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Sample records for pentobarbital induced hypnotic

  1. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. Objectives The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. Materials and Methods This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. Results HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. Conclusions The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug. PMID:27651944

  2. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug.

  3. Pharmacological evaluation of sedative and hypnotic effects of schizandrin through the modification of pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Mao, Xin; Liu, Aijing; Liu, Zhi; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2014-12-05

    The fruits of Schisandra chinensis have been recorded as an effective somnificant for the treatment of insomnia in some oriental countries pharmacopoeias. However, the mechanism of sedative and hypnotic effects of this kind of herb is still unclear. In the present study, schizandrin, which is the main component of Schisandra chinensis, was selected as a target compound to investigate possible mechanisms through behavioral pharmacology methods. The results showed that schizandrin possessed dose-dependent (5-45 mg/kg, i.p.) sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice, and produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice; thus, itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment (45 mg/kg, i.p.). It also can reverse the rodent models of insomnia induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and caffeine, which could exhibit a syne with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well; therefore, the hypnotic effects of schizandrin were not inhibited by flumazenil (a specific gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A-BZD receptor antagonist). Altogether, these results indicated that schizandrin produces beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivity, which might be mediated by the modification of the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sedative and hypnotic effect of freeze-dried paeoniflorin and sini san freeze-dried powder in pentobarbital sodium-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuefeng; Wu, Pingan; Ning, Yanmei; Yan, Xingke; Zhu, Tiantian; Ma, Chongbing; Liu, Anguo

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the sedative and hypnotic activity of paeoniflorin and freeze-dried Sini San powder on mice and provide a reliable method for determining the pharmacodynamic material basis of Sini San. Male adult mice weighing 20-22 g were used in this study. Three experiments were carried out. Synergism with pentobarbital was used as an index for hypnotic effect. Loss of the righting reflex was used to determine the start of sleep. Sleep latency and sleeping time were recorded in each experiment. The coefficient of variation of the suprathreshold dose (55 mg/kg) was significantly lower than that of the threshold dose. The sleep latency of mice was significantly decreased, and the sleeping time of mice was significantly prolonged. The effects of paeoniflorin and Sini San on prolonging the sleeping time of mice induced by pentobarbital sodium were significantly stronger than those in the control group. Paeoniflorin produces significant sedative and hypnotic effects, and there is an obvious dose-effect relationship.

  5. Attenuation by methyl mercury and mercuric sulfide of pentobarbital induced hypnotic tolerance in mice through inhibition of ATPase activities and nitric oxide production in cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Huang, Zih-Ning; Yu, Hsun-Hsin; Chang, Liang-Hao; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

    2008-06-01

    This study is aimed at exploring the possible mechanism of hypnosis-enhancing effect of HgS or cinnabar (a traditional Chinese medicine containing more than 95% HgS) in mice treated with pentobarbital. We also examined whether the effect of HgS is different from that of the well-known methyl mercury (MeHg). After a short period (7 days) of oral administration to mice, a nontoxic dose (0.1 g/kg) of HgS not only significantly enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis but also attenuated tolerance induction; while a higher dose (1 g/kg) of HgS or cinnabar exerted an almost irreversible enhancing effect on pentobarbital-hypnosis similar to that of MeHg (2 mg/kg) tested, which was still effective even after 10 or 35 days cessation of administration. To study comparatively the effects of different mercury forms from oral administration of MeHg and HgS on membrane ATPase activities of experimental mice, analysis of the Hg content in the cerebral cortex revealed that correlated with the decrease of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Furthermore, NO levels of blood but not that of cerebral cortex were also decreased by mercuric compounds. Although pentobarbital alone enhanced cytochrome p450-2C9 in time dependent manner, all of mercurial compounds tested had no such effect. All of these findings indicated that the mercurial compounds including cinnabar, HgS and MeHg exert a long-lasting enhancing hypnotic activity without affecting pentobarbital metabolism, which provides evidence-based sedative effect of cinnabar used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years. The nontoxic HgS dosing (0.1 g/kg/day) for consecutive 7 days is perhaps useful for delaying or preventing pentobarbital-tolerance.

  6. Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chinese herb Radix, augmented the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital through serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Chen, Bao-Qiong; Chu, Qing-Ping; Yao, Hai-Yan; Ku, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Yong-He

    2004-12-15

    This is the first study of hypnotic activity of tetrandrine (a major component of Stephania tetrandrae) in mice by using synergism with pentobarbital as an index for the hypnotic effect. The results showed that tetrandrine potentiated pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hypnosis significantly by reducing sleep latency and increasing sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was potentiated by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). In the subhypnotic dosage of pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated mice, tetrandrine (60 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the rate of sleep onset and also showed synergic effect with 5-HTP. Pretreatment of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, significantly decreased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and tetrandrine abolished this effect. From these results, it should be presumed that serotonergic system may be involved in the augmentative effect of tetrandrine on pentobarbital-induced sleep.

  7. Flos Albiziae aqueous extract and its active constituent quercetin potentiate the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital via the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    YE, MENG-FEI; LIU, ZHENG; LOU, SHU-FANG; CHEN, ZHEN-YONG; YU, AI-YUE; LIU, CHUN-YAN; YU, CHAO-YANG; ZHANG, HUA-FANG; ZHANG, JIAN

    2015-01-01

    Flos albiziae (FA) is reportedly used for treatment of insomnia and anxiety in traditional medicine. The hypnotic effect of an extract of FA (FAE) and its constituent quercetin [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one, QR] was examined in mice. QR is a widely distributed natural flavonoid abundant in FA flowers and other tissues. The possible mechanisms underlying the hypnotic effects of FAE and QR were investigated using behavioral pharmacology. FAE and QR significantly potentiated pentobarbital-induced [50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip)] sleep (prolonged sleeping time; shortened sleep latency) in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were augmented by administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine. With a sub-hypnotic dose of pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, ip), FAE and QR significantly increased the rate of sleep onset and were synergistic with 5-HTP (2.5 mg/kg, ip). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, significantly decreased sleeping time and prolonged sleep latency in pentobarbital-treated mice, whereas FAE and QR significantly reversed this effect. Data show that FAE and QR have hypnotic activity, possibly mediated by the serotonergic system. The present study offers a rationale for the use of FA in treating sleep disorders associated with serotonin system dysfunction. PMID:26623026

  8. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also evaluated using HPLC fingerprint. The HAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 400 mg/Kg. The NBF was the only fraction which could increase the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The effects of NBF were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. The LD50-value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. No neurotoxic effect was observed either by HAE or by its fractions in cultured PC12 neuron-like cells. The results suggest that lettuce potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be non-polar agent(s) which found in NBF of this plant.

  9. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also evaluated using HPLC fingerprint. The HAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 400 mg/Kg. The NBF was the only fraction which could increase the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The effects of NBF were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. The LD50-value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. No neurotoxic effect was observed either by HAE or by its fractions in cultured PC12 neuron-like cells. The results suggest that lettuce potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be non-polar agent(s) which found in NBF of this plant. PMID:24250615

  10. Potentiation of decursinol angelate on pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via the activation of GABAA-ergic systems in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jae Hoon; Ha, Tae-Woo; Kang, Jae-Seon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    Angelicae Gigantis Radix (AGR, Angelica gigas) has been used for a long time as a traditional folk medicine in Korea and oriental countries. Decursinol angelate (DCA) is structurally isomeric decursin, one of the major components of AGR. This study was performed to confirm whether DCA augments pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via the activation of GABAA-ergic systems in animals. Oral administration of DCA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly suppressed spontaneous locomotor activity. DCA also prolonged sleeping time, and decreased the sleep latency by pentobarbital (42 mg/kg), in a dose-dependent manner, similar to muscimol, both at the hypnotic (42 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) dosages. Especially, DCA increased the number of sleeping animals in the sub-hypnotic dosage. DCA (50 mg/kg, p.o.) itself modulated sleep architectures; DCA reduced the counts of sleep/wake cycles. At the same time, DCA increased total sleep time, but not non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In the molecular experiments. DCA (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 µg/ml) increased intracellular Cl- influx level in hypothalamic primary cultured neuronal cells of rats. In addition, DCA increased the protein expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) and GABAA receptors subtypes. Taken together, these results suggest that DCA potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through the activation of GABAA-ergic systems, and can be useful in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:28066138

  11. Effects of morphine on pentobarbital-induced responses in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Ho, I K; Jang, C G; Tanaka, S; Ma, T; Loh, H H; Ko, K H

    2001-03-15

    Effects of morphine on the potentiation of pentobarbital-induced responses were investigated using mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. The duration of loss of righting reflex, hypothermia, and loss of motor coordination induced by pentobarbital were measured after pretreatment with either morphine or saline. Morphine pretreatment failed to show potentiation of both pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and hypothermia in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, while it significantly potentiated these responses in the wild-type controls. For motor incoordination test, morphine potentiated pentobarbital-induced motor incoordination in the wild-type mice. However, morphine may have opposite effects in the mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. These results demonstrate that synergism between morphine and pentobarbital is not detected in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice and that potentiation of pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex and hypothermia by morphine is mediated through mu-opioid receptor. It was interesting to note that pentobarbital-induced decrease in body temperature was less severe in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice than in wild-type mice.

  12. Hypnotically induced somatosensory alterations: Toward a neurophysiological understanding of hypnotic anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zeev-Wolf, Maor; Goldstein, Abraham; Bonne, Omer; Abramowitz, Eitan G

    2016-07-01

    Whereas numerous studies have investigated hypnotic analgesia, few have investigated hypnotic anaesthesia. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) we investigated and localized brain responses (event-related fields and oscillatory activity) during sensory processing under hypnotic anaesthesia. Nineteen right handed neurotypical individuals with moderate-to-high hypnotizability received 100 vibrotactile stimuli to right and left index fingers in a random sequence. Thereafter a hypnotic state was induced, in which anaesthetic suggestion was applied to the left hand only. Once anaesthetic suggestion was achieved, a second, identical, session of vibrotactile stimuli was commenced. We found greater brain activity in response to the stimuli delivered to the left (attenuated) hand before hypnotic anaesthesia, than under hypnotic anaesthesia, in both the beta and alpha bands. In the beta band, the reduction of activity under hypnotic anaesthesia was found around 214-413ms post-stimuli and was located mainly in the right insula. In the alpha band, it was found around 253-500ms post-stimuli and was located mainly in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In a second experiment, attention modulation per se was ruled out as the underlying cause of the effects found. These findings may suggest that the brain mechanism underlying hypnotic anaesthesia involves top-down somatosensory inhibition and, therefore, a reduction of somatosensory awareness. The result of this mechanism is a mental state in which individuals lose bodily sensation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gomisin N isolated from Schisandra chinensis augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenning; Mao, Xin; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Zhi; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2014-07-01

    The fruits of Schisandra chinensis have been used for the treatment of insomnia in oriental countries for more than thousands of years. However, the pharmacological properties and the mechanism of sedative and hypnotic effects have not yet been studied. Gomisin N is one of the major bioactive constituents from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, and in this paper we reported a detailed study on the effects and mechanisms of Gomisin N on its sedative and hypnotic activity for the first time. These results implied that Gomisin N possessed weak sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice, and produced a dose-dependent(5-45 mg/kg, i.p.) increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice, thus, itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment (45 mg/kg, i.p.). It also can reverse the rodent models of insomnia induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and caffeine, which could exhibit a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well; furthermore, the hypnotic effects of Gomisin N were inhibited by flumazenil (a specific GABAA-BZD receptor antagonist). Altogether, these results indicated that Gomisin N produced beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivity, which might be mediated by the modification of the serotonergic and GABAergic system.

  14. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pentobarbital is a common anesthetic agent used in animal research that is known to alter sympathetic function and may also affect carbohydrate metabolism. The in vivo effects of iv pentobarbital on glucose homeostasis were studied in chronically catheterized fasted rats. Whole body glucose kinetics, assessed by the constant iv infusion of (6-/sup 3/H)- and (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose, were determined in all rats in the conscious state. Thereafter, glucose metabolism was followed over the next 4 hr in 3 subgroups of rats; conscious, anesthetized with body temperature maintained, and anesthetized with body temperature not maintained. Hypothermia (a 5/sup 0/C decrease) developed spontaneously in anesthetized rats kept at ambient temperature (22/sup 0/C). No differences were seen in MABP and heart rate between conscious and normothermic anesthetized rats; however, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a decrease in MABP (20%) and heart rate (35%). Likewise, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations, the rate of glucose appearance (Ra), recycling and metabolic clearance (MCR) did not differ between conscious and normothermic anesthetized animals. In contrast, hypothermic anesthetized rats showed a 50% reduction in plasma lactate, a 40% drop in glucose Ra, and a 30-40% decrease in glucose recycling and MCR. Thus, pentobarbital does not appear to alter in vivo glucose kinetics, compared to unanesthetized controls, provided that body temperature is maintained.

  15. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Hargrove, D.M.; Hyde, P.M.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1987-12-01

    Because pentobarbital is often used in investigations related to carbohydrate metabolism, the in vivo effect of this drug on glucose homeostasis was studied. Glucose kinetics assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose, were determined in three groups of catheterized fasted rats: conscious, anesthetized and body temperature maintained, and anesthetized but body temperature not maintained. After induction of anesthesia, marked hypothermia developed in rats not provided with external heat. Anesthetized rats that developed hypothermia showed a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (25%) and heart rate (40%). Likewise, the plasma lactate concentration and the rates of glucose appearance, recycling, and metabolic clearance were reduced by 30-50% in the hypothermic anesthetized rats. Changes in whole-body carbohydrate metabolism were prevented when body temperature was maintained. Because plasma pentobarbital levels were similar between the euthermic and hypothermic rats during the first 2 h of the experiment, the rapid reduction in glucose metabolism in this latter group appears related to the decrease in body temperature. The continuous infusion of epinephrine produced alterations in glucose kinetics that were not different between conscious animals and anesthetized rats with body temperature maintained. Thus pentobarbital-anesthetized rats became hypothermic when kept at room temperature and exhibited marked decreases in glucose metabolism. Such changes were absent when body temperature was maintained during anesthesia.

  16. Effects of acute low-level microwaves on pentobarbital-induced hypothermia depend on exposure orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two series of experiments were performed to study the effects of acute exposure (45 min) to 2,450-MHz circularly polarized, pulsed microwaves (1 mW/cm2, 2-mus pulses, 500 pps, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.6 W/kg) on the actions of pentobarbital in the rat. In the first experiment, rats were irradiated with microwaves and then immediately injected with pentobarbital. Microwave exposure did not significantly affect the extent of the pentobarbital-induced fall in colonic temperature. However, the rate of recovery from the hypothermia was significantly slower in the microwave-irradiated rats and they also took a significantly longer time to regain their righting reflex. In a second experiment, rats were first anesthetized with pentobarbital and then exposed to microwaves with their heads either pointing toward the source of microwaves (anterior exposure) or pointing away (posterior exposure). Microwave radiation significantly retarded the pentobarbital-induced fall in colonic temperature regardless of the orientation of exposure. However, the recovery from hypothermia was significantly faster in posterior-exposed animals compared to those of the anterior-exposed and sham-irradiated animals. Furthermore, the posterior-exposed rats took a significantly shorter time to regain their righting reflex than both the anterior-exposed and sham-irradiated animals.

  17. Cocaine- and alcohol-mediated expression of inducible transcription factors is blocked by pentobarbital anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, A E; Wang, Y M; Bachtell, R K; Kinney, A E; Grubb, M C; Mark, G P

    2000-09-22

    Identifying the neurocircuitry involved in behavioral responses to drugs of abuse is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of drug addiction. The present study sought to distinguish brain regions involved in pharmacological effects of cocaine and ethanol from secondary effects by administering these drugs in the presence or absence of pentobarbital anesthesia. Changes in neuronal activity were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of expression of an inducible transcription factor (ITF), c-Fos, in the brain of rats habituated to repeated pentobarbital anesthesia or saline administration. Cocaine administration (15 mg/kg, i.v.) in non-anesthetized animals produced a strong induction of c-Fos in the striatum and large number of other brain areas. Ethanol administration (2 g/kg, i.p.) induced c-Fos in a smaller number of characteristic brain areas, including the central nucleus of amygdala and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus. However, neither of these drugs was able to induce c-Fos in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats (50 mg/kg, i.v.). The suppressive effects of pentobarbital were not specific to c-Fos, such that pentobarbital also suppressed expression of ITFs FosB and Egr1 in the striatum of cocaine-treated rats. On the other hand, pentobarbital by itself strongly induced c-Fos expression in the lateral habenula of saline-, cocaine-, and ethanol-injected rats. It is not clear whether the suppressive effects of anesthesia on ITF expression in other areas are mediated by activation of lateral habenula, or are independent of this event. Our data suggest that in the absence of conscious awareness of drug-associated cues, cocaine and alcohol activate only a fraction of the neural elements engaged in the unanesthetized state.

  18. Rosmarinic Acid Potentiates Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep Behaviors and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep through the Activation of GABAA-ergic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yeong Ok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2017-01-01

    It has been known that RA, one of major constituents of Perilla frutescens which has been used as a traditional folk remedy for sedation in oriental countries, shows the anxiolytic-like and sedative effects. This study was performed to know whether RA may enhance pentobarbital-induced sleep through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A-ergic systems in rodents. RA (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the locomotor activity in mice. RA decreased sleep latency and increased the total sleep time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced sleeping mice. RA also increased sleeping time and number of falling sleep mice after treatment with sub-hypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.). In electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, RA (2.0 mg/kg) not only decreased the counts of sleep/wake cycles and REM sleep, but also increased the total and NREM sleep in rats. The power density of NREM sleep showed the increase in δ-waves and the decrease in α-waves. On the other hand, RA (0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/ml) increased intracellular Cl− influx in the primary cultured hypothalamic cells of rats. RA (p.o.) increased the protein expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) and GABAA receptors subunits except β1 subunit. In conclusion, RA augmented pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through GABAA-ergic transmission. Thus, it is suggested that RA may be useful for the treatment of insomnia. PMID:27469144

  19. Spike Timing Rigidity Is Maintained in Bursting Neurons under Pentobarbital-Induced Anesthetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Risako; Yamanaka, Masanori; Yokota, Eiko; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT), which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale. Neurons with high spontaneous firing frequency (>5 Hz) and bursting were classified as HFB neurons (n = 10), and those with low spontaneous firing frequency (<10 Hz) and without bursting were classified as non-HFB neurons (n = 48). Pentobarbital injection (30 mg/kg) reduced firing frequency in all HFB neurons and in 78% of non-HFB neurons. RMT analysis demonstrated that pentobarbital increased in the number of neurons with repulsion in both HFB and non-HFB neurons, suggesting that there is a correlation between spikes within a short interspike interval (ISI). Under awake conditions, in 50% of HFB and 40% of non-HFB neurons, the decay phase of normalized histograms of spontaneous firing were fitted to an exponential function, which indicated that the first spike had no correlation with subsequent spikes. In contrast, under pentobarbital-induced anesthesia conditions, the number of non-HFB neurons that were fitted to an exponential function increased to 80%, but almost no change in HFB neurons was observed. These results suggest that under both awake and pentobarbital-induced anesthetized conditions, spike firing in HFB neurons is more robustly regulated by preceding spikes than by non-HFB neurons, which may reflect the GABAA receptor-mediated regulation of cortical activities. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording in

  20. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  1. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

  2. Identification of a molecular target mediating the general anesthetic actions of pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Anja; Arras, Margarete; Jurd, Rachel; Rudolph, Uwe

    2007-03-01

    Barbiturates were introduced into medical practice in 1934. They are widely used today as general anesthetics. Although in vitro studies revealed that the activity of a variety of ligand-gated channels is modulated by barbiturates, the target(s) mediating the anesthetic actions of barbiturates in vivo are unknown. Studying pentobarbital action in beta3(N265M) mice harboring beta3-containing GABAA receptors insensitive to a variety of general anesthetic agents, we found that the immobilizing action of pentobarbital is mediated fully, and the hypnotic action is mediated in part by this receptor subtype. It was surprising that the respiratory depressant action of pentobarbital is indistinguishable between beta3(N265M) and wild-type mice and thus is mediated by other as-yet-unidentified targets. Whereas the target for the immobilizing and hypnotic actions of pentobarbital seems to be the same as for etomidate and propofol, these latter agents' respiratory depressant actions are mediated by beta3-containing GABAA receptors. Thus, in contrast to etomidate and propofol, pentobarbital can elicit respiratory depression by a beta3-independent pathway. Pentobarbital reduced heart rate and body temperature to a slightly smaller extent in beta3(N265M) mice compared with wild-type mice, indicating that these actions are largely mediated by other targets. Pentobarbital-induced increase of heart rate variability and prolongation of ECG intervals are seen in both beta3(N265M) mice and wild-type mice, suggesting that they are not dependent on beta3-containing GABAA receptors. In summary, we show a clear pharmacological dissociation of the immobilizing/hypnotic and respiratory/cardiovascular actions of pentobarbital.

  3. Pentobarbital overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Nembutal overdose; Pentosol overdose; Sopental overdose; Repocal overdose; Barbiturate overdose - pentobarbital ... Aronson JK. Barbiturates. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs . 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:819-826. Gussow ...

  4. Effects of olfactory stimulation with jasmin and its component chemicals on the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Tanida, M; Uenoyama, S; Nakayama, Y

    1992-01-01

    The effect of olfactory stimulation with jasmin and its component chemicals on pentobarbital sleep time was investigated using mice. In the present study we sought to determine which component of jasmin influences pentobarbital sleep time via olfactory stimulation. Sleep time was defined as the time elapsed between intraperitoneal pentobarbital administration and the first time that the animal was able to spontaneously right itself. Sleep time was significantly decreased by olfactory stimulation with jasmin, and also by one of the fractions obtained by fractional distillation at 150 degrees C and 0.1 mmHg. The fraction which influenced the sleep time was found to consist of benzyl benzoate, isophytol, geranyl linalool, phytol and phytyl acetate, which were identified using gas chromatography with mass and infrared spectrometry. In experiments using authentic samples of these components, phytol significantly shortened the pentobarbital sleep time, while the others had no effect. We conclude that phytol is the component of jasmin which reduces the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep.

  5. Hydroalcoholic extract of needles of Pinus eldarica enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep: possible involvement of GABAergic system

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Results: The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p<0.05) and significantly increased duration of sleep (p<0.05) induced by pentobarbital. These effects of P. eldarica were reversed by flumazenil. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. HAE and its fractions did not show neurotoxic effects in cultured PC12-cell line. Conclusion: The present data indicate that P. eldarica potentiated pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. Most probably, the main components responsible for this effect are non-polar agents which are found in NBF of this plant. PMID:27516986

  6. Positive effects of β-amyrin on pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice via GABAergic neurotransmitter system.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Ho Jae; Gao, Qingtao; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Hong, Eunyoung; Jang, Dae Sik; Shin, Chan Young; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-09-15

    Sleep loss, insomnia, is considered a sign of imbalance of physiological rhythm, which can be used as pre-clinic diagnosis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study is to understand the pharmacological actions of α- or β-amyrin, natural triterpene compound, on the sleep in mice. To analyze the sleeping behavior, we used the well-known pentobarbital-induced sleeping model after single administration of either α- or β-amyrin. The sleeping onset time was remarkably decreased and duration was prolonged by β-amyrin (1, 3, or 10mg/kg) but not by α-amyrin (1, 3, or 10mg/kg). These effects were significantly blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Moreover, β-amyrin increased brain GABA level compared to the vehicle administration. Overall, the present study suggests that β-amyrin would enhance the total sleeping behavior in pentobarbital-induced sleeping model via the activation of GABAergic neurotransmitter system through GABA content in the brain.

  7. Theanine enhanced both the toxicity of strychnine and anticonvulsion of pentobarbital sodium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xi-Chong; Wu, Bo-La; Gao, Jin-Chao; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Theanine, an additive, holds several effects on the central nervous system without toxicity and affects CNS drugs. Theanine bilaterally alters β wave of the EEG with or without caffeine and pentobarbital-induced locomotor activity. Theanine also enhances hypnosis of pentobarbital sodium (PB) and antidepression of midazolam, suggesting there are complicated interactions between theanine and CNS drugs. On the other side, theanine induces glycine release. Glycine potentiates the strychnine toxicity via NMDA receptor activation. Moreover, PB facilitates GABAA receptor activation by GABA, and it is commonly prescribed for strychnine poison. However, what the role that theanine plays in the anticonvulsion of PB against strychnine poison is still unknown. Theanine, pentobarbital sodium or strychnine was injected intraperitoneally. EEG was monitored by BIOPAC 16 EEG amplifiers. LD50 of strychnine and hypnotic ED50 of pentobarbital sodium with or without theanine for mice were tested according to Bliss' case. (1) Theanine enhanced the strychnine toxicity. Both theanine and strychnine 1.0 mg/kg increased the power of the β wave. Theanine aggravated that of strychnine 1.0 mg/kg. Theanine attenuated the LD50 of strychnine. (2) Theanine enhanced the anticonvulsion of PB. Theanine increased the power of α, β wave and decreased hypnotic ED50 of PB; PB attenuated strychnine-induced EEG excitation and mortality with or without theanine, and theanine enhanced the effects of PB. Further, theanine enhanced the anticonvulsion of PB dose-dependently against the strychnine toxicity but not the lethal toxicity of strychnine. These results indicated theanine interacted with PB and strychnine. Theanine enhanced both the strychnine toxicity and anticonvulsion of PB against strychnine poison.

  8. Decreased duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis in immature and adult female rats prenatally exposed to cimetidine

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, D.A.; Iba, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered /sup 14/C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period.

  9. Alteration of lymphocyte function due to anesthesia: in vivo and in vitro suppression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis by sodium pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Formeister, J F; MacDermott, R P; Wickline, D; Locke, D; Nash, G S; Reynolds, D G; Roberson, B S

    1980-05-01

    The mechanism of decreased lymphocyte responsiveness after major surgery is unclear. Because sodium pentobarbital, and intermediately long-acting barbiturate, will reproducibly induce anesthesia in experimental animals, we utilized a canine model to investigate its effect on lymphocyte proliferation induced by the mitogenic lectins erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (E-PHA) and leukoagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (L-PHA). Although no effect was observed at 10 minutes or 1 hour after an anesthetic dose of sodium pentobarbital, after 1 and 3 hours of anesthesia, canine lymphocytes were significantly suppressed, as demonstrated by decreased responsiveness to E-PHA and L-PHA mitogen stimulation. After 3-hours the majority of animals had mitogenesis values of less than 50% of the preanesthetic control values. Recovery, as measured by a return to at least 70% of the preanesthetic mitogenesis value, was noted in the majority of animals at 24, 48, and 72 hours. In order to investigate the machanisms of the in vivo capability of sodium pentobarbital to induce immunosuppression of lymphocyte transformation, in vitro studies were carried out. Sodium pentobarbital was found to significantly inhibit mitogen-induced canine mononuclear cell blastogenesis at anesthetic (1.5 to 3.0 mg%) drug concentrations in vitro. Lymphocytes pretreated with barbiturate and washed prior to plating did not show this inhibiting effect. Our findings suggest that depression of the immune response reported in patients after operation could result from short-acting barbiturates administered during the induction phase of clinical anesthesia. Furthermore, the suppression may involve in vivo metabolism of pentobarbital, hormones or other in vivo factors, since washed lymphocytes from the in vivo but not the in vitro experiments demonstrated suppression. These results indicate that anesthesia may be an important factor in the immunosuppression reported after major surgery.

  10. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Muluken Walle; Walle, Bizuayehu; Rebba, Kidist

    2016-01-01

    Background Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. Methods Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively. Results There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. PMID:27574478

  11. Gastrodiae Rhizoma Ethanol Extract Enhances Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping Behaviors and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via the Activation of GABAA-ergic Transmission in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Joon; Oh, Eun-Hye; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Chung, Youn Bok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research was designed to identify whether Gastrodiae Rhizoma ethanol extract (GREE) enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep via  γ-aminobutyric acid- (GABA-) ergic systems and modulated sleep architectures in animals. GREE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited locomotor activity in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GREE not only prolonged total sleep time, but also reduced sleep latency time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg)-treated mice. Subhypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the number of total sleeping animals in concomitant administration of GREE. GREE (100 mg/kg) alone reduced the count of sleep-wake cycles in electroencephalogram. Furthermore, GREE increased total sleep time and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. From the in vitro experiments, GREE increased intracellular chloride level in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells. Protein expressions of glutamine acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAA receptors subtypes by western blot were increased. Therefore, our study suggested that GREE enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors and increased REM via the activation of GABAA-ergic transmission in rodents. PMID:25614750

  12. Anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Ozbakis-Dengiz, Gunnur; Bakirci, Aysegul

    2009-04-01

    Amiodarone hydrochloride is a potent anti-arrhythmic agent, known as a multiple ion-channel blocker in the heart. Although it has been detected in the rat brain, there are no data related to its central nervous system (CNS) effects. In this study, we evaluated anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of amiodarone. Convulsions were induced by phentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (100 mg/kg) or caffeine (300 mg/kg) in mice. In both models, amiodarone prolonged both latency period and time to death, and acted as an anticonvulsant drug. It was found to be more effective in the PTZ model than in the caffeine model; none of the animals treated with 150 mg/kg dose amiodarone had died in the PTZ model. For hypnotic effect, sleeping was induced with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) in rats. Amiodarone dose-dependently increased the sleeping time (677.7%-725.9%). In the sleeping test, all rats in 200 mg/kg amiodarone group died. In conclusion, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of amiodarone have shown the depressant effects on CNS. These effects may be dependent on its pharmacological properties.

  13. Effect of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine on blood biochemistry and sodium pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Sidra; Rasheed, Muhammad Adil; Ashraf, Muhammad; Altaf, Imran; Rehmat, Saima; Fatima, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals. To evaluate the enzyme inducing ability of calcium hypochlorite and chloramine, sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital was noted in mice. Normal saline was taken as negative control. Rifampicin, chloramphenicol and grapefruit juice were taken as positive control group. On completion of dosing after 4 weeks, alteration in sleep induction and recovery times was noted and compared. Histological evaluation of liver was observed. A significant decrease in sleeping time was observed in calcium hypochlorite and chloramine treated groups. Both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine caused a significant change in liver enzymes and in the values of complete blood count. In histological evaluation both caused fat deposition in the hepatocytes. It was concluded from the study that both calcium hypochlorite and chloramine were hepatic microsomal enzyme inducer.

  14. [Substance-induced sleep disorders and abuse of hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Riemann, D; Nissen, C

    2011-12-01

    The intake of a large variety of substances has a negative impact on sleep. Widely used, readily available substances like alcohol, nicotine, or caffeine need to be mentioned here. Illicit drugs (e.g., heroin or ecstasy) have different mechanisms of action with a high sleep-disrupting potential. Prescription drugs, i.e., corticosteroids or β-blockers, may also negatively affect sleep. An important question is whether the intake of hypnotics, especially benzodiazepines, may have a negative long-term effect on sleep. Classical benzodiazepines (BZ) initially lead to a reduction of nocturnal wake time and prolong total sleep time as a desired effect. Regarding the microstructure of sleep, BZ lead to a reduction of slow frequencies and an increase of fast frequencies in the EEG. With many BZ, tolerance may occur, thus, leading to unwanted dose increases. Further problems include rebound effects that occur upon discontinuation of BZ, including a drastic deterioration of sleep upon drug withdrawal. This phenomenon may pave the way for the development of drug dependency. Further unwanted side-effects (e.g., nocturnal falls) and the question of BZ abuse and dependency will be discussed.

  15. Interaction between different extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. from Serbia and pentobarbital, diazepam and paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Rašković, Aleksandar; Cvejić, Jelena; Stilinović, Nebojša; Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vukmirović, Saša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Mikov, Momir

    2014-03-28

    Herb-drug interactions are an important safety concern and this study was conducted regarding the interaction between the natural top-selling antidepressant remedy Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae) and conventional drugs. This study examined the influence of acute pretreatment with different extracts of Hypericum perforatum from Serbia on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, impairment of motor coordination caused by diazepam and paracetamol pharmacokinetics in mice. Ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, infusion, tablet and capsule of Hypericum perforatum were used in this experiment. The profile of Hypericum perforatum extracts as well as paracetamol plasma concentration was determined using RP-HPLC analysis. By quantitative HPLC analysis of active principles, it has been proven that Hypericum perforatum ethanolic extract has the largest content of naphtodianthrones: hypericin (57.77 µg/mL) and pseudohypericin (155.38 µg/mL). Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum potentiated the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital and impairment of motor coordination caused by diazepam to the greatest extent and also increased paracetamol plasma concentration in comparison to the control group. These results were in correlation with naphtodianthrone concentrations. The obtained results have shown a considerable influence of Hypericum perforatum on pentobarbital and diazepam pharmacodynamics and paracetamol pharmacokinetics.

  16. Influence of ozone on pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Menzel, D.B.; Mole, M.L.; Miller, F.J.; Gardner, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    It had been shown that 3- to 5-hr exposures to ambient concentrations of ozone (O/sub 3/) increase pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in female mice, hamsters, and rats without decreasing heptatic cytochrome P-450 levels or selected mixed function oxidases. To elucidate potential mechanisms involved, clearance of pentobarbital from the blood of O/sub 3/-exposed mice was examined. Pentobarbital clearance followed first-order kinetics with a one-compartment model. Mice exposed to 1960 micrograms per cu. m. (1ppm) for 5 hr had a 71% increase in the plasma half-life of pentobarbital. It therefore appears possible that pentobarbital-induced sleeping time is increased due to a decrease in hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital.

  17. Sedative-hypnotic profile of novel isatin ketals.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Pontes, Luana B; Gabriel, Daniele; Mendes, Thaiana C F; Ribeiro, Núbia M; Pinto, Angelo C; Trachez, Margarete M; Sudo, Roberto T

    2007-04-01

    Isatin (1H-indol-2,3-dione) is an endogenous compound found in many tissues and fluids. Isatin and its derivatives exert pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, including anxiogenic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities. Two new groups of isatin derivatives were synthesized (nine dioxolane ketals and nine dioxane ketals) and studied for their sedative, hypnotic and anesthetic effects using pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity evaluation and intravenous infusion. The dioxolane ketals were more potent than dioxane ketals for inducing sedative-hypnotic states, causing up to a three-fold increase in pentobarbital hypnosis. The dioxolane ketals produced sedation, demonstrated by decreased spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field. Hypnosis and anesthesia were observed during intravenous infusion of 5'-chlorospiro-[1,3-dioxolane-2,3'-indolin]-2'-one (T3) in conscious Wistar rats. Complete recovery from hypnosis and anesthesia required 39.1+/-7.3 and 6.8+/-2.4 min, respectively. Changes in hemodynamic parameters after infusion of 5.0 mg/kg/min were minimal. These findings suggest that these new isatin derivatives represent potential candidates for the development of new drugs that act on the central nervous system and may lead to a new centrally acting anesthetic with no toxic effects on the cardiovascular or respiratory systems.

  18. Lotus Leaf Alkaloid Extract Displays Sedative-Hypnotic and Anxiolytic Effects through GABAA Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Zhu; Chang, Qi; Zhong, Yu; Xiao, Bing-Xin; Feng, Li; Cao, Fang-Rui; Pan, Rei-Le; Zhang, Ze-Sheng; Liao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Xin-Min

    2015-10-28

    Lotus leaves have been used traditionally as both food and herbal medicine in Asia. Open-field, sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping and light/dark box tests were used to evaluate sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects of the total alkaloids (TA) extracted from the herb, and the neurotransmitter levels in the brain were determined by ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of picrotoxin, flumazenil, and bicuculline on the hypnotic activity of TA, as well as the influence of TA on Cl(-) influx in cerebellar granule cells, were also investigated. TA showed a sedative-hypnotic effect by increasing the brain level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the hypnotic effect could be blocked by picrotoxin and bicuculline, but could not be antagonized by flumazenil. Additionally, TA could increase Cl(-) influx in cerebellar granule cells. TA at 20 mg/kg induced anxiolytic-like effects and significantly increased the concentrations of serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and dopamine (DA). These data demonstrated that TA exerts sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects via binding to the GABAA receptor and activating the monoaminergic system.

  19. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  20. Hypnotically induced dissociation (HID) as a strategic intervention for enhancing OCD treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Joseph; Konichezky, Andres

    2011-01-01

    To date, cognitive behavioral therapy has been designated the most efficient evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach for OCD management. This is mainly due to its ability to effectively address the constitutional and developmentally acquired emotional and cognitive deficiencies of OCD, which express themselves through behavioral compulsions and intrusive thoughts. Yet some reports indicate that from 30 to 60 percent of OCD patients are not responsive to psychotherapeutic interventions. As a consequence, broader therapeutic models have been considered. These models encompass multifactorial etiologies of OCD and take intrapsychic stressogenic factors into consideration as well. Some of these models have adopted hypnotherapeutic approaches. In the present article, we introduce a therapeutic tool that utilizes hypnotically induced dissociation (HID) to identify and address the intrapsychic etiology of OCD. The result is a therapeutic intervention that complements existing OCD treatment strategies. Clinical cases are presented to illustrate implementation of the approach.

  1. Gene expression in the rat cerebral cortex: comparison of recovery sleep and hypnotic-induced sleep.

    PubMed

    Wisor, J P; Morairty, S R; Huynh, N T; Steininger, T L; Kilduff, T S

    2006-08-11

    Most hypnotic medications currently on the market target some aspect of GABAergic neurotransmission. Although all such compounds increase sleep, these drugs differentially affect the activity of the cerebral cortex as measured by the electroencephalogram. Whereas benzodiazepine medications such as triazolam tend to suppress slow wave activity in the cortex, the GABA(B) ligand gamma-hydroxybutyrate greatly enhances slow wave activity and the non-benzodiazepine, zolpidem, which binds to the omega1 site on the GABA(A) receptor/Cl(-) ionophore complex, is intermediate in this regard. Our previous studies have demonstrated that a small number of genes exhibit increased expression in the cerebral cortex of the mouse and rat during recovery sleep after sleep deprivation: egr-3, fra-2, grp78, grp94, ngfi-b, and nr4a3. Using these genes as a panel of biomarkers associated with sleep, we asked whether hypnotic medications induce similar molecular changes in the rat cerebral cortex to those observed when both sleep continuity and slow wave activity are enhanced during recovery sleep. We find that, although each drug increases the expression of a subset of genes in the panel of biomarkers, no drug fully replicates the molecular changes in the cortex associated with recovery sleep. Furthermore, high levels of slow wave activity in the cortex are correlated with increased expression of fra-2 whereas the expression of grp94 is correlated with body temperature. These results demonstrate that sleep-related changes in gene expression may be affected by physiological covariates of sleep and wakefulness rather than by vigilance state per se.

  2. Chemical constituents of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus extract and its sedative-hypnotic effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Yang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Nan; Feng, Xue-Song; Meng, Fan-Hao

    2017-01-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the roots of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (E. sessiliflorus). The compounds were isolated through various chromatography techniques and elucidated by mass spectrometric (MS), 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The sedative-hypnotic effect of E. sessiliflorus ethanol extract and its fractions (acetic ether, n-butanol and water fraction) were also investigated. In the chemical constituent study, one new compound, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate and fourteen known compounds were isolated and identified. The chromatographic fingerprint of E. sessiliflorus was established by UPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis. In bioactivity study, it was found that the water fraction of E. sessiliflorus extract could prolong pentobarbital-induced sleeping time more than that of the other fractions of E. sessiliflorus extract in mice, which provided a basis for future study on sedative-hypnotic effect of the chemical constituents in E. sessiliflorus.

  3. Theacrine, a special purine alkaloid with sedative and hypnotic properties from Cammelia assamica var. kucha in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie-Kun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Zhao, Liang; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system activities of theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid which is abundantly present in Camellia assamica var. kucha, were investigated in ambulatory activity, pentobarbital-induced sleep and forced swimming test in mice, compared with two other purine alkaloids, caffeine and theobromine. Caffeine treatment led to a marked increase in the ambulatory activity accompanied with decreasing of the immobility time in forced swimming test at both 10 and 30 mg/kg. Under the same conditions, neither theacrine nor theobromine showed obvious excited efficacy. Both doses of theacrine could significantly prolong the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, while caffeine and theobromine exhibited an inverted effect. These results indicated that theacrine possessed potent sedative and hypnotic properties and its central nervous system effects were different from those of caffeine and theobromine.

  4. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  5. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  6. Effects of first- and second-generation histamine-H1-receptor antagonists on the pentobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Junzo; Hirano, Shoko; Miyata, Shigeo; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Onodera, Kenji

    2005-02-01

    The second-generation histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists, such as epinastine and cetirizine, are used as non-sedating antihistamines for treating allergic symptoms due to their poor ability to penetrate blood-brain barrier. Because it has been reported that the blood-brain barrier system is disturbed in diabetes, it is possible that second-generation histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists may easily penetrate the blood-brain barrier and cause potent sedation in diabetics. In the present study, we investigated the effects of first-generation (diphenhydramine) and second-generation (epinastine and cetirizine) histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists on the duration of pentobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex (LORR) in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Systemic treatment with diphenhydramine (3 - 30 mg/kg, s.c.), and intracerebroventricular treatment with epinastine (0.03 - 0.3 microg/mouse) and cetirizine (0.03 - 0.3 microg/mouse) dose-dependently and significantly increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced LORR in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Although systemic treatment with epinastine (3 - 30 mg/kg, s.c.) and cetirizine (3 - 30 mg/kg, s.c.) did not affect the duration of pentobarbital-induced LORR in non-diabetic mice, these treatments significantly prolonged it in diabetic mice. Our results suggest that the systemic administration of second-generation histamine-H(1)-receptor antagonists may produce a central nervous system depressant effect in diabetes.

  7. Hypnotic effects and binding studies for GABA(A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors of traditional medicinal plants used in Asia for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sueng-Mock; Shimizu, Makoto; Lee, C Justin; Han, Dae-Seok; Jung, Cheol-Kyun; Jo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Young-Myoung

    2010-10-28

    Many medicinal plants have been used for treatment of insomnia in Asia. However, scientific evidence and precise mechanism for their sedative-hypnotic activity have not been fully investigated. Thus, we investigated the binding activity of the oriental plant extracts (mainly from Korea and Japan) to the well-known molecular targets for sleep regulation, GABA(A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Following the binding assay, sedative-hypnotic effects of the extracts with high affinity were examined in an animal model of sleep. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of 15 medicinal plants were tested for binding at the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptor and 5-HT site of 5-HT(2C) receptor. The sedative-hypnotic effects of selected extracts were evaluated by measuring the sleep latency and sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice after oral administration of extracts. In the GABA(A) assay, the ethanol extracts of licorice and danshen displayed concentration-dependent, high affinity binding, whereas in the 5-HT(2C) assay, the ethanol extracts of ginseng and silk tree showed high affinity. Among these extracts we tested previously uncharacterized licorice and silk tree for hypnotic effects. We found the ethanol extracts of licorice and silk tree significantly decreased sleep latency and increased sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep. We demonstrate for the first time that licorice and silk tree have the sedative-hypnotic activity possibly by modulating GABA(A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. We propose that licorice and silk tree might be effective candidates for treatment of insomnia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Lormetazepam in preoperative sleeplessness. Dose dependance of the effect and comparison with 100 mg pentobarbital (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ott, H; Doenicke, A; Abress, C; Fischl, R; Hemmerling, K G; Fichte, K

    1979-01-01

    Lormetazepam (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg)--a new benzodiazepine--was tested versus Pentobarbital (100 mg) under double blind conditions on 240 preoperative inpatients for night-time sedative and side effects after acute oral intake. Results are based on p less than 0.05. Additionally p less than 0.125 in binomial-two-sample-tests was accepted. Lormetazepam shows dose dependent increase in hypnotic effects (e.g. reduction in sleep latency and number of awakenings, increase of total sleep duration), and side effects (e.g. dopiness, dizziness), but no relevant change in vital signs. About 0.5 mg of Lormetazepam are equivalent to 100 mg of Pentobarbital. 2 mg of Lormetazepam seem to be the optimum dose regarding the relation between hypnotic and side effects. In the view of anaesthesists Lormetazepam is preferable to Pentobarbital because of more favorable safety aspects.

  9. Gan-Dan-Liang-Yi-Tang alleviates p-chlorophenylalanine-induced insomnia through modification of the serotonergic and immune system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan; Wang, Yu-Nin; Zhang, Gang-Qiang; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Liu, Wan-Wan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Gan-Dan-Liang-Yi-Tang (GDLYT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been historically used for the treatment of insomnia. However, investigations into its pharmacological ingredients and the mechanism underlying its sedative and hypnotic effects remain limited. The present study reported the detailed mechanisms underlying the sedative and hypnotic effects of GDLYT. Kunming mice were administered GDLYT at various sub-hypnotic doses, which underwent sodium pentobarbital treatment test, pentetrazole induced convulsant studies and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) induced insomnia model. Potentiated hypnotic and sedative effects in mice was studied, and also the changes in related neurotransmitter and immune factors were evaluated. The results suggested that GDLYT possessed weak sedative effects on pentetrazole-induced convulsive activity in normal mice at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg, with an increase in sleep onset in subhypnotic dose of sodium pentobarbital-treated mice. GDLYT was also able to alleviate insomnia induced by PCPA in the rodent models, and increased 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and corpus striatum of PCPA-treated rats. Furthermore, the hypnotic effects of GDLYT were modified, which allowed for PCPA-induced immune system changes, including increased interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-2 expression levels. The results of the present study indicated that GDLYT induced sedative and hypnotic bioactivity by regulating serotonergic activity in the central nervous system and immune system. PMID:27882122

  10. Hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation and after a hypnotic drug-induced sleep.

    PubMed

    Mougin, F; Bourdin, H; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Nguyen, N U; Kantelip, J P; Davenne, D

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hormonal responses, which are dependent on the sleep wake cycle, to strenuous physical exercise. Exercise was performed after different nocturnal regimens: (i) a baseline night preceded by a habituation night; (ii) two nights of partial sleep deprivation caused by a delayed bedtime or by an early awakening; and (iii) two nights of sleep after administration of either a hypnotic compound (10 mg zolpidem) or a placebo. Eight well-trained male endurance athletes with a maximal oxygen uptake of 63.5 +/- 3.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (mean value +/- s(x)) were selected on the basis of their sleeping habits and their physical training. Polygraphic recordings of EEG showed that both nights with partial sleep loss led to a decrease (P< 0.01) in stage 2 and rapid eye movement sleep. A delayed bedtime also led to a decrease (P < 0.05) in stage 1 sleep. Zolpidem had no effect on the different stages of sleep. During the afternoon after an experimental night, exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer. After a 10-min warm-up, the participants performed 30 min steady-state cycling at 75% VO(2-max) followed by a progressively increased workload until exhaustion. The recovery period lasted 30 min. Plasma growth hormone, prolactin, cortisol, catecholamine and lactate concentrations were measured at rest, during exercise and after recovery. The concentration of plasma growth hormone and catecholamine were not affected by partial sleep deprivation, whereas that of plasma prolactin was higher (P < 0.05) during the trial after an early awakening. Plasma cortisol was lower (P < 0.05) during recovery after both sleep deprivation conditions. Blood lactate was higher (P < 0.05) during submaximal exercise performed after both a delayed bedtime and an early awakening. Zolpidem-induced sleep did not affect the hormonal and metabolic responses to subsequent exercise. Our results demonstrate only minor alterations in the hormonal responses to exercise

  11. [Barbiturates as hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Baba, Atsuomi

    2009-08-01

    Barbiturates had been playing an important role in treating insomnia for more than 100 years. To date, benzodiazepines and related compounds seem to be superseding the role of barbiturates because of their relative safeness. In this article, a brief summary on barbiturates as hypnotics is described including the history of development, mechanism of action, and disadvantageous pharmacological properties that limit application as sleep-inducing medication. Unrecognized problems concerning barbiturate prescription in Japan are also discussed.

  12. What do hypnotics cost hospitals and healthcare?

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Hypnotics (sleeping pills) are prescribed widely, but the economic costs of the harm they have caused have been largely unrecognized. Randomized clinical trials have observed that hypnotics increase the incidence of infections. Likewise, hypnotics increase the incidence of major depression and cause emergency admissions for overdoses and deaths.  Epidemiologically, hypnotic use is associated with cancer, falls, automobile accidents, and markedly increased overall mortality.  This article considers the costs to hospitals and healthcare payers of hypnotic-induced infections and other severe consequences of hypnotic use. These are a probable cause of excessive hospital admissions, prolonged lengths of stay at increased costs, and increased readmissions. Accurate information is scanty, for in-hospital hypnotic benefits and risks have scarcely been studied -- certainly not the economic costs of inpatient adverse effects.  Healthcare costs of outpatient adverse effects likewise need evaluation. In one example, use of hypnotics among depressed patients was strongly associated with higher healthcare costs and more short-term disability. A best estimate is that U.S. costs of hypnotic harms to healthcare systems are on the order of $55 billion, but conceivably might be as low as $10 billion or as high as $100 billion. More research is needed to more accurately assess unnecessary and excessive hypnotics costs to providers and insurers, as well as financial and health damages to the patients themselves.

  13. Nicotine enhances the hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Cassandra A.; Jackson, Asti; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Dawson, Anton; O’Brien, Megan; Soll, Lindsey G.; Abdullah, Rehab; Carroll, F. Ivy; Tapper, Andrew R.; Miles, Michael F.; Banks, Matthew L.; Bettinger, Jill C.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethanol and nicotine abuse are two leading causes of preventable mortality in the world, but little is known about the pharmacological mechanisms mediating co-abuse. Few studies have examined the interaction of the acute effects of ethanol and nicotine. Here, we examine the effects of nicotine administration on the duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and characterize the nature of their pharmacological interactions in C57BL/6J mice. Methods We assessed the effects of ethanol and nicotine and the nature of their interaction in the LORR test using isobolographic analysis after acute injection in C57BL/6J male mice. Next, we examined the importance of receptor efficacy using nicotinic partial agonists varenicline and sazetidine. We evaluated the involvement of major nAChR subtypes using nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine and nicotinic α4 and α7 knockout mice. The selectivity of nicotine’s actions on ethanol-induced LORR was examined by testing nicotine’s effects on the hypnotic properties of ketamine and pentobarbital. We also assessed the development of tolerance after repeated nicotine exposure. Lastly, we assessed if the effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced LORR extends to hypothermia and ethanol intake in the Drinking in the Dark (DID) paradigm. Results We found that acute nicotine injection enhances ethanol’s hypnotic effects in a synergistic manner and that receptor efficacy plays an important role in this interaction. Furthermore, tolerance developed to the enhancement of ethanol’s hypnotic effects by nicotine after repeated exposure of the drug. α4* and α7 nAChRs seem to play an important role in nicotine-ethanol interaction in the LORR test. In addition, the magnitude of ethanol-induced LORR enhancement by nicotine was more pronounced in C57BL/6J than DBA/2J mice. Furthermore, acute nicotine enhanced ketamine and pentobarbital hypnotic effects in the mouse. Finally, nicotine enhanced ethanol-induced hypothermia

  14. Nicotine Enhances the Hypnotic and Hypothermic Effects of Alcohol in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Slater, Cassandra A; Jackson, Asti; Muldoon, Pretal P; Dawson, Anton; O'Brien, Megan; Soll, Lindsey G; Abdullah, Rehab; Carroll, F Ivy; Tapper, Andrew R; Miles, Michael F; Banks, Matthew L; Bettinger, Jill C; Damaj, Imad M

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine abuse are 2 leading causes of preventable mortality in the world, but little is known about the pharmacological mechanisms mediating co-abuse. Few studies have examined the interaction of the acute effects of EtOH and nicotine. Here, we examine the effects of nicotine administration on the duration of EtOH-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and characterize the nature of their pharmacological interactions in C57BL/6J mice. We assessed the effects of EtOH and nicotine and the nature of their interaction in the LORR test using isobolographic analysis after acute injection in C57BL/6J male mice. Next, we examined the importance of receptor efficacy using nicotinic partial agonists varenicline and sazetidine. We evaluated the involvement of major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes using nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine and nicotinic α4- and α7-knockout mice. The selectivity of nicotine's actions on EtOH-induced LORR was examined by testing nicotine's effects on the hypnotic properties of ketamine and pentobarbital. We also assessed the development of tolerance after repeated nicotine exposure. Last, we assessed whether the effects of nicotine on EtOH-induced LORR extend to hypothermia and EtOH intake in the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm. We found that acute nicotine injection enhances EtOH's hypnotic effects in a synergistic manner and that receptor efficacy plays an important role in this interaction. Furthermore, tolerance developed to the enhancement of EtOH's hypnotic effects by nicotine after repeated exposure of the drug. α4* and α7 nAChRs seem to play an important role in nicotine-EtOH interaction in the LORR test. In addition, the magnitude of EtOH-induced LORR enhancement by nicotine was more pronounced in C57BL/6J than DBA/2J mice. Furthermore, acute nicotine enhanced ketamine and pentobarbital hypnotic effects in the mouse. Finally, nicotine enhanced EtOH-induced hypothermia but decreased EtOH intake

  15. Role of effective composition on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative-hypnotic capacities of 6 common edible Lilium varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Huang, Hanhan; Zhang, Yao; Li, Xia; Li, Hongfa; Jiang, Qianqian; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-04-01

    Nine Lilium samples (belong to 6 different cultivars with different maturity stage) were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), total saponins (TS), total carbohydrates (TC, polysaccharides), and soluble proteins contents (SP), and the monomeric components were quantified utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) associated with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Antioxidant activity (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity), anti-inflammatory (xylene-induced mouse ear edema detumescent assay and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema detumescent assay), and sedative-hypnotic capacities (sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep assay) were comparatively evaluated in mouse model. Additionally, correlation analysis and principal component analysis were carried out to detect clustering and elucidate relationships between components' concentrations and bioactivities to clarify the role of effective composition. Lilium bulbs in later maturity stage preliminary evidenced higher saponins content, and lower phenolic acids and flavonoids content. The result demonstrated that Lilium bulbs generally had distinct antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and sedative-hypnotic capacities. Varieties statistically differed (P < 0.05) in chemical composition and bioactivities. Lilium varieties of Dongbei and Lanzhou presented potent sedative-hypnotic effect and anti-inflammatory activity. The antioxidant capacity was related to the phenolic acids and flavonoids contents, the anti-inflammatory and sedative-hypnotic capacities were related to the saponins content. This is first study presenting comprehensive description of common edible Lilium bulbs' chemical compositions, sedative-hypnotic, and anti-inflammatory capacities grown in China. It would informatively benefit the genetic selection and cultivated optimization of Lilium varieties to improve nutritional quality, and

  16. Effects of thalidomide and pentobarbital on neuronal activity in the preoptic area during sleep and wakefulness in the cat.

    PubMed

    Kaitin, K I

    1985-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sleep produced by thalidomide, unlike that of pentobarbital, is associated with increased neuronal activity in the preoptic area (POA), the spontaneous activity of 96 POA neurons was recorded in chronically prepared cats during alert wakefulness (W), deep slow-wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep in a drug-free preparation and after administration of thalidomide (4 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (4 or 8 mg/kg). Thalidomide, unlike pentobarbital, at a dose that significantly increased the amount of SWS, failed to depress neuronal activity in the POA compared to drug-free controls. Mean discharge rates during thalidomide treatment were similar to drug-free rates. In contrast, rates during low-dose pentobarbital treatment were significantly less than those of drug-free and thalidomide-treated animals. Rates during high-dose pentobarbital treatment were significantly less than those in all other groups. Thalidomide, compared with the other groups, in addition to increasing the amount of SWS, significantly increased the total amount of REM sleep as well as REM sleep as a percent of total sleep, but did not produce ataxia or behavioral excitement. These results do not confirm the initial hypothesis, but suggest that hypnotic drugs that do not depress neuronal activity in the POA may be devoid of some of the unwanted side effects often associated with the more commonly prescribed hypnotic medications.

  17. Oscillatory brain mechanisms of the hypnotically-induced out-of-body experience.

    PubMed

    Zeev-Wolf, Maor; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Goldstein, Abraham; Bonne, Omer; Abramowitz, Eitan G

    2017-08-31

    One of the most challenging questions regarding the nature and neural basis of consciousness is the embodied dimension of the phenomenon, that is, feeling located within the body and viewing the world from that spatial perspective. Current theories in neurophysiology highlight the active role of multisensory and sensorimotor integration in supporting self-location and self-perspective, and propose the right temporal-parietal-junction (rTPJ) as a key area for such function. These theories are based mainly on findings from two experimental paradigms: manipulation of bottom-up multisensory information integration regarding one's body location (full-body illusion), or direct and invasive manipulation disrupting brain activity at the rTPJ. In this study we take a different approach by using hypnotic suggestion - a non-invasive top-down technique - to manipulate the subjective experience of self-location. The brain activity of 18 right-handed participants was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG) while their subjective experience of self-location was hypnotically manipulated. Spectral analyses were conducted on the spontaneous MEG data before and during an induction of an out-of-body experience (OBE) by a trained psychiatrist. The results indicate high correlations between power at alpha and high-gamma frequency-bands and the degree of perceived change in self-location. Regions exhibiting such correlations include temporal-occipital regions, the rTPJ, as well as frontal and midline regions. These findings are in line with an oscillatory-based predictive coding framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism of blockade of neuromuscular transmission by pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Seyama, I; Narahashi, T

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of block of neuromuscular transmission by pentobarbital has been studied in the frog sciatic nerve-sartorius muscle preparation by means of intracellular microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques. The resting membrane potential was decreased by pentobarbital only to a small extent (less than 15 mV) in both end-plate and non-end-plate regions. Both sodium and potassium components of end-plate current underwent drastic changes after application of pentobarbital. The peak amplitude was decreased with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.9 mM for both currents. The maximum rate of rise of end-plate current was reduced, with apparent dissociation constants of 0.9 and 1.2 mM for sodium and potassium currents, respectively. The times for sodium and potassium end-plate current to reach their peaks were shortened only to a negligible extent. The falling phase of end-plate current was greatly accelerated, sodium current being affected more than potassium current. The transient end-plate depolarization induced by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine was suppressed more effectively than end-plate potential by application of pentobarbital. The falling phase of the former was also shortened. The quantal content of end-plate potential tended to increase at 0.5 mM, but underwent no appreciable change at 1.0 and 1.4 mM. Pentobarbital has a dual action on both quantal content and end-plate membrane depending on the concentration, and the block of neuromuscular transmission is due primarily to a suppression of the end-plate sensitivity to acetylcholine. The differential effect of pentobarbital on sodium and potassium components of end-plate current is compatible with the notion that these two ionic conductances are separate entities.

  19. Effect of hypnotic and anxiolytic agents on regional concentration of acetylcholine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sethy, V H

    1978-01-01

    Pentobarbital (30 and 60 mg/kg) and chloral hydrate (300 and 600 mg/kg) administered in anesthetic/hypnotic doses produced significant increases in acetylcholine concentration in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and brainstem. Hypnotic/anxiolytic agents like diazepam, flurazepam (100 mg/kg each) and triazolam (30 mg/kg) significantly increased the acetylcholine concentration only in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Alprazolam and ketazolam had no significant effect on regional distribution of acetylcholine in the brain. The results have been discussed with respect to the role of central cholinergic system in anesthetic and hypnotic actions of these drugs.

  20. Rebound insomnia induced by abrupt withdrawal of hypnotics in sleep-disturbed rats.

    PubMed

    Hirase, Masahiro; Ishida, Takayuki; Kamei, Chiaki

    2008-11-12

    The present study was performed to examine whether or not rebound insomnia is caused by an abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine hypnotics and tandospirone in rats. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency, increase in non-REM sleep time, and decrease in wake time in a dose-dependent manner. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency during drug administration (for 7 days), whereas a significant prolongation of sleep latency was observed by the abrupt withdrawal of these drugs. Tandospirone caused a shortening of sleep latency, whereas no effect was observed on non-REM sleep time and wake time during drug administration (for 7 days). On the other hand, tandospirone showed no significant effect on sleep latency through its abrupt withdrawal, differing from etizolam and triazolam. From these findings, a rebound phenomenon in terms of sleep latency was confirmed with etizolam and triazolam in rats. Furthermore, the 5-HT(1A) agonist, tandospirone, caused no rebound phenomenon regarding sleep latency in rats.

