selective CD73 inhibitor or mice treated with an adenosine receptor antagonist. The TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody or the CD73 inhibitor attenuated isoflurane-mediated protection against HK-2 cell apoptosis. Thus, isoflurane causes TGF-β1-dependent induction of renal tubular CD73 and adenosine generation to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Modulation of this pathway may have important therapeutic implications to reduce morbidity and mortality arising from ischemic acute kidney injury. PMID:23423261

  4. Attenuation of ischaemia-induced regional myocardial acidosis by bevantolol, a beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hino, T; Sakai, K; Ichihara, K; Abiko, Y

    1989-04-01

    In dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbital, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded for 90 min. so that about 1/2 of the original flow was allowed to flow (partial occlusion). Bevantolol (a beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (a reference drug) was injected intravenously 30 min. after partial occlusion. Regional myocardial pH was measured by a micro glass pH electrode inserted in the LAD area. Partial occlusion decreased myocardial pH by 0.62 to 0.74. Bevantolol (1.0 mg/kg) or propranolol (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased myocardial pH, that had been decreased by partial occlusion, within 60 min. after the injection. Restoration of myocardial [H+] (defined as return towards a lower [H+] to the preocclusion level) (calculated from the pH data) induced by bevantolol and that induced by propranolol were 64.0 and 66.4% (measured 60 min. after the injection), respectively. Bevantolol or propranolol decreased heart rate also. Even in the paced heart, bevantolol restored the myocardial [H+] that had been increased by partial occlusion. These results suggest that bevantolol has a favorable effect on the ischaemic myocardium as has propranolol, and that the pH effect of bevantolol is not primarily due to a decrease in heart rate.

  5. Blood-brain barrier alteration after microwave-induced hyperthermia is purely a thermal effect: I. Temperature and power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, E.; Salcman, M.; Broadwell, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of microwave-induced hyperthermia on the blood-brain barrier was studied in 21 Sprague-Dawley rats. Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, animals were place in a stereotactic frame, and an interstitial microwave antenna operating at 2450 MHz was inserted in a bony groove drilled parallel to the sagittal suture. Some antennae were equipped with an external cooling jacket. Temperature measurements were made lateral to the antenna by fluoroptical thermometry, and power was calculated from the time-temperature profile. Five minutes prior to termination of microwave irradiation, horseradish peroxidase (1 mg/20 g body weight) was injected intravenously. Extravasation of horseradish peroxidase was observed in brain tissue heated above 44.3 degrees C for 30 minutes and at 42.5 degrees C for 60 minutes. Microwave irradiation failed to open the blood-brain barrier when brain temperatures were sustained below 40.3 degrees C by the cooling system. Extravasation of blood-borne peroxidase occurred at sites of maximal temperature elevation, even when these did not coincide with the site of maximum power density. The data suggest that microwave-induced hyperthermia is an effective means for opening the blood-brain barrier and that the mechanism is not related to the nonthermal effect of microwaves.

  6. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  7. Effects of Melandrium firmum methanolic extract on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Son, Jong-Keun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg−1) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action. PMID:22231294

  8. Inhalation administration of valerena-4,7(11)-diene from Nardostachys chinensis roots ameliorates restraint stress-induced changes in murine behavior and stress-related factors.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroaki; Omameuda, Yuka; Ito, Michiho; Fukuda, Tatsuo; Kaneko, Shuji; Akaike, Akinori; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Dried Nardostachys chinensis roots contain sesquiterpenoids that are widely used as herbal tranquilizers. We previously identified the highly sedative sesquiterpenoid valerena-4,7(11)-diene (VLD) from this plant. In the present study, we investigated stress reducing effects of VLD and the associated mechanisms of action. Application of 15-min restraint stresses induced excitatory behaviors in mice. Immobility times in the forced swim test and sleeping times in the pentobarbital sleep test were shortened in the stressed group by 47% and 43%, respectively, compared with the control group. Furthermore, restraint stress increased serum corticosterone levels by 75%, and cerebral serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels. Inhaled VLD (300 µg/cage) suppressed stress-induced excitatory behaviors and significantly reduced stress-induced blood corticosterone, cerebral 5-HT, and DA levels. These results suggest that VLD interacts with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system. These interactions appear to involve GABAergic and D2 antagonist activities. Moreover, tests in anosmic and intravenously treated mice showed that the sedative effect of inhaled VLD was expressed via olfactory stimulation and pulmonary absorption. Although more studies are required to further elucidate the properties of this compound, our studies suggest that VLD may be an effective anti-stress aromatherapy for humans. PMID:24882416

  9. Deletion of the Wolfram syndrome-related gene Wfs1 results in increased sensitivity to ethanol in female mice.

    PubMed

    Raud, Sirli; Reimets, Riin; Loomets, Maarja; Sütt, Silva; Altpere, Alina; Visnapuu, Tanel; Innos, Jürgen; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Volke, Vallo; Vasar, Eero

    2015-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome, induced by mutation in WFS1 gene, increases risk of developing mood disorders in humans. In mice, Wfs1 deficiency cause higher anxiety-like behaviour and increased response to anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam, a GABAA receptor agonist. As GABAergic system is also target for ethanol, we analysed its anxiolytic-like and sedative properties in Wfs1-deficient mice using elevated plus-maze test and tests measuring locomotor activity and coordination, respectively. Additionally loss of righting reflex test was conducted to study sedative/hypnotic properties of ethanol, ketamine and pentobarbital. To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice enzymatic colour test was used. Finally, gene expression of alpha subunits of GABAA receptors following ethanol treatment was studied by real-time-PCR. Compared to wild-types, Wfs1-deficient mice were more sensitive to ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect, but less responsive to impairment of motor coordination. Ethanol and pentobarbital, but not ketamine, caused longer duration of hypnosis in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of Gabra2 subunit at 30 minutes after ethanol injection was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of Wfs1-deficient mice as compared to respective vehicle-treated mice. For the temporal lobe, similar change in Gabra2 mRNA occurred at 60 minutes after ethanol treatment in Wfs1-deficient mice. No changes were detected in Gabra1 and Gabra3 mRNA following ethanol treatment. Taken together, increased anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in Wfs1-deficient mice is probably related to altered Gabra2 gene expression. Increased anti-anxiety effect of GABAA receptor agonists in the present work and earlier studies (Luuk et al., 2009) further suggests importance of Wfs1 gene in the regulation of emotional behaviour. PMID:25725334

  10. Deletion of the Wolfram syndrome-related gene Wfs1 results in increased sensitivity to ethanol in female mice.

    PubMed

    Raud, Sirli; Reimets, Riin; Loomets, Maarja; Sütt, Silva; Altpere, Alina; Visnapuu, Tanel; Innos, Jürgen; Luuk, Hendrik; Plaas, Mario; Volke, Vallo; Vasar, Eero

    2015-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome, induced by mutation in WFS1 gene, increases risk of developing mood disorders in humans. In mice, Wfs1 deficiency cause higher anxiety-like behaviour and increased response to anxiolytic-like effect of diazepam, a GABAA receptor agonist. As GABAergic system is also target for ethanol, we analysed its anxiolytic-like and sedative properties in Wfs1-deficient mice using elevated plus-maze test and tests measuring locomotor activity and coordination, respectively. Additionally loss of righting reflex test was conducted to study sedative/hypnotic properties of ethanol, ketamine and pentobarbital. To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ethanol in mice enzymatic colour test was used. Finally, gene expression of alpha subunits of GABAA receptors following ethanol treatment was studied by real-time-PCR. Compared to wild-types, Wfs1-deficient mice were more sensitive to ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect, but less responsive to impairment of motor coordination. Ethanol and pentobarbital, but not ketamine, caused longer duration of hypnosis in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of Gabra2 subunit at 30 minutes after ethanol injection was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of Wfs1-deficient mice as compared to respective vehicle-treated mice. For the temporal lobe, similar change in Gabra2 mRNA occurred at 60 minutes after ethanol treatment in Wfs1-deficient mice. No changes were detected in Gabra1 and Gabra3 mRNA following ethanol treatment. Taken together, increased anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in Wfs1-deficient mice is probably related to altered Gabra2 gene expression. Increased anti-anxiety effect of GABAA receptor agonists in the present work and earlier studies (Luuk et al., 2009) further suggests importance of Wfs1 gene in the regulation of emotional behaviour.

  11. Impact of Mitochondrial Ca2+-Sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels in Sildenafil-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Behmenburg, Friederike; Dorsch, Marianne; Huhn, Ragnar; Mally, David; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels are involved in myocardial ischemic preconditioning. Their role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection is unknown. We investigated whether sildenafil-induced acute cardioprotection is mediated by activation of mBKCa channels in the rat heart in vitro. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were randomized and anesthetized with pentobarbital (90 mg/kg). Hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff system and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at a constant pressure of 80 mmHg. Hearts underwent 30 min of global ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. At the end of the experiments infarct size was determined by TTC staining. In the control group rats were not further treated. Sildenafil (3 μM) was administered over 10 min before the beginning of ischemia. The mBKCa channel inhibitor paxilline (1 μM) was administered with and without sildenafil before the onset of ischemia. The pathway underlying sildenafil-induced cardioprotection was further investigated with the protein kinase G blocker KT5823 (1 μM). Myocardial cGMP concentration was measured by ELISA. Data (mean±SD) were analysed with a one and two-way analysis of variance as appropriate. Results In control animals infarct size was 52±8%. Sildenafil increased cGMP concentration and reduced infarct size to 35±6% (P<0.05 vs. control). Paxilline and KT5823 completely blocked sildenafil-induced cardioprotection (paxilline+sildenafil: 50±8%, KT5823+sildenafil: 45±8%; both P<0.05 vs. sildenafil). Functional heart parameters and coronary flow were not different between the study groups. Conclusion This study shows that in male rats protein kinase G-dependent opening of mBKCa channels plays a pivotal role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection. PMID:26671662

  12. Characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000-dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1986-06-01

    A unique cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 is strongly induced by phenobarbital (Narhi, L. O., and Fulco, A. J. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2147-2150) and many other barbiturates (Kim, B.-H., and Fulco, A. J. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 116, 843-850). This monooxygenase has now been purified to homogeneity from pentobarbital-induced bacteria as a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 119,000 +/- 5,000 daltons. In the presence of NADPH and O2, it can catalyze the oxygenation of long chain fatty acids without the aid of any other protein. The enzyme has a catalytic center activity of 4,600 nmol of fatty acid oxygenated per nmol of P-450 (the highest activity yet reported for a P-450-dependent monooxygenase) and also functions as a highly active cytochrome c reductase in the presence of NADPH. The purified holoenzyme is a soluble protein containing 40 mol % hydrophobic amino acid residues and 1 mol each of FAD and FMN/mol of heme. It is isolated and purified in the low spin form but is converted to the high spin form in the presence of long chain fatty acids. The enzyme, which catalyzes the omega-2 hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids and the hydroxylation and epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids has its highest affinity (Km = 2 +/- 1 microM) for the C15 and C16 chain lengths. PMID:3086309

  13. N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. ); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. ); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

  14. Cardioprotective effects of timosaponin B II from Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xue-Yang; Chen, Jun-Jun; Li, Hong-Yan; Ma, Zhan-Qiang; Ma, Shi-Ping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Timosaponin B II (TB), a main bioactive constituent from Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge, on an isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction model in rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated with TB (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) or diltiazem hydrochloride (DH, 5 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for five days. At the 4th and 5th days, myocardial injury was induced by ISO injection (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for 2 consecutive days. After the induction, rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg) to record the electrocardiogram. Our research showed that ISO administration resulted in significant elevations in the ST-segment, the levels of cardiac injury biomarkers creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and concentrations of serum proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Pretreatment with TB significantly reversed these alterations induced by ISO challenge. The cardioprotective effects of TB were further proved by the histopathological examination. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of its actions revealed that TB pretreatment restored the ISO-induced decrease of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). Meanwhile, we found that the enhancement of antioxidant defense system might be associated with the increased heme oxygenase isoform 1 (HO-1) induction and activated nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf-2) translocation. Furthermore, the present research also demonstrated that nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 and subsequent HO-1 expression might be associated with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation. Taken together, our finding demonstrated that TB might have a potential benefit in preventing ischemic heart diseases like myocardial infarction.

  15. Edible oils for liver protection: hepatoprotective potentiality of Moringa oleifera seed oil against chemical-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Blowi, Ali S; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Ahmed, Atallah F; Rafatullah, Syed

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil (Ben oil; BO) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage in rats. The oil at 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT) and bilirubin levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the oil. There was a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in the liver tissue. The results obtained indicated that BO possesses potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage by lowering liver marker enzymes, MDA concentration, and elevating NP-SH and TP levels in liver tissue. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver. The results of this study showed that treatment with Ben oil or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by CCl(4) . The pentobarbital induced narcolepsy prolongation in mice was retarded by the Ben oil. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no morbidity or mortality. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linolic acid assay tests of the BO exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in both tests used. The possible mechanism(s) of the liver protective activity of Ben oil activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of antioxidant component(s) in the oil. Consequently, BO can be used as a therapeutic regime in treatment of some hepatic disorders. PMID:22757719

  16. Acute pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure of the airways to staphylococcal enterotoxin type B in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Desouza, Ivani A. . E-mail: ivanidesouza@fcm.unicamp.br; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Camargo, Enilton A.; Lima, Carmen S.P.; Teixeira, Simone A.; Muscara, Marcelo N.; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2006-11-15

    Staphylocococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that produces several enterotoxins, which are responsible for most part of pathological conditions associated to staphylococcal infections, including lung inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the underlying inflammatory mechanisms involved in leukocyte recruitment in rats exposed to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and intratracheally injected with either SEB or sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, 0.4 ml). Airways exposition to SEB (7.5-250 ng/trachea) caused a dose- and time-dependent neutrophil accumulation in BAL fluid, the maximal effects of which were observed at 4 h post-SEB exposure (250 ng/trachea). Eosinophils were virtually absent in BAL fluid, whereas mononuclear cell counts increased only at 24 h post-SEB. Significant elevations of granulocytes in bone marrow (mature and immature forms) and peripheral blood have also been detected. In BAL fluid, marked elevations in the levels of lipid mediators (LTB{sub 4} and PGE{sub 2}) and cytokines (TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-10) were observed after SEB instillation. The SEB-induced neutrophil accumulation in BAL fluid was reduced by pretreatment with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (3 mg/kg), the selective iNOS inhibitor compound 1400 W (5 mg/kg) and the lipoxygenase inhibitor AA-861 (200 {mu}g/kg). In separate experiments carried out with rat isolated peripheral neutrophils, SEB failed to induce neutrophil adhesion to serum-coated plates and chemotaxis. In conclusion, rat airways exposition to SEB causes a neutrophil-dependent lung inflammation at 4 h as result of the release of proinflammatory (NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4}, TNF-{alpha}, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-10)

  17. Antioxidant loading reduces oxidative stress induced by high-energy impulse noise (blast) exposure.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M; Armstrong, K L; William, M T; Cooper, M F