  1. The reduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release and tissue damage by pentobarbital in the experimental endotoxemia model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fwu Lin; Li, Chi Han; Hsu, Bang Gee; Tsai, Nu-Man; Lin, Shinn Zong; Harn, Horng Jyh; Chen, Hsing I; Liao, Kuang Wen; Lee, Ru Ping

    2007-09-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death for intensive care patients. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to animals under anesthesia is a strategy for the study of uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines. Anesthetics have been indicated that they can specially affect immune responses, such as the inflammatory response. Pentobarbital is an anesthetic used mainly in animal studies. Thus, the effect of pentobarbital on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release was determined. The results revealed that pentobarbital suppressed the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and its proteins, which may result from the decrease in the activities of nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein 1 and the reduction of the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by pentobarbital. After the inhibitory activity of the pentobarbital for TNF-alpha release was proven in vivo, the cytotoxic effects of LPS were examined in vivo with or without pentobarbital treatments. In vivo results indicated that plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, serum urea nitrogen, and amylase decreased dramatically in the anesthetic group with pentobarbital administration. Finally, the effect of pentobarbital on TNF-alpha-related cell death was monitored in vitro, and the results indicated the pentobarbital could directly enhance the viabilities of cells under the treatment of TNF-alpha and protected cells from apoptosis induced by deferoxamine mesylate-induced hypoxia. These results suggest that pentobarbital significantly influences the LPS-induced inflammatory response and protects cells from death directly and indirectly induced by TNF-alpha. The information provides a perspective to re-evaluate the results of the experiments in which animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital. The anti-inflammatory effects of the drugs may have been caused by the synergistic effect of pentobarbital.

  2. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time.

  3. Behavioral effects of pentobarbital, lorazepam, ethanol and chlorpromazine substitution in pentobarbital-dependent baboons.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Griffiths, R R

    1993-04-01

    Baboons were given continuous intragastric infusions of 100 mg/kg/day of pentobarbital before and during these experiments. The baboons responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 30-response schedule of food presentation from 10:00 A.M. of one day to 8:00 A.M. of the next day. Terminating pentobarbital administration (i.e., substituting water for pentobarbital) from 8:00 A.M. of one day to 8:00 A.M. of the next day produced large decreases in the number of pellets earned. Repeated 24-h terminations of pentobarbital administration at 1-week intervals produced similar decreases in the pellets earned. In another experiment, the effects of terminating pentobarbital administration for several days were examined. The number of pellets earned decreased within 2 h of terminating pentobarbital administration was maximally suppressed during the first day, and recovered over 3 to 5 days. When different doses of pentobarbital were substituted for 24 h, the disruption of responding seen after pentobarbital termination was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In another experiment, the effects of substituting lorazepam, ethanol or chlorpromazine for pentobarbital for 24 h were examined. Lorazepam produced a dose-dependent attenuation of the effects of pentobarbital termination, whereas ethanol did not. Chlorpromazine did not attenuate the effects of pentobarbital termination in two of the three baboons tested, and produced erratic results in the third.

  4. Hypnotic dreams as a lens into hypnotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Raz, Amir; Schweizer, Heather R; Zhu, Hongtu; Bowles, Elizabeth Nellie

    2010-01-01

    The hypnotic relationship is an important parameter for both experimental and therapeutic contexts. Hypnotic dreams may serve as a lens to examine the hypnotic relationship. By answering 5 questions per item, 70 judges rated 12 accounts of brief hypnotic dreams conducted as part of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C. The data show that the judges were able to correctly discern highly from less hypnotizable individuals. Interestingly, highly hypnotizable females coached by a male hypnotic operator had more sexually charged dreams than either less hypnotizable females or males regardless of hypnotizability. These findings contextualize for further research and therapy transference issues related to the hypnotic relationship and the use of hypnotic dreams.

  5. Artemisia capillaris Thunberg Produces Sedative-Hypnotic Effects in Mice, Which are Probably Mediated Through Potentiation of the GABAA Receptor.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Irene Joy I; Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Hee Jin; de la Peña, June Bryan; Woo, Tae Sun; Lee, Yong Soo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Artemisia group of plants has long been used as a traditional remedy for various conditions. The present study assessed the sleep-promoting (sedative-hypnotic) effects of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (A. capillaris), and elucidated a possible mechanism behind its effect. ICR mice were given A. capillaris extract (oral) at different dosages (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg), distilled water (oral; control), or diazepam (intraperitoneal; reference drug). One hour after administration, locomotion (open-field test) and motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. The extract's effect on pentobarbital-induced sleep was also evaluated. Additionally, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were measured in rats. To evaluate a possible mechanism behind its effects, changes in chloride ( Cl (-)) ion influx were measured in human neuroblastoma cells. As compared to the control group, mice treated with A. capillaris demonstrated significantly decreased locomotor activity and impaired motor balance and coordination. The extract also shortened the onset and lengthened the duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital sodium. These effects were comparable to that induced by diazepam. Furthermore, A. capillaris-treated rats showed increased delta and decreased alpha EEG waves; an electroencephalographic pattern indicative of relaxation or sedation. In neuroblastoma cells, the extract dose-dependently increased Cl (-) ion influx, which was blocked by co-administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor competitive antagonist, suggesting that its effects are mediated through the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex. Altogether, the results of the present study demonstrate that A. capillaris possesses potent sedative-hypnotic effects, which are probably mediated through potentiation of the GABAA receptor- Cl (-) ion channel complex.

  6. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  7. N(6)-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside induces sedative and hypnotic effects via GAD enzyme activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Dong, J W; Tang, L N; Kang, R X; Shi, J G; Zhang, J J

    2014-11-01

    N(6)-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside (B2) is an analog of N(6)-(4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside (NHBA), which was originally isolated from Gastrodia elata Blume. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that B2 can produce strong sedative and hypnotic effects, but the mechanism remains to be determined. There is evidence that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, plays a major role in sleep regulation, and participates in the sedative and hypnotic effects of B2. Therefore, we studied the interactions between B2 and several GABAergic neurochemical parameters based on the sedative and hypnotic effects of B2. The GABA and glutamic acid (Glu) in the mouse brain were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and measured by high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The GAD and GABA-T enzyme activities were determined by measuring GABA and NADH production, respectively. The sleep structure analyses were performed by EEG studies in mice. B2 increased the GABA levels and GAD enzyme activity in the mouse hypothalamus and cortex. The EEG results confirmed that B2 significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of NREM sleep. The GAD enzyme inhibitor semicarbazide (SCZ) blocked the sedative and hypnotic effects of B2. These findings suggest that the GAD enzyme plays a significant role in the sedative and hypnotic effects of B2. Therefore B2 may be a promising candidate for further clinical studies and the appropriate use of GAD agonist may be a promising approach for sleep disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortality Risk of Hypnotics: Strengths and Limits of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-02-01

    Sleeping pills, more formally defined as hypnotics, are sedatives used to induce and maintain sleep. In a review of publications for the past 30 years, descriptive epidemiologic studies were identified that examined the mortality risk of hypnotics and related sedative-anxiolytics. Of the 34 studies estimating risk ratios, odds ratios, or hazard ratios, excess mortality associated with hypnotics was significant (p < 0.05) in 24 studies including all 14 of the largest, contrasted with no studies at all suggesting that hypnotics ever prolong life. The studies had many limitations: possibly tending to overestimate risk, such as possible confounding by indication with other risk factors; confusing hypnotics with drugs having other indications; possible genetic confounders; and too much heterogeneity of studies for meta-analyses. There were balancing limitations possibly tending towards underestimates of risk such as limited power, excessive follow-up intervals with possible follow-up mixing of participants taking hypnotics with controls, missing dosage data for most studies, and over-adjustment of confounders. Epidemiologic association in itself is not adequate proof of causality, but there is proof that hypnotics cause death in overdoses; there is thorough understanding of how hypnotics euthanize animals and execute humans; and there is proof that hypnotics cause potentially lethal morbidities such as depression, infection, poor driving, suppressed respiration, and possibly cancer. Combining these proofs with consistent evidence of association, the great weight of evidence is that hypnotics cause huge risks of decreasing a patient's duration of survival.

  9. [The newer sedative-hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Sukys-Claudino, Lucia; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva

    2010-09-01

    There has been a search for more effective and safe hypnotic drugs in the last decades. Zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, eszopiclone (the z-drugs) and indiplon are GABA-A modulators which bind selectively α1 subunits, thus, exhibiting similar mechanisms of action, although recent evidence suggests that eszopiclone is not as selective for α1 subunit as zolpidem is. Ramelteon and tasimelteon are new chrono-hypnotic agents, selective for melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors. On the other hand, the consumption of sedative antidepressant drugs is significantly increasing for the treatment of insomnia, in the last years. As an experimental drug, eplivanserin is being tested as a potent antagonist of serotonin 2-A receptors (ASTAR) with a potential use in sleep maintenance difficulty. Another recent pharmacological agent for insomnia is almorexant, which new mechanism of action involves antagonism of hypocretinergic system, thus inducing sleep. Finally we also discuss the potential role of other gabaergic drugs for insomnia.

  10. Midazolam and pentobarbital for refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Holmes, G L; Riviello, J J

    1999-04-01

    Status epilepticus, a serious, life-threatening emergency characterized by prolonged seizure activity, occurs most commonly in pediatric patients. Although initial therapies with agents such as diazepam, phenytoin, or phenobarbital generally terminate seizure activity within 30-60 minutes, patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE) lasting longer require additional intervention. High-dose pentobarbital has been the most commonly prescribed agent for the management of RSE in children; however, midazolam has emerged as a new treatment option. This review compares the use of midazolam with pentobarbital in published reports of pediatric RSE. Both drugs effectively terminated refractory seizure activity, although pentobarbital use was complicated by hypotension, delayed recovery, pneumonia, and other adverse effects. Midazolam use was effective and well tolerated, affirming its value in pediatric RSE management.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates the selective interference of hypnotics and sedatives to suppress N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced oxidative burst formation in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Buhl, R; Medve, M; Schneider, E M

    1997-01-01

    To clarify whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha modulates the inhibitory effect of clinically applied hypnotics and sedatives on neutrophil function. Prospective, randomized, controlled, dose response, in vitro study. A university research laboratory. Neutrophils from healthy human volunteers. Neutrophils were primed by incubation with TNF-alpha (25 ng/mL) for 15 mins. Subsequently, TNF-alpha-primed neutrophils were incubated with two concentrations of commercially available drug preparations and drug-free solutions, respectively. The following commercially available preparations of hypnotics and sedatives as well as their corresponding drug-free solutions were tested: methohexital, thiopental, midazolam, diazepam, etomidate, and propofol. The production of oxygen radicals was initiated by adding N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) 10(-7) mol/L and detected by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence measurements for 15 mins. Within the range of therapeutic plasma concentrations, only thiopental, diazepam, and propofol suppressed chemiluminescence of unprimed neutrophils. Additionally, propofol alone suppressed TNF-alpha-primed neutrophils. Hypnotics and sedatives were unable to suppress oxygen radical production of TNF-alpha-primed neutrophils below the level of their control activity, measured in FMLP-induced unprimed neutrophils in the absence of the respective drug or drug-free solution. However, the effect of etomidate could not be evaluated secondarily to effects mediated by its drug-free solution. In a cell-free chemiluminescence system, thiopental and propofol demonstrated scavenging of oxygen free radicals. Priming with TNF-alpha counteracts the inhibitory effect by certain drugs for oxygen radical formation by FMLP-stimulated neutrophils. Thus, TNF-alpha plus FMLP mediate additive effects in stimulating oxygen radical formation in neutrophils. The following drugs dose-dependently interfere with these activating pathways: thiopental, diazepam

  12. Intracerebroventricular injection of L-serine analogs and derivatives induces sedative and hypnotic effects under an acute stressful condition in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Asechi, Mari; Tomonaga, Shozo; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Han, Li; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2006-06-03

    Four experiments were conducted to clarify the central functions of L-serine and its analogs on an acute stressful condition. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-serine (0.21, 0.42 and 0.84 micromol) attenuated stress responses in a dose-dependent fashion, as well as induced sleep, in Experiment 1. The effects of L- and D-serine in Experiment 2, those of L-serine, phosphoserine, acetylserine and L-cysteine in Experiment 3 and those of L-serine, glycine and lysophosphatidylserine in Experiment 4 were compared at an equimolar basis (0.84 micromol). D-Serine, proposed as an endogenous agonist of N-methyl-D-aspatate (NMDA) receptor, did not have sedative and hypnotic effects as observed with L-serine. In contrast, all the analogs and derivatives of L-serine had a sedative effect, although with a different manner in several behavioral markers of stress such as spontaneous activity and distress vocalizations. No significant changes in plasma corticosterone concentration were observed in any experiment. Taken together, the i.c.v. injection of L-serine analogs and its derivatives have sedative and hypnotic effects under an acute stressful condition, which does not involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In conclusion, L-serine may be effective in improving anxiety or sleep disorders induced by psychological stressor.

  13. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work.

  14. Investigation of sedative and hypnotic effects of Amygdalus communis L. extract: behavioral assessments and EEG studies on rat.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Najafi, Forough; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-04-01

    Amygdalus communis L. (almond) has been traditionally used as a natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. The present research studied the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous fraction of seeds of almond in rats. In order to investigate these effects, a combination of behavioral methods (open field test and loss of righting reflex test) as well as quantitative and analytic methods (EEG and EMG) were applied. The results of the open field test showed that a dose of 400 mg/kg of the almond extract significantly inhibited the locomotion activity of rats compared to normal. The results also illustrated that the almond extract affected pentobarbital-induced sleep through increasing the number of fallings asleep and prolongation of sleeping time. Analysis of EEG recordings of the animals which had received the same dose of the almond extract as the open field test demonstrated marked changes in the animals' sleep architecture. Significant prolongation of total sleeping time as well as significant increase in NREM sleep were the main observed changes compared to the normal condition. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of almond has significant sedative and hypnotic effects, which may support its therapeutic use for insomnia.

  15. Hypnotic effects and GABAergic mechanism of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) ethanol extract and its major flavonoid constituent glabrol.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suengmok; Park, Ji-Hae; Pae, Ae Nim; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Dongsoo; Cho, Nam-Chul; No, Kyoung Tai; Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Lee, Changho; Shimizu, Makoto; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, GG) is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines worldwide, and its various biological activities have been widely studied. GG is reported to have neurological properties such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, its hypnotic effects and the mechanism of GG and its active compounds have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, GG ethanol extract (GGE) dose-dependently potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleep and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice without decreasing delta activity. The hypnotic effect of GGE was completely inhibited by flumazenil, which is a well-known γ-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine (GABA(A)-BZD) receptor antagonist, similar to other GABA(A)-BZD receptor agonists (e.g., diazepam and zolpidem). The major flavonoid glabrol was isolated from the flavonoid-rich fraction of GGE; it inhibited [(3)H] flumazenil binding to the GABA(A)-BZD receptors in rat cerebral cortex membrane with a binding affinity (K(i)) of 1.63 μM. The molecular structure and pharmacophore model of glabrol and liquiritigenin indicate that the isoprenyl groups of glabrol may play a key role in binding to GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Glabrol increased sleep duration and decreased sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10, 25, and 50mg/kg); its hypnotic effect was also blocked by flumazenil. The results imply that GGE and its flavonoid glabrol induce sleep via a positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A suicide involving intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, Sarah; Steiner, Jasmin; Dussy, Franz; Moeckli, Regula; Gerlach, Kathrin; Briellmann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present an unusual case of suicide by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital, an overdose of zolpidem and the intake of diazepam, ethanol and other psychoactive substances. The autopsy and specimen collection were conducted in a 10 to 18 h postmortem interval. The toxicological analysis revealed a significantly higher pentobarbital concentration in femoral blood compared to cardiac blood (36 vs. 15 mg/L). On the contrary, zolpidem and diazepam concentrations in cardiac blood (2700 and 590 µg/L) were found to be significantly higher than in femoral blood (1500 and 230 µg/L). These findings point to a postmortem redistribution with a distinct gradient from areas of high drug concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract (zolpidem and diazepam) and the injection site (pentobarbital) to peripheral tissue. Ethanol concentration was 0.95 ‰ which amplified the CNS depression. The choice of this unusual suicide method was associated with the deceased's former job as a veterinarian's assistant. In veterinary medicine, the intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of pentobarbital is quite commonly performed to euthanise small animals. Intraperitoneal injection is rare as route of administration in humans.

  17. [Benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of insomnia shows an age-associated increase. Especially, persons with age over 60 years frequently suffer from arousal during sleep and early-morning awakening. The reason of this phenomenon can be explained by age-related change in sleepwake regulation, comorbid diseases and psycho-social status. Benzodiazepine derivatives and benzodiazepine agonists have been widely used for treatment of insomnia. These GABA-A receptor agonist hypnotics have sedative effect, possibly causing various adverse events, i.e. falls and hip fracture, anterograde amnesia, next morning hangover especially in the elderly. When making a choice of treatment drugs for the elderly, low dose benzodiazepine hypnotics with relatively high Ω1-selectivity, and newer hypnotics including melatonic receptor agonist or orexin receptor antagonist can become important candidates considering their comorbid diseases or drug interaction with other medications.

  18. The beneficial and adverse effects of hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Balter, M B; Uhlenhuth, E H

    1991-07-01

    Findings from a four-city study of the beneficial and adverse effects of hypnotics are reported. The study employed a new volunteer call-in method for monitoring drug effects outside of the clinical setting. Respondents were recruited through newspaper advertisements. They were invited to complete a short telephone interview if, during the past 12 months, they (1) had significant trouble with insomnia or (2) had taken a medication to induce sleep. Comparison groups were flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, and over-the-counter (OTC) sleep medications. An untreated insomnia group also was included. Results indicate that most users of prescription hypnotics attributed positive effects to their sleep medications and that adverse effects were infrequent. OTC hypnotics were less effective and more likely to produce negative effects. The untreated insomnia group was more symptomatic than any of the medication groups.

  19. Effects of the use of hypnotics on cognition.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, Annemiek; Coenen, Anton M L

    2011-01-01

    Hypnotic drugs are intended to induce sedation and promote sleep. As a result, they have deteriorating effects on cognitive performance following intake. Most hypnotics are benzodiazepine receptor agonists which can have effects on memory in addition to their sedative effects. Other sedating drugs, such as histamine H1 antagonists or melatonin agonists, may have less effect on memory and learning. Hypnotics with other mechanisms of action are currently being investigated for efficacy and safety. For patients using hypnotic drugs, the effects on cognition are relevant to the extent that a drug dose affects daytime performance. Use of benzodiazepine hypnotics is associated with increased risk of car accidents and falling. Therefore, most hypnotics are studied to determine whether they produce residual sedation and impairing effects on performance the morning after bedtime use. Experimental studies using a standardized driving test clearly show that some drugs and doses produce severe residual effects, whereas others seem to have no or only minor impairing effects on next-day performance. No hypnotic has been found yet to improve daytime performance. Studies on long-term use of benzodiazepine hypnotics suggest that effects on daytime performance may diminish over time due to tolerance. However, there are also studies showing that performance may improve after discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use, which suggests that tolerance may not be complete.

  20. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase reduce carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation in pentobarbital-treated mice: comparison with indomethacin and possible involvement of cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Holt, Sandra; Comelli, Francesca; Costa, Barbara; Fowler, Christopher J

    2005-10-01

    The in vivo effect of inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) upon oedema volume and FAAH activity was evaluated in the carrageenan induced hind paw inflammation model in the mouse. Oedema was measured at two time points, 2 and 4 h, after intraplantar injection of carrageenan to anaesthetised mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) 30 min prior to carrageenan administration, dose-dependently reduced oedema formation. At the 4 h time point, the ED(50) for URB597 was approximately 0.3 mg kg(-1). Indomethacin (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) completely prevented the oedema response to carrageenan. The antioedema effects of indomethacin and URB597 were blocked by 3 mg kg(-1) i.p. of the CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528. The effect of URB597 was not affected by pretreatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (10 mg kg(-1) i.p.), when oedema was assessed 4 h after carrageenan administration. The CB(1) receptor antagonists AM251 (3 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and rimonabant (0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) gave inconsistent effects upon the antioedema effect of URB597. FAAH measurements were conducted ex vivo in the paws, spinal cords and brains of the mice. The activities of FAAH in the paws and spinal cords of the inflamed vehicle-treated mice were significantly lower than the corresponding activities in the noninflamed mice. PMSF treatment almost completely inhibited the FAAH activity in all three tissues, as did the highest dose of URB597 (3 mg kg(-1)) in spinal cord samples, whereas no obvious changes were seen ex vivo for the other treatments. In conclusion, the results show that in mice, treatment with indomethacin and URB597 produce SR144528-sensitive anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan model of acute inflammation.

  1. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  2. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  3. Isolation of mast cells from rabbit lung and liver: comparison of histamine release induced by the hypnotics Althesin and propanidid.

    PubMed

    Ennis, M; Lorenz, W; Gerland, W; Heise, J

    1987-04-01

    The enzyme collagenase was used to disperse rabbit lung and liver into their component cells. The resulting cell suspensions contained ca. 6.9% (lung) or 6.5% (liver) mast cells and were used in studies of histamine release without further purification. Both cell suspensions exhibited a low spontaneous release of histamine (ca. 6.6% lung, ca. 7.2% liver). Both cell types responded to challenge with anti-rabbit serum with a maximum release of the amine of ca. 22% (lung) and ca. 45% (liver). Concanavalin A challenge generally resulted in bell-shaped dose response curves, however some lung preparations did not respond. The rabbit cells were refractory to stimulation by Compound 48/80 and dextran. However a dose-dependent release of histamine was elicited after challenge with the detergents cremophor El, TN (12-hydroxystearic acid polymerized with ethylene oxide, degree of polymerization 15) and the hypnotics Althesin and propanidid. The maximum release observed depended on which cell preparation had been used. These results further emphasize the functional heterogeneity of mast cells from both different species and from different organs within the same species.

  4. Sleep and hypnotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Johns, M W

    1975-01-01

    In recent years the effectiveness of hypnotic drugs has had to be assessed in terms of a greatly increased knowledge of the physiology and pathology of sleep. The normal pattern of sleep and wakefulness involves a cyclic alternation between three rather than two basically dissimilar states of the brain and body - alert wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep. The pattern of this alternation in individual people results from the interaction of many influences - biological (including genetic, early developmental and later degenerative influences), psychological, social and environmental factors, various physical and psychiatric disorders, and most drugs which affect the central nervous system. The quality of sleep is not related in any simple or constant manner either to its duration or to the proprotions of time spent in each stage of sleep. Among the disorders of sleep, insomnia is a far more common problem of medical management than are enuresis, narcolepsy, somnambulism or nightmares. With a few exceptions, most hypnotic drugs now in widespread use cease to be effective in treating insomnia after the first few nights. However, the ineffective treatment is often continued because insomnia will be even worse during the initial period of drug withdrawal. These factors and the toxicity of hypnotic drugs when taken in overdose make the long-term treatment of insomnia more difficult than was previously supposed. Barbiturates should no longer be prescribed. Some of the non-barbiturates, such as glutethimide and methaqualone, have no advantage over the barbiturates. The benzodiazepine hypnotics, nitrazepam and flurazepam, are less toxic in overdose and are relatively effective in treating insomnia. Chloral hydrate and its derivates are useful alternative drugs for short-term use. Measures to improve sleep without drugs deserve greater emphasis than they have had in the past.

  5. [Hypnotic effects of ramelteon during electroencephalography].

    PubMed

    Akaike, Hiroto; Kondo, Eisuke; Kono, Mina; Kato, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of ramelteon, a sleep agent thought to induce natural sleep through its actions on the melatonin receptors 1 and 2, was evaluated during electroencephalography (EEG). We retrospectively analyzed the data from 862 EEG sessions in the electronic medical records of 523 patients (mean age, 8.9 ± 6.4 years; range, 0-38 years) who underwent EEGs in the Department of Pediatrics of Kawasaki Medical School Hospital. We compared the sleep induction statuses of patients not treated with hypnotics and those treated with the following hypnotics: ramelteon, triclofos sodium, and/or chloral hydrate. The success rates of sleep induction in the different groups were as follows: 440/513 (85.7%) in the hypnotic-free, 60/63 (95.2%) in the ramelteon, 209/217 (96.3%) in the triclofos sodium, 36/37 (97.3%) in the chloral hydrate, and 29/32 (90.6%) in the triclofos sodium plus chloral hydrate group. The incidence of adverse reactions was 0/63 (0%) in the ramelteon, 104/199 (52.2%) in the triclofos sodium, 12/31 (38.7%) in the chloral hydrate, and 20/30 (66.7%) in the triclofos sodium plus chloral hydrate group. The mean sleep latency in the ramelteon group was 22.3 ± 12.8 min (range, 5-60 min). Ramelteon induced sleep significantly more compared to the control group. The incidence of adverse reactions after treatment with ramelteon was significantly lower than after treatment with any of the other hypnotics. These results suggest that ramelteon is useful as a hypnotic during EEG.

  6. Clobazam--a new hypnotic?

    PubMed Central

    Kesson, C M; Gray, J M; Lawson, D H

    1978-01-01

    1 A double-blind randomized trial to compare the relative efficacy of the 1,5-benzodiazepine, clobazam, the 1,4-benzodiazepine nitrazepam, and placebo as hypnotics was carried out. 2 A preference technique was used and the analyses were performed sequentially. 3. The results confirmed that nitrazepam was superior to placebo as a hypnotic but failed to show that clobazam was superior to either placebo or nitrazepam in a ratio of 2:1. Thus, it seems likely that the hypnotic properties of clobazam are minimal. 4 Clobazam is not suitable for use as a hypnotic in hospitalized patients. PMID:687502

  7. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  8. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  9. Hypnotic activity of brotizolam

    PubMed Central

    Uzzan, B.; Warot, D.; Chermat, P.; Dantlo, B.; Bornstein, S.; Simon, P.

    1983-01-01

    1 A double-blind, crossover study was carried out in general practice on the hypnotic activity of 0.25 mg brotizolam in patients aged between 18 and 70 years complaining of insomnia (11 men, 28 women). 2 Patients reported that they slept better, that they awoke less frequently and that they slept longer with brotizolam than with placebo. Overall the patients preferred brotizolam to placebo, and subjective assessments of well-being after brotizolam did not differ from those after placebo. Brotizolam was well tolerated and there were no incidents of note. PMID:6362701

  10. Effects of hypnotic analgesia and hypnotizability on experimental ischemic pain.

    PubMed

    DeBenedittis, G; Panerai, A A; Villamira, M A

    1989-01-01

    Mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia are still poorly understood and conflicting data are reported regarding the underlying neurochemical correlates. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of hypnotically induced analgesia and hypnotizability on experimental ischemic pain, taking into account pain and distress tolerance as well as the neurochemical correlates. 11 high hypnotizable Ss and 10 low hypnotizable Ss, as determined by scores on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & E. R. Hilgard, 1962), were administered an ischemic pain test in both waking and hypnotic conditions. The following variables were measured: (a) pain and distress tolerance, (b) anxiety levels, and (c) plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Results confirmed significant increases of pain and distress tolerance during hypnosis as compared to the waking state, with positive correlations between pain and distress relief and hypnotizability. Moreover, a hypnotically induced dissociation between the sensory-discriminative and the affective-motivational dimensions of pain experience was found, but only in high hypnotizable Ss. Hypnotic analgesia was unrelated to anxiety reduction and was not mediated either by endorphins or by ACTH.

  11. Furnishing hypnotic instructions with implementation intentions enhances hypnotic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Pfau, Florian; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Forming implementation intentions has been consistently shown to be a powerful self-regulatory strategy. As the self-regulation of thoughts is important for the experience of involuntariness in the hypnotic context, investigating the effectiveness of implementation intentions on the suppression of thoughts was the focus of the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (hypnotic instruction plus implementation intention, hypnotic instruction, implementation intention, and control condition). Results showed that participants who received information included in the "Carleton Skill Training Program" and in addition formed implementation intentions improved their hypnotic responsiveness as compared to all of the other three groups on measures of objective responding and involuntary responding. Thus, in line with the nonstate or cognitive social-psychological view of hypnosis stating that an individual's hypnotic suggestibility is not dispositional but modifiable, our results suggest that hypnotic responsiveness can be heightened by furnishing hypnotic instructions with ad hoc implementation intentions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypnotics and Sedatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Pokar M.; Koo, Howard Y.; Marton, Laurence J.

    In recent years, most large hospitals have observed a marked increase in the admission of patients suffering from drug overdose. Overdose of narcotic drugs, such as the opiates, represent less of a problem on a day-to-day basis than do overdoses of prescribed drugs, such as sedatives and hypnotics. Clinical signs and symptoms for a narcotic drug overdose are very distinct, and in the majority of cases can be easily recognized by the attending physicians without the help of a toxicology laboratory. Loomis (1) reported that the majority of fatal poisonings owed to one, or a combination, of four agents: barbiturates, carbon monoxide, ethyl alcohol, and salicylates. Berry (2) estimated that 5-5'-disubstituted barbiturates were the second commonest cause of fatal poisoning in England, and that the frequency of their use was increasing. Other nonbarbiturate hypnotics involved in coma-producing incidents include glutethimide (Doriden®), methyprylon (Noludar®), and meprobamate (3, 4). In the last five years, diazepam (Valium®) has become one of the leading misused drugs (5).

  13. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  14. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  15. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  17. Effect of an imidazobenzodiazepine, Ro15-4513, on the incoordination and hypothermia produced by ethanol and pentobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.; Szabo, G.; Suzdak, P.D.; Paul, S.M.

    1987-08-03

    The imidazobenzodiazepine, Ro15-4513, which is a partial inverse agonist at brain benzodiazepine receptors, reversed the incoordinating effect of ethanol in mice, as measured on an accelerating Rotarod. This effect was blocked by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. In contrast, Ro15-4513 had no effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia in mice. However, Ro15-4513 reversed the hypothermic effect of pentobarbital, and, at higher dose, also reversed the incoordinating effect of pentobarbital in mice. The data support the hypothesis that certain of the pharmacological effects of ethanol are mediated by actions at the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor-coupled chloride channel. 35 references, 2 figures.

  18. Echocardiographic assessment of cats anesthetized with xylazine-sodium pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Allen, D G; Downey, R S

    1983-07-01

    Left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in cats were recorded, measured and analyzed to study the effects of a combination of xylazine and sodium pentobarbital on left ventricular function. The depressant effects of a combination of xylazine and sodium pentobarbital on the left ventricular dimension at end diastole, the percent change in minor diameter and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening were compared to echocardiographic values of unanesthetized cats. No change in heart rate was noted. Stroke volume and cardiac output were depressed.

  19. Hypnotic metaphor and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L G

    1987-01-01

    Although hypnosis can be very effective in alleviating sexual problems, few sex therapists use hypnotic methods. This paper seeks to encourage a greater use of hypnosis among clinicians by presenting: a description of the new hypnosis exemplified in the work of Milton H. Erickson; an explanation of one of Erickson's most important and innovative methods, the use of multiple embedded metaphors; and case histories illustrating the application of hypnotic approaches to sexual dysfunction.

  20. A retrospective analysis of analgesics and sedative-hypnotics in hospitalized obstetrical and gynecological patients.

    PubMed

    Kaul, A F; Harsfield, J C; Osathanondh, R; Ostheimer, G W

    1978-02-01

    In a retrospective analysis, the dose per patient day (DPPD) of controlled analgesics and sedative-hypnotics dispensed to inpatients at a women's hospital in the United States were studied from October 1974 through September 1975. Obstetric patients received as many analgesics (1.872 DPPD) as did gynecologic patients (1.945 DPPD). Percodan and meperidine were the most frequently dispensed oral and parenteral analgesics (0.673 and 0.526 DPPD) respectively. Obstetric patients received greater quantities of sedative-hypnotics (0.453 DPPD) than did gynecologic patients (0.311 DPPD). Secobarbital and pentobarbital were the most frequently dispensed oral and parenteral sedative-hypnotics (0.161 and 0.015 DPPD), respectively. A decline in the use of barbiturates was observed toward the end of the study year, with a corresponding increase in the use of the non-barbiturate sedative-hypnotics. It is recommended that intrapartum administration of analgesics and sedatives be carefully evaluated in view of their possible depressant effects on the fetus/newborn.

  1. Hypnotic Involuntariness: A Social Cognitive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Steven Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A framework for understanding involuntary experiences which draws from social, psychological and cognitive perspectives on hypnotic responding is presented. Five reasons are suggested to reject the hypothesis that hypnotic responding is automatic and involuntary. (SLD)

  2. Hypnotic Involuntariness: A Social Cognitive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Steven Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A framework for understanding involuntary experiences which draws from social, psychological and cognitive perspectives on hypnotic responding is presented. Five reasons are suggested to reject the hypothesis that hypnotic responding is automatic and involuntary. (SLD)

  3. The effects of pentobarbital, ketamine-pentobarbital and ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in a rat myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury model.

    PubMed

    Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Fatahi, Zahra; Safari, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    To achieve reliable experimental data, the side-effects of anesthetics should be eliminated. Since anesthetics exert a variety of effects on hemodynamic data and incidence of arrhythmias, the selection of anesthetic agents in a myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury model is very important. The present study was performed to compare hemodynamic variables, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, and infarct size during 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion in rats using pentobarbital, ketamine-pentobarbital or ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia. A total of 30 rats were randomly divided into three groups. In group P, pentobarbital (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) was used solely; in group K-P, ketamine and pentobarbital (50 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, IP) were used in combination; and in group K-X, ketamine and xylazine (75 and 5 mg/kg, respectively, IP) were also used in combination. Hemodynamic data and occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias were recorded throughout the experiments. The ischemic area was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The combination of ketamine-xylazine caused bradycardia and hypotension. The greatest reduction in mean arterial blood pressure during ischemia was in the P group. The most stability in hemodynamic parameters during ischemia and reperfusion was in the K-P group. The infarct size was significantly less in the K-X group. Whereas none of the rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine fibrillated during ischemia, ventricular fibrillation occurred in 57% of the animals anesthetized with pentobarbital or ketamine-pentobarbital. Because it offers the most stable hemodynamic parameters, it is concluded that the ketamine-pentobarbital anesthesia combination is the best anesthesia in a rat ischemia reperfusion injury model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Neuropsychological Test Performance and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between brain-behavior and hypnotic susceptibility in 70 alcoholic patients, using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and its Fromm-Weingarten modification. Results showed the two scales were interchangeable insofar as they measured the same ability, and indicated that hypnotic susceptibility is related to…

  5. Neuropsychological Test Performance and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between brain-behavior and hypnotic susceptibility in 70 alcoholic patients, using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and its Fromm-Weingarten modification. Results showed the two scales were interchangeable insofar as they measured the same ability, and indicated that hypnotic susceptibility is related to…

  6. Hypnotic analgesia: a constructivist framework.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C R; Nakamura, Y

    1998-01-01

    Hypnotic analgesia remains an enigma. Recent neuroscience studies demonstrate that widespread distributed processing occurs in the brains of individuals experiencing pain. Emerging research and theory on the mechanisms of consciousness, along with this evidence, suggest that a constructivist framework may facilitate both pain research and the study of hypnosis. The authors propose that the brain constructs elements of pain experience (pain schemata) and embeds them in ongoing consciousness. The contents of immediate consciousness feed back to nonconscious, parallel distributed processes to help shape the character of future moments of consciousness. Hypnotic suggestion may interact with such processing through feedback mechanisms that prime associations and memories and thus shape the formation of future experience.

  7. 40-Hz EEG activity during hypnotic induction and hypnotic testing.

    PubMed

    DePascalis, V; Penna, P M

    1990-04-01

    The present study evaluates changes in left and right 40-Hz EEG production for 19 high and 20 low hypnotizable female Ss during the hypnotic induction and the administration of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) of the Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1962). Scalp recorded 40-Hz EEG density was obtained from the middle of the O1-P3-T5 and O2-P4-T6 triangles. As the hypnotic induction proceeded, high hypnotizable Ss exhibited a shift to greater right-hemisphere activity as compared to a waking-state rest condition. In contrast, low hypnotizable Ss, showed a reduction in left- and right-hemisphere activity. No differences between groups for SHSS:C ideomotor items were observed. A main effect for Hypnotizability among SHSS:C imaginative items was found. A Hypnotizability x Hemisphere x Trial interaction was found for both sensory distortion and imaginative SHSS:C items. A comparison was made between low versus high hypnotizable Ss of 40-Hz EEG activity while they passed the same item. The results of these comparisons indicate that differences in brain activity might be partially related to the differences between experiencing a hypnotic suggestion or failing to do so. Significant relationships between 40-Hz EEG production and hypnotizability and 40-Hz EEG production and level of amnesia were also found.

  8. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  9. Mapping a barbiturate withdrawal locus to a 0.44 Mb interval and analysis of a novel null mutant identify a role for Kcnj9 (GIRK3) in withdrawal from pentobarbital, zolpidem, and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kozell, Laura B; Walter, Nicole A R; Milner, Lauren C; Wickman, Kevin; Buck, Kari J

    2009-09-16

    Here, we map a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with a large effect on predisposition to barbiturate (pentobarbital) withdrawal to a 0.44 Mb interval of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human 1q23.2. We report a detailed analysis of the genes within this interval and show that it contains 15 known and predicted genes, 12 of which demonstrate validated genotype-dependent transcript expression and/or nonsynonymous coding sequence variation that may underlie the influence of the QTL on withdrawal. These candidates are involved in diverse cellular functions including intracellular trafficking, potassium conductance and spatial buffering, and multimolecular complex dynamics, and indicate both established and novel aspects of neurobiological response to sedative-hypnotics. This work represents a substantial advancement toward identification of the gene(s) that underlie the phenotypic effects of the QTL. We identify Kcnj9 as a particularly promising candidate and report the development of a Kcnj9-null mutant model that exhibits significantly less severe withdrawal from pentobarbital as well as other sedative-hypnotics (zolpidem and ethanol) versus wild-type littermates. Reduced expression of Kcnj9, which encodes GIRK3 (Kir3.3), is associated with less severe sedative-hypnotic withdrawal. A multitude of QTLs for a variety of complex traits, including diverse responses to sedative-hypnotics, have been detected on distal chromosome 1 in mice, and as many as four QTLs on human chromosome 1q have been implicated in human studies of alcohol dependence. Thus, our results will be primary to additional efforts to identify genes involved in a wide variety of behavioral responses to sedative-hypnotics and may directly facilitate progress in human genetics.

  10. Effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianhong; Sun, Xuehui; Sang, Guifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (group A), chloral hydrate group (group B) and pentobarbital sodium group (group C). Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione s transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level as well as serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) were determined. Liver histopathological examinations were performed at termination. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were also evaluated. The SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT activities significantly decreased but TBARS levels increased in group B and C compared with group A. Hepatic injury was evidenced by a significant increase in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities in group B and C, which also confirmed by the histopathological alterations. Moreover, administration of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium could induce certain hepatic apoptosis accompanied by the upregulated Bax expression, the downregulated Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and the increase of caspase-3 activity. Repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia could produce hepatotoxicity.

  11. Hypnotically recalling dreams during analysis.

    PubMed

    Calogeras, R C

    1995-04-01

    This study described the procedure, the theoretical rationale, and clinical material relating to the hypnotic recalling of dreams during periods of protracted "dreamless" analyses. Two clinical examples were used to demonstrate the efficacy of using a special hypnotic procedure close to the analytic free-association method for the remembering or recalling the dreams. Discussion of the clinical material found: 1. the main factors contributing to a "dreamless" analysis were to be found in the transference-countertransference resistances of the analysis; 2. the justification for introducing the special hypnotic procedure as a parameter in the analysis was discussed and confirmed; 3. the remembering-recalling of the first dream--following the hypnotic intervention--lead to the recovery of a critical childhood memory; and 4. the parameter of using hypnosis as a method of breaking the intractable resistance of a "dreamless" analysis did not become an alien force which intervened whenever strong resistances appeared. On the contrary, it seemed to serve as a temporary therapeutic mechanism for allowing an energy shift to occur in the all-or-none defensive state of a "dreamless" analysis.

  12. Blood -brain barrier disruption was less under isoflurane than pentobarbital anesthesia via a PI3K/Akt pathway in early cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Mellender, Scott J; Kiss, Geza K; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2017-02-24

    One of the important factors altering the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in cerebral ischemia is the anesthetic used. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in modulating BBB permeability and in isoflurane induced neuroprotection. This study was performed to compare the degree of BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia under isoflurane vs pentobarbital anesthesia and to determine whether inhibition of PI3K/Akt would affect the disruption in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia. Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was performed in rats under 1.4% isoflurane or pentobarbital (50mg/kg i.p.) anesthesia with controlled ventilation. In half of each group LY294002, which is a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, was applied on the ischemic cortex immediately after MCA occlusion. After one hour of MCA occlusion, the transfer coefficient (Ki) of (14)C-α-aminoisobutyric acid ((14)C-AIB) was determined to quantify the degree of BBB disruption. MCA occlusion increased the Ki both in the isoflurane and pentobarbital anesthetized rats. However, the value of Ki was lower under isoflurane (11.5±6.0μL/g/min) than under pentobarbital (18.3±7.1μL/g/min) anesthesia. The Ki of the contralateral cortex of the pentobarbital group was higher (+74%) than that of the isoflurane group. Application of LY294002 on the ischemic cortex increased the Ki (+99%) only in the isoflurane group. The degree of BBB disruption by MCA occlusion was significantly lower under isoflurane than pentobarbital anesthesia in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Our data demonstrated the importance of choice of anesthetics and suggest that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role in altering BBB disruption in cerebral ischemia during isoflurane but not during pentobarbital anesthesia.

  13. [Hypnotics--state of the science].

    PubMed

    Nissen, C; Frase, L; Hajak, G; Wetter, T C

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the indications and effects of sleep-inducing drugs. Pharmacological treatment should only be considered in cases of insufficient response to non-pharmacological interventions. Benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine receptor agonists are indicated for the short-term treatment of acute insomnia. Due to the risk of tolerance and dependency, sedative antihistamines and antidepressants are widely used as long-term hypnotics. Other substances, including herbal compounds and melatonin have few side effects; however, the therapeutic efficacy is very limited. Currently, long-term data on the efficacy and tolerability of sleep-inducing substances are lacking. Specifically in cases of non-response to first line treatment, extended psychiatric and somatic evaluation and treatment of associated disorders are recommended.

  14. Brain and body temperature homeostasis during sodium pentobarbital anesthesia with and without body warming in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Brown, P Leon

    2005-03-31

    High-speed, multi-site thermorecording offers the ability to follow the dynamics of heat production and flow in an organism. This approach was used to study brain-body temperature homeostasis during the development of general anesthesia induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, ip) in rats. Animals were chronically implanted with thermocouple probes in two brain areas, the abdominal cavity, and subcutaneously, and temperatures were measured during anesthesia both with and without (control) body warming. In control conditions, temperature in all sites rapidly and strongly decreased (from 36-37 degrees C to 32-33 degrees C, or 3.5-4.5 degrees C below baselines). Relative to body core, brain hypothermia was greater (by 0.3-0.4 degrees C) and skin hypothermia was less (by approximately 0.7 degrees C). If the body was kept warm with a heating pad, brain hypothermia was three-fold weaker ( approximately 1.2 degrees C), but the brain-body difference was significantly augmented (-0.6 degrees C). These results suggest that pentobarbital-induced inhibition of brain metabolic activity is a major factor behind brain hypothermia and global body hypothermia during general anesthesia. These data also indicate that body warming is unable to fully compensate for anesthesia-induced brain hypothermia and enhances the negative brain-body temperature differentials typical of anesthesia. Since temperature strongly affects various underlying parameters of neuronal activity, these findings are important for electrophysiological studies performed in anesthetized animal preparations.

  15. Hypnotic use and fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Braley, Tiffany J; Segal, Benjamin M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances and fatigue are common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about hypnotic use patterns in MS, or the relationship between these medications and fatigue. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) hypnotic use among MS patients, and to assess the relationships between fatigue severity and hypnotic use among persons with MS. Data on hypnotic use frequency, hypnotic agents of choice, and clinical characteristics were extracted from medical records and a survey dataset from 190 MS patients who completed questionnaires regarding sleep quality, sleep quantity, nocturnal symptoms, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), obstructive sleep apnea risk (STOP-Bang questionnaire), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), and fatigue level (Fatigue Severity Scale - FSS). Eighty-nine subjects (47%) endorsed hypnotic use occasionally, frequently, or always. OTC diphenhydramine-containing products accounted for the majority of utilization, reported by 47 (25%). The occurrence of occasional or more frequent hypnotic use correlated with daytime fatigue (Spearman rho = 0.28, P = 0.0002), but not sleepiness. Regression of FSS scores on hypnotic use confirmed the association [beta (SE) = 0.55 (0.21), P = 0.0092] after adjustment for clinical and sleep-related confounds. In separate, similarly adjusted models, the use of OTC hypnotics but not prescription hypnotics was independently associated with higher FSS scores [0.54 (0.22), P = 0.0159]. An analogous association was observed more specifically for the use of diphenhydramine-containing products (0.49 (0.24), P = 0.044). Hypnotic use is highly prevalent among MS patients. Carryover effects from hypnotic agents, and in particular OTC diphenhydramine-containing products, could contribute to daytime fatigue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Can motor imagery and hypnotic susceptibility explain Conversion Disorder with motor symptoms?

    PubMed

    Srzich, Alexander J; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, James W; Cirillo, John; Anson, J Greg

    2016-08-01

    Marked distortions in sense of agency can be induced by hypnosis in susceptible individuals, including alterations in subjective awareness of movement initiation and control. These distortions, with associated disability, are similar to those experienced with Conversion Disorder (CD), an observation that has led to the hypothesis that hypnosis and CD share causal mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationships among motor imagery (MI), hypnotic susceptibility, and CD, then to propose how MI ability may contribute to hypnotic responding and CD. Studies employing subjective assessments of mental imagery have found little association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. A positive association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility becomes apparent when objective measures of imagery ability are employed. A candidate mechanism to explain motor responses during hypnosis is kinaesthetic MI, which engages a strategy that involves proprioception or the "feel" of movement when no movement occurs. Motor suppression imagery (MSI), a strategy involving inhibition of movement, may provide an alternate objective measurable phenomenon that underlies both hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Evidence to date supports the idea that there may be a positive association between kinaesthetic MI ability and hypnotic susceptibility. Additional evidence supports a positive association between hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Disturbances in kinaesthetic MI performance in CD patients indicate that MI mechanisms may also underlie CD symptoms. Further investigation of the above relationships is warranted to explain these phenomena, and establish theoretical explanations underlying sense of agency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pentobarbital poisoning in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Jurczynski, Kerstin; Zittlau, Erhard

    2007-12-01

    Three Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) at the Heidelberg Zoo in Germany presented with severe neurologic signs. Physical examination and diagnostic tests did not reveal a definitive diagnosis. Two days after initial presenting signs, all of the animals appeared clinically normal. An investigation into this outbreak revealed that all animals received horse meat on the evening before the incident. A toxicologic examination was initiated and serum analysis of the affected female tiger cub and the horse meat revealed contamination with pentobarbital.

  19. Quantitation of amobarbital, butalbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital in urine, serum, and plasma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Leonard L; Garg, Uttam

    2010-01-01

    Barbiturates are central nervous system depressants with sedative and hypnotic properties. Some barbiturates, with longer half-lives, are used as anticonvulsants. Their mechanism of action includes activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated neuronal transmission inhibition. Clinically used barbiturates include amobarbital, butalbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and thiopental. Besides their therapeutic use, barbiturates are commonly abused. Their analysis is useful for both clinical and forensic proposes. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry is a commonly used method for the analysis of barbiturates. In the method described here, barbiturates from serum, plasma, or urine are extracted using an acidic phosphate buffer and methylene chloride. Barbital is used as an internal standard. The organic extract is dried and reconstituted with mixture of trimethylanilinium hydroxide (TMAH) and ethylacetate. The extract is injected into a gas chromatogram mass spectrometer where it undergoes "flash methylation" in the hot injection port. Selective ion monitoring and relative retention times are used for the identification and quantitation of barbiturates.

  20. Patterns of Hypnotic Response, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, John F.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been speculated that there are discrete patterns of responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions, perhaps paralleling the factor structure of hypnotizability. An earlier study by Brenneman & Kihlstrom (1986), employing cluster analysis, found evidence for 12 such profiles. A new study by Terhune (2015), employing latent profile analysis, found evidence for three such patterns among highly hypnotizable subjects, and a fourth comprising subjects of medium hypnotizability. Some differences between the two studies are described. Convincing identification of discrete “types” of high hypnotizability, such as dissociative and nondissociative, may require a larger dataset than is currently available, but also data pertaining directly to divisions in conscious awareness and experienced involuntariness. PMID:26551995

  1. Dependence on Hypnotic Drugs in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, John; Clift, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Of the patients in an industrial general practice 1.3% required hypnotic drugs regularly. They were predominantly in the older age groups (mean 62.7 years), with an excess of widows. Only 0.02% were severely dependent; the remainder were mildly so, though they had been taking hypnotics for long periods (mean 5.6 years). There were three main original indications for hypnotics—namely, medical (pain), psychiatric, and onset insomnia in anxious personality disorder. One-fifth of the patients first took hypnotics while in hospital. The group as a whole manifested a high degree of abnormal psychological disposition. It is suggested that many patients who take hypnotics regularly may be placebo reactors, and a more critical attitude to hypnotic prescribing is required both in hospital and in general practice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5723365

  2. Complications during the management of pediatric refractory status epilepticus with benzodiazepine and pentobarbital infusions.

    PubMed

    Patten, William; Naqvi, Sayed Z; Raszynski, Andre; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate complications in the management of refractory status epilepticus (RSE) treated with benzodiazepine and pentobarbital infusions. Of 28 children with RSE, eleven (39%) were treated with a pentobarbital infusion after failure to control RSE with a benzodiazepine infusion; while17 children (61%) required only a benzodiazepine infusion. The mean maximum pentobarbital infusion dosage was 5.2 ± 1.8 mg/kg/h. Twenty-five patients received a continuous midazolam infusion with an average dosage of 0.41 ± 0.43 mg/kg/h. The median length of stay was longer for the pentobarbital group. Children requiring pentobarbital therapy were more likely to develop hypotension, require inotropic support, need intubation, mechanical ventilation, peripheral nutrition, and blood products; furthermore, they were more likely to develop hypertension and movement disorder after or during weaning. In conclusion, children with RSE who required pentobarbital therapy had a longer hospital stay with more complications.

  3. Effect of chlorpromazine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pentobarbital in rats.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, T; Sato, S; Endoh, M; Katayama, K; Kakemi, M; Koizumi, T

    1988-01-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine (4 mg/kg i.v.) on the disposition and duration of loss of the righting reflex (LRR, sleeping time) produced by intravenous pentobarbital (5 to 50 mg/kg) were studied in rats. The plasma concentration time profile following i.v. administration of pentobarbital alone was reasonably well described by a three compartment open model with Michaelis-Menten type elimination kinetics. The brain to plasma concentration ratio of pentobarbital was 1.5 and was almost constant during the experiment. Coadministration of chlorpromazine significantly reduced the systemic clearance of pentobarbital. Since pentobarbital is eliminated from the body mainly by hepatic metabolism, reduction of systemic clearance reflects the reduction of hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital. The hepatic intrinsic clearance of pentobarbital was decreased from 0.438 to 0.331 l/h by chlorpromazine coadministration. Hepatic blood flow was also decreased significantly, whereas the plasma protein binding and the distribution to the red blood cell were not appreciably altered. The profile of duration of LRR versus the logarithm of the dose of pentobarbital was linear over a 20 to 70 mg/kg dose range irrespective of chlorpromazine coadministration. The awakening plasma and brain concentrations of pentobarbital without chlorpromazine were estimated as 12.4 micrograms/ml and 17.8 micrograms/g, respectively. The sleeping time versus the logarithm of pentobarbital dose under chlorpromazine coadministration was shifted to the left and the slope of the linear portion was also decreased. There was no single value of awakening plasma or brain concentration. Plasma concentration at the end of the action decreased with decreasing dose. These facts indicated that the sensitivity of the central nervous system to pentobarbital might be increased by chlorpromazine. In conclusion, chlorpromazine inhibited the hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital, resulting in significant increases in plasma and

  4. [Continued use of hypnotic initiated as part of antidepressant treatment].

    PubMed

    Danel, Antoine; Amariei, Alina; Sayoud, Ashmahane; Danel, Thierry; Plancke, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hypnotic prescription is common, but not recommended. This study analysed whether hypnotic use at the beginning of antidepressant treatment could be the starting point for future hypnotic use. Concomitant hypnotic and antidepressant prescriptions were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Fund for employees of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais database. Dispensing of hypnotics during the two quarters following discontinuation of antidepressant treatment was investigated. 8.9% of patients continued using hypnotics after having stopped antidepressants. Factors associated with this continued dispensing were female gender, age greater than or equal to 45 years, quarterly dispensing of hypnotics during antidepressant treatment, dispensing of three or more hypnotics per quarter during antidepressant treatment, and previous dispensing of opioid substitution therapy. A minority of patients continued using hypnotics after stopping antidepressant treatment initiated with hypnotics.

  5. PHYTO-PHARMACOGNOSTICAL INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND SEDATIVE HYPNOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam

    PubMed Central

    Verma, S. M.; Amrisha; Prakash, J.; Sah, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the Erythrina indica leaves, followed by phytochemical investigation. On the methanolic extract of leaves, TLC was performed and indole alkaloids were identified with selected solvent system. The UV analysis was also performed on the components confirming the presence of the indole nucleus. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, anti-inflammatory activity was compared to that of the standard drug indomethacin and percent inhibition of oedema was determined. Sedative hypnotic activity was also evaluated using pentobarbital which showed mild sedation. PMID:22557197

  6. Hypnotic suggestion: a musical mathaphor.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, hypnotizability has always been associated with the increase in suggestibility produced by hypnosis. In practice, hypnotizability is measured as suggestibility following a hypnotic induction. Our understanding of hypnosis and suggestion has been hampered by this discordance between the conceptual and operational definitions of hypnotizability. For example, despite hundreds of studies purporting to use standardized scales to assess hypnotizability, we know next to nothing about that construct, as it has been defined conceptually. Neither the hypothesis that it is a stable trait nor the hypothesis that it is modifiable have been tested in any study, and correlations between hypnotizability and other psychological or physiological variables have not yet been assessed. Conversely, we have learned much about hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility. Suggestibility has been measured on reliable and valid instruments, and we have abundant data on its stability, modifiability, and correlates. Hypnosis enhances suggestibility to a modest degree and increases the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

  7. Relationships of hypnotic susceptibility to paranormal beliefs and claimed experiences: implications for hypnotic absorption.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R P

    1994-07-01

    This study examined the relationships of hypnotic susceptibility level to belief in and claimed experience with paranormal phenomena. The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) and the Inventory of Paranormal Beliefs and Experiences were administered on consecutive days to 43 undergraduate students (14 men, 29 women) at a midwestern university. A significant multiple correlation was obtained (r = .55, p < .001). A partial correlation between hypnotic susceptibility and belief in paranormal phenomena was also significant (r = .53, p < .001), while hypnotic susceptibility was not found to be significantly related to claimed paranormal experiences. Implications of these relationships for the role of absorption in hypnosis are discussed.

  8. Hypnotic Approaches for Chronic Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

  9. The cognitive demands of hypnotic response.

    PubMed

    Wyzenbeek, Miriam; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the proposal that hypnotic responding is effortless. The authors compared the responses of high and low hypnotizable participants (N = 70) in and out of hypnosis on a dual-task paradigm in which they were required to maintain hypnotic blindness during presentation of visual stimuli of varying salience intensities while simultaneously completing a secondary task. Whereas high hypnotizable participants in both hypnosis and wake conditions reported comparable levels of conviction in the hallucination suggestion, hypnotized highs performed poorer on the secondary task when the stimulus was present. Performance on the secondary task deteriorated when the visual stimulus was intensified. These findings contradict the notion that hypnotic response is not demanding on cognitive resources and suggest that increased effort is required to resolve the extent of conflict between reality and suggestion.

  10. Differential Modulation of Ethanol-Induced Sedation and Hypnosis by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Antagonists in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharko, Amanda C.; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence implicates metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) function in the neurobiological effects of ethanol. The recent development of subtype specific mGluR antagonists has made it possible to examine the roles of specific mGluRs in biochemical and behavioral responses to ethanol. The purpose of the present study was to determine if mGluRs modulate the acute sedative-hypnotic properties of ethanol in mice. Methods C57BL / 6J mice were tested for locomotor activity (sedation) and duration of loss of the righting reflex (hypnosis) following acute systemic administration of ethanol alone or in combination with the mGluR5-selective antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), the mGluR1-selective antagonist, 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt), or the mGluR2 / 3-selective antagonist (2S)-2-Amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl) propanoic acid (LY341495)). Results MPEP (10 and 30 mg / kg) significantly enhanced both the sedative and hypnotic effects of ethanol, while LY341495 (10 and 30 mg / kg) significantly reduced the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. CPCCOEt had no effect at any concentration tested. Further loss of righting reflex experiments revealed that LY341495 (30 mg / kg) significantly reduced hypnosis induced by the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) positive modulators, pentobarbital (50 mg / kg) and midazolam (60 mg / kg), and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine (150 mg / kg), while MPEP (30 mg / kg) only significantly enhanced the hypnotic properties of ketamine (150 mg / kg). Conclusions These findings suggest that specific subtypes of the metabotropic glutamate receptor differentially modulate the sedative-hypnotic properties of ethanol through separate mechanisms of action, potentially involving GABAA and NMDA receptors. PMID:18070246

  11. Comparison between the effects of pentobarbital or ketamine/nitrous oxide anesthesia on metabolic and endothelial components of coronary reactive hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Rastaldo, R; Penna, C; Pagliaro, P

    2001-06-29

    Barbiturates induce reduction of myocardial contractility and metabolism, whereas ketamine exerts a sympathomimetic effect that can mask its direct depressant effect on contractility. However, it is unclear whether barbiturates, which interfere with the cytochrome P-450 pathway, or ketamine, which inhibits nitric oxide synthesis, also alter the responsiveness of the coronary vessels to vasodilator stimuli. We hypothesized that the parameters of coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH), which reflect both the degree of myocardial metabolism and vascular reactivity, could be modified by the type of anesthesia used. In two groups of goats, anesthesia was induced either using ketamine plus nitrous oxide or pentobarbital alone. To record coronary flow an electromagnetic flow-probe was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery. In the ketamine group (n = 14) and in the pentobarbital group (n = 16) CRH was studied using the indices of myocardial metabolism and vascular dilator responsiveness. In the pentobarbital group all of the indices of myocardial metabolism were lower than in the ketamine group (i.e. the excess to debt flow ratio was 2.3+/-0.8 vs. 4.6+/-2.4; p< 0.001). Yet, some indices of vascular responsiveness (time derivative of coronary flow and the peak to basal flow ratio) were not different in the two groups. Moreover, the duration of the reactive hyperemia was shorter in the ketamine than in the pentobarbital group (118+/-47 vs. 153+/-45 s, p<0.05). It is suggested that pentobarbital decreases the indices of CRH related to metabolic activity, whereas ketamine reduces the duration of the hyperemic response, which suggests an impairment of endothelial function.