    2000-11-30

    Detonation of explosives, firing of large caliber weapons and occupational explosions, professional or accidental, produce high-energy impulse noise (blast) waves characterized by a rapid rise in atmospheric pressure (overpressure) followed by gradual decay to ambient level. Exposure to blast waves causes injury, predominantly to the hollow organs such as ears and lungs. We have previously reported that blast exposure can induce free radical-mediated oxidative stress in the lung characterized by antioxidant depletion, lipid peroxidation, and hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. In this study, we examined whether pre-loading, adequately fed rats, with pharmacological doses of antioxidants would reduce the response to blast. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were loaded with either 800 IU vitamin E (VE), 1000 mg vitamin C (VC) or 25 mg lipoic acid (LA) for 3 consecutive days by gavage before exposure to blast. Both VE, and LA were dissolved in 2 ml corn oil, but VC in 2 ml water. After the 3-day antioxidant loading, the rats were divided into six groups (five rats per group), deeply anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg body weight), then exposed to a low-level blast (62+/-2 kPa peak pressure and 5 ms duration). A matched number of groups were sham exposed and served as controls. One hour after exposure, all rats were euthanized then blood, and lung tissue was analyzed. We found that antioxidant loading resulted in restored Hb oxygenation, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Lung tissue VE content was elevated after loading but VC did not change possibly due to their different bioavailability and saturation kinetics. These observations, suggest that brief antioxidant loading with pharmacological doses can reduce blast-induced oxidative stress, and may have occupational and clinical implications. PMID:11154801

  18. Evaluation of the calcium-antagonist, antidiarrhoeic and central nervous system activities of Baccharis serraefolia.

    PubMed

    Tortoriello, J; Aguilar-Santamaría, L

    1996-09-01

    Baccharis serraefolia is a widely used plant to treat diarrhoea in Mexican traditional medicine. Although the methanolic extract of this plant has shown an important dose-dependent spasmolytic activity, its underlying mechanism has not been studied. In the present work, the methanolic extract of B. serraefolia significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures induced by strychnine and pentylenetetrazol; besides, it diminished the death rate and number of animals that exhibited convulsions. It produced potentiation of the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital. Oral administration produced an inhibition of gastrointestinal transit in mice as effective as that produced by loperamide. As to the effect on smooth muscles, the active extract produced an inhibition of contraction induced electrically, which could not be reversed by naloxone. The calcium concentration-contraction curve showed a rightward displacement when the extract was added to isolated guinea pig ileum depolarized with high K+ and cumulative concentrations of Ca2+. The results suggest that the methanolic extract does not interact with classical opiate receptors and its effects, at least that produced on smooth muscle, may be due to a probable interference with calcium influx and/or calcium release from an intra-cellular store. PMID:8887023

  19. Evaluation of the calcium-antagonist, antidiarrhoeic and central nervous system activities of Baccharis serraefolia.

    PubMed

    Tortoriello, J; Aguilar-Santamaría, L

    1996-09-01

    Baccharis serraefolia is a widely used plant to treat diarrhoea in Mexican traditional medicine. Although the methanolic extract of this plant has shown an important dose-dependent spasmolytic activity, its underlying mechanism has not been studied. In the present work, the methanolic extract of B. serraefolia significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures induced by strychnine and pentylenetetrazol; besides, it diminished the death rate and number of animals that exhibited convulsions. It produced potentiation of the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital. Oral administration produced an inhibition of gastrointestinal transit in mice as effective as that produced by loperamide. As to the effect on smooth muscles, the active extract produced an inhibition of contraction induced electrically, which could not be reversed by naloxone. The calcium concentration-contraction curve showed a rightward displacement when the extract was added to isolated guinea pig ileum depolarized with high K+ and cumulative concentrations of Ca2+. The results suggest that the methanolic extract does not interact with classical opiate receptors and its effects, at least that produced on smooth muscle, may be due to a probable interference with calcium influx and/or calcium release from an intra-cellular store.

  20. Antinociceptive effect of citronellal in mice.

    PubMed

    Melo, M S; Sena, L C S; Barreto, F J N; Bonjardim, L R; Almeida, J R G S; Lima, J T; De Sousa, D P; Quintans-Júnior, L J

    2010-04-01

    Citronellal is a monoterpene reported to be a major component of the essential oils in various aromatic species of plants. The present study evaluated the central nervous system depressant and antinociceptive properties of citronellal through behavioral experimental models. Following intraperitoneal injection, citronellal induced the reduction of spontaneous activity, ataxia, analgesia, and sedation. In pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, CTL (citronellal) at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly increased sleeping time (88.0 +/- 11.4, 100.2 +/- 16.4, and 119.5 +/- 20.9 min) when compared to vehicle solution injections (43.0 +/- 6.1). Citronellal (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of writhes (66.4 and 81.9%) in a writhing test and the number of paw licks during phase 1 (47.0 and 66.8%) and phase 2 (71.1 and 79.2%) of a formalin test when compared to control group animals. In addition, the results of a hot plate test showed central analgesic properties for citronellal (p < 0.05). These results indicate depressant, hypnotic, and antinociceptive properties of this monoterpene.

  1. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengfei; Song, Haibo; Yang, Pingliang; Xie, Huiqi; Kang, Y James

    2011-06-01

    Chloral hydrate has been long used as a safe sedative and hypnotic drug in humans. However, reports on its cardiovascular adverse effects have been published from time to time. The present study was undertaken to use Rhesus monkeys as a model to define the dose regiment of chloral hydrate at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced and the consequences of the cardiac events. Male Rhesus monkeys of 2-3 years old were intravenously infused with chloral hydrate starting at 50 mg/kg with an increasing increment of 25 mg/kg until the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, a traditional up-and-down dosing procedure was applied to define a single dose level at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced. The data obtained showed that when the sequentially escaladed dose reached 125 mg/kg, cardiac arrhythmias occurred in all monkeys tested. The single effective dose to cause cardiac arrhythmias calculated from the crossover analysis was 143 ± 4 mg/kg. This value would be equivalent to 68.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg for children and 46.4 ± 1.3 mg/kg for adults in humans. Under either multiple or single dose condition, cardiac arrhythmias did not occur before 40 min after the onset of anesthesia induced by chloral hydrate. Cardiac arrhythmias were recovered without help at the end of the anesthesia in most cases, but also continued after the regain of consciousness in some cases. The cardiac arrhythmias were accompanied with compromised cardiac function including suppressed fractional shortening and ejection fraction. This study thus suggests that cautions need to be taken when chloral hydrate is used above certain levels and beyond a certain period of anesthesia, and cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate need to be closely monitored because compromised cardiac function may occur simultaneously. In addition, patients with cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate should be monitored even after they are recovered from the anesthesia.

  2. Induced hearing deficit generates experimental paranoia.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, P G; Andersen, S M; Kabat, L G

    1981-06-26

    The development of paranoid reactions was investigated in normal people experiencing a temporary loss of hearing. In a social setting, subjects made partially deaf by hypnotic suggestion, but kept unaware of the source of their deafness, became more paranoid as indicated on a variety of assessment measures. The results support a hypothesizes cognitive-social mechanism for the clinically observed relationship between paranoia and deafness in the elderly.

  3. Guarana (Paullinia cupana): toxic behavioral effects in laboratory animals and antioxidants activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mattei, R; Dias, R F; Espínola, E B; Carlini, E A; Barros, S B

    1998-03-01

    The effects on toxic and behavioral levels of guarana (Paullinia cupana) were assessed in rats and mice subsequent to acute and chronic administrations and were compared to those produced by Ginseng (Panax ginseng). Experimental parameters included tests for antioxidant capacity in vitro and measured in vivo, toxicological screening, progress in weight, motor activity, death rate, and histopathological examination of the viscera. Guarana showed an antioxidant effect because, even at low concentrations (1.2 microg/ml), it inhibited the process of lipid peroxidation. In high doses of 1000-2000 mg/kg (i.p. and p.o.) it did not induce significant alterations in parameters for toxicological screening. No effects on motor activity were observed, neither did guarana alter the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital. Ginseng (250-1000 mg/kg i.p.), however, elicited reductions in motor activity, eyelid ptosis and bristling fur. Consumption of liquids containing guarana or ginseng and progress in weight of the animals remained at levels similar to the controls, even after prolonged administration. The percentage mortality was equivalent in control and in treated groups. The absence of toxicity of guarana was also demonstrated by histopathological examination, with no alteration being detected in heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder and spleen. PMID:9582000

  4. Guarana (Paullinia cupana): toxic behavioral effects in laboratory animals and antioxidants activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mattei, R; Dias, R F; Espínola, E B; Carlini, E A; Barros, S B

    1998-03-01

    The effects on toxic and behavioral levels of guarana (Paullinia cupana) were assessed in rats and mice subsequent to acute and chronic administrations and were compared to those produced by Ginseng (Panax ginseng). Experimental parameters included tests for antioxidant capacity in vitro and measured in vivo, toxicological screening, progress in weight, motor activity, death rate, and histopathological examination of the viscera. Guarana showed an antioxidant effect because, even at low concentrations (1.2 microg/ml), it inhibited the process of lipid peroxidation. In high doses of 1000-2000 mg/kg (i.p. and p.o.) it did not induce significant alterations in parameters for toxicological screening. No effects on motor activity were observed, neither did guarana alter the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital. Ginseng (250-1000 mg/kg i.p.), however, elicited reductions in motor activity, eyelid ptosis and bristling fur. Consumption of liquids containing guarana or ginseng and progress in weight of the animals remained at levels similar to the controls, even after prolonged administration. The percentage mortality was equivalent in control and in treated groups. The absence of toxicity of guarana was also demonstrated by histopathological examination, with no alteration being detected in heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder and spleen.

  5. Ethanol-Induced Plasticity of GABAA Receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Lindemeyer, A. Kerstin; Liang, Jing; Marty, Vincent N.; Meyer, Edward M.; Suryanarayanan, Asha; Olsen, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Acute and chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration is known to affect function, surface expression, and subunit composition of γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptors (GABAARs) in different parts of the brain, which is believed to play a major role in alcohol dependence and withdrawal symptoms. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) participates in anxiety-like behaviors including those induced by alcohol withdrawal. In the present study we assessed the changes in cell surface levels of select GABAAR subunits in the BLA of a rat model of alcohol dependence induced by chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) treatment and long-term (>40 days) withdrawal and investigated the time-course of such changes after a single dose of EtOH (5 g/kg, gavage). We found an early decrease in surface expression of α4 and γ subunits at 1 h following single dose EtOH treatment. At 48 h post-EtOH and after CIE treatment there was an increase in α4 and γ2, while α1, α2, and γ surface expression were decreased. To relate functional changes in GABAARs to changes in their subunit composition we analyzed miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) and the picrotoxin-sensitive tonic current (Itonic) 48 h after EtOH intoxication. The Itonic magnitude and most of the mIPSC kinetic parameters (except faster mIPSC decay) were unchanged at 48 h post-EtOH. At the same time, Itonic potentiation by acute EtOH was greatly reduced, whereas mIPSCs became significantly more sensitive to potentiation by acute EtOH. These results suggest that EtOH intoxication-induced GABAAR plasticity in the BLA might contribute to the diminished sedative/hypnotic and maintained anxiolytic effectiveness of EtOH. PMID:24710789

  6. Induced Probabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neel, John H.

    Induced probabilities have been largely ignored by educational researchers. Simply stated, if a new or random variable is defined in terms of a first random variable, then induced probability is the probability or density of the new random variable that can be found by summation or integration over the appropriate domains of the original random…

  7. Propofol protects against opioid-induced hyperresponsiveness of airway smooth muscle in a horse model of target-controlled infusion anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Calzetta, Luigino; Soggiu, Alessio; Roncada, Paola; Bonizzi, Luigi; Pistocchini, Elena; Urbani, Andrea; Rinaldi, Barbara; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2015-10-15

    General anaesthesia in horses is associated with elevated mortality rate in subjects suffering of heaves. Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of sedative-hypnotic medications and opioids represents a total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) method validated in veterinary medicine. Since there are no data concerning the impact of these classes of drugs in inducing bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in horses, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect propofol and remifentanil on the contractile response of equine airway smooth muscle. The influence of propofol and remifentanil on the contractile response of equine isolated bronchi to electrical field stimulation (EFS) was assessed. The role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neurokinin 2 (NK2) receptor was also assessed. The interaction analysis was performed by Bliss Independence theory. Experiments were repeated in desensitized and passively sensitized airways. Remifentanil induced BHR in both non-sensitized and passively sensitized bronchi, (+56.33±8.01% and +99.10±14.52%, respectively; P<0.01 vs. control) and propofol significantly prevented this effect (P>0.05 vs. remifentanil). The inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves via desensitization and blocking NK2 receptor inhibited the BHR remifentanil-induced (P>0.05 vs. controls). The inhibition of iNOS reverted the protective effect of propofol on the BHR induced by remifentanil (non-sensitized: +47.11±7.70%; passively sensitized: +70.51±11.39%; P<0.05 vs. control). Propofol synergistically interacted (overall ≈40%) in preventing the remifentanil-induced BHR. Remifentanil induces BHR via stimulating capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves that facilitate the cholinergic neurotransmission through the activation of NK2 receptor. The propofol/remifentanil combination may be safely administered in course of TCI-TIVA procedures also in heaves affected horses.

  8. Effects of analgesics on the plantar incision-induced drop of the noxious heat threshold measured with an increasing-temperature water bath in the rat.

    PubMed

    Füredi, Réka; Bölcskei, Kata; Szolcsányi, János; Petho, Gábor

    2009-03-01

    The behavioural noxious heat threshold i.e. the lowest temperature evoking nocifensive behaviour was previously shown to decrease in short-lasting, but not in sustained, inflammatory thermal hyperalgesias. The aim of this study was to examine whether the surgical incision-induced lasting heat hyperalgesia involves a drop of the heat threshold and to assess the effects of conventional opioid and non-opioid analgesics in this model. One of the hind paws of rats was immersed into a water bath whose temperature was near-linearly increased from 30 degrees C until the animal withdrew its paw from the water. The corresponding bath temperature was considered as the behavioural noxious heat threshold. Hyperalgesia to heat was induced by a standardized plantar surgical incision performed under pentobarbital anaesthesia which led to a 5-7 degrees C decrease of the noxious heat threshold for seven days. Morphine, diclofenac, and paracetamol administered intraperitoneally 18 h after incision dose-dependently inhibited the drop of heat threshold with minimum effective doses of 0.3, 1, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, as assessed 20, 30 and 40 min after treatment. Thermal hyperalgesia was also decreased by intraplantar treatment with morphine (10 microg) or diclofenac (100 microg). In conclusion, the incision-induced sustained thermal hyperalgesia in rats involves a drop of the heat threshold suggesting that mechanisms of postsurgical pain are distinct from those of pure inflammatory pain. The thermal antihyperalgesic actions of systemically and/or locally applied morphine, diclofenac and paracetamol could be detected with high temporal resolution and sensitivity in this model.

  9. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine, a natural, mixed dopamine receptor antagonist, inhibits methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaokang; Yue, Kai; Ma, Baomiao; Xing, Junqiao; Gan, Yongping; Wang, Daisong; Jin, Guozhang; Li, Chaoying

    2016-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of methamphetamine (METH) use, no FDA-approved pharmacological treatment is currently available for individuals with a METH addiction. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid substance derived from corydalis and stephania that has been used in traditional Asian medicine for its analgesic, sedative and hypnotic properties. Previous pharmacological studies of l-THP indicated that it not only binds to D1 and D2 receptors but also has a low affinity for D3 receptors and may function as an antagonist. The unique pharmacological profile of l-THP suggests that it may have potential therapeutic effects on drug addiction; however, the effects of l-THP in individuals with METH addictions are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of l-THP on METH self-administration and METH-induced reinstatement. In our experiments, l-THP (1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased METH self-administration under the fixed-ratio 1 schedule. l-THP (2.50 and 5.00 mg/kg, i.p) also prevented the METH-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. Interestingly, l-THP (1.25 and 2.50mg/kg, i.p) did not affect locomotor activity following METH injection (1mg/kg) suggesting that the observed effects of l-THP (2.50mg/kg) on METH-induced reinstatement were not due to motor impairments. Thus, l-THP (a natural, mixed dopamine (DA) receptor antagonist) attenuates METH self-administration and METH-induced reinstatement. PMID:26806555

  10. Inducing Metaassociations and Induced Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgués, Xavier; Franch, Xavier; Ribó, Josep M.

    In the last years, UML has been tailored to be used as a domain-specific modelling notation in several contexts. Extending UML with this purpose entails several advantages: the integration of the domain in a standard framework; its potential usage by the software engineering community; and the existence of supporting tools. In previous work, we explored one particular issue of heavyweight extensions, namely, the definition of inducing meta-associations in metamodels as a way to induce the presence of specific relation-ships in their instances. Those relationships were intended by the metamodel specifier but not forced by the metamodel itself. However, our work was restricted to the case of induced associations. This paper proposes an extension to the general case in which inducing metaassociations may force the existence of arbitrary relationships at M1. To attain this goal, we provide a general defini-tion of inducing metaassociation that covers all the possible cases. After revisi-ting induced associations, we show the inducement of the other relationship types defined in UML: association classes, generalization and dependencies.

  11. Nitric oxide mediates the anticonvulsant effects of thalidomide on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Gooshe, Maziar; Bahremand, Arash; Gholizadeh, Ramtin; Berijani, Sina; Ahmadi-Dastgerdi, Mohammad; Aminizade, Mehdi; Sarreshte-Dari, Ali; Dianati, Vahid; Amanlou, Massoud; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-01

    Thalidomide is an old glutamic acid derivative which was initially used as a sedative medication but withdrawn from the market due to the high incidence of teratogenicity. Recently, it has reemerged because of its potential for counteracting number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Other than the antiemetic and hypnotic aspects, thalidomide exerts some anticonvulsant properties in experimental settings. However, the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide actions are not fully realized yet. Some investigations revealed that thalidomide could elicit immunomodulatory or neuromodulatory properties by affecting different targets, including cytokines (such as TNF α), neurotransmitters, and nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide is affected through modulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway or not. Injection of a single effective dose of thalidomide (10 mg/kg, i.p. or higher) significantly increased the seizure threshold (P<0.05). On the one hand, pretreatment with low and per se noneffective dose of l-arginine [NO precursor] (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) prevented the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide. On the other hand, NOS inhibitors [l-NAME and 7-NI] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a subeffective dose of thalidomide (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at relatively low doses. Meanwhile, several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide significantly. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway can be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of thalidomide, and the role of constitutive nNOS is prominent in the reported neuroprotective feature.

  12. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  13. Evaluation of the Antihyperglycemic Effect of Minor Steviol Glycosides in Normoglycemic and Induced-Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Aranda-González, Irma; Moguel-Ordóñez, Yolanda; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Segura-Campos, Maira; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2016-09-01

    Steviol glycosides are a family of compounds found in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that are responsible for sweetness capacity. The antihyperglycemic effect of the two major steviol glycosides, Rebaudioside A and Stevioside, has been studied and it has been found that despite having the same common structure, only Stevioside exerts an antihyperglycemic effect. Although other steviol derivatives are found in smaller amounts (minor steviol glycosides) in S. rebaudiana, whether or not they possess antihyperglycemic activity has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of minor steviol glycosides in normoglycemic and diabetic (streptozotocin/nicotinamide) Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) both before and after chronic treatment (28 days). After 6 h of fasting, IPGTT was conducted in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using 1 g/kg of glucose plus 20 mg/kg of the minor glycoside (Dulcoside A, Rebaudioside B, C, D, or Steviolbioside) or control treatment (distilled water, glibenclamide, or metformin); the blood of the tip of the tail was collected at time 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min.; and blood glucose was measured, and its net area under the curve (AUCnet) was calculated. After 28-day chronic oral administration, IPGTT was again performed. Differences were considered significant at P < .05 by one-way ANOVA. Acute intraperitoneal or chronic oral administration of 20 mg/kg of minor steviol glycosides had no antihyperglycemic effect in normoglycemic or induced-diabetic Wistar rats. Considering the dose tested, it is unlikely that these glycosides have an effect on glucose in diabetic or normoglycemic humans. PMID:27513814

  14. The spirit of hypnosis: doing hypnosis versus being hypnotic.

    PubMed

    Yapko, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The spirit of hypnosis is reflected in the belief that people are more resourceful than they realize and through hypnosis can create meaningful possibilities. Thus, it is puzzling why hypnosis isn't better regarded. Do we present as too internally conflicted to inspire others' confidence? Do we overstate the dangers of hypnosis and scare people away? Do we define hypnosis as such a unique approach that others don't see its relevance for their work? Self-exploration is important if we want to ensure we are not unwittingly adding to our image problems as a field. Beyond these considerations, the novel and spirited application of hypnosis in the context of captive elephant breeding is discussed, as is a personal acknowledgment of some of the pioneers who manifested the spirit of hypnosis.

  15. Influence of Some Hypnotist and Subject Variables on Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Robert P.; Land, Jay M.

    1971-01-01

    As predicted, subjects run by the objectively warmer, more competent appearing hypnosis obtained significantly higher susceptibility scores. Structured warmth produced significant differences only in subjects run by the objectively less warm hypnotists. Both structured warmth and experience affected subjects' subjective impressions of whether they…

  16. Hypnotic Relaxation and Yoga to Improve Sleep and School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Smith, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency, defined as inadequate sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness, has been linked with students' learning and behavioral outcomes at school. However, there is limited research on interventions designed to improve the sleep of school-age children. In order to promote more interest on this critical topic, we…

  17. Multiple Hypnotizabilities: Differentiating the Building Blocks of Hypnotic Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Erik Z.; Barnier, Amanda J.; McConkey, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Although hypnotizability can be conceptualized as involving component subskills, standard measures do not differentiate them from a more general unitary trait, partly because the measures include limited sets of dichotomous items. To overcome this, the authors applied full-information factor analysis, a sophisticated analytic approach for…

  18. The Clinical Use of Hypnotic Regression and Progression in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Discusses concept of time in therapy, presenting theoretical and clinical foundations to illustrate the validity of guiding patients into past lives and future lifetimes through hypnosis to resolve self-defeating sequences. (Author/TE)

  19. A Hypnotic Intervention for Anger Reduction and Shifting Perceptual Predispositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents method of interventions that is designed to expedite therapy process by reducing client's tension state and providing him or her with new memory associations (affective, cognitive, proprioceptive, etc.) that allow the client to view the world from healthier perspective. Notes that intervention was developed by linking several different…

  20. The use of music as a hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S F

    1993-10-01

    We have known of the interaction between music and mood for many years. In this paper, I present a series of case vignettes to illustrate a method using music to affect mood. In hypnosis, I suggested that subjects imagine hearing a piece of music appropriate to a desired emotion, rather like a sound track for a movie. I suggested that the patients vividly recall this music and the accompanying feelings outside of trance when it would be desirable to help them to change their behavior by influencing their emotional state. In this way, music can be used to shape emotion.

  1. Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the α1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 μL/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 μL/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase

  2. Role of interleukin-1 receptor signaling in the behavioral effects of ethanol and benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Yuri A; Benavidez, Jillian M; Black, Mendy; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R Adron

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression studies identified the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) as part of a pathway associated with a genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, and lack of the endogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) strongly reduced ethanol intake in mice. Here, we compared ethanol-mediated behaviors in mice lacking Il1rn or Il1r1. Deletion of Il1rn (the gene encoding IL-1ra) increases sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and flurazepam and reduces severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, deletion of Il1r1 (the gene encoding the IL-1 receptor type I, IL-1R1) reduces sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol and flurazepam and increases the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. The sedative effects of ketamine and pentobarbital were not altered in the knockout (KO) strains. Ethanol intake and preference were not changed in mice lacking Il1r1 in three different tests of ethanol consumption. Recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination was only altered in female mice lacking Il1r1. Mice lacking Il1rn (but not Il1r1) showed increased ethanol clearance and decreased ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. The increased ethanol- and flurazepam-induced sedation in Il1rn KO mice was decreased by administration of IL-1ra (Kineret), and pre-treatment with Kineret also restored the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal severity were changed in opposite directions in the null mutants, indicating that these responses are likely regulated by IL-1R1 signaling, whereas ethanol intake and preference do not appear to be solely regulated by this pathway.

  3. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity in mice. Role of environmental temperature and pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Slikker, W

    1996-10-31

    1. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature (23 degrees C) produced a significant depletion of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in striatum at 24 and 72 hr, and 1 and 2 wk. 2. Three days post 4 x 10 mg/kg METH at 23 degrees C, an 80% decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) occurred, while the same dose at 4 degrees C produced only a 20% DA decrease, and 4 x 20 mg/kg METH at 4 degrees C produced a 54% DA decrease. A similar pattern in the decreases of the DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA was observed after METH administration. 3. At 23 degrees C (+)MK-801 completely blocked while phenobarbital (40% decrease) and diazepam (65% decrease) partially blocked decreases in striatal DA produced by 4 x 10 mg/kg METH. Decreases in DOPAC and HVA were similar to the decreases in DA after METH and antagonists. 4. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature also produced a significant depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in striatum at 24 and 72 hr, and 1 and 2 wk. The depletion of 5-HT metabolite 5-HIAA was found only at 72 hr post-dosing. 5. This depletion of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA at room temperature was blocked either by changing the environmental temperature to 4 degrees C, or by pretreatment with MK-801, diazepam and phenobarbital after METH treatment. 6. Therefore, these data suggest that drugs that block METH toxicity, such as haloperidol (D2 receptors), pentobarbital and phenobarbital (chloride channels) and MK-801 (NMDA/glutamate receptors), do not necessarily have the same mechanism of action but may either induce hypothermia or block induction of hyperthermia. 7. In summary, these studies show that in the mouse, environmental temperature greatly influences METH neurotoxicity, and that the protective effects of compounds such as diazepam, phenobarbital and MK-801 may be mediated by blockade of METH-induced hyperthermia.

  4. Algorithmic complexity as an index of cortical function in awake and pentobarbital-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Shaw, F Z; Chen, R F; Tsao, H W; Yen, C T

    1999-11-15

    This study introduces algorithmic complexity to measure characteristics of brain functions. The EEG of the rat was recorded with implanted electrodes. The normalized complexity value was relatively independent of data length, and it showed a simpler and easier calculation characteristic than other non-linear indexes. The complexity index revealed significant differences among awake, asleep, and anesthetized states. It may be useful in tracking short-term and long-term changes in brain functions, such as anesthetized depth, drug effects, or sleep-wakefulness.

  5. 21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use. (i) It is used for general anesthesia and as a... level of 20 to 50 milliliters per 100 pounds of body weight for general anesthesia until the desired... sedative-relaxant, it is administered at a level of one-fourth to one-half of the anesthetic dosage...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used as an anesthetic for intravenous... follows: (i) For total anesthesia, it is given at approximately 10 to 12 milligrams per pound of body... dosage necessary for anesthesia is reduced. Usually 1/2 to 2/3 the normal amount is adequate. (3)...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used as an anesthetic for intravenous... follows: (i) For total anesthesia, it is given at approximately 10 to 12 milligrams per pound of body... dosage necessary for anesthesia is reduced. Usually 1/2 to 2/3 the normal amount is adequate. (3)...

  8. 21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use. (i) It is used for general anesthesia and as a... level of 20 to 50 milliliters per 100 pounds of body weight for general anesthesia until the desired... sedative-relaxant, it is administered at a level of one-fourth to one-half of the anesthetic dosage...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Thiopental and pentobarbital powder for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. For total anesthesia, it is given at approximately..., and the dosage necessary for anesthesia is reduced. Usually 1/2 to 2/3 the normal amount is adequate. (2) Indications for use. It is used as an anesthetic for intravenous administration to dogs and...