  12. Acute pentobarbital treatment impairs spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tan, Tao; Tu, Man; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili

    2015-10-01

    Reports of the effects of pentobarbital on learning and memory are contradictory. Some studies have not shown any interference with learning and memory, whereas others have shown that pentobarbital impairs memory and that these impairments can last for long periods. However, it is unclear whether acute local microinjections of pentobarbital affect learning and memory, and if so, the potential mechanisms are also unclear. Here, we reported that the intra-hippocampal infusion of pentobarbital (8.0mM, 1μl per side) significantly impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory retrieval. Moreover, in vitro electrophysiological recordings revealed that these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and suppressed neuronal excitability as reflected by a decrease in the number of action potentials (APs). These results suggest that acute pentobarbital application causes spatial learning and memory deficits that might be attributable to the suppression of synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability.

  13. Suggestibility, expectancy, trance state effects, and hypnotic depth: I. Implications for understanding hypnotism.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J; Kumar, V K; Maurer, Ronald; Elliott-Carter, Nancy; Moon, Edward; Mullen, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between trance or altered state effects, suggestibility, and expectancy as these concepts are defined in the theorizing of Weitzenhoffer (2002), Holroyd (2003), Kirsch (1991), and others, for the purpose of demonstrating how these concepts can be assessed with the PCI-HAP (Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure; Pekala, 1995a, b). In addition, how the aforementioned variables may relate to the nature of hypnosis/hypnotism as a function of self-reported hypnotic depth are discussed, along with how the PCI-HAP may be used as a means to measure hypnotic responsivity from a more phenomenological state perspective, in contrast to more traditional behavioral trait assessment instruments like the Harvard, the Stanford C, or the HIP. A follow-up paper (Pekala, Kumar, Maurer, Elliott-Carter, Moon, & Mullen, 2010) will present research data on the PCI-HAP model and how this model can be useful for better understanding hypnotism.

  14. Analgesic and hypnotic activities of Laghupanchamula: A preclinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Shivani; Gautam, Manish K.; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Ayurvedic classics, two types of Laghupanchamula -five plant roots (LP) have been mentioned containing four common plants viz. Kantakari, Brihati, Shalaparni, and Prinshniparni and the fifth plant is either Gokshura (LPG) or Eranda (LPE). LP has been documented to have Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Shulanashka (analgesic), Jvarahara (antipyretic), and Rasayana (rejuvenator) activities. Aim: To evaluate the acute toxicity (in mice), analgesic and hypnotic activity (in rats) of 50% ethanolic extract of LPG (LPGE) and LPE (LPEE). Materials and Methods: LPEG and LPEE were prepared separately by using 50% ethanol following the standard procedures. A graded dose (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) response study for both LPEE and LPGE was carried out for analgesic activity against rat tail flick response which indicated 500 mg/kg as the optimal effective analgesic dose. Hence, 500 mg/kg dose of LPEE and LPGE was used for hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing model in analgesic activity and for evaluation of hypnotic activity. Results: Both the extracts did not produce any acute toxicity in mice at single oral dose of 2.0 g/kg. Both LPGE and LPEE (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 60 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail-flick method by 25.1-62.4% and 38.2-79.0% respectively. LPGE and LPEE (500 mg/kg) increased reaction time in hot-plate test at peak 60 min analgesic effect by 63.2 and 85.8% and reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 55.9 and 65.8% respectively. Both potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis as indicated by increased duration of sleep in treated rats. Conclusion: The analgesic and hypnotic effects of LP formulations authenticate their uses in Ayurvedic system of Medicine for painful conditions. PMID:25364205

  15. Alterations in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in response to parenteral and enteral alimentation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Knodell, R G; Spector, M H; Brooks, D A; Keller, F X; Kyner, W T

    1980-12-01

    Recent in vitro observations suggest that the intestine, in addition to the liver, may be an important organ of first-pass drug metabolism. While a variety of changes in intestinal morphology and function in response to continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition have been documented, the effect of different routes of alimentation on intestinal drug metabolism has not been previously investigated. Objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of intestinal pentobarbital metabolism to overall in vivo pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in the rat and to determine if differences in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics were seen between parenterally and enterally nourished animals. After 7 days of continuous infusion of amino acid-glucose mixture via a gastric or jugular vein catheter, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after 40 mg/kg of pentobarbital was given orally or into the portal or femoral vein. Reduced systemic availability of pentobarbital after oral administration as compared to portal vein injection was seen in both alimentation groups indicating that significant intestinal metabolism of pentobarbital occurred in vivo. Total area under the pentobarbital plasma concentration-time curve was significantly greater in parenterally nourished animals as compared with enterally alimented animals after oral, portal vein and systemic vein drug administration. Differences in pentobarbital, pharmacokinetics between the two alimentation groups appeared to be primarly due to effects on hepatic pentobarbital metabolism. While the mechanism producing these changes has not been defined, differences in gut hormones release and/or pancreatic secretion in response to the two routes of alimentation may be contributory. The widespread use of enteral and parenteral alimentation in clinical medicine suggests that studies to determine if nutrition route of administration similarly influences drug metabolism in humans may be indicated.

  16. Age-dependent inhibition of pentobarbital sleeping time by ozone in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Leonard, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of age on the metabolism of pentobarbital in mice and rats was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 3.75 hr. Young animals were 2.5 months of age and the mature were 18 months. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly prolonged following the ozone exposure in both the mice and rats when compared with an air control. No ozone effect on sleeping time was found in the young animals. The results indicate that there may be an age-related sensitivity to the occurrence of ozone-related inhibition of pentobarbital metabolism.

  17. Brain correlates of hypnotic paralysis-a resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pyka, M; Burgmer, M; Lenzen, T; Pioch, R; Dannlowski, U; Pfleiderer, B; Ewert, A W; Heuft, G; Arolt, V; Konrad, C

    2011-06-15

    Hypnotic paralysis has been used since the times of Charcot to study altered states of consciousness; however, the underlying neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. We investigated human brain function during hypnotic paralysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), focussing on two core regions of the default mode network and the representation of the paralysed hand in the primary motor cortex. Hypnotic suggestion induced an observable left-hand paralysis in 19 participants. Resting-state fMRI at 3T was performed in pseudo-randomised order awake and in the hypnotic condition. Functional connectivity analyses revealed increased connectivity of the precuneus with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, and a dorsal part of the precuneus. Functional connectivity of the medial frontal cortex and the primary motor cortex remained unchanged. Our results reveal that the precuneus plays a pivotal role during maintenance of an altered state of consciousness. The increased coupling of selective cortical areas with the precuneus supports the concept that hypnotic paralysis may be mediated by a modified representation of the self which impacts motor abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of hypnotic analgesia and virtual reality on the reduction of experimental pain among high and low hypnotizables.

    PubMed

    Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Opriş, David; David, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This research compared a no-treatment control condition and 3 experimentally induced pain treatment conditions: (a) virtual reality distraction (VRD), (b) hypnotic analgesia (HA), and (c) HA + VRD in relieving finger-pressure pain. After receiving baseline pain stimulus, each participant received hypnosis or no hypnosis, followed by VRD or no VRD during another pain stimulus. The data analysis indicated that, overall, all 3 treatments were more effective compared to the control group, irrespective of whether it involved hypnotic analgesia, virtual reality distraction, or both (hypnosis and virtual reality). Nevertheless, the participants responded differently to the pain treatment, depending on the hypnotizability level. High hypnotizables reported hypnotic analgesia, but low hypnotizables did not show hypnotic analgesia. VR distraction reduced pain regardless of hypnotizability.

  19. EEG sLORETA functional imaging during hypnotic arm levitation and voluntary arm lifting.

    PubMed

    Cardeña, Etzel; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Jönsson, Peter; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-01-01

    This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions. Hypnotizability did not have a significant effect on EEG activity, but hypnotic depth correlated with left hemisphere increased anterior slow EEG and decreased central fast EEG activity. Hypnosis had a minimal effect on depth reports among lows, a moderate one among mediums, and a large one among highs. Because only left-arm data were available, the full role of the hemispheres remains to be clarified.

  20. Hypnotic devices may be more than placebo.

    PubMed

    Page, R A; Handley, G W; Rudin, S A

    2001-10-01

    The study attempted to assess the effectiveness of two devices in facilitating the induction of hypnosis in subjects preselected as low in hypnotizability. Undergraduates were exposed to no treatment (control) or one of four combinations of devices during the induction phase of being administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form B of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1959). Analyses revealed only one of the conditions resulted in a significant difference in subjects' realness ratings of hypnotic items and an increase in hypnotizability score. If the effect is more than a chance significance of placebo, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.

  1. The mirror neuron system under hypnosis - brain substrates of voluntary and involuntary motor activation in hypnotic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Burgmer, Markus; Kugel, Harald; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Ewert, Adrianna; Lenzen, Thomas; Pioch, Regina; Pyka, Martin; Sommer, Jens; Arolt, Volker; Heuft, Gereon; Konrad, Carsten

    2013-02-01

    The neurobiological basis of non-organic movement impairments is still unknown. As conversion disorder and hypnotic states share many characteristics, we applied an experimental design established in conversion disorder to investigate hypnotic paralysis. Movement imitation and observation were investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 19 healthy subjects with and without hypnotically induced paralysis of their left hand. Paralysis-specific activation changes were explored in a multivariate model and functional interdependencies of brain regions by connectivity analysis. Hypnotic paralysis during movement imitation induced hypoactivation of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and ipsilateral cerebellum and increased activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), frontal gyrus and insula. No paralysis-specific effects were revealed during movement observation. Hyperactivation of ACC, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and insula might reflect attention (MFG), conflict-detection (ACC) and self-representation processes (insula) during hypnotic paralysis. The lack of effects in movement observation suggests that early motor processes are not disturbed due to the transient nature of the hypnotic impairment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Time-course of motor inhibition during hypnotic paralysis: EEG topographical and source analysis.

    PubMed

    Cojan, Yann; Archimi, Aurélie; Cheseaux, Nicole; Waber, Lakshmi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive hypotheses of hypnotic phenomena have proposed that executive attentional systems may be either inhibited or overactivated to produce a selective alteration or disconnection of some mental operations. Recent brain imaging studies have reported changes in activity in both medial (anterior cingulate) and lateral (inferior) prefrontal areas during hypnotically induced paralysis, overlapping with areas associated with attentional control as well as inhibitory processes. To compare motor inhibition mechanisms responsible for paralysis during hypnosis and those recruited by voluntary inhibition, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain activity during a modified bimanual Go-Nogo task, which was performed either in a normal baseline condition or during unilateral paralysis caused by hypnotic suggestion or by simulation (in two groups of participants, each tested once with both hands valid and once with unilateral paralysis). This paradigm allowed us to identify patterns of neural activity specifically associated with hypnotically induced paralysis, relative to voluntary inhibition during simulation or Nogo trials. We used a topographical EEG analysis technique to investigate both the spatial organization and the temporal sequence of neural processes activated in these different conditions, and to localize the underlying anatomical generators through minimum-norm methods. We found that preparatory activations were similar in all conditions, despite left hypnotic paralysis, indicating preserved motor intentions. A large P3-like activity was generated by voluntary inhibition during voluntary inhibition (Nogo), with neural sources in medial prefrontal areas, while hypnotic paralysis was associated with a distinctive topography activity during the same time-range and specific sources in right inferior frontal cortex. These results add support to the view that hypnosis might act by enhancing executive control systems mediated by right prefrontal areas, but

  3. Pulmonary vasoregulation by arginine vasopressin in conscious, halothane-anesthetized, and pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs with increased vasomotor tone.

    PubMed

    Trempy, G A; Nyhan, D P; Murray, P A

    1994-09-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an important "stress" hormone that is known to play a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis of the systemic circulation. In contrast, the effects of AVP on the pulmonary circulation have not been extensively investigated, and the extent to which general anesthesia alters the pulmonary vascular response to AVP is entirely unknown. Our first objective was to assess the effects of AVP on the pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relation in chronically instrumented conscious dogs in the setting of an acute elevation in pulmonary vasomotor tone. Our second objective was to investigate the effects of halothane and pentobarbital anesthesia on the pulmonary vascular response to AVP after inducing the same degree of pulmonary preconstriction achieved in the conscious state. Conditioned, mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow (LPQ) relation. LPQ plots were generated by continuously measuring the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure minus left atrial pressure) and left pulmonary blood flow during gradual (approximately 1 min) inflation of a hydraulic occluder around the right pulmonary artery, which directed total pulmonary blood flow through the left pulmonary circulation. LPQ plots were generated in conscious (n = 10), halothane-anesthetized (n = 9) and pentobarbital-anesthetized (n = 7) dogs. In each condition, LPQ plots were measured at baseline, during the intravenous administration of the thromboxane analog U46619 and during the cumulative administration of AVP (2-19 ng.kg-1.min-1, intravenous) in the presence of U46619 preconstriction. U46619 caused acute pulmonary vasoconstriction (P < 0.01) in conscious dogs. In this setting of U46619 preconstriction, AVP caused pulmonary vasodilation (P < 0.05) in the conscious state. In contrast, despite identical levels of U46619 preconstriction, the pulmonary vasodilator response to AVP was either reversed to

  4. Effects of pentobarbital on plasma glucose and free fatty acids in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furner, R. L.; Neville, E. D.; Talarico, K. S.; Feller, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypolipemia were observed in rats after the injection of sodium pentobarbital. The observed changes were independent of whether the blood was collected by decapitation or by needle puncture of the aorta. The hyperglycemic response was caused by two factors including the stress of the injection per se and the pharmacological action of the drug. Hyperlipemia was observed at 5 min postinjection. However, pentobarbital decreased plasma free fatty acids by 15 min postinjection. Both the hyperglycemia and hypolipemia responses were dose dependent.

  5. Utilizing Hypnotic Language in Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itin, Christian

    1995-01-01

    Hypnotic language can increase the transference of learning from an adventure activity to a therapeutic goal by absorbing the client in the experience, ratifying that absorption, and eliciting the client's resources to address problematic situations. Provides examples of using this approach in adventure therapy to enhance a client's experience and…

  6. Utilizing Hypnotic Language in Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itin, Christian

    1995-01-01

    Hypnotic language can increase the transference of learning from an adventure activity to a therapeutic goal by absorbing the client in the experience, ratifying that absorption, and eliciting the client's resources to address problematic situations. Provides examples of using this approach in adventure therapy to enhance a client's experience and…

  7. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. The present meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from ten studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = 0.24; 95% Confidence Interval = −0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. Results question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts. PMID:21644122

  8. Sleep Restriction Therapy and Hypnotic Withdrawal versus Sleep Hygiene Education in Hypnotic Using Patients with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Daniel J.; Schmidt-Nowara, Wolfgang; Jessop, Carol A.; Ahearn, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a common problem that affects 9% to 15% of the population chronically. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that 8 weekly sessions of sleep restriction therapy of insomnia combined with hypnotic reduction instructions following a single session of sleep hygiene education would result in greater improvements in sleep and hypnotic use than sleep hygiene education alone. Methods: Forty-six men and women were recruited from a sleep medicine practice and randomly assigned to sleep hygiene education plus 8 weeks of sleep restriction and hypnotic withdrawal (SR+HW; n = 24), or a sleep hygiene education alone (SHE; n = 22) condition. Pre-randomization, all patients received a single session of instruction in good sleep habits (sleep hygiene education). Results: The SR+HW condition had greater improvements in hypnotic medication usage, sleep onset latency, morning wake time, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset (trend), than the SHE condition. Continued improvement was seen in TST in the SR+HW group at 6-month follow-up, and gains on all other variables were maintained at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that more intensive treatment of insomnia (i.e., 8 sessions of SR+HW plus hypnotic withdrawal instructions) results in better outcomes than SHE alone. Citation: Taylor DJ; Schmidt-Nowara W; Jessop CA; Ahearn J. Sleep restriction therapy and hypnotic withdrawal versus sleep hygiene education in hypnotic using patients with insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(2):169-175. PMID:20411695

  9. Effects of schedule of reinforcement on a pentobarbital discrimination in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Snodgrass, S H; McMillan, D E

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the schedule of reinforcement on a pentobarbital discrimination in rats. Five rats were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg pentobarbital from saline under a multiple fixed-interval 180-s fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement. During both saline and pentobarbital training sessions, subjects emitted a higher percentage of correct responses under the fixed-ratio component as compared to the fixed-interval component of the multiple schedule. Determination of the pentobarbital dose-response curve under the fixed-ratio component resulted in a steep curve characterized by responding on the saline lever at low doses and on the drug lever at higher doses. Under the fixed-interval component, a graded dose-effect curve was produced, with considerable responding on both levers after intermediate doses of pentobarbital. The administration of phencyclidine and MK-801 resulted in an intermediate level of drug-lever responding for some subjects. Administration of d-amphetamine resulted in saline (nondrug) appropriate responding. The results of this study demonstrate that the schedule of reinforcement is a determinant of drug stimulus control, just as it is a determinant of other drug effects. PMID:1955819

  10. Prenatal toxicity of simultaneously administered ethanol and pentobarbital in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L A; Persaud, T V

    1978-01-01

    The use and abuse of drugs has reached epidemic proportions among individuals of child-bearing age. The frequency with which alcohol and pentobarbital are used in our society increases the probability that they will be taken simultaneously. Experiments were designed to investigate the prenatal toxicity of alcoho and pentobarbital interaction in the rat. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with one of three doses of ethanol (0.56 to 1.4 g/kg) in combination with 5, 15, or 25 mg/kg pentobarbital on days 9 through 12 of gestation. Maternal and fetal toxicities were evaluated and compared with the results of previous studies using the same doses of ethanol and pentobarbital. In pregnant rats treated with combinations of the two drugs, there was no consistent pattern of response. With respect to the offspring, there was no evidence that combinations of ethanol and pentobarbital, at the dose levels used here, had any more deleterious effect on fetal development than either drug acting independently.

  11. Hypnosis and Hypnotism in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Gaetan

    1992-01-01

    This article attempts to define and demystify hypnosis and to present the range of its applications in family medicine. The author reviews definitions and describes hypnotic phenomena, suggestibility, and the use of suggestion, as well as traditional, semitraditional, and Ericksonian induction methods, precautions, and dangers. Clinical uses are then presented for the family physician to apply to surgery, obstetrics, pain treatment, psychosomatic disorders, and psychotherapy. Imagesp2076-a PMID:21221278

  12. [Sleep disorder and pain: the good hypnotic].

    PubMed

    Perrig, S; Espa-Cervena, K; Pépin, J L

    2011-06-29

    Chronic pain and sleep disorder can put the patient in a vicious circle (bidirectional relation between those two morbid entities). Clinical management must be global. The physiopathology includes chronic sleep deficit, mainly in deep sleep (the "restoring" sleep) generated principally by the prefrontal regions. These areas are also implicated in the modulation of pain. To break this "loops", we advocate an approach based on three main components: hygiene principles, cognitive and behavioral therapy, medications with analgesic and hypnotic proprieties.

  13. Propofol vs pentobarbital for sedation of children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: results from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Michael D; Baxter, Amy L; Kost, Susanne I

    2009-06-01

    Pentobarbital and propofol are commonly used to sedate children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium (PSRC) was created in 2003 to improve pediatric sedation process and outcomes. To use PSRC records to compare the effectiveness, efficiency and adverse events of propofol vs pentobarbital for sedation of children undergoing MRI. Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium records of children aged 6 months to 6 years who were primarily sedated with either i.v. pentobarbital or propofol were included. Participating PSRC investigators obtained institutional review board approval before data collection. Of 11 846 sedations for MRI, 7079 met inclusion criteria (propofol: n = 5072; pentobarbital: n = 2007). Demographic details were similar between the two groups. Ideal sedation was produced in 96.45% of the pentobarbital group and in 96.8% of the propofol group (P = 0.478), but pentobarbital was more likely to result in poor sedation cancelling the procedure (OR 5.88; CI 2.24, 15.40). Propofol resulted in physiologic changes more frequently than did pentobarbital (OR 5.69; CI 1.35, 23.97). Pentobarbital was associated with prolonged recovery (OR 16.82; CI 4.98, 56.8), unplanned admission (OR 5.60; CI 1.02, 30.82), vomiting (OR 36.76; CI 4.84, 279.2) and allergic complication (OR 9.15; CI 1.02, 82.34). The incidence of airway complications was not significantly different between the two. The median recovery time for patients receiving propofol was 30 min, whereas for pentobarbital it was 75 min (P < 0.001). Among institutions contributing data to the PSRC, it is found that propofol provides more efficient and effective sedation than pentobarbital for children undergoing MRI. Although apnea occurred with a greater frequency in patients who received propofol, the rate of apnea and airway complications for propofol was not statistically different from that seen in patients who received pentobarbital.

  14. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  15. Are sedatives and hypnotics associated with increased suicide risk of suicide in the elderly?

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Anders; Waern, Margda

    2009-06-04

    While antidepressant-induced suicidality is a concern in younger age groups, there is mounting evidence that these drugs may reduce suicidality in the elderly. Regarding a possible association between other types of psychoactive drugs and suicide, results are inconclusive. Sedatives and hypnotics are widely prescribed to elderly persons with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. The aim of this case-control study was to determine whether specific types of psychoactive drugs were associated with suicide risk in late life, after controlling for appropriate indications. The study area included the city of Gothenburg and two adjacent counties (total 65+ population 210 703 at the start of the study). A case controlled study of elderly (65+) suicides was performed and close informants for 85 suicide cases (46 men, 39 women mean age 75 years) were interviewed by a psychiatrist. A population based comparison group (n = 153) was created and interviewed face-to-face. Primary care and psychiatric records were reviewed for both suicide cases and comparison subjects. All available information was used to determine past-month mental disorders in accordance with DSM-IV. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives and hypnotics were associated with increased suicide risk in the crude analysis. After adjustment for affective and anxiety disorders neither antidepressants in general nor SSRIs showed an association with suicide. Antipsychotics had no association with suicide after adjustment for psychotic disorders. Sedative treatment was associated with an almost fourteen-fold increase of suicide risk in the crude analyses and remained an independent risk factor for suicide even after adjustment for any DSM-IV disorder. Having a current prescription for a hypnotic was associated with a four-fold increase in suicide risk in the adjusted model. Sedatives and hypnotics were both associated with increased risk for suicide after adjustment for appropriate indications

  16. Smoking Cessation: Uni-Modal and Multi-Modal Hypnotic and Non-Hypnotic Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    A survey of Queensland's population in 1993 determined that 24% of the adults were smokers. National data compiled in 1992 indicated that 72% of the drug-related deaths were related to tobacco use. In light of the need for effective smoking cessation approaches, a literature review was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hypnotic and…

  17. Pentobarbital enhances GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac parasympathetic neurons, which is prevented by expression of GABA(A) epsilon subunit.

    PubMed

    Irnaten, Mustapha; Walwyn, Wendy M; Wang, Jijiang; Venkatesan, Priya; Evans, Cory; Chang, Kyoung S K; Andresen, Michael C; Hales, Tim G; Mendelowitz, David

    2002-09-01

    Pentobarbital decreases the gain of the baroreceptor reflex on the order of 50%, and this blunting is caused nearly entirely by decreasing cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity. The most likely site of action of pentobarbital is the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor. The authors tested whether pentobarbital augments the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac parasympathetic neurons, and whether expression of the GABA(A) epsilon subunit prevents this facilitation. The authors used a novel approach to study the effect of pentobarbital on identified cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in rat brainstem slices. The cardiac parasympathetic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus were retrogradely prelabeled with a fluorescent tracer and were visually identified for patch clamp recording. The effects of pentobarbital on spontaneous GABAergic synaptic events were tested. An adenovirus was used to express the epsilon subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in cardiac parasympathetic neurons to examine whether this transfection alters pentobarbital-mediated changes in GABAergic neurotransmission. Pentobarbital increased the duration but not the frequency or amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic currents in cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Transfection of cardiac parasympathetic neurons with the epsilon subunit of the GABA(A) receptor prevented the pentobarbital-evoked facilitation of GABAergic currents. Pentobarbital, at clinically relevant concentrations, prolongs the duration of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents that impinge on cardiac parasympathetic neurons. This action would augment the inhibition of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, reduce parasympathetic cardioinhibitory activity, and increase heart rate. Expression of the GABA(A) receptor epsilon subunit in cardiac parasympathetic neurons renders the GABA receptors insensitive to pentobarbital.

  18. Hidden Hypnotic Patterns: Implications for Counseling and Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, Hugh; Renick, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that subtle hypnotic patterns used by Milton H. Erickson are found in the person-centered approach to counseling of Carl Rogers. Points out that counselors and supervisors should be aware of the possible hypnotic elements in simple suggestions. Presents examples of counselor-client and supervisor-trainee dialogue to…

  19. Effects of hypnotic drugs on performance before and after sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kales, A.; Bixler, E. O.; Kales, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of various hypnotics on sleep stage parameters and on the parameters of effectiveness were evaluated along with the effects of several commonly used yet distinctly different hypnotics on daytime performance. The effects on daytime performance of two nonhypnotics commonly used in the space program were also examined.

  20. Association between prescribing hypnotics for parents and children in Norway.

    PubMed

    Holdø, Ingvild; Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-09-01

    To describe the dispensing of the hypnotic alimemazine to children aged 0-3 years and investigate the association between dispensing of alimemazine to children and dispensed hypnotics to their parents. An observational cohort study linking information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Prescription Database. Hypnotics dispensed to parents in a 1-year period before pregnancy was associated with dispensed alimemazine for children aged 0-3 years. All children born in Norway in 2008 (N=59 325) and their mothers and fathers were included. Dispensed alimemazine to children during the first 3 years of life. Three percent of children received alimemazine. Dispensed hypnotics to mothers increased the risk of the child receiving a prescription for alimemazine, OR of 2.3 (1.7-3.0) for boys and 1.7 (1.2-2.4) for girls. When both parents had been dispensed prescriptions for hypnotics, the risk increased nearly threefold. A dispensed alimemazine prescription was also associated with dispensed prescriptions for antidepressants to both mother and father, mother's smoking, the child's gender and child's prescriptions for antibiotics, respiratory drugs and dermatological steroids. Dispensed alimemazine to children under 3 was associated with parents' previous use of hypnotics, indicating that factors other than the child's health influence the use of hypnotic drugs in infancy and toddler years. The frequent usage of alimemazine in children below 3 years and the association with parents' use of hypnotics should concern prescribing doctors.

  1. Hidden Hypnotic Patterns: Implications for Counseling and Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, Hugh; Renick, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that subtle hypnotic patterns used by Milton H. Erickson are found in the person-centered approach to counseling of Carl Rogers. Points out that counselors and supervisors should be aware of the possible hypnotic elements in simple suggestions. Presents examples of counselor-client and supervisor-trainee dialogue to…

  2. Possibility that certain hypnotics might cause cancer in skin.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2008-09-01

    Fifteen epidemiologic studies have associated hypnotic drugs with excess mortality, especially excess cancer deaths. Until recently, insufficient controlled trials were available to demonstrate whether hypnotics actually cause any cancers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approval History and Documents were accessed for zaleplon, eszopiclone and ramelteon. Since zolpidem was used as a comparison drug in zaleplon trials, some zolpidem data were also available. Incident cancers occurring during randomized hypnotics administration or placebo administration were tabulated. Combining controlled trials for the four drugs, there were 6190 participants given hypnotics and 2535 given placebo in parallel. There were eight mentions of incident non-melanoma skin cancers among participants receiving hypnotics but no comparable mentions of cancers among those receiving placebo (P = 0.064, one-tailed). There were also four mentions of incident tumors of uncertain malignancy among those receiving hypnotics but none among those receiving placebo, so combining uncertain and definite malignancies yielded a more significant contrast (P = 0.016). FDA files revealed that all four of the new hypnotics were associated with cancers in rodents. Three had been shown to be clastogenic. Together with the epidemiologic data and laboratory studies, the available evidence signals that new hypnotics may increase cancer risk. Due to limitations in available data, confirmatory research is needed.

  3. Antinociceptive and hypnotic effects of Premna tomentosa L. (Verbenaceae) in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Pandima; Sreepriya, M; Devaki, T; Balakrishna, K

    2003-05-01

    Medicinal plants are believed to be an important source of new chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. The research into plants with alleged folklore use as pain relievers should therefore be viewed as a fruitful and logical research strategy in the search of new analgesic drugs. In the present inquiry, antinociceptive effects of Premna tomentosa (PT) leaf extract (in methanol) were explored in experimental animals by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and tail clip tests. Oral administration of PT extract at different doses (100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/kg) led to significant antinociceptive effects. The extract was also tested for hypnotic effects. Treatment with extracts at different doses (100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity and potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep time. The responses were dose-dependent. On the basis of the present finding, we can conclude that PT possesses antinociceptive and hypnotic activities.

  4. Hypnopraxia, a new hypnotic technique for hypnoanesthesia.

    PubMed

    Drouet, Nicolas; Chedeau, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Various hypnotic techniques are used in anesthesia, either on their own or as adjuncts. A new hypnotic technique, hypnopraxia, was tested in 5 patients undergoing various procedures (4 colonoscopies, 1 inguinal hernia repair, and 1 transobturator tape procedure). The patients were accompanied throughout the procedure by an anesthetist trained in hypnoanesthesia and hypnopraxia. Initially developed for use in hypnotherapy, the accompaniment with hypnopraxia relied on the closeness of the link between the anesthetist and the patient. This was constantly built in the present moment, here and now, by giving back to the patient what the anesthetist observed of the manifestations of the patient's unconscious mind (the patient's speech and choice of words, facial microexpressions, involuntary bodily movements, and emotions). The anesthetist's verbal accompaniment was therefore determined by the patient. No other anesthetic technique was needed during the colonoscopies. For the 2 surgical procedures, some sufentanil was given and local anesthetic was applied by the surgeon. All 5 patients were well satisfied after the procedure. They were especially pleased at having been able to go through their procedure without needing any drug anesthesia, and at being in charge throughout. This preliminary experience with hypnopraxia would tend to show that this technique could be useful in the anesthetic setting. More experience is obviously required with hypnopraxia in anesthesia so as to improve the technique further, and to determine its implications, if any, for the patients and for the procedures. Furthermore, it will be of the greatest interest to determine, before carrying out any procedure with hypnoanesthesia, which patient will benefit most from which hypnotic technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GABAA receptor γ2 subunit knockdown mice have enhanced anxiety-like behavior but unaltered hypnotic response to benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dev; Korpi, Esa R; Miralles, Celia P; De Blas, Angel L; Homanics, Gregg E

    2005-01-01

    Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are the major inhibitory receptors in the mammalian brain and are modulated by a number of sedative/hypnotic drugs including benzodiazepines and anesthetics. The significance of specific GABAA-Rs subunits with respect to behavior and in vivo drug responses is incompletely understood. The γ2 subunit is highly expressed throughout the brain. Global γ2 knockout mice are insensitive to the hypnotic effects of diazepam and die perinatally. Heterozygous γ2 global knockout mice are viable and have increased anxiety-like behaviors. To further investigate the role of the γ2 subunit in behavior and whole animal drug action, we used gene targeting to create a novel mouse line with attenuated γ2 expression, i.e., γ2 knockdown mice. Results Knockdown mice were created by inserting a neomycin resistance cassette into intron 8 of the γ2 gene. Knockdown mice, on average, showed a 65% reduction of γ2 subunit mRNA compared to controls; however γ2 gene expression was highly variable in these mice, ranging from 10–95% of normal. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that γ2 protein levels were also variably reduced. Pharmacological studies using autoradiography on frozen brain sections demonstrated that binding of the benzodiazepine site ligand Ro15-4513 was decreased in mutant mice compared to controls. Behaviorally, knockdown mice displayed enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on the elevated plus maze and forced novelty exploration tests. Surprisingly, mutant mice had an unaltered response to hypnotic doses of the benzodiazepine site ligands diazepam, midazolam and zolpidem as well as ethanol and pentobarbital. Lastly, we demonstrated that the γ2 knockdown mouse line can be used to create γ2 global knockout mice by crossing to a general deleter cre-expressing mouse line. Conclusion We conclude that: 1) insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into intron 8 of the γ2 gene variably reduced the amount of γ2

  6. Effects of Pentobarbital on Respiratory Functional Dynamics in Chronically Instrumented Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    through which procedures as vagotomy, decerebration, neuromuscular paralysis, anesthetic agents exert their respiratory depressant effects. and/or...spectra throughout the course of pentobarbital anesthesia. In ad- "sleep spindle -like" complexes. This pattern generally lasted dition to a marked...State period. During aphragmatic neuromuscular interaction, the 2-h Recovery period, the ECoG activity pattern typically RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF

  7. Hypnotic Medications and Suicide: Risk, Mechanisms, Mitigation, and the FDA.

    PubMed

    McCall, W Vaughn; Benca, Ruth M; Rosenquist, Peter B; Riley, Mary Anne; McCloud, Laryssa; Newman, Jill C; Case, Doug; Rumble, Meredith; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is associated with increased risk for suicide. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated that warnings regarding suicide be included in the prescribing information for hypnotic medications. The authors conducted a review of the evidence for and against the claim that hypnotics increase the risk of suicide. This review focused on modern, FDA-approved hypnotics, beginning with the introduction of benzodiazepines, limiting its findings to adults. PubMed and Web of Science were searched, crossing the terms "suicide" and "suicidal" with each of the modern FDA-approved hypnotics. The FDA web site was searched for postmarketing safety reviews, and the FDA was contacted with requests to provide detailed case reports for hypnotic-related suicide deaths reported through its Adverse Event Reporting System. Epidemiological studies show that hypnotics are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, none of these studies adequately controlled for depression or other psychiatric disorders that may be linked with insomnia. Suicide deaths have been reported from single-agent hypnotic overdoses. A separate concern is that benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics can cause parasomnias, which in rare cases may lead to suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior in persons who were not known to be suicidal. On the other hand, ongoing research is testing whether treatment of insomnia may reduce suicidality in adults with depression. The review findings indicate that hypnotic medications are associated with suicidal ideation. Future studies should be designed to assess whether increases in suicidality result from CNS impairments from a given hypnotic medication or whether such medication decreases suicidality because of improvements in insomnia.

  8. Brotizolam as a pre-operative hypnotic

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, F.; Rittmeyer, P.; Goetzke, Edda; Köster, J.

    1983-01-01

    1 Efficacy of and tolerance to brotizolam when used as a preoperative hypnotic were studied in two double-blind, randomised parallel group studies. 2 Brotizolam (0.25 and 0.50 mg) was superior to placebo. Efficacy was assessed as good-to-satisfactory in 73.0% of patients with 0.25 mg and in 88.0% with 0.5 mg. A similar assessment was reached in 40.0% of patients with placebo. Brotizolam 0.5 mg was superior to 0.25 mg, and with the higher dose subjective assessments of anxiety were reduced. 3 Efficacy of tolerance to 0.5 mg brotizolam and 2.0 mg flunitrazepam were compared, and both drugs were found to be effective and well tolerated. Brotizolam maintained sleep throughout the night more effectively than flunitrazepam. 4 A dose range of 0.25-0.5 mg brotizolam is recommended as a pre-operative hypnotic. PMID:6362702

  9. Hypnotic Taper with or without Self-Help Treatment of Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Genevieve; Guay, Catherine; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a minimal intervention focusing on hypnotic discontinuation and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. Fifty-three adult chronic users of hypnotics were randomly assigned to an 8-week hypnotic taper program, used alone or combined with a self-help CBT. Weekly hypnotic use decreased in both…

  10. Hypnotic Taper with or without Self-Help Treatment of Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Genevieve; Guay, Catherine; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a minimal intervention focusing on hypnotic discontinuation and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. Fifty-three adult chronic users of hypnotics were randomly assigned to an 8-week hypnotic taper program, used alone or combined with a self-help CBT. Weekly hypnotic use decreased in both…

  11. Changes in Human Drug Metabolism after Long-term Exposure to Hypnotics

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, I. H.; Browning, Margaret; Crooks, J.; O'Malley, K.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of the newer, non-barbiturate hypnotics Mandrax (diphenhydramine-methaqualone) and nitrazepam on drug-metabolizing capacity was assessed and compared with the effect of amylobarbitone, a known inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Plasma antipyrine and phenylbutazone half-lives and urinary output of 6β-hydroxycortisol were used as indices. Volunteer subjects were exposed to therapeutic amounts of these agents and, in the case of Mandrax and barbiturates, further studies were carried out in dependent patients. Mandrax but not nitrazepam increased the rate of drug metabolism, presumably by enzyme induction. The degree of induction was comparable with that produced by hypnotic doses of amylobarbitone. The Mandrax-dependent and barbiturate-dependent patients were the fastest metabolizers studied. It is concluded that drug interactions resulting from interference with drug metabolism are as likely to occur with Mandrax as with barbiturates. On the other hand, it is unlikely that such drug interactions would occur with nitrazepam. PMID:4637511

  12. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film.

  13. Structural and Functional Cerebral Correlates of Hypnotic Suggestibility

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Alexa; Lui, Fausta; Duzzi, Davide; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity. PMID:24671130

  14. Greater incidence of depression with hypnotic use than with placebo

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2007-01-01

    Background Although it has been claimed that insomnia causes an increased risk for depression, adequate controlled trials testing this hypothesis have not been available. This study contrasted the incidence of depression among subjects receiving hypnotics in randomized controlled trials versus those receiving placebo. Methods The incidence of depression among patients randomized to hypnotic drugs or placebo was compiled from prescribing information approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and from FDA New Drug Application documents. Available data for zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone, and ramelteon were accessed. Results Data for 5535 patients randomized to a hypnotic and for 2318 randomized to placebo were compiled. The incidence of depression was 2.0% among participants randomized to hypnotics as compared to 0.9% among those randomized in parallel to placebo (p < 0.002). Conclusion Modern hypnotics were associated with an increased incidence of depression in data released by the FDA. This suggests that when there is a risk of depression, hypnotics may be contra-indicated. Preventive treatments such as antidepressant drugs, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or bright light might be preferred. Limitations in the FDA data prevented a formal meta-analysis, and there was a lack of information about drop-out rates and definitions of depression. Trials specifically designed to detect incident depression when treating insomnia with hypnotic drugs and better summarization of adverse events in trials submitted to the FDA are both necessary. PMID:17711589

  15. Cross-evidence for hypnotic susceptibility through nonlinear measures on EEGs of non-hypnotized subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Madeo, Dario; Loffredo, Maria I.; Castellani, Eleonora; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of hypnotic susceptibility is usually obtained through the application of psychological instruments. A satisfying classification obtained through quantitative measures is still missing, although it would be very useful for both diagnostic and clinical purposes. Aiming at investigating the relationship between the cortical brain activity and the hypnotic susceptibility level, we propose the combined use of two methodologies - Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis - both inherited from nonlinear dynamics. Indicators obtained through the application of these techniques to EEG signals of individuals in their ordinary state of consciousness allowed us to obtain a clear discrimination between subjects with high and low susceptibility to hypnosis. Finally a neural network approach was used to perform classification analysis.

  16. Cross-evidence for hypnotic susceptibility through nonlinear measures on EEGs of non-hypnotized subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chiarucci, Riccardo; Madeo, Dario; Loffredo, Maria I.; Castellani, Eleonora; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of hypnotic susceptibility is usually obtained through the application of psychological instruments. A satisfying classification obtained through quantitative measures is still missing, although it would be very useful for both diagnostic and clinical purposes. Aiming at investigating the relationship between the cortical brain activity and the hypnotic susceptibility level, we propose the combined use of two methodologies - Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis - both inherited from nonlinear dynamics. Indicators obtained through the application of these techniques to EEG signals of individuals in their ordinary state of consciousness allowed us to obtain a clear discrimination between subjects with high and low susceptibility to hypnosis. Finally a neural network approach was used to perform classification analysis. PMID:25002038

  17. Hypnotic responsiveness: expectancy, attitudes, fantasy proneness, absorption, and gender.

    PubMed

    Green, Joseph P; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of providing information linking participants' attitudes toward hypnosis with later hypnotic performance. Using total scale scores from McConkey's Opinions About Hypnosis scale, as well as subscale scores, the authors found a weak association between attitudes and performance among 460 student participants; however, the correlation was unaffected by prehypnotic information specifically connecting attitudes and performance. A brief, 3-item measure of hypnotic expectancies generated the strongest correlation with hypnotic responsiveness. The authors also found that the association between fantasy proneness and hypnotizability was unaffected by the order of scale administration. Finally, the study highlighted gender differences across measures of fantasy proneness, absorption, expectancy, and hypnotizability.

  18. Refinement of intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Zatroch, Katie K; Knight, Cameron G; Reimer, Julie N; Pang, Daniel S J

    2017-02-21

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist for a recommended dose or volume and IP euthanasia has been described as unreliable, with misinjections leading to variable success in ensuring a timely death. The aims of this study were to assess and improve efficacy and consistency of IP euthanasia. In a randomized, blinded study, 51 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (170-495 g) received one of four treatments: low-dose low-volume (LL) IP pentobarbital (n = 13, 200 mg/kg pentobarbital), low-dose high-volume (LH) IP pentobarbital (n = 14, 200 mg/kg diluted 1:3 with phosphate buffered saline), high-dose high-volume (HH, n = 14, 800 mg/kg pentobarbital), or saline. Times to loss of righting reflex (LORR) and cessation of heartbeat (CHB) were recorded. To identify misinjections, necropsy examinations were performed on all rats. Video recordings of LL and HH groups were analyzed for pain-associated behaviors. Between-group comparisons were performed with 1-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc tests. Variability in CHB was assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). The fastest euthanasia method (CHB) was HH (283.7 ± 38.0 s), compared with LL (485.8 ± 140.7 s, p = 0.002) and LH (347.7 ± 72.0 s, p = 0.039). Values for CV were: HH, 13.4%; LH, 20.7%; LL, 29.0%. LORR time was longest in LL (139.5 ± 29.6 s), compared with HH (111.6 ± 19.7 s, p = 0.046) and LH (104.2 ± 19.3 s, p = 0.01). Misinjections occurred in 17.0% (7/41) of euthanasia attempts. Pain-associated behavior incidence ranged from 36% (4/11, LL) to 46% (5/11, HH). These data illustrate refinement of the IP pentobarbital euthanasia technique. Both dose and volume contribute to speed of death, with a dose of 800 mg/kg (HH) being the most effective method. An increase in volume alone does not significantly reduce variability. The

  19. Hypnotic hypermnesia: the empty set of hypermnesia.

    PubMed

    Erdelyi, M H

    1994-10-01

    Although a long tradition exists suggesting that hypnosis can enhance memory (hypnotic hypermnesia), the experimental literature is quite mixed. When, however, laboratory studies are classified according to the type of stimulus and memory tests employed, a remarkable orderliness of outcomes emerges: Recall tests for high-sense stimuli (e.g., poetry, meaningful pictures) almost always produce hypermnesia, but not recognition tests for low-sense stimuli (e.g., nonsense syllables, word lists). An important methodological issue is whether the recall increments for high-sense stimuli constitute enhanced memory or enhanced reporting (laxer response criteria). Recent laboratory literatures show that, beyond response criterion effects, true memory enhancement (hypermnesia) exists. Experiments conducted over the past decade, however, demonstrate that it is repeated retrieval effort and not hypnosis that is responsible for hypermnesia: Repeated testing without hypnosis yields as much hypermnesia as with hypnosis.

  20. [Hypnotic communication and hypnosis in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Hans

    2014-07-02

    In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy.

  1. Involuntariness in hypnotic responding and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Clark Hull's (1933) research on dissociation was based on a 'straw man' formulation of dissociation; he claimed that dissociation requires noninterference. Hull completely ignored the then-current paradigm of dissociation--dissociation as automatism--and claimed that he had refuted the validity of the phenomenon of dissociation. Hull's view of dissociation held sway in the hypnosis field for 60 years. This essay seeks to retrieve the Janetian paradigm of dissociation as automatism. Automatisms are unexpected, uninitiated, involuntary behaviors that just 'happen.' The author argues that human sensitivity to the experience of involuntariness (a) is quite important, (b) was selected by evolution, and (c) is central to both hypnotic responses and dissociative symptoms. This editorial urges the hypnosis field and the dissociation field to jointly undertake a renewed investigation of the experience of involuntariness and to follow recent neuroimaging studies which indicate that the parietal cortex underlies the experience of involuntariness.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopic study of benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fusheng; Shen, Jingling; Wang, Xianfeng

    2011-08-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to the pure active ingredient of three benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics with similar molecular structure. The absorption spectra of them are studied in the range of 0.2~2.6THz. Based on the experiment, the theoretical simulation results of diazepam, nitrazepam and clonazepam are got by the Gaussian03 package of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method in single-molecule models. The experimental results show that even if the molecular structure and medicine property of them are similar, the accurate identification of them can still be done with their characteristic absorption spectra. Theoretical simulation results are well consistent with the experimental results. It demonstrates that absorption peaks of them in THz range mainly come from intra-molecular forces and are less affected by the intermolecular interaction and crystal effects.ô

  3. Guaifenesin alone or in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M E; McCabe, K; Walker, R L

    1987-01-01

    Guaifenesin was administered alone and in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital to adult New Zealand white rabbits. A solution of 5% guaifenesin in 5% dextrose given intravenously at a dosage of 200 mg/kg, abolished the pedal, palpebral and corneal reflexes for up to 15 minutes with little influence on cardiopulmonary function. Guaifenesin (200 mg/kg, intravenously) and ketamine (50 mg/kg, intramuscularly) produced effective and safe surgical anesthesia for over 30 minutes. This combination mildly depressed respiratory rate but heart rate and arterial blood pressure were not significantly affected. Guaifenesin (200 mg/kg, intravenously) was combined with sodium pentobarbital (20 mg/kg, intravenously) to produce surgical anesthesia for a period of more than 30 minutes. This combination depressed respiratory rate, produced a tachycardia and decreased arterial blood pressure. PMID:3651894

  4. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Frequency Reports to Illusory Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Benjamin; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility that measurable individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility or the ability to attend selectively to informational cues may account for a portion of the variability found in several types of geometrical visual illusions. (Author/RK)

  5. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Frequency Reports to Illusory Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Benjamin; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility that measurable individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility or the ability to attend selectively to informational cues may account for a portion of the variability found in several types of geometrical visual illusions. (Author/RK)

  6. Refractory Status Epilepticus in Children: Intention to Treat With Continuous Infusions of Midazolam and Pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Robert C; Goodkin, Howard P; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Chapman, Kevin E; Abend, Nicholas S; Arya, Ravindra; Brenton, James N; Carpenter, Jessica L; Gaillard, William D; Glauser, Tracy A; Goldstein, Joshua; Helseth, Ashley R; Jackson, Michele C; Kapur, Kush; Mikati, Mohamad A; Peariso, Katrina; Wainwright, Mark S; Wilfong, Angus A; Williams, Korwyn; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To describe pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus in whom there is intention to use an IV anesthetic for seizure control. Two-year prospective observational study evaluating patients (age range, 1 mo to 21 yr) with refractory status epilepticus not responding to two antiepileptic drug classes and treated with continuous infusion of anesthetic agent. Nine pediatric hospitals in the United States. In a cohort of 111 patients with refractory status epilepticus (median age, 3.7 yr; 50% male), 54 (49%) underwent continuous infusion of anesthetic treatment. The median (interquartile range) ICU length of stay was 10 (3-20) days. Up to four "cycles" of serial anesthetic therapy were used, and seizure termination was achieved in 94% by the second cycle. Seizure duration in controlled patients was 5.9 (1.9-34) hours for the first cycle and longer when a second cycle was required (30 [4-120] hr; p = 0.048). Midazolam was the most frequent first-line anesthetic agent (78%); pentobarbital was the most frequently used second-line agent after midazolam failure (82%). An electroencephalographic endpoint was used in over half of the patients; higher midazolam dosing was used with a burst suppression endpoint. In midazolam nonresponders, transition to a second agent occurred after a median of 1 day. Most patients (94%) experienced seizure termination with these two therapies. Midazolam and pentobarbital remain the mainstay of continuous infusion therapy for refractory status epilepticus in the pediatric patient. The majority of patients experience seizure termination within a median of 30 hours. These data have implications for the design and feasibility of future intervention trials. That is, testing a new anesthetic anticonvulsant after failure of both midazolam and pentobarbital is unlikely to be feasible in a pediatric study, whereas a decision to test an alternative to pentobarbital, after midazolam failure, may be possible in a multicenter

  7. Discontinuation of hypnotics during cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Zavesicka, Lucie; Brunovsky, Martin; Matousek, Milos; Sos, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background In practical sleep medicine, therapists face the question of whether or not to discontinue the ongoing use of hypnotics in patients, as well as the possible effects of discontinuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of discontinuing third-generation hypnotics on the results of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for primary insomnia in patients after long-term abuse. Methods Twenty-eight outpatients were treated by CBT for 8 weeks. The treatment outcome was estimated by means of differences among subjective clinical scales and polysomnography variables assessed before and after the treatment period. The therapeutic effect in a subgroup of 15 patients who had previously received hypnotics and were successively withdrawn during weeks 2–6 was compared to the effect achieved in patients who had not used hypnotics before CBT. Results There were no significant differences in baseline subjective and objective sleep characteristics between the hypnotic abusers and non-abusers. According to clinical scales and most polysomnographic measures, CBT was highly effective in both groups of subjects; it produced the greatest changes in total sleep time, REM sleep and sleep efficiency. Unexpectedly, discontinuation of hypnotics, as a factor in the analysis, was followed by an additional improvement of sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset parameters. Conclusion Our study confirmed the efficacy of CBT in both hypnotic-abusing and non-abusing patients with chronic insomnia. The results of this study suggest that tapered withdrawal of third-generation hypnotics during CBT therapy for chronic insomnia could be associated with improvement rather than worsening of sleep continuity. PMID:18801160

  8. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  9. Olprinone/dopamine combination for improving diaphragmatic fatigue in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Background: Diaphragmatic fatigue might contribute to the development of respiratory failure. In particular, the spontaneous, natural rate of phrenic nerve discharge occurs mainly in low-frequency ranges making low-frequency fatigue clinically important in both humans and animals. Olprinone, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, improves contractility in fatigued diaphragm, but is also associated with hypotension. Dopamine might be used concomitantly for treating related hypotension. Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of olprinoneplus dopamine on diaphragmatic fatigue in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Methods: This nonblinded study was conducted at the Department ofAnesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Japan. Diaphragmatic fatigue (assessed by a decrease in diaphragmatic contractility) was induced by intermittent supramaximal bilateral electrophrenic stimulation at a frequency of 20 Hz applied for 30 minutes. Immediately after the fatigue-producing period, groups 2, 3, and 4 received an initial 10 μg/kg dose of olprinone. Group 2 then received maintenance olprinone of 0.3 μg/kg · min; group 3 received maintenance olprinone 0.3 μg/kg · min plus dopamine 2 μg/kg · min; and group 4 received maintenance olprinone 0.3 μg/kg · min plus dopamine 5 μg/kg · min. Group 1 received no study drug. Olprinone and dopamine were administered IV for 30 minutes. Diaphragmatic contractility was assessed by measuring the maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) generated by test stimuli after airway occlusion at functional residual capacity. Hypotension induced by the study drugs was defined as a >10 mm Hg decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), calculated by diastolic pressure plus ⅓ pulse pressure, from baseline. Results: Twenty-eight mongrel dogs (18 males and 10 females, weighing 10-15 kg)were used in the study; 7 dogs were randomly assigned to each treatment group. When fatigue was established in each group, mean (SD) Pdi

  10. Effects of pregabalin in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youg Won; Song, Mei Ling

    2014-05-15

    Long-term use of hypnotics runs the risk of dependency, and subjects usually experience difficulties in withdrawal. The objective of this study was to investigate the success of withdrawal using pregabalin and its efficacy on sleep in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. We enrolled patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia who were 18 years or older. The starting dosage of pregabalin was 75 mg/day and was increased up to as much as 300 mg/day, depending on the individual patient's condition, while tapering off hypnotics. After 4 weeks of titration, the final dosage amount was maintained for at least another 4 weeks. Sleep and clinical variables were evaluated at baseline and after treatment, using the Korean versions of various sleep questionnaires as well as polysomnography. Forty subjects were enrolled, with a mean age of 52.0 ± 8.5 years, of whom 28 (70.0%) were women. Twenty-one (52.5%) subjects successfully withdrew from hypnotics. The duration of withdrawal was 42.1 ± 16.0 days (range: 27.0∼84.0). The mean pregabalin dose was 121.4 ± 69.0 mg/day (range: 75.0∼300.0). After pregabalin treatment, there was a significant improvement in the total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (15.0 ± 2.1, 8.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.001), and insomnia severity index (20.9 ± 4.3, 9.6 ± 4.4, p < 0.001); however, most of the sleep variables of the PSG showed no differences. The main adverse effects of pregabalin were nausea and dizziness. Our results showed pregabalin may be a promising candidate for withdrawal from hypnotics and improved sleep in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia.

  11. A hypnotic paradigm for studying intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Hill, Zoe; Hung, Lynette; Bryant, Richard A

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders, research has been limited by a dearth of paradigms that permit experimental study of intrusions. This study describes a hypnotic paradigm for eliciting intrusive memories. Forty-nine highly hypnotisable participants nominated a distressing memory prior to being hypnotised. During hypnosis, they received the suggestion that they would remember the memory in response to a designated cue after the hypnosis session. Half of the participants also received a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion for the source of the memory. Following hypnosis, all participants completed a cognitive task and during the task received the cue to recall the memory. Results demonstrated that memories experienced after posthypnotic amnesia were experienced as more involuntary and more distressing than those that were knowingly retrieved. Participants in the posthypnotic amnesia condition also demonstrated greater interference on the cognitive task after the retrieval cue was given than those who intentionally retrieved the memory. These findings suggest that posthypnotic suggestion provides a useful paradigm to elicit intrusive memories under experimental conditions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypnotic theorizing: spring cleaning is long overdue.

    PubMed

    Laurence, J R

    1997-07-01

    Since the beginnings of animal magnetism and hypnosis, clinical and experimental theories have developed mostly in isolation. On the clinical side, armchair theorizing, based on clinicians' observations and interpretations of their clients' narratives, have laid the foundations of most theories, past and present. On the experimental side, attachment to specific theories has guided researchers in their choice of methodologies and designs. What seemed important was to show how correct one's preferred view was or how incorrect the "other" could be. This unfortunate one-sided perception led to an experimental stalemate where most experiments could be interpreted from any point of view. If the tendency to theorize on what one sees, hears, and believes must come to an end, the practice of performing truncated experiments dedicated to the glory of one's preferred theory must also be relegated to the past. And while we are at it, whether clinical or experimental, the use of concepts or constructs that cannot be clearly operationalized should be dismissed to avoid the type of serious social consequences the hypnotic community has been facing in the past decades.

  13. Sedative-hypnotic medicines and falls in community-dwelling older adults: a cost-effectiveness (decision-tree) analysis from a US Medicare perspective.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Singh, Dharmender; Perreault, Sylvie; Luc, Mireille; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2015-04-01

    Both the 2012 Beers list and the American Geriatric Society 'Choosing Wisely' campaign suggest restraint in the use of sedative-hypnotics for the treatment of insomnia in older people. Sedative hypnotic agents continue to be widely prescribed even though their use in the elderly is associated with an increased risk of falls, fractures, and emergency hospitalizations. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with sedative-hypnotics and no treatment for insomnia in the US Medicare population, adjusting for the risk of falls and related consequences. A model-based economic evaluation (decision tree) using the US Medicare perspective and a conservative annual temporal framework was conducted. Simulations were performed in a hypothetical cohort of Medicare beneficiaries suffering from insomnia. The main outcome measure was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses assessed the robustness of the base-case analysis. On an annual basis, CBT showed a dominance (cost: US$19,442; QALYs: 0.594) over sedative hypnotics (cost: US$32,452; QALYs: 0.552) and no treatment (cost: US$33,853; QALYs: 0.517). Assuming a willingness to pay of US$50,000, the net monetary benefit was positive for CBT (US$10,287) and negative for sedative hypnotics (-US$4,851) and no treatment (-US$7,993). CBT had a 95% chance of being the dominant strategy, with results most sensitive to an older adult's baseline risk of falling. Failure to consider drug harms such as drug-induced falls and hospitalization represents a growing public health concern, significantly underestimating the cost of sedative-hypnotic therapy and loss in quality of life for the elderly. Public payers should reconsider reimbursement of sedative-hypnotic drugs as first-line treatment for insomnia in older adults.

  14. Are sedatives and hypnotics associated with increased suicide risk of suicide in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Anders; Waern, Margda

    2009-01-01

    Background While antidepressant-induced suicidality is a concern in younger age groups, there is mounting evidence that these drugs may reduce suicidality in the elderly. Regarding a possible association between other types of psychoactive drugs and suicide, results are inconclusive. Sedatives and hypnotics are widely prescribed to elderly persons with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. The aim of this case-control study was to determine whether specific types of psychoactive drugs were associated with suicide risk in late life, after controlling for appropriate indications. Methods The study area included the city of Gothenburg and two adjacent counties (total 65+ population 210 703 at the start of the study). A case controlled study of elderly (65+) suicides was performed and close informants for 85 suicide cases (46 men, 39 women mean age 75 years) were interviewed by a psychiatrist. A population based comparison group (n = 153) was created and interviewed face-to-face. Primary care and psychiatric records were reviewed for both suicide cases and comparison subjects. All available information was used to determine past-month mental disorders in accordance with DSM-IV. Results Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives and hypnotics were associated with increased suicide risk in the crude analysis. After adjustment for affective and anxiety disorders neither antidepressants in general nor SSRIs showed an association with suicide. Antipsychotics had no association with suicide after adjustment for psychotic disorders. Sedative treatment was associated with an almost fourteen-fold increase of suicide risk in the crude analyses and remained an independent risk factor for suicide even after adjustment for any DSM-IV disorder. Having a current prescription for a hypnotic was associated with a four-fold increase in suicide risk in the adjusted model. Conclusion Sedatives and hypnotics were both associated with increased risk for suicide after

  15. Correction for Inhibition Leads to an Allosteric Co-Agonist Model for Pentobarbital Modulation and Activation of α1β3γ2L GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Alexis M.; Forman, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pentobarbital, like propofol and etomidate, produces important general anesthetic effects through GABAA receptors. Photolabeling also indicates that pentobarbital binds to some of the same sites where propofol and etomidate act. Quantitative allosteric co-agonist models for propofol and etomidate account for modulatory and agonist effects in GABAA receptors and have proven valuable in establishing drug site characteristics and for functional analysis of mutants. We therefore sought to establish an allosteric co-agonist model for pentobarbital activation and modulation of α1β3γ2L receptors, using a novel approach to first correct pentobarbital activation data for inhibitory effects in the same concentration range. Methods Using oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L GABAA receptors and two-microelectrode voltage-clamp, we quantified modulation of GABA responses by a low pentobarbital concentration and direct effects of high pentobarbital concentrations, the latter displaying mixed agonist and inhibitory effects. We then isolated and quantified pentobarbital inhibition in activated receptors using a novel single-sweep “notch” approach, and used these results to correct steady-state direct activation for inhibition. Results Combining results for GABA modulation and corrected direct activation, we estimated receptor open probability and optimized parameters for a Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric co-agonist model. Inhibition by pentobarbital was consistent with two sites with IC50s near 1 mM, while co-agonist model parameters suggest two allosteric pentobarbital agonist sites characterized by KPB ≈ 5 mM and high efficacy. The results also indicate that pentobarbital may be a more efficacious agonist than GABA. Conclusions Our novel approach to quantifying both inhibitory and co-agonist effects of pentobarbital provides a basis for future structure-function analyses of GABAA receptor mutations in putative pentobarbital binding sites. PMID:27110714

  16. BOLD fMRI in Infants under Sedation: Comparing the Impact of Pentobarbital and Propofol on Auditory and Language Activation

    PubMed Central

    DiFrancesco, Mark W.; Robertson, Sara A.; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Holland, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate differences in the disruption of language network function, as measured by BOLD fMRI, attributable to two common sedative agents administered to infants under clinical imaging protocols. Materials and Methods The sedatives pentobarbital (Nembutal) and Propofol, administered clinically to infants at one year of age, were compared with respect to BOLD activation profiles in response to passive story-listening stimulation. An intermittent event-related imaging protocol was utilized with which the temporal evolution of language processing resulting from this stimulation was explored. Results Propofol and Nembutal were found to have distinct and complementary responses to story-listening. Propofol exhibited more activation in higher processing networks with increasing response toward the end of narrative stimulus. Nembutal, in contrast, had much more robust activation of primary and secondary sensory cortices but a decreasing response over time in fronto-parietal default-mode regions. This may suggest a breakdown of top-down feedback for Propofol vs. the lack of bottom-up feed-forward processing for Nembutal. Conclusion Two popular sedative agents for use in children for clinical fMRI were found to induce distinct alteration of activation patterns from a language stimulus. This has ramifications for clinical fMRI of sedated infants and encourages further study to build a framework for more confident interpretation. PMID:23526799

  17. The Existence of a Hypnotic State Revealed by Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Sakari; Hyönä, Jukka; Revonsuo, Antti; Sikka, Pilleriin; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Hypnosis has had a long and controversial history in psychology, psychiatry and neurology, but the basic nature of hypnotic phenomena still remains unclear. Different theoretical approaches disagree as to whether or not hypnosis may involve an altered mental state. So far, a hypnotic state has never been convincingly demonstrated, if the criteria for the state are that it involves some objectively measurable and replicable behavioural or physiological phenomena that cannot be faked or simulated by non-hypnotized control subjects. We present a detailed case study of a highly hypnotizable subject who reliably shows a range of changes in both automatic and volitional eye movements when given a hypnotic induction. These changes correspond well with the phenomenon referred to as the “trance stare” in the hypnosis literature. Our results show that this ‘trance stare’ is associated with large and objective changes in the optokinetic reflex, the pupillary reflex and programming a saccade to a single target. Control subjects could not imitate these changes voluntarily. For the majority of people, hypnotic induction brings about states resembling normal focused attention or mental imagery. Our data nevertheless highlight that in some cases hypnosis may involve a special state, which qualitatively differs from the normal state of consciousness. PMID:22039474

  18. Hypnotic illusions and clinical delusions: hypnosis as a research method.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2010-01-01

    Hypnosis is not only intrinsically interesting, but it can be used instrumentally as a powerful tool to investigate phenomena outside its immediate domain. In focusing on instrumental hypnosis research, we first sketch the many contributions of hypnosis across a range of areas in experimental psychopathology. In particular, we summarise the historical and more recent uses of hypnosis to create and explore clinically relevant, temporary delusions. We then describe in detail the steps that hypnosis researchers take in constructing a hypnotic paradigm to map the features and processes shared by clinical and hypnotic delusions, as well as their impact on information processing (including autobiographical memory). We illustrate with hypnotic versions of mirrored-self misidentification, somatoparaphrenia, alien control, and identity delusions. Finding indicate that hypnotic analogues can produce compelling delusions with features that are strikingly similar to their clinical counterparts. These similarities encompass phenomenological features of delusions, delusional resistance to challenge, and autobiographical memory during delusions. We recognise important methodological issues and limitations of such hypnotic analogues, including: indexing response (behaviour vs. experience), alternative explanations (e.g., social compliance), the need for converging data, the need for close and continuing dialogue between the clinic and the laboratory, and generalisability of the findings.