  10. Observed medical and surgical complications of prolonged barbiturate coma for refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Newey, Christopher R.; Wisco, Dolora; Nattanmai, Premkumar; Sarwal, Aarti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Refractory status epilepticus is often treated with third-line therapy, such as pentobarbital coma. However, its use is limited by side effects. Recognizing and preventing major and minor adverse effects of prolonged pentobarbital coma may increase good outcomes. This study retrospectively reviewed direct and indirect medical and surgical pentobarbital coma. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients with refractory status epilepticus treated with pentobarbital over a 1 year period at a large tertiary care center. We collected baseline data, EEG data, and complications that were observed. Results: Overall, nine patients [median age 46.4 (IQR 21.7, 75.5) years] were induced with pentobarbital coma median 11 (IQR 3, 33) days after seizure onset for a median of 9 (IQR 3.5, 45.4) days. A total of four to eight concurrent antiepileptics were tried prior to the pentobarbital coma. Phenobarbital, due to recurrence of seizures on weaning pentobarbital coma, was required in seven patients. Observed complications included peripheral neuropathy (77.8%), cerebral atrophy (33.3%), volume overload (44.4%), renal/metabolic (77.8%), gastrointestinal (66.6%), endocrine (55.6%), cardiac/hemodynamic/vascular (77.8%), respiratory (100%), and infectious (77.8%). The number of complications trended with duration of induced coma but was nonsignificant. Median ICU length of stay was 40 (IQR 28, 97.5) days. Overall, five patients were able to follow commands after a median 37 (IQR 25.5, 90) days from coma onset. There were eight patients that were discharged from hospital with three remaining in a prolonged unresponsive state. There was one patient that died prior to discharge. Conclusions: This study highlights the high morbidity in patients with refractory status epilepticus requiring pentobarbital coma. Anticipating and addressing the indirect and direct complications in prolonged pentobarbital coma may improve survival and functional outcomes in patients with

  11. Classification of compounds for prevention of NMDLA-induced seizures/mortality, or maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol seizures in mice and antagonism of MK801 binding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G C; Harris, E W; Ray, R; Stagnitto, M L; Schmiesing, R J

    1992-01-01

    Intravenous injection of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMDLA) into mice produces characteristic convulsions followed by death. The present study was designed to determine the degree of blockade of these seizures/mortality by compounds acting at various subsites on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor complex (competitive and noncompetitive antagonists, as well as inhibitors of the strychnine-insensitive glycine subsite, and Zn++ subsite agonists), and also calcium channel blockers, clinically used anticonvulsants, plus selected compounds with activities or structures similar to specific agents chosen. Activity among compounds was correlated to in vitro potency regarding inhibition of binding of MK801 to the ionic channel subsite associated with the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, all compounds were examined for antiseizure properties with respect to tonic hindlimb extension elicited by maximal electroshock (MES) and clonus induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Drugs were subsequently classified according to their spectra of efficacy in these tests. The following characteristics emerged: 1) agents active at all 3 NMDA mechanisms (convulsions/mortality/MK801 binding) plus MES and PTZ, were MK801 and CPP [3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl) propyl-1-phosphonic acid]; 2) active at all the NMDA mechanisms and MES were ketamine and dextromethorphan; 3) active against NMDLA-induced convulsions/mortality, MES and PTZ, but not MK801 binding, were doxepin, desipramine and diazepam; 4) active against NMDLA-induced convulsions/mortality and MES were des-Me-doxepin, flunarizine and remacemide; 5) active against NMDLA-induced convulsions/mortality and PTZ was nisoldipine; 6) active against only NMDLA-induced convulsions/mortality were chlorpheniramine and iproniazid; 7) active in the MES and PTZ tests were phenobarbital, pentobarbital and valproate; 8) active in the MES test alone were phenytoin and carbamazepine; 9) active against PTZ only was ethosuximide; 10) active only in the in

  12. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigerian honey in mice.

    PubMed

    Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Olowookere, Temitope Adunni; Atunwa, Soliu Abiola; Ibrahim, Basirat Olufunmilola; Lamidi, Oluwafunmilayo Fatima; Adams, Philomena Arekekhuegbe; Ajimuda, Bolanle Olubunmi; Adeyemo, Lilian Edelauvo

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural sweet substance that bees produce by transforming flower nectar or other sweet secretions of plants. It has widespread use in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. It has been reported to assist in building the entire central nervous system. The beneficial effects of honey have been attributed to the possible polyphenolic contents and some other constituents. The geographical locations and the sources of plant nectars may contribute to the effects of honey samples. Thus, we evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of six samples of honey (10%, 20% and 40%(V)/v, p.o.) from three geographical locations of Nigeria using the following behavioral models: Novelty-induced behaviors (NIB), learning and memory, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and antidepressant models in mice. The results showed that honey significantly (p< 0.05) decreased locomotion and rearing behaviors in NIB and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity when compared to the control group. Exploratory behavior was significantly increased in both holeboard and elevated plus maze but had no significant effect on spatial working memory. Honey sample from Umudike has significant hypnotic and anticonvulsant effects. The antinociceptive models (hot plate and tail flick tests) showed that the honey samples significantly increased the pain reaction time and naloxone blocked these central antinociceptive effects. The force swimming test showed that only the Idanre (ID) honey sample had antidepressant effect. In conclusion, some of these honey samples have central inhibitory property, anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects, thus may be used as nutraceutic. It can also be inferred that some of these effects are probably mediated through dopaminergic and opioidergic systems.

  13. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  14. Inducing puberty.

    PubMed

    Delemarre, Eveline M; Felius, Bram; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2008-12-01

    Puberty is the result of increasing pulsatile secretion of the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of gonadotropins and in turn gonadal activity. In general in females, development of secondary sex characteristics due to the activity of the gonadal axis, i.e., the growth of breasts, is the result of exposure to estrogens, while in boys testicular growth is dependent on gonadotropins and virilization on androgens. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a rare disease. More common is the clinical picture of delayed puberty, often associated with a delay of growth and more often familial occurring. Especially, boys are referred because of the delay of growth and puberty. A short course (3-6 months) of androgens may help these boys to overcome the psychosocial repercussions, and during this period an increase in the velocity of height growth and some virilization will occur. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may present in a congenital form caused by developmental disorders, some of which are related to a genetic disorder, or secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction due to, among others, a cerebral tumor. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism puberty can be initiated by the use of pulsatile GnRH, gonadotropins, and sex steroids. Sex steroids will induce development of the secondary sex characteristics alone, while combined administration of gonadotropins and GnRH may induce gonadal development including fertility.

  15. Anesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol on the production of offspring in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli

    PubMed Central

    KAGEYAMA, Atsuko; TOHEI, Atsushi; USHIJIMA, Hitoshi; OKADA, Konosuke

    2016-01-01

    Pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl) can induce surgical anesthesia with a strong hypnotic effect that causes loss of consciousness. Animals have been known to die during experimental surgery under anesthesia with Somnopentyl, causing it to be declared inadequate as a general anesthetic for single treatment. An anesthetic combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4.0 mg/kg midazolam and 5.0 mg/kg butorphanol (M/M/B:0.3/4/5) was reported to induce anesthesia for a duration of around 40 min in ICR mice; similar anesthetic effects were reported in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of mice. However, the anesthetic effects of this combination in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli, remain to be evaluated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Somnopentyl and different concentrations of anesthetic combination (M/M/B:0.3/4/5, 0.23/3/3.75 or 0.15/2/2.5) in Japanese field voles, by means of anesthetic scores. We also examined effect of these anesthetics on production of offspring. Death of the animals was observed only with Somnopentyl. The anesthetic score of Somnopentyl was lower than those of the other anesthetics, although there were no significant differences in duration, body weight and frequency of respiratory among the evaluated anesthetics. Abortion rate with Somnopentyl was significantly higher than that with the M/M/B:0.23/3/3.75 combination, although there was no significant difference in the number of offspring between two. In conclusion, results of this study provide basic information for achieving appropriate anesthetic concentrations in addition to indicating a new, safe and effective surgical anesthetic for Japanese field voles. PMID:27238159

  16. Anesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol on the production of offspring in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tohei, Atsushi; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-09-01

    Pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl) can induce surgical anesthesia with a strong hypnotic effect that causes loss of consciousness. Animals have been known to die during experimental surgery under anesthesia with Somnopentyl, causing it to be declared inadequate as a general anesthetic for single treatment. An anesthetic combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4.0 mg/kg midazolam and 5.0 mg/kg butorphanol (M/M/B:0.3/4/5) was reported to induce anesthesia for a duration of around 40 min in ICR mice; similar anesthetic effects were reported in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of mice. However, the anesthetic effects of this combination in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli, remain to be evaluated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Somnopentyl and different concentrations of anesthetic combination (M/M/B:0.3/4/5, 0.23/3/3.75 or 0.15/2/2.5) in Japanese field voles, by means of anesthetic scores. We also examined effect of these anesthetics on production of offspring. Death of the animals was observed only with Somnopentyl. The anesthetic score of Somnopentyl was lower than those of the other anesthetics, although there were no significant differences in duration, body weight and frequency of respiratory among the evaluated anesthetics. Abortion rate with Somnopentyl was significantly higher than that with the M/M/B:0.23/3/3.75 combination, although there was no significant difference in the number of offspring between two. In conclusion, results of this study provide basic information for achieving appropriate anesthetic concentrations in addition to indicating a new, safe and effective surgical anesthetic for Japanese field voles. PMID:27238159

  17. Anxiolytic and antidepressant like effects of natural food flavour (E)-methyl isoeugenol.

    PubMed

    Fajemiroye, James Oluwagbamigbe; Galdino, Pablinny Moreira; De Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Rocha, Fagundes Fabio; Akanmu, Moses A; Vanderlinde, Frederico Argollo; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Costa, Elson Alves

    2014-08-01

    (E)-methyl isoeugenol (MIE) is a natural food flavour that constitutes 93.7% of an essential oil from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus leaf. The leaf extracts of this species are used as a calming agent. As a ubiquitous food additive, the application of MIE for treating mood disorders appears to be globally attractive. Hence, we sought to evaluate general pharmacological activities, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of MIE actions. Administration of MIE was carried out prior to the exposure of a male Swiss mice to general behavioural tests, barbiturate sleep, PTZ-induced convulsion, light dark box (LDB), elevated plus maze (EPM), wire hanging, open field (OF) and forced swimming test (FST). The involvement of monoamine system was studied by mice pretreatment with WAY100635 (antagonist of 5-HT1A), α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT; depletor of catecholamine) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA; depletor of serotonin storage). There was no record of neurotoxic effect or animal's death during the course of general pharmacological tests. MIE at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) potentiated the hypnotic effect of sodium pentobarbital. However, MIE did not protect against PTZ-induced convulsion. Except for MIE at 500 mg kg(-1), parameters evaluated in the LDB, EPM and OF demonstrated an anxiolytic like property of MIE. This effect was blocked by WAY100635 pretreatment. MIE at 500 mg kg(-1) elicited a reduction in locomotor activity of the mice in the OF. Anti-immobility effect of MIE 250 mg kg(-1) in the FST suggested an antidepressive like property. Unlike AMPT, pretreatment with PCPA reversed the antidepressant like effect of MIE. Our findings demonstrated anxiolytic and antidepressant like properties of (E)-methyl isoeugenol and suggested the participation of serotonergic pathways. PMID:24920211

  18. Anxiolytic and antidepressant like effects of natural food flavour (E)-methyl isoeugenol.

    PubMed

    Fajemiroye, James Oluwagbamigbe; Galdino, Pablinny Moreira; De Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Rocha, Fagundes Fabio; Akanmu, Moses A; Vanderlinde, Frederico Argollo; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Costa, Elson Alves

    2014-08-01

    (E)-methyl isoeugenol (MIE) is a natural food flavour that constitutes 93.7% of an essential oil from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus leaf. The leaf extracts of this species are used as a calming agent. As a ubiquitous food additive, the application of MIE for treating mood disorders appears to be globally attractive. Hence, we sought to evaluate general pharmacological activities, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of MIE actions. Administration of MIE was carried out prior to the exposure of a male Swiss mice to general behavioural tests, barbiturate sleep, PTZ-induced convulsion, light dark box (LDB), elevated plus maze (EPM), wire hanging, open field (OF) and forced swimming test (FST). The involvement of monoamine system was studied by mice pretreatment with WAY100635 (antagonist of 5-HT1A), α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT; depletor of catecholamine) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA; depletor of serotonin storage). There was no record of neurotoxic effect or animal's death during the course of general pharmacological tests. MIE at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) potentiated the hypnotic effect of sodium pentobarbital. However, MIE did not protect against PTZ-induced convulsion. Except for MIE at 500 mg kg(-1), parameters evaluated in the LDB, EPM and OF demonstrated an anxiolytic like property of MIE. This effect was blocked by WAY100635 pretreatment. MIE at 500 mg kg(-1) elicited a reduction in locomotor activity of the mice in the OF. Anti-immobility effect of MIE 250 mg kg(-1) in the FST suggested an antidepressive like property. Unlike AMPT, pretreatment with PCPA reversed the antidepressant like effect of MIE. Our findings demonstrated anxiolytic and antidepressant like properties of (E)-methyl isoeugenol and suggested the participation of serotonergic pathways.

  19. [Induced "acarophobia"].

    PubMed

    Mester, H

    1975-01-01

    Although only ablut 240 cases of 'acarophobia' are on record in zoological and medical literature, it can be seen that this delusional syndrome without doubt leads to psychoses of association more frequently than any other mental disturbance. The literature contains many references, and the author can give two examples from personal esperience. At least every sixth patient suffering from delusions of parasitosis 'infects' relations. This really remarkable tendency to spread by psychological contagion on one or more dependent persons has been ignored by many writers. The supposition that such occurrences are very rare proves to be false. Sometimes the associated who acquired the symptons in an absolutely identical fashion seem to be more worried by the vermin they hallucinate than the initiators are. The number of patients constituting an affected group is following a Neyman distribution. Emphasis is laid on the finding that the proportion of consanguineous persons within the sample of patients who showed an induced delusion of parasitosis is by far less high than in other psychopathological forms of communicated insanity.

  20. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, G.A.P.; Kummerle, A.E.; Antunes, F.; Fraga, C.A.M.; Barreiro, E.J.; Zapata-Sudo, G.; Sudo, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia. PMID:23558854

  1. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2005-09-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a serious and underestimated adverse drug effect. We briefly discuss the main features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, particularly analyzing the most recent advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome.

  2. Histamine release and pseudoallergic reactions induced by radiographic contrast media: comparison of Angiographin, Hexabrix and Telebrix using an in vivo canine model.

    PubMed

    Ennis, M; Lorenz, W; Schmal, A; Dombrowski, H

    1990-04-01

    Radiographic contrast media (RCM) in clinical use cause unwanted allergic/pseudoallergic reactions of all grades of severity. They also induce histamine release from a variety of mast cell populations, the extent of the histamine release reaction depending on both the organ and species. In this study 3 RCM, which had been previously shown to be effective histamine releasing agents with canine liver cells, were investigated using an in vivo canine model based on the clinical situation. The dogs (n = 36) were randomly allocated to one of 3 treatment groups and received a bolus injection (2 ml/kg body weight) of either Angiographin, Hexabrix or Telebrix. Blood pressure was monitored continuously and blood sampling, for plasma histamine measurements, was performed before and 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min after RCM injection. All 3 RCM caused elevated plasma histamine levels in some animals: Angiographin 9 of 12 dogs, 0.40 ng/ml, (0-1.9 ng/ml) median (range); Hexabrix 11/12, 0.5 ng/ml (0-3.8 ng/ml); Telebrix 7/12, 0.4 ng/ml (0-2.0 ng/ml). Cardiovascular reactions were observed in most animals. The hypotensive reactions occurred with a maximum 30 sec after RCM application and recovery was normally observed after 1-1.5 min. The response after Angiographin or Telebrix was significantly greater than after Hexabrix. Hypertensive reactions occurred later (15 min (5-25 min)) and did not differ between the groups. All 3 agents tested were able to elicit histamine release and cardiovascular reactions. In comparison to histamine release occurring after intravenous administration of other agents, such as hypnotics, the degree of histamine release was small.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1695468

  3. [Drug-induced dementia].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taro; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Many drugs have been reported to induce not only delirium but also cognitive impairment. Some types of drugs are reported to induce dementia, and prolonged hypotension or hypoglycemia induced by overuse of antihypertensive drugs or oral antidiabetic drugs could result in dementia. Recently, taking multiple drugs with anticholinergic activity are reported to cause cognitive decline and anticholinergic burden should be avoided especially in patients with dementia. Drug-induced dementia can be prevented by avoiding polypharmacy and adhering to the saying 'start low and go slow' . Early diagnosis of drug-induced dementia and withdrawal of the offending drug is essential to improve cognitive function. PMID:27025096

  4. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  5. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Subbaraman, Maria R.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

  6. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  7. Synthesis of CNS active thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-like peptides: Biological evaluation and effect on cognitive impairment induced by cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Meena, Chhuttan L; Thakur, Avinash; Nandekar, Prajwal P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Sharma, Shyam S; Jain, Rahul

    2015-09-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-like peptides were synthesized by replacing critical histidine and pGlu residues in the native peptide. The peptides were evaluated in vitro for receptor binding activity assay and in the cell functional assay; the peptides exhibit selective basal signaling agonist behavior toward TRH-R2. For example, peptides 8a, 8b, 8c, 8 f, 8 h, 8 l and 12 d activated TRH-R2 with potency (EC50) of 0.53 μM, 0.048 μM, 0.05 μM, 0.006 μM, 0.31 μM, 0.034 μM and 0.004 μM, respectively. In contrast for signaling activation of TRH-R1, the same peptide required higher concentration of 19.35 μM, 3.98 μM, 2.54 μM, 0.287 μM, 11.28 μM, 0.986 μM and 0.944 μM, respectively. The results showed that peptides were 36.5, 82.9, 50.8, 47.8, 36.3, 32.6 and 235-fold selective to TRH-R2 receptor subtype. The peptides were investigated for CNS activity at 10 μmol/kg in pentobarbital-induced sleep assay study. Peptides 8c (16.5 ± 1.4 min) and 8l (16.5 ± 2.1 min) displayed excellent CNS activity. In an in vivo study, peptide 8c did not cause significant change in the rat plasma TSH levels. The peptide 8c was further investigated for neuroprotective potential, and significantly reduced infracts volume and neurological score in the focal cerebral ischemia model in mice. Peptide 8c also significantly lowered MDA levels, indicating reduction of oxidative and enhanced percentage cell survival in CA1 region, when compared to ischemic brain. PMID:26216015

  8. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  9. Induced pluripotency with endogenous and inducible genes

    SciTech Connect

    Duinsbergen, Dirk; Eriksson, Malin; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Frisen, Jonas; Mikkers, Harald

    2008-10-15

    The recent discovery that two partly overlapping sets of four genes induce nuclear reprogramming of mouse and even human cells has opened up new possibilities for cell replacement therapies. Although the combination of genes that induce pluripotency differs to some extent, Oct4 and Sox2 appear to be a prerequisite. The introduction of four genes, several of which been linked with cancer, using retroviral approaches is however unlikely to be suitable for future clinical applications. Towards developing a safer reprogramming protocol, we investigated whether cell types that express one of the most critical reprogramming genes endogenously are predisposed to reprogramming. We show here that three of the original four pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc or MYCER{sup TAM}) induced reprogramming of mouse neural stem (NS) cells exploiting endogenous SoxB1 protein levels in these cells. The reprogrammed neural stem cells differentiated into cells of each germ layer in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to mouse development in vivo. Thus a combinatorial approach taking advantage of endogenously expressed genes and inducible transgenes may contribute to the development of improved reprogramming protocols.

  10. [Isoniazid-induced myopathy].

    PubMed

    Chaouch, N; Mejid, M; Zarrouk, M; Racil, H; Rouhou, S Cheikh; El Euch, G; Chabbou, A

    2011-12-01

    Drug-induced muscle disorders are now well known and vary from a simple isolated increase in muscle enzymes to severe drug-induced myopathy. The list of drugs inducing myopathy is very long and continues to grow. The onset of muscle disorders under isoniazid often falls within a drug-induced neuropathy or a drug-induced lupus. However, the occurrence of isolated isoniazid-induced drug myopathy without neuropathy is an extremely rare condition especially with non-toxic doses. The authors report the case of a 28-year-old man, without a previous medical history, hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis. After initiating tuberculosis treatment for five days, he presented muscle pain, fasciculation and weakness initially involving the lower left limb that quickly propagated to all four limbs. The physical examination noted a left ankle flush, a swollen left calf and fasciculation of both calves while the neurological examination was normal. The CPK was normal. Electromyography confirmed the myopathy without neuropathic findings. Isoniazid withdrawal was marked by the rapid disappearance of the symptoms. The reintroduction of a half-dose of isoniazid only induced a few transitional muscular fasciculations. The onset of the symptoms under tuberculosis treatment, the absence of later muscle disorders, the absence of any other cause of myopathy and the total disappearance of the symptoms after isoniazid withdrawal confirmed the diagnosis of isoniazid-induced myopathy.

  11. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  12. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound in our environment, ...

  13. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

  14. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  15. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  16. Opioid-induced endocrinopathy.

    PubMed

    Colameco, Stephen; Coren, Joshua S

    2009-01-01

    Debilitating chronic nonmalignant pain is often managed using opioid medications. However, with increased use of this drug class comes concern about adverse effects on patients' endocrine function. In the present review, the authors discuss opioid-induced interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, effects on adrenal androgen production, and endocrine deficiency. In addition, the authors describe symptomology for opioid-induced endocrinopathy as well as diagnostic testing options. Treatment modalities for those afflicted with this condition are also described.

  17. Induced polarization response of microbial induced sulfideprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Slater, Lee; Hubbard, Susan

    2004-06-04

    A laboratory scale experiment was conducted to examine the use of induced polarization and electrical conductivity to monitor microbial induced sulfide precipitation under anaerobic conditions in sand filled columns. Three columns were fabricated; one for electrical measurements, one for geochemical sampling and a third non-inoculated column was used as a control. A continual upward flow of nutrients and metals in solution was established in each column. Desulfovibrio vulgaris microbes were injected into the middle of the geochemical and electrical columns. Iron and zinc sulfides precipitated along a microbial action front as a result of sulfate reduction due by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The precipitation front initially developed near the microbial injection location, and subsequently migrated towards the nutrient inlet, as a result of chemotaxis by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Sampling during and subsequent to the experiment revealed spatiotemporal changes in the biogeochemical measurements associated with microbial sulfate reduction. Conductivity measurements were insensitive to all biogeochemical changes occurred within the column. Changes in the IP response (of up to 14 mrad)were observed to coincide in place and in time with the active microbe respiration/sulfide precipitation front as determined from geochemical sampling. The IP response is correlated with the lactate concentration gradient, an indirect measurement of microbial metabolism, suggesting the potential of IP as a method for monitoring microbial respiration/activity. Post experimental destructive sample analysis and SEM imaging verified the geochemical results and supported our hypothesis that microbe induced sulfide precipitation is directly detectable using electrical methods. Although the processes not fully understood, the IP response appears to be sensitive to this anaerobic microbial precipitation, suggesting a possible novel application for the IP method.

  18. [Exercise-induced asthma].

    PubMed

    Dinh Xuan, A T; Marsac, J; Lockhart, A

    1988-12-10

    Exercise-induced asthma only differs from common asthma in its causative factor. It is a typical asthmatic attack which follows a strenuous and continuous physical exercise lasting 5 to 10 minutes, most often in cold and dry weather. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma has not yet been firmly established; its pathophysiological mechanisms are still debated, and the respective roles of heat and water losses by the airways are not clearly defined. However, the influence of the type of exercise as a precipitating factor of exercise-induced asthma is now well-known. All things being equal, swimming generates less asthma than running and cycling. This enables the subjects to be directed towards the most suitable sports and encouraged to improve their physical fitness. Drug treatment of exercise-induced asthma must preferentially be preventive; it relies on cromoglycate and beta-2 adrenergic agonists, the latter being also capable of treating acute exercise-induced bronchial obstruction. Education of the patients and their family is also important.

  19. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  20. Managing insomnia: an overview of insomnia and pharmacologic treatment strategies in use and on the horizon

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Thomas L; Goradia, Viral

    2013-01-01

    This review explores basic sleep physiology, the mechanism of action for each class of hypnotic agents, their clinical application based on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors, and potential pharmacologic sleep-inducing mechanisms of future hypnotics. The paper challenges the reader to understand the neuroscientific basis of insomnia and use this knowledge to guide prescription of hypnotic agents. Currently indicated hypnotic agents are discussed with regard to their mechanism of drug action and clinical application. A broader discussion is developed throughout this paper regarding other non-indicated agents that may improve sleep and describing newer pharmacological treatments that may become available in the future for use in sleep disorders and their comorbid conditions. PMID:24432044

  1. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Joseph; Wellington, Daniel; Miller, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 34 year-old man who developed exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis after unaccustomed high-intensity exercise. Subclinical rhabdomyolysis is common after heavy exercise, yet it is uncommon for patients to seek medical advice. The presentation is variable and despite potentially life-threatening complications the diagnosis may be easily missed by patients and healthcare professionals. A high-index of suspicion is critical to avoid missing the diagnosis. We summarise the current knowledge, clinical course, complications and management of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27657164

  2. Food-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Muraro, Antonella

    2012-02-01

    Food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA) is a serious allergic reaction that may cause death rapidly in otherwise healthy individuals. There is no universal agreement on its definition or criteria for diagnosis. Hospital admissions for FIA have more than doubled in the last decade. Food is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis, with most surveys indicating that food-induced reactions account for 30% to 50% of cases. The most commonly implicated foods are peanut, tree nuts, milk, eggs, sesame seeds, fish, and shellfish. The only life-saving treatment for anaphylaxis is allergen avoidance, and epinephrine injection if an anaphylactic event occurs.

  3. Benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P M; Lala, D S; Arsura, E L

    2000-01-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon but important complication associated with the use of topical anesthetics. We describe four cases of methemoglobinemia induced by topical benzocaine use. We review pathophysiology, early diagnosis, and therapy for this reversible yet potentially fatal condition. Physicians who use procedures involving the application of topical anesthetics need to be aware of this side effect to prevent significant morbidity and mortality.

  4. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Cocaine induced hippocampi infarction

    PubMed Central

    Morales Vidal, Sarkis Gibran; Hornik, Alejandro; Morgan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A middle age man presented with disorientation and memory impairment due to bilateral hippocampal strokes secondary to cocaine use. This is the second report of cocaine induced hippocampi ischaemic strokes. In contrast to the previous report, this middle age man did not have cardiac arrest. PMID:22761214

  6. Statin-induced Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Redmond, Elizabeth; Harbor, Cathryn

    2012-05-01

    Heart disease (HD) is the number one killer in the United States.(1) In 2006, the direct and indirect costs associated with cardiovascular disease in the United States were estimated at 400 billion dollars.(2) Statin therapy for cholesterol reduction is a mainstay intervention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as reflected in atorvastatin's status as the number one prescribed medication in the United States.(3) Statin therapy, however, is also associated with side effects that signal mitochondrial distress. A commonly reported statin-induced symptom is myalgia, which is defined as muscle pain without an associated elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK). In clinical trials, the reports of myalgia vary from less than 1% to 25% of patients.(4) Myopathy is a general term defined as an abnormal condition or disease of muscle tissue. Myopathy includes myalgia, myositis (inflammation of muscle tissue associated with elevated CK) and the very serious condition rhabdomyolysis (extreme myositis). Histological findings in statin-induced myopathy demonstrate electron chain dysfunction making "mitochondrial myopathy" the more precise term.(5) Mitochondrial myopathy has been associated with statin-induced CoQ10 depletion.(5) Given the density of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes, and CoQ10's role in mitochondrial energy production, depletion has long been associated with increased risk for heart disease.(6-7) In the case below, mitochondrial-specific organic acids, serum CoQ10, vitamin D and clinical history all suggest statin-induced mitochondrial myopathy, despite normal serum CK.

  7. Does formaldehyde induce aneuploidy?

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Kühner, Stefanie; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Schütz, Petra

    2011-11-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) was tested for a potential aneugenic activity in mammalian cells. We employed tests to discriminate between aneugenic and clastogenic effects in accordance with international guidelines for genotoxicity testing. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMNT) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with a pan-centromeric probe was performed with cultured human lymphocytes and the human A549 lung cell line. FA induced micronuclei (MN) in binuclear cells of both cell types under standard in vitro test conditions following the OECD guideline 487. FISH analysis revealed that the vast majority of induced MN were centromere negative, thus indicating a clastogenic effect. A similar result was obtained for MN induced by γ-irradiation, whereas the typical aneugens colcemid (COL) and vincristine (VCR) predominantly induced centromere-positive MN. Furthermore, COL and VCR clearly enhanced the MN frequency in mononuclear lymphocytes in the CBMNT, whereas such an effect was not observed for γ-irradiation and FA. In experiments with the Chinese hamster V79 cell line, the aneugens COL and VCR clearly increased the frequency of tetraploid second division metaphases, whereas FA did not cause such an effect. Altogether, our results confirm the clastogenicity of FA in cultured mammalian cells but exclude a significant aneugenic activity. PMID:21804075

  8. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  9. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  10. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    Patients can develop thrombocytopenia during heparin therapy.The most frequent form, type I heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, does not require cessation of therapy. Type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is immune-mediated. It can cause venous or arterial thrombosis, which may be fatal or require amputation. Type II thrombocytopenia typically develops 5 to 10 days after initiation of treatment, sometimes earlier in patients previously exposed to heparins. The recommendations on platelet-count monitoring during heparin therapy are not based on high-level evidence. The main risk factors for type II thrombocytopenia must be taken into account: unfractionated heparin, previous heparin exposure, surgery, female patient. For patients considered at high risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, platelet-count monitoring is usually recommended at least twice a week for at least 2 weeks. The treatment of immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is based on stopping heparin and replacing it with danaparoid or argatroban. In practice, the decision to initiate treatment with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is not a trivial one. In addition to the bleeding risk, the risk of type II thrombocytopenia in the short- term, or during subsequent heparin therapy, should be taken into account when assessing the harm-benefit balance. PMID:23819174

  11. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  12. Shrouded inducer pump

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in a pump including a shrouded inducer, the improvement comprising first and second sealing means 32,36 which cooperate with a first vortex cell 38 and a series of secondary vortex cells 40 to remove any tangential velocity components from the recirculation flow.

  13. Methacholine induced headache.

    PubMed Central

    Carratala, C.; Gea, J. G.; Aguar, M. C.; Grau, S.; Espadaler-Medina, J. M.; Broquetas, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    A lung function technician developed episodes of headache, probably related to the use of methacholine. The headache disappeared with breathing 100% oxygen. Cholinergic agents are known to induce headaches but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular factors could be implicated. PMID:7660351

  14. Methacholine induced headache.

    PubMed

    Carratala, C; Gea, J G; Aguar, M C; Grau, S; Espadaler-Medina, J M; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    A lung function technician developed episodes of headache, probably related to the use of methacholine. The headache disappeared with breathing 100% oxygen. Cholinergic agents are known to induce headaches but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular factors could be implicated. PMID:7660351

  15. Induced Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  16. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  17. Asthma induced by enkephalin.