  19. Cerebral and brainstem electrophysiologic activity during euthanasia with pentobarbital sodium in horses.

    PubMed

    Aleman, M; Williams, D C; Guedes, A; Madigan, J E

    2015-01-01

    An overdose of pentobarbital sodium administered i.v. is the most commonly used method of euthanasia in veterinary medicine. Determining death after the infusion relies on the observation of physical variables. However, it is unknown when cortical electrical activity and brainstem function are lost in a sequence of events before death. To examine changes in the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex and brainstem during an overdose of pentobarbital sodium solution for euthanasia. Our testing hypothesis is that isoelectric pattern of the brain in support of brain death occurs before absence of electrocardiogram (ECG) activity. Fifteen horses requiring euthanasia. Prospective observational study. Horses with neurologic, orthopedic, and cardiac illnesses were selected and instrumented for recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER), and ECG. Physical and neurologic (brainstem reflexes) variables were monitored. Loss of cortical electrical activity occurred during or within 52 seconds after the infusion of euthanasia solution. Cessation of brainstem function as evidenced by a lack of brainstem reflexes and disappearance of the BAER happened subsequently. Despite undetectable heart sounds, palpable arterial pulse, and mean arterial pressure, recordable ECG was the last variable to be lost after the infusion (5.5-16 minutes after end of the infusion). Overdose of pentobarbital sodium solution administered i.v. is an effective, fast, and humane method of euthanasia. Brain death occurs within 73-261 seconds of the infusion. Although absence of ECG activity takes longer to occur, brain death has already occurred. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    PubMed

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of Music and Hypnotic Suggestion to Manage Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alisa J; Kekecs, Zoltan; Roberts, R Lynae; Gavin, Russell; Brown, Kathleen; Elkins, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility and possible effects of hypnotic suggestion and music for chronic pain. Ten people completed the 2-week intervention that consisted of daily listening to hypnotic suggestions combined with music. Averaged subjective pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, overall distress, anxiety, and depression decreased from baseline to endpoint. Participants rated pre- and postlistening pain intensity and pain bothersomeness decreased for each session. Information provided during end-of-study interviews indicated all participants were satisfied with treatment and felt they benefited from being in the study. Means and standard deviations are reported for outcome measures and a case study is provided. This preliminary study supports the use of a combined hypnotic suggestion and music intervention for chronic pain.

  2. Hypnotic induction of an epileptic seizure: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R A; Somerville, E

    1995-07-01

    This case study investigated the utility of hypnosis to precipitate a seizure in a patient with refractory epilepsy. The patient was twice administered a hypnotic induction and a suggestion to age regress to a day when he was distressed and suffered repeated seizures. The patient did not respond to the first hypnotic suggestion; however, an epileptic seizure was observed in the second hypnotic session. Videorecording and subdural electroencephalograph recording confirmed that he suffered an epileptic seizure. Postexperimental inquiry revealed that the patient used deliberate cognitive strategies to avoid seizure onset in the first session but adopted a more constructive cognitive style in the second session. Findings are discussed in terms of emotions, hypnosis, and cognitive style as mediating factors in the experimental precipitation of epileptic seizures.

  3. Is suvorexant a better choice than alternative hypnotics?

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Suvorexant is a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) newly introduced in the U.S. as a hypnotic, but no claim of superiority over other hypnotics has been offered.  The manufacturer argued that the 5 and 10 mg starting doses recommended by the FDA might be ineffective.  The manufacturer's main Phase III trials had not even included the 10 mg dosage, and the 5 mg dosage had not been tested at all in registered clinical trials at the time of approval.  Popular alternative hypnotics may be similarly ineffective, since the FDA has also reduced the recommended doses for zolpidem and eszopiclone.  The "not to exceed" suvorexant dosage of 20 mg does slightly increase sleep.  Because of slow absorption, suvorexant has little effect on latency to sleep onset but some small effect in suppressing wakening after sleep onset and in improving sleep efficiency. The FDA would not approve the manufacturer's preferred 40 mg suvorexant dosage, because of concern with daytime somnolence, driving impairment, and possible narcolepsy-like symptoms.  In its immediate benefits-to-risks ratio, suvorexant is unlikely to prove superior to currently available hypnotics—possibly worse—so there is little reason to prefer over the alternatives this likely more expensive hypnotic less-tested in practice.  Associations are being increasingly documented relating hypnotic usage with incident cancer, with dementia risks, and with premature death.  There is some basis to speculate that suvorexant might be safer than alternative hypnotics in terms of cancer, dementia, infections, and mortality.  These safety considerations will remain unproven speculations unless adequate long-term trials can be done that demonstrate suvorexant advantages. PMID:26594338

  4. Sedative-hypnotic Binding to 11β-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Pejo, Ervin; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Husain, S Shaukat; Raines, Douglas E

    2016-11-01

    Etomidate potently suppresses adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially deleterious consequences by binding to 11β-hydroxylase and inhibiting its function. The authors hypothesized that other sedative-hypnotics currently in clinical use or under development (or their metabolites) might bind to the same site at clinically relevant concentrations. The authors tested this hypothesis by defining etomidate's affinity for this site and the potencies with which other sedative-hypnotics (and their metabolites) inhibit etomidate binding. H-etomidate's binding to adrenal membranes from Sprague-Dawley rats was characterized with a filtration assay, and its dissociation constant was defined using saturation and homologous ligand competition approaches. Half-inhibitory concentrations of sedative-hypnotics and metabolites were determined from the reduction in specific H-etomidate binding measured in the presence of ranging sedative-hypnotic and metabolite concentrations. Saturation and homologous competition studies yielded H-etomidate dissociation constants of 40 and 21 nM, respectively. Half-inhibitory concentrations of etomidate and cyclopropyl methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) differed significantly (26 vs. 143 nM, respectively; P < 0.001), and those of the carboxylic acid (CA) metabolites etomidate-CA and CPMM-CA were greater than or equal to 1,000× higher than their respective parent hypnotics. The half-inhibitory concentration of dexmedetomidine was 2.2 µM, whereas those of carboetomidate, ketamine, and propofol were greater than or equal to 50 µM. Etomidate's in vitro dissociation constant for 11β-hydroxylase closely approximates its in vivo adrenocortical half-inhibitory concentration. CPMM produces less adrenocortical suppression than etomidate not only because it is metabolized faster but also because it binds to 11β-hydroxylase with lower affinity. Other sedative-hypnotics and metabolites bind to 11β-hydroxylase and inhibit etomidate binding only

  5. Effects of Pregabalin in Patients with Hypnotic-Dependent Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youg Won; Song, Mei Ling

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Long-term use of hypnotics runs the risk of dependency, and subjects usually experience difficulties in withdrawal. The objective of this study was to investigate the success of withdrawal using pregabalin and its efficacy on sleep in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. Methods: We enrolled patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia who were 18 years or older. The starting dosage of pregabalin was 75 mg/day and was increased up to as much as 300 mg/day, depending on the individual patient's condition, while tapering off hypnotics. After 4 weeks of titration, the final dosage amount was maintained for at least another 4 weeks. Sleep and clinical variables were evaluated at baseline and after treatment, using the Korean versions of various sleep questionnaires as well as polysomnography. Results: Forty subjects were enrolled, with a mean age of 52.0 ± 8.5 years, of whom 28 (70.0%) were women. Twenty-one (52.5%) subjects successfully withdrew from hypnotics. The duration of withdrawal was 42.1 ± 16.0 days (range: 27.0∼84.0). The mean pregabalin dose was 121.4 ± 69.0 mg/day (range: 75.0∼300.0). After pregabalin treatment, there was a significant improvement in the total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (15.0 ± 2.1, 8.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.001), and insomnia severity index (20.9 ± 4.3, 9.6 ± 4.4, p < 0.001); however, most of the sleep variables of the PSG showed no differences. The main adverse effects of pregabalin were nausea and dizziness. Conclusions: Our results showed pregabalin may be a promising candidate for withdrawal from hypnotics and improved sleep in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. Citation: Cho YW, Song ML. Effects of pregabalin in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):545-550. PMID:24812540

  6. The Risk of Pneumonia in Older Adults Using Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephen; Spence, Michele M; Escasa, Nina M; Lee, Eric A; Hui, Rita L; Gibbs, Nancy E

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown an increased risk of pneumonia with benzodiazepines (BZD) and an increased risk of any infection with non-BZD hypnotics, but no analysis has specifically investigated the risk of pneumonia with non-BZD hypnotic use. To evaluate the risk of pneumonia associated with non-BZD hypnotic use in the elderly. This was a retrospective case-control study of members aged 65 years and older enrolled in an integrated health care system. Cases were identified as patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of pneumonia from January 2011 to December 2012. Controls were matched in a 4:1 ratio to cases based on age, gender, and active enrollment. Non-BZD hypnotic exposure was evaluated for all cases and controls 1 year before the index date. Proximity of exposure to index date and duration of use were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression adjusted for covariates was performed. We identified 51,029 cases with pneumonia and matched 188,391 controls without pneumonia. Of the cases with pneumonia, 5.5% (2,790) of cases had exposure to a non-BZD hypnotic, compared with 3.4% (6,345) of controls. Non-BZD hypnotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08-1.20). When exposure was stratified by proximity to index date, only current exposure was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.18-1.36). Short-term exposure was associated with a relatively higher risk of pneumonia (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.39-1.77) compared with long-term use (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.06-1.25). Current use of non-BZD hypnotics in older adults is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. The findings of this study provide additional support for reducing the use of non-BZD hypnotics in older adults and for pursuing safer alternatives for treating insomnia. No outside funding supported this study. At the time of this study, Jung was a PGY2 resident in drug information at Kaiser Permanente Drug Information

  7. Effect-site concentrations of remifentanil causing bradycardia in hypnotic and non-hypnotic patients.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuko; Tanaka, Akiko

    2016-12-01

    Although the induction of anaesthesia with remifentanil often causes bradycardia, the relationship between the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil and instantaneous heart rate (HR) has remained unclear. The present study examined the relationship between instantaneous HR and remifentanil Ce at the induction of anaesthesia with and without propofol hypnosis, to facilitate safe management of anaesthesia induction with remifentanil. Instantaneous HR was calculated every 5 s using an electrocardiographic real-time analysis system (MemCalc/Makin2; GMS, Tokyo, Japan). At the beginning of anaesthesia induction, continuous infusion of remifentanil (1 μg min(-1) kg(-1)) preceded hypnosis with propofol in 13 patients [non-hypnosis group; mean age, 67.8 (17.5) years], while propofol bolus (30-50 mg) was injected together with continuous remifentanil medication in 18 patients [hypnosis group; mean age, 62.9 (16.5) years]. Remifentanil Ce was estimated every 5 s using the three-compartment model proposed by Minto et al. and the relationship between estimated remifentanil Ce and instantaneous HR was examined. In the hypnosis group, HR was significantly lower than basal HR when remifentanil Ce was increased to 3.5 ng ml(-1) (p < 0.05), whereas no significant HR reduction was found in the non-hypnosis group until remifentanil Ce reached >5 ng ml(-1) (p < 0.05). The induction of anaesthesia using remifentanil with propofol hypnotics significantly reduces HR even in a low remifentanil Ce insufficient to suppress the cardiovascular response at tracheal intubation. Preparations to treat bradycardia are recommended for the safe management of anaesthesia induction when remifentanil is combined with hypnotics.

  8. Hypnotic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane isolated from the essential oil of Dennettia tripetala in mice.

    PubMed

    Oyemitan, Idris Ajayi; Elusiyan, Christianah Abimbola; Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Olugbade, Tiwalade Adewale

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated the hypnotic, anti-convulsant and anxiolytic effects of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (BPNE) obtained from the oil of Dennettia tripetala G. Baker (Annonaceae) and established its mechanism of action. The essential oil (EO) from the leaf, fruit and seed was obtained by hydrodistillation, followed by isolation of BPNE purified to 99.2% by accelerated gradient chromatography on silica, and identified by NMR and GC-MS. The pure BPNE and EO of the dried seed (93.6%) were comparatively evaluated for hypnotic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects in mice. The acute toxicity of BPNE was determined and the LD50 was 490 mg/kg, intrapritonealy. The hypnotic activities of the EO and BPNE (50-400 mg/kg, i.p.) were assessed by loss of righting reflex, while sodium pentobarbitone (PBS) and diazepam (DZM) were used as positive controls. The anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of the EO and BPNE were evaluated in mice. Both BPNE and EO at doses ≥100 mg/kg induced spontaneous hypnosis with loss of righting reflex, significantly decreased sleep latency (SL) and also increased total sleeping time (TST) dose-dependently. They had comparable activity with NAP in TST. The BPNE exhibited higher hypnotic potency than EO at the same dose levels. The EO and BPNE offered comparable dose-related protections against PTZ- and strychnine-induced convulsions. Flumazenil (2 mg/kg) blocked the hypnotic and anticonvulsant (PTZ-convulsions) effects of both EO and BPNE. The essential oil at 5-20 mg/kg dose levels significantly (p<0.05) increased the percentage time spent and number of entries into the open arms. While at the same dose range BPNE significantly (p<0.05) increased the percentage time spent and the number of entries into the open arms respectively. The study concluded that 1-nitro-2-phenylethane exhibited dose dependent significant hypnotic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects and it is the compound largely responsible for the neuropharmacological effects of the

  9. Postischemic alteration of muscarinic acetylcholine and adenosine A1 binding sites in gerbil brain. Protective effects of a novel vinca alkaloid derivative, vinconate, and pentobarbital using an autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kato, H; Kogure, K

    1992-01-01

    We studied the alterations in the binding of muscarinic cholinergic and adenosine A1 receptors following transient cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils and examined the effects of the novel vinca alkaloid derivative vinconate and pentobarbital against the alterations in the binding of these receptors. Animals were allowed to survive for 5 h and 7 days after 10 min of cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries. [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and [3H]cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) were used to label muscarinic cholinergic and adenosine A1 receptors, respectively. The [3H]QNB and [3H]CHA bindings showed no significant alteration in the gerbil brain 5 h after ischemia. However, these bindings in the striatum, the hippocampal CA1 sector, and the hippocampal CA3 sector revealed a significant reduction 7 days after ischemia. The [3H]CHA binding also showed a significant decline in the dentate molecular layer 7 days after ischemia. Intraperitoneal application of vinconate (100 and 300 mg/kg) 10 min and pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia showed a mild reduction in the [3H]CHA binding in the brain 5 h after ischemia. Especially, the reduction was found in the hippocampal CA1 sector and the dentate molecular layer. However, the [3H]QNB binding revealed no significant alteration in the brain 5 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, both drugs prevented a marked reduction in the [3H]CHA binding in the striatum, but not in the hippocampal CA1 sector, the hippocampal CA3 sector, and the dentate molecular layer. By contrast, vinconate and pentobarbital failed to prevent the reduction in the [3H]QNB binding in the striatum. Morphological study indicated that vinconate and pentobarbital ameliorated the neuronal damage to the striatum, but not the hippocampal damage 7 days after ischemia. This histological finding was relatively consistent with the alteration in the [3H]CHA binding. These receptor autoradiographic and histological

  10. Hypnotic treatment of Sleep Terror Disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koe, G G

    1989-07-01

    This case report describes the hypnotic treatment of Sleep Terror Disorder in a 16-year-old male who was resistant to other forms of treatment. In this patient, night terrors seemed to be precipitated by nocturnal noises wakening him from deep sleep. Posthypnotic suggestions reducing awareness of nocturnal sensory stimulation successfully eliminated his night terrors.

  11. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Personality as Measured by the MMPI-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Wayne D.

    This study evaluated personality variables that underlie hypnotic susceptibility. It was correlational, did not require ongoing contact with participants, and included a validation study as an integral component. The subjects were 359 college students (250 in the original sample and 109 in the cross validation study) taking undergraduate courses…

  12. Hypnotic Susceptibility, Suggestion, and Reports of Autokinetic Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Benjamin; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hypnotic susceptibility and of suggestion of direction on four measures of autokinetic movement: the mean number of changes in direction reported per trial, the latency of reported movement, the estimated direction, and the reported magnitude of movement. (Editor)

  13. A Comparison of Authoritarian and Permissive Wording of Hypnotic Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Robert B.; Church, Jay K.

    The authoritarian/permissive dimension of hypnosis refers to the manner in which hypnotic suggestions are phrased. In the authoritarian mode suggestions imply the subject is under control of the hypnotist; permissive suggestions are phrased to emphasize the subject's own thinking. To compare the permissive suggestions of the Creative Imagination…

  14. A Comparison of Authoritarian and Permissive Wording of Hypnotic Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Robert B.; Church, Jay K.

    The authoritarian/permissive dimension of hypnosis refers to the manner in which hypnotic suggestions are phrased. In the authoritarian mode suggestions imply the subject is under control of the hypnotist; permissive suggestions are phrased to emphasize the subject's own thinking. To compare the permissive suggestions of the Creative Imagination…

  15. Hypnotic Susceptibility, Suggestion, and Reports of Autokinetic Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Benjamin; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hypnotic susceptibility and of suggestion of direction on four measures of autokinetic movement: the mean number of changes in direction reported per trial, the latency of reported movement, the estimated direction, and the reported magnitude of movement. (Editor)

  16. Brain Oscillations and Diurnal Variations in Hypnotic Responsiveness—A Commentary on “Diurnal Variations in Hypnotic Responsiveness: Is There an Optimal Time to be Hypnotized?”

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    A recent study published in the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis reported an interesting diurnal pattern of hypnotic responsivity; specifically, the authors found higher hypnotic responsiveness in a large sample of undergraduates in the morning and early evening. However, they did not have an explanation for this pattern of findings. This pattern is consistent, however, with the theta hypothesis of hypnotic responsivity. Further examination of the associations between brain oscillations and response to hypnosis is needed to determine if specific oscillations such as theta (1) actually facilitate response to some hypnotic suggestions, (2) merely reflect hypnotic responding, or (3) reflect another factor that itself plays a causal role in response to hypnosis. PMID:26599996

  17. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies.

  18. Dependence of pentobarbital kinetics upon the dose of the drug and its pharmacodynamic effects.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, K H; Szaykowski, A; Danysz, A

    1977-01-01

    Pentobarbital (PB), at dose range of 20--50 mg/kg, displays in rabbits non-linear, dose-dependent kinetics. Pharmacokinetics parameters of drug elimination depend largely upon the dose, while the distribution phase is dose-independent. The rate of disappearance of PB from the central compartment (plasma) decreases with the increase of the dose. The analysis of pharmacodynamic parameters has shown that this dose-dependent retardation of PB elimination is probably caused by an impairment of metabolic processes, resulting from disturbance of the circulatory system. A close correlation has been found between the hypotensive effect of PB and the elimination constant, k13, and also between the hypotensive effect and beta.Vd(extrap), a coefficient proportional to the rate of metabolism of PB [23, 29]. The results indicate the necessity of considering the changes in the functional state of the organism, related to the action of a drug, in pharmacokinetic studies.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of pentobarbital under hyperbaric and hyperbaric hyperoxic conditions in the dog.

    PubMed

    Kramer, W G; Welch, D W; Fife, W P; Chaikin, B N; Medlock, C; Gross, D R

    1983-11-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been shown to reverse the anesthetic effects of barbiturates. However, attempts to distinguish between two possible causes of this reversal, changes in drug disposition or changes in drug-receptor interaction, have not been reported. This study examined the possible effects of hyperbaria and hyperbaric hyperoxia on the distribution and clearance of pentobarbital in the dog. The drug was administered to six mixed-breed dogs as a 30 mg/kg i.v. bolus at 1 ATA breathing air, 6 ATA breathing air, and 2.8 ATA breathing 100% oxygen, with serial blood sampling for 12 h. Pharmacokinetic and statistical analyses showed no significant effects of hyperbaria or hyperbaric hyperoxia on the total plasma clearance, volume of distribution or elimination half-life. If pressure reversal of barbiturate anesthesia occurs at these pressures, changes in the disposition of the drug are not the causative factors.

  20. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda): sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice.

    PubMed

    Martins-Sousa, R; Negrão-Corrêa, D; Bezerra, F; Coelho, P

    2001-04-01

    The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized) only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not improve the anesthesic effect, and higher concentrations of these drugs were toxic to the snails. Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails. In this schedule, the snails were anesthetized without any toxic effect. The procedure provides a powerful tool for in vivo studies that demande a complete state of snail anesthesia.

  1. In vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by SuperChar, USP and Darco G-60 activated charcoals

    SciTech Connect

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.; Parks, K.S.; Bordelon, J.G.; Stewart, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by three activated charcoals. Solutions of sodium pentobarbital (20 mM) were prepared in distilled water and in 70% sorbitol (w/v). Radiolabeled (/sup 14/C) sodium pentobarbital was added to each solution to serve as a concentration marker. Two ml of each drug solution was added to test tubes containing 40 mg of either Darco G-60, USP, or SuperChar activated charcoal. The drug-charcoal mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for O, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Equilibrium, indicated by a constant percentage of drug bound for two consecutive time periods, was established immediately for the aqueous mixtures and for Darco G-60 in sorbitol. The time to equilibrium was prolonged for USP (2.5 min) and SuperChar (5 min) in the presence of sorbitol. In the second series of experiments, solutions of sodium pentobarbital (1.25 to 160 mM) were prepared in either distilled water or sorbitol. Amount of drug bound by 10 to 320 mg of activated charcoal within a 10 min incubation period was determined. Scatchard analysis determined maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) for each activated charcoal. In water, Bmax (mumoles/gm) was greatest for SuperChar (1141), followed by USP (580) and Darco G-60 (381), while the Kd's did not differ. Sorbitol did not change the Bmax or Kd of USP or Darco G-60, but the additive significantly decreased the Bmax (717) and increased the Kd for SuperChar (3.3 to 10.1 mM). The results suggest that relative binding capacity of activated charcoal is directly proportional to surface area, and that sorbitol significantly reduces sodium pentobarbital binding to SuperChar.

  2. Sedative-hypnotic-like effect and molecular docking of di-naphthodiospyrol from Diospyros lotus in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Uddin, Ghias; Cerón-Carrasco, José P; Peña-García, Jorge; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Khan, Haroon; Bawazeer, Saud; Patel, Seema; Mubarak, Mohammad S; Abu-Izneid, Tareq; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser

    2017-04-01

    Diospyros lotus Linn commonly known as date-plum, or Caucasian persimmon has multiple uses in folk medicine. Various parts of this plant is used for alleviating lumbago, dysponea, hemorrhage, insomnia, and hiccup. The plant extracts possess a variety of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, sedative, febrifuge, anti-microbial, vermifuge, and anti-hypertensive. The aim of the present work is to investigate the sedative-hypnotic effect of a rare dimeric napthoquione 1 obtained from the chloroform soluble fraction of D. lotus extracts. Compound 1, di-naphthodiospyrol at 5, 10, and 15mg/kg intraperitoneal doses was assessed for its in vivo sedative effect in an open-field using a phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time model. The geometry of di-naphthodiospyrol was also optimized with the aid of density functional theory. In addition, molecular docking of compound 1 was performed with the receptor GABAA. The animal protocol-based assay showed significant sedative-hypnotic-like effects of compound 1 at various test doses (5, 10, and 15mg/kg i.p.). Docking studies indicated that this compound interacts strongly with important residues in receptor GABAA. Results from this investigation reveal that compound 1 possesses sedative-hypnotic- like properties which can be of interest in therapeutic research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of falling and hypnotic drugs: retrospective study of inpatients.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kyoko; Araki, Takuya; Nakamura, Katsunori; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Hara, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2013-06-01

    Falls and related injuries remain a concern for patient safety in many hospitals and nursing care facilities. In particular, reports examining the relationship between accidents and drugs with a sedative effect have been increasing; however, the analysis of correlation between the background factors of fall accidents and the detailed therapeutic category of drugs is insufficient. Our objective was to estimate fall risk following the administration of hypnotics in inpatients within an acute hospital. We assessed the relationship between falls and hypnotic drugs compared with other medicines. An inpatient population-based study was carried out at Gunma University Hospital, where all inpatients admitted between 1 October and 31 December 2007 were included. Over a 3-month follow-up period, all reports of falling accidents from ward medical staff were investigated. Falls occurred in 1.8% of males and 1.3% of females in the study population (n = 3,683). The mean age of patients who experienced falls (64.7 ± 19.5 years) was significantly higher than that of patients who did not (56.2 ± 20.2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed the following drugs as high-risk factors for falling: hypnotics (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.44-3.28), antiepileptics (OR 5.06, 95% CI 2.70-9.46), opioids (OR 3.91, 95% CI 2.16-7.10), anti-Alzheimer's (OR 5.74, 95% CI 1.62-20.3), anti-Parkinson's (OR 5.06, 95% CI 1.58-16.24), antidiabetics (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.63-5.84), antihypertensives (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.41-3.56), and antiarrhythmics (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.36-5.86). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of hypnotics, brotizolam, zopiclone, and estazolam revealed a significant association with an increased risk of inpatient falling accidents, while zolpidem, triazolam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam did not. The present findings suggest that the risk of falling accidents in hospitals differs according to the type of hypnotic drug administered. The appropriate selection of hypnotic drugs

  4. Neuro-Hypnotism: Prospects for Hypnosis and Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of hypnosis have been subject to speculation since the phenomenon got its name. Until recently, much of this research has been geared toward understanding hypnosis itself, including the biological bases of individual differences in hypnotizability, state-dependent changes in cortical activity occurring with the induction of hypnosis, and the neural correlates of response to particular hypnotic suggestions (especially the clinically useful hypnotic analgesia). More recently, hypnosis has begun to be employed as a method for manipulating subjects' mental states, both cognitive and affective, to provide information about the neural substrates of experience, thought, and action. This instrumental use of hypnosis is particularly well-suited for identifying the neural correlates of conscious and unconscious perception and memory, and of voluntary and involuntary action. PMID:22748566

  5. Mexican norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Armáss, Omar; Barabasz, Arreed F

    2005-07-01

    Normative data for the Mexican adaptation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) are presented. Twenty-seven raters administered the scale to 513 Mexican volunteers. Score distribution, item analysis, and reliability of the SHSS:C are presented and compared to other international norming studies. The findings show that the Mexican adaptation of the SHSS:C has psychometric properties essentially comparable to those of the Dutch, German, Italian, and United States reference samples. However, the elevated sample mean suggests Mexicans may have an elevated ability to engage in hypnotic behavior, thus they would likely be especially good candidates for hypnotherapeutic interventions that would better the health options currently available.

  6. Hypnotic color blindness and performance on the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Mallard, D; Bryant, R A

    2001-10-01

    A suggestion for hypnotic color blindness was investigated by administering a reverse Stroop color-naming task. Prior to the suggestion for color blindness, participants learned associations between color names and shapes. Following the color blindness suggestion, participants were required to name the shapes when they appeared in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the learned associations. The 18 high hypnotizable participants who passed the suggestion were slower to name (a) shapes in which the color name was incongruent with the color in which it was printed, (b) "unseen" rather than "seen" shapes, and (c) color-incongruent shapes that were printed in the color in which they were "color-blind." These patterns are discussed in terms of potential cognitive and social mechanisms that may mediate responses to hypnotic color blindness.

  7. Creating past-life identity in hypnotic regression.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    To examine the role of hypnotic suggestion in identity in past-life regression, 2 experiments were conducted at the request of Korea's major national television companies. A real historical person and a fictional character were selected as past-life identities. After hypnotic induction, a past-life regression suggestion was given. While counting backward to past-life, the suggestion of a specific identity was interspersed 3 times. In 5 of 6 subjects, the same past-life identity that had been suggested was produced, with relatively rich content accompanied by emotional and historical facts identical to the suggested identity. This study found that it was quite simple and easy to manipulate past-life identity. The role of suggestion in the formation of past-life memories during hypnosis is crucial.

  8. Neuro-hypnotism: prospects for hypnosis and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2013-02-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of hypnosis have been subject to speculation since the phenomenon got its name. Until recently, much of this research has been geared toward understanding hypnosis itself, including the biological bases of individual differences in hypnotizability, state-dependent changes in cortical activity occurring with the induction of hypnosis, and the neural correlates of response to particular hypnotic suggestions (especially the clinically useful hypnotic analgesia). More recently, hypnosis has begun to be employed as a method for manipulating subjects' mental states, both cognitive and affective, to provide information about the neural substrates of experience, thought, and action. This instrumental use of hypnosis is particularly well-suited for identifying the neural correlates of conscious and unconscious perception and memory, and of voluntary and involuntary action.

  9. Finding the hypnotic virtuoso--another look: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Green, J P; Lynn, S J; Carlson, B W

    1992-04-01

    Student volunteers who scored 9 (N = 20), 10 (N = 19), 11 (N = 26), and 12 (N = 15) on a live-administered Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) of Shor and E. Orne (1962) were retested with the individually administered Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS:C) of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1962). There appeared to be a break in HGSHS:A's predictive ability at 11 suggestions passed. Whereas a majority of Ss who passed at least 11 HGSHS:A suggestions retested in SHSS:C "virtuoso" range (i.e., passed at least 11 suggestions), a relatively small percentage of Ss who passed fewer than 11 HGSHS:A suggestions retested as SHSS:C virtuosos. These results are generally consistent with previous research (Register & Kihlstrom, 1986) using a standard taped-recorded HGSHS:A induction.

  10. Italian norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, V; Bellusci, A; Russo, P M

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents norms for an Italian translation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Archival data on hypnosis research subjects recruited over a 10-year period of research on hypnosis were pooled, resulting in an aggregate sample of 356 participants (263 female and 93 male). Score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability of the SHSS:C were computed. Of this group, 218 subjects were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility approximately 3 weeks prior to administration of the SHSS:C. The remaining 138 subjects received only the SHSS:C. Results suggest that the Italian version of the SHSS:C is a reliable and valid measure.

  11. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  12. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by ‘Isolation-induced aggression’ model, sedation by ‘Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer’ and hypnotic activity by ‘Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time’. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans. PMID:24948855

  13. What is the point of guidelines? Benzodiazepine and z-hypnotic use by an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C Ineke; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Berg, Christian

    2012-08-01

    According to published guidelines regarding the use of benzodiazepines or z-hypnotics (BZD-Z), the elderly should avoid hypnotic BZD, and use anxiolytic BZD and z-hypnotics only at low doses and for a short time. Our objective is to quantify inappropriate BZD-Z use in the elderly. The study population consisted of people aged 70-89 who filled at least two prescriptions in 2008 within one of three subgroups: anxiolytic BZD, hypnotics BZD, or z-hypnotics. Inappropriate use criteria used for this study were (1) any hypnotic BZD, (2) exceeding 300 DDD, or a dosage exceeding 9 DDD/week, or anxiolytic BZD and z-hypnotics use exceeding 30 weeks. 118,526 persons, or 25% of elderly Norwegians, filled at least two prescriptions for one of these medication subgroups. Inappropriate use was found for 25% of anxiolytic BZD users, 100% of hypnotic BZD users, and 65% of z-hypnotic users. Altogether 57,276 elderly Norwegians, or 12.3% of the elderly source population, used BZD-Z inappropriately as defined in this study. Clearly, inappropriate use of BZD-Z is widespread. An active response to such noncompliance with existing guidelines could consist of either (1) stricter enforcement of guidelines or (2) revamping guidelines through a fresh look at risks, benefits, and treatment practices. The implications of both options are discussed in some detail. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Detection of thiopental and pentobarbital in head and pubic hair in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Tedeschi, Luciano; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2003-04-23

    The quali-quantitative determination of two barbiturates, thiopental and its metabolite pentobarbital, in head and pubic hair samples of a woman who had been sexually assaulted during hospitalisation, is reported. Hair was analysed by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS), in chemical ionisation conditions. Thiopental and pentobarbital were found in three proximal head hair segments (sample 1A: 0.30 and 0.40 ng/mg; sample 1B: 0.20 and 0.20 ng/mg; sample 3: 0.15 and 0.20 ng/mg) and pubic hair sample. Two distal head hair segments were negative for both barbiturates. Despite the lack of collection and toxicological analysis of blood or urine samples within the hospital setting, analytical findings from hair revealed the use of the anaesthetic agent thiopental to sedate the victim quickly and deeply and commit sexual assault.

  15. The effects of pentobarbital, isoflurane, and propofol on immediate-early gene expression in the vital organs of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hamaya, Y; Takeda, T; Dohi, S; Nakashima, S; Nozawa, Y

    2000-05-01

    General anesthetics are known to transiently increase the expression of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) of immediate-early genes in the brain. We investigated whether the expression of two immediate-early genes in vital organs were modulated by various anesthetics. Inhaled isoflurane (n = 20), intraperitoneal pentobarbital (n = 20), and IV propofol (n = 20) were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats, and five from each group were decapitated at 5, 30, 60, or 120 min after the induction of anesthesia. Control, nonanesthetized rats (n = 5) were handled gently and then decapitated. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions were performed on total RNA from samples of the brain, heart, liver, and kidney to detect the expressions of c-fos and c-jun mRNAs. As internal control, cyclophilin mRNA was amplified simultaneously. The products were separated by electrophoresis, and the optical density of the bands was quantified. The expression of c-fos mRNA was transiently increased in the brain, and more strikingly and for longer times, in the kidney with all three anesthetics; the expression of c-fos mRNA was decreased in the heart with isoflurane and pentobarbital and increased in the liver with isoflurane and propofol. The expression of c-jun mRNA was increased in the heart, liver, and kidney with isoflurane, increased in the heart and kidney with pentobarbital, increased in the heart, liver, and kidney with propofol, and decreased in the brain with pentobarbital. Our results suggest that the appropriate anesthetics to be used to anesthetize animals differ in accord with the target organs in which the expressions of immediate-early genes in response to stimuli were studied.

  16. Network Actions of Pentobarbital in the Rat Mesopontine Tegmentum on Sensory Inflow Through the Spinothalamic Tract

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R.; McErlane, Shelly A.; Taepavarapruk, Niwat; Soja, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The recent discovery of a barbiturate-sensitive “general anesthesia switch” mechanism localized in the rat brain stem mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA) has challenged the current view of the nonspecific actions of general anesthetic agents in the CNS. In this study we provide electrophysiological evidence that the antinociception, which accompanies the behavioral state resembling general anesthesia following pentobarbital (PB) microinjections into the MPTA of awake rats, could be accompanied by the attenuation of sensory transmission through the spinothalamic tract (STT). Following bilateral microinjections of PB into the MPTA spontaneous firing rate (SFR), antidromic firing index (FI), and sciatic (Sc) as well as sural (Su) nerve-evoked responses (ER) of identified lumbar STT neurons in the isoflurane-anesthetized rat were quantified using extracellular recording techniques. Microinjections of PB into the MPTA significantly suppressed the SFR (47%), magnitudes of Sc- (26%) and Su-ER (36%), and FI (41%) of STT neurons. Microinjections of PB-free vehicle control did not alter any of the above-cited electrophysiological parameters. The results from this study suggest that antinociception, which occurs during the anesthesia-like state following PB microinjections into the MPTA, may be due, in part, to (in)direct inhibition of STT neurons via switching mechanism(s) located in the MPTA. This study provides a provenance for investigating electrophysiologically the actions on STT neurons of other current agents used clinically to maintain the state of general anesthesia. PMID:19458144

  17. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    PubMed Central

    Crellin, Steven Jason; Katz, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS' arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient's coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended. PMID:26881149

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of hypnotics dependence among Japanese outpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Akiko; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Komada, Yoko; Ishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-12-30

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the dependence for benzodiazepine or their agonist (BZDs) hypnotics, as well as factors associated with this dependence among Japanese psychiatric outpatients. One thousand and forty-three patients in the psychiatric outpatient clinic of Tokyo Medical University Hospital receiving treatment with BZDs hypnotics were analyzed. The subjects answered questionnaires including demographic variables, subjective sleep difficulty assessed by the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), duration of hypnotics medication, dose of diazepam equivalent BZDs hypnotics, the presence or absence of subjective side effects due to BZDs hypnotics (dizziness, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, amnesia, and headache), and dependency assessed by the Dependency 2-A (D 2-A) score. Subjects with a D 2-A score ≥10 were considered as having BZDs hypnotics dependence, and the variables associated with the presence of dependence were examined using logistic regression analyses. Eighty-two out of the 1043 subjects (7.9%) were determined to have BZDs hypnotics dependence. Compared with the non-dependence group, the dependence group had a significantly higher proportion of positive respondents for all the side effects. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the dependence was significantly associated with younger age, higher total PSQI score, and higher daily dose of BZDs hypnotics. Younger age, higher total PSQI score, and higher dose may be associated with BZDs hypnotics dependence. The finding that patients with BZDs hypnotics dependence frequently suffered from subjective side effects and had greater sleep difficulty encourages the establishment of alternative treatments for patients with insomnia symptoms refractory to BZDs hypnotics treatment.

  19. Mediation and Moderation of Psychological Pain Treatments: Response Expectancies and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milling, Leonard S.; Reardon, John M.; Carosella, Gina M.

    2006-01-01

    The mediator role of response expectancies and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility were evaluated in the analogue treatment of pain. Approximately 1,000 participants were assessed for hypnotic suggestibility. Later, as part of a seemingly unrelated experiment, 188 of these individuals were randomly assigned to distraction,…

  20. Anxiolytics, Sedatives, and Hypnotics Prescribed by Dentists in Brazil in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Silva, Maria Elisa de Souza e

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe dental prescriptions for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics for Brazilian outpatients in 2010. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data on the use of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, Brazil, 2010. For each prescription, prescribed drugs and the prescribed amount were identified. Prescribed medications were classified according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code. We calculated the number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics by code, their mean DDD, and DDD per inhabitant per year. Results There were 16,436 prescriptions dispensed, including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics. These prescriptions corresponded to 3,555,780.50 mg, distributed as 2,286,200.50 mg (64.30%) of anxiolytics and 1,269,580.00 mg (35.70%) of sedatives and hypnotics. This amount allowed treating approximately 474,106 individuals (number of DDD). The anxiolytics most frequently dispensed were bromazepam (25.30%), alprazolam (19.19%), and diazepam (15.60%). Sedatives and hypnotics mostly prescribed were zolpidem (9.55%), midazolam (6.99%), and flunitrazepam (2.14%). The per capita rates (100,000 inhabitants) of anxiolytics and sedatives/hypnotics were 6.83 and 1.78, respectively. Conclusions Benzodiazepines and derivatives were the most frequently prescribed drugs. There was a low rate of dental prescriptions for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, although excessive doses were concentrated in the same prescription. PMID:28638826

  1. Mediation and Moderation of Psychological Pain Treatments: Response Expectancies and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milling, Leonard S.; Reardon, John M.; Carosella, Gina M.

    2006-01-01

    The mediator role of response expectancies and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility were evaluated in the analogue treatment of pain. Approximately 1,000 participants were assessed for hypnotic suggestibility. Later, as part of a seemingly unrelated experiment, 188 of these individuals were randomly assigned to distraction,…

  2. A Simple Hypnotic Approach to Treat Test Anxiety in Medical Students and Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Stephen W.

    1984-01-01

    A simple hypnotic procedure to treat test anxiety is described that was used successfully with medical students and residents at the Wake Forest University Medical Center. A light trace is obtained and then the student is told to take such a hypnotic "journey" the evening prior to the test. (MLW)

  3. "Trance" versus "Skill" Hypnotic Inductions: The Effects of Credibility, Expectancy, and Experimenter Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, James R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared a hypnotic induction procedure based on social learning principles (skill induction) with a traditional eye-fixation/relaxation trance induction, a placebo, and a control. Results suggested that hypnotic responses are elicited by expectancy and that induction procedures are a means of increasing subjects' expectancies for hypnotic…

  4. Further Investigation of the Relationship between Hypnotic Susceptibility and Classroom Seating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Henderikus J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the finds of Sackeim, Paulhus, and Weiman (1979), three classrooms of college students were tested for hypnotic susceptibility, handedness, and seating preferences. No relationships between variables were found for males. For females, relationships were inconsistent. Relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and…

  5. Anxiolytics, Sedatives, and Hypnotics Prescribed by Dentists in Brazil in 2010.

    PubMed

    Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Silva, Maria Elisa de Souza E; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    To describe dental prescriptions for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics for Brazilian outpatients in 2010. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data on the use of anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, Brazil, 2010. For each prescription, prescribed drugs and the prescribed amount were identified. Prescribed medications were classified according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code. We calculated the number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics by code, their mean DDD, and DDD per inhabitant per year. There were 16,436 prescriptions dispensed, including anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics. These prescriptions corresponded to 3,555,780.50 mg, distributed as 2,286,200.50 mg (64.30%) of anxiolytics and 1,269,580.00 mg (35.70%) of sedatives and hypnotics. This amount allowed treating approximately 474,106 individuals (number of DDD). The anxiolytics most frequently dispensed were bromazepam (25.30%), alprazolam (19.19%), and diazepam (15.60%). Sedatives and hypnotics mostly prescribed were zolpidem (9.55%), midazolam (6.99%), and flunitrazepam (2.14%). The per capita rates (100,000 inhabitants) of anxiolytics and sedatives/hypnotics were 6.83 and 1.78, respectively. Benzodiazepines and derivatives were the most frequently prescribed drugs. There was a low rate of dental prescriptions for anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, although excessive doses were concentrated in the same prescription.

  6. A Simple Hypnotic Approach to Treat Test Anxiety in Medical Students and Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Stephen W.

    1984-01-01

    A simple hypnotic procedure to treat test anxiety is described that was used successfully with medical students and residents at the Wake Forest University Medical Center. A light trace is obtained and then the student is told to take such a hypnotic "journey" the evening prior to the test. (MLW)

  7. Further Investigation of the Relationship between Hypnotic Susceptibility and Classroom Seating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Henderikus J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the finds of Sackeim, Paulhus, and Weiman (1979), three classrooms of college students were tested for hypnotic susceptibility, handedness, and seating preferences. No relationships between variables were found for males. For females, relationships were inconsistent. Relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and…

  8. "Trance" versus "Skill" Hypnotic Inductions: The Effects of Credibility, Expectancy, and Experimenter Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council, James R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared a hypnotic induction procedure based on social learning principles (skill induction) with a traditional eye-fixation/relaxation trance induction, a placebo, and a control. Results suggested that hypnotic responses are elicited by expectancy and that induction procedures are a means of increasing subjects' expectancies for hypnotic…

  9. Non Benzodiazepines Hypnotics: Another Way to Induce Sleep

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    Management", held in Venice, Italy, 3-4 June 1999, and published in RTO MP-31. 3-2 network of excitatory and inhibitory interneurones lying A major...excitatory interneurones of the RAS are believed to use insomnia and favour the evolution of transient insomnia glutamic acid as their neurotransmitter, and...Benzodiazepines, zopiclone and zolpidem all interact an underlying pathology, or of a change in life-style, with the same receptor in the brain, the a

  10. Hypnotic responsivity and the treatment of flying phobia.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Maruffi, Brian; Frischholz, Edward J; Spiegel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Systematic follow-up data are reported for 178 consecutive flying phobia patients treated with a single 45-minute session involving hypnosis and a problem restructuring strategy. One hundred fifty-eight (89%) of the patients completed follow-up questionnaires between six months and ten and one half years after treatment. Results showed that hypnotizable patients were over two and one half times more likely to report some positive treatment impact than those who were found to be nonhypnotizable on the Hypnotic Induction Profile. In addition, the patients' previous experiences with psychotherapy were found to be significantly associated with treatment outcome. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  12. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  13. Dependence, misuse, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics by elderly psychiatric patients taking zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chang, Yu-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ying; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jin-Jia; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of dependence on, misuse of, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics in elderly psychiatric patients with long-term use of zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam. A total of 139 psychiatric outpatients 65 or more years of age who used zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam for at least 3 months were studied. The levels of hypnotic dependence and beliefs regarding hypnotic use (necessity and concern) were assessed. Three patterns of hypnotic misuse in the past 1 month were also explored. The correlates of high dependence, misuse, and unfavorable attitude and high concern toward hypnotic use were examined using logistic regression analyses. A total of 28.8%, 7.9%, 12.2%, and 22.3% of participants reported high dependence on, misuse of, unfavorable attitude toward, and high concern toward hypnotic use, respectively. Males were more likely to report unfavorable attitude toward hypnotic use than females. Elders with significant depression were more likely to report high concern toward hypnotic use than those without significant depression. Elders with high concern toward hypnotic use were more likely to report high dependence on hypnotics than those with low concern. Elders with significant depression and taking zolpidem were more likely to misuse hypnotics than those without significant depression and taking estazolam or flunitrazepam, respectively. Clinicians should monitor the possibility of dependence on and misuse of hypnotics among elderly psychiatric patients who had the correlates identified in this study. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Impact of hypnotics use on daytime function and factors associated with usage by female shift work nurses.

    PubMed

    Futenma, Kunihiro; Asaoka, Shoichi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Komada, Yoko; Ishikawa, Jun; Murakoshi, Akiko; Nishida, Shingo; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-05-01

    We investigated quality of life (QOL) and work performance of hypnotics users, and explored the factors associated with multiple hypnotics usage in shift work nurses. We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on nurses in university hospitals. We analyzed responses from 1202 nurses; 997 were female shift work nurses (82.9%), including 696 and 281 two- and three-shift workers, respectively. The rate of hypnotics use was 10% (6.9% were single hypnotic users and 3.1% were multiple hypnotics users). The rate of insomnia did not differ between the single and multiple hypnotics users. However, multiple hypnotics users showed lower QOL, more severe depressive symptoms, and greater frequencies of work-related errors than those using a single hypnotic. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥27 years, presence of depression, eveningness chronotype, and presence of insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with hypnotics use. On the other hand, only the existence of shift work disorder (SWD) was significantly associated with usage of multiple hypnotics. The present study suggested that usage of multiple hypnotics is not beneficial for relieving insomnia or for keeping better QOL in shift work nurses. It would be desirable to explore the causal relationship between SWD and multiple hypnotics use in a future longitudinal study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Placebo versus "standard" hypnosis rationale: attitudes, expectancies, hypnotic responses, and experiences.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Michelle; Cleere, Colleen; Lynn, Steven Jay; Kirsch, Irving

    2013-10-01

    In this study participants were provided with either the standard rationale that accompanies the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: A (Shor & Orne, 1962) or a rationale that presented hypnosis as a nondeceptive placebo, consistent with Kirsch's (1994) sociocognitive perspective of hypnosis. The effects of the placebo and standard rationales were highly comparable with respect to hypnotic attitudes; prehypnotic expectancies; objective, subjective, and involuntariness measures of hypnotic responding; as well as a variety of subjective experiences during hypnosis, as measured by the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (Pekala, 1982). Differences among correlations were not evident when measures were compared across groups. However, indices of hypnotic responding were correlated with attitudes in the hypnosis but not the placebo condition, and, generally speaking, the link between subjective experiences during hypnosis and measures of hypnotic responding were more reliable in the placebo than the hypnosis group. Researcher findings are neutral with respect to providing support for altered state versus sociocognitive models of hypnosis.

  16. Lack of correlation between hypnotic susceptibility and various components of attention.

    PubMed

    Varga, Katalin; Németh, Zoltán; Szekely, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to measure the relationship between performance on various attentional tasks and hypnotic susceptibility. Healthy volunteers (N=116) participated in a study, where they had to perform several tasks measuring various attention components in a waking state: sustained attention, selective or focused attention, divided attention and executive attention in task switching. Hypnotic susceptibility was measured in a separate setting by the Waterloo-Stanford Groups Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C (WSGC). We found no significant correlation between any of the attentional measures and hypnotic susceptibility. Highly hypnotizables did not prove to be superior to or worse than the other individuals in any of the tests. These results do not support the neuropsychophysiological model of hypnosis, as they show no consistent relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and waking attentional performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term Use of Z-Hypnotics and Co-medication with Benzodiazepines and Opioids.

    PubMed

    Sakshaug, Solveig; Handal, Marte; Hjellvik, Vidar; Berg, Christian; Ripel, Åse; Gustavsen, Ingebjørg; Mørland, Jørg; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2017-03-01

    Benzodiazepine-like drugs (z-hypnotics) are the most commonly used drugs for treatment of insomnia in Norway. Z-hypnotics are recommended for short-term treatment not exceeding 4 weeks. We aimed to study the use of z-hypnotics in the adult population in Norway with focus on recurrent use in new users, treatment intensity and co-medication with benzodiazepines and opioids in long-term users. Data were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database. New users in 2009 were followed through 2013. Recurrent z-hypnotic use was defined as new fillings at least once in each of the four 365-day follow-up periods. Age groups of 18-39, 40-64 and 65+ years were analysed separately for men and women. In 2013, 354,571 (8.9%) of the population filled at least one prescription of z-hypnotics and the prevalence was relatively stable over time. Among the 92,911 new users of z-hypnotics in 2009, 13,996 (16.8%) received z-hypnotics all four 365-day periods of follow-up. In these long-term recurrent users, the treatment intensity was high already the second year, with mean annual amounts of 199 and 169 DDDs per patient in men and women, respectively. The interquartile differences were greatest in the youngest age group. 27.9% of the long-term recurrent users of z-hypnotics used benzodiazepines the fourth year and 33.9% used opioids. The proportions with co-medication increased with level of z-hypnotic treatment intensity. Overall, many z-hypnotic users had medicines dispensed for longer periods than recommended, and co-medications with drugs that may reinforce the central depressing and intoxicating effects were common.

  18. Middle-of-the-Night Hypnotic Use in a Large National Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Berglund, Patricia; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C.; Stephenson, Judith J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) is the most common nighttime insomnia symptom among US adults, many FDA-approved hypnotics have indications only for sleep onset, stipulating bedtime administration to offset residual sedation. Given the well-known self-medication tendencies of insomniacs, concern arises that maintenance insomniacs might be prone to self-administer their prescribed hypnotics middle-of-the-night (MOTN) after nocturnal awakenings, despite little efficacy-safety data supporting such use. However, no US data characterize the actual population prevalence or correlates of MOTN hypnotic use. Methods: Telephone interviews assessed patterns of prescription hypnotic use in a national sample of 1,927 commercial health plan members (ages 18-64) receiving prescription hypnotics within 12 months of study. The Brief Insomnia Questionnaire assessed insomnia symptoms. Results: 20.2% of respondents reported MOTN hypnotic use, including 9.0% who sometimes used twice-per-night (once at bedtime plus once MOTN) and another 11.2% who sometimes used MOTN, but never twice-per-night. The remaining 79.8% used exclusively at bedtime. Among exclusive MOTN users, only 14.0% used MOTN on the advice of their physician (52.6% of those seen by sleep medicine specialists and 42.6% by psychiatrists vs. 5.2% to 13.6% seen by other physicians). MOTN use predictors included DMS being the most bothersome sleep problem, long duration of hypnotic use, and low frequency of DMS. Conclusions: One-fifth of patients with prescription hypnotics used MOTN, only a minority on advice from their physicians. Since significant next-day cognitive and psychomotor impairment is documented with off-label MOTN hypnotic use, prescribing physicians should question patients about unsupervised MOTN dosing. Citation: Roth T; Berglund P; Shahly V; Shillington AC; Stephenson JJ; Kessler RC. Middle-of-the-night hypnotic use in a large national health plan. J Clin Sleep Med 2013

  19. The effect of halothane and pentobarbital sodium on brain ependymal cilia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of anesthetic agents on ependymal ciliary function is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of halothane and pentobarbital sodium on brain ependymal ciliary function. Methods We used an ex vivo rat brain slice model to measure ependymal ciliary beat frequency by high speed video photography at 37°C. Results Exposure to halothane caused a significant reduction in ciliary beat frequency of 2 % (P = 0.006), 15.5 % (P < 0.001), and 21.5 % (P < 0.001) for halothane concentrations of 1.8 %, 3.4 % and 4.4 %, respectively, compared to controls. Following a one-hour wash-out period, there was no significant difference between control samples and cilia that had been exposed to 1.8 % (P = 0.5) and 3.4 % (P = 0.3) halothane. The beat frequency of cilia exposed to 4.4 % halothane had increased following the wash-out period but cilia were still beating significantly more slowly than cilia from the control group (P = <0.001). Pentobarbitone at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml had no effect on ciliary beat frequency compared to controls (P = 0.6 and 0.4 respectively). A significant (P = 0.002) decrease in ciliary beat frequency was seen following incubation with a pentobarbitone concentration of 250 μg/ml (mean (SD) frequency, 24(8) Hz compared to controls, 38(9) Hz). Conclusions Halothane reversibly inhibits the rate at which ependymal cilia beat. Pentobarbitone has no effect on ciliary activity at levels used for anesthesia. It is unclear whether the slowing of ependymal ciliary by halothane is responsible for some of the secondary central nervous system effects of volatile anesthetic agents. PMID:23351190

  20. In vivo sedative and hypnotic activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. in Swiss Albino mice.

    PubMed

    Jakaria, Md; Clinton, Chayan Dhar; Islam, Mukimul; Talukder, Mohammad Belal; Shariful Islam, Md; Tareq, Syed Mohammed; Uddin, Shaikh Bokhtear

    2017-03-01

    The superior genus Jacquemontia belongs to Convolvulaceae, with around 120 species, and is also considered taxonomically difficult. The aim of this experiment was to assess the sedative and hypnotic activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. The sedative and hypnotic activities were evaluated by hole-cross, open field, hole-board, elevated plus maze (EPM), and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. In this investigation, we found that methanol extract of Jacquemontia paniculata (MEJP) produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of spontaneous activity of mice both in hole-cross and open field tests. In addition, it also decreased the number of head dips in hole-board test. In the case of EPM test, this crude extract induced an anxiogenic-like effect rather than anxiolytic effect in mice. Moreover, MEJP significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. To conclude, these results suggest that the MEJP leaves possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for sleep disorders like insomnia.

  1. Early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and postoperative delirium after anaesthesia with various hypnotics: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial - The PINOCCHIO trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium can result in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, major demand for postoperative care and higher hospital costs. Hypnotics serve to induce and maintain anaesthesia and to abolish patients' consciousness. Their persisting clinical action can delay postoperative cognitive recovery and favour postoperative delirium. Some evidence suggests that these unwanted effects vary according to each hypnotic's specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and its interaction with the individual patient. We designed this study to evaluate postoperative delirium rate after general anaesthesia with various hypnotics in patients undergoing surgical procedures other than cardiac or brain surgery. We also aimed to test whether delayed postoperative cognitive recovery increases the risk of postoperative delirium. Methods/Design After local ethics committee approval, enrolled patients will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. In all patients anaesthesia will be induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with the anaesthetics desflurane, or sevoflurane, or propofol and the analgesic opioid fentanyl. The onset of postoperative delirium will be monitored with the Nursing Delirium Scale every three hours up to 72 hours post anaesthesia. Cognitive function will be evaluated with two cognitive test batteries (the Short Memory Orientation Memory Concentration Test and the Rancho Los Amigos Scale) preoperatively, at baseline, and postoperatively at 20, 40 and 60 min after extubation. Statistical analysis will investigate differences in the hypnotics used to maintain anaesthesia and the odds ratios for postoperative delirium, the relation of early postoperative cognitive recovery and postoperative delirium rate. A subgroup analysis will be used to categorize patients according to demographic variables relevant to the risk of postoperative delirium (age, sex, body weight) and to the preoperative score index

  2. The hypnotic diagnostic interview for hysterical disorders, pediatric form.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2009-07-01

    This article reports on the use of hypnosis to facilitate the diagnostic process in two cases of pediatric hysterical reactions. The Hypnotic Diagnostic Interview for Hysterical Disorders (HDIHD), an interview tool, specifically designed for these cases, is reported. The first case was an adolescent male with motor Conversion Disorder manifested as paralysis of his lower limbs. The second was a preadolescent girl with sensory Conversion Disorder manifested as reduction of visual field in her right eye. Freudian conceptualization of hysterical reactions was employed as the conceptual basis in the formulation of these cases. This orientation posits hysterical phenomena a psychological defense employed by individuals exposed to traumatic experiences in order to effectuate a defense from intolerable affective material. The emotionally overwhelming material converts into physical reactivity free of the traumatic consequences by keeping the intolerable images and emotions deeply repressed within the subconscious. As the focus on these cases was diagnostic, treatment efforts were avoided. As it turned out, environmental interventions, based on the obtained information from the hypnotic interviews, extinguished the symptoms. The children were symptom free at follow-up.

  3. Hypnotic susceptibility as related to gestalt closure tasks.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H J

    1981-02-01

    The investigation was concerned primarily with the relationship of gestalt closure tasks to hypnotizability on a test of the hypothesis that the more highly hypnotizable do better on a task of holistic visuospatial functioning than those less responsive to hypnosis. Several other cognitive tasks were included: visualization, disembedding of hidden figures, and syllogistic reasoning. Sex differences were inconsistent in the four studies reported. In Study 1 (22 male and 20 female university students), high hypnotizables scored significantly higher than low hypnotizables on the gestalt closure tasks, but there were no significant correlations between hypnotizability and the other cognitive tasks. In Study 2 (25 male and 25 female university students) and Study 3 (41 male and 37 female university students), females showed significant correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and gestalt closure scores. In Study 4 (37 male and 27 female high school students), a significant correlation between hypnotic susceptibility and gestalt closure was found for males. The results are consistent with studies of different types of cognitive functioning (hemispheric preference, creativity, attentional distribution, imaginative involvement, and absorption), all indicating differences in cognitive abilities associated with high hypnotizability.