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, R D; Bellamy, D; Pyke, D A

    1980-01-01

    A total of 291 diabetics were studied to see whether an asthmatic reaction was associated with facial flushing induced by chlorpropamide and alcohol. Of these patients, 191 reported facial flushing, of whom 12 reported breathlessness as well. Of these 12, five also described wheezing, and respiratory function tests showed them to have asthma. Three of these five patients underwent further tests, which showed that the asthmatic reaction could be prevented by giving disodium cromoglycate and the specific opiate antagonist naloxone. One patient developed wheezing when given an enkephalin analogue with opiate-like activity. Asthma induced by chlorpropamide and alcohol was concluded to be mediated by endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity such as enkephalin. PMID:7357255

  18. Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, James; Bourgeois, Marie; Harbison, Raymond

    2014-04-01

    Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity is a persistent allergic contact dermatitides documented in floral workers exposed to Alstroemeria and its cultivars.[1] The causative allergen is tulipalin A, a toxic glycoside named for the tulip bulbs from which it was first isolated.[2] The condition is characterized by fissured acropulpitis, often accompanied by hyperpigmentation, onychorrhexis, and paronychia. More of the volar surface may be affected in sensitized florists. Dermatitis and paronychia are extremely common conditions and diagnostic errors may occur. A thorough patient history, in conjunction with confirmatory patch testing with a bulb sliver and tuliposide A exposure, can prevent misdiagnosis. We report a case of Tulipalin A induced phytotoxicity misdiagnosed as an unresolved tinea manuum infection in a patient evaluated for occupational exposure. PMID:25024947

  19. Sepsis-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailen, Manuel; Gil-Cebrian, Julián; Huertos-Ranchal, María J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is one of the main predictors of poor outcome in septic patients, with mortality rates next to 70%. During the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, both ventricles can dilate and diminish its ejection fraction, having less response to fluid resuscitation and catecholamines, but typically is assumed to be reversible within 7-10 days. In the last 30 years, It´s being subject of substantial research; however no explanation of its etiopathogenesis or effective treatment have been proved yet. The aim of this manuscript is to review on the most relevant aspects of the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, discuss its clinical presentation, pathophysiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies proposed in recent years. PMID:22758615

  20. Sunitinib Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Shekarriz, Ramin; Koulaeinejad, Neda; Nosrati, Anahita; Salehifa, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor which prevents tumor growth and metastatic progression. It was approved for treatment of advanced renal cell cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. It has several adverse reactions on multi organ systems including hematologic system. Although the neutropenia and thrombocytopenia commonly happens as Grade 3 or 4 abnormalities following bone marrow suppression, in the rare cases, the immune mediated abnormality may drive the sunitinib-induced hematologic disorder. In this report, we present a case of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia induced by sunitinib. One month after first treatment cycle with sunitinib, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were occurred. The patient had a normal bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, the thrombocytopenia was resistant to platelet transfusion which successfully was treated with prednisolone. PMID:26664400

  1. Sunitinib Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Shekarriz, Ramin; Koulaeinejad, Neda; Nosrati, Anahita; Salehifa, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor which prevents tumor growth and metastatic progression. It was approved for treatment of advanced renal cell cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. It has several adverse reactions on multi organ systems including hematologic system. Although the neutropenia and thrombocytopenia commonly happens as Grade 3 or 4 abnormalities following bone marrow suppression, in the rare cases, the immune mediated abnormality may drive the sunitinib-induced hematologic disorder. In this report, we present a case of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia induced by sunitinib. One month after first treatment cycle with sunitinib, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were occurred. The patient had a normal bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, the thrombocytopenia was resistant to platelet transfusion which successfully was treated with prednisolone. PMID:26664400

  2. Polarization induced doped transistor

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  3. Radiation-induced schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Reichenthal, E.; Borohov, H.

    1989-06-01

    The histopathology and clinical course of three patients with schwannomas of the brain and high cervical cord after therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancy and for ringworm of the scalp are described. Earlier reports in the literature indicated that radiation of the scalp may induce tumors in the head and neck. It is therefore suggested that therapeutic irradiation in these instances was a causative factor in the genesis of these tumors.

  4. Levetiracetam-induced pancytopenia.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Talal; Kay, Dana; Alqahtani, Saeed A; Makke, Yamane; Lesky, Linda; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2015-01-01

    Pancytopenia is a rare side effect of levetiracetam (LEV) that is associated with severe morbidity that requires hospitalization. Here, we report a patient with a right temporoparietal tumor who underwent a temporal craniotomy with resection of the mass and was started on LEV for seizure prophylaxis per the neurosurgery local protocol. The patient developed LEV-induced pancytopenia, which was successfully managed by discontinuation of this medication. Our report aims to increase awareness of this rare cause of pancytopenia among clinicians. PMID:26744695

  5. [Induced autotetraploid grape mutants].

    PubMed

    Kuliev, V M

    2011-01-01

    The methods of experimental mitotic and meiotic polyploidy in grapes are represented in the article. Results of cytological, histo-anatomical, biomorphological researches of induced autotetraploids are shown. Genetic characteristics, parameters of generative organs, quantitative and structural genome changes were studied. Comparative quantitative changes in the content of chloroplast and mitochondrion DNAs and RNAs in diploids and autotetraploids were defined. Also are shown. The biology-economic evaluation of autotetraploids on comparison with the initial grape variety is represented. PMID:21774401

  6. Ketamine-Induced Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Powers, A.R.; Gancsos, M.G.; Finn, E.S.; Morgan, P.T.; Corlett, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine, the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist drug, is increasingly employed as an experimental model of psychosis in healthy volunteers. At sub-anesthetic doses, it safely and reversibly causes delusion-like ideas, amotivation, and perceptual disruptions reminiscent of the aberrant salience experiences that characterize first-episode psychosis. However, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, have not been reported consistently in healthy volunteers even at high doses of ketamine. Methods Here we present data from a set of healthy participants who received moderately dosed, placebo controlled ketamine infusions in the reduced stimulation environment of the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We highlight the phenomenological experiences of three participants who experienced particularly vivid hallucinations. Results Participants in this series reported auditory verbal and musical hallucinations at a ketamine dose that does not induce auditory hallucination outside of the scanner. Discussion We interpret the observation of ketamine-induced AVHs in the context of the reduced perceptual environment of the magnetic resonance scanner, and offer an explanation grounded in predictive coding models of perception and psychosis: the brain fills in expected perceptual inputs and it does so more in situations of reduced perceptual input. The reduced perceptual input of the MRI scanner creates a mismatch between top-down perceptual expectations and the heightened bottom-up signals induced by ketamine; such circumstances induce aberrant percepts including musical and auditory verbal hallucinations. We suggest that these circumstances might represent a useful experimental model of AVHs and highlight the impact of ambient sensory stimuli on psychopathology. PMID:26361209

  7. Fluoroscopy-induced radionecrosis.

    PubMed

    Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Kamangar, Faranak; Ho, Baran; Chang, Shurong; Dahle, Sara E; Schulman, Joshua M; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2016-01-01

    Complications from radiation exposure during fluoroscopic guidance of cardiac catheterization may occur. With repeated procedures, the risk for cutaneous injuries increases. Herein, we describe a 59-year-old man with extensive coronary artery disease, who had undergone multiple revascularization procedures and developed a non-healing ulcer on his left inferior scapula. The patient's medical history, physical exam findings, and histopathology gave clues to a case of radiation-induced dermatitis and necrosis. PMID:27617939

  8. Cefoperazone Induced Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Katukuri, Goutham Reddy; Maddala, Raja Naga Mahesh; Ramamoorthi, Kusugodlu; Hande, Manjunatha

    2016-08-01

    Cefoperazone is a beta-lactam antibiotic which is frequently used in treating a variety of gram positive and gram negative infections. The chemical structure of cefoperazone contains a side chain of N-methylthiotetrazole which can inhibit vitamin K metabolism resulting in hypoprothombinemia. We report a case of cefoperazone induced coagulopathy manifesting as gastrointestinal bleeding. A Naranjo assessment score of 5 was obtained, indicating a probable relationship between the patient's coagulation function disorder and her use of the suspect drug. PMID:27656491

  9. Desloratadine Induced Pill Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Alkim, Huseyin; Iscan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Pill induced esophagitis is a rare complication mostly seen in patients using tetracycline and its derivatives or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Here we present a 37 years old female patient experiencing pill esophagitis after taking desloratadine without liquid immediately before going to bed. This was the first pill esophagitis case related with desloratadine reported in the literature. Pill esophagitis is a preventable complication that consists of giving simple advice of how and when to take medication.

  10. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  11. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  12. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  13. Sepsis-induced myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Leigh Ann; Supinski, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and despite advances in management, mortality remains high. In survivors, sepsis increases the risk for the development of persistent acquired weakness syndromes affecting both the respiratory muscles and the limb muscles. This acquired weakness results in prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, difficulty weaning, functional impairment, exercise limitation, and poor health-related quality of life. Abundant evidence indicates that sepsis induces a myopathy characterized by reductions in muscle force-generating capacity, atrophy (loss of muscle mass), and altered bioenergetics. Sepsis elicits derangements at multiple subcellular sites involved in excitation contraction coupling, such as decreasing membrane excitability, injuring sarcolemmal membranes, altering calcium homeostasis due to effects on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and disrupting contractile protein interactions. Muscle wasting occurs later and results from increased proteolytic degradation as well as decreased protein synthesis. In addition, sepsis produces marked abnormalities in muscle mitochondrial functional capacity and when severe, these alterations correlate with increased death. The mechanisms leading to sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle are linked to excessive localized elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines, marked increases in free-radical generation, and activation of proteolytic pathways that are upstream of the proteasome including caspase and calpain. Emerging data suggest that targeted inhibition of these pathways may alter the evolution and progression of sepsis-induced myopathy and potentially reduce the occurrence of sepsis-mediated acquired weakness syndromes. PMID:20046121

  14. Clinical Report: Helping Habitual Smokers Using Flooding and Hypnotic Desensitization Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas H.

    Most research in smoking cessation has shown no intervention clearly superior or successful. Of those who return to smoking after abstaining, a subgroup includes those who do so incrementally, eventually reaching their former level. An approach aimed at this subgroup, originally used in a group setting, involves intensifying the desire to smoke…

  15. Reduction of Adolescent Drug Abuse Through Post-Hypnotic Cue Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roger D.

    1974-01-01

    Six adolescents, all females, who were involved in a variety of drug misuse were self-referrals for treatment. Treatment consisted of an initial comprehensive psychological examination, three intensive sessions of hypnosis and a procedure to develop cue association in situations where the girls felt tense. Results were favorable. (Author)

  16. GABAA receptor pharmacology of fluorinated derivatives of the novel sedative-hypnotic pyrazolopyrimidine indiplon.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Florian; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Scheunemann, Matthias; Brust, Peter; Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Diekers, Michael; Strecker, Karl; Wohlfarth, Kai; Allgaier, Clemens; Steinbach, Jörg; Hoepping, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The function of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A) receptors) is enhanced by various clinically important drugs including benzodiazepines that act on an allosteric site formed at the interface between the alpha and gamma subunits. In contrast to classical benzodiazepines, the novel pyrazolopyrimidine indiplon (N-methyl-N-{3-[7-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-1,5,9-triazabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-2-yl]phenyl}acetamide; N-methyl-N-{3-[3-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-yl]phenyl}-acetamide) demonstrates relative binding selectivity for the alpha1 subunit containing receptor subtypes, which are the most frequently expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. To investigate the pharmacological properties at GABA(A) receptors and to promote the development of alpha1 subunit selective radiotracers for positron emission tomography imaging, we have started with the evaluation of various fluorinated indiplon derivatives. Binding affinities were determined in homogenates from newborn and adult rats suggesting an alpha1 preference of the reference compounds indiplon, zaleplon as well as for all newly synthesized indiplon derivatives. In homogenated cerebellar tissue obtained from adult rat brain, known to primarily express alpha1 containing GABA(A) receptors, the high affinity of the basic indiplon structure was only slightly affected by an elongation of the alkyl substituent of the amide N from methyl (indiplon; K(i) 3.1 nM) via ethyl (2a, N-(2-fluoro-ethyl)-N-{3-[3-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-yl]phenyl}-acetamide; K(i) 5.4 nM) to propyl (2b, N-(3-fluoro-propyl)-N-{3-[3-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-yl]phenyl}-acetamide; K(i) 2.4 nM). Whole cell patch-clamp recordings at neuronal and recombinant GABA(A) receptors indicated that the fluorinated derivatives 2a and 2b have a high potency at alpha1beta3gamma2L isoforms comparable to indiplon (EC(50): 105, 158, and 81 nM, respectively), with 2b displaying the most pronounced efficacy at alpha3beta3gamma2L subtypes. In conclusion, the affinity profiles and functional properties of the newly synthesised fluorinated indiplon derivatives make compounds 2a and 2b suitable for the development of [(18)F]-labelled ligands at GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha1 subunit.

  17. Hypnotic Enhancement of Cognitive-Behavioral Weight Loss Treatments--Another Meta-reanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of the effect of adding hypnosis to cognitive-behavioral treatments for weight reduction, additional data were obtained from authors of two previous studies, and computational inaccuracies in the previous meta-analyses were corrected. Discusses findings. Correlational analyses indicated that the benefits of hypnosis increased…

  18. Hypnotic overdoses and fairy tales: Snow White and the uses of disenchantment.

    PubMed

    Pommereau, X; Delile, J M; Caule, E

    1987-01-01

    In most Western countries, more than two-thirds of attempted suicides are among women suffering from drug overdoses. Explanations for women's use of less violent methods include the wish to avoid disfiguration, the influence of upbringing, and sex differences in cultural expectations. Many women under stress have a weaker intention to die, and their suicidal act is generally less a deliberate search for death than a desire to live another life, indicating a need to escape from a difficult situation. In this respect, the suicidal woman's desire to sleep through an overdose coma is very significant. We call to mind the strength of the kinship between death and sleep. Reinterpreting the fairy tale "Snow White" and making a parallel with some contemporary clinical cases, we show that the illusion of a nondefinitive death is often assimilated, in Western culture, with a step toward rebirth.

  19. Preferences for hypnotic imagery for hot-flash reduction: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Marcus, Joel; Bunn, Jennifer; Perfect, Michelle; Palamara, Lynn; Stearns, Vered; Dove, Jacqueline

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this brief report is to identify imagery preferences of women receiving hypnotherapy to alleviate hot flashes. As part of a larger study, 51 breast cancer survivors were asked to identify their own personal preferences for imagery for reducing hot flashes. Most of the participants identified personal imagery associated with coolness; none of the participants selected imagery for warmth or heat. The most widely used was imagery involving water associated with coolness (27.0%). It is recommended that clinicians using hypnosis for reduction of hot flashes attend to patients' preferences as specific imagery may moderate the effectiveness of hypnosis for hot flashes. PMID:20509073

  20. A Symptom-Focused Hypnotic Approach to Accessing and Processing Previously Repressed/Dissociated Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratican, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    The kinesthetic track back technique accesses the origins of current symptoms and may uncover previously repressed/dissociated material, if such material exists in the client's unconscious mind, is relevant to the symptoms, and is ready to be processed consciously. Case examples are given to illustrate proper use of this technique. (LSR)

  1. "Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

    2008-01-01

    "Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

  2. 76 FR 19375 - Safety and Efficacy of Hypnotic Drugs; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... insomnia. The Division of Neurology Products (DNP) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and the... Margaret Bogie or Cathleen Michaloski (see Contact). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Insomnia is a common..., about the definition of insomnia and the classification of patients with the disorder. A...

  3. Hypnotically facilitated exposure response prevention therapy for an OIF veteran with OCD.

    PubMed

    Proescher, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    The highly stressful conditions of a war zone may exacerbate or trigger a wide variety of symptoms including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) once a service member returns home. Service members and new veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars present to treatment with multiple psychosocial concerns and co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Evidence-based treatments including exposure based therapies are commonly recommended for use with returning veterans. Although studies support the efficacy of Exposure Response Prevention (ERP) therapy for treating OCD, eligibility for these studies limits participation to subjects who self-report a well-defined, circumscribed complaint. This approach is not typical of clinic clients who, more often than not, report multiple psychological issues. The following individual case study demonstrates how integrating hypnosis facilitated the cognitive-behavioral ERP therapy and treatment for a patient suffering from OCD.

  4. Hypnotic Overdoses and Fairy Tales: Snow White and the Uses of Disenchantment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommereau, Xavier; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Considers explanations for women's use of less violent methods to commit suicide. Reinterprets "Snow White" and makes parallel with contemporary clinical cases to show that illusion of a nondefinitive death is often assimilated, in western culture, with step toward rebirth. (Author/NB)

  5. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Low-Dose Midazolam, Magnesium Sulfate, Remifentanil and Low-Dose Etomidate on Prevention of Etomidate-Induced Myoclonus in Orthopedic Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Sedighinejad, Abbas; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Haghighi, Mohammad; Biazar, Gelareh; Imantalab, Vali; Rimaz, Siamak; Zaridoost, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Etomidate is a potent hypnotic agent with several desirable advantages such as providing a stable cardiovascular profile with minimal respiratory adverse effects and better hemodynamic stability compared with other induction agents. This drug is associated, however, with myoclonic movements which is characterized by a sudden, brief muscle contractions as a disturbing side-effect. Objectives The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of low- dose midazolam, magnesium sulfate, remifentanil and low-dose etomidate to suppress etomidate-induced myoclonus in orthopedic surgery. Patients and Methods A double-blind clinical trial study was conducted in an academic hospital from September 2014 to August 2015. Two hundred and eighty-four eligible patients, American society of anesthesiologists class I - II, scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery were randomly allocated into four equal groups (n = 71). They received premedication with intravenous low-dose midazolam 0.015 mg/kg, magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg, remifentanil 1 μg/kg and low-dose etomidate 0.03 mg/kg two minutes before induction of anesthesia with 0.3 mg/kg intravenous etomidate. Then the incidence and intensity of myoclonus were evaluated on a scale of 0 - 3; 0 = no myoclonus; 1 = mild (movement at wrist); 2 = moderate (movement at arm only, elbow or shoulder); and 3 = severe, generalized response or movement in more than one extremity, within ninety seconds. Any adverse effect due to these premedication agents was recorded. Results The incidence and intensity of myoclonus were significantly lower in the low-dose etomidate group. The incidence rates of myoclonus were 51 (71.85%), 61 (85.9%), 30 (42.3%) and 41 (57.7%), and the percentages of patients who experienced grade III of myoclonus were 30 (58.8%), 32 (52.5%), 9 (30%) and 14 (34.1%) in the midazolam, magnesium sulfate, etomidate and remifentanil groups, respectively. The incidence and intensity of myoclonus were significantly

  7. Study of cavitating inducer instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. E.; Murphy, R.; Reddecliff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analytic and experimental investigation into the causes and mechanisms of cavitating inducer instabilities was conducted. Hydrofoil cascade tests were performed, during which cavity sizes were measured. The measured data were used, along with inducer data and potential flow predictions, to refine an analysis for the prediction of inducer blade suction surface cavitation cavity volume. Cavity volume predictions were incorporated into a linearized system model, and instability predictions for an inducer water test loop were generated. Inducer tests were conducted and instability predictions correlated favorably with measured instability data.

  8. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  9. -induced continental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  10. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. PMID:26520167

  11. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes.

  12. Fission induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments was investigated, as well as the probability of utilizing the energy of these particles to create population inversion leading to laser action. Eventually, it is hoped that the same medium could be used for both fissioning and lasing, thus avoiding inefficiences in converting one form of energy to the other. A central problem in understanding a fission induced plasma is to obtain an accurate model of the electron behavior; some calculations are presented to this end. The calculations are simple, providing a compendium of processes for reference.

  13. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia.

  14. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes. PMID:7652089

  15. Bupropion-induced somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Krenz, Sonia; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2003-09-01

    Whereas there are some case reports of bupropion-induced vivid dreaming and nightmares, until now it has not been associated with somnambulism. A case is reported of a patient treated with bupropion as a smoking cessation medication, who developed somnambulism during nicotine withdrawal. Furthermore, the sleepwalking episodes were associated with eating behaviour. Amnesia was reported for all episodes. As, on one hand,bupropion is a noradrenergic and dopaminergic drug and nicotine withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with alterations in monoaminergic functions, an interaction at the level of these neurotransmitters is suggested as the underlying mechanism. PMID:13129839

  16. [Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation].

    PubMed

    Karrer, S; Szeimies, R M; Pfau, A; Schröder, J; Stolz, W; Landthaler, M

    1998-03-01

    A common adverse effect of minocycline therapy is cutaneous pigmentation. We describe two patients who presented with hyperpigmentation caused by minocycline. One patient, aged 54 years, had taken minocycline due to lung silicosis for 3 years before black pigmentation of the face occurred. The other 49 year-old patient developed grey-black hyperpigmentation on both lower legs after a 6-month therapy with minocycline for folliculitis. This patient was treated with the Q-switched ruby laser and the pigmentation resolved in the treated area. The different clinical and histological forms of minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation are discussed.

  17. Ifosfamide induced Fanconi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Buttemer, Samantha; Pai, Mohan; Lau, Keith K

    2011-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFA) is a powerful chemotherapeutic drug that is active against a variety of paediatric malignancies. However, renal toxicities such as haemorrhagic cystitis and Fanconi syndrome are major hazards that hinder its use in clinical practice. The authors present a case of a patient treated for Wilms’ tumour with IFA who developed rickets with Fanconi syndrome. Patients undergoing IFA treatment must be carefully monitored for the development of iatrogenic complications. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the underlying pathomechanism of IFA induced Fanconi syndrome, and selective renal protection against during chemotherapy with IFA may be possible soon. PMID:22669992

  18. Emotionally induced hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Rachel S; Schwartz, Robert A

    2002-05-01

    Hyperhidrosis, a disorder that usually begins in childhood or adolescence, is defined as sweating in excess of what is required for normal thermoregulation. This condition may adversely affect one's quality of life by causing emotional disturbance and social embarrassment. Three forms of hyperhidrosis exist: emotionally induced, localized, and generalized. Hyperhidrosis may be either idiopathic or secondary to other diseases, metabolic disorders, febrile illnesses, or drugs. Diagnosis usually is made based on the patient's history and visible signs of excessive sweating. Various effective treatment options are available. PMID:12041810

  19. Demonstrating induced recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Caswell, B. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes an attempt by a New England community to explore for an aquifer that would yield 1 million gallons of ground water per day. After the discovery of a glacial sand and gravel aquifer, a demonstration of a hydraulic coupling between the aquifer and an adjacent stream was undertaken. This connection was needed to maintain recharge capacity of the well. The paper goes on to describe the techniques needed and used to determine the induced recharge caused by drawdown in these test wells.

  20. [Cannabinoid-induced hyperemesis].

    PubMed

    Lieb, Martin; Palm, Ulrich; Nicolaus, Mathias; Reibke, Roland; Baghai, Thomas C

    2011-04-01

    In this case report, we describe a 29 year-old male patient with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. Abstinence from cannabis resolved both vomiting and abdominal pain. We conclude that in case of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with severe and chronic nausea, vomiting, accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive behaviour (hot bathing), in the absence of other obvious causes, the diagnosis of cannabinoid-induced hyperemesis syndrome should be considered. PMID:21462097

  1. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cleva; Kross, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. PMID:22408440

  2. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  3. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  4. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  5. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with acute flushing, pruritus and warmth followed by collapse after vigorous exercise in a gymnasium. After resting for 30 min and receiving a rapid infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride, he was finally stable. He admitted that he had a similar experience 5 years earlier during exercise. Based on the patient's history, his symptoms were attributed to exercise-induced anaphylaxis. None of his episodes was associated with any suspicious co-triggers of anaphylaxis. He was successfully discharged from hospital without any complications after receiving guidance on how to prevent this condition. PMID:22669856

  6. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with acute flushing, pruritus and warmth followed by collapse after vigorous exercise in a gymnasium. After resting for 30 min and receiving a rapid infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride, he was finally stable. He admitted that he had a similar experience 5 years earlier during exercise. Based on the patient's history, his symptoms were attributed to exercise-induced anaphylaxis. None of his episodes was associated with any suspicious co-triggers of anaphylaxis. He was successfully discharged from hospital without any complications after receiving guidance on how to prevent this condition.

  7. Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jinglei; Ohsaki, Yuki; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujimoto, Toyoshi . E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  8. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-08-28

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.

  9. INTERFERON INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases that develop as a result of interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic and environmental triggers contributing to AITD. The major environmental triggers of AITD include iodine, smoking, medications, pregnancy, and possibly stress. In this review we will focus on two well-documented environmental triggers of AITD, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon alpha (IFNa) therapy. Chronic HCV infection has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (i.e. the presence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid subjects). Moreover, IFNa therapy of chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical or clinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of cases which can be autoimmune, or non-autoimmune thyroiditis. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) in chronic HCV patients may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HCV and interferon induced thyroiditis have been well characterized, the mechanisms causing these conditions are still poorly understood. PMID:20022216

  10. Inducible fluorescent speckle microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, António J; Aguiar, Paulo; Belsley, Michael; Maiato, Helder

    2016-01-18

    The understanding of cytoskeleton dynamics has benefited from the capacity to generate fluorescent fiducial marks on cytoskeleton components. Here we show that light-induced imprinting of three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent speckles significantly improves speckle signal and contrast relative to classic (random) fluorescent speckle microscopy. We predict theoretically that speckle imprinting using photobleaching is optimal when the laser energy and fluorophore responsivity are related by the golden ratio. This relation, which we confirm experimentally, translates into a 40% remaining signal after speckle imprinting and provides a rule of thumb in selecting the laser power required to optimally prepare the sample for imaging. This inducible speckle imaging (ISI) technique allows 3D speckle microscopy to be performed in readily available libraries of cell lines or primary tissues expressing fluorescent proteins and does not preclude conventional imaging before speckle imaging. As a proof of concept, we use ISI to measure metaphase spindle microtubule poleward flux in primary cells and explore a scaling relation connecting microtubule flux to metaphase duration. PMID:26783303

  11. [Drug-induced laryngospasm].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Munakata, K

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of drug-induced laryngospasm due to Chlorpromazine. A drug-induced laryngospasm has not been previously reported in the literature. A 70-year-old male with the proximal end fracture of the femur was scheduled for the operative fixation. He had a past history of alcoholism and had underwent a long-term chlorpromazine therapy for 45 years until admission to our hospital. There have been a few reports on unexplained sudden deaths of patients receiving long-term treatment with chlorpromazine. Caution was therefore needed in general anesthesia, which was thought to be safer than epidural or spinal anesthesia in this case. Accordingly for the preparation of an emergency operation, the central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein was performed under subcutaneous injection of lidocaine. Severe dyspnea and cyanosis occurred a few minutes after the administration of lidocaine. The specific diagnosis of laryngospasm was made by inspection of the vocal cords. Immediate oral intubation was performed and no complications ensued during and after the operation. This episode strongly suggests that one reason of the unexplained sudden deaths of patients receiving long term treatment with chlorpromazine could be laryngospasm. In conclusion, anesthesiologists should be aware of the possibility of laryngospasm under similar conditions.

  12. Video game induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, C D; De Marco, P; Grünewald, R A; Giannakodimos, S; Panayiotopoulos, C P

    1994-08-01

    Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but some had typical absence seizures and myoclonic jerks while playing video games. In this series, 30% with idiopathic generalised epilepsy had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Overall, 70% of patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy were photosensitive to intermittent photic stimulation and the mechanism of seizure provocation was probably similar to that of television induced seizures, although sensitivity to specific patterns was sometimes important. Two children had self induced video game seizures. Non-photic factors such as excitement, fatigue, sleep deprivation, cognitive processing, and diurnal variation in susceptibility seemed to be important seizure precipitants, particularly in non-photo-sensitive patients. Twenty nine per cent of patients had partial (mainly occipital) video game associated seizures. Occipital spikes were common in the EEG of these patients. Photosensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation may have been important in two patients but in the others, who all played arcade video games, other mechanisms need to be considered. Video game associated seizures are a feature of several epileptic syndromes and differ in precipitants and appropriate management.