  4. Clinical evaluation of hypnotic drugs: contributions from sleep laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Kales, A; Scharf, M B; Soldatos, C R; Bixler, E O

    1979-07-01

    The most thorough and clinically relevant approach to hypnotic drug evaluation is one that balances the strengths and weaknesses of clinical trials and sleep laboratory evaluations. Advantages of clinical trials include the ability to evaluate large numbers of subjects and specific target groups and to thoroughly assess and quantify a drug's side effects, whereas sleep laboratory studies are very limited in all of these areas. Sleep laboratory studies however provide a rigorous, precise, and comprehensive profile of a drug's activity since there is more control over experimental variables and measurements are objective as well as continuous throughout the night. These benefits offset the shortcomings of clinical trials, which include a lack of objective measurements, less control over experimental variables, failure to evaluate a drug's effectiveness with continued use, and inattention to drug interaction and withdrawal effect. Several basic principles derived from sleep laboratory findings have been incorporated into both the clinical trials and sleep laboratory evaluations recommended in the new FDA Guidelines for the Clinical Evaluation of Hypnotic Drugs. These principles include provision for adequate baseline and withdrawal periods, use of multiple consecutive drug nights to assess a drug's effectiveness with continued use, and inclusion of an adequate washout period when a cross-over design is used. The guidelines do not emphasize either clinical trials or sleep laboratory studies at the expense of each other, but rather stress their complementary utilization.

  5. Distinct Hypnotic Recoveries After Infusions of Methoxycarbonyl Etomidate and Cyclopropyl Methoxycarbonyl Metomidate: The Role of the Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Pejo, Ervin; Liu, Jifeng; Lin, Xiangjie; Raines, Douglas E

    2016-04-01

    Methoxycarbonyl etomidate (MOC-etomidate) and cyclopropyl methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) are rapidly metabolized "soft" etomidate analogs. CPMM's duration of hypnotic effect is context insensitive, whereas MOC-etomidate's is not. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CPMM's effect is context insensitive because, unlike MOC-etomidate, its metabolite fails to reach physiologically important concentrations in vivo even with prolonged continuous infusion. We compared the potencies with which MOC-etomidate and CPMM activate α1(L264T)β3γ2 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and induce loss-of-righting reflexes (i.e., produce hypnosis) in tadpoles with those of their metabolites (MOC-etomidate's carboxylic acid metabolite [MOC-ECA] and CPMM's carboxylic acid metabolite [CPMM-CA], respectively). We measured metabolite concentrations in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of Sprague-Dawley rats on CPMM infusion and compared them with those achieved with MOC-etomidate infusion. We measured the rates with which brain tissue from Sprague-Dawley rats metabolize MOC-etomidate and CPMM. Both analogs and their metabolites enhanced γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function and induced loss-of-righting reflexes in a concentration-dependent manner. However, in these 2 assays, CPMM-CA's potency relative to its parent hypnotic was approximately 1:4900 and 1:1900, respectively, whereas MOC-ECA's was only approximately 1:415 and 1:390, respectively. With 2-hour CPMM infusions, CPMM-CA reached respective concentrations in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid that were 2 and >3 orders of magnitude lower than that which produced hypnosis. CPMM was metabolized by the brain tissue at a rate that is approximately 1/15th that of MOC-etomidate. Hypnotic recovery after CPMM administration is context insensitive because its metabolite does not accumulate to hypnotic levels in the central nervous system. This reflects the very large potency ratio between CPMM and CPMM-CA and the

  6. The hypnotic and analgesic effects of oral clonidine during sevoflurane anesthesia in children: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinichi; Kihara, Shin-Ichi; Miyabe, Masayuki; Sumiya, Kenji; Baba, Yasuyuki; Kohda, Yukinao; Toyooka, Hidenori

    2002-06-01

    Although clonidine has both hypnotic and analgesic actions, the dose relationship for each actions is still unknown in a clinical setting when clonidine is used as a premedication in children. We studied 80 ASA physical status I children (age range, 3-8 yr). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration [MAC]-Awake group, n = 40; MAC-Tetanus group, n = 40). Each patient received one dose of clonidine from 1 to 5 microg/kg orally, 100 min before arrival at the operating room. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Before tracheal intubation, end-tidal sevoflurane was decreased stepwise by 0.2% at the start of 1.2%, a verbal command was given to the patients, and MAC-awake was determined in each patient. We also investigated MAC-tetanus, determined with transcutaneous electric tetanic stimulations, after tracheal intubation in each patient by observing the motor response to a transcutaneous electric tetanic stimulus to the ulnar nerve at a sevoflurane concentration decreased stepwise by 0.25% at the start of 2.75%. The initial reduction in MAC-tetanus was not as steep as that in MAC-awake. Clonidine reduced MAC-tetanus by 40% at the maximal dose of 5 microg/kg, whereas MAC-awake was already reduced by 50% at 2 microg/kg. We conclude that separate dose-response relationships for oral clonidine are present regarding the hypnotic and analgesic effects in children undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia. Separate dose-response relationships for oral clonidine were found regarding the hypnotic and analgesic effects in children undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia.

  7. The Hypnotic Induction in the Broad Scheme of Hypnosis: A Sociocognitive Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Maxwell, Reed; Green, Joseph P

    2017-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians typically divide hypnosis into two distinct parts: the induction and the suggestions that follow. We suggest that this distinction is arbitrary and artificial. Different definitions of hypnosis ascribe different roles to the hypnotic induction, yet none clearly specifies the mechanisms that mediate or moderate subjective and behavioral responses to hypnotic suggestions. Researchers have identified few if any differences in responding across diverse hypnotic inductions, and surprisingly little research has focused on the specific ingredients that optimize responsiveness. From a sociocognitive perspective, we consider the role of inductions in the broader scheme of hypnosis and suggest that there is no clear line of demarcation between prehypnotic information, the induction, suggestions, and other constituents of the hypnotic context. We describe research efforts to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions, which encompass the induction and other aspects of the broader hypnotic framework, and conclude with a call for more research on inductions and suggestions to better understand their role within hypnotic interventions in research and clinical contexts.

  8. Correlates of dependence and beliefs about the use of hypnotics among zolpidem and zopiclone users.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yen, Chia-Nan; Ko, Chih-Hung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Su, Po-Wen; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Lin, Jin-Jia

    2015-02-01

    Zolpidem and zopiclone are the two most commonly prescribed Z-drugs approved to treat insomnia. To examine the demographic and clinical correlates of dependence and beliefs about hypnotic use among long-term zolpidem and zopiclone users in psychiatric treatment for insomnia. A total of 392 psychiatric outpatients who received zolpidem or zopiclone treatment for at least 3 months for insomnia were studied. Participants' severity of hypnotic dependence and beliefs about the use of hypnotics to treat sleep problems were assessed. The correlation of dependence and beliefs about zolpidem and zopiclone treatment with demographic characteristics, hypnotic-using behaviors, co-use of addictive substances, and depressive symptoms were analyzed using multiple regression analysis models. Zolpidem users reported more severe dependence and a lower level of necessity regarding the use of hypnotics than zopiclone users did. High equivalent doses of hypnotics and long duration of use were significantly associated with severe dependence and a low level of necessity. Severe depressive symptoms were signiciantly associated with severe dependence, a low level of necessity, and a low level of concern. Educational level was also associated with the levels of concern and necessity. Conclusions/Importance: There were differences in the level of dependence and belief about hypnotic use between zolpidem and zopiclone users. The correlates of dependence and belief identified in this study can serve as the basis for prevention and intervention programs.

  9. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics' mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia.

  10. Extension of time until cardiac arrest after injection of a lethal dose of pentobarbital in the hibernating Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Seiji; Shiina, Takahiko; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether entry of peripherally injected drugs into the central nervous system is reduced during hibernation. When a lethal dose of pentobarbital was injected intraperitoneally, the time until cardiac arrest was significantly longer in hibernating hamsters than in active controls. The time difference was not a consequence of low body temperature or diminished circulation, because mimicking these parameters in artificial hypothermia did not prolong the time. In contrast, there was no difference in the time until cardiac arrest after intracerebroventricular injection of the anesthetic. These results indicate that entry of peripherally injected anesthetics into the central nervous system may be suppressed during hibernation.

  11. Hypnotics and mortality in an elderly general population: a 12-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypnotics are widely used by the elderly, and their impact on mortality remains controversial. The inconsistent findings could be due to methodological limitations, notably the lack of control for underlying sleep symptoms or illness associated with hypnotic use, for example, insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Our objective was to examine the association between the use of hypnotics and mortality risk in a large cohort of community-dwelling elderly, taking into account a wide range of potential competing risks including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and chronic disorders as well as underlying psychiatric disorders and sleep complaints. Methods Analyses were carried out on 6,696 participants aged 65 years or older randomly recruited from three French cities and free of dementia at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models with delayed entry, and age of the participants as the time scale, were used to determine the association between hypnotic use and 12-year survival. Results At baseline, 21.7% of the participants regularly used at least one hypnotic. During follow-up, 1,307 persons died, 480 from cancer and 344 from cardiovascular disease. Analyses adjusted for study center, age and gender showed a significantly greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality with hypnotics, particularly benzodiazepines, and this increased with the number of hypnotics used. None of these associations were significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, chronic disorders including cardiovascular pathologies, sleep and psychiatric disorders. Results remained unchanged when duration of past hypnotic intake or persistent versus intermittent use during follow-up were taken into account. Conclusions When controlling for a large range of potential confounders, the risk of mortality was not significantly associated with hypnotic use regardless of the type and

  12. Middle-of-the-night hypnotic use in a large national health plan.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Berglund, Patricia; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C; Stephenson, Judith J; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-07-15

    Although difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) is the most common nighttime insomnia symptom among US adults, many FDA-approved hypnotics have indications only for sleep onset, stipulating bedtime administration to offset residual sedation. Given the well-known self-medication tendencies of insomniacs, concern arises that maintenance insomniacs might be prone to self-administer their prescribed hypnotics middle-of-the-night (MOTN) after nocturnal awakenings, despite little efficacy-safety data supporting such use. However, no US data characterize the actual population prevalence or correlates of MOTN hypnotic use. Telephone interviews assessed patterns of prescription hypnotic use in a national sample of 1,927 commercial health plan members (ages 18-64) receiving prescription hypnotics within 12 months of study. The Brief Insomnia Questionnaire assessed insomnia symptoms. 20.2% of respondents reported MOTN hypnotic use, including 9.0% who sometimes used twice-per-night (once at bedtime plus once MOTN) and another 11.2% who sometimes used MOTN, but never twice-per-night. The remaining 79.8% used exclusively at bedtime. Among exclusive MOTN users, only 14.0% used MOTN on the advice of their physician (52.6% of those seen by sleep medicine specialists and 42.6% by psychiatrists vs. 5.2% to 13.6% seen by other physicians). MOTN use predictors included DMS being the most bothersome sleep problem, long duration of hypnotic use, and low frequency of DMS. One-fifth of patients with prescription hypnotics used MOTN, only a minority on advice from their physicians. Since significant next-day cognitive and psychomotor impairment is documented with off-label MOTN hypnotic use, prescribing physicians should question patients about unsupervised MOTN dosing.

  13. Hypnotics and mortality in an elderly general population: a 12-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jaussent, Isabelle; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Berr, Claudine; Pérès, Karine; Scali, Jacqueline; Besset, Alain; Ritchie, Karen; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-09-26

    Hypnotics are widely used by the elderly, and their impact on mortality remains controversial. The inconsistent findings could be due to methodological limitations, notably the lack of control for underlying sleep symptoms or illness associated with hypnotic use, for example, insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Our objective was to examine the association between the use of hypnotics and mortality risk in a large cohort of community-dwelling elderly, taking into account a wide range of potential competing risks including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and chronic disorders as well as underlying psychiatric disorders and sleep complaints. Analyses were carried out on 6,696 participants aged 65 years or older randomly recruited from three French cities and free of dementia at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models with delayed entry, and age of the participants as the time scale, were used to determine the association between hypnotic use and 12-year survival. At baseline, 21.7% of the participants regularly used at least one hypnotic. During follow-up, 1,307 persons died, 480 from cancer and 344 from cardiovascular disease. Analyses adjusted for study center, age and gender showed a significantly greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality with hypnotics, particularly benzodiazepines, and this increased with the number of hypnotics used. None of these associations were significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, chronic disorders including cardiovascular pathologies, sleep and psychiatric disorders. Results remained unchanged when duration of past hypnotic intake or persistent versus intermittent use during follow-up were taken into account. When controlling for a large range of potential confounders, the risk of mortality was not significantly associated with hypnotic use regardless of the type and duration. Underlying psychiatric disorders

  14. Treatment of insomnia with hypnotics resulting in improved sexual functioning in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Defne; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oztürk, Ozgür

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to determine whether trazodone used in hypnotic doses, compared to the hypnotic agent zopiclone, had any specific positive effect on sexual function in non-depressive post-menopausal women with insomnia. Fifty (50) subjects participated in the study. Insomnia and sexual performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of hypnotic treatment. At week four, both treatments improved sleep quality to a similar degree. Sexual function also improved significantly with both treatments, with no significant difference between the groups. In post-menopausal women, sexual problems and sleep problems may be related and solving sleep problems may help sexual functioning, independently of depression.

  15. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among rural and urban women with protective orders.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors for lifetime nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates among a sample of rural and urban women with recent partner violence victimization (n=756). Nearly one third of the sample (32.8%) reported ever using illicit sedative-hypnotics or opiates. Nonmedical use of sedative-hypnotics and opiates was significantly associated with lifetime cumulative exposure to interpersonal victimization, rural Appalachian residency, past-year use of other substances and other substance-related problems, and lifetime unmet health care needs. Findings have implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment and victim advocacy programs.

  16. [Are z-hypnotics better and safer sleeping pills than benzodiazepines?].

    PubMed

    Mellingsaeter, Trude C; Bramness, Jørgen G; Slørdal, Lars

    2006-11-16

    Benzodiazepines and the benzodiazepine-like z-hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem, and zaleplon) have the same mode of action and many of the same effects. The use of z-hypnotics has had a steady and large increase since their introduction in Norway, and sales data suggest extensive use among the elderly. The relatively short half-lives of these drugs may cause less hangover effects, but z-hypnotics are hardly more effective or safer than benzodiazepines. The two classes of drugs should be prescribed with similar caution.

  17. Hypnosis and belief: A review of hypnotic delusions.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    Hypnosis can create temporary, but highly compelling alterations in belief. As such, it can be used to model many aspects of clinical delusions in the laboratory. This approach allows researchers to recreate features of delusions on demand and examine underlying processes with a high level of experimental control. This paper reviews studies that have used hypnosis to model delusions in this way. First, the paper reviews studies that have focused on reproducing the surface features of delusions, such as their high levels of subjective conviction and strong resistance to counter-evidence. Second, the paper reviews studies that have focused on modelling underlying processes of delusions, including anomalous experiences or cognitive deficits that underpin specific delusional beliefs. Finally, the paper evaluates this body of research as a whole. The paper discusses advantages and limitations of using hypnotic models to study delusions and suggests some directions for future research.

  18. Expanding hypnotic pain management to the affective dimension of pain.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    Experimental (Price & Barber, 1987) and neuroimaging studies (Rainville, Carrier, Hofbauer, Bushnell, & Duncan, 1999), suggest that it is the affective dimension of pain as processed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that is most associated with suffering and autonomic arousal. Conversely, pain related emotions (Rainville, Bao, & Chretien, 2005) and expectations (Koyama, McHaffie, Laurenti, & Coghill, 2005) modulate pain perception and associated pain affect. This paper presents both the scientific background and the general clinical steps involved in a practical hypnotic approach that uses emotion specific wording and the elicitation of prior positive experience to intervene at both the affective and sensory dimensions of pain. Such an approach enables patients to therapeutically use hypnosis to reduce their subjective distress even if they are not able to greatly reduce the sensation of pain. The utilization of positive state dependent learning (Rossi, 1986), following the advice of Milton Erickson to "discover their patterns of happiness" (Parsons-Fein, 2005) is emphasized.

  19. Sedative-Hypnotic Drug Withdrawal Syndrome: Recognition And Treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cynthia; Olmedo, Ruben E

    2017-03-01

    Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents. Managing withdrawal symptoms requires a patient-specific approach that takes into account the physiologic pathways of the particular drugs used as well as the patient's age and comorbidities. Adjunctive therapies include alpha agonists, beta blockers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics. Newer pharmacological therapies offer promise in managing withdrawal symptoms.

  20. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Eight-Year Follow-up of Hypnotic Delivery by Adults Aged 50 and Older from an Insurance Database: Trajectory analysis of hypnotic delivery.

    PubMed

    Verger, Pierre; Cortaredona, Sébastien; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Tournier, Marie; Verdoux, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to: 1) identify patterns of hypnotic use among persons aged 50 and older for 8 years, and 2) describe characteristics and correlates associated with them. A representative sample of national health insurance system beneficiaries was followed up from 2006 through 2013; individuals were grouped according to hypnotic delivery trajectories by latent class mixed models. We identified 4 different temporal trajectories of hypnotic delivery among users. Delivery was occasional for 40%, and regular for 60% (quasi-continuous "use": 27%; increasingly frequent over time: 17%; decreasingly frequent: 16%). Quasi-continuous "users" received hypnotics for more than 70% of the follow-up period, and occasional "users" for less than 8%. We found no clear evidence of dose escalation. The three regular-delivery trajectories shared similar correlates (psychiatric disorders, somatic comorbidity, co-prescriptions of antidepressants or antipsychotics), but association with somatic comorbidity was highest by far for quasi-continuous "users". Our results suggest that chronic hypnotic use covers different patterns resulting from different long-term temporal delivery trajectories. Because difficulties in stopping or reducing use may vary greatly according to these trajectories, patients may need individualized management approaches.

  2. In vivo and in silico sedative-hypnotic like activity of 7-methyljuglone isolated from Diospyros lotus L.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uysal, Sengul; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Uddin, Ghias; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Haroon; Siddiqui, Bina S; Raza, Muslim; Bawazeer, Saud; Zengin, Gokhan

    2017-03-01

    Diospyros lotus L. possesses different therapeutic activities such as antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-microbial and sedative. However, no studies on the sedative-hypnotic activity of 7-methyljuglone are reported. In the present study, we have evaluated in vivo the anxiolytic-hypnotic like effects of 7-methyljuglone in mice with open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time tests. We have also assessed in silico the involvement of GABAA, GABAB and 5HT1 neurotransmission in its mechanism of action. The intraperitoneal administration of 7-methyljuglone (2.5-10mg/kg) reduce significantly the number of crossed lines in mice open field test and concomitantly it shown a significant activity in term of onset of sleeping time and also in its duration. Moreover, 7-methyljuglone demonstrated in silico an interesting interaction with GABAA but not GABAB and 5HT1binding sites. All of these results, taken together, 7-methyljuglone may be an innovative candidate for designing new pharmaceutical and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Seabra, M de L; Maluf, E; Assolant, K; Suchecki, D; Tufik, S; Klepacz, S; Calil, H M; Carlini, E A

    1986-07-01

    A herbal tea (called an abafado in Brazil) prepared from the dried leaves of lemongrass was administered to healthy volunteers. Following a single dose or 2 weeks of daily oral administration, the abafado produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipids, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, LDH and CPK. Urine analysis (proteins, glucose, ketones, bilirubins, occult blood and urobilinogen) as well as EEG and EKG showed no abnormalities. There were slight elevations of direct bilirubin and of amylase in some of the volunteers, but without any clinical manifestation. These results taken together indicate that lemongrass as used in Brazilian folk medicine is not toxic for humans. The eventual hypnotic effect of lemongrass was investigated in 50 volunteers who ingested samples of lemongrass and a placebo under double-blind conditions. The parameters (i.e. sleep induction, sleep quality, dream recall and rewakening) did not show any effect of lemongrass as compared to the placebo. Eighteen subjects with high scores of trait-anxiety were submitted to an anxiety-inducing test following taking lemongrass or placebo under double-blind conditions. Their anxiety levels were similar, indicating that the abafado of the plant does not have anxiolytic properties. It is concluded that lemongrass, one of the most popular Brazilian herbal medicines, used for its alleged CNS-depressant effects, is atoxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties.

  4. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p < .01); the activity in the deltoid was 27% lower (p < .001). Without hypnosis, the muscle activity showed a positive correlation with strain. However, there was no such correlation in the hypnotic condition. Apparently, it is possible to reduce strain and to objectively measure muscle activity in an uplifted arm through hypnotic arm levitation.

  5. Thirteen days: Joseph Delboeuf versus Pierre Janet on the nature of hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, André

    2004-01-01

    The problem of post-hypnotic suggestion was introduced in 1884. Give a hypnotic subject the post-hypnotic command to return in 13 days. Awake, the subject remembers nothing yet nonetheless fulfills the command to return. How then does the subject count 13 days without knowing it? In 1886, Pierre Janet proposed the concept of dissociation as a solution, arguing that a second consciousness kept track of time outside of the subject's main consciousness. Joseph Delboeuf, in 1885, and Hippolyte Bernheim, in 1886, proposed an alternative solution, arguing that subjects occasionally drifted into a hypnotic state in which they were reminded of the suggestion. This article traces the development of these competing solutions and describes some of Delboeuf's final reflections on the problem of simulation and the nature of hypnosis.

  6. The Psychophysics of Cold Pressor Pain and Its Modification through Hypnotic Suggestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgard, Ernest R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Earlier reports of the pain of putting hand and forearm in circulating ice water were recomputed to study how subjects scale that pain and to find appropriate measures of its reduction under hypnotic analgesia. (Editor)

  7. The effects of encoding in hypnosis and post-hypnotic suggestion on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nicholas; Kramer, Sam; Tharp, Amanda; Costa, Salvatore; Hawley, Phillip

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between proactive learning in hypnosis, post-hypnotic suggestion, and academic performance. Participants (N = 56) were randomly assigned to a control group or a treatment group. The treatment group was hypnotized and read a passage while in hypnosis. Concurrently, they were given a post-hypnotic suggestion, which attempted to aid recognition and performance on a test immediately following the hypnosis session. Both groups completed a multiple-choice test based on the aforementioned passage. An analysis of covariance discerned the effect of proactive learning and post-hypnotic suggestion on test performance, while controlling for the variance introduced by scholastic aptitude as measured by the ACT. Results indicated that the hypnosis sessions predicted significantly impaired test performance.

  8. The Psychophysics of Cold Pressor Pain and Its Modification through Hypnotic Suggestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgard, Ernest R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Earlier reports of the pain of putting hand and forearm in circulating ice water were recomputed to study how subjects scale that pain and to find appropriate measures of its reduction under hypnotic analgesia. (Editor)

  9. Clinical features of patients with designer-drug-related disorder in Japan: a comparison with patients with methamphetamine- and hypnotic/anxiolytic-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tachimori, Hisateru; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of designer-drug-abusing patients through comparisons with methamphetamine-abusing patients and hypnotics/anxiolytics-abusing patients. Information on 126 designer-drug-abusing patients, 138 methamphetamine-abusing patients, and 87 hypnotics/anxiolytics-abusing patients was extracted from the 2012 database of 'The Nationwide Mental Hospital Survey on Drug-related Psychiatric Disorders' and the clinical variables of designer-drug-abusing patients compared with those of the other two groups. Multivariate analysis indicated the following significant differences between designer-drug-abusing patients and the other two types of patients: designer-drug-abusing patients were younger, included more men, had higher education and fewer relationships with antisocial groups, and included more patients meeting ICD-10 F1 sub-classification categories of 'Harmful use' and 'Psychotic disorders' than methamphetamine-abusing patients. Compared with hypnotics/anxiolytics-abusing patients, designer-drug-abusing patients were younger, included more men and more patients meeting criteria for 'Psychotic disorders', and more frequently cited 'peer pressure', 'unable to refuse', and 'seeking stimulation' as reasons for using the drug. The advent of designer drugs has created a new class of drug abuse, and abuse of designer drugs may carry a strong psychosis-inducing risk, exceeding that of methamphetamine. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Gender and use of hypnotics or sedatives in old age: a nationwide register-based study.

    PubMed

    Johnell, Kristina; Fastbom, Johan

    2011-10-01

    To investigate whether gender is associated with use of hypnotics or sedatives and with different types of hypnotics or sedatives in older people after adjustment for age, socioeconomic status (i.e., education) and co-morbidity (i.e., number of other drugs). Sweden Method We conducted a register-based analysis of data on gender, age, dispensed drugs, and education from people aged 75-89 years registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register between July and October 2005 (n = 645,429). The hypnotic or sedative drug classes were benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine related drugs (i.e., Z-drugs) and other types of hypnotics or sedatives. The individual hypnotics or sedatives were nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, triazolam, zopiclone, zolpidem, clomethiazole and propiomazine. In the total study population, 27.1% of the women and 18.1% of the men were dispensed at least one hypnotic or sedative drug. The logistic regression analyses of those who used hypnotics or sedatives (n = 151,700) revealed that women were more likely than men to use benzodiazepines (adjusted OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.14) and benzodiazepine related drugs (adjusted OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.12-1.17), whereas men were more likely to use other types of hypnotics or sedatives (adjusted OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.67-0.71). Among the individual hypnotics or sedatives, the strongest associations with gender was found for nitrazepam (adjusted OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.14-1.25 for women compared with men), zolpidem (adjusted OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.16-1.21), clomethiazole (adjusted OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.46-0.51) and propiomazine (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.75-0.79). Use of hypnotics or sedatives in old age seems to be related to female gender. Also, among elderly users of hypnotics or sedatives, women appear to be more likely to use benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine related drugs than men. The explanation to these gender differences merits further investigation.

  11. Increased brain monoaminergic tone after the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit gene knockout is responsible for resistance to the hypnotic effect of nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Andrey B; Yamakura, Tomohiro; Kohno, Tatsuro; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroshi

    2013-01-05

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors can be inhibited by inhalational anesthetics in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations. Here, to clarify the role of NMDA receptors in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, we examined the hypnotic properties of isoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit knockout mice. The hypnotic properties of inhalational anesthetics were evaluated in mice in the loss of righting reflex (LORR) assay by measuring the 50% concentration for LORR (LORR ED(50)). Knockout mice displayed isoflurane and sevoflurane LORR ED(50) values similar to wild-type controls, indicating no significant contribution of these receptors to the hypnotic action of halogenated anesthetics. However, compared with wild-type controls, mutant mice displayed larger isoflurane LORR ED(50) values in the presence of nitrous oxide, indicating a resistance to this gaseous anesthetic. Knockout mice have enhanced brain monoaminergic activity which occurs secondary to NMDA receptor dysfunction, and the observed resistance to the isoflurane LORR ED(50)-sparing effect of nitrous oxide could be abolished by pretreatment with the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist droperidol or with the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. Thus, resistance to nitrous oxide in knockout mice appears to be a secondary phenomenon of monoaminergic origin and not a direct result of impaired NMDA receptor function. Our results indicate that NMDA receptors are not critically involved in the hypnotic action of conventionally-used inhalational anesthetics. Also, they suggest that increased brain monoaminergic tone can diminish the effects of general anesthesia. Finally, they provide further evidence that changes secondary to genetic manipulation can explain the results obtained in global knockouts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Piromelatine exerts antinociceptive effect via melatonin, opioid, and 5HT1A receptors and hypnotic effect via melatonin receptors in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Dou; Chen, Li; Qu, Wei-Min; Chen, Chang-Rui; Laudon, Moshe; Cheng, Neng-Neng; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2014-10-01

    An effective and safe treatment of insomnia in patients with neuropathic pain remains an unmet need. Melatonin and its analogs have been shown to have both analgesic and hypnotic effects; however, capacity of them on sleep disturbance with neuropathic pain as well as the precise mechanism is unclear. The present study evaluated effects of piromelatine, a novel melatonin receptor agonist, on sleep disturbance in a neuropathic pain-like condition as well as the underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) was employed. The antinociceptive and hypnotic effects of piromelatine were evaluated by measurement of thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in PSL mice. Pharmacological approaches were used to clarify the mechanisms of action of piromelatine. PSL significantly lowered thermal and mechanical latencies and decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and PSL mice exhibited sleep fragmentation. Treatment with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of piromelatine significantly prolonged thermal and mechanical latencies and increased NREM sleep. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of piromelatine was prevented by melatonin antagonist luzindole, opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, or 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. The hypnotic effect of piromelatine was blocked by luzindole but neither by naloxone nor WAY-100635. These data indicate that piromelatine is an effective treatment for both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSL mice. The antinociceptive effect of piromelatine is likely mediated by melatonin, opioid, and 5HT1A receptors; however, the hypnotic effect of piromelatine appears to be mediated by melatonin receptors.

  13. Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Sleep-Related Eating Disorder in Psychiatric Outpatients Taking Hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Ishikawa, Jun; Komada, Yoko; Murakoshi, Akiko; Futenma, Kunihiro; Nishida, Shingo; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-07-01

    To clarify the prevalence and clinical features of sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) in psychiatric outpatients taking hypnotics as well as factors associated with the disorder. From February 1, 2012, to February 29, 2012, a cross-sectional study was undertaken. A questionnaire addressing demographics, the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), presence of abnormal behavior during sleep focusing on SRED and sleepwalking, and duration of hypnotic medication and subjective side effects of the drug was distributed to psychiatric outpatients who were taking hypnotics at the time of the survey. Of 1,318 patients taking hypnotics, 1,048 patients (79.5%) provided valid responses, and 88 of them (8.4%) had experienced SRED. The SRED group was significantly younger, had a significantly higher total PSQI score, and took higher bedtime diazepam-equivalent doses of hypnotics than the non-SRED group (P < .01 for all comparisons). In the SRED group, subjective side effects due to hypnotics were present at significantly higher proportions than in the non-SRED group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-0.99, P = .021), taking 2 or more kinds of antipsychotics (aOR = 3.41, 95% CI = 1.93-6.05, P < .001), and the bedtime diazepam-equivalent dose of a hypnotic (aOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, P = .039) were significantly associated with the experience of SRED. The prevalence of SRED in psychiatric outpatients taking hypnotics is elevated, particularly in younger patients, and the hypnosedative effects of the drugs could be responsible for the occurrence of the disorder in this population. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics’ mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  15. Individual differences in afterimage persistence: relationships to hypnotic susceptibility and visuospatial skills.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R P; Crawford, H J

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the moderating role of individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility and visuospatial skills on afterimage persistence, we presented a codable (cross) flash of light to 40 men and 46 women who had been dark adapted for 20 min. In an unrelated classroom setting, subjects had previously been given two standardized scales of hypnotic susceptibility (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Shor & Orne, 1962; Group Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, Crawford & Allen, 1982) and the Mental Rotations Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). The first afterimage interval and the afterimage duration correlated significantly with hypnotic responsiveness, supporting Wallace (1979), but did not show the anticipated relationships with mental rotation visuospatial skills. Individuals in the high hypnotizable group had (a) significantly longer afterimage intervals between its first appearance and first disappearance than did those in medium or low groups, as well as (b) significantly longer afterimages between the first appearance and the final disappearance than did those in low groups, but those in medium groups did not differ significantly from the other groups. Discriminant analysis using the afterimage persistence measures classified correctly 65.2% of high hypnotizables, 37.5% of medium hypnotizables, and 54.8% of low hypnotizables. Hypothesized cognitive skills that assist in the maintenance of afterimages and underlie hypnotic susceptibility include abilities to maintain focused attention and resist distractions over time and to maintain vivid visual images.

  16. Eliminating stroop effects with post-hypnotic instructions: Brain mechanisms inferred from EEG.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Anoushiravan; Stuermer, Birgit; Hatami, Javad; Rostami, Reza; Sommer, Werner

    2017-02-01

    The classic Stroop task demonstrates the persistent and automatic effects of the meaning of color words that are very hard to inhibit when the task is to name the word color. Post-hypnotic instructions may enable highly-hypnotizable participants to inhibit the automatic access to word meaning. Here we compared the consequences of hypnosis alone and hypnosis with post-hypnotic instructions on the Stroop effect and its facilitation and inhibition components. Importantly, we studied the mechanisms of the hypnosis effects at the neural level by analyzing EEG frequencies. Highly hypnotizable participants performed the Stroop task in a counterbalanced design following (1) post-hypnotic suggestions that words had lost their meaning, (2) after hypnosis alone, and (3) in a control condition without hypnosis. The overall Stroop effect and both its facilitation and interference components, were not significant after the post-hypnotic suggestion but in both other conditions. Hypnosis alone neither affected the Stroop effect nor - in contrast to some previous reports and claims - overall performance. EEG recorded during the Stroop task showed a significant increase in both frontal theta and frontal beta power when participants were under the impact of post-hypnotic suggestions, in comparison to the two other sessions. Together, these findings indicate that post-hypnotic suggestions - but not hypnosis alone - are powerful tools for eliciting top down processes. Our EEG findings could be interpreted as clue that this is due to the investment of additional cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypnotic relaxation results in elevated thresholds of sensory detection but not of pain detection.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Sybille; Zims, Rolf; Simang, Michael; Rüger, Linda; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-12-15

    Many studies show an effectiveness of hypnotic analgesia. It has been discussed whether the analgesic effect is mainly caused by the relaxation that is concomitant to hypnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hypnotic relaxation suggestion on different somatosensory detection and pain thresholds. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) measurements were performed before and during hypnosis in twenty-three healthy subjects on the dorsum of the right hand. Paired t-test was used to compare threshold changes. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility was evaluated by calculating correlation coefficients for threshold changes and hypnotic susceptibility (Harvard group scale). During hypnosis significantly changed somatosensory thresholds (reduced function) were observed for the following sensory detection thresholds: Cold Detection Threshold (CDT), Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), Thermal Sensory Limen (TSL) and Mechanical Detection Threshold (MDT). The only unchanged sensory detection threshold was Vibration Detection Threshold (VDT). No significant changes were observed for the determined pain detection thresholds (Cold Pain Thresholds, Heat Pain Thresholds, Mechanical Pain Sensitivity, Dynamic Mechanical Allodynia, Wind-up Ratio and Pressure Pain Threshold). No correlation of hypnotic susceptibility and threshold changes were detected. Hypnotic relaxation without a specific analgesic suggestion results in thermal and mechanical detection, but not pain threshold changes. We thus conclude that a relaxation suggestion has no genuine effect on sensory pain thresholds. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02261155 (9th October 2014).

  18. Use of benzodiazepines, hypnotics, and anxiolytics in major depressive disorder: association with chronic pain diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Ye, Wenyu; Watson, Peter; Tepper, Ping

    2010-08-01

    We examined the use of benzodiazepines (BZD), hypnotics, and anxiolytics and their associations with chronic pain diseases (CPD) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A retrospective analysis of 153,913 MDD patients (18-64 years) in a large administrative insured claims database during the year 2006 was performed. Results showed that during the study year, 33.1% of the patients had been prescribed BZD; 16.9%, hypnotics; and 6.1%, anxiolytics. The use of BZD and hypnotics increased with age. Patients with CPD were more likely than those without CPD to use BZD (41.2% vs. 27.0%, p < 0.001), hypnotics (21.7% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.001), and anxiolytics (7.8% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.01). After adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, CPD was still significantly associated with increased use of BZD (OR = 1.62), hypnotics (OR = 1.49), and anxiolytics (OR = 1.51). Further research is needed to examine the long-term benefits and risks of BZD and hypnotics in the treatment of MDD and CPD.

  19. Different regimens of intravenous sedatives or hypnotics for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adult patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Lihua, Peng; Su, Min; Ke, Wei; Ziemann-Gimmel, Patrick

    2014-04-11

    Depression is a common mental disorder. It affects millions of people worldwide and is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be one of the leading causes of disability. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established treatment for severe depression. Intravenous anaesthetic medication is used to minimize subjective unpleasantness and adverse side effects of the induced tonic-clonic seizure. The influence of different anaesthetic medications on the successful reduction of depressive symptoms and adverse effects is unclear. This review evaluated the effects of different regimens of intravenous sedatives and hypnotics on anti-depression efficacy, recovery and seizure duration in depressed adults undergoing ECT. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid SP (from 1966 to 31 December 2012); and EMBASE via Ovid SP (from 1966 to 31 December 2012). We handsearched related journals and applied no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over trials evaluating the effects of different intravenous sedatives and hypnotics for ECT. We excluded studies and trials using placebo or inhalational anaesthetics and studies that used no anaesthetic. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When possible, data were pooled and risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs), each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were computed using the Cochrane Review Manager statistical package (RevMan). We included in the review 18 RCTs (599 participants; published between 1994 and 2012). Most of the included trials were at high risk of bias.We analysed the results of studies comparing six different intravenous anaesthetics.Only a few studies comparing propofol with methohexital (four studies) and with thiopental (three studies) could be pooled.No difference was noted in the reduction of depression scores observed in participants treated with

  20. Sedative-hypnotics are widely abused by drivers apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Hurme, Hannes; Wilhelm, Lars; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-06-01

    Sedative-hypnotics are commonly encountered in drivers apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Previous research has mainly concentrated on the residual effects of the drugs. In this study, the extent of sleep medication use and abuse among drivers apprehended on suspicion of DUID was assessed. Additionally, the prevalence and concentrations of the drugs, concomitant use of other drugs of abuse, and the age and sex of the drivers positive for the most commonly prescribed sedative-hypnotics (temazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, zopiclone, and zolpidem) in DUID cases in Finland in 2009 to 2011 were examined. Sedative-hypnotics were found in 3155 samples of the 13,248 that were analyzed. Temazepam was present in over half of the cases (57.9%), along with other benzodiazepines such as midazolam (13.1%) and nitrazepam (7.0%) and the non-benzodiazepine hypnotics zopiclone (12.2%) and zolpidem (9.8%). The mean age of the drivers using the studied sedative-hypnotics was 33.5 years. Many of the drivers were polydrug users; concomitant stimulant use was found in nearly half of the cases. Cannabis and alcohol were also very common co-findings. In nearly 20% of the cases, the driver had taken more than 1 of the studied sedative-hypnotics; only 2.5% had no findings other than a single sedative-hypnotic in their blood. The drug use pattern of those positive for zopiclone and zolpidem was somewhat different from that of users of benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics; their age was higher and the concomitant use of illegal stimulants was markedly less prevalent than among the users of temazepam, midazolam, and nitrazepam. There were very few cases in our study population where the positive sedative-hypnotic finding could have been due to appropriate medical use. The extremely prevalent concomitant use of other psychoactive drugs and the high median serum concentrations of the studied sedative-hypnotics suggest their widespread abuse among apprehended drivers.

  1. Postoperative use of hypnotics is associated with increased length of stay after uncomplicated surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Morten Westergaard; Bisgård, Anne Sofie; Klein, Mads; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hypnotics are used to treat perioperative sleep disorders. These drugs are associated with a higher risk of adverse effects among patients undergoing surgery. This study aims to quantify the use of hypnotics and factors influencing the administration of hypnotics in relation to colorectal cancer surgery. Method: A retrospective cohort study of 1979 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. Results: In all, 381 patients (19%) received new treatment with hypnotics. Two of the six surgical centres used hypnotics less often (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.24 (0.16–0.38) and 0.20 (0.12–0.35)). Active smokers (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.57 (1.11–2.24)) and patients receiving perioperative blood transfusion (odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.58 (1.10–2.26)) had increased likelihood of receiving hypnotics. In the uncomplicated cases, a multivariable linear regression analysis showed that consumption of hypnotics postoperatively was significantly associated with increased length of stay (1.5 (0.9–2.2) days). Conclusion: One in five patients began treatment with hypnotics after colorectal cancer surgery. Postoperative use of hypnotics was associated with an increased length of stay for uncomplicated cases of colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:27660704

  2. Hypnotic trait and specific phobia: EEG and autonomic output during phobic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, Angelo; Sebastiani, Laura; Simoni, Alfredo; Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Ghelarducci, Brunello

    2006-03-31

    In a previous study we showed that healthy highly hypnotizable subjects, during the suggestion of a moderately unpleasant situation administered in awake conditions, exhibited a sympathetic response greatly attenuated with respect to non-hypnotizable individuals. This was interpreted as a natural protection of hypnotizable subjects against the cardiovascular effects of cognitive stress. Aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hypnotic trait is able to modulate the autonomic and cerebral activities also in specific phobic awake hypnotizable (Highs) and non-hypnotizable (Lows) subjects. Electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromiogram of corrugator muscle, electrocardiogram, respirogram and tonic electrodermal activity were recorded during a guided mental imagery of an animal phobic object. Phobic stimulation induced in both groups the rise of heart and respiratory frequency and the lowering of skin resistance. These changes are less pronounced in Highs than in Lows and are sustained by a different modulation of the sympatho-vagal balance. During phobic stimulation both groups exhibited a similar significant increase of EEG gamma relative power. At variance, significant stimulation-related decrements of alpha1, theta1 and theta2 activities were found only in Highs that exhibited similar changes during the control and phobic stimulation. Results suggest that hypnotizability is able to modulate cerebral and autonomic responses also in specific phobic subjects. However, the presence of a specific phobia attenuates the effectiveness of hypnotizability as a protective factor against possible stress-related cardiac illness.

  3. Pentobarbital modifies the lipid raft-protein interaction: A first clue about the anesthesia mechanism on NMDA and GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Valdez, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Suárez, J C; Delint-Ramirez, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that anesthetic agents alter the physical properties of lipid rafts on model membranes. However, if this destabilization occurs in brain membranes, altering the lipid raft-protein interaction, remains unknown. We analyzed the effects produced by pentobarbital (PB) on brain plasma membranes and lipid rafts in vivo. We characterized for the first time the thermotropic behavior of plasma membranes, synaptosomes, and lipid rafts from rat brain. We found that the transition temperature from the ordered gel to disordered liquid phase of lipids is close to physiological temperature. We then studied the effect of PB on protein composition of lipid rafts. Our results show a reduction of the total protein associated to rafts, with a higher reduction of the NMDAR compared to the GABAA receptor. Both receptors are considered the main targets of PB. In general, our results suggest that lipid rafts could be plausible mediators in anesthetic action.

  4. Mortality associated with anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Mascarenhas, Soniya S; Khosh-Chashm, Darrow; Hashmi, Aqeel; John, Vineeth; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Singh, Balwinder

    2016-06-01

    Use of hypnotics or anxiolytic drugs is common and various studies have reported increased mortality with hypnotics or anxiolytic use. To consolidate the evidence on mortality risk associated with hypnotics or anxiolytic use Major databases were searched through April 2014 for studies reporting mortality risk associated with hypnotics or anxiolytics use. A pooled hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval was estimated using random-effects model. After screening 2188 articles, 25 studies (24 cohort, 1 case-control) enrolling 2,350,093 patients with 59% females (age 18-102 years) were included in the meta-analysis. Hypnotics or anxiolytic users had 43% higher risk of mortality than non-users (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, [1.12, 1.84]). Eight studies reported risk estimates for each gender category and pooled results from these studies showed increased risk of mortality among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval = [1.29,1.99]) and women (hazard ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval = [1.38, 2.04]). Pooled results from 10 studies showed higher mortality among benzodiazepine users compared to non-users (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval = [1.03, 2.49]), while pooled results from five studies showed an increased risk of mortality with Z-drugs use although the effect could not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = [0.95, 3.16]). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the analyses and the quality of included studies was good. This meta-analysis suggests that hypnotics or anxiolytics drugs use is associated with increased mortality and hence should be used with caution. Future studies focused on underlying mechanism of increased mortality with hypnotics or anxiolytics use are required. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. The "hypnotic state" and eye movements: Less there than meets the eye?

    PubMed Central

    Nordhjem, Barbara; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness to hypnotic procedures has been related to unusual eye behaviors for centuries. Kallio and collaborators claimed recently that they had found a reliable index for "the hypnotic state" through eye-tracking methods. Whether or not hypnotic responding involves a special state of consciousness has been part of a contentious debate in the field, so the potential validity of their claim would constitute a landmark. However, their conclusion was based on 1 highly hypnotizable individual compared with 14 controls who were not measured on hypnotizability. We sought to replicate their results with a sample screened for High (n = 16) or Low (n = 13) hypnotizability. We used a factorial 2 (high vs. low hypnotizability) x 2 (hypnosis vs. resting conditions) counterbalanced order design with these eye-tracking tasks: Fixation, Saccade, Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), Smooth pursuit, and Antisaccade (the first three tasks has been used in Kallio et al.'s experiment). Highs reported being more deeply in hypnosis than Lows but only in the hypnotic condition, as expected. There were no significant main or interaction effects for the Fixation, OKN, or Smooth pursuit tasks. For the Saccade task both Highs and Lows had smaller saccades during hypnosis, and in the Antisaccade task both groups had slower Antisaccades during hypnosis. Although a couple of results suggest that a hypnotic condition may produce reduced eye motility, the lack of significant interactions (e.g., showing only Highs expressing a particular eye behavior during hypnosis) does not support the claim that eye behaviors (at least as measured with the techniques used) are an indicator of a "hypnotic state.” Our results do not preclude the possibility that in a more spontaneous or different setting the experience of being hypnotized might relate to specific eye behaviors. PMID:28846696

  6. Antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Daya; Gandotra, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Untreated perinatal depression and anxiety disorders are known to have significant negative impact on both maternal and fetal health. Dilemmas still remain regarding the use and safety of psychotropics in pregnant and lactating women suffering from perinatal depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of the current paper was to review the existing evidence base on the exposure and consequences of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics in women during pregnancy and lactation and to make recommendations for clinical decision making in management of these cases. Materials and Methods: We undertook a bibliographic search of Medline/PubMed (1972 through 2014), Science Direct (1972 through 2014), Archives of Indian Journal of Psychiatry databases was done. References of retrieved articles, reference books, and dedicated websites were also checked. Results and Conclusions: The existing evidence base is extensive in studying multiple outcomes of the antidepressant or anxiolytic exposure in neonates, and some of the findings appear conflicting. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most researched antidepressants in pregnancy and lactation. The available literature is criticized mostly on the lack of rigorous well designed controlled studies as well as lacunae in the methodologies, interpretation of statistical information, knowledge transfer, and translation of information. Research in this area in the Indian context is strikingly scarce. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of untreated mental illness versus medication exposure, tailor-made to each patient's past response and preference within in the context of the available evidence should guide clinical decision making. PMID:26330654

  7. Hypnotic taper with or without self-help treatment of insomnia: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Belleville, Geneviève; Guay, Catherine; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M

    2007-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a minimal intervention focusing on hypnotic discontinuation and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. Fifty-three adult chronic users of hypnotics were randomly assigned to an 8-week hypnotic taper program, used alone or combined with a self-help CBT. Weekly hypnotic use decreased in both conditions, from a nearly nightly use at baseline to less than once a week at posttreatment. Nightly dosage (in lorazepam equivalent) decreased from 1.67 mg to 0.12 mg. Participants who received CBT improved their sleep efficiency by 8%, whereas those who did not remained stable. Total wake time decreased by 52 min among CBT participants and increased by 13 min among those receiving the taper schedule alone. Total sleep time remained stable throughout withdrawal in both CBT and taper conditions. The present findings suggest that a systematic withdrawal schedule might be sufficient in helping chronic users stop their hypnotic medication. The addition of a self-help treatment focusing on insomnia, a readily available and cost-effective alternative to individual psychotherapy, produced greater sleep improvement.

  8. Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance.

    PubMed

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Bate, Sarah; Gothard, Stace

    2014-07-01

    The ability to enhance sensitivity to relevant (post)hypnotic suggestions has implications for creating clinically informed analogues of psychological and neuropsychological conditions and for the use of hypnotic interventions in psychological and medical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of oxytocin inhalation on a post-hypnotic suggestion that previously has been shown to improve the selectivity of attention in the Stroop task. In a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects study, medium hypnotizable individuals performed the Stroop task under normal conditions and when they had been given a post-hypnotic suggestion that they would perceive words as meaningless symbols. In line with previous research, Stroop interference was substantially reduced by the suggestion in the placebo condition. However, contrary to expectations, oxytocin impeded the effect of the word blindness suggestion on performance. The results are explained in terms of the requirement for the re-implementation of the word blindness suggestion on a trial-by-trial basis and the need to sustain activation of the suggestion between trials. The findings contrast with a recent study showing a beneficial effect of oxytocin on sensitivity to (post)hypnotic suggestions but are consistent with findings showing a detrimental effect of oxytocin on memory processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Social Before Sociocognitive Theory: Explaining Hypnotic Suggestion in German-Speaking Europe, 1900-1960.

    PubMed

    Kauders, Anthony D

    2017-04-01

    The article intends to retrace and review German discourse on hypnotic suggestion from 1900 onward, demonstrating the variety of arguments advanced to account for the social relationship in the hypnotic setting well before the emergence of sociocognitive theory. Using Spanos's distinction between "happenings" and "doings," it shows how, in the case of the "social" in early 20th century German texts on (hypnotic) suggestion, the passive observer, recipient, or victim of hypnosis, a trope familiar to the discipline for many decades, was called into question. This image, however, was not called into question by scientists experimenting in laboratories. On the contrary, the neurologists, psychologists, and philosophers who proffered a new way of seeing suggestion, one that privileged the hypnotic as well as the reciprocity between hypnotist and hypnotic, were part of a wider movement within the social sciences (grounded in hermeneutics, phenomenology, and Gestalt theory) that distanced itself from "positivistic" methodologies and "scientistic" verities. The article, then, seeks to remind readers that the sociocognitive perspective does not define the sociopsychological study of hypnosis.

  10. THE EFFICACY OF HYPNOTIC ANALGESIA IN ADULTS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Stoelb, Brenda L.; Molton, Ivan R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This article both summarizes the previous reviews of randomized, controlled trials of hypnotic analgesia for the treatment of chronic and acute pain in adults, and reviews similar trials which have recently been published in the scientific literature. The results indicate that for both chronic and acute pain conditions: (1) hypnotic analgesia consistently results in greater decreases in a variety of pain outcomes compared to no treatment/standard care; (2) hypnosis frequently out-performs non-hypnotic interventions (e.g. education, supportive therapy) in terms of reductions in pain-related outcomes; and (3) hypnosis performs similarly to treatments that contain hypnotic elements (such as progressive muscle relaxation), but is not surpassed in efficacy by these alternative treatments. Factors that may influence the efficacy of hypnotic analgesia interventions are discussed, including, but not limited to, the patient's level of suggestibility, treatment outcome expectancy, and provider expertise. Based upon this body of literature, suggestions are offered for practitioners who are using, or would like to use, hypnosis for the amelioration of pain problems in their patients or clients. PMID:20161034

  11. [Sleep complaints and disorders in residential home patients taking hypnotic drugs].

    PubMed

    Delzenne, Emmanuelle; Pesch, Sébastien; Martin, Isabelle; Di Pompeo, Christophe; Huvent, Dominique; Boulanger, Éric; Puisieux, François; Roche, Jean

    2012-06-01

    To analyze sleep of residential home patients taking hypnotic drugs. This prospective, observational and multicentric study was performed a given day in nursing homes. Residents over than 65, having MMSE ≥ 15 and coherence A or B (for the AGGIR scale) were included. Aphasic residents or having acute pathology were excluded. Sleep complain was expressed by the resident himself and sleep disorder was observed by care givers. Sleep qualitative (complain versus disorder, difficulty to fall asleep and night awakenings) and quantitative (sleep duration) aspects were compared to residents who take or not hypnotic treatments. 635 residents were included. 28.2% of the residents expressed sleep complains whereas care givers reported that only 11.4% of resident presented real sleep disorders (p<0.001). Compared to the residents who take hypnotic drugs (55.6%), residents without such treatment had shown less sleep complaints (31.2 versus 24.8%; p<0.05), less difficulties to fall asleep (38.6 versus 26.5%; p<0.001), and less night awakenings (69.5 versus 60.9%; p<0.05). No sleep duration difference was found according to hypnotic drugs. Institutionalized geriatric patients who take hypnotic drugs seem to have a significant lower quality of sleep.

  12. Defining hypnosis as a trance vs. cooperation: hypnotic inductions, suggestibility, and performance standards.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Vanderhoff, Holly; Shindler, Kelley; Stafford, Jane

    2002-01-01

    We compared participants' responsiveness to a standard administration of a hypnotic suggestibility scale (CURSS; Spanos, Radtke, Hodgins, Bertrand, Stam, & Moretti, 1983) that defined the ability to experience hypnosis in terms of cooperation (SI; standard induction, N = 27) with a version of the same scale administered with all references to cooperation removed (CR; cooperation removed, N = 34) and with a version of the scale with the "induction" removed (NI; no induction, N = 35). In a fourth condition, participants were informed that the ability to experience hypnosis depended on their ability to achieve an altered state of consciousness or "trance" (AS; altered state, N = 33). Removing instructions for cooperation had an effect on objective (CR < SI) but not on subjective hypnotic responding. Removing the hypnotic induction had no appreciable effect on any dimension of hypnotic responsivity. Consistent with predictions derived from performance standards theory (Lynn & Rhue, 1991), participants who received the altered state set responded to fewer suggestions than did participants who received the standard induction (SI). Estimates of suggestions passed that were assessed before and after test suggestions were administered were, respectively, weakly to moderately correlated with objective and subjective measures of hypnotic suggestibility.

  13. Nonbenzodiazepine Sedative Hypnotics and Risk of Fall-Related Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Sarah E.; Wickwire, Emerson M.; Park, Yujin; Albrecht, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that use of zolpidem, eszopiclone, and zaleplon would be associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hip fracture. Methods: We conducted a case-crossover study on a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65 y or older hospitalized with either TBI (n = 15,031) or hip fracture (n = 37,833) during 2007–2009. Use of zolpidem, eszopiclone, or zaleplon during the 30-day period prior to injury hospitalization was compared to use during four control periods at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo prior to injury. The primary outcome was hospitalization for TBI or hip fracture. Results: Zolpidem use during the month prior to injury was associated with increased risk of TBI (odds ratio [OR] 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56, 2.25); however, eszopiclone use during the same period was not associated with increased risk (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.40, 1.13). Zolpidem use during the month prior to injury was associated with increased risk of hip fracture (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.41, 1.79); however, eszopiclone use during the same period was not associated with increased risk (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.83, 1.50). Analysis of zaleplon use in the month prior to injury was limited by low drug utilization but was not associated with increased risk of TBI (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.21, 3.34) or hip fracture (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.40, 2.13) in this study. Conclusions: For the treatment of insomnia in older adults, eszopiclone may present a safer alternative to zolpidem, in terms of fall-related injuries. Citation: Tom SE, Wickwire EM, Park Y, Albrecht JS. Nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics and risk of fall-related injury. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1009–1014. PMID:26943470

  14. Relationship of Sedative-Hypnotic Response to Self-Injurious Behavior and Stereotypy by Mentally Retarded Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Jennifer; Sandman, Curt A.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of 100 mentally retarded adolescents, exhibiting both self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotypy, stereotypy alone, SIB alone, or neither of these types of behavior were rated in terms of response to sedative-hypnotic medication. Results suggested that the paradoxical response to sedative-hypnotics may be a form of withdrawal. (Author/CL)

  15. Effects of Experimenter Modeling, Demands for Honesty, and Initial Level of Suggestibility on Response to "Hypnotic" Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comins, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were pretested on objective and subjective responses to test suggestions of the Barber Suggestibility Scale. After being exposed to one of three treatments--experimenter modeling, hypnotic induction, or control--each subject was retested. Experimenter modeling was as effective as hypnotic induction in enhancing responsiveness to test…

  16. Effects of Experimenter Modeling, Demands for Honesty, and Initial Level of Suggestibility on Response to "Hypnotic" Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comins, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were pretested on objective and subjective responses to test suggestions of the Barber Suggestibility Scale. After being exposed to one of three treatments--experimenter modeling, hypnotic induction, or control--each subject was retested. Experimenter modeling was as effective as hypnotic induction in enhancing responsiveness to test…

  17. Relationship of Sedative-Hypnotic Response to Self-Injurious Behavior and Stereotypy by Mentally Retarded Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Jennifer; Sandman, Curt A.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of 100 mentally retarded adolescents, exhibiting both self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotypy, stereotypy alone, SIB alone, or neither of these types of behavior were rated in terms of response to sedative-hypnotic medication. Results suggested that the paradoxical response to sedative-hypnotics may be a form of withdrawal. (Author/CL)

  18. Hypnotic effects of a novel anti-insomnia formula on Drosophila insomnia model.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Hay; Koon, Chi-Man; Yu, Siu-Lung; Lee, Kwok-Ying; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chan, Edwin Ho-Yin; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2016-05-01

    To assess the biological effects of the six-herb mixture Anti-Insomia Formula (AIF) extract using caffeine-induced insomnia Drosophila model and short-sleep mutants. Caffeineinduced insomnia wild-type Drosophila and short-sleep mutant flies minisleep (mns) and Hyperkinetic(Y) (Hk(Y)) were used to assess the hypnotic effects of the AIF in vivo. The night time activity, the amount of night time sleep and the number of sleep bouts were determined using Drosophila activity monitoring system. Sleep was defined as any period of uninterrupted behavioral immobility (0 count per minute) lasting > 5 min. Night time sleep was calculated by summing up the sleep time in the dark period. Number of sleep bouts was calculated by counting the number of sleep episodes in the dark period. AIF at the dosage of 50 mg/mL, effectively attenuated caffeine-induced wakefulness (P<0.01) in wild-type Canton-S flies as indicated by the reduction of the sleep bouts, night time activities and increase of the amount of night time sleep. AIF also significantly reduced sleeping time of short-sleep Hk(Y) mutant flies (P<0.01). However, AIF did not produce similar effect in mns mutants. AIF might be able to rescue the abnormal condition caused by mutated modulatory subunit of the tetrameric potassium channel, but not rescuing the abnormal nerve firing caused by Shaker gene mutation. This study provides the scientific evidence to support the use of AIF in Chinese medicine for promoting sleep quality in insomnia.

  19. [Cognitive-behavioral treatment of insomnia and its use during withdrawal of hypnotic medication].

    PubMed

    Belleville, Geneviève; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Insomnia is a widespread health problem that often leads to the use of hypnotic medication. Among the available pharmacological agents to treat insomnia, benzodiazepines (BZD) present some undesirable effects, entailing risks of tolerance and dependence, and increased risk of automobile accidents, falls and fractures in the elderly. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) of insomnia, which focuses on psychological and behavioral factors that play a role in maintaining sleep-related problems, is efficient to improve sleep in the elderly who suffer from primary insomnia. This treatment may represent an alternative to pharmacotherapy or again be complementary during discontinuation of hypnotic medication. The CBT of insomnia may include different components such as stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation, cognitive restructuring and sleep hygiene. For people who are dependent to BZD or other hypnotic medication, a supervised tapering based on attaining successive objectives is generally added to the CBT of insomnia.

  20. Hypnotic susceptibility and personality: the consequences of diazepam and the sex of the subjects.

    PubMed

    Gibson, H B; Corcoran, M E; Curran, J D

    1977-02-01

    It was suggested by Gibson & Curran (1974) that the rather complex relationships found to obtain between hypnotic susceptibility and the personality parameters of extraversion and neuroticism might be understood by considering neuroticism as a moderator variable (as had been suggested by Furneaux & Gibson, 1961). They made the hypothesis that if a tranquillizing drug were administered the operative level of neuroticism would be decreased, and as a consequence the level of susceptibility of neurotic extraverts would be raised, and that of neurotic introverts lowered. This study reports the test-retest data on a sample of 71 subjects on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales, half of whom were retested with diazepam and half with nicotinic acid. The hypothesis was confirmed and additional data are given on the drug/placebo effects on each item of the scale. The significance of drugs on different aspects of hypnotic susceptibility in relation to personality is discussed.

  1. The brain under self-control: modulation of inhibitory and monitoring cortical networks during hypnotic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cojan, Yann; Waber, Lakshmi; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossier, Laurent; Forster, Alain; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-06-25

    Brain mechanisms of hypnosis are poorly known. Cognitive accounts proposed that executive attentional systems may cause selective inhibition or disconnection of some mental operations. To assess motor and inhibitory brain circuits during hypnotic paralysis, we designed a go-no-go task while volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in three conditions: normal state, hypnotic left-hand paralysis, and feigned paralysis. Preparatory activation arose in right motor cortex despite left hypnotic paralysis, indicating preserved motor intentions, but with concomitant increases in precuneus regions that normally mediate imagery and self-awareness. Precuneus also showed enhanced functional connectivity with right motor cortex. Right frontal areas subserving inhibition were activated by no-go trials in normal state and by feigned paralysis, but irrespective of motor blockade or execution during hypnosis. These results suggest that hypnosis may enhance self-monitoring processes to allow internal representations generated by the suggestion to guide behavior but does not act through direct motor inhibition.

  2. Shifting self, shifting memory: testing the self-memory system model with hypnotic identity delusions.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    According to Conway's self-memory system (SMS) model, autobiographical memories may be facilitated, inhibited, or misremembered to be consistent with current self. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this by hypnotically suggesting an identity delusion and indexing whether this shift in self produced a corresponding shift in autobiographical memory. High hypnotizable participants displayed a compelling identity delusion and elicited specific autobiographical events that they could justify when challenged. These memories were reinterpretations of previous experiences that supported the suggested identity. Importantly, autobiographical memories that were no longer consistent with the hypnotically deluded self were less accessible than other memories. The authors discuss these findings in the context of Conway's SMS model and propose 2 accounts of autobiographical remembering during hypnotic and clinical delusions.

  3. Effects of a hypnotically altered state of consciousness on intensification of semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Szendi, István; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Szekeres, György; Galsi, Gabriella; Boda, Krisztina; Boncz, István; Janka, Zoltán

    2009-10-01

    In a study of the linguistic processes involved in hypnosis, 22 volunteer medical students performed semantic and phonologic fluency tasks and then associative priming tests with 2 delay-lengths in waking alert and hypnotic conditions as well. The participants performed better during semantic than phonological fluency tests in alert and also in hypnotic states, and this difference was significantly greater in hypnosis. The increased semantic performance in hypnosis was accompanied by a decrease of the rule-offending errors. Significant semantic priming effects were detected in both states of consciousness in direct and indirect relations as well as in the automatic, intralexical level, and also when the extralexical control processes were activated. Overall, the results appear to show that the hypnotically altered state of consciousness produces significantly better performance in semantic information processing than can be elicited in alert waking conditions.

  4. Sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age-groups among older people.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Miriam; Houston, Britta; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ekström, Henrik; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older people (>65 years). Further, long-term use of sedative hypnoticsin older people is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, older people represent a large span of life years, and few studies have included the oldest-old above 85 years. To investigate and compare sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age groups of the older population in the Scania region, Sweden and in relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. A cross-sectional population-based study including 2931 people aged 60-93 years from five different municipalities in Scania was performed during 2001-2004. The sample was divided into age groups, young old (60-72 years), old-old (78-84 years) and oldest-old (87-93) years. Data constitutes of sleep related questions, sociodemographic- and functional status from the study 'Good Ageing in Skane'. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sleep quality, hypnotics use and sleeping habitsin relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. The aim was to investigate associations, not the magnitude of associations between variables. In all age groups, those who used hypnotics and were living alone had significantly poorer sleep quality and shortest sleeping time than nonhypnotic users and those who lived together. A significant increase of hypnotics and frequency of use was seen with increasing age. Frequency of napping increased significantly with degree of dependence in all age groups and with increasing age. Insomnia is still a problem and hypnotic use has not improved sleep for a large number of older people. Hypnotics are effective as short-term treatment, however, nonpharmacological interventions and psychological and behavioural therapies should be considered for treating older people with chronic insomnia.

  5. Insomnia, hypnotic use, and health-related quality of life in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Scalo, Julieta; Desai, Pooja; Rascati, Karen

    2015-05-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with insomnia and prescription hypnotic use. Primary outcomes were mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) scores from the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Using multiple regression, subjects in the 2005 through 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey with diagnosed insomnia were compared against those without that diagnosis. Among subjects with diagnosed insomnia, users of prescription hypnotics were compared against nonusers. Of 104,274 adults, 1.3 % (n = 1,401) had an insomnia diagnosis. Of those, 45.6 % (n = 639) used prescription hypnotics. For subjects with insomnia, mean PCS and MCS scores were 9.2 and 7.0 points lower (p < 0.001), respectively. After controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, differences remained significant (PCS:5.1; 6.2; p < 0.001). Among subjects with insomnia, HRQoL scores were not different between prescription hypnotic users (n = 639) and nonusers (n = 762). Analysis by drug class revealed lower PCS scores (difference: 7.5, p < 0.001) with benzodiazepine use (n = 129) versus benzodiazepine receptor agonist use (n = 493), but the adjusted difference was not significant (difference: 3.8, p = .018). Diagnosed insomnia was associated with consistent decreases in both physical and mental HRQoL scores, regardless of whether prescription hypnotics were used. Benzodiazepine use may be associated with a further decrease in physical HRQoL scores. Although limited by its retrospective design, this study provides a first look at real-world hypnotic use outcomes at a national level. Important next steps include studies with patients serving as their own controls, and further evaluation of the sensitivity of HRQoL instruments to the effects of insomnia treatments.

  6. Hypnotics use but not insomnia increased the risk of dementia in traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Lin, En-Yuan; Wei, Li; Lin, Jiann-Her; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Fan, Yen-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2015-12-01

    This study was intended to determine whether the use of hypnotics is associated with dementia in traumatic-brain-injury (TBI) patients. Data retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. TBI patients who received a diagnosis of insomnia at 2 or more independent examinations after the index date of TBI were included. The comparison cohort consisted of randomly selected TBI patients who were matched to insomnia cohort patients based on sex and age. The 2 cohorts of TBI patients were subsequently divided into the following 4 study groups: hypnotics users with insomnia (TBI-IH, N=599), insomniacs who did not use hypnotics (TBI-I, N=931), hypnotics users without insomnia (TBI-H, N=199), and people without insomnia who did not use hypnotics (TBI-C, N=4271). Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to determine the difference in dementia-free survival among the 4 study groups, after adjusting for the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the TBI-IH and TBI-H groups showed that they had a higher risk of dementia (aHRs: 1.86 and 3.98; 95% CIs: 1.15-3.00 and 2.44-6.47, respectively), compared with that of the TBI-C group. However, the risk of dementia in the TBI-I group was not significantly different from that of the TBI-C group (aHR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.85-2.19). This study suggests that the use of hypnotics is associated with an increased risk of dementia in TBI patients with or without insomnia, whereas insomnia alone is not.

  7. [Determining factors for the use of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Lapeira, Juan M; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; Gálvez-Alcaraz, Luis; Párraga-Martínez, Ignacio; Boix-Gras, Clotilde; García-Ruiz, Antonio

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported anxiety/hypnotics use in adults 65 years and older and identify potential factors that determine the use of these drugs. Cross-sectional study conducted on a study population of 1,161 non-institutionalised adults 65 years old and older with enough ability to conduct a personal interview. Participants were randomly selected from health care registers. The main outcomes of interest included consumption of anxiolytics, hypnotics and other drugs (filed by ATC classification system), mood (based on the Yesavage geriatric depression scale), cognitive status (Pfeiffer questionnaire), physical-functional assessment of basic activities of daily living (Katz index), health problems (ICPC-2 classification WONCA), and sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of self-reported anxiety/hypnotics consumption was 16.6% (95% CI: 14.5 - 18.7), of which 90.5% were benzodiazepines (BZD), mainly lorazepam (39.4% of BZD). Long half-life BZD accounted for 24.7% of BZD. Hypnotics accounted for 27.5% of anxiolytics/hypnotics. The use of sedatives/hypnotics was independently associated with other drugs (non-psychotropics) consumption (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 2.1-22.0), presence of established depression (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0 -5.9), presence of 4 or more comorbidities (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-2.9), being female (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and being dependent for basic activities of daily living (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9). The prevalence of sedatives/hypnotics use in the elderly from Albacete is high. Several factors were identified as potential determinants of sedatives/hypnotics use in our study population. It will be important to evaluate the misuse of these drugs in order to develop effective, efficient and safe prescription strategies. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Alert Hypnotic Inductions: Use in Treating Combat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eads, Bruce; Wark, David M

    2015-10-01

    Alert hypnosis can be a valuable part of the treatment protocol for the resolution of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research indicates that combat veterans with PTSD are more hypnotically susceptible than the general population. For that reason, it is hypothesized that they should be better able to use hypnosis in treatment. As opposed to the traditional modality, eyes-open alert hypnosis allows the patient to take advantage of hypnotic phenomena while participating responsibly in work, social life, and recreation. Three case studies are reported on combat veterans with PTSD who learned to overcome their symptoms using alert hypnosis.

  9. New and chronic use of hypnotics after diagnosis with early breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Suppli, Nis Palm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Kroman, Niels; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    To determine use and investigate factors associated with use of hypnotics the first year after a diagnosis with breast cancer. A retrospective registry based cohort study linking clinical data from the Danish Breast Cancer Group with the National Prescription Drug Database and other health and administrative registries. We included 26 082 women diagnosed with early breast cancer as first time primary cancer during 1996-2006. Use of hypnotics was measured as redeemed prescriptions in the first year after diagnosis of early breast cancer. Prior use of hypnotics was defined as one or more prescriptions of hypnotics 13 months to 1 month before diagnosis, and chronic use was defined as four or more prescriptions. Hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical variables, treatment-related factors and sociodemographic factors were calculated. Among women with no prior history of hypnotic use, 17% became new users with 4% on a chronic level. Among prior users, 82% continued their use with one or more prescriptions of hypnotics and 15% increased their use to a chronic level. Significantly increased hazard ratios for use of hypnotics were seen with increasing age [age 50-59 years: HR 1.43 (95% CI 1.31-1.57), age 60-69: HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.44-1.71)], increasing number of tumor positive lymph nodes [1-3 lymph nodes: HR 1.12 (95% CI 1.05-1.09), 4-9 lymph nodes: HR 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.29)], chemotherapy [HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.12-1.39)], somatic comorbidity [HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.21-1.42)] and use of antidepressants the year before breast cancer diagnosis [HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.85-2.10)]. This study detected a group of patients at great risk for initiating and increasing use of hypnotics and preventive and prophylactic mechanism should be investigated and initiated when this group of patients is seen in the clinical setting.

  10. An Update on the Use of Sedative-Hypnotic Medications in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Creado, Shane; Plante, David T

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common clinical problem experienced by patients with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that insomnia is a comorbid process that affects the course and treatment of a number of forms of mental illness. The efficacy and safety of sedative-hypnotic medications have largely been established in patients who do not have comorbid psychiatric disorders, underscoring the need for further research in this sphere. This review summarizes pertinent findings in the recent literature that have examined the role of hypnotic medication in the treatment of psychiatric illness, and highlights potential areas that may prove fruitful avenues of future research.

  11. Norms of German adolescents for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Geiger, Emilia; Prade, Tanja; Vogel, Sarah; Piesbergen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) has not been explicitly tested on an adolescent population. In this study, the German version of the HGSHS:A was administered to 99 German adolescents aged 15 to 19. In contrast to other studies, the gender distribution was relatively balanced: 57% female and 43% male. Results were comparable to 14 earlier studies with regard to distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Some peculiarities in contrast to the 14 previous studies are pointed out. It is concluded that the HGSHS:A can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure hypnotic suggestibility in adolescent samples.

  12. [Clinical Practice Guideline for the proper use and cessation of hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    "Clinical Practice Guideline for the proper use and cessation of hypnotics" has been developed by focusing on insomnia treatments with acceptable safety and effectiveness. In this guideline, forty clinical questions encountered in clinical practice starting from the initial treatment of insomnia, optimization of pharmacotherapy, sleep hygiene instruction and cognitive behavioral therapy, specific treatment for insomnia with various medical conditions, responding to chronic insomnia, goal setting of treatment and methods for cessation of hypnotics, have been set. Based on the existing evidence associated with the clinical questions, also on the basis of expert consensus if sufficient evidence does not exist, we set clinical recommendations for the physicians and accessible information for patients.

  13. Monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rabbit: effects of sodium pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Kuwada, S; Batra, R; Stanford, T R

    1989-02-01

    1. We studied the effects of sodium pentobarbital on 22 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the rabbit. We recorded changes in the sensitivity of these neurons to monaural stimulation and to ongoing interaural time differences (ITDs). Monaural stimuli were tone bursts at or near the neuron's best frequency. The ITD was varied by delivering tones that differed by 1 Hz to the two ears, resulting in a 1-Hz binaural beat. 2. We assessed a neuron's ITD sensitivity by calculating three measures from the responses to binaural beats: composite delay, characteristic delay (CD), and characteristic phase (CP). To obtain the composite delay, we first derived period histograms by averaging, showing the response at each stimulating frequency over one period of the beat frequency. Second, the period histograms were replotted as a function of their equivalent interaural delay and then averaged together to yield the composite delay curve. Last, we calculated the composite peak or trough delay by fitting a parabola to the peak or trough of this composite curve. The composite delay curve represents the average response to all frequencies within the neuron's responsive range, and the peak reflects the interaural delay that produces the maximum response. The CD and CP were estimated from a weighted fit of a regression line to the plot of the mean interaural phase of the response versus the stimulating frequency. The slope and phase intercept of this regression line yielded estimates of CD and CP, respectively. These two quantities are thought to reflect the mechanism of ITD sensitivity, which involves the convergence of phase-locked inputs on a binaural cell. The CD estimates the difference in the time required for the two inputs to travel from either ear to this cell, whereas the CP reflects the interaural phase difference of the inputs at this cell. 3. Injections of sodium pentobarbital at subsurgical dosages (less than 25 mg/kg) almost invariably altered the neuron's response

  14. Hypnotic drug use among 0-17 year olds during 2004-2011: a nationwide prescription database study.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Ingeborg; Furu, Kari; Bratlid, Trond; Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2012-12-01

    To (a) describe the prevalence, trend, and amount of hypnotic drug use, (b) determine the prevalence of chronic diseases among hypnotic drug users, and (c) determine levels of recurrent hypnotic drug use (2007-2011), among 0-17 year old Norwegians. Data were obtained from the nationwide Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) in the period 2004-2011. Hypnotic drug use in 0-17 year olds increased during the period, from 8.9 to 12.3 per 1000, mainly owing to doubling of melatonin use. Hypnotic drug use peaked at 15 per 1000 among those aged 1-2 years. Melatonin use increased steadily from 6 to 12 years of age, most pronounced in males. Among females, hypnotic drug use increased threefold from 13 to17 years of age. Melatonin was dispensed in the highest annual amount of all hypnotic drugs; accounting up to a median of 360 defined daily doses in 9-13 year old boys. A total of 62% and 52% of all male and female hypnotic drug users were co-medicated with reimbursable drugs for chronic diseases. Levels of recurrent use (2007-2011) were 12% in boys and 8% in girls, of whom 76-77% were co-medicated with drugs reimbursed for chronic diseases. There is a trend of increasing use of hypnotic drugs among 0-17 year olds, mainly owing to increasing use of melatonin, used in high amounts. Still, melatonin is not recommended in Norway for use in this age group because of insufficient data on safety and efficacy. A threefold increase in hypnotic drugs among females from 13 to 17 years of age warrants attention.

  15. Risk of hip fracture among older people using anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs: a nationwide prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Marit Stordal; Engeland, Anders; Engesæter, Lars B; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Hunskaar, Steinar; Ruths, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    Anxiolytics and hypnotics are widely used and may cause injurious falls. We aimed to examine associations between exposure to anxiolytics and hypnotics and the risk of hip fracture among all older people in Norway. Further, we wanted to examine associations between exposure to hypnotics and time of fracture. A nationwide prospective cohort study of people in Norway born before 1945 (n=906,422) was conducted. We obtained information on all prescriptions of anxiolytics and hypnotics dispensed in 2004-2010 (the Norwegian Prescription Database) and all primary hip fractures in 2005-2010 (the Norwegian Hip Fracture Registry). We compared the incidence rates of hip fracture during drug exposure and non-exposure by calculating the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Altogether, 39,938 people (4.4%) experienced a primary hip fracture. The risk of hip fracture was increased for people exposed to anxiolytics (SIR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-1.5) and hypnotics (SIR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2); the excess risk was highest regarding short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytics (SIR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6). Benzodiazepine-like hypnotics (z-hypnotics) were associated with higher excess risk of hip fracture at night (SIR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4) than during the day (SIR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2). Older people had an increased risk of hip fracture during anxiolytic or hypnotic drug use, including short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytics and z-hypnotics that were previously considered less harmful; cautious prescribing is therefore needed. People using z-hypnotics were at greatest excess risk at night; this association deserves further investigation.

  16. Trends in anxiolytic-hypnotic use and polypharmacy in Taiwan, 2002-2009: a nationwide, population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chih; Chen, Chih-Ken; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chou, Miao-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Use of anxiolytics-hypnotics, including benzodiazepines and "z" hypnotics, is a public health concern. This study aimed to investigate the trends in prevalence of anxiolytic-hypnotic drug use and polypharmacy (simultaneous use of two or more anxiolytics-hypnotics) in Taiwan. A dynamic sample of one million individuals who were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance database was used to detect populationwide trends in the use of anxiolytics-hypnotics in Taiwan between 2002 and 2009. The analyses included drugs that are administered orally, intravenously, or intramuscularly as well as single or compound drugs. The authors identified the number of individuals who used the drugs, the sum of days of reported drug use for all individuals (person-days), and the distribution of anxiolytic-hypnotic polypharmacy for all claims for ambulatory, pharmacy, and hospital care. Annual prevalence of any anxiolytic-hypnotic use in Taiwan was higher than 20%. The number of person-days greatly increased from 2002 (4.0%) to 2009 (6.6%). The increases in use between 2002 and 2009 were greatest for clonazepam (prevalence, 7% versus 1.8%; person-days, .2% versus .6%) and zolpidem (prevalence, 2.4% versus 4.2%; person-days, .5% versus 1.5%). Polypharmacy accounted for almost 70% of all person-days of anxiolytic-hypnotic use. This nationwide, population-based survey presents real-world epidemiological evidence about anxiolytic-hypnotic use. The adverse effects of the long-term use of anxiolytics-hypnotics have been established, and unnecessary use of these drugs, particularly in polypharmacy regimens, should be avoided.

  17. Day or night administration of ketamine and pentobarbital differentially affect circadian rhythms of pineal melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Tatsuaki; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Koga, Motokazu; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu; Goto, Takahisa

    2012-10-01

    Surgery with general anesthesia disturbs circadian rhythms, which may lead to postoperative sleep disorders and delirium in patients. However, it is unclear how circadian rhythms are affected by different anesthetics administered at different times during the rest-activity cycle. We hypothesized that pentobarbital (an agonist at the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors) and ketamine (an antagonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) would have differential effects on circadian rhythms, and these effects would also be influenced by the time of their administration (the active versus resting phase). Rats were divided into 4 groups according to the anesthetic administered (pentobarbital or ketamine) and the timing of intraperitoneal administration (active/night phase or resting/day phase). Using online pineal microdialysis, we analyzed pineal melatonin secretion and locomotor activity rhythms in rats under a light/dark (12/12-hour) cycle for 5 days after anesthesia and microdialysis catheter implantation. The data were analyzed for rhythmicity by cosinor analysis. Ketamine administered during the resting phase produced 65- and 153-minute phase advances, respectively, in melatonin secretion and locomotor activity rhythms on the first day after anesthesia. In contrast, ketamine administered during the active phase produced 43- and 235-minute phase delays. Pentobarbital had no effect on the phase of either melatonin secretion or locomotor activity, irrespective of the timing of administration. When administered during the active phase, both anesthetics decreased the amplitude of melatonin secretion on the day after anesthesia; when administered during the resting phase, however, neither anesthetic affected the amplitude. The amplitude of locomotor activity decreased in all animals for 3 days after anesthesia. Ketamine has opposite phase-shifting effects on circadian rhythms according to the time of administration, whereas pentobarbital has no effect. Furthermore, both

  18. Sleep circuitry and the hypnotic mechanism of GABAA drugs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Greco, Mary Ann

    2006-04-15

    Early in the twentieth century, von Economo provided the first evidence linking the hypothalamus with sleep-wake behavior. His studies concluded that the anterior hypothalamus was associated with sleep, whereas the posterior hypothalamus was associated with waking. In the decades following these observations, a wealth of research has shown that an elaborate circuitry comprising a number of brain regions, cell types, and extracellular messengers underlies sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we discuss data generated in the past 10 years that highlight the role of the hypothalamus in sleep-wake behavior and control. In particular, we will focus on the identification of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) as a sleep center and the hypocretin/orexin cells in the perifornical region of the hypothalamus as constituting a waking center; these two centers are critical for the maintenance of normal sleep-wake architecture, and provide a foundation for our understanding of sleep-wake behavior and its underlying physiology. The data from these and other regions traditionally associated with the sleep-wake cycle have led to a flip-flop switch model of sleep-wake control. The switch is composed of two sets of mutually inhibitory groups of neurons: a sleep group and an arousal group, with the latter modulated by orexin-containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The sleep-promoting GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) receptor agonists are a diverse class of drugs, which include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, chloral hydrate, ethanol, and gaseous anesthetics, that have been used to study sleep physiology for many years. Recent studies suggest that these drugs may exert their hypnotic effects in a regionally specific manner. For example, some GABAA agonists appear to promote sleep by inhibiting the histaminergic cells in the tuberomammillary nucleus and weakly activating the VLPO via agonist binding to the alpha1 subunit of GABAA receptors; whereas, gaboxadol (THIP; 4

  19. Determination of the Hypnotic Potency in Rats of the Novel Ketamine Ester Analogue SN 35210.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Martyn; Sleigh, James; Voss, Logan; Pruijn, Frederik; Jose, Jiney; Gamage, Swarma; Denny, William

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a rapidly acting dissociative anaesthetic drug with additional sympathomimetic, analgesic, and antidepressant properties. Despite these advantages, clinical use is curtailed by prolonged psychomimetic effects apparent over the entire dose spectrum. In this study, we report on the hypnotic potency of SN 35210, the first ketamine ester-analogue designed for rapid offset via esterase-mediated hydrolysis. Thirty-three adult Sprague Dawley rats received intravenous racemic ketamine (n = 14), racemic SN 35210 (n = 19), S-enantiomer SN 35210 (n = 17), or R-enantiomer SN 35210 (n = 15), in crossover design. The ability to induce loss of righting reflex (LORR) at a given dose, the duration of righting reflex loss, and the time to return of normal behaviours were recorded. The ED50 for LORR was determined for all agents. The ED50 for righting reflex loss was racemic ketamine 9.6 (95% CI 8.5-10.9) mg/kg, racemic SN 35210 10.4 (95% CI 9.5-11.5) mg/kg, S-enantiomer SN 35210 10.6 (95% CI 9.1-11.8), and R-enantiomer SN 35210 10.3 (95% CI 9.1-11.4) mg/kg. The duration of righting reflex loss and time to return to normal behaviours were approximately 5 times greater for racemic ketamine than all 3 SN 35210 ester analogues. Racemic, and R and S-enantiomer SN 35210, produced LORR in rats at similar doses to the parent compound ketamine. The duration of righting reflex loss, and duration of behavioural aberration, was significantly reduced for all SN 35210 analogues. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Hypnotic Depth and the Incidence of Emergence Agitation and Negative Postoperative Behavioral Changes

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Debra J.; Twite, Mark D.; Zuk, Jeannie; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wallen, Brett; Friesen, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation (EA) and negative postoperative behavioral changes (NPOBC) are common in children, though the etiology remains unclear. We investigated whether longer times under deep hypnosis as measured by Bispectral Index™ (BIS) monitoring would positively correlate with a greater incidence of EA in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and a greater occurrence of NPOBC in children after discharge. Methods We enrolled 400 children, ages 1–12 years old, scheduled for dental procedures under general anesthesia. All children were induced with high concentration sevoflurane and BIS monitoring was continuous from induction through recovery in the PACU. A BIS reading <45 was considered deep hypnosis. The presence of EA was assessed in the PACU using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale (PAED). NPOBC were assessed using the Post-Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ), completed by parents 3–5 days post-operatively. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, with a p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The incidence of EA was 27% (99/369) and the incidence of NPOBC was 8.8% (28/318). No significant differences in the incidence of EA or NPOBC were seen with respect to length of time under deep hypnosis as measured by a BIS value of less than 45. Conclusion Our data revealed no significant correlation between the length of time under deep hypnosis (BIS<45) and the incidence of EA or NPOBC. Within this population, these behavioral disturbances do not appear to be related to the length of time under a deep hypnotic state as measured by the BIS. PMID:19968807

  1. Predisposition for Nightmares: A Study of Hypnotic Ability, Vividness of Imagery, and Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belicki, Kathryn; Belicki, Denis

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationships of nightmare frequency to hypnotic ability, vividness of visual imagery, and the tendency to become absorbed in fantasy-like experiences. Use of Mark's Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Rotenberg and Bowers' Absorption scale showed individuals with frequent nightmares to score higher on hypnotizability,…

  2. Relationship between hypnosis and personality trait in participants with high or low hypnotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Yunke; Shen, Chanchan; Ye, Yingying; Shen, Si; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between normal personality and hypnotic susceptibility is important for understanding mental processing and mental disorders, but it is less consistent in normal people or in patients with a psychiatric disorder. We have hypothesized that the correlation exists but varies in individuals with different levels of hypnotizability. We invited 72 individuals with high (HIGH group) and 47 individuals with low (LOW group) hypnotic susceptibilities to undertake tests of NEO-PI-R and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSSC). The HIGH group scored significantly higher than the LOW group did on openness to experience and its facet openness to feelings. In the LOW group, SHSSC total was positively predicted by openness to ideas; age regression was positively predicted by openness to experience and negatively predicted by extraversion; anosmia to ammonia was negatively predicted by agreeableness; and negative visual hallucination was positively predicted by openness to experience. In the HIGH group, hallucinated voice was positively predicted by openness to experience and negatively predicted by agreeableness, and posthypnotic amnesia was positively predicted by extraversion and negatively predicted by openness to experience. The associations between normal personality traits and hypnotic susceptibility items were weak and different in the two groups, which imply that managing mental or somatoform disorders might be through adjusting hypnotizability and mobilizing personality functions.

  3. The Role of Expectancy in Eliciting Hypnotic Responses as a Function of Type of Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irving; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between expectancy and suggestibility in hypnosis as a function of type of induction (N=100). Results showed subjects were able to predict their responses to a cognitive skill induction with great accuracy but were not very accurate in predicting responses to a hypnotic trance induction. (JAC)

  4. Restoration of Eidetic Imagery via Hypnotic Age Regression: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Neil S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Eidetic imagery involves the ability to examine a visual stimulus briefly and later project onto a neutral surface an image that represents an exact duplication of the original. This study uses the differential frequency of eidetic imagery ability between children and adults as a basis for testing the validity of hypnotic age regression.…

  5. Repressed Fear of Inexistence and its Hypnotic Recovery in Religious Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzendorf, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    When 50 college students were hypnotized and instructed to rate their "subconscious" fears of death, they expressed greater fear of inexistence than when they were awake. Findings suggest that the subconscious fear of inexistence is a primary phenomenon, from which religious and other death-dying behaviors may be derived. (Author/NRB)

  6. The Role of Expectancy in Eliciting Hypnotic Responses as a Function of Type of Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irving; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between expectancy and suggestibility in hypnosis as a function of type of induction (N=100). Results showed subjects were able to predict their responses to a cognitive skill induction with great accuracy but were not very accurate in predicting responses to a hypnotic trance induction. (JAC)

  7. Achievement Motivation, Socialization, and Hypnotic Susceptibility Among Youths from Four Israeli Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Mordechai; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The impact of child rearing practices on achievement motivation, hypnotic susceptibility, and brain wave patterns of children from Israeli subcultures are examined. Of the four subgroups studied, although they differed in school performance, their need achievement scores were similiar. (Author/DEP)

  8. Sedative hypnotic use among veterans with a newly reported mental health disorder.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Bramoweth, Adam D; Cinna, Christopher; Kasckow, John

    2016-08-01

    This study compared sedative hypnotic use by type of mental health diagnosis and determined factors associated with use among older veterans (65+ years) with a newly reported mental health disorder. This study used data from veterans who received primary care services at VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System (VAPHS) from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011 (n = 879). Sedative hypnotics were commonly used in older veterans within 12-months following a newly reported mental health disorder (19.9%), particularly amongst those with insomnia (41.7%). The number of newly reported mental health disorders was a significant factor associated with sedative hypnotic use, with the odds of use increasing by more than 200% in older adults with two newly reported disorders compared to those with one newly reported mental health disorder. Continued efforts are needed to improve provider and patient awareness of the risks associated with sedative hypnotic use in older adults, as well as to increase access to and receipt of non-pharmacological mental health treatments for this vulnerable population.

  9. Effects of the Hypnotic Agent on Primary Graft Dysfunction After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gajate Martín, L; González, C; Ruiz Torres, I; Fernández Martín, C; Martín Grande, A; Elías Martín, E; Parise Roux, D; Del Rey Sánchez, J M

    2016-12-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates in orthotopic liver transplantation have decreased in the past few years. Risk factors related to severe postoperative complications, such as primary graft dysfunction, still need to be analyzed. We evaluated the influence of the hypnotic agent used during anesthesia on primary graft dysfunction. We performed a retrospective analysis of 419 consecutive patients who received a liver transplant between 2005 and 2013 in a single center. We analyzed the incidence of primary graft dysfunction (defined as alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels higher than 1500 IU/L on the first 3 days after surgery) and if the hypnotic agent was associated with this event. The incidence of primary graft dysfunction was 42.2% (114 patients), similar in both groups (propofol group, 89 patients, 43.2% and sevoflurane group, 25 patients, 39.1%). In the multivariate analysis, we did not find any relationship between the hypnotic agent (propofol or sevoflurane) and early graft dysfunction. In our patients, we found no differences in the incidence of liver graft dysfunction according to the hypnotic used during transplantation. We can suggest that both drugs (sevoflurane and propofol) are equally safe in orthotopic liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predisposition for Nightmares: A Study of Hypnotic Ability, Vividness of Imagery, and Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belicki, Kathryn; Belicki, Denis

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationships of nightmare frequency to hypnotic ability, vividness of visual imagery, and the tendency to become absorbed in fantasy-like experiences. Use of Mark's Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Rotenberg and Bowers' Absorption scale showed individuals with frequent nightmares to score higher on hypnotizability,…

  11. Sedatives and hypnotics in Stockholm: social factors and kinds of use.

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, G; Romelsjö, A; Leifman, H; Leifman, A; Karlsson, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The aims of the study were (1) to estimate prevalence rates of current, regular, and long-term use of sedatives and hypnotics and the incidence of regular use in an urban population and (2) to study the association between such use of drugs and sociodemographic factors, symptoms of disease, and alcohol consumption. METHODS. Data on drug use in a random sample of 6217 adults in Stockholm County were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS. The prevalence rate for current use of sedatives or hypnotics was 12.8% among men and 18.6% among women; the rate for regular use was 3.7% among males and 4.7% among females. The odds ratio for current use increased with age and was higher among unemployed persons and disability pensioners, high consumers of alcohol, persons with an increased level of symptoms, and widows. More than 25% of the persons who had used sedatives or hypnotics during the previous 2 weeks were regular users 6 months later. For persons aged 25 through 64 years, the annual incidence rate was 1.8% among men and 2.7% among women. CONCLUSIONS. The comparatively low incidence and high prevalence of regular use implies that long-term use of sedatives and hypnotics is common. PMID:8296948

  12. Cognitive Skill and Traditional Trance Hypnotic Inductions: A Within-Subjects Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Anne R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared a traditional trance hypnotic induction and a cognitive skill induction using a within-subjects design with college students (N=40). The skill induction enhanced responses to suggestions and produced marginally significant increments in behavioral responses when preceded by the trance induction, but there were no significant differences…

  13. Experiential Response to Auditory and Visual Hallucination Suggestions in Hypnotic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Nicholas P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several attitudinal, cognitive skill, and personality variables in response to auditory and visual hallucination suggestions to hypnotic subjects are assessed. Cooperative attitudes toward hypnosis and involvement in everyday imaginative activities (absorption) correlated with response to auditory and visual hallucination…

  14. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Personality: The Consequences of Diazepam and the Sex of the Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, H. B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested is that a tranquillizing drug will either "increase" or "decrease" hypnotic susceptibility according to the personality characteristics of the individual subject. Such a view may further understanding of the conflicting evidence which is supplied by the relevant experimental literature. (Author/RK)

  15. Psychological treatment of hypnotic-dependent insomnia in a primarily older adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lichstein, Kenneth L; Nau, Sidney D; Wilson, Nancy M; Aguillard, R Neal; Lester, Kristin W; Bush, Andrew J; McCrae, Christina S

    2013-12-01

    This study tested cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in hypnotic-dependent, late middle-age and older adults with insomnia. Seventy volunteers age 50 and older were randomized to CBT plus drug withdrawal, placebo biofeedback (PL) plus drug withdrawal, or drug withdrawal (MED) only. The CBT and PL groups received eight, 45 min weekly treatment sessions. The drug withdrawal protocol comprised slow tapering monitored with about six biweekly, 30 min sessions. Assessment including polysomnography (PSG), sleep diaries, hypnotic consumption, daytime functioning questionnaires, and drug screens collected at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up. Only the CBT group showed significant sleep diary improvement, sleep onset latency significantly decreased at posttreatment. For all sleep diary measures for all groups, including MED, sleep trended to improvement from baseline to follow-up. Most PSG sleep variables did not significantly change. There were no significant between group differences in medication reduction. Compared to baseline, the three groups decreased hypnotic use at posttreatment, down 84%, and follow-up, down 66%. There was no evidence of withdrawal side-effects. Daytime functioning, including anxiety and depression, improved by posttreatment. Rigorous methodological features, including documentation of strong treatment implementation and the presence of a credible placebo, elevated the confidence due these findings. Gradual drug withdrawal was associated with substantial hypnotic reduction at posttreatment and follow-up, and withdrawal side-effects were absent. When supplemented with CBT, participants accrued incremental self-reported, but not PSG, sleep benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoration of Eidetic Imagery via Hypnotic Age Regression: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Neil S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Eidetic imagery involves the ability to examine a visual stimulus briefly and later project onto a neutral surface an image that represents an exact duplication of the original. This study uses the differential frequency of eidetic imagery ability between children and adults as a basis for testing the validity of hypnotic age regression.…

  17. Psychological Treatment of Hypnotic-Dependent Insomnia in a Primarily Older Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Nau, Sidney D.; Wilson, Nancy M.; Aguillard, R. Neal; Lester, Kristin W.; Bush, Andrew J.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study tested cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in hypnotic-dependent, late middle-age and older adults with insomnia. Method Seventy volunteers age 50 and older were randomized to CBT plus drug withdrawal, placebo biofeedback (PL) plus drug withdrawal, or drug withdrawal (MED) only. The CBT and PL groups received eight, 45 minute weekly treatment sessions. The drug withdrawal protocol comprised slow tapering monitored with about six biweekly, 30 minute sessions. Assessment including polysomnography (PSG), sleep diaries, hypnotic consumption, daytime functioning questionnaires, and drug screens collected at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up. Results Only the CBT group showed significant sleep diary improvement, sleep onset latency significantly decreased at posttreatment. For all sleep diary measures for all groups, including MED, sleep trended to improvement from baseline to follow-up. Most PSG sleep variables did not significantly change. There were no significant between group differences in medication reduction. Compared to baseline, the three groups decreased hypnotic use at posttreatment, down 84%, and follow-up, down 66%. There was no evidence of withdrawal side-effects. Daytime functioning, including anxiety and depression, improved by posttreatment. Rigorous methodological features, including documentation of strong treatment implementation and the presence of a credible placebo, elevated the confidence due these findings. Conclusions Gradual drug withdrawal was associated with substantial hypnotic reduction at posttreatment and follow-up, and withdrawal side-effects were absent. When supplemented with CBT, participants accrued incremental self-reported, but not PSG, sleep benefits. PMID:24121096

  18. Changes in electromyographically recorded human monosynaptic reflex in relation to hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Santarcangelo, E L; Busse, K; Carli, G

    1989-09-25

    The aim of the present experiment was to study how hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis affect motoneuron excitability. In a first trial, human subjects were selected according to their hypnotic susceptibility. In a second trial, the Hoffmann (H) reflex amplitude of the soleus muscle was studied in 3 groups: (1) highly susceptible subjects during hypnosis with standardized suggestions of simple relaxation, anesthesia, analgesia and paralysis (group I), (2) highly susceptible subjects (group II), and (3) non-susceptible subjects (group III) during long-lasting control conditions. Surface Ag/AgCl electrodes were used to stimulate the posterior tibial nerve using a constant current stimulator and to record the soleus EMG. Analysis of variance was performed on the data. The linear correlation coefficient within groups was evaluated. The H reflex amplitude decreased significantly during the recording session in groups I and II and there was no change in group III. In group I the effect of different suggestions could not be distinguished from the effect of hypnotic relaxation. The decrements in H amplitude did not differ between groups I and II, suggesting that the effect was related to personality traits rather than hypnotic induction.

  19. Achievement Motivation, Socialization, and Hypnotic Susceptibility Among Youths from Four Israeli Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Mordechai; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The impact of child rearing practices on achievement motivation, hypnotic susceptibility, and brain wave patterns of children from Israeli subcultures are examined. Of the four subgroups studied, although they differed in school performance, their need achievement scores were similiar. (Author/DEP)

  20. Cognitive Skill and Traditional Trance Hypnotic Inductions: A Within-Subjects Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Anne R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared a traditional trance hypnotic induction and a cognitive skill induction using a within-subjects design with college students (N=40). The skill induction enhanced responses to suggestions and produced marginally significant increments in behavioral responses when preceded by the trance induction, but there were no significant differences…

  1. Experiential Response to Auditory and Visual Hallucination Suggestions in Hypnotic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Nicholas P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several attitudinal, cognitive skill, and personality variables in response to auditory and visual hallucination suggestions to hypnotic subjects are assessed. Cooperative attitudes toward hypnosis and involvement in everyday imaginative activities (absorption) correlated with response to auditory and visual hallucination…

  2. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Personality: The Consequences of Diazepam and the Sex of the Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, H. B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested is that a tranquillizing drug will either "increase" or "decrease" hypnotic susceptibility according to the personality characteristics of the individual subject. Such a view may further understanding of the conflicting evidence which is supplied by the relevant experimental literature. (Author/RK)

  3. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like effects of some short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Takechi, Kenshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2008-07-01

    Anxiolytic-like effects of some short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics were examined with experimental paradigms of anxiety using an elevated plus-maze in male ICR mice. Diazepam was used as a positive control. The drug at a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of time spent in the open arms and percentage of the number of open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze. Triazolam, brotizolam, rilmazafone, and lormetazepam also showed an anxiolytic-like effect as indicated by the significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms and percentage of the number of open arm entries. Effects of short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics used in the study were more potent than those of diazepam. In addition, the doses affecting the elevated plus-maze by benzodiazepine hypnotics were much smaller than those that showed muscle-relaxant activity measured by the rotarod test, indicating that anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepine hypnotics had high specificity and selectivity.

  4. Characteristics and Trends in Hypnotics Consumption in the Largest Health Care System in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Rennert, G.; Stein, N.; Landsman, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify and characterize hypnotics consumption habits among adult patients insured by Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest health care provider in Israel, in 2000 and 2010. Methods. A retrospective analysis of CHS computerized pharmacy records. Data were collected for all patients over the age of 18 years who were prescribed hypnotics in 2000 and in 2010. Results. Sleep medications were consumed by 8.7% of the adult CHS population in 2000 and by 9.6% in 2010. About one-quarter of consumers were treated for more than 6 months in both years. Multiple sleeping drugs were consumed more often in 2010 (45.2%) than a decade before (22%). While in 2000 benzodiazepines accounted for 84.5% of hypnotics, in 2010 this was reduced to 73.7% (p < 0.05). Of all patients treated for longer than 6 months only 11% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 required a dose escalation suggesting the absence of tolerance. Conclusions. Nine percent of the Israeli population consumes hypnotics. There is a major increase in prescription of combination of medications between 2000 and 2010, with an increase in Z class medications use and reduction in benzodiazepines. Most patients chronically treated did not escalate dosage, suggesting the absence of tolerance. PMID:27660727

  5. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline increases the ataxic and sedative-hypnotic effects of acute ethanol administration in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamens, Helen M.; Andersen, Jimena; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The costs associated with alcohol abuse are staggering, therefore much effort has been put into developing new pharmacological strategies to decrease alcohol abuse. Recently, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist varenicline has been shown to decrease ethanol consumption in both humans and animal models. Methods We examined the effects of varenicline on the ataxic and sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. First, varenicline was administered prior to placement in a locomotor activity chamber to determine if varenicline influenced baseline locomotor activity. To determine the effect of nicotinic modulation on ethanol-induced motor incoordination, varenicline was administered 30 min prior to an acute ethanol injection and then mice were tested on the balance beam, dowel test or fixed-speed rotarod. To examine ethanol's sedative-hypnotic effects, varenicline was administered 30 min prior to 4 g/kg ethanol and the duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR) was measured. Results Varenicline markedly reduced baseline locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice. Varenicline increased ethanol-induced ataxia when measured on the balance beam and dowel test, but had no effect when measured on the fixed-speed rotarod. Pretreatment with varenicline increased the duration of LORR. Conclusions These data provide evidence that nAChRs may be involved in the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol. It is possible that one mechanism which could contribute to the ability of varenicline to decrease ethanol consumption may be through increasing negative behavioral effects of alcohol. PMID:20946306

  6. Does acute treatment with sedatives/hypnotics for anxiety in depressed patients affect suicide risk? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nagy A; Rich, Charles L

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety (among several other symptoms) has been identified in one prospective study as associated with suicide risk in depressed patients early in treatment. It has been suggested that treatment of anxiety in depression with sedative/hypnotic agents, especially benzodiazepines, in the first several weeks may decrease suicide risk. Sedative/hypnotic agents also have depressant and disinhibitory properties which might increase suicide risk, however. This review addresses the potential benefits and risks with regard to suicide of using sedative/hypnotics as an early adjunct to antidepressant treatment in anxious depressed patients. Pertinent medical literature was reviewed using Medline/PubMed search as well as bibliographies from related publications. Reports in English from 1958 to 2006 were included. The review did not reveal any evidence that using sedative/hypnotics as an early adjunct to antidepressant treatment of anxious depressed patients decreases their suicide risk. There is considerable evidence that sedative/hypnotics produce depressant and/or disinhibitory effects in a small proportion (perhaps 5%) of people who take them. However, there is no clear evidence that their brief use early in depression increases suicide risk. Toxicological data of suicides indicate that a majority of people who commit suicide are under the influence of sedative/hypnotic chemicals (including alcohol) at the time. The authors conclude that the question of whether sedative/hypnotics may prevent or provoke suicide in anxious depressed patients cannot be answered definitively with the available information. They believe the potential risks of prescribing sedative/hypnotics for depressed patients who may be suicidal are serious. They suggest that alternatives to sedative/hypnotics should be used if early adjunctive treatment for anxiety in depressed patients is thought to be indicated.

  7. Electroencephalographic and Hypnotic Recoveries Following Brief and Prolonged Infusions of Etomidate and Optimized Soft Etomidate Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rile; Pejo, Ervin; Husain, S. Shaukat; Cotten, Joseph F.; Raines, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Methoxycarbonyl etomidate is the prototypical soft etomidate analog. Because it has relatively low potency and is extremely rapidly metabolized, large quantities must be infused to maintain hypnosis. Consequently with prolonged infusion, metabolite reaches sufficient concentrations to delay recovery. Dimethyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (DMMM) and cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) are methoxycarbonyl etomidate analogs with higher potencies and slower clearance. Because of these properties, we hypothesized that dosing would be lower and electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries would be faster - and less context-sensitive - with DMMM or CPMM versus methoxycarbonyl etomidate or etomidate. Methods Etomidate, DMMM, and CPMM where infused into rats (n=6 per group) for either 5 min or 120 min. After infusion termination, electroencephalographic and hypnotic recovery times were measured. The immobilizing ED50 infusion rates were determined using a tail clamp assay. Results Upon terminating 5-minute infusions, electroencephalographic and hypnotic recovery times were not different among hypnotics. However upon terminating 120-minute infusions, recovery times varied significantly with respective values (mean ± SD) 48 ± 13 min and 31 ± 6.5 min (etomidate), 17 ± 7.0 min and 14 ± 3.4 min (DMMM), and 4.5 ± 1.1 min and 4.2 ± 1.6 min (CPMM). The immobilizing ED50 infusion rates were (mean ± SD) 0.19 ± 0.03 mg/kg·min (etomidate), 0.60 ± 0.12 mg/kg·min (DMMM), and 0.89 ± 0.18 mg/kg·min (CPMM). Conclusions Electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries following prolonged infusions of DMMM and CPMM are faster than those following methoxycarbonyl etomidate or etomidate. In the case of CPMM infusion, recovery times are 4 min and context-insensitive. PMID:22929726

  8. The Use of Hypnotics and Mortality - A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Zeng, Ya-Fang; Tang, Gau-Jun; Kao, Hui-Chuan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ho, Hsiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders, especially chronic insomnia, have become major health problem worldwide and, as a result, the use of hypnotics is steadily increasing. However, few studies with a large sample size and long-term observation have been conducted to investigate the relationship between specific hypnotics and mortality. Methods We conducted this retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Information from claims data including basic characteristics, the use of hypnotics, and survival from 2000 to 2009 for 1,320,322 individuals were included. The use of hypnotics was divided into groups using the defined daily dose and the cumulative length of use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated from a Cox proportional hazards model, with two different matching techniques to examine the associations. Results Compared to the non-users, both users of benzodiazepines (HR = 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78–1.85) and mixed users (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.42–1.47) had a higher risk of death, whereas the users of other non-benzodiazepines users showed no differences. Zolpidem users (HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.71–0.75) exhibited a lower risk of mortality in the adjusted models. This pattern remained similar in both matching techniques. Secondary analysis indicated that zolpidem users had a reduced risk of major cause-specific mortality except cancer, and that this protective effect was dose-responsive, with those using for more than 1 year having the lowest risk. Conclusions The effects of different types of hypnotics on mortality were diverse in this large cohort with long-term follow-up based on representative claims data in Taiwan. The use of zolpidem was associated with a reduced risk of mortality. PMID:26709926

  9. Electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries after brief and prolonged infusions of etomidate and optimized soft etomidate analogs.

    PubMed

    Ge, Rile; Pejo, Ervin; Husain, S Shaukat; Cotten, Joseph F; Raines, Douglas E

    2012-11-01

    Methoxycarbonyl etomidate is the prototypical soft etomidate analog. Because it has relatively low potency and is extremely rapidly metabolized, large quantities must be infused to maintain hypnosis. Consequently with prolonged infusion, metabolite reaches sufficient concentrations to delay recovery. Dimethyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (DMMM) and cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate (CPMM) are methoxycarbonyl etomidate analogs with higher potencies and slower clearance. Because of these properties, we hypothesized that dosing would be lower and electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries would be faster - and less context-sensitive - with DMMM or CPMM versus methoxycarbonyl etomidate or etomidate. Etomidate, DMMM, and CPMM where infused into rats (n = 6 per group) for either 5 min or 120 min. After infusion termination, electroencephalographic and hypnotic recovery times were measured. The immobilizing ED50 infusion rates were determined using a tail clamp assay. Upon terminating 5-min infusions, electroencephalographic and hypnotic recovery times were not different among hypnotics. However, upon terminating 120-min infusions, recovery times varied significantly with respective values (mean ± SD) 48 ± 13 min and 31 ± 6.5 min (etomidate), 17 ± 7.0 min and 14 ± 3.4 min (DMMM), and 4.5 ± 1.1 min and 4.2 ± 1.6 min (CPMM). The immobilizing ED50 infusion rates were (mean ± SD) 0.19 ± 0.03 mg · kg · min (etomidate), 0.60 ± 0.12 mg · kg · min (DMMM), and 0.89 ± 0.18 mg · kg · min (CPMM). Electroencephalographic and hypnotic recoveries following prolonged infusions of DMMM and CPMM are faster than those following methoxycarbonyl etomidate or etomidate. In the case of CPMM infusion, recovery times are 4 min and context-insensitive.

  10. The impacts of hypnotic susceptibility on chaotic dynamics of EEG signals during standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale.

    PubMed

    Yargholi, Elahe'; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2013-05-01

    Chaotic features of hypnotic EEG (electroencephalograph), recorded during standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of hypnotic susceptibility (WSGS), were used to investigate the underlying dynamic of tasks and analyse the effect of hypnotic depth and concentration on EEG signals. Results demonstrate: (1) More efficiency of Higuchi dimension in comparison with Correlation dimension to distinguish subjects from different hypnotizable groups, (2) Channels with significantly different chaotic features among people from various hypnotizability levels in tasks, (3) High level of consistency among discriminating channels of tasks with function of brain's lobes, (4) Most affectability of medium hypnotizable subjects and (5) Rise in fractal dimensions due to increase in hypnosis depth.

  11. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of centrally acting drugs in rat: effect of pentobarbital and chlorpromazine on electroencephalogram in rat.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Koshiro, A; Kakemi, M; Fukasawa, Y; Katayama, K; Koizumi, T

    1995-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) alterations in rat after the i.v. administration of pentobarbital (PTB) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) were measured by power spectral analysis. The time courses of PTB concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain were determined after the i.v. administration of PTB (20, 40 mg/kg) by GC-MS. The PTB concentrations in plasma, CSF and brain could be described by a biexponential equation, a CSF model and a blood flow limited model, respectively. The relationship between the alteration of EEG and the PTB concentrations in the CSF or brain or the effect compartment were analyzed using the sigmoid Emax model. The alteration of EEG after PTB administration could be described by the PTB concentration in these compartments using the sigmoid Emax model. These results indicated that the site of action for the alteration of EEG after PTB administration is in instantaneous equilibrium with the CSF, the brain and the effect compartment. Thus, alterations in EEG after PTB administration can be predicted by monitoring the total PTB concentration in plasma. The alteration of EEG after i.v. administration of CPZ (4 mg/kg) showed a two-phase variation. Although the relationship between the alteration of EEG and the CPZ concentrations in CSF or the striatum or the effect compartment (total and free drug) were analyzed using the linear model, the Emax model or the sigmoid Emax model, the two-phase alteration of EEG after CPZ administration could not be described by any of these models. These results indicated that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of CPZ during the alteration of EEG may be complicated due to several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors, such as an alteration of the free fraction of CPZ in the striatum, the formation of active metabolites, and two different intrinsic effects of CPZ on the EEG (one in an increase and the other in a decrease of the brain's electrical activity.

  12. Anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of aqueous bulb extract of Crinum glaucum A. chev (Amaryllidaceae): role of GABAergic and nitrergic systems.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Olayemi, Sunday O; Idowu, Abidemi R

    2013-08-01

    Crinum glaucum A. Chev (Amaryllidaceae) (CG) is a bulbous plant widely used in folk medicine in the treatment of cough, asthma and convulsions. This study was carried out to investigate the anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of the aqueous bulb extract of C. glaucum and its possible mechanism (s) of action. The anticonvulsant activity of C. glaucum extract (400-1200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was investigated using picrotoxin, strychnine, isoniazid, pentylenetetrazol and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in mice while the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time (HIST) were used to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects, respectively. Animals were pretreated with flumazenil (3 mg kg(-1); i.p. GABA(A) receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (4 mg kg(-1); i.p. 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), L-arginine (500 mg kg(-1); p.o. Nitric Oxide (NO) precursor) and L-Nitroarginine (L-NNA) (10 mg kg(-1) i.p. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitor) were used to investigate the probable mechanism (s) of anticonvulsant activity. Oral administration of CG significantly (p < 0.001) delayed the onset of seizures induced by picrotoxin, strychnine, isoniazid and pentylenetetrazol with peak effect at 1200 mg kg(-1) in comparison to control groups. CG (800 and 1200 mg kg(-1)) strongly antagonized NMDA-induced turning behavior. Pretreatment of mice with cyproheptadine could not reverse the anticonvulsant effect of CG. However, pretreatment with flumazenil and L-NNA significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the anticonvulsant effect of CG while L-arginine pretreatment significantly (p < 0.001) delayed the onset of seizures when compared with control and extract (1200 mg kg(-1) only). CG potentiated hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time with peak effect at 400 mg kg(-1) and also significantly (p < 0.05) increased open arm exploration in EPM and had its peak anxiolytic effect at 100 mg kg(-1). The data obtained suggests that aqueous bulb extract of Crinum

  13. The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: accuracy of self-report and the memory for items.

    PubMed

    Younger, Jarred; Kemmerer, David D; Winkel, Justin D; Nash, Michael R

    2005-07-01

    Whereas early studies have found moderately high agreement between self- and observer-rated scores on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), these studies shared a common confound in that participants were aware of being directly observed. In the present study, confederates made surreptitious observations of group participants' hypnotic responding. Following the hypnotic procedure, participants indicated whether or not they remembered each item and provided self-reports of their hypnotic response. The study assesses the accuracy of participant self-report for hypnosis items when individuals are unaware of being observed. Thirty-two percent of participants failed to recognize at least one item from the hypnosis session, suggesting that the inability to remember items is a common phenomenon. When participants reported not remembering an item, the accuracy of their self-reported response was no better than chance.

  14. Chaos-chaos transition of left hemisphere EEGs during standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of hypnotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yargholi, Elahe'; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2015-01-01

    A recent study, recurrence quantification analysis of EEG signals during standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of hypnotic susceptibility investigated recurrence quantifiers (RQs) of hypnotic electroencephalograph (EEG) signals recorded after hypnotic induction while subjects were doing standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale (WSGS) of hypnotic susceptibility to distinguish subjects of different hypnotizability levels. Following the same analysis, the current study determines the capability of different RQs to distinguish subjects of low, medium and high hypnotizability level and studies the influence of hypnotizability level on underlying dynamic of tasks. Besides, EEG channels were sorted according to the number of their RQs, which differed significantly among subjects of different hypnotizability levels. Another valuable result was determination of major brain regions in observing significant differences in various task types (ideomotors, hallucination, challenge and memory).

  15. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  16. The Impact of Hypnotic Suggestions on Reaction Times in Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25962151

  17. The relation of self-reports of hypnotic depth in self-hypnosis to hypnotizability and imagery production.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S P; Fromm, E; Lombard, L S; Sossi, M

    1989-10-01

    The relationship of self-reports of hypnotic depth obtained during self-hypnosis to hypnotizability and to the kinds of imagery produced during self-hypnosis is investigated. The sample consisted of 22 highly hypnotizable Ss who practiced self-hypnosis in 1-hour daily sessions for 4 weeks and kept daily journals in which they detailed the contents of their self-hypnosis experiences. The journals were coded for imagery production by scoring for both reality-oriented and primary process imagery. Ss had been taught to monitor their hypnotic depth using a slightly revised version of the Extended North Carolina Scale (ENCS) of Tart (1979). Previously, ENCS has been used only with heterohypnotic Ss. The self-reports of depth using ENCS correlated highly with hypnotizability as measured by the Revised Stanford Profile Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Form I of Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard (1967) and with imagery production. Results demonstrate that ENCS scores are also a valid indicator of self-hypnotic depth among highly hypnotizable Ss. Furthermore, they indicate that both hetero-hypnotizability and imagery production are related to self-hypnotic depth, but that the association between imagery and hypnotizability is due to their individual relationships to self-hypnotic depth.

  18. The impact of hypnotic suggestions on reaction times in continuous performance test in adults with ADHD and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Virta, Maarit; Hiltunen, Seppo; Mattsson, Markus; Kallio, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Changes in ventral respiratory column GABAaR ε- and δ-subunits during hibernation mediate resistance to depression by EtOH and pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Hengen, K B; Gomez, T M; Stang, K M; Johnson, S M; Behan, M

    2011-02-01

    During hibernation in the 13-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, the cerebral cortex is electrically silent, yet the brainstem continues to regulate cardiorespiratory function. Previous work showed that neurons in slices through the medullary ventral respiratory column (VRC) but not the cortex are insensitive to high doses of pentobarbital during hibernation, leading to the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) in the VRC undergo a seasonal modification in subunit composition. To test whether alteration of GABA(A)R subunits are responsible for hibernation-associated pentobarbital insensitivity, we examined an array of subunits using RT-PCR and Western blots and identified changes in ε- and δ-subunits in the medulla but not the cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that during hibernation, the expression of ε-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs nearly doubles in the VRC. We also identified a population of δ-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs adjacent to the VRC that were differentially expressed during hibernation. As δ-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs are particularly sensitive to ethanol (EtOH), multichannel electrodes were inserted in slices of medulla and cortex from hibernating squirrels and EtOH was applied. EtOH, which normally inhibits neuronal activity, excited VRC but not cortical neurons during hibernation. This excitation was prevented by bicuculline pretreatment, indicating the involvement of GABA(A)Rs. We propose that neuronal activity in the VRC during hibernation is unaffected by pentobarbital due to upregulation of ε-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs on VRC neurons. Synaptic input from adjacent inhibitory interneurons that express δ-subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs is responsible for the excitatory effects of EtOH on VRC neurons during hibernation.

  20. Changes in ventral respiratory column GABAaR ε- and δ-subunits during hibernation mediate resistance to depression by EtOH and pentobarbital

    PubMed Central

    Hengen, K. B.; Gomez, T. M.; Stang, K. M.; Johnson, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    During hibernation in the 13-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, the cerebral cortex is electrically silent, yet the brainstem continues to regulate cardiorespiratory function. Previous work showed that neurons in slices through the medullary ventral respiratory column (VRC) but not the cortex are insensitive to high doses of pentobarbital during hibernation, leading to the hypothesis that GABAA receptors (GABAAR) in the VRC undergo a seasonal modification in subunit composition. To test whether alteration of GABAAR subunits are responsible for hibernation-associated pentobarbital insensitivity, we examined an array of subunits using RT-PCR and Western blots and identified changes in ε- and δ-subunits in the medulla but not the cortex. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that during hibernation, the expression of ε-subunit-containing GABAARs nearly doubles in the VRC. We also identified a population of δ-subunit-containing GABAARs adjacent to the VRC that were differentially expressed during hibernation. As δ-subunit-containing GABAARs are particularly sensitive to ethanol (EtOH), multichannel electrodes were inserted in slices of medulla and cortex from hibernating squirrels and EtOH was applied. EtOH, which normally inhibits neuronal activity, excited VRC but not cortical neurons during hibernation. This excitation was prevented by bicuculline pretreatment, indicating the involvement of GABAARs. We propose that neuronal activity in the VRC during hibernation is unaffected by pentobarbital due to upregulation of ε-subunit-containing GABAARs on VRC neurons. Synaptic input from adjacent inhibitory interneurons that express δ-subunit-containing GABAARs is responsible for the excitatory effects of EtOH on VRC neurons during hibernation. PMID:21084677

  1. The neural correlates of movement intentions: A pilot study comparing hypnotic and simulated paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Seitz, Jochen; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Höse, Annett; Abler, Birgit; Hole, Günter; Goebel, Rainer; Walter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    The distinct feeling of wanting to act and thereby causing our own actions is crucial to our self-perception as free human agents. Disturbances of the link between intention and action occur in several disorders. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of wanting or intending to act. To investigate these for simple voluntary movements, we used a paradigm involving hypnotic paralysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy women were instructed to sequentially perform left and right hand movements during a normal condition, as well as during simulated weakness, simulated paralysis and hypnotic paralysis of the right hand. Right frontopolar cortex was selectively hypoactivated for attempted right hand movement during simulated paralysis while it was active in all other conditions. Since simulated paralysis was the only condition lacking an intention to move, the activation in frontopolar cortex might be related to the intention or volition to move.