  13. [Drug-induced laryngospasm].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Munakata, K

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of drug-induced laryngospasm due to Chlorpromazine. A drug-induced laryngospasm has not been previously reported in the literature. A 70-year-old male with the proximal end fracture of the femur was scheduled for the operative fixation. He had a past history of alcoholism and had underwent a long-term chlorpromazine therapy for 45 years until admission to our hospital. There have been a few reports on unexplained sudden deaths of patients receiving long-term treatment with chlorpromazine. Caution was therefore needed in general anesthesia, which was thought to be safer than epidural or spinal anesthesia in this case. Accordingly for the preparation of an emergency operation, the central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein was performed under subcutaneous injection of lidocaine. Severe dyspnea and cyanosis occurred a few minutes after the administration of lidocaine. The specific diagnosis of laryngospasm was made by inspection of the vocal cords. Immediate oral intubation was performed and no complications ensued during and after the operation. This episode strongly suggests that one reason of the unexplained sudden deaths of patients receiving long term treatment with chlorpromazine could be laryngospasm. In conclusion, anesthesiologists should be aware of the possibility of laryngospasm under similar conditions. PMID:9071116

  14. Drug-induced lupus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  15. Inducible fluorescent speckle microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Paulo; Belsley, Michael; Maiato, Helder

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of cytoskeleton dynamics has benefited from the capacity to generate fluorescent fiducial marks on cytoskeleton components. Here we show that light-induced imprinting of three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent speckles significantly improves speckle signal and contrast relative to classic (random) fluorescent speckle microscopy. We predict theoretically that speckle imprinting using photobleaching is optimal when the laser energy and fluorophore responsivity are related by the golden ratio. This relation, which we confirm experimentally, translates into a 40% remaining signal after speckle imprinting and provides a rule of thumb in selecting the laser power required to optimally prepare the sample for imaging. This inducible speckle imaging (ISI) technique allows 3D speckle microscopy to be performed in readily available libraries of cell lines or primary tissues expressing fluorescent proteins and does not preclude conventional imaging before speckle imaging. As a proof of concept, we use ISI to measure metaphase spindle microtubule poleward flux in primary cells and explore a scaling relation connecting microtubule flux to metaphase duration. PMID:26783303

  16. Peripherally induced oromandibular dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, C.; Lai, E.; Jankovic, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth, jaw, and tongue movements. Dystonia is usually idiopathic (primary), but in some cases it follows peripheral injury. Peripherally induced cervical and limb dystonia is well recognised, and the aim of this study was to characterise peripherally induced OMD.
METHODS—The following inclusion criteria were used for peripherally induced OMD: (1) the onset of the dystonia was within a few days or months (up to 1 year) after the injury; (2) the trauma was well documented by the patient's history or a review of their medical and dental records; and (3) the onset of dystonia was anatomically related to the site of injury (facial and oral).
RESULTS—Twenty seven patients were identified in the database with OMD, temporally and anatomically related to prior injury or surgery. No additional precipitant other than trauma could be detected. None of the patients had any litigation pending. The mean age at onset was 50.11 (SD 14.15) (range 23-74) years and there was a 2:1 female preponderance. Mean latency between the initial trauma and the onset of OMD was 65 days (range 1 day-1 year). Ten (37%) patients had some evidence of predisposing factors such as family history of movement disorders, prior exposure to neuroleptic drugs, and associated dystonia affecting other regions or essential tremor. When compared with 21 patients with primary OMD, there was no difference for age at onset, female preponderance, and phenomenology. The frequency of dystonic writer's cramp, spasmodic dysphonia, bruxism, essential tremor, and family history of movement disorder, however, was lower in the post-traumatic group (p<0.05). In both groups the response to botulinum toxin treatment was superior to medical therapy (p<0.005). Surgical intervention for temporomandibular disorders was more frequent in the post-traumatic group and was associated with

  17. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  18. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  19. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  20. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

    This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

  1. Disorder induces explosive synchronization.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2014-06-01

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  2. Herbivore induced plant volatiles

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Hari Chand; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through different defensive mechanisms. The induction of volatile emission is one of the important and immediate response of plants to herbivory. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are involved in plant communication with natural enemies of the insect herbivores, neighboring plants, and different parts of the damaged plant. Release of a wide variety of HIPVs in response to herbivore damage and their role in plant-plant, plant-carnivore and intraplant communications represents a new facet of the complex interactions among different trophic levels. HIPVs are released from leaves, flowers, and fruits into the atmosphere or into the soil from roots in response to herbivore attack. Moreover, HIPVs act as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents to insect pests. HIPVs also mediate the interactions between the plants and the microorganisms. This review presents an overview of HIPVs emitted by plants, their role in plant defense against herbivores and their implications for pest management. PMID:22105032

  3. Multiphoton electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lingling; Kang, Hoonsoo; Zhu, Yifu; Wu, Ying

    2003-05-01

    We show that in multi-level atomic systems coupled by multiple laser fields, all linear and nonlinear absorptions may be completely suppressed, leading to the multiphoton electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Under suitable conditions, multiphoton EIT may be used to realize selective steady-state population inversion in coherently pumped atomic systems and achieve efficient nonlinear light generation at low light intensities. As examples, we will present studies of multiphoton EIT in five-level and six-level atomic systems, which demonstrate steady-state population inversion from selective nonlinear excitation. We will also present studies of resonant hyper-Raman and four-wave mixing processes that are enhanced via suppression of the lower-order linear and nonlinear absorptions, and are capable of generating short-wavelength, coherent light at low pump intensities.

  4. Laser-induced bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Lynch, R.V. III

    1981-01-01

    A project has been initiated to determine the feasibility of developing a complete airborne remote sensing system for rapidly mapping high concentration patches of bioluminescent organisms in the world's oceans. Conceptually, this system would be composed of a laser illuminator to induce bioluminescence and a low light level image intensifier for detection of light. Initial laboratory measurements consisted of using a 2-J flash lamp pulsed optical dye laser to excite bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate Pyrocustis lunula at ambient temperature using Rhodamine 6G as the lasing dye (585 nm) and a laser pulse width of 1 microsec. After a latency period of 15-20 msec, the bioluminescence maximum occurred in the blue (480 nm is the wavelength maximum for most dinoflagellate bioluminescence) with the peaking occurring approximately 65 msec after the laser pulse. Planned experiments will investigate the effect of different excitation wavelengths and energies at various temperatures and salinities of the cultures.

  5. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia: review.

    PubMed

    Dasararaju, Radhika; Singh, Nirupama; Mehta, Amitkumar

    2013-08-01

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious, potentially life and limb threatening immune adverse reaction to heparin. IgG antibodies against platelet factor 4 and heparin multimer complexes activate platelets to create a prothrombotic state. ELISA based immunoassay to detect these antibodies is sensitive while serotonin release assay is highly specific but is not widely available. 4T score is a simple score to calculate pre-test probability of HIT. Score < 3 is highly specific to exclude the diagnosis. Alternate anticoagulants like lepirudin, argatroban or danaparoid are recommended in therapeutic dose to treat or prevent thrombotic events in HIT. Increased awareness of this condition among clinicians is important to ensure its early recognition and treatment to avoid serious complications. PMID:23991928

  6. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF.

  7. Discreteness induced extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  8. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Ali; Yilmaz, Cahide; Yilmaz, Nebi; Oner, Ahmet Faik

    2006-06-01

    We describe a 5-year-old girl showed recovery of vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment. A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed preB cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). She received chemotherapy according to the previously described modified St. Jude total therapy studies XIII. Five days after the fourth dose of vincristine, she presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis, and complete external opthalmoplegia with normal pupillary and corneal reflexes. She received 3.8 mg cumulative dose of vincristin before development of ptosis. A neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatment attempt with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine was initiated. The bilateral ptosis markedly improved after 7 days of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment and completely resolved after two weeks. The both agents were given for 3 weeks and were well tolerated without any side effects. During the follow up period we did not observe residue or recurrence of the ptosis.

  9. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-12-16

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that {mu}Ci of {sup 62}Cu can be generated via the ({gamma},n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2}.

  10. Uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the skew information, we present a quantity, uncertainty-induced quantum nonlocality (UIN) to measure the quantum correlation. It can be considered as the updated version of the original measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN) preserving the good computability but eliminating the non-contractivity problem. For 2×d-dimensional state, it is shown that UIN can be given by a closed form. In addition, we also investigate the maximal uncertainty-induced nonlocality.

  11. Laser Induced Thermal Keratoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Householder, John; Horwitz, Larry S.; Lowe, Kenneth W.; Murrillo, Adolfo

    1989-09-01

    A technique of corneal surgery that is thermally induced and relatively nonenvasive has been studied by the authors, and the preliminary results of the thermal keratoplasty performed on live rabbits are reported here. A carbon dioxide laser was used with simple optical and pointing systems to thermally induce several arbitrary patterns of corneal reformation. Endothelial photographs were taken before the procedure and then again ten days after. They indicated no damage in the Descemet's membrane nor was there damage observed to the endothelium. As much, as 14 "diopters" of change occurred in the corneal keratometry with both positive and negative directions signs. The magnitude and direction of the change were recorded as functions of the pattern of the therapy produced and the laser energy deposited in the stroma. Any corneal reformation was tracked as a function of time subsequent to the procedure. A-minor decay was observed within the first three days of the procedure and the majority of the reformations have maintained at the time of this writing. Since radiation at this wavelength is highly attenuated and absorbed in cornea, no change was observed beyond mid-stroma and the lens and retina appeared uneffective. The authors believe that this technology will be a significant contributor to corneal refractive procedures in the near future. Unlike any refractive surgery currently practiced, this technology may lead to a procedure that: 1) is reversible, 2) is re.eatable, 3) stren thens rather then weakens the cornea, 4) is a..arentl more stable, 5) is more flexible in the types of corneal curvature changes it can produce, 6) results in very clean mires, 7) is painless, and 8) results in total corneal clarity.

  12. Methaqualone.

    PubMed

    Ionescu-Pioggia, M; Bird, M; Orzack, M H; Benes, F; Beake, B; Cole, J O

    1988-04-01

    Methaqualone is considered a sedative hypnotic drug with a pattern of pharmacological effects similar to those of barbiturates such as pentobarbital. It does have chemical similarities to the barbiturates but was, in fact, synthesized as part of an Indian program looking for antimalarial drugs (Brown and Goenechea, 1973). Methaqualone was selected for the focus of this study five years ago, because of its popularity as a euphoriant among casual recreational drug users in the Boston area. Methaqualone, instead of a barbiturate hypnotic, was therefore used to test our proposed methodology for the assessment of the abuse liability of sedative drugs. As one reviews the history of the clinical use and illicit abuse of methaqualone, it appears particularly unfortunate that a study of this sort was neither completed nor available to our Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) in 1965. It was at this time that the drug was approved for prescription use and placed in Schedule V, a schedule which essentially places no restrictions on the clinical use of a prescription drug (Falco, 1976). This paper will both review the development of methaqualone and present an experimental methodology for assessing its abuse liability under seminaturalistic conditions.

  13. Baboon syndrome induced by hydroxyzine.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Hayet; Belhadjali, Hichem; Youssef, Monia; Mokni, Sana; Zili, Jamelediine

    2013-05-01

    Hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions are very rare. We report here a typical case of drug-related Baboon syndrome or symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) which was induced by hydroxyzine in a 60-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive patch and oral accidental provocation tests with hydroxyzine. Patch tests and oral provocation tests with cetirizine and levocetirizine were negative. A review of the literature identified only 17 reported cases of hydroxyzine-induced drug eruptions. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of hydroxyzine-induced SDRIFE. PMID:23723506

  14. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Markou, K; Georgopoulos, N; Kyriazopoulou, V; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-05-01

    Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has the capacity and holds the machinery to handle the iodine efficiently when the availability of iodine becomes scarce, as well as when iodine is available in excessive quantities. The latter situation is handled by the thyroid by acutely inhibiting the organification of iodine, the so-called acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect, by a mechanism not well understood 52 years after the original description. It is proposed that iodopeptide(s) are formed that temporarily inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mRNA and protein synthesis and, therefore, thyroglobulin iodinations. The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an effective means of rejecting the large quantities of iodide and therefore preventing the thyroid from synthesizing large quantities of thyroid hormones. The acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect lasts for few a days and then, through the so-called "escape" phenomenon, the organification of intrathyroidal iodide resumes and the normal synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) returns. This is achieved by decreasing the intrathyroidal inorganic iodine concentration by down regulation of the sodium iodine symporter (NIS) and therefore permits the TPO-H202 system to resume normal activity. However, in a few apparently normal individuals, in newborns and fetuses, in some patients with chronic systemic diseases, euthyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, and Graves' disease patients previously treated with radioimmunoassay (RAI), surgery or antithyroid drugs, the escape from the inhibitory effect of large doses of iodides is not achieved and clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism ensues. Iodide-induced hypothyroidism has also been observed in patients with a history of postpartum thyroiditis, in euthyroid patients after a previous episode of subacute thyroiditis, and in patients treated with recombinant interferon-alpha who developed transient thyroid dysfunction during interferon-a treatment. The

  15. Bellows flow-induced vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tygielski, P. J.; Smyly, H. M.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The bellows flow excitation mechanism and results of comprehensive test program are summarized. The analytical model for predicting bellows flow induced stress is refined. The model includes the effects of an upstream elbow, arbitrary geometry, and multiple piles. A refined computer code for predicting flow induced stress is described which allows life prediction if a material S-N diagram is available.

  16. Laxative-induced rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Merante, Alfonso; Gareri, Pietro; Marigliano, Norma Maria; De Fazio, Salvatore; Bonacci, Elvira; Torchia, Carlo; Russo, Gaetano; Lacroce, Pasquale; Lacava, Roberto; Castagna, Alberto; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ruotolo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes a case of laxative-induced rhabdomyolysis in an elderly patient. An 87-year-old woman was hospitalized for the onset of confusion, tremors, an inability to walk, and a fever that she had been experiencing for 36 hours. She often took high dosages of lactulose and sorbitol syrup as a laxative (about 70 g/day). During her physical examination, the patient was confused, drowsy, and she presented hyposthenia in her upper and lower limbs, symmetric and diffuse moderate hyporeflexia, and her temperature was 37.8°C. Laboratory tests revealed severe hyponatremia with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis. Moreover, rhabdomyolysis markers were found. The correction of hydroelectrolytic imbalances with saline, potassium and sodium chlorure, calcium gluconate was the first treatment. During her hospitalization the patient presented acute delirium, treated with haloperidol and prometazine chloridrate intramuscularly. She was discharged 12 days later, after resolution of symptoms, and normalized laboratory tests. Over-the-counter drugs such as laxatives are usually not considered dangerous; on the other hand, they may cause serum electrolytic imbalance and rhabdomyolysis. A careful monitoring of all the drugs taken by the elderly is one of the most important duties of a physician since drug interactions and their secondary effects may be fatal. PMID:20396636

  17. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Seizure-induced neglect.

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, K M; Howell, G J

    1980-01-01

    A man with intermittent right parieto-occipital seizures was monitored by electroencephalography while he received 60 trials of being touched on the right, left, or both hands. Half of the trials were given during a focal seizure, and half were given interictally. While the patient was having seizures, he appropriately responded to all 10 stimuli delivered to the right hand, but four of 10 responses were incorrect (allaesthetic) when he was stimulated on the left. With bilateral simultaneous stimulation he neglected the left hand in all 10 trials. His interictal performance was flawless. When given a line-bisection task on two occasions during a seizure, the patient attempted to make a mark to the left of the entire sheet of paper. Immediately postictally he made a mark at the right end of the line. The case illustrates that focal seizures may induce elements of the neglect syndrome and that attention (to contralateral stimuli) and intention to perform (in the contralateral hemispatial field) may be dissociable phenomena. PMID:6777464

  19. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Thiele, T; Althaus, K; Greinacher, A

    2010-09-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction that carries an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. HIT is caused by platelet-activating antibodies directed against a complex of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin. HIT typically manifests in the second week after initiation of heparin therapy with a platelet count reduction of more than 50% of the highest level after the start of heparin administration as well as thromboembolic events. The clinical probability can be calculated by the 4 T's score. The laboratory diagnosis of HIT is based on confirmation of PF4/heparin antibodies or on functional tests that provide evidence of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies. A low 4 T's score and negative HIT test virtually rule out the presence of HIT. Patients with acute HIT require anticoagulation with a compatible anticoagulant in a therapeutic dose. The drugs currently available for this include the direct thrombin inhibitors argatroban, lepirudin, bivalirudin, and desirudin and the indirect factor Xa inhibitors danaparoid and fondaparinux. PMID:20694716

  20. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240