  2. Chinese medicines with sedative-hypnotic effects and their active components.

    PubMed

    Shi, Man-Man; Piao, Jin-Hua; Xu, Xi-Lin; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Lin, Fu-Lan; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety, and antidepression. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. This review focuses mainly on the role of active ingredients from TCM in the treatment of insomnia. Single herbs and their active ingredients from TCM with hypnotic effects are summarized through reviewing the relevant literature published in the past 20 y. The active ingredients are divided into alkaloids, terpenoids, and volatile oils, flavonoids, lignanoids and coumarins, saponins, and others. Current studies on TCM in treating insomnia are described from the aspects of active ingredients, sources, experimental models and methods, results, and mechanisms. In addition, Chinese compound prescriptions developed from a variety of single herbs with sedative-hypnotic effects are introduced. The acting pathways of TCM are covered from the perspectives of regulating central neurotransmitters, influencing sleep-related cytokines, and improving the structure of the central nervous system.

  3. Hypnotic relaxation therapy for treatment of hot flashes following prostate cancer surgery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary R; Kendrick, Cassie; Koep, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This case study reports on a 69-year-old African American male who presented with hot flashes following a diagnosis of prostate cancer and subsequent prostatectomy. Measures include both self-reported and physiologically measured hot flash frequency and sleep quality. The intervention involved 7 weekly sessions of hypnotic relaxation therapy directed toward alleviation of hot flashes. Posttreatment self-reported hot flashes decreased 94%; physiologically measured hot flashes decreased 100%; and sleep quality improved 87.5%. At week 12, both self-reported and physiologically measured hot flashes decreased 95% and sleep quality improved 37.5% over baseline, suggesting hypnotic relaxation therapy may be an effective intervention for men with hot flashes following treatment for prostate cancer.

  4. A study in mice of bromo and chloro acylurea analogues of the sedative-hypnotic bromureides.

    PubMed

    Mrongovius, R I; Rand, M J

    1977-01-01

    1. A series of 1-(2-chloroacyl)ureas, related to the sedative-hypnotic drugs bromvaletone and carbromal, was synthesized and tested in mice to determine central depressant and acute toxic effects. Four 1-(2-bromoacyl)ureas and two 3-halo compounds were included for comparison. 2. Large variations in potency were seen between the compounds. Much of this can be ascribed to differences in lipophilicity. Among homologous 1-(2-chloroacyl)ureas, those with 6 acyl carbons had maximal potency. Among groups of structural isomers, the most potent were 2-halo, 3-alkyl substituted compounds. 3. The most potent compounds were also those with the largest ratios of hypnotic to lethal activity. 4. The variation in the onset and duration of action of these compounds enables a choice to be made for a compound with a particular set of characteristics.

  5. Designing sedative/hypnotic compounds from a novel substructural graph-theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Peña, Alfredo; García-Domenech, Ramón

    1998-11-01

    A novel approach to computer-aided molecular design is illustrated. This approach is based on the calculation of the spectral moments of the bond adjacency matrix of graphs representing molecular structures. Spectral moments are then expressed as linear combinations of the different sub-structures present in molecules. Two series of compounds, one containing sedative/hypnotic and the other containing different classes of drugs were used to find a discriminant function with the present approach. Several compounds from the Merck Index were identified by the model as sedative/hypnotic, five of them were found in the recent literature as possessing this activity. The critical fragments, actives and inactive ones, were detected.

  6. Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics and older adults: what are we learning about zolpidem?

    PubMed

    Levy, Hedva B

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem and other non-benzodiazepine (BZD) hypnotic agents have become preferred drugs to manage insomnia. They are widely used among older adults because of perceived improved safety profiles compared with traditional BZDs. Accumulating data in recent years in patients over the age of 65, however, shed light on possible safety concerns of these medications and zolpidem specifically. Recent information regarding potential for excessive blood concentrations, effects on balance and memory and fracture risk data briefly is described. Clinicians should be aware of these most recent data. Non-drug therapies, as recommended in clinical guidelines, should be fully utilized for managing insomnia. Until better studies or pharmacovigilance data become available to guide patient selection for prescribing zolpidem and other non-BZDs, judicious use of these hypnotic agents in older adults is warranted.

  7. Hypnotic suggestion modulates cognitive conflict: the case of the flanker compatibility effect.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Ricci, Federico; Gherri, Elena; Rubichi, Sandro

    2006-08-01

    The present work was aimed at investigating whether the flanker compatibility effect can be eliminated by means of a posthypnotic suggestion influencing attentional focusing. In Experiment 1, participants who scored high and low on hypnotic susceptibility performed the flanker compatibility task when naturally awake and when under a posthypnotic suggestion aimed at increasing the target's discriminability from the flankers. Results showed that the posthypnotic suggestion effectively eliminated the flanker compatibility effect in highly susceptible participants, whereas low-susceptibility participants did not show any reduction in the effect. In Experiment 2, highly susceptible participants performed the task after receiving a suggestion but without the induction of hypnosis. Results showed that the suggestion alone was not sufficient to reduce the flanker compatibility effect. These results support the view that in highly susceptible participants, hypnotic suggestion can influence the ability to focus on relevant information.

  8. Sensory-motor cortex activity modulation by hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis during finger movement.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, A; Tosetti, M; Montanaro, D; Biagi, L; Ghelarducci, B; Guazzelli, M; Santarcangelo, E L

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study whether the activity of the primary sensory-motor (S1/M1), supplementary motor (SMA) and pre-motor (PMA) areas during fingers movement is modulated by hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis. Cortical activity was studied through functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during a finger-to-thumb opposition task in awake (Highs) and hypnotized highly susceptible (H-Highs) as well as in awake non susceptible subjects (Lows). Results did not show any significant difference in sensory-motor areas activation between Highs and Lows (trait effect) and between Highs and H-Highs (state effect). The activation in 3 subjects among Highs and only 1 among Lows (out of 5) of the caudal S1, receiving the most part of the cutaneous input, appears noteworthy and prompts further investigation on possible hypnotizability-related differences in sensory-motor integration.

  9. The effect of hypnotic training programs on the academic performance of students.

    PubMed

    De Vos, H M; Louw, D A

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of the present study was to empirically verify the effect of hypnotic training programs on the academic performance of students. A pre and posttest design was used. Two experimental and two control groups (total sample N=119) of volunteer second year psychology students at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa comprised the sample. One of the experimental groups was exposed to active alert hypnosis and the other to relaxation hypnosis. One control group was exposed to progressive relaxation, while the other did not receive any intervention. The participants' April grades were used as a pretest, while their June grades served as a posttest. The two hypnotic training programs had a significant effect on the academic achievement of the participants, which was not found in the control groups. Regarding the efficacy of the two programs, however, no significant difference was found.

  10. Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Költő, András; Gősi-Greguss, Anna C; Varga, Katalin; Bányai, Éva I

    2015-01-01

    Hungarian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) are presented. The Hungarian translation of the HGSHS:A was administered under standard conditions to 434 participants (190 males, 244 females) of several professions. In addition to the traditional self-scoring, hypnotic behavior was also recorded by trained observers. Female participants proved to be more hypnotizable than males and so were psychology students and professionals as compared to nonpsychologists. Hypnotizability varied across different group sizes. The normative data-including means, standard deviations, and indicators of reliability-are comparable with previously published results. The authors conclude that measuring observer-scores increases the ecological validity of the scale. The Hungarian version of the HGSHS:A seems to be a reliable and valid measure of hypnotizability.

  11. Hypnotic prescription without face to face contact: a report from French family medicine.

    PubMed

    Rat, Cédric; Werner, Erik L; Pivette, Jacques; Senand, Rémy; Nguyen, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-01

    Guidelines suggest a review of hypnotic prescriptions every four weeks for zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon ('Z-drugs'). The lack of face-to-face consultation between the physician and the patient increases the potential of misuse and resultant dependence. To determine the proportion of long-term hypnotic Z-drug prescription issued without face-to-face consultation, and factors associated with such practice. Audit based on an extract of data from the French health insurance database in two French departments. Long-term Z-drug prescriptions by general practitioners (GPs) were analysed over a one-year period, regardless of the association of the prescription with a reimbursed consultation. Main factors considered were patient characteristics (gender, age, socioeconomic status, suffering from a chronic disease) and physician characteristics (gender, age, location of the practice, patient list size). Overall, 67 256 long-term Z-drug prescriptions were reviewed. Of these, 23 107 (34.4%) were not associated with a consultation. Only 17% (95%CI: 16-18%) of long-term hypnotic consumers attended a consultation on all the dates noted on the prescription. Z-drug prescriptions were more likely to be prescribed in a consultation if the patient had a chronic illness (P < 0.0001), a low socioeconomic status (P < 0.0001), was less than 45 or over 65 years old (P < 0.0001), or visited a psychiatrist during the same year (P < 0.0001). Having a longer patient list or practising in a rural area were physician characteristics associated with non-adherent Z-drug prescription (P < 0.0001). Prescribing Z-drug hypnotics without a face-to-face consultation was frequent, especially in middle-aged patients without co-morbidity who were not seen by a psychiatrist.

  12. Adverse Respiratory Events Associated With Hypnotics Use in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the effects of hypnotics on the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD. The case-control study was investigated using data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed adverse respiratory events (pneumonia, COPD with acute exacerbation, acute respiratory failure, and cardiopulmonary arrest) were included in the case group. Patients with COPD and no history of adverse respiratory events were randomly selected for the control group, which was frequency-matched with the case group according to index date, age (per 10 years), and sex. Patients who had used hypnotics within 1 month meant active users. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of were calculated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Most of the study participants were male (71.6%), and the mean ages of the participants in the case and control groups were 69.2 (±12.4) and 67.5 (±12.3) years, respectively. After potential confounding factors were adjusting for, the adjusted ORs of adverse respiratory events were 12.0 for active users of benzodiazepines (95% CI, 8.11–17.6) and 10.5 for active users of nonbenzodiazepines (95% CI, 7.68–14.2) compared with the adjusted ORs of those who never used hypnotics. The results of this epidemiological study suggested that hypnotics increased the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD. PMID:26166105

  13. The Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotic Zolpidem Impairs Sleep-Dependent Cortical Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Seibt, Julie; Aton, Sara J.; Jha, Sushil K.; Coleman, Tammi; Dumoulin, Michelle C.; Frank, Marcos G.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effects of hypnotics on sleep-dependent brain plasticity are unknown. We have shown that sleep enhances a canonical model of in vivo cortical plasticity, known as ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). We investigated the effects of 3 different classes of hypnotics on ODP. Design: Polysomnographic recordings were performed during the entire experiment (20 h). After a baseline sleep/wake recording (6 h), cats received 6 h of monocular deprivation (MD) followed by an i.p. injection of triazolam (1–10 mg/kg i.p.), zolpidem (10 mg/kg i.p.), ramelteon (0.1–1 mg/kg i.p.), or vehicle (DMSO i.p.). They were then allowed to sleep ad lib for 8 h, after which they were prepared for optical imaging of intrinsic cortical signals and single-unit electrophysiology. Setting: Basic neurophysiology laboratory Patients or Participants: Cats (male and female) in the critical period of visual development (postnatal days 28–41) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Zolpidem reduced cortical plasticity by ∼50% as assessed with optical imaging of intrinsic cortical signals. This was not due to abnormal sleep architecture because triazolam, which perturbed sleep architecture and sleep EEGs more profoundly than zolpidem, had no effect on plasticity. Ramelteon minimally altered sleep and had no effect on ODP. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that alterations in sleep architecture do not necessarily lead to impairments in sleep function. Conversely, hypnotics that produce more “physiological” sleep based on polysomnography may impair critical brain processes, depending on their pharmacology. Citation: Seibt J; Aton SJ; Jha SK; Coleman T; Dumoulin MC; Frank MG. The non-benzodiazepine hypnotic zolpidem impairs sleep-dependent cortical plasticity. SLEEP 2008;31(10):1381–1391. PMID:18853935

  14. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C: normative data of a Dutch student sample.

    PubMed

    Näring, G W; Roelofs, K; Hoogduin, K A

    2001-04-01

    Norms for the Dutch language version of the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962) are presented. These norms are based upon a sample of 135 students at a Dutch university. Generally, the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the SHSS:C are similar to other language versions. However, the mean score was somewhat lower than that found in the original norming studies at Stanford University.

  15. Benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the associated risk of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Orriols, L; Philip, P; Moore, N; Castot, A; Gadegbeku, B; Delorme, B; Mallaret, M; Lagarde, E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the risk of road traffic accidents. Data from three French national databases were matched: the health-care insurance database, police reports, and the police database of injury-related traffic accidents. A total of 72,685 drivers involved in injury-related road traffic accidents in France, from 2005 to 2008, were included in the study. The risk of being responsible for a traffic accident was higher in users of benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio (OR) = 1.39 (1.08-1.79)) and in the 155 drivers to whom a dosage of more than one pill of zolpidem a day had been dispensed during the 5 months before the collision (OR = 2.46 (1.70-3.56)). No association was found between the use of zopiclone and risk of traffic accidents. Although this study did not find any association between the use of zolpidem as recommended and causation of traffic accidents, the potential risk related to possible abuse of the drug and risky driving behaviors should be further investigated. The results related to benzodiazepine hypnotics are consistent with those of previous studies.

  16. [Investigation on insomnia and use of hypnotics among an adult population].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q

    1993-02-01

    An epidemiological enquiry about the sleep status and use of hypnotics in 1289 adults (742 men and 547 women), including 266 workers, 195 peasants, 275 intellectuals and 553 college students, was done in 1989. A questionnaire including 15 questions on sleep habits, sleep disorders and consumption of hypnotics was used. The response percentages were compared with chi-square test between different sexes, age groups, professions and places of residence. 52.9% and 5.4% of the sample complained of transient and persistent insomnia, respectively. Our data did not reveal sex difference as insomnia is concerned. The response percentages for transient insomnia did not correlate with age, while persistent insomnia definitely increased from middle age. Both transient and persistent insomnia were present much less in rural residents than in towns folks. No significant difference in the incidence of insomnia was found between intellectuals and workers. Only 1.1% of the sample used hypnotics regularly and 10.9% had ever taken sleeping pills.

  17. Personality Disorder Features and Insomnia Status amongst Hypnotic-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Megan E.; Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Nau, Sidney D.; Geyer, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of personality disorders and their relation to insomnia parameters among persons with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence. Methods Eighty-four adults with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence completed the SCID-II personality questionnaire, two-weeks of sleep diaries, polysomnography, and measures of insomnia severity, impact, fatigue severity, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Frequencies, between-subjects t-tests and hierarchical regression models were conducted. Results Cluster C personality disorders were most prevalent (50%). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) was most common (n=39). These individuals compared to participants with no personality disorders did not differ in objective and subjective sleep parameters. Yet, they had poorer insomnia-related daytime functioning. OCPD and Avoidant personality disorders features were associated with poorer daytime functioning. OCPD features were related to greater fatigue severity, and overestimation of time awake was trending. Schizotypal and Schizoid features were positively associated with insomnia severity. Dependent personality disorder features were related to underestimating time awake. Conclusions Cluster C personality disorders were highly prevalent in patients with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence. Features of Cluster C and A personality disorders were variously associated with poorer insomnia-related daytime functioning, fatigue, and estimation of nightly wake-time. Future interventions may need to address these personality features. PMID:22938862

  18. Sedative Hypnotic Medication Use and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Denise M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Grossman, David C.; Sullivan, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to estimate the association between sedative hypnotic use and motor vehicle crash risk. Methods. We conducted a new user cohort study of 409 171 adults in an integrated health care system. Health plan data were linked to driver license and collision records. Participants were aged 21 years or older, licensed to drive in Washington State, had at least 1 year of continuous enrollment between 2003 and 2008, and were followed until death, disenrollment, or study end. We used proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk of crash associated with 3 sedatives. Results. We found 5.8% of patients received new sedative prescriptions, with 11 197 person-years of exposure. New users of sedatives were associated with an increased risk of crash relative to nonuse: temazepam hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.91), trazodone HR = 1.91 (95% CI = 1.62, 2.25), and zolpidem HR = 2.20 (95% CI = 1.64, 2.95). These risk estimates are equivalent to blood alcohol concentration levels between 0.06% and 0.11%. Conclusions. New use of sedative hypnotics is associated with increased motor vehicle crash risk. Clinicians initiating sedative hypnotic treatment should consider length of treatment and counseling on driving risk. PMID:26066943

  19. Sedative Hypnotic Medication Use and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ryan N; Boudreau, Denise M; Ebel, Beth E; Grossman, David C; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-08-01

    We sought to estimate the association between sedative hypnotic use and motor vehicle crash risk. We conducted a new user cohort study of 409 171 adults in an integrated health care system. Health plan data were linked to driver license and collision records. Participants were aged 21 years or older, licensed to drive in Washington State, had at least 1 year of continuous enrollment between 2003 and 2008, and were followed until death, disenrollment, or study end. We used proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk of crash associated with 3 sedatives. We found 5.8% of patients received new sedative prescriptions, with 11 197 person-years of exposure. New users of sedatives were associated with an increased risk of crash relative to nonuse: temazepam hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.91), trazodone HR = 1.91 (95% CI = 1.62, 2.25), and zolpidem HR = 2.20 (95% CI = 1.64, 2.95). These risk estimates are equivalent to blood alcohol concentration levels between 0.06% and 0.11%. New use of sedative hypnotics is associated with increased motor vehicle crash risk. Clinicians initiating sedative hypnotic treatment should consider length of treatment and counseling on driving risk.

  20. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  1. Nuances and Uncertainties Regarding Hypnotic Inductions: Toward a Theoretically Informed Praxis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin B; Cardeña, Etzel

    2016-10-01

    Although most definitions of hypnosis consider inductions as the initial stage in a hypnosis protocol, knowledge of inductions remains poor and uninformed by recent developments in theory and research. It is frequently argued that inductions play a critical role in hypnotic responding or, by contrast, are largely interchangeable and unimportant. Drawing on the literature on suggestibility, spontaneous phenomenology, neurophysiology, and cognition, this article argues that the value of inductions, as well as the potential value of inductions, is more nuanced and uncertain. Certain components of standard inductions appear to be efficacious in enhancing suggestibility, whereas others do not have any clear benefits. The impact of inductions on suggestibility seems to vary across suggestions and modes of assessment with the sources of this variability being unknown. Considering these effects, and the broader impact of inductions on spontaneous conscious states and cognition, through the lens of heterogeneity in high hypnotic suggestibility and componential models of hypnotic suggestibility may offer novel research avenues in this area. The article concludes by arguing for the practical and theory-driven optimization of inductions.

  2. [Peculiarities of hypnotic effect and pharmacokinetics of hemisuccinate 3-hydroxyphenazepam (levana)].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Larionov, V B; Golovenko, N Ia; Nerobkova, L N

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of hemisuccinate 3-hydroxyphenazepam (HS-3-HPh, levana)--a new hypnotic 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative--have been studied. It is established that HS-3-HPh in doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 2 mg/kg produces reliable hypnotic action (shortens the period of falling asleep, reduces the number of awakenings at night-time, and increases sleep duration) in the hexenal sleep potentiation test on mice. After a 7-day drug administration, no withdrawal syndrome has been observed. The concentration of 3-oxyphenazepam (3-OP, the main metabolite of HS-3-HPh) in brain after drug administration is significantly higher than the content of 3-OP upon its introduction. The content of 3-OP upon its introduction rapidly decreases, while that upon the administration of HS-3-HPh is retained on a stationary level for a rather long time (about 6 h). It can be suggested that a specific character of HS-3-HPh hypnotic action is determined by peculiarities of its pharmacokinetics, namely, easier entering the brain and subsequent hydrolysis with release of the active metabolite (3-OP).

  3. Effectiveness of a CBT Intervention for Persistent Insomnia and Hypnotic Dependency in an Outpatient Psychiatry Clinic.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Hannah Lund; Rybarczyk, Bruce D; Nay, William; Leszczyszyn, David

    2015-07-01

    To test cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in patients who not only receive psychiatric treatment in a outpatient psychiatry clinic but also continue to experience chronic insomnia despite receiving pharmacological treatment for sleep. CBT-I included an optional module for discontinuing hypnotic medications. Patients were randomized to 5 sessions of individual CBT-I (n = 13) or treatment as usual (n = 10). Sleep parameters were assessed using sleep diaries at pre- and posttreatment. Questionnaires measuring depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life were also administered. CBT-I was associated with significant improvement in sleep, with 46% obtaining normal global sleep ratings after treatment. However, no changes in secondary outcomes (depression, anxiety, quality of life) were obtained and no patients elected to discontinue their hypnotic medications. Patients with complex, chronic psychiatric conditions can obtain sleep improvements with CBT-I beyond those obtained with pharmacotherapy alone; however, sleep interventions alone may not have the same effect on mental health outcomes in samples with more severe and chronic psychiatric symptoms and dependency on hypnotic medications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Continuing Versus New Prescriptions for Sedative-Hypnotic Medications: United States, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Christopher N; Spira, Adam P; Depp, Colin A; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-11-01

    To assess trends in continuing and new prescriptions for sedative-hypnotic medications, including benzodiazepines (BZDs) and non-BZD receptor agonists (nBZRAs). Data came from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and comprised 287 288 randomly sampled patient visits. Physicians reported medications prescribed and whether they were "continuing" or "new" prescriptions. We assessed trends in continuing BZD, new BZD, continuing nBZRA, and new nBZRA prescriptions from 2005 to 2012. Proportions of visits with continuing prescriptions increased from 3.4% in 2005 to 4.7% in 2012 (P < .01) for BZDs, and from 1.0% to 1.7% (P < .01) for nBZRAs. We noted no changes in new prescriptions. We observed the same patterns across patient age and physician specialties, except psychiatry. Despite no growth over time, the prevalence of visits involving continuing and new BZD and nBZRA prescriptions was much higher in psychiatry than in primary care and other specialties. Increased sedative-hypnotic prescribing in recent years may be attributable to long-term growth in continuing prescriptions, rather than new prescriptions. Public Health Implications. Findings call for renewed efforts to limit continuing prescribing of sedative-hypnotics to reduce their use in the population.

  5. Hypnotic susceptibility: a personal and historical note regarding the development and naming of the Stanford Scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, A M

    1997-04-01

    Certain misleading, if not inaccurate, allegations that have been made regarding the foundations of the Stanford scales are corrected. No special meaning was intended when the scales were designated susceptibility scales. A retrospective examination, however, indicates that grounds existed for making certain differentiations. SHSS:C and RSPS:I and RSPS:II should more appropriately have been designated as suggestibility and depth scales. On the other hand, whereas SHSS:A and SHSS:B also assess depth of hypnosis, they include a feature that permits using the obtained depth as a measure of hypnotic capacity and a predictor of future hypnotic performance. The possibility of using the same measure, suggestibility, to assess hypnotic responsiveness in dissimilar contexts may have been partially responsible for the confusing variety of labels that have been attached to what in the past has appeared to many to be one and the same thing. Further confusion more recently has been introduced by researchers and clinicians who have used the term depth, previously and conventionally attached to assessments based on observed overt responses, in reference to now certain subjectively based assessments.

  6. Mirror agnosia and the mirrored-self misidentification delusion: a hypnotic analogue.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2012-05-01

    Mirrored-self misidentification is the delusional belief that one's reflection in the mirror is a stranger. Current theories suggest that one pathway to the delusion is mirror agnosia (a deficit in which patients are unable to use mirror knowledge when interacting with mirrors). This study examined whether a hypnotic suggestion for mirror agnosia can recreate features of the delusion. Ten high hypnotisable participants were given either a suggestion to not understand mirrors or to see the mirror as a window. Participants were asked to look into a mirror and describe what they saw. Participants were tested on their understanding of mirrors and received a series of challenges. Participants then received a detailed postexperimental inquiry. Three of five participants given the suggestion to not understand mirrors reported seeing a stranger and maintained this belief when challenged. These participants also showed signs of mirror agnosia. No participants given the suggestion to see a window reported seeing a stranger. Results indicate that a hypnotic suggestion for mirror agnosia can be used to recreate the mirrored-self misidentification delusion. Factors influencing the effectiveness of hypnotic analogues of psychopathology, such as participants' expectations and interpretations, are discussed.

  7. An Intersubjective View of Empathy and Hypnotic Trance: Response to Wickramasekera II.

    PubMed

    Henning, Janna A

    2016-01-01

    In response to Wickramasekera II's description of his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis in "Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy" (Wickramasekera II, 2015), Henning offers further reflections on what empathy might be and what it allows therapists to do, particularly in conditions of hypnotic trance. She defines her intersubjective view of hypnotic trance as an experience in which client and therapist mutually engage in a shared state of consciousness, and a mutual bidirectional or multidirectional exchange of verbal and nonverbal, as well as conscious and unconscious, material occurs, and which may include shared taking on of roles and expectations in each party, as suggested by the other, particularly when both client and therapist are highly hypnotizable. Research on the concept of "mutual hypnosis," or co-trance, is reviewed, and barriers to scholarly discussions about intersubjectivity in therapy relationships are described. Concepts from other disciplines and traditions, including quantum physics, transpersonal psychology, contemplative Christianity, and shamanistic practices and trance in other cultures are then offered to clarify the processes of intersubjectivity, and perspectives about empathy and hypnotic co-trance are offered from the context of the author's own clinical work as a trauma therapist. Finally, suggestions are provided for future research approaches and methods to further explore and understand these phenomena.

  8. Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule.

    PubMed

    Leander, J D

    1976-11-01

    The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.

  9. New benzodiazepine and Z-hypnotic users and disability pension: an eight-year nationwide observational follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tvete, Ingunn F; Bjørner, Trine; Skomedal, Tor

    2017-09-01

    To compare how newly initiated treatment with benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics or both associates with the reception of disability pension among 40,661 individuals of a working age. Prescription register study. Norwegian nationwide prescriptions socio-economic and disability status data. Cox regression analyses. New benzodiazepine or Z-hypnotic users. Time to receive disability pension given benzodiazepine or Z-hypnotic use or both. Additional analyses focused on the benzodiazepine first redeemed. Among new users 8.65% of Z-hypnotic users, 12.29% of benzodiazepines users and 13.96% of combined Z-hypnotic and benzodiazepine users became disability pensioners. Z-hypnotic users were weaker associated with becoming disability pensioners (HR = 0.78, CI: 0.73-0.84) and combined users were stronger associated (HR = 1.09, CI: 1.01-1.17), than benzodiazepine users. Women had higher risk than men for becoming disability pensioners. Higher age, lower education, previous drug use and psychiatrist as first prescriber were risk factors. Comparing first benzodiazepine redeemed; clonazepam initiators were stronger associated with becoming disability pensioners than diazepam initiators were (HR = 2.22, CI: 1.81-2.71). No differences between other benzodiazepine users were found. Adjusting for known risk factors gave lower risk for Z-hypnotic users compared to benzodiazepine users for receiving disability pension. Combined use increased the risk further. Clonazepam initiators are especially at risk. These findings may be helpful in prescribing situations to identify and guide individuals at risk for becoming disability pensioners.

  10. Hypnotics and mortality--partial confounding by disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic factors?

    PubMed

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Hendriksen, Carsten; Vass, Mikkel; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this Cohort study of 10 527 Danish men was to investigate the extent to which the association between hypnotics and mortality is confounded by several markers of disease and living conditions. Exposure was purchases of hypnotics 1995-1999 ("low users" (150 or less defined daily dose (DDD)) or "high users" (151 or more DDD)). Follow-up for all-cause mortality was from 1 Jan 2000 to 19 June 2010. Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the association. Covariates were entered one at a time and simultaneously. Results were reported using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When covariates were entered one at a time, the changes in HR estimates showed that psychiatric disease, socioeconomic position and substance abuse reduced the excess risk by 17-36% in the low user group and by 45-52% in the high user group. Somatic disease, intelligence score and cohabitation reduced the excess risk by 2-11% in the low user group and 8-24% in the high user group. When adjusting for all covariates, the HR was reduced to 1.22 95% CI (0.97-1.54) in the low user group and 1.43 95% CI (1.11-1.85) in the high user group. The results of this study point at psychiatric disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic position as potential confounding factors partly explaining the association between use of hypnotics and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A single dose of hypnotic corrects sleep and EEG abnormalities in symptomatic Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities are prominent early features of Huntington's disease (HD) that typically appear before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms. The changes in sleep and electroencephalogram seen in HD patients are largely recapitulated in mouse models of HD such as transgenic R6/2 lines. To test whether or not drugs with hypnotic properties can correct the sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities seen in HD mice, we treated male wild-type (WT; N = 7) and R6/2 mice (N = 9) acutely with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, zolpidem (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or amitriptyline (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), and then monitored their sleep-wake behavior. In R6/2 mice, both zolpidem and amitriptyline suppressed the abnormally high REM sleep amount and electroencephalographic gamma (30-46 Hz) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Amitriptyline's effect on sleep was similar in both genotypes, whereas zolpidem showed significant genotype differences. Zolpidem exerted a strong hypnotic effect in WT mice by increasing electroencephalographic delta power, doubling the mean bout duration and the total amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, no such effect was seen in R6/2 mice. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiological changes seen in sleep and electroencephalogram are not 'hard-wired' in HD brain and can be reversed even at late stages of the disease. The diminished hypnotic effect of zolpidem suggests that the GABAergic control of sleep-wake states is impaired in HD mice. A better understanding of the neurochemical basis underlying these abnormalities should lead to more effective and rational therapies for HD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David J; Stahl, S M

    2010-11-01

    The non-benzodiazepine GABA(A) receptor modulators ('Z-drugs') - zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone and eszopiclone - have become the accepted treatments for insomnia where they are available. However, recent randomized, placebo-controlled trials suggest that, for these drugs, there may be particular efficacy and tolerability profiles and distinct clinical outcomes in specific patient populations. This is particularly apparent when hypnotic/ selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor co-therapy is used to treat patients with co-morbid insomnia and psychiatric disorders, as patient recovery appears to be accelerated and enhanced by some drugs but not others. Emerging evidence of why this should be the case is that these hypnotic drugs may differ significantly from each other in their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Functional selectivity for specific GABA(A) receptor subtypes may determine each drug's clinical attributes, while the pharmacokinetic characteristics of Z-drugs also determine to a large extent how they perform in the clinic. For example, activity at GABA(A) alpha 1 receptor subtypes may be associated with sedative effects, whereas activity at alpha 2 and alpha 3 receptor subtypes may be associated with anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. In summary, the distinct clinical outcomes of zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone and eszopiclone may be explained by each drug's unique GABA(A) receptor subunit selectivity and pharmacokinetic profile. Further investigation of GABA( A) receptor subtype effects would help to increase understanding of current hypnotic drug effects, while knowledge of each drug's specific binding profile should enable clinicians to tailor treatment to individual patient's needs.

  13. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Graham A.; Burgess, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1–3.9 Hz), theta (4–7.9 Hz) alpha (8–12.9 Hz), beta1 (13–19.9 Hz), beta2 (20–29.9 Hz) and gamma (30–45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized “hypnotic-state.” PMID:25104928

  14. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Graham A; Burgess, Adrian P

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1-3.9 Hz), theta (4-7.9 Hz) alpha (8-12.9 Hz), beta1 (13-19.9 Hz), beta2 (20-29.9 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized "hypnotic-state."

  15. Observed differences in learning ability of heart rate self-regulation as a function of hypnotic susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of eight male and female subjects (aged 20-27 yr) categorized by low and high hypnotic susceptibility were taught to control their heart rates by means of an appropriate autogenic therapy/biofeedback technique. The experimental groups were trained by autogenic therapy and biofeedback, while the control group received only biofeedback. Significant differences are observed in all psychological test scores between subjects of high and low hypnotic susceptibility. The results confirm that (1) there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the performance of individuals with high and low hypnotic susceptibility; (2) interindividual-variability tests yield data relevant to individual performance in visceral learning tasks; (3) the combined autogenic therapy/biofeedback/verbal feedback technique is suitable for conditioning large stable autonomic responses in humans; and (4) this kind of conditioning is effective in eliminating or alleviating physiological reactions to some environmental stressors.

  16. Observed differences in learning ability of heart rate self-regulation as a function of hypnotic susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of eight male and female subjects (aged 20-27 yr) categorized by low and high hypnotic susceptibility were taught to control their heart rates by means of an appropriate autogenic therapy/biofeedback technique. The experimental groups were trained by autogenic therapy and biofeedback, while the control group received only biofeedback. Significant differences are observed in all psychological test scores between subjects of high and low hypnotic susceptibility. The results confirm that (1) there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the performance of individuals with high and low hypnotic susceptibility; (2) interindividual-variability tests yield data relevant to individual performance in visceral learning tasks; (3) the combined autogenic therapy/biofeedback/verbal feedback technique is suitable for conditioning large stable autonomic responses in humans; and (4) this kind of conditioning is effective in eliminating or alleviating physiological reactions to some environmental stressors.

  17. Increased response time of primed associates following an "episodic" hypnotic amnesia suggestion: a case of unconscious volition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caleb Henry; Oakley, David A; Morton, John

    2013-12-01

    Following a hypnotic amnesia suggestion, highly hypnotically suggestible subjects may experience amnesia for events. Is there a failure to retrieve the material concerned from autobiographical (episodic) memory, or is it retrieved but blocked from consciousness? Highly hypnotically suggestible subjects produced free-associates to a list of concrete nouns. They were then given an amnesia suggestion for that episode followed by another free association list, which included 15 critical words that had been previously presented. If episodic retrieval for the first trial had been blocked, the responses on the second trial should still have been at least as fast as for the first trial. With semantic priming, they should be faster. In fact, they were on average half a second slower. This suggests that the material had been retrieved but blocked from consciousness. A goal-oriented information processing framework is outlined to interpret these and related data.

  18. Positive affect, negative affect, and negative effects during a phenomenological hypnotic assessment within a substance abuse population.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J; Kumar, V K; Maurer, Ronald L; Elliott-Carter, Nancy; Moon, Edward; Mullen, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Positive and negative affect generated while using the Phenomenology of Consciousness--Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP) on a sample of drug and alcohol users were predicted using several variables. The results were then cross-validated on a second, smaller sample. The results suggest that, although some negative affect was reported, the PCI-HAP was more likely to generate positive, rather than negative, affect. Positive affect was related to the vividness of a suggested hypnotic dream during hypnosis and also hypnotic depth; these findings were replicated upon cross-validation. Although negative affect correlated with the Dissociative Experiences Scale scores and falling asleep, these results did not replicate upon cross-validation. Mild transient negative effects (e.g., headache) were reported by about 10% of the participants in a smaller, second sample. Implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Deynes-Exclusa, Yazmin; Sayers-Montalvo, Sean K; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    The only hypnotizability scale that has been translated and validated for the Puerto Rican population is the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). In this article, the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) was translated and validated for this population. The translated SHCS ("Escala Stanford de Hipnosis Clinica" [ESHC]) was administered individually to 100 Puerto Rican college students. There were no significant differences found between the norms of the original SHCS samples and the Spanish version of the SHCS. Both samples showed similar distributions. The Spanish version's internal reliability as well as the item discrimination index were adequate. The authors conclude that the ESHC is an adequate instrument to measure hypnotizability in the Puerto Rican population.

  20. Factors Associated with Long-Term Use of Hypnotics among Patients with Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Komada, Yoko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) or benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs) as hypnotics in patients with chronic insomnia. Consecutive patients (n = 140) with chronic insomnia were enrolled in this study (68 men and 72 women; mean age, 53.8±10.8 years). All patients filled out a self-assessment questionnaire asking clinical descriptive variables at the baseline of the treatment period; patients received the usual dose of a single type of BZD or BzRA. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were self-assessed at the baseline, and the former was re-evaluated at the time of cessation of medication or at the end of the 6-month treatment period. The PSQI included the following sub-items: evaluating sleep quality (C1), sleep latency (C2), sleep duration (C3), habitual sleep efficiency (C4), frequency of sleep disturbance (C5), use of sleeping medication (C6), and daytime dysfunction (C7). Among the patients, 54.6% needed to continue hypnotics for a 6-month treatment period. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, among descriptive variables, only the PSQI score appeared as a significant factor associated with long-term use {odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0–4.0}. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis identified that the cut-off PSQI total score at the baseline for predicting long-term use was estimated at 13.5 points (area under the curve = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.8–0.92). Among the sub-items of PSQI, the increases in C1: (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 2.4–30.0), C3: (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1–11.5), C4: (OR = 11.1, 95% CI = 3.6–33.9), and C6: (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.9–6.2) scores were associated with long-term use. This study revealed that a high PSQI score at the baseline, particularly in the sub-items relating to sleep maintenance disturbance, is predictive of long-term hypnotic treatment. Our

  1. Factors associated with long-term use of hypnotics among patients with chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Komada, Yoko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) or benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs) as hypnotics in patients with chronic insomnia. Consecutive patients (n = 140) with chronic insomnia were enrolled in this study (68 men and 72 women; mean age, 53.8 ± 10.8 years). All patients filled out a self-assessment questionnaire asking clinical descriptive variables at the baseline of the treatment period; patients received the usual dose of a single type of BZD or BzRA. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were self-assessed at the baseline, and the former was re-evaluated at the time of cessation of medication or at the end of the 6-month treatment period. The PSQI included the following sub-items: evaluating sleep quality (C1), sleep latency (C2), sleep duration (C3), habitual sleep efficiency (C4), frequency of sleep disturbance (C5), use of sleeping medication (C6), and daytime dysfunction (C7). Among the patients, 54.6% needed to continue hypnotics for a 6-month treatment period. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, among descriptive variables, only the PSQI score appeared as a significant factor associated with long-term use {odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.0}. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis identified that the cut-off PSQI total score at the baseline for predicting long-term use was estimated at 13.5 points (area under the curve = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.8-0.92). Among the sub-items of PSQI, the increases in C1: (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 2.4-30.0), C3: (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1-11.5), C4: (OR = 11.1, 95% CI = 3.6-33.9), and C6: (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.9-6.2) scores were associated with long-term use. This study revealed that a high PSQI score at the baseline, particularly in the sub-items relating to sleep maintenance disturbance, is predictive of long-term hypnotic treatment. Our results imply the limitation of the effectiveness of

  2. Prevalence of concomitant use of alcohol and sedative-hypnotic drugs in middle and older aged persons: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ilomäki, Jenni; Paljärvi, Tapio; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Enlund, Hannes; Alderman, Christopher P; Kauhanen, Jussi; Bell, J Simon

    2013-02-01

    To systematically review the prevalence of concomitant alcohol and sedative-hypnotic use among middle-aged and older persons. A bibliographic search of English-language literature was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO (January 1990-August 2012). The reference lists of all included articles were screened for additional relevant articles not identified by any of the bibliographic searches. Population-based studies in which the mean age of participants was 40 years or older were included. For a study to be included in the review, alcohol use had to be reported in terms of the quantity or frequency consumed. Data from included articles were extracted using a standardized data extraction tool. Five population-based studies conducted in North America, 10 in Europe, and 1 in Australia were included in the review. Up to 88% of men and 79% of women who used sedative-hypnotics also consumed alcohol. Up to 28% of those who consumed alcohol were concomitant users of sedative-hypnotics. Alcohol was consumed at higher levels among middle-aged than older persons. Risky drinking (eg, binge drinking, heavy drinking) was more prevalent among middle-aged than older persons. In contrast, sedative-hypnotic use was more prevalent among older persons. Our review identified a higher prevalence of alcohol consumption among middle-aged than older persons. However, middle-aged persons may experience harm from alcohol/sedative-hypnotic drug interactions due to risky drinking behavior. Despite lower levels of alcohol consumption, older persons may be more susceptible to addictive central nervous system effects than younger persons because of physiologic changes in psychotropic drug and alcohol metabolism. Clinicians should consider patients' alcohol consumption patterns before prescribing sedative-hypnotic drugs.

  3. Risk of arteriovenous fistula failure associated with hypnotic use in hemodialysis patients: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Feng; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Ya-Hui; Liu, Ju-Chi; Hung, Yen-Ni; Chuang, Ming-Tsang; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-08-01

    Hypnotic use might cause altered inflammatory processes, which have been suggested as being related to the mechanisms of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. Therefore, we examined the association between the risk of AVF failure and hypnotic use in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). A nested case-control study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. From 34 165 HD patients, 3676 patients receiving percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or surgical thrombectomy for AVF failure were matched to 14 704 control patients according to sex, age (±1 year), and the year of initial HD therapy. The risk of AVF failure was estimated based on conditional logistic regression after adjustment for the timing of AVF creation, HD frequency, comorbidities, and prescribed medications. Hypnotic use was measured prior to the date of AVF failure of case patients and the date of pseudo-AVF failure of controls. Compared with matched controls, case patients were more likely to be exposed to hypnotics 30 days or an average daily defined dose > 0.5 within 90 days before the date of AVF failure, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.35, p < 0.001) and 1.36 (95%CI: 1.13-1.63, p = 0.001), respectively. Risk of AVF failure associated with hypnotic use was also observed among HD patients who were male, were younger than 65 years, had hypertension, and did not use statins. Hypnotic use among HD patients was associated with an increased risk of AVF failure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives among the working population and associated work-related stress factors].

    PubMed

    Colell, Esther; Sánchez-Niubò, Albert; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Delclós, Jordi; Benavides, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    To explore the prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in a sample of the Spanish working population and to examine its association with certain work-related stress factors. Using data from the 2007 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs (Encuesta Domiciliaria sobre Alcohol y Drogas en España [EDADES]), we analyzed the distribution of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in the previous month in the working population aged 16 to 64 years old (n=13,005). Associations with exposure to certain work-related stress factors (noxious working environment, precariousness, workload, and social support) were examined using logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives among women in the previous month doubled that of men (6.5% and 3.3%, respectively), while use among the oldest age group was twice that of the youngest group in both sexes (10.2% in women and 5.5% in men older than 45 years), and was four times higher among those reporting poor health (18.9% in women and 11% in men). Concerning work-related stress, exposure to moderate (OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.31-2.92) and high (OR: 1.95; 95%CI: 1.14-3.34) levels of precariousness in men and moderate levels in women (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.03-1.99) was associated with the use of hypnotics and sedatives. The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives was high in women and in workers older than 45 years. Further research is needed on the relationship between the use of hypnotics and sedatives and workers' health, and on the role that work-related stress factors play in this association. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating the Forensic Sciences in Wildlife Case Investigations: A Case Report of Pentobarbital and Phenytoin Toxicosis in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C

    2016-09-01

    The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Postural instability and consequent falls and hip fractures associated with use of hypnotics in the elderly: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Allain, Hervé; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Polard, Elisabeth; Akwa, Yvette; Patat, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this review is to establish the relationship between treatment with hypnotics and the risk of postural instability and as a consequence, falls and hip fractures, in the elderly. A review of the literature was performed through a search of the MEDLINE, Ingenta and PASCAL databases from 1975 to 2005. We considered as hypnotics only those drugs approved for treating insomnia, i.e. some benzodiazepines and the more recently launched 'Z'-compounds, i.e. zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon. Large-scale surveys consistently report increases in the frequency of falls and hip fractures when hypnotics are used in the elderly (2-fold risk). Benzodiazepines are the major class of hypnotics involved in this context; falls and fractures in patients taking Z-compounds are less frequently reported, and in this respect, zolpidem is considered as at risk in only one study. It is important to note, however, that drug adverse effect relationships are difficult to establish with this type of epidemiological data-mining. On the other hand, data obtained in laboratory settings, where confounding factors can be eliminated, prove that benzodiazepines are the most deleterious hypnotics at least in terms of their effects on body sway. Z-compounds are considered safer, probably because of their pharmacokinetic properties as well as their selective pharmacological activities at benzodiazepine-1 (BZ(1)) receptors. The effects of hypnotics on balance, gait and equilibrium are the consequence of differential negative impacts on vigilance and cognitive functions, and are highly dose- and time-dependent. Z-compounds have short half-lives and have less cognitive and residual effects than older medications. Some practical rules need to be followed when prescribing hypnotics in order to prevent falls and hip fractures as much as possible in elderly insomniacs, whether institutionalised or not. These are: (i) establish a clear diagnosis of the sleep disorder; (ii) take into account chronic

  7. An hypnotic suggestion: review of hypnosis for clinical emergency care.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2014-04-01

    Hypnosis has been used in medicine for nearly 250 years. Yet, emergency clinicians rarely use it in emergency departments or prehospital settings. This review describes hypnosis, its historical use in medicine, several neurophysiologic studies of the procedure, its uses and potential uses in emergency care, and a simple technique for inducing hypnosis. It also discusses reasons why the technique has not been widely adopted, and suggests methods of increasing its use in emergency care, including some potential research areas. A limited number of clinical studies and case reports suggest that hypnosis may be effective in a wide variety of conditions applicable to emergency medical care. These include providing analgesia for existing pain (e.g., fractures, burns, and lacerations), providing analgesia and sedation for painful procedures (e.g., needle sticks, laceration repair, and fracture and joint reductions), reducing acute anxiety, increasing children's cooperation for procedures, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of acute psychiatric conditions, and providing analgesia and anxiolysis for obstetric/gynecologic problems. Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On-the-road driving performance and driving-related skills in older untreated insomnia patients and chronic users of hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Leufkens, T R M; Ramaekers, J G; de Weerd, A W; Riedel, W J; Vermeeren, A

    2014-07-01

    Many older adults report sleep problems and use of hypnotics. Several studies have shown that hypnotics can have acute adverse effects on driving the next morning. It is unclear however whether driving of chronic hypnotic users is impaired. Therapeutic effects on insomnia and development of tolerance may reduce the residual effects on driving. The present study aimed to compare actual driving performance and driving-related skills of chronic hypnotic users to good sleepers. To determine whether insomnia itself affects driving performance, driving and driving-related skills were compared between insomnia patients who do not or infrequently use hypnotics and good sleepers. Twenty-two frequent users of hypnotics (using hypnotics ≥ 4 nights per week for more than 3 months), 20 infrequent users (using hypnotics ≤ 3 nights per week), and 21 healthy, age-matched controls participated in this study. On the night before testing, all subjects were hospitalized for an 8-h sleep recorded by polysomnography. Frequent hypnotic users used their regular medication at bedtime (2330 hours), while infrequent users and controls received no medication. Cognitive performance (word learning, digit span, tracking, divided attention, vigilance, and inhibitory control) was assessed 8.5 h and driving performance between 10 and 11 h after bedtime and dosing. Polysomnographic recordings did not significantly differ between the groups, but the insomnia patients, treated or untreated, still reported subjective sleep complaints. Results show no differences in driving performance and driving-related skills between both groups of insomnia patients and controls. Driving performance in chronic users of hypnotics and untreated insomnia patients is not impaired. For chronic users, this may be due to prescription of relatively safe drugs and low doses. For untreated insomniacs, this corroborates previous findings showing an absence of neuropsychological deficits in this group of patients.

  9. Steady-state level and turnover rate of the tripeptide Tyr-Gly-Gly as indexes of striatal enkephalin release in vivo and their reduction during pentobarbital anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Cortes, C; Gros, C; Schwartz, J C

    1986-08-01

    Tyr-Gly-Gly (YGG) was recently shown to be an extraneuronal metabolite of opioid peptides derived from proenkephalin A, formed in brain by the action of "enkephalinase" (membrane metalloendopeptidase, EC 3.4.24.11) and degraded by aminopeptidases. The dynamic state of YGG in mouse striatum was studied by evaluating the changes in its level elicited by inhibitors of these peptidases. Inhibition of YGG synthesis by Thiorphan or acetorphan reduced YGG levels with a t1/2 (mean +/- SEM) of 12 +/- 2 min, indicating an apparent turnover rate (mean +/- SEM) of 18 +/- 2 pmol/mg of protein per hr. An apparent turnover rate of 18 +/- 2 pmol/mg of protein per hr was derived from the rate of YGG accumulation elicited by the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin. In addition, accumulation of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met (YGGFM) in an extrasynaptosomal fraction after blockade of its degradation by Thiorphan and bestatin occurred at a rate of 18 +/- 3 pmol/mg of protein per hr, which is likely to reflect the rate of enkephalin release in vivo. Hence, the three series of data suggest that striatal enkephalins rapidly turn over--e.g., with a t1/2 in the 1-hr range. Pentobarbital anesthesia reduced by about 60% the rate of YGG accumulation elicited by bestatin and the extrasynaptosomal YGGFM accumulation elicited by Thiorphan and bestatin. This suggests that the activity of striatal enkephalin neurons is depressed during anesthesia. Pentobarbital (and chloral hydrate) did not affect the steady-state level of YGGFM but rapidly reduced that of YGG. Hence, the steady-state levels of YGG seem a reliable index of changes in enkephalin release, and measuring levels of characteristic fragments might therefore provide a general means of evaluating neuropeptide release in vivo.

  10. Steady-state level and turnover rate of the tripeptide Tyr-Gly-Gly as indexes of striatal enkephalin release in vivo and their reduction during pentobarbital anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Llorens-Cortes, C; Gros, C; Schwartz, J C

    1986-01-01

    Tyr-Gly-Gly (YGG) was recently shown to be an extraneuronal metabolite of opioid peptides derived from proenkephalin A, formed in brain by the action of "enkephalinase" (membrane metalloendopeptidase, EC 3.4.24.11) and degraded by aminopeptidases. The dynamic state of YGG in mouse striatum was studied by evaluating the changes in its level elicited by inhibitors of these peptidases. Inhibition of YGG synthesis by Thiorphan or acetorphan reduced YGG levels with a t1/2 (mean +/- SEM) of 12 +/- 2 min, indicating an apparent turnover rate (mean +/- SEM) of 18 +/- 2 pmol/mg of protein per hr. An apparent turnover rate of 18 +/- 2 pmol/mg of protein per hr was derived from the rate of YGG accumulation elicited by the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin. In addition, accumulation of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met (YGGFM) in an extrasynaptosomal fraction after blockade of its degradation by Thiorphan and bestatin occurred at a rate of 18 +/- 3 pmol/mg of protein per hr, which is likely to reflect the rate of enkephalin release in vivo. Hence, the three series of data suggest that striatal enkephalins rapidly turn over--e.g., with a t1/2 in the 1-hr range. Pentobarbital anesthesia reduced by about 60% the rate of YGG accumulation elicited by bestatin and the extrasynaptosomal YGGFM accumulation elicited by Thiorphan and bestatin. This suggests that the activity of striatal enkephalin neurons is depressed during anesthesia. Pentobarbital (and chloral hydrate) did not affect the steady-state level of YGGFM but rapidly reduced that of YGG. Hence, the steady-state levels of YGG seem a reliable index of changes in enkephalin release, and measuring levels of characteristic fragments might therefore provide a general means of evaluating neuropeptide release in vivo. PMID:3526354

  11. Perceiving Time Differences When You Should Not: Applying the El Greco Fallacy to Hypnotic Time Distortions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Rémy; Sackur, Jérôme; Anlló, Hernan; Naish, Peter; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The way we experience and estimate time - subjective time - does not systematically correspond to objective time (the physical duration of an event). Many factors can influence subjective time and lead to mental dilation or compression of objective time. The emotional valence of stimuli or the levels of attention or expectancy are known to modulate subjective time even though objective time is constant. Hypnosis too is known to alter people's perception of time. However, it is not known whether hypnotic time distortions are intrinsic perceptual effects, based for example on the changing rate of an internal clock, or rather the result of a response to demand characteristics. Here we distinguished the theories using the logic of the El Greco fallacy. When participants initially had to compare the duration of two successive events -with the same duration - while in "trance," they responded that the second event was on average longer than the first event. As both events were estimated in "trance," if hypnosis had impacted on an internal clock, they should have been affected to the same extent. Conversely, when only the first event was in "trance," there was no difference in perceived duration. The findings conform to an El Greco fallacy effect and challenge theories of hypnotic time distortion arguing that "trance" itself changes subjective time.

  12. Sedative-hypnotic Effect of Ash of Silver in Mice: A Reverse Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Inder, Deep; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Ash of silver is used in traditional systems of medicine for various neurological conditions like insomnias, neuralgias, anxiety disorders, and convulsions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic activity of ash of silver in comparison to pentobarbitone (standard drug) in albino mice. The mice were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (control): Gum acacia [GA; 1% per os (p.o.)], group 2 (standard): Pentobarbitone [50 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)], group 3 (test): Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.), and group 4: Ash of silver (50 mg/kg p.o.) given 30 min prior to administration of pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg i.p.). Time of onset, recovery, and total duration of loss of righting reflex were studied. Ash of silver (test) produced significant sedation (P < 0.01) compared to control (GA 1%), but the effect was significantly less compared to that of standard pentobarbitone at the doses used. Also, significant potentiation (P < 0.001) of the sedative-hypnotic effect of pentobarbitone was observed with the test drug. PMID:25379470

  13. Talking to the senses: modulation of tactile extinction through hypnotic suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Maravita, Angelo; Cigada, Mario; Posteraro, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Following brain damage, typically of the right hemisphere, patients can show reduced awareness of sensory events occurring in the space contralateral to the brain damage. The present work shows that a hypnotic suggestion can temporarily reduce tactile extinction to double bilateral stimulation, i.e., a loss of contralesional stimuli when these are presented together with ipsilesional ones. Patient EB showed an improved detection of contralesional targets after a single 20-min hypnosis session, during which specific suggestions were delivered with the aim of increasing her insight into somatosensory perception on both sides of the body. Simple overt attention orienting toward the contralesional side, or a hypnotic induction procedure not accompanied by specifically aimed suggestions, were not effective in modulating extinction. The present result is the first systematic evidence that hypnosis can temporarily improve a neuropsychological condition, namely Extinction, and may open the way for the use of this technique as a fruitful rehabilitative tool for brain-damaged patients affected by neuropsychological deficits. PMID:22822395

  14. Heart rate variability in subjects with different hypnotic susceptibility receiving nociceptive stimulation and suggestions of analgesia.

    PubMed

    Balocchi, R; Varanini, M; Menicucci, D; Santarcangelo, E L; Migliorini, S; Fontani, G; Carli, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible hypnotizability-related modulation of heart activity during nociceptive stimulation (pressor pain) and during nociceptive stimulation associated with the suggestion of analgesia in not hypnotized healthy individuals with a high (Highs) and a low (Lows) hypnotic susceptibility. ECG and respirogram were recorded. Standard time and frequency domain indexes were evaluated, together with the sd1 and sd2 values of the Poincaré plot over the RR series. Results showed self reports of analgesia in Highs and a significant increase of the respiratory frequency during stimulation in both groups. Very few significant differences between groups and among conditions were detected for mean RR and heart rate variability (HRV) through spectral analysis. and through the Poincaré indexes evaluation. On the contrary, a promising approach seems to be the study of the correlations among standard and Poincaré variables. In particular, different changes in (or even lost of) correlations were enlightened in Highs and Lows, suggesting a different modulation of RR in the two groups, probably due to the very low frequency components of HRV. Different roles of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities during stimulation can be suggested.

  15. Perioperative Hypertension Management during Facelift under Local Anesthesia with Intravenous Hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ki Ho; Cho, Myeong Soo; Jin, Hoon

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative hypertension is a phenomenon in which a surgical patient's blood pressure temporarily increases throughout the preoperative and postoperative periods and remains high until the patient's condition stabilizes. This phenomenon requires immediate treatment not only because it is observed in a majority of patients who are not diagnosed with high blood pressure, but also because occurs in patients with underlying essential hypertension who show a sharp increase in their blood pressure. The most common complication following facelift surgery is hematoma, and the most critical risk factor that causes hematoma is elevated systolic blood pressure. In general, a systolic blood pressure goal of <150 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure goal of >65 mm Hg are recommended. This article discusses the causes of increased blood pressure and the treatment methods for perioperative hypertension during the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods, in order to find ways to maintain normal blood pressure in patients during surgery. Further, in this paper, we review the causes of perioperative hypertension, such as anxiety, epinephrine, pain, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. The treatment methods for perioperative hypertension are analyzed according to the following 3 operative periods, with a review of the characteristics and interactions of each drug: preoperative antihypertensive medicine (atenolol, clonidine, and nifedipine), intraoperative intravenous (IV) hypnotics (propofol, midazolam, ketamine, and dexmedetomidine), and postoperative antiemetic medicine (metoclopramide and ondansetron). This article focuses on the knowledge necessary to safely apply local anesthesia with IV hypnotics during facelift surgery without the assistance of an anesthesiologist.

  16. Improving working memory performance in brain-injured patients using hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Lindeløv, Jonas K; Overgaard, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten

    2017-02-04

    Working memory impairment is prevalent in brain injured patients across lesion aetiologies and severities. Unfortunately, rehabilitation efforts for this impairment have hitherto yielded small or no effects. Here we show in a randomized actively controlled trial that working memory performance can be effectively restored by suggesting to hypnotized patients that they have regained their pre-injury level of working memory functioning. Following four 1-h sessions, 27 patients had a medium-sized improvement relative to 22 active controls (Bayes factors of 342 and 37.5 on the two aggregate outcome measures) and a very large improvement relative to 19 passive controls (Bayes factor = 1.7 × 1013). This was a long-term effect as revealed by no deterioration following a 6.7 week no-contact period (Bayes factors = 7.1 and 1.3 in favour of no change). To control for participant-specific effects, the active control group was crossed over to the working memory suggestion and showed superior improvement. By the end of the study, both groups reached a performance level at or above the healthy population mean with standardized mean differences between 1.55 and 2.03 relative to the passive control group. We conclude that, if framed correctly, hypnotic suggestion can effectively improve working memory following acquired brain injury. The speed and consistency with which this improvement occurred, indicate that there may be a residual capacity for normal information processing in the injured brain.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives as ultra-short recovery sedative/hypnotic agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

    2014-01-01

    Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile). In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Fluorine-Substituted Phenyl Acetate Derivatives as Ultra-Short Recovery Sedative/Hypnotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

    2014-01-01

    Background Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile). In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. Methodology/Principal Findings Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. Conclusions/Significance The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. PMID:24796695

  19. Zolpidem Induced Hyponatremia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    DL, Britto; T, Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic that acts by binding to (GABAA) receptor. This is a case report of a patient with chronic insomnia for which he had initially been receiving benzodiazepine hypnotic alprazolam and for the past three years, he had switched himself to non-benzodiazepine hypnotic, zolpidem and had progressively increased the dose to 20 mg. The patient presented with history of drowsiness, nausea and vomiting of short duration. Investigations revealed that the patient had hyponatremia. Decreased serum sodium, elevated urine sodium with normal urine osmolarity was detected. Therefore, we report this as a case of drug induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) as other likely causes were ruled out by appropriate investigations. The causality assessment was done according to the WHO scale and found to be “Probable”. PMID:25386461

  20. Adrenocortical suppression and recovery after continuous hypnotic infusion: etomidate versus its soft analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Rile; Pejo, Ervin; Cotten, Joseph F; Raines, Douglas E

    2013-01-30

    Etomidate is no longer administered as a continuous infusion for anesthetic maintenance or sedation, because it results in profound and persistent suppression of adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially lethal consequences in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that rapidly metabolized soft analogues of etomidate could be developed that do not produce persistent adrenocortical dysfunction even after prolonged continuous infusion. We hope that such agents might also provide more rapid and predictable anesthetic emergence. We have developed the soft etomidate analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl etomidate (CPMM). Upon termination of 120-minute continuous infusions, hypnotic and encephalographic recoveries occur in four minutes. The aims of this study were to assess adrenocortical function during and following 120-minute continuous infusion of CPMM and to compare the results with those obtained using etomidate. Dexamethasone-suppressed rats were randomized into an etomidate group, CPMM group, or control group. Rats in the etomidate and CPMM groups received 120-minute continuous infusions of etomidate and CPMM, respectively. Rats in the control group received neither hypnotic. In the first study, adrenocortical function during hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 90 minutes after the start of the hypnotic infusion and measuring plasma corticosterone concentrations at the end of the infusion 30 minutes later. In the second study, adrenocortical recovery following hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering ACTH every 30 minutes after infusion termination and measuring plasma corticosterone concentrations 30 minutes after each ACTH dose. During hypnotic infusion, ACTH-stimulated serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in the CPMM and etomidate groups than in the control group (100 ± 64 ng/ml and 33 ± 32 ng/ml versus 615 ± 265 ng/ml, respectively). After hypnotic infusion, ACTH

  1. Hypnotic Seminar.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    In this transcription of a lecture given in 2000, Jay Haley begins by answering the question, "What is hypnosis?"  Haley reviews the circumstances of Gregory Bateson encouraging him to meet with Milton Erickson to discuss the history of hypnosis and the paradoxical nature of trance induction. Haley expresses many original thoughts about multiple personalities, regression to past lives, and how to handle memories that historically may be false. Sophisticated and subtle, this is Haley at his best.

  2. High dosage of hypnotics predicts subsequent sleep-related breathing disorders and is associated with worse outcomes for depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Ta; Bai, Ya-Mei; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tu, Pei-Chi; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Wen-Hang; Su, Tung-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The rates of sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) and treatment outcomes of depression were compared among insomnia patients who had stratified levels of hypnotic use during a 10-year follow-up (2001-2010). A nationwide population-based cohort study. A nationally representative cohort of 1,000,000 enrollees. Data were collected from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid insomnia during January 2001 to December 2003 (study cohort N = 3,235). The mean dosage of hypnotics at baseline in the study cohort was calculated, and this information was used to categorize the cohort into three equal-sized groups based on levels of hypnotic dosage. Patient response to antidepressants during a period that extended from 1 year before to 1 year after the study (short-term outcome) and patient psychiatric and non-psychiatric visits and hospitalizations during follow-up (long-term outcome) were analyzed. High-dosage patients presented the highest rates of subsequent SRBD diagnosis (3.9%), compared to medium-dosage patients (2.2%) and low-dosage patients (2.0%) (P = 0.011). Significantly more patients in the high-dosage group were difficult to treat with antidepressants compared to the other 2 groups (8.7% vs. 4.1% vs. 3.0%, P < 0.001), and their long-term depression outcome was worse for most parameters. Logistic regression showed that high-dosage hypnotics predicted the development of SRBD later (OR 1.678 [CI, 1.051 to 2.680], P = 0.030). There is a reliable association between a history of high dosages of hypnotics, subsequent diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorder, and worse depression outcomes.

  3. Autonomic and EEG correlates of emotional imagery in subjects with different hypnotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, L; Simoni, A; Gemignani, A; Ghelarducci, B; Santarcangelo, E L

    2003-04-15

    The autonomic and EEG correlates of the response to a cognitive unpleasant stimulation (US) verbally administered to awake hypnotizable and non hypnotizable subjects were studied. They were compared with the values obtained during a resting condition immediately preceding the stimulus and with those produced by a cognitive neutral stimulation (NS), also administered after a basal resting period. Results showed hypnotic trait effects on skin resistance, heart and respiratory rate as well as on EEG theta, alpha, beta and gamma relative power changes. The autonomic and EEG patterns observed indicated different strategies in the task execution for hypnotizable and non hypnotizable subjects and a discrepancy between the autonomic and EEG changes associated to the US in susceptible subjects. Results support dissociation theories of hypnosis and suggest for hypnotizable persons an active mechanism of protection against cardiac hazard.

  4. Effect of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Dan M; Kirkpatrick, Daniel R; Kerfeld, Mitchell J; Hambsch, Zakary J; Reisbig, Mark D; Agrawal, Devendra K; Youngblood, Charles F

    2014-11-01

    The perioperative care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is currently receiving much attention due to an increased risk for complications. It is established that postoperative changes in sleep architecture occur and this may have pathophysiological implications for OSA patients. Upper airway muscle activity decreases during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Severe OSA patients exhibit exaggerated chemoreceptor-driven ventilation during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), which leads to central and obstructive apnea. This article critically reviewed the literature relevant to preoperative screening for OSA, prevalence of OSA in surgical populations and changes in postoperative sleep architecture relevant to OSA patients. In particular, we addressed three questions in regard to the effects of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture, the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to OSA. Indeed, these classes of drugs alter sleep architecture, which likely significantly contributes to abnormal postoperative sleep architecture, exacerbation of OSA and postoperative complications.

  5. [Gazing into the depths of the soul: hypnotism in documentary and instructional film (1920-1936)].

    PubMed

    Ledebur, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    Although part of the medical fold since the 1870s, hypnosis was long relegated to the margins, recognised and used by only a relatively small group of medical professionals. In the decades around 1900 hypnotic techniques were monopolised as a form of medical treatment through a long and in no way linear process. Hypnosis of laymen was vehemently opposed, however, denounced as being far too dangerous. And yet, medical participation in the aura of spectacular intervention into the human psyche garnered support. The medium of both documentary and instructional film served an important function in this regard, conveying popular interest in acknowledging hypnosis as a scientific method. On the basis of four medically accredited films on hypnosis from 1920 to 1936, this paper attempts to investigate how medical experts and these genres, as part of their effort to claim hypnosis from the realm of public spectacle and parapsychological experimentation, worked to stabilise hypnosis as a purified form of medical and psychiatric practice.

  6. Romanian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Montgomery, Guy; Holdevici, Irina

    2003-01-01

    A Romanian-language version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) was administered to 340 subjects (218 females and 122 males) recruited from 1998 to 1999 in Romania. Data were collected from three samples of participants to provide greater heterogeneity within the sample. The results from the Romanian version of the HGSHS:A were compared to those from Australian, Canadian, Danish, Finnish, German, Italian, Spanish, and original U.S. samples. The Romanian normative data are consistent with earlier normative studies in score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability. The mean score of the Romanian sample did not differ from those in the German and Italian samples but did significantly differ from the remaining samples. The total score reliability (.71) and item reliability of the Romanian sample was also comparable with published reference samples. No differences between women and men were found.

  7. Hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic exercises in the treatment of stuttering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yalcin; Alladin, Assen

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0-4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy was utilized to alleviate anxiety, to boost self-confidence, and to increase motivation for weightlifting exercise. The pre- and postmeasures were statistically significant (p < .001). Results of the study provide support for the effectiveness of hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic training in the management of stuttering but should be further studied in controlled trials.

  8. Conscious/Unconscious Dissociation Induction: Increasing Hypnotic Performance With "Resistant" Clients.

    PubMed

    Lankton, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Milton H. Erickson promoted several approaches to psychotherapy using hypnosis. In the last decades of his life, his work moved away from the use of redundant suggestion and a predominance of direct suggestion in favor of indirect suggestion. In addition, he frequently employed a type of storytelling (that has come to be called therapeutic metaphor) to indirectly convey learning. Another change that occurred during the last decade was his definition of the cause of a symptom. However, there were two important areas of his work that he did not change during his career. These two components of his work he did not change were his definition of a cure and the importance of a naturalistic induction. This article concerns his naturalistic approach to hypnotic induction and especially his use of conscious/unconscious dissociation in the induction process and how indirect suggestion and therapeutic binds can be used to facilitate that type of induction and a cure.

  9. French Norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    PubMed

    Anlló, Hernán; Becchio, Jean; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    The authors present French norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A). They administered an adapted translation of Shor and Orne's original text (1962) to a group of 126 paid volunteers. Participants also rated their own responses following our translation of Kihlstrom's Scale of Involuntariness (2006). Item pass rates, score distributions, and reliability were calculated and compared with several other reference samples. Analyses show that the present French norms are congruous with the reference samples. Interestingly, the passing rate for some items drops significantly if "entirely voluntary" responses (as identified by Kihlstrom's scale) are scored as "fail." Copies of the translated scales and response booklet are available online.

  10. Use of Neurofeedback to Enhance Response to Hypnotic Analgesia in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Gianas, Ann; George, Holly R; Sherlin, Leslie H; Kraft, George H; Ehde, Dawn M

    2016-01-01

    This proof of principle study examined the potential benefits of EEG neurofeedback for increasing responsiveness to self-hypnosis training for chronic pain management. The study comprised 20 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) who received 5 sessions of self-hypnosis training--1 face-to-face session and 4 prerecorded sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to have the prerecorded sessions preceded by either (a) EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) training to increase left anterior theta power (NF-HYP) or (b) a relaxation control condition (RLX-HYP). Eighteen participants completed all treatment sessions and assessments. NF-HYP participants reported greater reductions in pain than RLX-HYP participants. The findings provide support for the potential treatment-enhancing effects of neurofeedback on hypnotic analgesia and also suggest that effective hypnosis treatment can be provided very efficiently.

  11. The center core in ego state therapy and other hypnotically facilitated psychotherapies.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Claire

    2013-07-01

    Center core phenomena have been utilized in the practice of ego state therapy and other forms of hypnotically facilitated psychotherapy for nearly 40 years. Despite the frequency with which they are employed, many confusions, contradictions, and questions remain concerning them. In this article relevant center core phenomena literature is reviewed and an essential differentiation between two different kinds of center core phenomena is clarified. Psychodynamic explanations are offered for the therapeutic benefits of archetypal center core experiences such as inner strength and inner wisdom. The information provided offers clinicians a sturdier platform from which to decide whether to incorporate center core experiences into clinical practice. The persistent question of whether center core phenomena are ego states is revisited and addressed.

  12. Long-term outcome of hypnotic-analgesia treatment for chronic pain in persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Barber, Joseph; Hanley, Marisol A; Engel, Joyce M; Romano, Joan M; Cardenas, Diana D; Kraft, George H; Hoffman, Amy J; Patterson, David R

    2008-04-01

    Data from 26 participants in a case series of hypnotic analgesia for chronic pain were examined to determine the long-term effects of hypnosis treatment. Statistically significant decreases in average daily pain intensity, relative to pretreatment values, were observed at posttreatment and at 3- and 9-month follow-up but not at 6- or 12-month follow-up. The percent of participants who reported clinically meaningful decreases in pain were 27%, 19%, 19%, and 23%, at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up points, respectively. Moreover, at 12-months posttreatment, 81% of the sample reported that they still used the self-hypnosis skills learned in treatment. Overall, the results indicate that about 20% of the sample obtained substantial and lasting long-term reductions in average daily pain following hypnosis treatment and that many more continue to use self-hypnosis up to 12 months following treatment.

  13. Primary care hypnotic and anxiolytic prescription: Reviewing prescribing practice over 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lloyd D.; Raitt, Neil; Riaz, Muhammed Awais; Baldwin, Sarah-Jane; Erskine, Kay; Graham, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last few years, hypnotic and anxiolytic medications have had their clinical efficacy questioned in the context of concerns regarding dependence, tolerance alongside other adverse effects. It remains unclear how these concerns have impacted clinical prescribing practice. Materials and Methods: This is a study reviewing community-dispensed prescribing data for patients on the East Practice Medical Center list in Arbroath, Scotland, in 2007, 2011 and 2015. Anxiolytic and hypnotic medications were defined in accordance with the British National Formulary chapter 4.1.1 and chapter 4.1.2. All patients receiving a drug within this class in any of the study years were collated and anonymized using primary care prescribing data. The patients’ age, gender, name of the prescribed drug(s), and total number of prescriptions in this class over the year were extracted. Results: The proportion of patients prescribed a benzodiazepine medication decreased between 2007 and 2015: 83.8% (n = 109) in 2007, 70.5% (n = 122) in 2011, and 51.7% (n = 138) in 2015 (P = 0.006). The proportion of these patients prescribed a nonbenzodiazepine drug increased between 2007 and 2015: 30% (n = 39) in 2007, 46.2% (n = 80) in 2011, and 52.4% (n = 140) in 2015 (P = 0.001). There was a significant increase in the number of patients prescribed melatonin (P = 0.020). Discussion: This study reports a reduction in benzodiazepine prescriptions in primary care alongside increases in nonbenzodiazepine and melatonin prescribing, with an increase in prescribing rates of this drug class overall. Conclusion: Changes in this prescribing practice may reflect the medicalization of insomnia, local changes in prescribing practice and alongside national recommendations. PMID:28217600

  14. Indiplon: a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic for the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Joel C

    2008-07-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy data, and adverse effects of indiplon in the treatment of transient and chronic insomnia in adult and geriatric patients. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1966-May 2008), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2008), and Cochrane database (2007) for the key words indiplon or NBI-34060. References cited in the articles were reviewed for additional information. Abstract data were included only in the absence of significant published data. English-language literature reporting animal and human clinical studies was reviewed to evaluate data on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and adverse effects of indiplon. Clinical trials selected for inclusion were limited to those with human subjects, with the accepted inclusion of pharmacology data in animals. Indiplon is a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic that exhibits its sedating activity through its interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric acid alpha receptor complex. Indiplon immediate-release (IR) as well as modified-release (MR) forms have shown improvement compared with placebo in patients with DSM-IV-TR primary insomnia in various areas of subjective and objective sleep measurements. Specifically, improvements in total sleep time, latency to persistent sleep, latency to sleep onset, wake after sleep onset, and sleep quality have been noted in clinical trials. Trials evaluating both indiplon IR and MR have so far not identified any major serious adverse effects. Limited clinical trial data exist on use of indiplon in a "true" transient insomnia patient population. Based on recent Food and Drug Administration requests, clinical trial data assessing direct comparisons of indiplon IR with other approved nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics are needed to clearly define the differences among these agents.

  15. [Trends in the consumption of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in a Colombian population].

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Jimenez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In Latin America, psychotropic medications are the third most marketed drug group, especially antidepressants (35%) and anxiolytics (5%). The objective of this study was to determine the trends in the consumption and the costs of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in a population of patients enrolled in the Health System of Colombia. A descriptive, observational study was performed using the data recorded inprescriptions for any anxiolytic or hypnotic drug prescribed to outpatients in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 in a population of 3.5 million people. Sociodemographic, pharmacological variables, overall costs, and cost per thousand inhabitants per day (CHD), were also recorded. The number of patients who received the drugs studied varied from 11,097 to 19,231 between 2008 and 2013. The most used drugs were clonazepam (44.1% of formulations), alprazolam (31.2%), and lorazepam (13.2%). The invoiced value of anxiolytics increased from US$ 207,673.63 in 2008 to US$ 488,977 in 2013, an increase of 135.4%. The CHD was US$ 0.31 for benzodiazepines, and US$ 0.02 for zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone (Z drugs) for 2008, and US$ 0.36 and US$ 0.02 in 2013 respectively. The CHD declined after 2010 following the introduction of generic drugs. Patients receiving benzodiazepines in Colombia are mostly women, average age 55 years, with very low frequency in defined daily doses per thousand inhabitants when compared with other countries. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. The Hypnotic, Anxiolytic, and Antinociceptive Profile of a Novel µ-Opioid Agonist.

    PubMed

    Montes, Guilherme Carneiro; da Silva, Bianca Nascimento Monteiro; Rezende, Bismarck; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; de Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; da Silva, Bárbara Vasconcellos; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-05-16

    5'-4-Alkyl/aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazole derivatives PILAB 1-12 were synthesized and a pharmacological screening of these derivatives was performed to identify a possible effect on the Central Nervous System (CNS) and to explore the associated mechanisms of action. The mice received a peritoneal injection (100 µmol/kg) of each of the 12 PILAB derivatives 10 min prior to the injection of pentobarbital and the mean hypnosis times were recorded. The mean hypnosis time increased for the mice treated with PILAB 8, which was prevented when mice were administered CTOP, a µ-opioid antagonist. Locomotor and motor activities were not affected by PILAB 8. The anxiolytic effect of PILAB 8 was evaluated next in an elevated-plus maze apparatus. PILAB 8 and midazolam increased a percentage of entries and spent time in the open arms of the apparatus compared with the control group. Conversely, a decrease in the percentages of entries and time spent in the closed arms were observed. Pretreatment with naloxone, a non-specific opioid antagonist, prior to administration of PILAB 8 exhibited a reverted anxiolytic effect. PILAB 8 exhibited antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test, and reduced reactivity to formalin in the neurogenic and the inflammatory phases. These data suggest that PILAB 8 can activate µ-opioid receptors to provoke antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice.

  17. High Dosage of Hypnotics Predicts Subsequent Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders and Is Associated with Worse Outcomes for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Ta; Bai, Ya-Mei; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tu, Pei-Chi; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Wen-Hang; Su, Tung-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The rates of sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) and treatment outcomes of depression were compared among insomnia patients who had stratified levels of hypnotic use during a 10-year follow-up (2001-2010). Design: A nationwide population-based cohort study. Setting: A nationally representative cohort of 1,000,000 enrollees. Participants: Data were collected from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid insomnia during January 2001 to December 2003 (study cohort N = 3,235). The mean dosage of hypnotics at baseline in the study cohort was calculated, and this information was used to categorize the cohort into three equal-sized groups based on levels of hypnotic dosage. Main outcome measures: Patient response to antidepressants during a period that extended from 1 year before to 1 year after the study (short-term outcome) and patient psychiatric and non-psychiatric visits and hospitalizations during follow-up (long-term outcome) were analyzed. Results: High-dosage patients presented the highest rates of subsequent SRBD diagnosis (3.9%), compared to medium-dosage patients (2.2%) and low-dosage patients (2.0%) (P = 0.011). Significantly more patients in the high-dosage group were difficult to treat with antidepressants compared to the other 2 groups (8.7% vs. 4.1% vs. 3.0%, P < 0.001), and their long-term depression outcome was worse for most parameters. Logistic regression showed that high-dosage hypnotics predicted the development of SRBD later (OR 1.678 [CI, 1.051 to 2.680], P = 0.030). Conclusions: There is a reliable association between a history of high dosages of hypnotics, subsequent diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorder, and worse depression outcomes. Citation: Li CT; Bai YM; Lee YC; Mao WC; Chen MH; Tu PC; Chen YS; Chen TJ; Chang WH; Su TP. High dosage of hypnotics predicts subsequent sleep-related breathing disorders and is associated with worse outcomes for depression. SLEEP 2014;37(4):803-809. PMID:24688165

  18. A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): effects of diazepam, chlorpromazine, pentobarbital and d-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, G D; Duffy, E A; Miles, S S

    1985-01-01

    A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset is described. Animals are motivated by apple, a preferred food, under a state of minimal food deprivation. The apparatus used was designed to test animals within their home cages and not restrained in any way, thus avoiding possible confounding factors associated with restraint stress. Stable baseline levels of performance were reached by all animals in a median of 24 sessions. Performance was shown to be differentially sensitive to the effects of four psychoactive drugs. Moderate doses of diazepam, chlorpromazine and pentobarbital disrupted visuo-motor coordination in a dose-related manner. The possibility that disruption of performance observed at higher doses may have resulted from non-specific actions of these drugs such as decreases in feeding motivation were not supported by results from ancillary experiments. Changes in performance characteristic of high dose effects were similar in nature to changes observed when the degree of task difficulty was increased. Doses of d-amphetamine up to and including those reported to produce signs of stereotypy failed to influence performance. The potential of the conveyor belt task for measuring visuo-motor coordination in both primate and rodent species is discussed.

  19. Crime, hysteria and belle époque hypnotism: the path traced by Jean-Martin Charcot and Georges Gilles de la Tourette.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Walusinski, Olivier; Veyrunes, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Hysteria and hypnotism became a favorite topic of studies in the fin de siècle neurology that emerged from the school organized at La Salpêtrière by Jean-Martin Charcot, where he had arrived in 1861. Georges Gilles de la Tourette started working with Charcot in 1884 and probably remained his most faithful student, even after his mentor's death in 1893. This collaboration was particularly intense on 'criminal hypnotism', an issue on which Hippolyte Bernheim and his colleagues from the Nancy School challenged the positions taken by the Salpêtrière School. Bernheim claimed that hypnotism was not a diagnostic feature of hysteria and that there were real-life examples of murders suggested under hypnosis, while hypnosis susceptibility was identified with hysteria by Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette, who saw rape as the only crime associated with hypnotism. The quarrel was particularly virulent during a series of famous criminal cases which took place between 1888 and 1890. At the time, it was considered that La Salpêtrière had succeeded over Nancy, since the role of hypnotism was discarded during these famous trials. However, the theories of Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette were also damaged by the fight, which probably triggered the conceptual evolution leading to Joseph Babinski's revision of hysteria in 1901. Gilles de la Tourette's strong and public interest in hypnotism nearly cost him his life, when a young woman who claimed to have been hypnotized against her will shot him in the head at his own home in 1893. It was subsequently shown that hypnotism had nothing to do with it. The delusional woman was interned at Sainte-Anne for mental disturbance, thus escaping trial. Ironically, Gilles de la Tourette may have been partly responsible, since he had been one of the strongest proponents of placing mentally-ill criminals in asylums instead of prisons. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47–0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers. PMID:24204397

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Pharmacists on Reducing Use of Sedative/Hypnotics for Treatment of Insomnia in Long-Term Care Facility Residents.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Maria Grazia; Yockel, Katherine; Hohmeier, Kenneth C

    2016-11-01

    To determine if pharmacist intervention can decrease the use of inappropriate sedative/hypnotics in the elderly population in the long-term care facility setting. A multicenter, prospective chart review of sedative/hypnotic use for insomnia among long-term care facility residents. Eleven regional long-term care facilities in Northeastern Tennessee. Long-term care facility residents older than 65 years of age, with confirmed insomnia diagnoses and no history of seizure or recent psychotropic gradual-dose reduction attempts. Consultant pharmacist recommendations to decrease inappropriate use of sedative/hypnotics. Acceptance rates for discontinuation/tapering of the selected sedative/hypnotics. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in the study based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Overall, 39 interventions were performed. Gradual dose reductions/ discontinuation of select sedative/hypnotics were accepted for 19 residents (48.7%). Of the other recommendations, 8 (20.5%) were denied and 12 (30.8%) were left unanswered. Primary reasons for denial included family refusal, satisfactory response to current dose, and requirement of increased dose as a result of worsening insomnia. Overall, pharmacist intervention can have a meaningful impact on reducing inappropriate sedative/ hypnotic use in the elderly population through concise, evidence-based recommendations to physicians.

  2. Paired-associate learning and recall of high and low imagery words: moderating effects of hypnosis, hypnotic susceptibility level, and visualization abilities.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H J; Allen, S N

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between recall of low and high imagery paired-associate (P-A) words and hypnotic susceptibility, and the influence of hypnosis on recall as moderated by hypnotic level were examined. Subjects were assessed on 2 hypnotic susceptibility scales [Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility; Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C)]. Forty-one low (0-4 SHSS:C) and 41 highly (9-12 SHSS:C) hypnotizable college students were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: waking-hypnosis, hypnosis-waking, waking-waking, or hypnosis-hypnosis. Recall was significantly better for high than low imagery words. In the more sensitive within-subjects design, high hypnotizables recalled more P-A words during hypnosis than waking, and lows did not differ. In the between-subjects design, hypnotic level was not a moderator of performance during hypnosis. Low hypnotizables recalled more words in the within-subjects design. Visualization ability was a poor moderator of imagery-mediated learning. High imagery recall correlated significantly with Marks's (1973) Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (.25) and Paivio and Harshman's (1983) Individual Differences Questionnaire (IDQ) Verbal scale (.29), but not with the IDQ Imagery scale, the Mental Rotations Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1973), or the revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test (Likert & Quasha, 1941).

  3. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.

  4. The Use of Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, and Hypnotics in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Patterns Associated with Use: The Hoorn Diabetes Care System Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, S. P.; Groeneveld, L.; Koopman, A. D.; Beulens, J. W. J.; Jansen, A. P. D.; Bremmer, M.; van der Heijden, A. A. W. A.; Elders, P. J.; Dekker, J. M.; Nijpels, G.; Hugtenburg, J. G.; Rutters, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. With depression being present in approximately 20% of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we expect equally frequent prescription of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. Nevertheless, prescription data in people with T2DM is missing and the effect of depression on glycaemic control is contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics use in a large, managed, primary care system cohort of people with T2DM and to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, T2DM medication, and metabolic control associated with its use. Method. The prevalence of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics use in the years 2007–2012 was assessed in the Hoorn Diabetes Care System Cohort from the Netherlands. Results. From the 7016 people with T2DM, 500 people (7.1%) used antidepressants only, 456 people (6.5%) used anxiolytics and/or hypnotics only, and 254 people (3.6%) used a combination. Conclusion. We conclude that in our managed, primary care system 17% of all people with T2DM used antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics. Users of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics were more often female, non-Caucasian, lower educated, and more often treated with insulin. PMID:28232942

  5. The Use of Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, and Hypnotics in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Patterns Associated with Use: The Hoorn Diabetes Care System Cohort.

    PubMed

    Mast, R; Rauh, S P; Groeneveld, L; Koopman, A D; Beulens, J W J; Jansen, A P D; Bremmer, M; van der Heijden, A A W A; Elders, P J; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G; Hugtenburg, J G; Rutters, F

    2017-01-01

    Objective. With depression being present in approximately 20% of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we expect equally frequent prescription of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. Nevertheless, prescription data in people with T2DM is missing and the effect of depression on glycaemic control is contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics use in a large, managed, primary care system cohort of people with T2DM and to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, T2DM medication, and metabolic control associated with its use. Method. The prevalence of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics use in the years 2007-2012 was assessed in the Hoorn Diabetes Care System Cohort from the Netherlands. Results. From the 7016 people with T2DM, 500 people (7.1%) used antidepressants only, 456 people (6.5%) used anxiolytics and/or hypnotics only, and 254 people (3.6%) used a combination. Conclusion. We conclude that in our managed, primary care system 17% of all people with T2DM used antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics. Users of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics were more often female, non-Caucasian, lower educated, and more often treated with insulin.

  6. Hypnotic relaxation therapy for reduction of hot flashes in postmenopausal women: examination of cortisol as a potential mediator.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Cassie; Johnson, Aimee K; Sliwinski, Jim; Patterson, Vicki; Fisher, William I; Elkins, Gary R; Carpenter, Janet S

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic relaxation therapy (HRT) has been shown to reduce hot flashes in postmenopausal women and breast cancer survivors. While the biological mechanism by which HRT reduces hot flashes is unknown, it has been speculated that reduction of stress mediates the intervention's effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of HRT on a known biomarker of stress (cortisol) and changes in cortisol as a mediator. Sixty-two postmenopausal women received hypnotic relaxation therapy for hot flashes and completed measures of hot flashes in addition to providing cortisol samples at baseline and endpoint. HRT resulted in significantly decreased early evening salivary cortisol concentrations. However, changes in salivary cortisol concentrations did not mediate the effects of HRT.

  7. Phenyl acetate derivatives, fluorine-substituted on the phenyl group, as rapid recovery hypnotic agents with reflex depression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Xu, Xiangqing; Chen, Yin; Qiu, Yinli; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng; Zhang, Guisen

    2015-01-07

    We report the synthesis of novel, potentially hypnotic fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives. We describe the structure-activity relationship that led us to the promising derivative: ethyl 2-(4-(2-(diethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy)-5-ethoxy-2-fluorophenyl) acetate (55). The unique pharmacological features of compound 55 are its relatively high affinity for the GABAA receptor, together with a unique affinity for the NMDA receptor, different to propanidid and AZD3043. In animal models, compound 55 showed stronger hypnotic potency and longer duration of LORR than propanidid and AZD3043, but also maintained a rapid recovery time to walking and behavioral recovery. In particular, compound 55 displayed reflex depression during infusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing witness memory with techniques derived from hypnotic investigative interviewing: focused meditation, eye-closure, and context reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Caddick, Andrea M; Kirby, Lara J; Lamont, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Due to several well-documented problems, hypnosis as a forensic interviewing tool has been largely replaced by the cognitive interview; however, the latter is problematic in time and complexity. This article builds on previous research showing that some procedures used in traditional hypnotic forensic interviewing might still be useful in developing alternative procedures for use in investigative interviewing. Two experiments are described that include a focused meditation with eye-closure technique with similarities to conventional hypnotic induction but without the label of hypnosis. In the first, focused meditation was comparable to a context reinstatement, or revivification, technique in facilitating memory in children aged 6 to 7 without increasing errors or inflating confidence. In the second, when used in combination with context reinstatement, focused meditation was resistant to the effects of misleading information in adults. Implications are discussed.

  9. Differences in Hypnotic Capacity: Patients Referred to a Psychiatric Consultation Liaison Clinic vs. Patients Referred to a Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-04

    Hypnotic world. Susceptibility. New York: Hull . C.L. ( 1933 ). Hypnosis and suggestibility : An experimental approach. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts...Press . Sinclair-Gieben, A.H . C . , & Chalmers, D. (1959 ) . Evaluation of treatment of warts by hypnosis . Lancet, October 3, 480- 482. Smith, L ...Weitzenhoffer and Hilgard, 1962), were able to complete denta l work with hypnosis alone, compared to 38% of low susceptible patients who needed

  10. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Using Different Types of Hypnotics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Yeh, Mei-Chang; Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There has been insufficient evidence on whether exposure to hypnotics affects the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine patients with nonapnea sleep disorders using zolpidem, benzodiazepines (BZDs), or a combination of both, and their risk of T2DM. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using data from 1997 to 2011. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were employed for this study. A total of 45,602 patients with nonapnea sleep disorders and use of hypnotics were identified as the study cohort. The control cohort comprised 40,799 age- and sex-matched patients. We conducted a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of hypnotics on risk of T2DM. The overall incidence of T2DM was 20.1 per 1000 person-years for patients using zolpidem, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (11.9 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with nonapnea sleep disorders using zolpidem had a higher risk of T2DM compared with patients not using zolpidem and the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35–1.48). We also observed a significantly higher risk of T2DM in patients with both zolpidem and BZD use (adjusted HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64–1.91) than that of those without zolpidem use and BZD use. Compared with patients not using hypnotics, patients using zolpidem had a higher risk of developing T2DM; the risk was particularly pronounced in those using both zolpidem and BZDs. PMID:26402831

  11. [Hospital Emergencies Associated with the Consumption of Hypnotics and Sedatives, 2009-2013,Castilla y León, Spain].

    PubMed

    Rubio González, Verónica; Redondo Martín, Susana; Ruíz López Del Prado, Gema; Muñoz Moreno, Mª Fe; Velázquez Miranda, Alexander

    2016-10-24

    Household Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs shows the progressive increase in the consumption of hypnotics, alone or in combination with other substances. The aim of the research was to obtain information about the consumption of hypnotics and sedatives in population of Castilla y León treated in emergency medical services of four monitored hospitals between 2009-2013, describing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the emergencies and what drugs were consumed, to provide information for future interventions. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done by analyzing 3,089 emergencies related to consumption of hypnotics and sedatives, obtained from Emergency Indicator related to the use of psychoactive substances of the National Observatory on Drugs. There were used χ2 test for comparing proportions and t Student test for means. The total number of emergencies was 3,089, ranging in years of study. In 1,814 cases they were consumed only hypnosedatives; 64.7% women and average age of 41 years. The most frequent diagnosis was overdose/attempted suicide with benzodiazepines (29.3%), being lorazepam the most consumed. In 23.3% of cases it was consumed more than one hypnosedative and 9% was associated with psychiatric disorders. The number of emergencies related to the consumption of at least one hypnosedative in the monitored hospitals in the period studied presented high levels especially in middle-aged women with no psychiatric disorder to justify their use. Benzodiazepines were the most consumed hypnotics, cause of overdose/attempted suicide episodes.

  12. [Studies of time-course changes in human body balance after ingestion of long-acting hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiro; Ishii, Masanori; Niwa, Yoji; Yamazaki, Momoko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Falling accidents are a serious nocosomial problem, with balance disorders after the ingestion of hypnotics said to be a cause. Based on the results of animal studies, it was postulated that this problem involves the muscle relaxation that is a pharmacological effect of benzodiazepines (BZP). No reports have, to our knowledge, been made of time-course changes in human body balance after ingestion of hypnotics. Accordingly, we used quazepam (Doral), a long-acting hypnotic considered to show comparatively weak muscle relaxation, to study static balance after drug ingestion in human volunteers. Briefly, informed consent was obtained from 8 healthy adults, then a gait analytic system (Gangas) was used to test static balance after drug ingestion (Mann and Romberg tests). We also measured circulating drug concentration over time. Our results showed that balance disorders occurred after quazepam ingestion with an unstable posture particularly striking. Given the function of quazepam receptors, it is difficult to surmise that balance disorders after drug ingestion were due to the drug's muscle relaxation. We surmised that inhibition from the central nervous system in connection with nerves awakening was involved. We found a strong correlation between the manifestation of balance disorders after drug ingestion and circulating drug concentration.

  13. Trends in prescribing of sedative-hypnotic medications in the USA: 1993-2010.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Christopher N; Spira, Adam P; Alexander, G Caleb; Rutkow, Lainie; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    Non-benzodiazepine receptor agonists (nBZRAs) were developed as an alternative to benzodiazepines (BZDs) to treat insomnia. Little is known about how the introduction of nBZRAs influenced trends in BZD prescribing. We examined BZD and nBZRA prescribing trends from 1993 to 2010. We used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to examine 516,118 patient visits between 1993 and 2010. We categorized visits as BZD, nBZRA, or BZD + nBZRA visits based on medications prescribed in each visit and applied linear probability regression models to assess trends in visits. Increases were observed in proportions of visits that were BZD (2.6% in 1993 to 4.4% in 2010, p < 0.001) and nBZRA (0% to 1.4%, p < 0.001). Increases in BZD visits were primarily after 2002, with prescribing in the preceding years remaining relatively stable. We also found increases in BZD + nBZRA visits (0% to 0.4%, p < 0.001). Among patients with sleep disorders, there was an increase in nBZRA visits (2.3% to 13.7%, p < 0.001), and decline in BZD visits (23.5% to 10.8%, p = 0.015). Just under a third (30.8%) of any sedative-hypnotic visits were for adults aged 65+ years, among whom increases in BZD, nBZRA, and BZD + nBZRA visits were observed across the study period. There were increases in prescribing of nBZRAs between 1993 and 2010. Increases in prescribing of BZDs were also observed, especially after 2002. The introduction of nBZRAs likely resulted in declines in BZD prescribing among those with a sleep disorder, but not other groups. Delivery of behavioral treatments should be encouraged to avert adverse outcomes associated with sedative-hypnotic use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam.

    PubMed

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories.

  15. Consistent association between hypnotics/sedatives and non-traffic injuries. Results from a national household survey.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, María Del Mar; Pulido, José; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Hoyos, Juan; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Barrio, Gregorio

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the relationship between patterns of psychostimulants, hypnotics/sedatives and alcohol consumption and the frequency of unintentional non-traffic injuries (UNTIs) requiring medical assistant in Spain. We carried out a cross sectional study using a randomized pooled sample from two household surveys on psychoactive drugs use (n=51,649 subjects aged 15-64 years). We estimated the magnitude of the association between the use of psychostimulants and hypnotics/sedatives in the last 12 months as well as alcohol consumption in the last 30days with the occurrence of UNTIs in the last 12 months (falls, knocks/bumps and cuts) by building several logistic regression models, which took into account the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and the use of other psychoactive drugs (including cannabis). The presence of interactions between age or gender with drug use was also assessed. Psychostimulants use was associated with a higher frequency of UNTIs (aOR=1.24; 95%CI:1.03-1.49). The strongest association was found with cuts (aOR=1.64; 95%CI:1.10-2.43). An association between hypnotics/sedatives and UNTIs was also found in each type of injury and was higher with regular use (>=30days) than with non-regular use (<30days). The age modified the association between hypnotic/sedatives and knocks/bumps, being higher in the 35-64 years group (aOR=2.34; 95%CI:1.78-3.06) than in the 15-34 years group (aOR=1.59; 95%CI:1.14-2.21). Regarding alcohol, an increased risk of UNTIs was also observed in all types of UNTIs, even with moderate use, being the association higher for cuts in heavy drinkers (aOR=2.41; 95%CI:1.63-3.57). Our results reveal a consistent relationship between hypnotics/sedatives and UNTIs, especially in regular users. Additional research should apply longitudinal designs to establish causal relationships and to gain an in-depth knowledge in this area in order to specific public health interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in opioid prescribing and co-prescribing of sedative hypnotics for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain: 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Larochelle, Marc R; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wharam, J Frank

    2015-08-01

    Characterize trends in opioid prescribing and co-prescribing of sedative hypnotics at acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain visits from 2001 to 2010. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 15 344 visits for acute pain and 19 958 visits for chronic pain in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey/National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2001 to 2010. The primary outcome was receipt of an opioid, and secondary outcomes were co-prescribing of a benzodiazepine or sedative hypnotic (benzodiazepine, muscle relaxant, or insomnia medications). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess temporal trends. Between 2001 and 2010, opioid prescribing at acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain visits increased by 50% (10.4% [95%CI 7.9-12.9%] to 15.6% [95%CI 12.5-18.6%]) and 79% (12.9% [95%CI 9.7-16.0%] to 23.1% [95%CI 18.3-27.9%]), respectively. For chronic pain visits, opioid prescribing plateaued between 2006 and 2010, and spline analysis detected a possible 2007 peak at 28.2% (95%CI 21.4-34.9%) of visits. Benzodiazepines were co-prescribed with opioids at 8.1% (95%CI 6.0-10.1%) of acute pain visits and 15.5% (95%CI 12.8-18.2%) of chronic pain visits. Sedative hypnotics were co-prescribed at 32.7% (95%CI 28.9-36.5%) of acute pain visits and 36.1% (95%CI 32.5-39.8%) of chronic pain visits. We found no evidence for decreased co-prescribing of opioids and sedative hypnotics by any of our measures. Opioid prescribing for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain increased from 2001 to 2010, plateauing from 2006 to 2010 for chronic pain visits. Co-prescribing of opioids and sedative hypnotics is common and may represent a target for interventions to improve the safety of opioid prescribing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hypnotics and the Occurrence of Bone Fractures in Hospitalized Dementia Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study Using a National Inpatient Database

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing falls and bone fractures in hospital care is an important issue in geriatric medicine. Use of hypnotics is a potential risk factor for falls and bone fractures in older patients. However, data are lacking on the association between use of hypnotics and the occurrence of bone fracture. Methods We used a national inpatient database including 1,057 hospitals in Japan and included dementia patients aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized during a period of 12 months between April 2012 and March 2013. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bone fracture during hospitalization. Use of hypnotics was compared between patients with and without bone fracture in this matched case-control study. Results Of 140,494 patients, 830 patients suffered from in-hospital fracture. A 1:4 matching with age, sex and hospital created 817 cases with fracture and 3,158 matched patients without fracture. With adjustment for the Charlson comorbidity index, emergent admission, activities of daily living, and scores for level walking, a higher occurrence of fractures were seen with short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.73; P<0.001), ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (1.66; 1.37–2.01; P<0.001), hydroxyzine (1.45; 1.15–1.82, P=0.001), risperidone and perospirone (1.37; 1.08–1.73; P=0.010). Other drug groups were not significantly associated with the occurrence of in-hospital fracture. Conclusions Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics and ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics may increase risk of bone fracture in hospitalized dementia patients. PMID:26061231

  18. Hypnotics and the Occurrence of Bone Fractures in Hospitalized Dementia Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study Using a National Inpatient Database.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Preventing falls and bone fractures in hospital care is an important issue in geriatric medicine. Use of hypnotics is a potential risk factor for falls and bone fractures in older patients. However, data are lacking on the association between use of hypnotics and the occurrence of bone fracture. We used a national inpatient database including 1,057 hospitals in Japan and included dementia patients aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized during a period of 12 months between April 2012 and March 2013. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bone fracture during hospitalization. Use of hypnotics was compared between patients with and without bone fracture in this matched case-control study. Of 140,494 patients, 830 patients suffered from in-hospital fracture. A 1:4 matching with age, sex and hospital created 817 cases with fracture and 3,158 matched patients without fracture. With adjustment for the Charlson comorbidity index, emergent admission, activities of daily living, and scores for level walking, a higher occurrence of fractures were seen with short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.73; P<0.001), ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (1.66; 1.37-2.01; P<0.001), hydroxyzine (1.45; 1.15-1.82, P=0.001), risperidone and perospirone (1.37; 1.08-1.73; P=0.010). Other drug groups were not significantly associated with the occurrence of in-hospital fracture. Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics and ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics may increase risk of bone fracture in hospitalized dementia patients.

  19. Admissibility and per se exclusion of hypnotically elicited recall in American courts of law.

    PubMed

    Perry, C

    1997-07-01

    State v. Mack (1980) ruled that hypnotically elicited testimony is per se excluded from Minnesota law courts; this court also ruled that police could employ hypnosis in an attempt to construct an independently corroborated case. In recent years, there have been moves to rescind this exclusion; this raises a question of the probative value of such additional information when it is uncorroborated. This situation is compared with that of the polygraph as an index of deception: Like hypnosis, it is excluded per se in most American jurisdictions. Some legal decisions in Wisconsin are used to illustrate one alternative to the per se exclusion approach. Admissibility of scientific evidence in American courts of law has been based on a criterion of "general acceptability within the relevant scientific community," as first elucidated in Frye v. United States (1923). Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Frye decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993), by making general acceptability but one of several admissibility criteria. Three Daubert-based decisions, one involving hypnosis and all concerned with "recovered repressed memories," indicate some problems in law posed by Daubert.

  20. Antinociceptive and hypnotic activities of pregabalin in a neuropathic pain-like model in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Xiao; Yin, Dou; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Ya-Dong; Qu, Wei-Min; Han, Wu-Jian; Hong, Zong-Yuan; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive and hypnotic effects of pregabalin, we established a neuropathic pain-like model in mice using partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL), and examined thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, electroencephalogram, rota-rod testing, and c-Fos expression in the anterior cingulate cortex. Gabapentin was used as a reference drug in the study. Pregabalin administered i.g. at 12.5 and 25mg/kg prolonged the duration of thermal latencies by 1.4- and 1.6-fold and increased the mechanical threshold by 2.2- and 3.1-fold 3h after administration, respectively, but did not affect motor coordination in PSNL mice, compared with vehicle control. Pregabalin (12.5 and 25mg/kg) given at 6:30 increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in a 4-h period by 1.3- and 1.4-fold, respectively, in PSNL mice. However, pregabalin (25mg/kg) given at 20:30 did not alter the sleep pattern in normal mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that PSNL increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of anterior cingulate cortex by 2.1-fold, which could be reversed by pregabalin. These results indicate that pregabalin is an effective treatment for both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSNL mice.

  1. Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in the elderly: are all agents the same?

    PubMed

    Dolder, Christian; Nelson, Michael; McKinsey, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders, especially insomnia, are common in older adults. These disorders are frequently treated using non-benzodiazepine hypnotics. Nonetheless, there is a relative lack of data regarding the use of these agents in the elderly, and whether any of these medications is superior to any other in the class when used in the elderly is also unclear. In this article, we review, by way of the published literature, the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, efficacy and safety of zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, eszopiclone and ramelteon in the elderly. Special emphasis is placed on identifying relevant differences between these medications when used in older adults with insomnia. Based primarily on data from placebo-controlled trials, the non-benzodiazepines reviewed were found to be most effective at improving sleep latency and sleep quality, and least effective at enhancing total sleep time. The efficacy of ramelteon was limited to improving sleep latency, while all other agents, especially at higher doses, were found to produce improvement in both sleep latency and some improvement in total sleep time. All of the medications were found to be well tolerated in the elderly. From pharmacokinetic and drug-drug interaction perspectives, zaleplon and ramelteon offer the advantage of not being primarily metabolised via the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme. In conclusion, based on relatively limited data, zopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone and ramelteon represent modestly effective and generally well tolerated treatments for insomnia in older adults. While some actual and potential differences exist among these medications, more comparative trials are needed.

  2. Anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic activity screening of pearl and nacre (mother of pearl).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Xian; Li, Shang-Rong; Yao, Shuai; Bi, Qi-Rui; Hou, Jin-Jun; Cai, Lu-Ying; Han, Su-Mei; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2016-04-02

    Pearl and nacre are valuable traditional medicines to treat palpitations, convulsions or epilepsy in China for thousands of years. However, the active ingredients are not clear till now. The main purpose of the current investigation was to assess the anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic activity of pearl powder and nacre powder, including their corresponding 6 protein extracts. Determination of the amino acid composition of the obtained protein was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) pre-column derivatisation. The influence of the tested drugs on locomotor activity and convulsions latency was recorded. The contents of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain were detected by enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In addition, immunohistochemistry was carried out to evaluate the changes of 5-HT3 and GABAB. In parallel, the expressions of them were demonstrated by western blot. The obtained data suggested that pearl original powder (1.1g/kg), pearl water-soluble protein (0.2g/kg), pearl acid-soluble protein (0.275g/kg), pearl conchiolin protein (1.1g/kg), nacre original powder (1.1g/kg), nacre water-soluble protein (0.2g/kg), nacre acid-soluble protein (0.7g/kg) and nacre conchiolin protein (1.1g/kg) could down-regulate the expression of 5-HT3 and up-regulate the level of GABAB to varying degrees compared with the control group. Besides, drug administration also reduced the locomotor activity and increased convulsions latency with a certain mortality. These findings correlated with the traditional use of pearl and nacre as sedation and tranquilization agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development and also providing critical important evidence for the selection of quality control markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Zopiclone as positive control in studies examining the residual effects of hypnotic drugs on driving ability.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Spence, D Warren; Shahid, Azmeh; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Roth, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Zopiclone (7.5 mg) is frequently used as a positive control in studies that examine the residual effects of hypnotic drugs on driving ability and related skills. This review summarizes studies examining the effects of zopiclone, and discusses its usefulness as a comparator drug for investigations of residual effects of novel sleep medication. A literature review (Pubmed and Embase) was conducted searching for studies that tested zopiclone on driving. Cross references were checked for additional papers. Eight studies utilizing the standardized on-the-road driving test consistently showed that in the morning following bedtime administration zopiclone (7.5 mg) significantly impaired driving performance. A total of 191 healthy volunteers were tested after placebo and zopiclone (7.5 mg). Meta analyses showed no significant differences in driving performance after zopiclone (7.5 mg) between adult and elderly healthy volunteers. The combined effect size (ES) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for healthy volunteers was 0.782 (0.620, 0.944). Relative to placebo, an average increment of 3.0 cm in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) was observed when treated with zopiclone (7.5 mg). This deviation was higher than the increment in SDLP reported for drivers with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05% (+2.4 cm). Results from driving simulators and psychometric tests are consistent with the on-road driving test results. In conclusion, zopiclone (7.5 mg) is a reliable positive control, that consistently shows significant and meaningful impairment on the on-the-road driving test.

  4. Stability of 26 Sedative Hypnotics in Six Toxicological Matrices at Different Storage Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mata, Dani C

    2016-10-01

    Forensic laboratories are challenged with backlogs that produce turnaround times that vary from days to months. Therefore, drug stability is important for interpretation in both antemortem (blood and urine) and postmortem (blood, brain, liver, stomach contents) cases. In this study, 23 benzodiazepines (2-hydroxyethylflurazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, α-hydroxyalprazolam, α-hydroxytriazolam, alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, demoxepam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, phenazepam, temazepam and triazolam) and three sedative hypnotics (zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem) were spiked into the six matrices at two different concentrations for each drug. The samples were stored in either a refrigerator (4°C) or freezer (-20°C) and analyzed in triplicate at various time intervals over an 8-month period using an SWGTOX validated method. The concentrations decreased over time regardless of the initial spiked concentration, and the storage conditions had little effect on the decrease of most drugs. Conversion from drug to metabolite was difficult to determine since all 26 drugs were present in each sample. Zopiclone and phenazepam were the least stable drugs; zopiclone was the only drug that completely disappeared in any matrix (both antemortem and postmortem blood). Urine was the most stable matrix with only phenazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, 2-hydroxyethylflurazepam, and zopiclone decreasing >20% over the 8 months in either storage condition. Postmortem blood, the least stable matrix, had only two drugs, zolpidem and bromazepam, decreasing <20% in the 8-month time period. Further experiments on stability of these drugs should be undertaken to remove the freeze-thaw cycle effect and more thoroughly examining drug-metabolite conversion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  5. Determination of illegally abused sedative-hypnotics in hair samples from drug offenders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Eunyoung; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-06-01

    As several sedative-hypnotics are distributed illegally and are available domestically through media like the internet, their abuse is becoming a serious social problem. In the present study, four legal cases involving abuse of diazepam, midazolam, and/or zolpidem were proved by hair analysis using a simultaneous quantification method for the determination of diazepam (and its metabolites), lorazepam, midazolam, and zolpidem, which are often illegally abused in Korea, in hair that was developed and validated. Drugs and metabolites in hair were extracted using methanol followed by solid-phase extraction. The extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The validation parameters of the method, including selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification (LOQ), recovery, intra- and interassay precision and accuracy, and processed sample stability, were satisfactory. Moreover, the developed method was successfully applied to actual cases. In case 1, which involved a pop singer who was detained for suspected drug abuse, the concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were 5.7 and 2.0 ng/mg in nonpigmented hair and 6.6 and 1.8 ng/mg in pigmented hair, respectively. In case 2, 0.4 ng/mg zolpidem was detected in hair from a drug abuser who purchased illegally through the internet, and 0.2 ng/mg midazolam was detected in hair from an illegal drug seller in case 3. In case 4, diazepam (lower than the LOQ), nordiazepam (0.7 ng/mg), and zolpidem (0.7 ng/mg) were detected in hair from a medical doctor who abused drugs using forged prescriptions.

  6. [Tolerance to exertion after sleep reduction and after taking a hypnotic: zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Mougin, F; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Davenne, D; Bourdin, H; Guilland, J C; Kantelip, J P; Magnin, P

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a delayed bedtime (3 a.m.), an advanced rising (3 a.m.), a sleep under placebo and under a hypnotic compound, i.e. 10 mg of zolpidem (Stilnox) on sleep structure and on the adaptations to a subsequent exercise in 8 male athletes. The chronology of these nights was randomized and each treatment administered in a double blind fashion. During each experimental night, subjects were monitored with conventional EEG/EOG/EMG polygraphic recordings. The next day, athletic performance was tested using a bicycle ergometer. A codified exercise was performed and consisted to a 10 min warm up followed by a 30 min steady state cycling corresponding to 75% of predetermined VO2 max. Then the work load increased progressively by steps of 10 W every minute until exhaustion. The recovery lasted 30 min. Heart rate, ventilation, VO2, ERO2 were monitored during all exercise and recovery. Plasma lactates and catecholamines were also measured at the same time. The data concerning sleep recordings showed that both nights with partial sleep deprivation resulted in a drop of time spent in slow wave sleep II (decrease of 55%) and in rapid eye movement sleep (decrease of 45%) while the amount of slow wave sleep III and IV were identical to that observed after the reference night. The sleep onset latency and the amount of sleep in stage I was reduced only after the delayed bedtime. Sleep data under zolpidem did not show any significantly difference in the amount of different sleep stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Respiratory depression in rats induced by alcohol and barbiturate and rescue by ampakine CX717.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Ding, Xiuqing; Greer, John J

    2012-10-01

    Barbiturate use in conjunction with alcohol can result in severe respiratory depression and overdose deaths. The mechanisms underlying the additive/synergistic actions were unresolved. Current management of ethanol-barbiturate-induced apnea is limited to ventilatory and circulatory support coupled with drug elimination. Based on recent preclinical and clinical studies of opiate-induced respiratory depression, we hypothesized that ampakine compounds may provide a treatment for other types of drug-induced respiratory depression. The actions of alcohol, pentobarbital, bicuculline, and the ampakine CX717, alone and in combination, were measured via 1) ventral root recordings from newborn rat brain stem-spinal cord preparations and 2) plethysmographic recordings from unrestrained newborn and adult rats. We found that ethanol caused a modest suppression of respiratory drive in vitro (50 mM) and in vivo (2 g/kg ip). Pentobarbital induced an ∼50% reduction in respiratory frequency in vitro (50 μM) and in vivo (28 mg/kg for pups and 56 mg/kg for adult rats ip). However, severe life-threatening apnea was induced by the combination of the agents in vitro and in vivo via activation of GABA(A) receptors, which was exacerbated by hypoxic (8% O(2)) conditions. Administration of the ampakine CX717 alleviated a significant component of the respiratory depression in vitro (50-150 μM) and in vivo (30 mg/kg ip). Bicuculline also alleviated ethanol-/pentobarbital-induced respiratory depression but caused seizure activity, whereas CX717 did not. These data demonstrated that ethanol and pentobarbital together caused severe respiratory depression, including lethal apnea, via synergistic actions that blunt chemoreceptive responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia and suppress central respiratory rhythmogenesis. The ampakine CX717 markedly reduced the severity of respiratory depression.

  8. GPs' attitudes to benzodiazepine and 'Z-drug' prescribing: a barrier to implementation of evidence and guidance on hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Qureshi, Zubair; Gibson, Steve; Collier, Sarah; Latham, Martin

    2006-12-01

    Zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone ('Z-drugs') prescribing is gradually rising in the UK, while that of benzodiazepine hypnotics is falling. This situation is contrary to current evidence and guidance on hypnotic prescribing. The aim of this study was to determine and compare primary care physicians' perceptions of benefits and risks of benzodiazepine and Z-drug use, and physicians' prescribing behaviour in relation to hypnotics using a cross-sectional survey. In 2005 a self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to all GPs in West Lincolnshire Primary Care Trust. The questionnaire investigated perceptions of benefits and disadvantages of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. Of the 107 questionnaires sent to GPs, 84 (78.5%) analysable responses were received. Responders believed that Z-drugs were more effective than benzodiazepines in terms of patients feeling rested on waking (P<0.001), daytime functioning (P<0.001), and total sleep time (P = 0.03). Z-drugs were also thought to be safer in terms of tolerance (P<0.001), addiction (P<0.001), dependence (P<0.001), daytime sleepiness (P<0.001), and road traffic accidents (P = 0.018), and were thought to be safer for older people (P<0.001). There were significant differences between GPs' perceptions of the relative benefits and risk of Z-drugs compared with benzodiazepines. The majority of practitioners attributed greater efficacy and lower side effects to Z-drugs. GPs' beliefs about effectiveness and safety are not determined by current evidence or national (NICE) guidance which may explain the increase in Z-drug prescribing relative to benzodiazepine prescribing.

  9. National Trends in Antidepressant, Benzodiazepine, and Other Sedative-Hypnotic Treatment of Older Adults in Psychiatric and Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Maust, Donovan T; Blow, Frederic C; Wiechers, Ilse R; Kales, Helen C; Marcus, Steven C

    2017-04-01

    To describe how use of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and other anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotics among older adults (age ≥ 65 years) has changed over time among visits to primary care providers and psychiatrists. Data were from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (years 2003-2005 and 2010-2012), a nationally representative cross-section of outpatient physician visits. Analysis focused on visits to primary care providers (n = 14,282) and psychiatrists (n = 1,095) at which an antidepressant, benzodiazepine, or other anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotic was prescribed, which were stratified by demographic and clinical characteristic (including ICD-9-CM diagnosis) and compared across study intervals. Odds of medication use were calculated for each stratum, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. The visit rate by older adults to primary care providers where any of the medications were prescribed rose from 16.4% to 21.8% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.43, P < .001) while remaining steady among psychiatrists (75.4% vs 68.5%; AOR = 0.69, P = .11). Primary care visits rose for antidepressants (9.9% to 12.3%; AOR = 1.28, P = .01) and other anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotics (3.4% to 4.7%; AOR = 1.39, P = .01), but the largest growth was among benzodiazepines (5.6% to 8.7%; AOR = 1.62, P < .001). Among patients in primary care, increases primarily occurred among men, non-Hispanic white patients, and those with pain diagnoses as well as those with no mental health or pain diagnoses. From 2003 to 2012, use of the most common psychotropic medications among older adults seen in primary care increased, with concentration among patients with no mental health or pain diagnosis. As the population of older adults grows and receives mental health treatment in primary care, it is critical to examine the appropriateness of psychotropic use.

  10. [Determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma using pulse splitless injection technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Ma, Hongying; Wang, Fangjie; Ou, Honglian; Zou, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method coupled with pulse splitless injection technique was developed for the determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics (barbital, amobarbital, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolam) in human plasma. The drugs spiked in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate after alkalization with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. The organic solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream, and the residues were redissolved by ethyl acetate. The separation was performed on an HP-5MS column (30 m x 250 microm x 0.25 microm). The analytes were determined and identified using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and scan mode, respectively. The internal standard method was used for the determination. The target analytes were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the total ion current (TIC) chromatograms. The blank extract from human plasma gave no peaks that interfered with all the analytes on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for 10 sedative-hypnotics showed excellent linearity. The correlation coefficients of all the drugs were higher than 0.9954. The recoveries of the drugs spiked in human plasma ranged from 92.28% to 111.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determinations were from 4.09% to 14.26%. The detection limits ranged from 2 to 20 microg/L. The method is simple, reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination and the quantification of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma and seems to be useful in the practice of clinical toxicological cases.

  11. [Controlled release melatonin (Circadin) in the treatment of insomnia in older patients: efficacy and safety in patients with history of use and non-use of hypnotic drugs].

    PubMed

    Zisapel, Nava

    2009-05-01

    Circadin is a prolonged-release 2 mg melatonin formulation which, when taken before bedtime, mimics the physiological pattern of the endogenous hormone excreted during the night. It was approved by the EU-EMEA in June 2007 for the short-term treatment of primary insomnia characterized by poor quality of sleep in patients aged 55 or over. Placebo controlled clinical trials demonstrated, beyond the shortening of sleep Latency seen with traditional hypnotics, concomitant improvements in sleep quality and next day alertness and subsequently, quality of life. In contrast to traditional sedative hypnotics, Circadin has shown no evidence of impairing cognitive and psychomotor skills, of rebound, dependence or abuse potential and no significant adverse events compared to placebo. It can be used concomitantly with most medications but may potentiate the effects of GABA-A receptor modulators. Analyses presented here show that Circadin has comparable efficacy and safety in patients with and without history of hypnotic drug use.

  12. Risk of Dementia in Patients with Insomnia and Long-term Use of Hypnotics: A Population-based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Zen; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypnotics have been reported to be associated with dementia. However, the relationship between insomnia, hypnotics and dementia is still controversial. We sought to examine the risk of dementia in patients with long-term insomnia and the contribution of hypnotics. Methods Data was collected from Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged 50 years or older with a first diagnosis of insomnia from 2002 to 2007. The comparison cohort consisted of randomly selected patients matched by age and gender. Each patient was individually tracked for 3 years from their insomnia index date to identify whether the patient had a first diagnosis of dementia. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We identified 5693 subjects with long-term insomnia and 28,465 individuals without. After adjusting for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and stroke, those with long-term insomnia had significantly higher risks of dementia (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.92–2.85). Patients with long-term insomnia and aged 50 to 65 years had a higher increased risk of dementia (HR, 5.22; 95% CI, 2.62–10.41) than those older than 65 years (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.90–2.88). The use of hypnotics with a longer half-life and at a higher prescribed dose predicted a greater increased risk of dementia. Conclusions Patients with long-term use of hypnotics have more than a 2-fold increased risk of dementia, especially those aged 50 to 65 years. In addition, the dosage and half-lives of the hypnotics used should be considered, because greater exposure to these medications leads to a higher risk of developing dementia. PMID:23145088

  13. Measuring the hypnotic depth of anaesthesia based on the EEG signal using combined wavelet transform, eigenvector and normalisation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Ky, Tai; Wen, Peng; Li, Yan; Malan, Mel

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a new index to measure the hypnotic depth of anaesthesia (DoA) using EEG signals. This index is derived from applying combined Wavelet transform, eigenvector and normalisation techniques. The eigenvector method is first applied to build a feature function for six levels of coefficients in a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The best Daubechies wavelet and their ranking value p are optimally determined to identify different states of anaesthesia. A statistic normalisation process is then carried out to re-scale data and compute the hypnotic depth of anaesthesia. Finally, a new function ZDoA is proposed to compute a DoA index which corresponds one of the five depths of anaesthesia states to very deep anaesthesia, deep anaesthesia, moderate anaesthesia, light anaesthesia and awake. Simulation results based on real anaesthetised EEGs demonstrate that the new index generally parallels the BIS index. In particular, the ZDoA index is often faster than the BIS index to react to the transition period between consciousness and unconsciousness for this data set. A Bland-Altman plot indicates a 95.23% agreement between the ZDoA and BIS indices. The ZDoA trend is responsive, and its movement is consistent with the clinically observed and recorded changes of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polypharmacological in Silico Bioactivity Profiling and Experimental Validation Uncovers Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Approved and Experimental Drugs in Rat.